Sample records for modern shoulder surgery

  1. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not have to. Activity If you had rotator cuff or other ligament or labral surgery, you need ... 2015:chap 45. Read More Frozen shoulder Osteoarthritis Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder CT ...

  2. Incidence and prognostic factors for postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; Van't Riet, Esther; Ipskamp, Marcel; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2017-03-01

    Frozen shoulder is a potential complication after shoulder surgery. It is a clinical condition that is often associated with marked disability and can have a profound effect on the patient's quality of life. The incidence, etiology, pathology and prognostic factors of postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery are not known. The purpose of this explorative study was to determine the incidence of postoperative frozen shoulder after various operative shoulder procedures. A second aim was to identify prognostic factors for postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery. 505 consecutive patients undergoing elective shoulder surgery were included in this prospective cohort study. Follow-up was 6 months after surgery. A prediction model was developed to identify prognostic factors for postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery using the TRIPOD guidelines. We nominated five potential predictors: gender, diabetes mellitus, type of physiotherapy, arthroscopic surgery and DASH score. Frozen shoulder was identified in 11% of the patients after shoulder surgery and was more common in females (15%) than in males (8%). Frozen shoulder was encountered after all types of operative procedures. A prediction model based on four variables (diabetes mellitus, specialized shoulder physiotherapy, arthroscopic surgery and DASH score) discriminated reasonably well with an AUC of 0.712. Postoperative frozen shoulder is a serious complication after shoulder surgery, with an incidence of 11%. Four prognostic factors were identified for postoperative frozen shoulder: diabetes mellitus, arthroscopic surgery, specialized shoulder physiotherapy and DASH score. The combination of these four variables provided a prediction rule for postoperative frozen shoulder with reasonable fit. Level II, prospective cohort study.

  3. Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kadler, Benjamin K.; Mehta, Saurabh S.; Funk, Lennard

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated as a cause of infection following shoulder surgery, may occur up to 2 years after the index operation and has been shown to be responsible for up to 56% of shoulder infections after orthopedic implant. Male patients within the population undergoing shoulder surgery are particularly at risk, especially if their shoulder surgery involved prosthesis or was posttraumatic. P. acnes infection can be difficult to diagnose clinically and laboratory techniques require prolonged and specialized cultures. Usual inflammatory markers are not raised in infection with this low virulence organism. Delayed diagnosis with P. acnes infection can result in significant morbidity prior to prosthesis failure. Early diagnosis of P. acnes infection and appropriate treatment can improve clinical outcomes. It is important to be aware of P. acnes infection in shoulder surgery, to evaluate risk factors, to recognize the signs of P. acnes infection, and to promptly initiate treatment. The signs and symptoms of P. acnes infection are described and discussed. Data were collected from PubMed™, Web of Science, and the NICE Evidence Healthcare Databases - AMED (Ovid), BNI (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), Embase (Ovid), HMIC: DH-Data and Kings Fund (Ovid), Medline (Ovid), and PsycINFO (Ovid). The search terms used were “P. acnes,” “infection,” “shoulder,” and “surgery.” In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the prevention and management of P. acnes infection following shoulder surgery. PMID:26622132

  4. Shoulder impairment before breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ann Marie; Dwyer, Kathleen

    2014-09-01

    To compare pre- and post-operative shoulder active range of motion (AROM) values from female breast cancer survivors to population norm values for shoulder AROM; and to compare shoulder AROM differences pre- and post-surgery between female African American and White breast cancer survivors (BCA). This pilot study used a convenience sample and longitudinal design measuring participants 2 times (T0 = baseline, after biopsy but within 2 weeks before BCA surgery; T1 = 2 nd postoperative week). The U.S. has the largest BCA survivor population in history and yet the mortality burden remains highest among AA BCA survivors. AAs may also have greater burden of physical and functional side effects compared to whites and the general population. The data were collected from a convenience sample (n = 33; n AA = 9, n W = 24) and included data on shoulder AROM, medical chart review for pre- and co-morbid conditions, and self-reported demographics and medical history. We used t-tests to compare sample AROM means to population norms. We then compared our sample across 2 timepoints (T0 = pre-surgery; T1 = 2 weeks post-surgery) using independent samples t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance (p < .05) to compare AA to White sub-samples AROM means. African Americans had significantly less shoulder abduction (at T0) and flexion (at T1) than whites. However, 100% had significantly reduced AROM for all movements at T0 (prior to surgery but after biopsy) when compared to population norms. The significant reduction in shoulder AROM after biopsy but before surgery points to a possible unmet need for early physical therapy intervention. Further research using randomized controlled trial design is recommended.

  5. Iatrogenic nerve injuries during shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Carofino, Bradley C; Brogan, David M; Kircher, Michelle F; Elhassan, Bassem T; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2013-09-18

    The current literature indicates that neurologic injuries during shoulder surgery occur infrequently and result in little if any morbidity. The purpose of this study was to review one institution's experience treating patients with iatrogenic nerve injuries after shoulder surgery. A retrospective review of the records of patients evaluated in a brachial plexus specialty clinic from 2000 to 2010 identified twenty-six patients with iatrogenic nerve injury secondary to shoulder surgery. The records were reviewed to determine the operative procedure, time to presentation, findings on physical examination, treatment, and outcome. The average age was forty-three years (range, seventeen to seventy-two years), and the average delay prior to referral was 5.4 months (range, one to fifteen months). Seven nerve injuries resulted from open procedures done to treat instability; nine, from arthroscopic surgery; four, from total shoulder arthroplasty; and six, from a combined open and arthroscopic operation. The injury occurred at the level of the brachial plexus in thirteen patients and at a terminal nerve branch in thirteen. Fifteen patients (58%) did not recover nerve function after observation and required surgical management. A structural nerve injury (laceration or suture entrapment) occurred in nine patients (35%), including eight of the thirteen who presented with a terminal nerve branch injury and one of the thirteen who presented with an injury at the level of the brachial plexus. Nerve injuries occurring during shoulder surgery can produce severe morbidity and may require surgical management. Injuries at the level of a peripheral nerve are more likely to be surgically treatable than injuries of the brachial plexus. A high index of suspicion and early referral and evaluation should be considered when evaluating patients with iatrogenic neurologic deficits after shoulder surgery.

  6. History of shoulder instability surgery.

    PubMed

    Randelli, Pietro; Cucchi, Davide; Butt, Usman

    2016-02-01

    The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included. The various types of shoulder instability including anterior, posterior and multidirectional instability are discussed, focussing on the history of surgical management of these topics, the current concepts and the results of available surgical interventions. The last century has seen important advancements in the understanding and treatment of shoulder instability. The transition from open to arthroscopic surgery has allowed the discovery of previously unrecognised pathologic entities and facilitated techniques to treat these. Nevertheless, open surgery still produces comparable results in the treatment of many instability-related conditions and is often required in complex or revision cases, particularly in the presence of bone loss. More high-quality research is required to better understand and characterise this spectrum of conditions so that successful evidence-based management algorithms can be developed. IV.

  7. The incidence and causative organisms of infection in elective shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Alistair I W; Bidwai, Amit S; Clifford, Rachael; Smith, Matthew G; Guisasola, Inigo; Brownson, Peter

    2018-07-01

    Deep infection remains a serious complication of orthopaedic surgery. Knowledge of infection rates and causative organisms is important to guide infection control measures. The aim of the present study was to determine infection rates and causative organisms in elective shoulder surgery. Cases complicated by infection were identified and prospectively recorded over a 2-year period. All patients undergoing elective shoulder surgery in the concurrent period at a single Specialist Upper Limb Unit in the UK were identified from the hospital electronic database. In total, 1574 elective shoulder cases were performed: 1359 arthroscopic (540 with implant insertion) and 215 open (197 with implant insertion). The overall infection rate in open surgery of 2.5% was significantly higher than arthroscopic implant cases at 0.7% ( p  < 0.005). The overall infection rate in implant arthroscopic surgery was significantly higher at 0.7% compared to 0% in non-implant related surgery. ( p  < 0.05). Patients undergoing open shoulder surgery have a significantly higher risk of infection compared to arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Arthroscopic surgery with implant insertion has a statistically significantly higher risk of developing deep infection compared to procedures with no implant insertion. We recommend prophylactic antibiotics in open shoulder surgery and arthroscopic shoulder surgery with implant insertion.

  8. Diaphragm-Sparing Nerve Blocks for Shoulder Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tran, De Q H; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Aliste, Julian; Finlayson, Roderick J

    Shoulder surgery can result in significant postoperative pain. Interscalene brachial plexus blocks (ISBs) constitute the current criterion standard for analgesia but may be contraindicated in patients with pulmonary pathology due to the inherent risk of phrenic nerve block and symptomatic hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Although ultrasound-guided ISB with small volumes (5 mL), dilute local anesthetic (LA) concentrations, and LA injection 4 mm lateral to the brachial plexus have been shown to reduce the risk of phrenic nerve block, no single intervention can decrease its incidence below 20%. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular blocks with LA injection posterolateral to the brachial plexus may anesthetize the shoulder without incidental diaphragmatic dysfunction, but further confirmatory trials are required. Ultrasound-guided C7 root blocks also seem to offer an attractive, diaphragm-sparing alternative to ISB. However, additional large-scale studies are needed to confirm their efficacy and to quantify the risk of periforaminal vascular breach. Combined axillary-suprascapular nerve blocks may provide adequate postoperative analgesia for minor shoulder surgery but do not compare favorably to ISB for major surgical procedures. One intriguing solution lies in the combined use of infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks and suprascapular nerve blocks. Theoretically, the infraclavicular approach targets the posterior and lateral cords, thus anesthetizing the axillary nerve (which supplies the anterior and posterior shoulder joint), as well as the subscapular and lateral pectoral nerves (both of which supply the anterior shoulder joint), whereas the suprascapular nerve block anesthetizes the posterior shoulder. Future randomized trials are required to validate the efficacy of combined infraclavicular-suprascapular blocks for shoulder surgery.

  9. Return to Sport Following Shoulder Surgery in the Elite Pitcher

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Frank, Jonathan M.; Jordan, Mark A.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Gupta, Anil K.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The ability to return to elite pitching, performance, and clinical outcomes of shoulder surgery in elite baseball pitchers are not definitively established. Objective: To determine (1) the rate of return to sport (RTS) in elite pitchers following shoulder surgery, (2) postoperative clinical outcomes upon RTS, and (3) performance upon RTS and to compare RTS rates in different types of shoulder surgery. Data Sources: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and checklist, Medline, SciVerse Scopus, SportDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Study Selection: Levels I-IV evidence were eligible for inclusion if performance-based (eg, RTS) and/or clinical outcome–based reporting of outcomes were reported following surgical treatment of shoulder pathology in elite pitchers (major or minor league or collegiate). Data Extraction: Subject, shoulder, and pre- and postoperative performance-based variables of interest were extracted. All shoulder surgery types were potentially inclusive (eg, open, arthroscopic, rotator cuff, labrum, biceps, acromioclavicular joint, fracture). Study methodological quality was analyzed using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS). Results: Six studies were analyzed (287 elite male pitchers [mean age, 27 years] who underwent shoulder surgery, with 99% on the dominant, throwing shoulder). MCMS was 38 (poor). Most pitchers were professional, with a mean career length of 6.58 years and postoperative clinical follow-up of 3.62 years. In 5 of 6 studies, multiple diagnoses were addressed concomitantly at surgery. Rate of RTS was 68% at mean 12 months following surgery. Twenty-two percent of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers never RTS in MLB. Overall performance did improve following surgery; however, this did not improve to pre-injury levels. Conclusion: In this systematic review, the rate of return to elite baseball pitching following surgery was

  10. Rates of surgery for frozen shoulder: an experience in England.

    PubMed

    Kwaees, Tariq A; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this study was to identify the incidence of surgical treatment for frozen shoulder in a western population. patients included in this study all resided within a well-defined area in the North West of England, all had surgery for frozen shoulder over a 3-year period and were identified from theatre logbooks of two local hospitals. Cases having surgery for shoulder stiffness other than frozen shoulder were excluded. Local and national population size estimates were based on data obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics. 117 patients underwent surgery for frozen shoulder during the period examined; of these 101 had arthroscopic arthrolysis and 16 had manipulation under anaesthesia. The overall incidence of frozen shoulder surgery was calculated at 2.67 procedures per 10,000 general population per year, and at 7.55 for those aged 40-60. surgical intervention for frozen shoulder is common, estimated at over 14,180 cases per year in England. Given the variation in costs associated with arthroscopic arthrolysis and manipulation under anaesthesia, comparative studies of the cost effectiveness of the two procedures would be of great value. 2C (outcome research).

  11. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the top of the stem. A plastic piece is used as the new surface of the shoulder blade. Now that you are home you will need to know how to protect your shoulder as it heals. What to Expect at Home You will need to wear a sling for the first 6 weeks after surgery. You may want to wear ...

  12. Incidence of acute postoperative infections requiring reoperation after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Yeranosian, Michael G; Arshi, Armin; Terrell, Rodney D; Wang, Jeffrey C; McAllister, David R; Petrigliano, Frank A

    2014-02-01

    An acute infection after arthroscopic shoulder surgery is a rare but serious complication. Previous studies estimating the incidence of infections after arthroscopic surgery have been conducted, but the majority of these had either relatively small study groups or were not specific to shoulder arthroscopic surgery. To investigate the incidence of acute infections after arthroscopic shoulder surgery and compare infection rates by age group, sex, geographic region, and specific procedures. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of a large insurance company database was performed for all shoulder arthroscopic surgeries performed in the United States between 2004 and 2009 that required additional surgery for infections within 30 days. The data were stratified by sex, age group, and region. Data were also stratified for specific procedures (capsulorrhaphy, treatment for superior labrum anterior-posterior tears, claviculectomy, decompression, and rotator cuff repair) and used to assess the variation in the incidence of infections across different arthroscopic shoulder procedures. Linear regression was used to determine the significance of differences in the data from year to year. χ(2) analysis was used to assess the statistical significance of variations among all groups. Poisson regression analysis with exposure was used to determine significant differences in a pairwise comparison between 2 groups. The total number of arthroscopic shoulder surgeries performed was 165,820, and the number of infections requiring additional surgery was 450, resulting in an overall infection rate of 0.27%. The incidence of infections varied significantly across age groups (P < .001); the infection rate was highest in the ≥60-year age group (0.36%) and lowest in the 10- to 39-year age group (0.18%). The incidence of infections also varied by region (P < .001); the incidence was highest in the South (0.37%) and lowest in the Midwest (0.11%). The incidence of infection

  13. [Shoulder surgery using only regional anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Claire; van Kampen, Paulien M; Offenberg, Tom A M M; Hogervorst, Tom; Huijsmans, Pol E

    2011-01-01

    Effective intra-operative anaesthesia and peri-operative analgesia are important aspects of patient care in orthopaedic surgery. The interscalene regional anaesthetic block technique, performed with the patient lying in a lateral decubitus position, is new for arthroscopic shoulder surgery conducted in the Netherlands. The combination of the interscalene block (without general anaesthesia) and the lateral decubitus position results in better peri-operative conditions for the patient. Better analgesia, increased patient satisfaction and fewer complications in comparison to general anaesthesia have been reported for these types of surgery.

  14. Evaluation and Management of Failed Shoulder Instability Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cartucho, António; Moura, Nuno; Sarmento, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Failed shoulder instability surgery is mostly considered to be the recurrence of shoulder dislocation but subluxation, painful or non-reliable shoulder are also reasons for patient dissatisfaction and should be considered in the notion. The authors performed a revision of the literature and online contents on evaluation and management of failed shoulder instability surgery. When we look at the reasons for failure of shoulder instability surgery we point the finger at poor patient selection, technical error and an additional traumatic event. More than 80% of surgical failures, for shoulder instability, are associated with bone loss. Quantification of glenoid bone loss and investigation of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion are determining facts. Adequate imaging studies are determinant to assess labrum and capsular lesions and to rule out associated pathology as rotator cuff tears. CT-scan is the method of choice to diagnose and quantify bone loss. Arthroscopic soft tissue procedures are indicated in patients with minimal bone loss and no contact sports. Open soft tissue procedures should be performed in patients with small bone defects, with hiperlaxity and practicing contact sports. Soft tissue techniques, as postero-inferior capsular plication and remplissage, may be used in patients with less than 25% of glenoid bone loss and Hill-Sachs lesions. Bone block procedures should be used for glenoid larger bone defects in the presence of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion or in the presence of poor soft tissue quality. A tricortical iliac crest graft may be used as a primary procedure or as a salvage procedure after failure of a Bristow or a Latarjet procedure. Less frequently, the surgeon has to address the Hill-Sachs lesion. When a 30% loss of humeral head circumference is present a filling graft should be used. Reasons for failure are multifactorial. In order to address this entity, surgeons must correctly identify the causes and tailor the right solution.

  15. Return to Play After Shoulder Surgery in Throwers.

    PubMed

    Thorsness, Robert; Alland, Jeremy A; McCulloch, Colin B; Romeo, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    The throwing athlete's shoulder is a unique, complex entity with challenges in diagnosis and management. The shoulders in these athletes possess unique biomechanics and pathologic conditions. Unfortunately, return to play outcomes are often poor when specifically evaluating overhead athletes, especially with regard to SLAP repair. It is imperative for the surgeon to be cautious when indicating these athletes for surgery, because although they may demonstrate improvements in pain and general function, subtle changes in accuracy or velocity as a result of surgery can significantly affect the success of an overhead throwing athlete at the competitive level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in Open Shoulder Surgery: A Controlled Diagnostic Study.

    PubMed

    Mook, William R; Klement, Mitchell R; Green, Cynthia L; Hazen, Kevin C; Garrigues, Grant E

    2015-06-17

    Propionibacterium acnes has arisen as the most common microorganism identified at the time of revision shoulder arthroplasty. There is limited evidence to suggest how frequently false-positive cultures occur. The purpose of this prospective controlled study was to evaluate culture growth from specimens obtained during open shoulder surgery. Patients undergoing an open deltopectoral approach to the shoulder were prospectively enrolled. Patients with a history of shoulder surgery or any concern for active or previous shoulder infection were excluded. Three pericapsular soft-tissue samples were taken from the shoulder for bacterial culture and were incubated for fourteen days. A sterile sponge was also analyzed in parallel with the tissue cultures. In addition, similar cultures were obtained from patients who had undergone previous shoulder surgery. Overall, 20.5% of surgeries (twenty-four of 117) yielded at least one specimen removed for culture that was positive for bacterial growth, and 13.0% of sterile control specimens (seven of fifty-four) had positive culture growth (p = 0.234). P. acnes represented 83.0% of all positive cultures (thirty-nine of forty-seven) at a median incubation time of fourteen days. Among the subjects who had not undergone previous surgery, 17.1% (fourteen of eighty-two) had at least one positive P. acnes culture. Male sex was univariably associated with a greater likelihood of bacterial growth (p < 0.01), and patients who had not undergone previous surgery and had received two or more preoperative corticosteroid injections had a higher likelihood of bacterial growth (p = 0.047). The clinical importance of positive P. acnes cultures from specimens obtained from open shoulder surgery remains uncertain. Male sex and preoperative corticosteroid injections were associated with a higher likelihood of bacterial growth on culture and are risk factors that merit further investigation. Previously reported incidences of positive P. acnes culture

  17. Results of revision anterior shoulder stabilization surgery in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Andrew J; Krych, Aaron J; Kuzma, Scott A; Chow, Roxanne M; Camp, Christopher; Dahm, Diane L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine failure rates, functional outcomes, and risk factors for failure after revision anterior shoulder stabilization surgery in high-risk adolescent athletes. Adolescent athletes who underwent primary anterior shoulder stabilization were reviewed. Patients undergoing subsequent revision stabilization surgery were identified and analyzed. Failure rates after revision surgery were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Failure was defined as recurrent instability requiring reoperation. Functional outcomes included the Marx activity score; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score; and University of California, Los Angeles score. The characteristics of patients who required reoperation for recurrent instability after revision surgery were compared with those of patients who required only a single revision to identify potential risk factors for failure. Of 90 patients who underwent primary anterior stabilization surgery, 15 (17%) had failure and underwent revision surgery (mean age, 16.6 years; age range, 14 to 18 years). The mean follow-up period was 5.5 years (range, 2 to 12 years). Of the 15 revision patients, 5 (33%) had recurrent dislocations and required repeat revision stabilization surgery at a mean of 50 months (range, 22 to 102 months) after initial revision. No risk factors for failure were identified. The Kaplan-Meier reoperation-free estimates were 86% (95% confidence interval, 67% to 100%) at 24 months and 78% (95% confidence interval, 56% to 100%) at 48 months after revision surgery. The mean final Marx activity score was 14.8 (range, 5 to 20); American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, 82.1 (range, 33 to 100); and University of California, Los Angeles score, 30.8 (range, 16 to 35). At 5.5 years' follow-up, adolescent athletes had a high failure rate of revision stabilization surgery and modest functional outcomes. We were unable to convincingly identify specific risk factors for failure of revision surgery. Level IV

  18. Increased Risk for Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder following Cervical Disc Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2016-05-27

    Shoulder problems are common in patients with a cervical herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD). This study aimed to explore the incidence and risk of shoulder capsulitis/tendonitis following cervical HIVD surgery. We used data from the Taiwan "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified all patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of displacement of a cervical HIVD and who underwent cervical surgery (n = 1625). We selected 8125 patients who received cervical HIVD conservative therapy only as the comparison group matched with study patients. We individually tracked these sampled patients for 6 months to identify all patients who received a diagnosis of shoulder tendonitis/capsulitis. We found that incidence rates of shoulder tendonitis/capsulitis during the 6-month follow-up period were 3.69 (95% CI: 2.49~5.27) per 100 person-years for the study group and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.89~2.86) per 100 person-years for the comparison group. Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio for shoulder tendonitis/capsulitis among patients who underwent cervical disc surgery was 1.66 (95% CI = 1.09~2.53) when compared to comparison group. We concluded that patients who underwent surgery for a cervical HIVD had a significantly higher risk of developing shoulder capsulitis/tendonitis in 6 months follow-up compared to patients who received cervical HIVD conservative therapy only.

  19. Effect of Facility Ownership on Utilization of Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery.

    PubMed

    Black, Eric M; Reynolds, John; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Williams, Gerald R; Abboud, Joseph A; Lazarus, Mark D

    2018-03-01

    We examined practice patterns and surgical indications in the management of common shoulder procedures by surgeons practicing at physician-owned facilities. This study was a retrospective analysis of 501 patients who underwent arthroscopic shoulder procedures performed by five surgeons in our practice at one of five facilities during an 18-month period. Two of the facilities were physician-owned, and three of the five surgeons were shareholders. Demographics, insurance status, symptom duration, time from injury/symptom onset to the decision to perform surgery (at which time surgical consent is obtained), and time to schedule surgery were studied to determine the influence of facility type and physician shareholder status. Median duration of symptoms before surgery was significantly shorter in workers' compensation patients than in non-workers' compensation patients (47% less; P < 0.0001) and in men than in women (31% less; P < 0.001), but was not influenced by shareholder status or facility ownership (P > 0.05). Time between presentation and surgical consent was not influenced by facility ownership (P = 0.39) or shareholder status (P = 0.50). Time from consent to procedure was 13% faster in physician-owned facilities than in non-physician-owned facilities (P = 0.03) and 35% slower with shareholder physicians than with nonshareholder physicians (P < 0.0001). The role of physician investment in private healthcare facilities has caused considerable debate in the orthopaedic surgery field. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the effects of shareholder status and facility ownership on surgeons' practice patterns, surgical timing, and measures of nonsurgical treatment before shoulder surgery. Neither shareholder status nor facility ownership characteristics influenced the speed with which surgeons determined that shoulder surgery was indicated or surgeons' use of preoperative nonsurgical treatment. After the need for surgery was determined, patients

  20. Recurrent instability after revision anterior shoulder stabilization surgery.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lisa Genevra Mandeville; Griesser, Michael J; Miniaci, Anthony A; Jones, Morgan H

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to compare outcomes of revision anterior stabilization surgeries based on technique. This study also sought to compare the impact of bone defects on outcomes. A systematic review of the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus was performed in July 2012 and March 2013. Of 345 articles identified in the search, 17 studies with Level I to IV Evidence satisfied the inclusion criteria and were analyzed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Recurrent instability was defined as redislocation, resubluxation, or a positive apprehensive test after revision surgery. Procedures were categorized as arthroscopic Bankart repair, open Bankart repair, Bristow-Latarjet procedure, and other open procedures. In total, 388 shoulders were studied. Male patients comprised 74.1% of patients, 66.7% of cases involved the dominant shoulder, the mean age was 28.2 years, and the mean follow-up period was 44.2 months. The surgical procedures classified as "other open procedures" had the highest rate of recurrent instability (42.7%), followed by arthroscopic Bankart repair (14.7%), the Bristow-Latarjet procedure (14.3%), and open Bankart repair (5.5%). Inconsistent reporting of bone defects precluded drawing significant conclusions. A number of different procedures are used to address recurrent instability after a primary operation for anterior shoulder instability has failed. There is significant variability in the rate of recurrent instability after revision anterior shoulder stabilization surgery. Level IV, systematic review of Level I to IV studies. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [POKING REDUCTION TREATMENT OF DISPLACED SCAPULAR NECK FRACTURE WITH SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY-ASSISTED SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Qu, Feng; Yuan, Bangtuo; Qi, Wei; Wang, Junliang; Shen, Xuezhen; Wang, Jiangtao; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Yujie

    2014-07-01

    To discuss the effectiveness of Poking reduction with shoulder arthroscopy-assisted surgery for displaced scapular neck fracture. Between January 2009 and January 2012, 9 cases of displaced scapular neck fracture underwent shoulder arthroscopy-assisted surgery for Poking reduction treatment. Of 9 cases, 6 were men, and 3 were women, aged 21-54 years (mean, 39 years). The causes were traffic accident injury in 7 cases, falling injury from height in 1 case, and hurt injury in 1 case. The shoulder abduction, flexion, and external rotation were obviously limited. X-ray films showed all cases had obvious displaced scapular neck fracture. Three-dimensional reconstruction of CT showed a grossly displaced of fracture. The time of injury to surgery was 4-27 days (mean, 11 days). Patients obtained healing of incision by first intension, without infection, neurovascular injury, or other surgery-related complications. All patients were followed up 19- 31 months (mean, 23 months). X-ray films showed scapular neck fractures healed from 7 to 11 weeks (mean, 8 weeks). At last follow-up, the shoulder abduction, flexion, and external rotation activity were improved significantly when compared with ones at preoperation (P < 0.05); the shoulder Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgenos (ASES) score, and Rowe score were significantly better than preoperative scores (P < 0.05). The reduction of displaced scapular neck fracture is necessary, and arthroscopic Poking reduction and fixation for displaced scapular neck fracture can reconstruct the shoulder stability and reduce complications.

  2. Subsequent Shoulder Surgery After Isolated Arthroscopic SLAP Repair.

    PubMed

    Mollon, Brent; Mahure, Siddharth A; Ensor, Kelsey L; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Kwon, Young W; Rokito, Andrew S

    2016-10-01

    To quantify the incidence of and identify the risk factors for subsequent shoulder procedures after isolated SLAP repair. New York's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was searched between 2003 and 2014 to identify individuals with the sole diagnosis of a SLAP lesion who underwent isolated arthroscopic SLAP repair. Patients were longitudinally followed up for a minimum of 3 years to analyze for subsequent ipsilateral shoulder procedures. Between 2003 and 2014, 2,524 patients met our inclusion criteria. After 3 to 11 years of follow-up, 10.1% of patients (254 of 2,524) underwent repeat surgical intervention on the same shoulder as the initial SLAP repair. The mean time to repeat shoulder surgery was 2.3 ± 2.1 years. Subsequent procedures included subacromial decompression (35%), debridement (26.7%). repeat SLAP repair (19.7%), and biceps tenodesis or tenotomy (13.0%). After isolated SLAP repair, patients aged 20 years or younger were more likely to undergo arthroscopic Bankart repair (odds ratio [OR], 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-6.21; P = .005), whereas age older than 30 years was an independent risk factor for subsequent acromioplasty (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P < .001) and distal clavicle resection (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .030). The need for a subsequent procedure was significantly associated with Workers' Compensation cases (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.2; P < .001). We identified a 10.1% incidence of subsequent surgery after isolated SLAP repair, often related to an additional diagnosis, suggesting that clinicians should consider other potential causes of shoulder pain when considering surgery for patients with SLAP lesions. In addition, the number of isolated SLAP repairs performed has decreased over time, and management of failed SLAP repair has shifted toward biceps tenodesis or tenotomy over revision SLAP repair in more recent years. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of

  3. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Koorevaar, Rinco C. T.; van ‘t Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J. J.; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. Methods and Findings A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression

  4. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van 't Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2016-01-01

    Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression and somatisation were

  5. Serious shoulder injuries in professional soccer: return to participation after surgery.

    PubMed

    Hart, David; Funk, Lennard

    2015-07-01

    An evidence base for the management and prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer is lacking. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the type, mechanism and recovery time after surgery associated with serious shoulder injuries sustained in professional soccer to build an evidence base foundation. Fifty-two professional soccer players underwent shoulder surgery for injuries sustained during match play. Of these, 25 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Data were collected for injury mechanism and type; clinical, radiological and surgical findings and procedures; and return to full participation. Subjects were all managed by the same surgeon. Labral injuries represented the most common injury type affecting 21 (84 %) subjects; two rotator cuff (8 %) and two combined labral/rotator cuff (8 %) injuries were less common. Fourteen (56 %) subjects sustained a high-energy trauma injury in a combined abduction and external rotation position. Six (24 %) subjects sustained a low-energy trauma mechanism in variable positions, while five (20 %) had a gradual onset of symptoms. Twenty-two (88 %) subjects reported a dislocation as a feature of their presentation. All of the subjects with high- and low-energy trauma mechanisms reported a dislocation occurring at the time of injury. Eight (32 %) subjects had sustained a previous significant shoulder injury to the ipsilateral side. Goalkeepers did not sustain low-energy trauma injuries. Outfield players returned to full participation in a mean time of 11.6 weeks, while goalkeepers did so in 11.1 weeks post-surgery. Return to participation time ranged from 7 to 24 weeks with a median of 11 weeks. Professional soccer players can expect a return to participation within 12 weeks post-surgery. The majority of serious shoulder injuries in soccer occur at a positional extreme of external rotation and abduction in high-energy situations, while a significant number occur in low-energy situations away from this position. Most serious shoulder

  6. Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder surgery: is loss of hair protective for infection?

    PubMed

    Hudek, Robert; Sommer, Frank; Abdelkawi, Ayman F; Kerwat, Martina; Müller, Hans-Helge; Gohlke, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes) has been linked to chronic infections in shoulder surgery. It was recently observed during first-time shoulder surgery in healthy patients at a rate between 36% and 56%. Male gender and the anterolateral approach were reported risk factors. Because the skin biology greatly differs, we aimed to correlate skin complaints with P acnes-positive intraoperative cultures from different tissue layer samples in patients undergoing shoulder surgery for the first time. Intraoperative samples (1 skin, 1 superficial, 1 deep tissue, and 1 control sample) from 112 patients (70 men, 42 women; aged 59.2 years) were cultured. The association between the presence of P acnes in the deep or superficial tissue, or both, and 10 items of a validated preoperative questionnaire for skin pathology was explored. The cultures were positive for P acnes in 38.4% (n = 43) of the cases. Skin samples were positive for P acnes in 8% (n = 9), superficial samples were positive in 23% (n = 26), and deep samples were positive in 30% (n = 34). Self-reported "loss of hair" was significantly negatively associated with the presence of P acnes in the superficial or deep tissue sample (P = .00028). Patients who report having "loss of hair" show fewer P acnes-positive cultures in intraoperative tissue samples taken during open shoulder surgery. Whether this subgroup is at a lesser risk for P acnes infections remains to be substantiated. Basic Science Study; Microbiology. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phrenic Nerve Palsy and Regional Anesthesia for Shoulder Surgery: Anatomical, Physiologic, and Clinical Considerations.

    PubMed

    El-Boghdadly, Kariem; Chin, Ki Jinn; Chan, Vincent W S

    2017-07-01

    Regional anesthesia has an established role in providing perioperative analgesia for shoulder surgery. However, phrenic nerve palsy is a significant complication that potentially limits the use of regional anesthesia, particularly in high-risk patients. The authors describe the anatomical, physiologic, and clinical principles relevant to phrenic nerve palsy in this context. They also present a comprehensive review of the strategies for reducing phrenic nerve palsy and its clinical impact while ensuring adequate analgesia for shoulder surgery. The most important of these include limiting local anesthetic dose and injection volume and performing the injection further away from the C5-C6 nerve roots. Targeting peripheral nerves supplying the shoulder, such as the suprascapular and axillary nerves, may be an effective alternative to brachial plexus blockade in selected patients. The optimal regional anesthetic approach in shoulder surgery should be tailored to individual patients based on comorbidities, type of surgery, and the principles described in this article.

  8. Pre-operative assessment and post-operative care in elective shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Ahsan; Macfarlane, Robert J; Waseem, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Pre-operative assessment is required prior to the majority of elective surgical procedures, primarily to ensure that the patient is fit to undergo surgery, whilst identifying issues that may need to be dealt with by the surgical or anaesthetic teams. The post-operative management of elective surgical patients begins during the peri-operative period and involves several health professionals. Appropriate monitoring and repeated clinical assessments are required in order for the signs of surgical complications to be recognised swiftly and adequately. This article examines the literature regarding pre-operative assessment in elective orthopaedic surgery and shoulder surgery, whilst also reviewing the essentials of peri- and post-operative care. The need to recognise common post-operative complications early and promptly is also evaluated, along with discussing thromboprophylaxis and post-operative analgesia following shoulder surgery.

  9. Revision open Bankart surgery after arthroscopic repair for traumatic anterior shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam Su; Yi, Jin Woong; Lee, Bong Gun; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2009-11-01

    Only a few studies have provided homogeneous analysis of open revision surgery after a failed arthroscopic Bankart procedure. Open Bankart revision surgery will be effective in a failed arthroscopic anterior stabilization but inevitably results in a loss of range of motion, especially external rotation. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-six shoulders that went through traditional open Bankart repair as revision surgery after a failed arthroscopic Bankart procedure for traumatic anterior shoulder instability were enrolled for this study. The mean patient age at the time of revision surgery was 24 years (range, 16-38 years), and the mean duration of follow-up was 42 months (range, 25-97 months). The preoperative mean range of motion was 173 degrees in forward flexion and 65 degrees in external rotation at the side. After revision surgery, the ranges measured 164 degrees and 55 degrees, respectively (P = .024 and .012, respectively). At the last follow-up, the mean Rowe score was 81 points, with 88.5% of the patients reporting good or excellent results. After revision surgery, redislocation developed in 3 shoulders (11.5%), all of which had an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion and associated hyperlaxity (2+ or greater laxity on the sulcus sign). Open revision Bankart surgery for a failed arthroscopic Bankart repair can provide a satisfactory outcome, including a low recurrence rate and reliable functional return. In open revision Bankart surgery after failed stabilization for traumatic anterior shoulder instability, the surgeon should keep in mind the possibility of a postoperative loss of range of motion and a thorough examination for not only a Bankart lesion but also other associated lesions, including a bone defect or hyperlaxity, to lower the risk of redislocation.

  10. Neurological Complications Related to Elective Orthopedic Surgery: Part 1: Common Shoulder and Elbow Procedures.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Tim; Henry, Patrick D G; Cholvisudhi, Phantila; Chan, Vincent W S; Theodoropoulos, John S; Brull, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Many anesthesiologists are unfamiliar with the rate of surgical neurological complications of the shoulder and elbow procedures for which they provide local anesthetic-based anesthesia and/or analgesia. Part 1 of this narrative review series on neurological complications of elective orthopedic surgery describes the mechanisms and likelihood of peripheral nerve injury associated with some of the most common shoulder and elbow procedures, including open and arthroscopic shoulder procedures, elbow arthroscopy, and total shoulder and elbow replacement. Despite the many articles available, the overall number of studied patients is relatively low. Large prospective trials are required to establish the true incidence of neurological complications following elective shoulder and elbow surgery. As the popularity of regional anesthesia increases with the development of ultrasound guidance, anesthesiologists should have a thoughtful understanding of the nerves at risk of surgical injury during elective shoulder and elbow procedures.

  11. Shoulder and neck morbidity in quality of life after surgery for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    van Wilgen, C P; Dijkstra, P U; van der Laan, B F A M; Plukker, J Th; Roodenburg, J L N

    2004-10-01

    Quality of life has become a major issue in determining the outcome of treatment in head and neck surgery with curative intent. The aim of our study was to determine which factors in the postoperative care, especially shoulder and neck morbidity, are related to quality of life and how these outcomes compared between patients who had undergone surgery and a control group. We analyzed physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and social and functional well-being at least 1 year after surgery and evaluated the differences in quality of life between patients who had undergone head and neck surgery and a control group. Depression scores contributed significantly to all domains of quality of life. Reduced shoulder abduction, shoulder pain, and neck pain are related to several domains of quality of life. The patient group scored significantly worse for social functioning and limitations from physical problems but scored significantly better for bodily pain and health changes. Depression and shoulder and neck morbidity are important factors in quality of life for patients who have undergone surgery for head and neck cancer. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of Interscalene Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain Management in Patients after Shoulder Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Shen, Shih-Jyun; Tsai, Hsin-I; Kao, Sheng-Chin; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder surgery can produce severe postoperative pain and movement limitations. Evidence has shown that regional nerve block is an effective management for postoperative shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the postoperative analgesic effect of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) combined with interscalene nerve block in comparison to PCA alone after shoulder surgery. In this study, 103 patients receiving PCA combined with interscalene nerve block (PCAIB) and 48 patients receiving PCA alone after shoulder surgery were included. Patients' characteristics, preoperative shoulder score and range of motion, surgical and anesthetic condition in addition to visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, postoperative PCA consumption, and adverse outcomes were evaluated. The results showed that PCA combined with interscalene nerve block (PCAIB) group required less volume of analgesics than PCA alone group in 24 hours (57.76 ± 23.29 mL versus 87.29 ± 33.73 mL, p < 0.001) and 48 hours (114.86 ± 40.97 mL versus 183.63 ± 44.83 mL, p < 0.001) postoperatively. The incidence of dizziness in PCAIB group was significantly lower than PCA group (resp., 1.9% and 14.6%, p = 0.005). VAS, nausea, and vomiting were less in group PCAIB, but in the absence of significant statistical correlation. Interscalene nerve block is effective postoperatively in reducing the demand for PCA analgesics and decreasing opioids-induced adverse events following shoulder surgery.

  13. Frozen shoulder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Changes in your hormones, such as during menopause Shoulder injury Shoulder surgery Open heart surgery Cervical disk disease ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Shoulder Injuries and Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read ...

  14. A novel combination of peripheral nerve blocks for arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Musso, D; Flohr-Madsen, S; Meknas, K; Wilsgaard, T; Ytrebø, L M; Klaastad, Ø

    2017-10-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block is currently the gold standard for intra- and post-operative pain management for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. However, it is associated with block related complications, of which effect on the phrenic nerve have been of most interest. Side effects caused by general anesthesia, when this is required, are also a concern. We hypothesized that the combination of superficial cervical plexus block, suprascapular nerve block, and infraclavicular brachial plexus block would provide a good alternative to interscalene block and general anesthesia. Twenty adult patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery received a combination of superficial cervical plexus block (5 ml ropivacaine 0.5%), suprascapular nerve block (4 ml ropivacaine 0.5%), and lateral sagittal infraclavicular block (31 ml ropivacaine 0.75%). The primary aim was to find the proportion of patients who could be operated under light propofol sedation, without the need for opioids or artificial airway. Secondary aims were patients' satisfaction and surgeons' judgment of the operating conditions. Nineteen of twenty patients (95% CI: 85-100) underwent arthroscopic shoulder surgery with light propofol sedation, but without opioids or artificial airway. The excluded patient was not comfortable in the beach chair position and therefore received general anesthesia. All patients were satisfied with the treatment on follow-up interviews. The surgeons rated the operating conditions as good for all patients. The novel combination of a superficial cervical plexus block, a suprascapular nerve block, and an infraclavicular nerve block provides an alternative anesthetic modality for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ventricular tachycardia during arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Yi, Jin Woong; Kwack, Yoon Ho; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2010-03-01

    We routinely have performed arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia in the beach chair position using epinephrine (0.33 mg/L) saline irrigation. At a 2-week interval, two patients, a 19-year-old man scheduled to undergo an arthroscopic Bankart repair for left traumatic anterior instability and a 49-year-old woman scheduled for an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for a left rotator cuff tear, were resuscitated by chest compression and defibrillation due to a sudden developed cardiogenic shock following ventricular tachycardia at the time of arthroscopic shoulder surgery. They were transferred to the intensive care unit because their emergent echocardiogram showed significantly decreased cardiac functions. They were fully recovered and then discharged. Epinephrine was considered to be the cause of ventricular tachycardia because the two patients showed no anaphylactic reaction to drugs or symptoms of air embolism related to the beach chair position. In addition, according to our observation of epinephrine flow patterns, it was more likely that highly concentrated epinephrine was rapidly infused into the body. This complication is very rare. However, thorough understanding of the side effects and their development of epinephrine during arthroscopic shoulder surgery should neither be overemphasized nor disregarded.

  16. Early return to baseline range of motion and strength after anterior shoulder instability surgery: a Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) shoulder group cohort study.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter V, Joseph A; Wolf, Brian R; Glass, Natalie; Bollier, Matt; Kuhn, John E; Hettrich, Carolyn M

    2018-03-23

    Patients often return to higher-level activities and sports at 4 to 8 months after anterior shoulder stabilization procedures. It is unknown what percentage of patients have regained normal function at this time frame and what factors predict residual deficits, range of motion (ROM), and strength after anterior shoulder instability surgery. Ten participating sites throughout the United States enrolled patients in a prospective cohort study including primary, revision, arthroscopic, and open anterior stabilization procedures. Baseline demographic data and patient outcomes questionnaires were collected with initial physical examination, treatment, surgical findings, and surgical repair details. At the 6-month follow-up visit, ROM and strength measurements were collected and compared with preoperative measurements. There were 348 patients identified who underwent surgical treatment for anterior shoulder instability. Of these, 259 patients (74.0%) returned to baseline, and 89 (26.0%) did not return to baseline shoulder ROM (≥20° loss of ROM) or strength. A higher Beighton score (P = .01) and number of dislocations (P < .01) were associated with failure to regain baseline ROM and strength at early follow-up. No surgical variables were found to influence return to baseline function, including open vs. arthroscopic surgery, primary vs. revision surgery, and number of suture anchors. By 4 to 8 months postoperatively, 76% of patients return to baseline ROM, 98% return to baseline strength, and 74% return to both baseline ROM and strength. An increased number of dislocations and generalized joint laxity were associated with failure to return to baseline ROM and strength at early follow-up after anterior shoulder instability surgery. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do patients return to sports and work after total shoulder replacement surgery?

    PubMed

    Bülhoff, Matthias; Sattler, Peter; Bruckner, Thomas; Loew, Markus; Zeifang, Felix; Raiss, Patric

    2015-02-01

    Studies evaluating the return to sports and work after shoulder arthroplasty are rare, and there are no studies evaluating return to work after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Patients undergoing TSA will be able to return to their preoperative sports levels and occupations. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 154 patients with 170 TSAs for primary glenohumeral arthritis were included. Two subgroups were formed: patients who had participated in sports during the 5 years before surgery (group 1; n = 105 [68%]) and patients who had never participated in sports (group 2; n = 49 [32%]). The return-to-work rate in patients who had not retired after surgery were also analyzed, as were responses to a survey. The mean age at the time of surgery was 71 years (range, 33-88 years) in group 1 and 76 years (range, 54-88 years) in group 2. Mean follow-up time was 6.2 years (range, 2.5-12.6 years). Fifty-seven patients (54%) in group 1 participated in sports right up to the time of surgery. All 57 (100%) returned to sports after surgery. A further 3 patients (3%) from group 1 resumed sporting activity after surgery; swimming was the most popular sport. No patient in group 2 started sports activity after shoulder replacement surgery. Many of the patients, 14% of the entire group, had retired by final follow-up because of TSA. Fourteen percent of patients in group 1 and group 2 were pursuing their work at the time of most recent follow-up. Thirty patients of the entire cohort (19.5%) had to change their occupations because of surgery. Patients who participated in sports before TSA were successfully able to return to sports activities after surgery. Patients who did not participate in sports just before surgery were unlikely to start sports after surgery. Fourteen percent of the entire cohort was able to return to work after surgery. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. A novel ultrasound-guided shoulder arthroscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyryshkin, K.; Mousavi, P.; Beek, M.; Chen, T.; Pichora, D.; Abolmaesumi, P.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a novel ultrasound-guided computer system for arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder joint. Intraoperatively, the system tracks and displays the surgical instruments, such as arthroscope and arthroscopic burrs, relative to the anatomy of the patient. The purpose of this system is to improve the surgeon's perception of the three-dimensional space within the anatomy of the patient in which the instruments are manipulated and to provide guidance towards the targeted anatomy. Pre-operatively, computed tomography images of the patient are acquired to construct virtual threedimensional surface models of the shoulder bone structure. Intra-operatively, live ultrasound images of pre-selected regions of the shoulder are captured using an ultrasound probe whose three-dimensional position is tracked by an optical camera. These images are used to register the surface model to the anatomy of the patient in the operating room. An initial alignment is obtained by matching at least three points manually selected on the model to their corresponding points identified on the ultrasound images. The registration is then improved with an iterative closest point or a sequential least squares estimation technique. In the present study the registration results of these techniques are compared. After the registration, surgical instruments are displayed relative to the surface model of the patient on a graphical screen visible to the surgeon. Results of laboratory experiments on a shoulder phantom indicate acceptable registration results and sufficiently fast overall system performance to be applicable in the operating room.

  19. A Portable Shoulder-Mounted Camera System for Surgical Education in Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Ohiorhenuan, Ifije E; Patel, Neil N; Jakoi, Andre M; Hsieh, Patrick C; Acosta, Frank L; Wang, Jeffrey C; Liu, John C

    2017-02-07

    The past several years have demonstrated an increased recognition of operative videos as an important adjunct for resident education. Currently lacking, however, are effective methods to record video for the purposes of illustrating the techniques of minimally invasive (MIS) and complex spine surgery. We describe here our experiences developing and using a shoulder-mounted camera system for recording surgical video. Our requirements for an effective camera system included wireless portability to allow for movement around the operating room, camera mount location for comfort and loupes/headlight usage, battery life for long operative days, and sterile control of on/off recording. With this in mind, we created a shoulder-mounted camera system utilizing a GoPro™ HERO3+, its Smart Remote (GoPro, Inc., San Mateo, California), a high-capacity external battery pack, and a commercially available shoulder-mount harness. This shoulder-mounted system was more comfortable to wear for long periods of time in comparison to existing head-mounted and loupe-mounted systems. Without requiring any wired connections, the surgeon was free to move around the room as needed. Over the past several years, we have recorded numerous MIS and complex spine surgeries for the purposes of surgical video creation for resident education. Surgical videos serve as a platform to distribute important operative nuances in rich multimedia. Effective and practical camera system setups are needed to encourage the continued creation of videos to illustrate the surgical maneuvers in minimally invasive and complex spinal surgery. We describe here a novel portable shoulder-mounted camera system setup specifically designed to be worn and used for long periods of time in the operating room.

  20. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in Female Professional Tennis Players: Ability and Timing to Return to Play.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Dakic, Jodie; Stroia, Kathleen; Nguyen, Michael L; Safran, Marc R

    2017-07-01

    To assess the outcome and time to return to previous level of competitive play after shoulder surgery in professional tennis players. Retrospective case series. Tertiary academic centre. The records of all female tennis players on the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) professional circuit between January 2008 and June 2010 were reviewed to identify players who underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant (serving) shoulder. Primary outcomes were the ability and time to return to professional play and if they were able to return to their previous level of function as determined by singles ranking. Preoperative and postoperative singles rankings were used to determine rate and completeness of return to preoperative function. During the study period, 8 professional women tennis players from the WTA tour underwent shoulder surgery on their dominant arm. Indications included rotator cuff debridement or repair, labral reconstruction for instability or superior labral anterior posterior lesion, and neurolysis of the suprascapular nerve. Seven players (88%) returned to professional play. The mean time to return to play was 7 months after surgery. However, only 25% (2 of 8) players achieved their preinjury singles rank or better by 18 months postoperatively. In total, 4 players returned to their preinjury singles ranking, with their peak singles ranking being attained at a mean of 2.4 years postoperatively. In professional female tennis players, a high return to play rate after arthroscopic shoulder surgery is associated with a prolonged and often incomplete return to previous level of performance. Thus, counseling the patient to this fact is important to manage expectations. Level IV-Case Series.

  1. Risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to neck-shoulder complaints and occupational biomechanical exposures: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Dalbøge, Annett; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Frost, Poul

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) in relation to neck-shoulder complaints and occupational biomechanical shoulder exposures. The study was based on the Musculoskeletal Research Database at the Danish Ramazzini Centre. We linked baseline questionnaire information from 1993-2004 on neck-shoulder complaints, job titles, psychosocial work factors, body mass index, and smoking with register information on first-time surgery for SIS from 1996-2008. Biomechanical exposure measures were obtained from a job exposure matrix based on expert judgment. We applied multivariable Cox regression. During 280 125 person-years of follow-up among 37 402 persons, 557 first-time operations for SIS occurred. Crude surgery rates increased from 1.1 to 2.5 per 1000 person-years with increasing shoulder load. Using no neck-shoulder complaints and low shoulder load at baseline as a reference, no neck-shoulder complaints and high shoulder load showed an adjusted hazard ratio (HR(adj)) of 2.55 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.59-4.09], while neck-shoulder complaints in combination with high shoulder load showed an HR(adj) of 4.52 (95% CI 2.87-7.13). Subanalyses based on 18 856 persons showed an HR(adj) of 5.40 (95% CI 2.88-10.11) for complaints located specifically in the shoulder in combination with high shoulder load. Based on these findings, persons with neck-shoulder and especially shoulder complaints in combination with high shoulder load seem an obvious target group for interventions aimed at reducing exposures to prevent surgery for SIS.

  2. Ontogeny of modern human longitudinal body and transverse shoulder proportions.

    PubMed

    Frelat, Mélanie A; Coquerelle, Michael; Trinkaus, Erik

    2017-03-01

    Whereas variation of modern human adult body size and shape has been widely studied in the context of ecogeographical clines, little is known about the differential growth patterns of transverse and longitudinal dimensions among human populations. Our study explored the ontogenetic variation of those body proportions in modern humans. We compared results from four different approaches to study cross-sectional skeletal samples of Africans (n = 43), Amerindians (n = 69) and Europeans (n = 40) from 0 to 14 years of age. Clavicle, humerus, and femur intermetaphyseal lengths, and femoral distal metaphyseal breadth, were measured. Average ontogenetic trajectories were computed in order to compare the growth patterns of the three groups. Our findings demonstrated that the three geographical groups shared similar absolute and relative patterns of change with age for the four dimensions considered. Although interpopulation differences existed in transverse to longitudinal as well as in interlimb proportions, those differences did not seem to remain constant throughout ontogeny, similar to what has been shown for intralimb proportions. Growth rates of transverse shoulder proportions differed between populations from different regions after 10 years, whereas those for longitudinal proportions were very similar. The ontogeny of transverse shoulder proportions is more complex than what is observed for bi-iliac breadth, suggesting that transverse shoulder to limb proportions are not solely influenced by ecogeographical conditions. Our analysis demonstrates that methodologies that incorporate critical dimensions of body form could shed new light on human adaptation in both paleontological and neontological contexts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fluid Extravasation in Shoulder Arthroscopic Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Memon, Muzammil; Kay, Jeffrey; Gholami, Arian; Simunovic, Nicole; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2018-05-01

    Arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder joint has become increasingly more common given its advantages over open surgery; however, one rare but potentially life-threatening complication is fluid extravasation into the surrounding tissues, causing edema, respiratory compromise, abnormal results on laboratory blood tests, and possibly death. Currently, no systematic review exists that summarizes the existing clinical research on this topic. To perform a systematic review on fluid extravasation as a complication of shoulder arthroscopic surgery, specifically assessing clinical presentation, risk factors, management, and outcomes. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Two reviewers independently searched 3 databases (PubMed, Ovid [MEDLINE], and Embase) from database inception until July 1, 2017. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) checklist guided the reporting and data abstraction. The methodological quality of these studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) checklist. The results are presented in a narrative summary fashion using descriptive statistics including ranges and agreement statistics. A total of 26 studies (20 case reports, 4 case series, and 2 prospective comparative studies) encompassing 205 patients (mean age, 50.8 years [range, 15-83 years]) were included. The most common signs of fluid extravasation included chest wall swelling (n = 86) and neck swelling (n = 116). In 32 patients, observation alone was sufficient. Other patients required airway intubation (n = 16), diuretics (n = 7), steroids (n = 1), and percutaneous drainage of fluid (n = 1). Clinical edema resolved after 2 to 48 hours, and patients were discharged 1 to 20 days postoperatively. Serious complications included transfer to the intensive care unit (n = 14), anterior interosseous nerve palsy (n = 4), rhabdomyolysis (n = 1), and death (n = 1). Fluid extravasation has the potential to be a life

  4. The effect of warmed inspired gases on body temperature during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jo, Youn Yi; Kim, Hong Soon; Chang, Young Jin; Yun, Soon Young; Kwak, Hyun Jeong

    2013-07-01

    Perioperative hypothermia can develop easily during shoulder arthroscopy, because cold irrigation can directly influence core body temperature. The authors investigated whether active warming and humidification of inspired gases reduces falls in core body temperature and allows redistribution of body heat in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly assigned to receive either room temperature inspired gases using a conventional respiratory circuit (the control group, n = 20) or inspired gases humidified and heated using a humidified and electrically heated circuit (HHC) (the heated group, n = 20). Core temperatures were significantly lower in both groups from 30 min after anesthesia induction, but were significantly higher in the heated group than in the control group from 75 to 120 min after anesthesia induction. In this study the use of a humidified and electrically heated circuit did not prevent core temperature falling during arthroscopic shoulder surgery, but it was found to decrease reductions in core temperature from 75 min after anesthesia induction.

  5. A novel graphical user interface for ultrasound-guided shoulder arthroscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyryshkin, K.; Mousavi, P.; Beek, M.; Pichora, D.; Abolmaesumi, P.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a novel graphical user interface developed for a navigation system for ultrasound-guided computer-assisted shoulder arthroscopic surgery. The envisioned purpose of the interface is to assist the surgeon in determining the position and orientation of the arthroscopic camera and other surgical tools within the anatomy of the patient. The user interface features real time position tracking of the arthroscopic instruments with an optical tracking system, and visualization of their graphical representations relative to a three-dimensional shoulder surface model of the patient, created from computed tomography images. In addition, the developed graphical interface facilitates fast and user-friendly intra-operative calibration of the arthroscope and the arthroscopic burr, capture and segmentation of ultrasound images, and intra-operative registration. A pilot study simulating the computer-aided shoulder arthroscopic procedure on a shoulder phantom demonstrated the speed, efficiency and ease-of-use of the system.

  6. How reverse shoulder arthroplasty works.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew; Brooks, Jordan; Willis, Matthew; Frankle, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was introduced to treat the rotator cuff-deficient shoulder. Since its introduction, an improved understanding of the biomechanics of rotator cuff deficiency and reverse shoulder arthroplasty has facilitated the development of modern reverse arthroplasty designs. We review (1) the basic biomechanical challenges associated with the rotator cuff-deficient shoulder; (2) the biomechanical rationale for newer reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs; (3) the current scientific evidence related to the function and performance of reverse shoulder arthroplasty; and (4) specific technical aspects of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. A PubMed search of the English language literature was conducted using the key words reverse shoulder arthroplasty, rotator cuff arthropathy, and biomechanics of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Articles were excluded if the content fell outside of the biomechanics of these topics, leaving the 66 articles included in this review. Various implant design factors as well as various surgical implantation techniques affect stability of reverse shoulder arthroplasty and patient function. To understand the implications of individual design factors, one must understand the function of the normal and the cuff-deficient shoulder and coalesce this understanding with the pathology presented by each patient to choose the proper surgical technique for reconstruction. Several basic science and clinical studies improve our understanding of various design factors in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. However, much work remains to further elucidate the performance of newer designs and to evaluate patient outcomes using validated instruments such as the American Society for Elbow Surgery, simple shoulder test, and the Constant-Murley scores.

  7. Postoperative fentanyl patch versus subacromial bupivacaine infusion in arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Merivirta, Riika; Äärimaa, Ville; Aantaa, Riku; Koivisto, Mari; Leino, Kari; Liukas, Antti; Kuusniemi, Kristiina

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of subacromial bupivacaine infusion and a transdermal fentanyl patch in the treatment of postoperative pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Sixty patients with rotator cuff disease scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery were enrolled in the study. For the treatment of postoperative pain, 30 patients constituted group F and received a 12.0-μg/h fentanyl patch for 72 hours and saline solution infusion in a subacromial manner at the rate of 4 mL/h. The remaining 30 patients constituted group B and received a placebo patch and an infusion of 2.5-mg/mL bupivacaine in a subacromial manner for 72 hours. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative numerical rating scale pain score. The consumption of opioids, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen was also recorded. The Constant scores and general recovery were followed up until the 90th postoperative day. There was no statistically significant difference in the numerical rating scale scores (P = .60) between the groups. No differences in the use of rescue analgesic were observed except that the patients receiving bupivacaine used more ibuprofen (median, 1,200 mg v 600 mg) during the day of surgery (P = .042). No difference was found in general recovery between the groups. A fentanyl patch delivering 12-μg/h fentanyl offers an easy and safe treatment option as a part of multimodal analgesia with few adverse effects in the treatment of postoperative pain in a carefully selected patient group after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Level I, randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Positioning of the patient during shoulder surgery: an inexpensive, safe and easy technique.

    PubMed

    Van Tongel, Alexander; Hardeman, François; Karelse, Anne; de Wilde, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of shoulder pathology has improved tremendously in the last decades, and shoulder surgery is increasingly performed because of new treatment options and better operative results. Nowadays most surgical shoulder procedures are performed in the sitting or semi-sitting (beach chair) position. Stability of the patient and the ability to flex, extend and rotate the shoulder during surgery are crucial to improve exposure of the surgical field and lower the risk of perioperative complications. We developed an easy, safe and inexpensive surgical set-up providing a very good posterior, superior and anterior access to the shoulder in the sitting or semi-sitting position. In this technique, the patient is placed supine with the head at the foot end of the table and the body positioned slightly eccentrically with the back being supported by the leg plate contralateral to the operative side, avoiding any contact with the scapula of the operative side. A neck support is attached on an extra bar at the contralateral side and accommodated to the patient's lordosis. Next, the leg plate on the operative side is removed, and the head and the body are secured to the table with adhesive dressing. This way a stable positioning of the patient is obtained during the whole procedure, and the shoulder girdle is completely free. The set-up can accommodate patients of different stature and weight without the need to adapt the technique. This position also gives the possibility to provide an excellent radiographic view of the shoulder during operative fracture treatment. Our technique further allows a significant reduction in costs. A surgical table, extra bar, additional arm support and neck support are usually available and can be used in different settings, without the need for a specific shoulder table.

  9. Characteristics of clinical shoulder research over the last decade: a review of shoulder articles in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Gartsman, Gary M; Morris, Brent J; Unger, R Zackary; Laughlin, Mitzi S; Elkousy, Hussein A; Edwards, T Bradley

    2015-03-04

    The purpose of this study was to determine characteristics and trends in published shoulder research over the last decade in a leading orthopaedic journal. We examined all clinical shoulder articles published in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery from 2004 to 2014. The number of citations, authorship, academic degrees of the authors, country and institution of origin, topic, level of evidence, positive or nonpositive outcome, and inclusion of validated patient-reported outcome measures were assessed for each article. Shoulder articles that included an author with an advanced research degree (MD [Doctor of Medicine] with a PhD [Doctor of Philosophy] or other advanced degree) increased during the study period (p = 0.047). Level-I, II, and III studies were more likely to have an author with an advanced research degree, and Level-IV studies were more likely to have MDs only (p = 0.03). Overall, there was great variability of outcome measures, with at least thirty-nine different validated or nonvalidated outcome measures reported. Over the last decade, there was an improvement in the level of evidence of shoulder articles published in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery that corresponds with recent emphasis on evidence-based medicine. A consensus is needed in shoulder research for more consistent application of validated patient-reported outcome measurement tools. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  10. Research priorities for shoulder surgery: results of the 2015 James Lind Alliance patient and clinician priority setting partnership.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Amar; Upadhaya, Sheela; Regan, Sandra; Toye, Francine; Rees, Jonathan L

    2016-04-11

    To run a UK based James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership for 'Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems'. This was a nationally funded and conducted process. It was organised from a musculoskeletal research centre and Biomedical Research Unit in Oxford. UK shoulder patients, carers and clinicians, involved in treating patients with shoulder pain and shoulder problems that might require surgery. These were national electronic and paper surveys capturing treatment uncertainties that are important to shoulder patients, carers and clinicians. The outcomes relevant to this study were the survey results and rankings. The process took 18 months to complete, with 371 participants contributing 404 in scope questions. The James Lind process then produced a final 10 research priorities and uncertainties that relate to the scope of 'Surgery for Common Shoulder Problems'. The final top 10 UK research priorities have been produced and are now being disseminated to partner organisations and funders to guide funding of shoulder research for the next 5-10 years on topics that are important to patients, their carers and clinicians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. The effectiveness of arthroscopic stabilisation for failed open shoulder instability surgery.

    PubMed

    Millar, N L; Murrell, G A C

    2008-06-01

    We identified ten patients who underwent arthroscopic revision of anterior shoulder stabilisation between 1999 and 2005. Their results were compared with 15 patients, matched for age and gender, who had a primary arthroscopic stabilisation during the same period. At a mean follow-up of 37 and 36 months, respectively, the scores for pain and shoulder function improved significantly between the pre-operative and follow-up visits in both groups (p = 0.002), with no significant difference between them (p = 0.4). The UCLA and Rowe shoulder scores improved significantly (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively), with no statistically significant differences between groups (p = 0.6). Kaplan-Meier analysis for time to recurrent instability showed no differences between the groups (p = 0.2). These results suggest that arthroscopic revision anterior shoulder stabilisation is as reliable as primary arthroscopic stabilisation for patients who have had previous open surgery for recurrent anterior instability.

  12. Indications and outcomes of shoulder arthroscopy after shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Horner, Nolan S; de Sa, Darren; Heaven, Sebastian; Simunovic, Nicole; Bedi, Asheesh; Athwal, George S; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-03-01

    Arthroscopy is a widely used intervention in the treatment of a variety of shoulder conditions. Arthroscopy has also been selectively used in symptomatic patients after shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine indications for shoulder arthroscopy in patients after shoulder arthroplasty and to report patient outcomes after these procedures. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched and screened in duplicate for studies involving shoulder arthroscopy in shoulder arthroplasty patients. A full-text review of eligible studies was conducted in duplicate, and references were searched using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The review included 11 studies containing 84 patients. All were Level IV evidence. The most common indications for shoulder arthroscopy in the setting of shoulder arthroplasty were pain or loss of range of motion without a clear diagnosis, suspected periprosthetic infection, and rotator cuff assessment. Although 92% of patients were satisfied with the procedure and standardized shoulder scores increased in all studies that reported them, 44% of patients still went on to additional revision surgery after arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy in patients after arthroplasty is most frequently used as a diagnostic tool; however, it has utility in treating a number of predetermined pathologies. Despite the low sample size and quality of evidence in our review, patient satisfaction after arthroscopy is high because standardized outcome scores improve, and the risk of complications is low. However, a high percentage of patients who receive arthroscopy later require further surgery. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluid Extravasation in Shoulder Arthroscopic Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Muzammil; Kay, Jeffrey; Gholami, Arian; Simunovic, Nicole; Ayeni, Olufemi R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder joint has become increasingly more common given its advantages over open surgery; however, one rare but potentially life-threatening complication is fluid extravasation into the surrounding tissues, causing edema, respiratory compromise, abnormal results on laboratory blood tests, and possibly death. Currently, no systematic review exists that summarizes the existing clinical research on this topic. Purpose: To perform a systematic review on fluid extravasation as a complication of shoulder arthroscopic surgery, specifically assessing clinical presentation, risk factors, management, and outcomes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Two reviewers independently searched 3 databases (PubMed, Ovid [MEDLINE], and Embase) from database inception until July 1, 2017. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) checklist guided the reporting and data abstraction. The methodological quality of these studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) checklist. The results are presented in a narrative summary fashion using descriptive statistics including ranges and agreement statistics. Results: A total of 26 studies (20 case reports, 4 case series, and 2 prospective comparative studies) encompassing 205 patients (mean age, 50.8 years [range, 15-83 years]) were included. The most common signs of fluid extravasation included chest wall swelling (n = 86) and neck swelling (n = 116). In 32 patients, observation alone was sufficient. Other patients required airway intubation (n = 16), diuretics (n = 7), steroids (n = 1), and percutaneous drainage of fluid (n = 1). Clinical edema resolved after 2 to 48 hours, and patients were discharged 1 to 20 days postoperatively. Serious complications included transfer to the intensive care unit (n = 14), anterior interosseous nerve palsy (n = 4), rhabdomyolysis (n = 1), and death (n = 1

  14. Ranges of motion after reverse shoulder arthroplasty improve significantly the first year after surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tiusanen, Hannu; Sarantsin, Pjotor; Stenholm, Miika; Mattie, Ryan; Saltychev, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the trajectory of the change in range of motion after reverse shoulder joint replacement during 3-year follow-up among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Retrospective cohort longitudinal study of 76 shoulder replacements performed in a university clinic. The range of shoulder motion was assessed by a physiotherapist using a manual goniometer with 5-degree precision before the surgery and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 36 months postoperatively. The shapes of the regression curves suggest that the improvement or decline observed in joint motion was happening mostly during the first year after surgery. After 1 year, the trajectories become flat and they remained unchanged until the end of follow-up. After shoulder joint replacement, the range of shoulder motion showed substantial changes during the first year only. This should be taken into account when scheduling control visits, planning rehabilitation, and predicting the use of community services after the surgery.

  15. Preventing brachial plexus injury during shoulder surgery: a real-time cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Kam, Andrew W; Lam, Patrick H; Haen, Pieter S W A; Tan, Martin; Shamsudin, Aminudin; Murrell, George A C

    2018-05-01

    Brachial plexopathy is not uncommon after shoulder surgery. Although thought to be due to stretch neuropathy, its etiology is poorly understood. This study aimed to identify arm positions and maneuvers that may risk causing brachial plexopathy during shoulder arthroplasty. Tensions in the cords of the brachial plexuses of 6 human cadaveric upper limbs were measured using load cells while each limb was placed in different arm positions and while they underwent shoulder hemiarthroplasty and revision reverse arthroplasty. Arthroplasty procedures in 4 specimens were performed with standard limb positioning (unsupported), and 2 specimens were supported from under the elbow (supported). Each cord then underwent biomechanical testing to identify tension corresponding to 10% strain (the stretch neuropathy threshold in animal models). Tensions exceeding 15 N, 11 N, and 9 N in the lateral, medial, and posterior cords, respectively, produced 10% strain. Shoulder abduction >70° and combined external rotation >60° with extension >50° increased medial cord tension above the 10% strain threshold. Medial cord tensions (mean ± standard error of the mean) in unsupported specimens increased over baseline during hemiarthroplasty (sounder insertion [4.7 ± 0.6 N, P = .04], prosthesis impaction [6.1 ± 0.8 N, P = .04], and arthroplasty reduction [5.0 ± 0.7 N, P = .04]) and revision reverse arthroplasty (retractor positioning [7.2 ± 0.8 N, P = .02]). Supported specimens experienced lower tensions than unsupported specimens. Shoulder abduction >70°, combined external rotation >60° with extension >50°, and downward forces on the humeral shaft may risk causing brachial plexopathy. Retractor placement, sounder insertion, humeral prosthesis impaction, and arthroplasty reduction increase medial cord tensions during shoulder arthroplasty. Supporting the arm from under the elbow protected the brachial plexus in this cadaveric model

  16. A randomized comparison of ropivacaine 0.1% and 0.2% for continuous interscalene block after shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun Woo; Jung, Sung Mee; Kang, Po Soon; Kwon, Hee Uk; Cho, Choon Kyu; Lee, Younsuk; Kim, Chul Woung; Kim, Su Young

    2013-03-01

    The optimal concentration of ropivacaine for continuous interscalene block after shoulder surgery is currently unknown. Fifty-six patients received a perineural infusion of either ropivacaine 0.1% or 0.2% for 48 hours after shoulder surgery. We assessed pain scores as primary end points and supplemental analgesia, ropivacaine consumption, motor block, side effects, and patient satisfaction as secondary end points. Pain scores were not statistically different during the infusion periods; however, supplemental analgesia consumption was higher in the group receiving ropivacaine 0.1% during the first 24 hours (64% vs 28%, P = 0.022). Other secondary end points were statistically inconclusive. These results suggest that ropivacaine 0.2% provides more effective analgesia than ropivacaine 0.1% during the first 24 hours for continuous interscalene block after shoulder surgery.

  17. Preoperative interscalene brachial plexus block aids in perioperative temperature management during arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se Hun; Lee, Wonjin; Park, JaeGwan; Kim, Myoung-Hun; Cho, Kwangrae; Lee, Jeong Han; Cheong, Soon Ho; Lee, Kun Moo

    2016-08-01

    Hypothermia is common during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia, and anesthetic-impaired thermoregulation is thought to be the major cause of hypothermia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare perioperative temperature during arthroscopic shoulder surgery with interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) followed by general anesthesia vs. general anesthesia alone. Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly allocated to receive IBPB followed by general anesthesia (group GB, n = 20) or general anesthesia alone (group GO, n = 20), and intraoperative and postoperative body temperatures were measured. The initial body temperatures were 36.5 ± 0.3℃ vs. 36.4 ± 0.4℃ in group GB vs. GO, respectively (P = 0.215). The body temperature at 120 minutes after induction of anesthesia was significantly higher in group GB than in group GO (35.8 ± 0.3℃ vs. 34.9 ± 0.3℃; P < 0.001). The body temperatures at 60 minutes after admission to the post-anesthesia care unit were 35.8 ± 0.3℃ vs. 35.2 ± 0.2℃ in group GB vs. GO, respectively (P < 0.001). The concentrations of desflurane at 0, 15, and 120 minutes after induction of anesthesia were 6.0 vs. 6.0% (P = 0.330), 5.0 ± 0.8% vs. 5.8 ± 0.4% (P = 0.001), and 3.4 ± 0.4% vs. 7.1 ± 0.9% (P < 0.001) in group GB vs. GO, respectively. The present study demonstrated that preoperative IBPB could reduce both the intraoperative concentration of desflurane and the reduction in body temperature during and after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  18. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Academic cancer center oncology clinic. 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  19. Suprascapular and Interscalene Nerve Block for Shoulder Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Nasir; Goldar, Ghazaleh; Ragina, Neli; Banfield, Laura; Laffey, John G; Abdallah, Faraj W

    2017-12-01

    Interscalene block provides optimal shoulder surgery analgesia, but concerns over its associated risks have prompted the search for alternatives. Suprascapular block was recently proposed as an interscalene block alternative, but evidence of its comparative analgesic effect is conflicting. This meta-analysis compares the analgesic effect and safety of suprascapular block versus interscalene block for shoulder surgery. Databases were searched for randomized trials comparing interscalene block with suprascapular block for shoulder surgery. Postoperative 24-h cumulative oral morphine consumption and the difference in the area under curve for pooled rest pain scores were designated as primary outcomes. Analgesic and safety outcomes, particularly block-related and respiratory complications, were evaluated as secondary outcomes. Results were pooled using random-effects modeling. Data from 16 studies (1,152 patients) were analyzed. Interscalene block and suprascapular block were not different in 24-h morphine consumption. The difference in area under the curve of pain scores for the 24-h interval favored interscalene block by 1.1 cm/h, but this difference was not clinically important. Compared with suprascapular block, interscalene block reduced postoperative pain but not opioid consumption during recovery room stay by a weighted mean difference (95% CI) of 1.5 cm (0.6 to 2.5 cm; P < 0.0001). Pain scores were not different at any other time. In contrast, suprascapular block reduced the odds of block-related and respiratory complications. This review suggests that there are no clinically meaningful analgesic differences between suprascapular block and interscalene block except for interscalene block providing better pain control during recovery room stay; however, suprascapular block has fewer side effects. These findings suggest that suprascapular block may be considered an effective and safe interscalene block alternative for shoulder surgery.

  20. Complex surgery for locally advanced bone and soft tissue sarcomas of the shoulder girdle.

    PubMed

    Lesenský, Jan; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Matejovsky, Zdenek; Nemec, Karel; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Fabbri, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    Surgical management of primary musculoskeletal tumors of the shoulder girdle is cognitively and technically demanding. Over the last decades, advances in the medical treatments, imaging and surgical techniques have fostered limb salvage surgery and reduced the need for amputation. Despite well-accepted general principles, an individualized approach is often necessary to accommodate tumor extension, anatomical challenges and patient characteristics. A combination of techniques is often required to achieve optimal oncologic and durable functional outcome. Goal of this article is to review approach and management of patients with locally advanced sarcomas of the shoulder girdle requiring major tumor surgery, to illustrate principles of surgical strategy, outcome and complications, and to provide useful guidelines for the treating physicians.

  1. Unique Phrenic Nerve-Sparing Regional Anesthetic Technique for Pain Management after Shoulder Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, David A.; Amundson, Adam W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ipsilateral phrenic nerve blockade is a common adverse event after an interscalene brachial plexus block, which can result in respiratory deterioration in patients with preexisting pulmonary conditions. Diaphragm-sparing nerve block techniques are continuing to evolve, with the intention of providing satisfactory postoperative analgesia while minimizing hemidiaphragmatic paralysis after shoulder surgery. Case Report We report the successful application of a combined ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block and suprascapular nerve block in a patient with a complicated pulmonary history undergoing a total shoulder replacement. Conclusion This case report briefly reviews the important innervations to the shoulder joint and examines the utility of the infraclavicular brachial plexus block for postoperative pain management. PMID:29410922

  2. Unused Opioid Pills After Outpatient Shoulder Surgeries Given Current Perioperative Prescribing Habits.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kanupriya; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Dines, Joshua S; Allen, Answorth A; Cheng, Jennifer; Fields, Kara G; YaDeau, Jacques T; Wu, Christopher L

    2017-03-01

    In the past 16 years, the number of prescription opioids sold in the United States, as well as deaths from prescription opioids, has nearly quadrupled. However, the overall amount of pain reported by patients has not changed significantly. Specific information about opioid prescriptions in the perioperative period is lacking. Of the studies that have been published, investigators have shown that the majority of patients have unused postoperative opioid pills. Moreover, patients appear to lack information about disposal of unused opioid pills. To compare the number of pills prescribed versus the numbers left unused after outpatient shoulder surgeries at an orthopaedic surgery institution. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. In this prospective, observational study, 100 patients (age >18 years) undergoing outpatient shoulder surgery (rotator cuff repair, labral repair, stabilization/Bankart repair, debridement) were enrolled. Follow-ups were conducted via surveys on postoperative days (PODs) 7, 14, 28, and 90. The primary outcome was the number of unused pills from the originally prescribed medication. For all procedure types, the median (Q1, Q3) number of prescribed pills was 60 (40, 80). On POD 90, patients reported a median (Q1, Q3) of 13 (0, 32) unused pills; patients who underwent rotator cuff repairs had the lowest number of pills remaining (median [Q1, Q3], 0 [0, 16]), whereas patients who had stabilization/Bankart repairs had the highest number of unused pills (median [Q1, Q3], 37 [29, 50]). Patient satisfaction with pain management ranged from an average of 70% to 90%. Only 25 patients received instructions or education about opioid disposal. Most outpatient shoulder surgery patients who underwent certain operations were prescribed more opioid analgesics than they consumed. Patient education regarding the disposal of opioids was lacking.

  3. Changes in shoulder muscle activity pattern on surface electromyography after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kwon, YoungOk

    2018-02-01

    Alterations in muscle activation and restricted shoulder mobility, which are common in breast cancer patients, have been found to affect upper limb function. The purpose of this study was to determine muscle activity patterns, and to compare the prevalence of abnormal patterns among the type of breast surgery. In total, 274 breast cancer patients were recruited after surgery. Type of breast surgery was divided into mastectomy without reconstruction (Mastectomy), reconstruction with tissue expander/implant (TEI), latissimus dorsi (LD) flap, or transverse rectus abdominis flap (TRAM). Activities of shoulder muscles were measured using surface electromyography. Experimental analysis was conducted using a Gaussian filter smoothing method with regression. Patients demonstrated different patterns of muscle activation, such as normal, lower muscle electrical activity, and tightness. After adjusting for BMI and breast surgery, the odds of lower muscle electrical activity and tightness in the TRAM are 40.2% and 38.4% less than in the Mastectomy only group. The prevalence of abnormal patterns was significantly greater in the ALND than SLNB in all except TRAM. Alterations in muscle activity patterns differed by breast surgery and reconstruction type. For breast cancer patients with ALND, TRAM may be the best choice for maintaining upper limb function. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A randomised, controlled, double-blind trial of ultrasound-guided phrenic nerve block to prevent shoulder pain after thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, M R; Laursen, C B; Berg, H; Holm, J H; Hansen, L N; Ørding, H; Andersen, C; Licht, P B; Toft, P

    2016-12-01

    Moderate to severe ipsilateral shoulder pain is a common complaint following thoracic surgery. In this prospective, parallel-group study at Odense University Hospital, 76 patients (aged > 18 years) scheduled for lobectomy or pneumonectomy were randomised 1:1 using a computer-generated list to receive an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular phrenic nerve block with 10 ml ropivacaine or 10 ml saline (placebo) immediately following surgery. A nerve catheter was subsequently inserted and treatment continued for 3 days. The study drug was pharmaceutically pre-packed in sequentially numbered identical vials assuring that all participants, healthcare providers and data collectors were blinded. The primary outcome was the incidence of unilateral shoulder pain within the first 6 h after surgery. Pain was evaluated using a numeric rating scale. Nine of 38 patients in the ropivacaine group and 26 of 38 patients in the placebo group experienced shoulder pain during the first 6 h after surgery (absolute risk reduction 44% (95% CI 22-67%), relative risk reduction 65% (95% CI 41-80%); p = 0.00009). No major complications, including respiratory compromise or nerve injury, were observed. We conclude that ultrasound-guided supraclavicular phrenic nerve block is an effective technique for reducing the incidence of ipsilateral shoulder pain after thoracic surgery. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Quality of counselling for knee and shoulder arthroscopy patients during day surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Pirjo; Ervasti, Helka; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Counselling for day surgery patients is one of the core components for a knee or shoulder arthroscopy patient to succeed in self-care. This cross-sectional study examined the quality of counselling given to patients (n = 86) during their day surgery, using the Counselling Quality Instrument (CQI). The data were analysed using basic and multivariate statistical methods. Most respondents were male and aged over 50 years. Almost all knee and shoulder arthroscopy patients were satisfied with the counselling given on follow-up and rehabilitation as well as the counselling given relating to wound and pain treatment. There was a lack of patient-centred and goal-oriented counselling, although interaction during counselling was good. Counselling was perceived as providing benefit in regard to a patient's self-care, emotions and knowledge. Respondents aged below 40 years were more dissatisfied with counselling for day surgery than those aged 40 years and over. This study identified a need to train healthcare staff in patient-centred and goal-oriented counselling. Counselling with people who are aged below 40 years should take account of patients' specific concerns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Shoulder function and anatomy in complete obstetric brachial plexus palsy: long-term improvement after triangle tilt surgery

    PubMed Central

    Karicherla, Priyanka; Mahmooduddin, Faiz

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Untreated complete obstetric brachial plexus injury (COBPI) usually results in limited spontaneous recovery of shoulder function. Older methods used to treat COBPI have had questionable success, with very few studies being published. The purpose of the current study was to examine the results of triangle tilt surgery on shoulder function and development in COBPI individuals. Methods This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review. Inclusion criteria were COBPI patients that had undergone the triangle tilt procedure from 2005 to 2009 and were between the ages of 9 months and 12 years. COBPI was defined as permanent injury to all five nerve roots (C5–T1), with significant degradation in development and function of the hand. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 5 (0.75–12) years were followed up clinically for more than 2 years. Results The triangle tilt procedure resulted in demonstrable clinical enhancements with appreciable improvements in shoulder function, glenoid version, and humeral head congruity. There was a significant increase in the overall Mallet score (2.4 points, p < 0.0001) following surgical correction in patients that were followed up for more than 2 years. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that COBPI patients who develop SHEAR and medial rotation contracture deformities can benefit from the triangle tilt surgery, which improves shoulder function and anatomy across a range of pediatric ages. Despite these patients presenting late for surgery in general (5 years), significant improvements were observed in their glenohumeral (GH) dysplasia and their ability to perform shoulder and arm movements following surgery. PMID:20473676

  7. Neurologic Outcomes After Low-Volume, Ultrasound-Guided Interscalene Block and Ambulatory Shoulder Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rajpal, Gaurav; Winger, Daniel G; Cortazzo, Megan; Kentor, Michael L; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative neurologic symptoms after interscalene block and shoulder surgery have been reported to be relatively frequent. Reports of such symptoms after ultrasound-guided block have been variable. We evaluated 300 patients for neurologic symptoms after low-volume, ultrasound-guided interscalene block and arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients underwent ultrasound-guided interscalene block with 16 to 20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine or a mix of 0.2% bupivacaine/1.2% mepivacaine solution, followed by propofol/ketamine sedation for ambulatory arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients were called at 10 days for evaluation of neurologic symptoms, and those with persistent symptoms were called again at 30 days, at which point neurologic evaluation was initiated. Details of patient demographics and block characteristics were collected to assess any association with persistent neurologic symptoms. Six of 300 patients reported symptoms at 10 days (2%), with one of these patients having persistent symptoms at 30 days (0.3%). This was significantly lower than rates of neurologic symptoms reported in preultrasound investigations with focused neurologic follow-up and similar to other studies performed in the ultrasound era. There was a modest correlation between the number of needle redirections during the block procedure and the presence of postoperative neurologic symptoms. Ultrasound guidance of interscalene block with 16- to 20-mL volumes of local anesthetic solution results in a lower frequency of postoperative neurologic symptoms at 10 and 30 days as compared with investigations in the preultrasound period.

  8. Complications of shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moen, Todd C; Rudolph, Glen H; Caswell, Kyle; Espinoza, Christopher; Burkhead, Wayne Z; Krishnan, Sumant G

    2014-07-01

    Over the past 20 to 30 years, arthroscopic shoulder techniques have become increasingly popular. Although these techniques have several advantages over open surgery, surgical complications are no less prevalent or devastating than those associated with open techniques. Some of the complications associated with arthroscopic shoulder surgery include recurrent instability, soft-tissue injury, and neurapraxia. These complications can be minimized with thoughtful consideration of the surgical indications, careful patient selection and positioning, and a thorough knowledge of the shoulder anatomy. Deep infection following arthroscopic shoulder surgery is rare; however, the shoulder is particularly susceptible to Propionibacterium acnes infection, which is mildly virulent and has a benign presentation. The surgeon must maintain a high index of suspicion for this infection. Thromboemoblic complications associated with arthroscopic shoulder techniques are also rare, and studies have shown that pharmacologic prophylaxis has minimal efficacy in preventing these complications. Because high-quality studies on the subject are lacking, minimal evidence is available to suggest strategies for prevention. Copyright 2014 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  9. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Ayşın; Çakırgöz, Mensure; Ervatan, Zekeriya; Kıran, Özlem; Türkmen, Aygen; Esenyel, Cem Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Our study is a prospective, randomized study on patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach-chair position to evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on hemodynamic stability, providing a bloodless surgical field and surgical satisfaction. Fifty patients were divided into two groups. Group I (n=25) had zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) administered under general anesthesia, and group II (n=25) had +5 PEEP administered. During surgery, intraarticular hemorrhage and surgical satisfaction were evaluated on a scale of 0-10. During surgery, at the 5th, 30th, 60th, and 90th minutes and at the end of surgery, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and positive inspiratory pressure were recorded. At the end of the surgery, the amount of bleeding and duration of the operation were recorded. In group I, the duration of operation and amount of bleeding were found to be significantly greater than those in group II (p<0.05). The surgical satisfaction score and clarity of the surgical field were found to be significantly lower in group I than in group II (p<0.05). MAP values in group I were significantly lower than those in group II. The SPO² values in group I were significantly lower than those in group II. Adding PEEP to the ventilation parameters of arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach-chair position reduces the amount of hemorrhage in the surgical field and thus increases surgical satisfaction without requiring the creation of controlled hypotension.

  10. Analysis of factors that affect shoulder balance after correction surgery in scoliosis: a global analysis of all the curvature types.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae-Young; Suh, Seung-Woo; Modi, Hitesh N; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Si-Young

    2013-06-01

    To identify factors that can affect postoperative shoulder balance in AIS. 89 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients with six types of curvatures who underwent surgery were included in this study. Whole spine antero-posterior and lateral radiographs were obtained pre- and postoperatively. In radiograms, shape and changes in curvatures were analyzed. In addition, four shoulder parameters and coronal balance were analyzed in an effort to identify factors significantly related to postoperative shoulder balance. In general, all the four shoulder parameters (CHD, CA, CRID, RSH) were slightly increased at final follow up (t test, P < 0.05), although there was a decrease in Lenke type II and IV curvatures. However, pre- and postoperative shoulder parameters were not significantly different between each curvature types (ANOVA, P > 0.05). Moreover, no significant differences of pre- and postoperative shoulder level between different level of proximal fusion groups (ANOVA, P > 0.05) existed. In the analysis of coronal curvature changes, no difference was observed in every individual coronal curvatures between improved shoulder balance and aggravated groups (P > 0.05). However, the middle to distal curve change ratio was significantly lower in patients with aggravated shoulder balance (P < 0.05). In addition, patients with smaller preoperative shoulder imbalance showed the higher chance of aggravation after surgery with similar postoperative changes (P < 0.05). Significant relations were found between correction rate of middle, and distal curvature, and postoperative shoulder balance. In addition, preoperative shoulder level difference can be a determinant of postoperative shoulder balance.

  11. Low rate of Propionibacterium acnes in arthritic shoulders undergoing primary total shoulder replacement surgery using a strict specimen collection technique.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Cristobal B; Woodbridge, Adam B; Balestro, Jean-Christian Y; Figtree, Melanie C; Hudson, Bernard J; Cass, Benjamin; Young, Allan A

    2015-08-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a recognized pathogen in postoperative shoulder infections. A recent study reported growth of P acnes in 42% of glenohumeral joints in primary shoulder arthroplasty, concluding that P acnes may cause shoulder osteoarthritis. Whether these results reflect true bacterial infection or specimen contamination is unclear. Our prospective study aimed to determine the rate of P acnes infection in arthritic shoulders using a strict specimen collection technique. We used modified Oxford protocol to collect tissue specimens from the glenohumeral joint of 32 consecutive patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty. Specimens were cultured specifically for P acnes. Diagnosis of P acnes infection required 2 or more positive cultures and histopathology compatible with infection. Three of 32 patients had a positive culture for P acnes. Overall, 3.125% of specimens grew P acnes without histologic evidence of infection. There were no patients with P acnes infection. The difference in culture rates between patients with idiopathic osteoarthritis and those with a predisposing cause for osteoarthritis was not significant. We found a low rate of positive cultures for P acnes, but no P acnes infection and no difference between types of osteoarthritis. These results do not support a cause-and-effect relationship between P acnes and osteoarthritis. The differing results from previous studies are likely explained by our strict specimen collection technique, reflecting different rates of contamination rather than infection. That P acnes contamination occurs in primary shoulder arthroplasty is concerning. Further studies are needed to assess the rates of contamination in shoulder surgery, its clinical effect, and to determine optimal antibiotic prophylaxis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. More hypotension in patients taking antihypertensives preoperatively during shoulder surgery in the beach chair position.

    PubMed

    Trentman, Terrence L; Fassett, Sharon L; Thomas, Justin K; Noble, Brie N; Renfree, Kevin J; Hattrup, Steven J

    2011-11-01

    Hypotension is common in patients undergoing surgery in the sitting position under general anesthesia, and the risk may be exacerbated by the use of antihypertensive drugs taken preoperatively. The purpose of this study was to compare hypotensive episodes in patients taking antihypertensive medications with normotensive patients during shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. Medical records of all patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy during a 44-month period were reviewed retrospectively. The primary endpoint was the number of moderate hypotensive episodes (systolic blood pressure ≤ 85 mmHg) during the intraoperative period. Secondary endpoints included the frequency of vasopressor administration, total dose of vasopressors, and fluid administered. Values are expressed as mean (standard deviation). Of 384 patients who underwent shoulder surgery, 185 patients were taking no antihypertensive medication, and 199 were on at least one antihypertensive drug. The antihypertensive medication group had more intraoperative hypotensive episodes [1.7 (2.2) vs 1.2 (1.8); P = 0.01] and vasopressor administrations. Total dose of vasopressors and volume of fluids administered were similar between groups. The timing of the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and of angiotensin receptor antagonists (≤ 10 hr vs > 10 hr before surgery) had no impact on intraoperative hypotension. Preoperative use of antihypertensive medication was associated with an increased incidence of intraoperative hypotension. Compared with normotensive patients, patients taking antihypertensive drugs preoperatively are expected to require vasopressors more often to maintain normal blood pressure.

  13. A comparison of ultrasound-guided interscalene and supraclavicular blocks for post-operative analgesia after shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Han, J U; Song, J H; Yang, C; Lee, B W; Baek, J S

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to interscalene block, there was little information regarding the analgesic efficacy of supraclavicular block for shoulder surgery. This study aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy and side effects of interscalene and supraclavicular blocks for shoulder surgery. Patients scheduled for shoulder surgery were assigned to receive either ultrasound-guided interscalene (n = 25) or supraclavicular block (n = 24) with 20 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine. We assessed the duration of post-operative analgesia as a primary outcome and pain scores, supplemental analgesia, diaphragmatic excursion, motor block, fingertip numbness, side effects, and patient satisfaction as secondary outcomes. The duration of post-operative analgesia was not statistically different between groups: 868 (800-1440) min for supraclavicular block vs. 800 (731-922) min for interscalene block (median difference -85 min, 95% CI, -283 to 3 min, P = 0.095). The incidence of diaphragmatic paresis was significantly lower in the supraclavicular block group compared with that in the interscalene block group, both at 30 min after the block (66.7% vs. 92%, P = 0.021) and in the post-anaesthesia care unit (62.5% vs. 92%, P = 0.024). Motor block was higher in the supraclavicular block group in the post-anaesthesia care unit, however, not at 24 h. Other secondary outcomes were similar for both groups. This study showed no statistically significant difference in the duration of post-operative analgesia between the supraclavicular and interscalene blocks. However, the supraclavicular block was associated with a lower incidence of diaphragmatic paresis compared with that of the interscalene block after shoulder surgery. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Reverse arthroplasty for osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency after previous surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Raiss, Patric; Zeifang, Felix; Pons-Villanueva, Juan; Smithers, Christopher J; Loew, Markus; Walch, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Osteoarthritis in combination with rotator cuff deficiency following previous shoulder stabilisation surgery and after failed surgical treatment for chronic anterior shoulder dislocation is a challenging condition. The aim of this study was to analyse the results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty in such patients. Thirteen patients with a median follow-up of 3.5 (range two to eight) years and a median age of 70 (range 48-82) years were included. In all shoulders a tear of at least one rotator cuff tendon in combination with osteoarthritis was present at the time of arthroplasty. The Constant score, shoulder flexion and external and internal rotation with the elbow at the side were documented pre-operatively and at the final follow-up. Pre-operative, immediate post-operative and final follow-up radiographs were analysed. All complications and revisions were documented. Twelve patients were either satisfied or very satisfied with the procedure. The median Constant score increased from 26 points pre-operatively to 67 points at the final follow-up (p = 0.001). The median shoulder flexion increased significantly from 70° to 130° and internal rotation from two to four points (p = 0.002). External rotation did not change significantly (p = 0.55). Glenoid notching was present in five cases and was graded as mild in three cases and moderate in two. One complication occurred leading to revision surgery. Reverse arthroplasty leads to high satisfaction rates for patients with osteoarthritis and rotator cuff deficiency who had undergone previous shoulder stabilisation procedures. The improvements in clinical outcome as well as the radiographic results seem to be comparable with those of other studies reporting on the outcome of reverse shoulder arthroplasty for other conditions.

  15. Shoulder arthrodesis for treatment of flail shoulder in children with polio.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Pinero, Joseph R; Goldstein, Rachel; Yen, Yi-Meng; Eves, William; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2011-09-01

    Poliomyelitis in children can cause paralysis of shoulder girdle muscles leading to a flail shoulder. Shoulder arthrodesis is indicated as a possible treatment for these children in order to stabilize the shoulder. This retrospective study reviewed all shoulder arthrodesis surgeries owing to complications of polio performed at a major medical institution between 1981 and 1996 to assess position of fusion, radiographic evidence of fusion, complications, and patient satisfaction. A review of medical records identified 11 patients undergoing 13 shoulder arthrodesis procedures, with a mean age of 14.7 years at the time of the procedure. Internal fixation was achieved with large cancellous screws in 8 patients and a Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP) plate in 5 procedures. Average follow-up period was 41 months. Eight patients were placed into a spica cast and 5 used a sling postoperatively. Shoulder arthrodesis surgery in this cohort resulted in an average position of fusion with 42.3 degrees of abduction, 23.8 degrees of flexion, and 26.2 degrees of internal rotation. Twelve of the 13 procedures assessed for radiographic union demonstrated fusion. The most common complications were malrotation and nonunion. Of the 13 procedures, 2 underwent humeral osteotomies for malrotation, and 1 with 6.5 mm cancellous screws required revision with a DCP plate owing to nonunion. Six patients underwent hardware removal, 3 of which were specifically owing to complaints of painful hardware. At final follow-up, no patient reported pain and all expressed satisfaction with their results and improved shoulder function after repair. This study is the largest series of shoulder arthrodesis surgeries for treatment of patients with a flail shoulder from polio to date, providing a more thorough analysis of its efficacy as an indicated treatment. Level III-Retrospective Comparative Study.

  16. Patient perception of physician reimbursement in elective shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Nagda, Sameer; Wiesel, Brent; Abboud, Joseph; Salamone, Andrew; Sheth, Neil; Foran, Jared; Garstka, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    A previous study revealed that patients perceived physician reimbursement to be much higher than current Medicare schedules for hip and knee replacement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient perception of surgeon reimbursement for total shoulder replacement (TSA) and rotator cuff repair (RCR). The study surveyed 250 patients. Patients were asked what they believe a surgeon should be reimbursed for performing TSA and RCR. Patients were then asked to estimate what Medicare reimbursed for each of these procedures. We then revealed the Medicare reimbursement rate for TSA and RCR, and patients were asked to comment. Finally, patients were asked whether surgeons with advanced shoulder training should receive additional payments. Patients thought that surgeons should receive $13,178 for TSA and $8459 for RCR. Patients estimated actual Medicare reimbursement was $7177 for TSA and $4692 for RCR. Eighty percent of patients stated that Medicare reimbursement was too low for TSA, 75% thought that payment for RCR was lower than what it should be. Less than 1% of patients felt that it was higher than it should be. A total of 87% of patients thought that surgeons with advanced shoulder training should be reimbursed at a higher rate. Patients perceived the values of TSA and RCR were much higher than current Medicare schedules. This is in agreement with prior surveys. Continued decreases in Medicare reimbursements may force surgeons to not participate in Medicare and create a potential access issue. Further investigation should focus on identifying how many surgeons may opt out. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Propionibacterium acnes and frozen shoulder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Tim D; Boyd, Matthew; Gallacher, Sian; Auckland, Cressida R; Kitson, Jeff; Smith, Chris D

    2014-10-01

    Frozen shoulder has not previously been shown to be associated with infection. The present study set out to confirm the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder using two modern scientific methods, extended culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial nucleic acids. A prospective cohort of 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic release for stage II idiopathic frozen shoulder had two biopsies of tissue taken from the affected shoulder joint capsule at the time of surgery, along with control biopsies of subdermal fat. The biopsies and controls were examined with extended culture and PCR for microbial nucleic acid. Eight of the 10 patients had positive findings on extended culture in their shoulder capsule and, in six of these, Propionibacterium acnes was present. The findings mean that we must reject the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder. More studies are urgently needed to confirm or refute these findings. If they are confirmed, this could potentially lead to new and effective treatments for this common, painful and disabling condition. Could P. acnes be the Helicobacter of frozen shoulder?

  18. Association between Propionibacterium acnes and frozen shoulder: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Tim D; Gallacher, Sian; Auckland, Cressida R; Kitson, Jeff; Smith, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    Background Frozen shoulder has not previously been shown to be associated with infection. The present study set out to confirm the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder using two modern scientific methods, extended culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial nucleic acids. Methods A prospective cohort of 10 patients undergoing arthroscopic release for stage II idiopathic frozen shoulder had two biopsies of tissue taken from the affected shoulder joint capsule at the time of surgery, along with control biopsies of subdermal fat. The biopsies and controls were examined with extended culture and PCR for microbial nucleic acid. Results Eight of the 10 patients had positive findings on extended culture in their shoulder capsule and, in six of these, Propionibacterium acnes was present. Conclusions The findings mean that we must reject the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between infection and frozen shoulder. More studies are urgently needed to confirm or refute these findings. If they are confirmed, this could potentially lead to new and effective treatments for this common, painful and disabling condition. Could P. acnes be the Helicobacter of frozen shoulder? PMID:27582943

  19. Interscalene plexus block versus general anaesthesia for shoulder surgery: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Lars J; Loosen, Gregor; Weiss, Christel; Schmittner, Marc D

    2015-02-01

    This randomized clinical trial evaluates interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB), general anaesthesia (GA) and the combination of both anaesthetic methods (GA + ISB) in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. From July 2011 until May 2012, 120 patients (male/female), aged 20-80 years, were allocated randomly to receive ISB (10 ml mepivacaine 1 % and 20 ml ropivacaine 0.375%), GA (propofol, sunfentanil, desflurane) or ISB + GA. The primary outcome variable was opioid consumption at the day of surgery. Anaesthesia times were analysed as secondary endpoints. After surgery, 27 of 40 patients with a single ISB bypassed the recovery room (p < 0.0001). Postoperative monitoring time was significantly shorter with single ISB compared with both other groups [GA: 93 (5-182) min vs. GA + ISB: 57.5 (11-220) min vs. ISB: 35 (5-106) min, p < 0.0001]. Opioid consumption was reduced using a single ISB at the day of surgery [GA: n = 25 vs. GA + ISB: n = 10 vs. ISB: n = 10, p = 0.0037]. ISB is superior to GA and GA + ISB in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy in terms of faster recovery and analgesics consumption.

  20. Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Infusion Compared with that of Fentanyl in Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery under General Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hamid, Mona Hossam Eldin

    2017-01-01

    Anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery is challenging due to the need for oligaemic surgical field as well as a good postoperative recovery profile. The present study was prospective, randomized to evaluate the efficacy of dexmdetomidine infusion compared to that of fentanyl in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. A total of 60 patients aged from thirty to fifty years, American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I/II of either sex for arthroscopic shoulder surgery, were included. The patients were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Group I received dexmedetomidine loading 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by maintenance 0.5 μg/kg/h and Group II Fentanyl loading 1 μg/kg followed by maintenance 0.5 μg/kg/h. Hemodynamic readings (Heart rate HR, and mean arterial blood pressure MAP) were recorded after the start of the study drug infusion (T1), after intubation (T2), then every 15 minutes till the end of surgery (T15, T30, T45, T60, T75, T90). In the PACU, MAP, and HR were recorded on arrival, after 30 min, 1 hr, and 2 hrs (R0, R30, R1 hr, R2 hr) Postoperative analgesia was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), Modified Observers's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation OAA/S was recorded on arrival to PACU. This study showed that in the dexmedatomidine group there was statistically significant decrease of MAP and HR after drug infusion up to two hours in the recovery period, more sedation, better control of pain and surgeon satisfaction. Iv infusion of dexamedatomidine may be an attractive option during arthroscopic shoulder surgery as it provided a better hypotensive anesthesia by lowering MAP and HR which leads to better surgical field and surgeon satisfaction than iv infusion fentanyl along with a better postoperative VAS.

  1. Regional anesthesia procedures for shoulder and upper arm surgery upper extremity update--2005 to present.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Ramprasad; Bowens, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    This review of the literature since 2005 assesses developments of RA techniques commonly used for shoulder surgery, and their effectiveness for postoperative analgesia. Advantages of regional techniques include site-specific anesthesia and decreased postoperative opioid use. For shoulder surgeries, the ISB provides effective analgesia with minimal complications, whereas the impacts of IA single-injections remain unclear. When combined with GA, ISB can be used in lower volumes and reducing the complications for shoulder and proximal upper extremity. USG ISB and SCB are both effective and safe for shoulder surgery with a low incidence of complications, especially PONS.53 When compared with intravenous patient-controlled opioid analgesia, a perineural LA infusion using a disposable pump with patient-controlled LA bolus function has led to better pain relief and functional recovery while decreasing the need for rescue analgesics and the number of adverse events after ambulatory orthopedic surgery. The most remarkable advance in RA in the past 5 years is the increased usage of USG. Although there are no large-scale prospective studies to show the safety, efficacy, and success and complication rates for USG blocks, USG RA theoretically could have less risk for neurologic symptoms, except for those induced by LA (less likely perineurally, much more likely intraneurally). The next "quantum leap" lies in reducing LA concentrations and augmenting anesthetic-analgesic effects with perineural additives (including clonidine, buprenorphine, and likely low-dose dexamethasone). Since 2005, perineural catheters have been an analgesic option that offers improved pain relief among other benefits, and are now being used at home. It is clear that patients benefit greatly from a single injection and continuous nerve block for postoperative pain management,but the financial and logistical aspects need to be resolved, not to mention the phrenic hemiparesis coin toss. Whether combined

  2. Do patients with structural abnormalities of the shoulder experience pain after MR arthrography of the shoulder?

    PubMed

    Steurer-Dober, Isabelle; Rufibach, Kaspar; Hodler, Juerg; Saupe, Nadja; Zanetti, Marco; Fucentese, Sandro F; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2010-09-01

    To assess the pain course after intraarticular injection of a gadolinium-containing contrast material admixed with anesthetic for magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography of the shoulder in relation to internal derangements of the shoulder. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. The study sample consisted of 655 consecutive patients (249 female, 406 male; median age, 54 years) referred for MR arthrography of the shoulder. Pain level was measured at baseline, directly after intraarticular injection of the gadolinium-containing contrast material admixed with anesthetic, 4 hours after injection, 1 day (18-30 hours) after injection, and 1 week (6-8 days) after injection with a visual analog scale (range, 0-10). MR arthrography was used to assess the following internal derangements: lesions of the rotator cuff tendons and long biceps tendon, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), fluid in the subacromial bursa, labral tears, and osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. History of shoulder surgery was recorded. Linear regression models were calculated for the dependent variable (difference between follow-up pain and baseline pain), with the independent variable grouping adjusted for age and sex. There was no significant association between pain level over time and internal derangements of the shoulder, nor was there significant association between pain level over time in patients with a history of shoulder surgery and patients without a history of shoulder surgery. Neither internal derangements nor prior surgery have an apparent effect on the pain course after MR arthrography of the shoulder. (c) RSNA, 2010.

  3. Shoulder function and work disability after decompression surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy exercises and occupational medical assistance.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Susanne W; Christiansen, David H; Haahr, Jens Peder; Andrea, Linda C; Frost, Poul

    2014-06-21

    Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome is often performed in working age and postoperative physiotherapy exercises are widely used to help restore function. A recent Danish study showed that 10% of a nationwide cohort of patients retired prematurely within two years after surgery. Few studies have compared effects of different postoperative exercise programmes on shoulder function, and no studies have evaluated workplace-oriented interventions to reduce postoperative work disability. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercises and occupational medical assistance compared with usual care in improving shoulder function and reducing postoperative work disability after arthroscopic subacromial decompression. The study is a mainly pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial. The trial is embedded in a cohort study of shoulder patients referred to public departments of orthopaedic surgery in Central Denmark Region. Patients aged ≥18-≤63 years, who still have shoulder symptoms 8-12 weeks after surgery, constitute the study population. Around 130 participants are allocated to: 1) physiotherapy exercises, 2) occupational medical assistance, 3) physiotherapy exercises and occupational medical assistance, and 4) usual care. Intervention manuals allow individual tailoring. Primary outcome measures include Oxford Shoulder Score and sickness absence due to symptoms from the operated shoulder. Randomisation is computerised with allocation concealment by randomly permuted block sizes. Statistical analyses will primarily be performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The paper presents the rationale, design, methods, and operational aspects of the Shoulder Intervention Project (SIP). SIP evaluates a new rehabilitation approach, where physiotherapy and occupational interventions are provided in continuity of surgical episodes of care. If successful, the project may serve as a model for rehabilitation of surgical shoulder

  4. Bone mineral decreases in the calcanei in men after arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a prospective study over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Elmlund, Anna O; Kartus, Jüri; Ejerhed, Lars

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that injuries and surgical procedures in the lower extremities affect bone mineral both in the injured limb and in the contralateral limb. The possible effect on bone mineral after upper extremity surgery is not well studied, and the aim of this study was to study the effect on bone mineral in the calcanei after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Twenty-two men scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery underwent bone mineral area (BMA) mass measurements in both calcanei using the Calscan DXL device prior to surgery and after 6, 18, 36 and 60 months. On every occasion, the Tegner activity score and EuroQoL 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) were assessed. During 5 years, there was a significant decrease in the BMA in both calcanei (p = 0.003). The Tegner activity score decreased from preinjury to the operation and did not increase significantly after the operation. The EQ-5D increased significantly after the operation. The bone mineral in the calcanei in men during the 5-year study period decreased more than the expected age-dependent decline after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. There was an increase in health-related quality of life as measured with the EQ-5D after arthroscopic Bankart reconstruction. Case-control study, Level III.

  5. Sex and gender disparity in pathology, disability, referral pattern, and wait time for surgery in workers with shoulder injury.

    PubMed

    Razmjou, Helen; Lincoln, Sandra; Macritchie, Iona; Richards, Robin R; Medeiros, Danielle; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2016-09-21

    The role of sex as an important biological determinant of vulnerability to sustaining injury and gender as a social determinate of access to resources, referral for medical care and perceived disability remains conflicted in injured workers. The purpose of this study was to examine sex and gender disparity following a compensable work-related shoulder injury. This study involved cross-sectional analyses of data of two independent samples of workers with shoulder injury. Measures of disability and pain were the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) for patients seen at an Early Shoulder Physician Assessment (ESPA) program and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for the sample who underwent surgery. The files of 1000 (443 females, 557 men) consecutive patients seen at an ESPA program and 150 (44 females, and 106 men) consecutive patients who underwent rotator cuff surgery (repair or decompression) were reviewed. Significant gender disparity was observed in the referral pattern of injured workers seen at the ESPA program who were referred for surgical consultation (22 vs. 78 % for females and males respectively, p < 0.0001). The independent rotator cuff surgical group had a similar gender discrepancy (29 % vs. 71 %, p < 0.0001). The timeframe from injury to surgery was longer in women in the surgical group (p = 0.01). As well, women waited longer from the date of consent to date of surgery (p = 0.04). Women had higher incidence of repetitive injuries (p = 0.01) with men reporting higher incidence of falls (p = 0.01). Women seen at the ESPA program were more disabled than men (p = 0.02). Women in both samples had a higher rate of medication consumption than men (p = 0.01 to <0.0001). Men seen at the ESPA program had a higher prevalence of full thickness rotator cuff tears (p < 0.0001) and labral pathology (p

  6. Proposal for SICSeG guidelines for rehabilitation after anatomical shoulder prosthesis in concentric shoulder osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, I; Orsini, S; Stignani, S; Creta, D; Cava, F C; Benedetti, M G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide up-to-date guidelines on rehabilitation after anatomical shoulder prosthesis for concentric shoulder osteoarthritis, as previous guidelines date back to late 1970s and are no longer adequate due to the evolution of prosthesis models and surgical techniques. The physiatric committee of the Italian Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (SICSeG-Società Italiana di Chirurgia della Spalla e del Gomito) performed a search for all the existing literature related to rehabilitation after shoulder replacement. A total of 29 papers concerning shoulder rehabilitation were reviewed. In addition, the main Italian orthopedic surgeons and physiatrists dealing with shoulder surgery and rehabilitation were interviewed to obtain indications when literature was not conclusive. From literature evaluation and expert consultation, we produced guidelines concerning: patient evaluation by means of adequate rating scales, preoperative treatment, early intermediate and advanced postoperative phases, rehabilitation of scapulo-thoracic joint, return to work and sports, length of rehabilitation and follow-up. This proposal for guidelines was presented during the 11th SICSeG Congress on May 2012 and to the main scientific societies concerned in shoulder surgery and rehabilitation. A consensus conference is needed in order to formalize and make them usable from all the professional figures involved in this field.

  7. Shoulder function and work disability after decompression surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy exercises and occupational medical assistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome is often performed in working age and postoperative physiotherapy exercises are widely used to help restore function. A recent Danish study showed that 10% of a nationwide cohort of patients retired prematurely within two years after surgery. Few studies have compared effects of different postoperative exercise programmes on shoulder function, and no studies have evaluated workplace-oriented interventions to reduce postoperative work disability. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercises and occupational medical assistance compared with usual care in improving shoulder function and reducing postoperative work disability after arthroscopic subacromial decompression. Methods/Design The study is a mainly pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial. The trial is embedded in a cohort study of shoulder patients referred to public departments of orthopaedic surgery in Central Denmark Region. Patients aged ≥18–≤63 years, who still have shoulder symptoms 8–12 weeks after surgery, constitute the study population. Around 130 participants are allocated to: 1) physiotherapy exercises, 2) occupational medical assistance, 3) physiotherapy exercises and occupational medical assistance, and 4) usual care. Intervention manuals allow individual tailoring. Primary outcome measures include Oxford Shoulder Score and sickness absence due to symptoms from the operated shoulder. Randomisation is computerised with allocation concealment by randomly permuted block sizes. Statistical analyses will primarily be performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion The paper presents the rationale, design, methods, and operational aspects of the Shoulder Intervention Project (SIP). SIP evaluates a new rehabilitation approach, where physiotherapy and occupational interventions are provided in continuity of surgical episodes of care. If successful, the project may serve as a model

  8. Return to Play After Shoulder Instability Surgery in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Intercollegiate Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Robins, R Judd; Daruwalla, Jimmy H; Gamradt, Seth C; McCarty, Eric C; Dragoo, Jason L; Hancock, Robert E; Guy, Jeffrey A; Cotsonis, George A; Xerogeanes, John W; Tuman, Jeffrey M; Tibone, James E; Javernick, Matthew A; Yochem, Eric M; Boden, Stephanie A; Pilato, Alexis; Miley, Jennifer H; Greis, Patrick E

    2017-08-01

    Recent attention has focused on the optimal surgical treatment for recurrent shoulder instability in young athletes. Collision athletes are at a higher risk for recurrent instability after surgery. To evaluate variables affecting return-to-play (RTP) rates in Division I intercollegiate football athletes after shoulder instability surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Invitations to participate were made to select sports medicine programs that care for athletes in Division I football conferences (Pac-12 Conference, Southeastern Conference [SEC], Atlantic Coast Conference [ACC]). After gaining institutional review board approval, 7 programs qualified and participated. Data on direction of instability, type of surgery, time to resume participation, and quality and level of play before and after surgery were collected. There were 168 of 177 procedures that were arthroscopic surgery, with a mean 3.3-year follow-up. Overall, 85.4% of players who underwent arthroscopic surgery without concomitant procedures returned to play. Moreover, 15.6% of athletes who returned to play sustained subsequent shoulder injuries, and 10.3% sustained recurrent instability, resulting in reduction/revision surgery. No differences were noted in RTP rates in athletes who underwent anterior labral repair (82.4%), posterior labral repair (92.9%), combined anterior-posterior repair (84.8%; P = .2945), or open repair (88.9%; P = .9362). Also, 93.3% of starters, 95.4% of utilized players, and 75.7% of rarely used players returned to play. The percentage of games played before the injury was 49.9% and rose to 71.5% after surgery ( P < .0001). Athletes who played in a higher percentage of games before the injury were more likely to return to play; 91% of athletes who were starters before the injury returned as starters after surgery. Scholarship status significantly correlated with RTP after surgery ( P = .0003). The majority of surgical interventions were isolated arthroscopic stabilization

  9. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during beach chair position for shoulder surgery under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Fiant, Anne-Lise; Gérard, Jean-Louis

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine changes of middle cerebral artery (VMCA) blood flow velocity in patients scheduled for shoulder surgery in beach chair position. Prospective observational study. Operating room, shoulder surgery. Fifty-three consecutive patients scheduled for shoulder surgery in beach chair position. Transcranial Doppler performed after induction of general anesthesia (baseline), after beach chair positioning (BC1), during surgery 20minutes (BC2), and after back to supine position before stopping anesthesia (supine). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), end-tidal CO2, and volatile anesthetic concentration and VMCA were recorded at baseline, BC1, BC2, and supine. Postoperative neurologic complications were searched. Beach chair position induced decrease in MAP (baseline: 73±10mm Hg vs lower MAP recorded: 61±10mm Hg; P<.0001) requiring vasopressors and fluid challenge in 44 patients (83%). There was a significant decrease in VMCA after beach chair positioning (BC1: 33±10cm/s vs baseline: 39±14cm/s; P=.001). The VMCA at baseline (39±2cm/s), BC2 (35±14cm/s), and supine (39±14cm/s) were not different. The minimal alveolar concentration of volatile anesthetics, end-tidal CO2, SpO2, and MAP were not different at baseline, BC1, BC2, and supine. Beach chair position resulted in transient decrease in MAP requiring fluid challenge and vasopressors and a moderate decrease in VMCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional outcomes assessment in shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, James D; Beckmann, James T; Granger, Erin; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2014-01-01

    The effective evaluation and management of orthopaedic conditions including shoulder disorders relies upon understanding the level of disability created by the disease process. Validated outcome measures are critical to the evaluation process. Traditionally, outcome measures have been physician derived objective evaluations including range of motion and radiologic evaluations. However, these measures can marginalize a patient’s perception of their disability or outcome. As a result of these limitations, patient self-reported outcomes measures have become popular over the last quarter century and are currently primary tools to evaluate outcomes of treatment. Patient reported outcomes measures can be general health related quality of life measures, health utility measures, region specific health related quality of life measures or condition specific measures. Several patients self-reported outcomes measures have been developed and validated for evaluating patients with shoulder disorders. Computer adaptive testing will likely play an important role in the arsenal of measures used to evaluate shoulder patients in the future. The purpose of this article is to review the general health related quality-of-life measures as well as the joint-specific and condition specific measures utilized in evaluating patients with shoulder conditions. Advances in computer adaptive testing as it relates to assessing dysfunction in shoulder conditions will also be reviewed. PMID:25405091

  11. Myofascial involvement of supra- and infraspinatus muscles contributes to ipsilateral shoulder pain after muscle-sparing thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Aki; Iranami, Hiroshi; Fujii, Keisuke; Yamazaki, Akinori; Doko, Yukari

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that ipsilateral upper extremity elevation for muscle-sparing thoracotomy procedures contributes to the postoperative shoulder pain. Prospective observational study. Medical center. ASA physical status 1-2 patients undergoing elective lung surgeries including pneumonectomy, lobectomy, and segmentectomy performed through either the anterolateral approach or video-assisted thoracotomy surgery. Postoperative observation of ipsilateral shoulder pain. Postoperative examinations of sites of shoulder pain (clavicle, anterior, lateral,or posterior aspect of acromion, posterior neck, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and these entire areas) with or without trigger points, visual analog scale score of wound pain, and requested counts of analgesics. The number of patients who suffered from postoperative shoulder pain was 37 of 70 (52.9%). Demographic data, anterolateral/VATS ratio, VAS scores, and requested counts of rescue analgesics requirement were similar in the groups of patients with and without postoperative shoulder pain. The segmentectomy caused a significantly higher incidence of postoperative shoulder pain compared with other procedures (p < 0.05). The supra- and infraspinatus were significantly higher areas of painful regions compared to the other sites. The 16 of 37 patients (43.2%) with shoulder pain showed defined trigger points in their painful areas. These results supported the hypothesis that myofascial involvement contributed, to some extent, to shoulder pain after muscle-sparing thoracotomy with ipsilateral upper extremity elevation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the Simple Shoulder Test a valid outcome instrument for shoulder arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason E; Russ, Stacy M; Somerson, Jeremy S; Tang, Anna; Warme, Winston J; Matsen, Frederick A

    2017-10-01

    The Simple Shoulder Test (SST) is a brief, inexpensive, and widely used patient-reported outcome tool, but it has not been rigorously evaluated for patients having shoulder arthroplasty. The goal of this study was to rigorously evaluate the validity of the SST for outcome assessment in shoulder arthroplasty using a systematic review of the literature and an analysis of its properties in a series of 408 surgical cases. SST scores, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scores, and satisfaction scores were collected preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing preoperative and 2-year postoperative scores. Criterion validity was determined by correlating the SST with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Construct validity was tested through 5 clinical hypotheses regarding satisfaction, comorbidities, insurance status, previous failed surgery, and narcotic use. Scores after arthroplasty improved from 3.9 ± 2.8 to 10.2 ± 2.3 (P < .001). The change in SST correlated strongly with patient satisfaction (P < .001). The SST had large Cohen's d effect sizes and standardized response means. Criterion validity was supported by significant differences between satisfied and unsatisfied patients, those with more severe and less severe comorbidities, those with workers' compensation or Medicaid and other types of insurance, those with and without previous failed shoulder surgery, and those taking and those not taking narcotic pain medication before surgery (P < .005). These data combined with a systematic review of the literature demonstrate that the SST is a valid and responsive patient-reported outcome measure for assessing the outcomes of shoulder arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder surgery: true infection, contamination, or commensal of the deep tissue?

    PubMed

    Hudek, Robert; Sommer, Frank; Kerwat, Martina; Abdelkawi, Ayman F; Loos, Franziska; Gohlke, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been linked to chronic infections in shoulder surgery. Whether the bacterium is a contaminant or commensal of the deep tissue is unclear. We aimed to assess P. acnes in intraoperative samples of different tissue layers in patients undergoing first-time shoulder surgery. In 118 consecutive patients (mean age, 59.2 years; 75 men, 43 women), intraoperative samples were correlated to preoperative subacromial injection, the type of surgical approach, and gender. One skin, one superficial, one deep tissue, and one test sample were cultured for each patient. The cultures were positive for P. acnes in 36.4% (n = 43) of cases. Subacromial injection was not associated with bacterial growth rates (P = .88 for P. acnes; P = .20 for bacteria other than P. acnes; P = .85 for the anterolateral approach; P = .92 for the deltopectoral approach; P = .56 for men; P = .51 for women). Skin samples were positive for P. acnes in 8.5% (n = 10), superficial samples were positive in 7.6% (n = 9), deep samples were positive in 13.6% (n = 16), and both samples (superficial and deep) were positive in 15.3% (n = 18) of cases (P < .0001). P. acnes was detected in the anterolateral approach in 27.1% (n = 32) of cases and in the deltopectoral approach in 9.3% (n = 11) of cases (P = .01; relative risk, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.43). Thirty-five of the P. acnes-positive patients were men (81.4%), and 8 patients were women (18.6%; P = .001; relative risk, 2.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.90). P. acnes was detected in more than one third of patients undergoing first-time shoulder surgery. Preoperative subacromial injection was not associated with bacterial growth. P. acnes was observed more frequently in the deep tissues than in the superficial tissues. The relative risk for obtaining a positive P. acnes culture was 2-fold greater for the anterolateral approach than for the deltopectoral approach, and the risk was 2.5-fold greater

  14. Towards computer-assisted surgery in shoulder joint replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valstar, Edward R.; Botha, Charl P.; van der Glas, Marjolein; Rozing, Piet M.; van der Helm, Frans C. T.; Post, Frits H.; Vossepoel, Albert M.

    A research programme that aims to improve the state of the art in shoulder joint replacement surgery has been initiated at the Delft University of Technology. Development of improved endoprostheses for the upper extremities (DIPEX), as this effort is called, is a clinically driven multidisciplinary programme consisting of many contributory aspects. A part of this research programme focuses on the pre-operative planning and per-operative guidance issues. The ultimate goal of this part of the DIPEX project is to create a surgical support infrastructure that can be used to predict the optimal surgical protocol and can assist with the selection of the most suitable endoprosthesis for a particular patient. In the pre-operative planning phase, advanced biomechanical models of the endoprosthesis fixation and the musculo-skeletal system of the shoulder will be incorporated, which are adjusted to the individual's morphology. Subsequently, the support infrastructure must assist the surgeon during the operation in executing his surgical plan. In the per-operative phase, the chosen optimal position of the endoprosthesis can be realised using camera-assisted tools or mechanical guidance tools. In this article, the pathway towards the desired surgical support infrastructure is described. Furthermore, we discuss the pre-operative planning phase and the per-operative guidance phase, the initial work performed, and finally, possible approaches for improving prosthesis placement.

  15. The long-term outcome of displaced mid-third clavicle fractures on scapular and shoulder function: variations between immediate surgery, delayed surgery, and nonsurgical management.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel M; McKay, Bartholomew P; Jaarsma, Ruurd L

    2015-05-01

    Conservative management for uncomplicated displaced clavicle fractures is common practice. Delay of surgical fixation may result in less favorable outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 60 patients with a closed mid-third clavicle fracture that did not meet current operative or nonoperative guidelines; 20 primary (plate fixation <6 weeks), 20 delayed (plate fixation >6 weeks), and 20 matched conservative patients were included. Each patient completed 2 questionnaires, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, as well as visual analog scales for pain, cosmetic satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. In addition, 10 patients from each group underwent clinical review of scapular rotation by the lateral scapular slide test, clinical impingement, range of motion assessment, and radiologic review of clavicle union and length. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons patient self-reported questionnaire demonstrated a median score of 5.5 for the delayed group, 2 for the primary group, and 1 for the conservative group (P = .032). The median Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 7.92 for the delayed group, 3.32 for the primary group, and 1.67 for the conservative group (P = .212). Six patients in the delayed group had scapular malrotation compared with 2 in the primary group and none in the conservative group (P = .008). Flexion and external rotation in 90° abduction were decreased in the conservative group (P = .049 and .041, respectively). We support the conservative management of uncomplicated displaced clavicle fractures but recognize that a lower threshold for early surgery should be considered where optimal shoulder function is required. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Normal/Modern: Reconstructive Surgery in a Mexican Public Hospital.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Alexander, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    A growing corpus of anthropological scholarship demonstrates how science and medicine in Mexico are imbued by national concerns with modernization. Drawing on ethnographic research in a public hospital located in the south of Mexico City, I unpack one manifestation of this dynamic, which is the conjugation of the normal and the modern in Mexican reconstructive surgery. The aspiration toward normality underlies everyday clinic practices and relationships in this field, including why parents want surgery for their children and how doctors see their patients and their responsibilities toward them. It is also central to the professional ethic of reconstructive surgeons. I argue that the realities of health care provision in Mexico coalesced with this ethic to produce reconstructive surgeons as political subjects. They aimed to modernize craniofacial surgery in Mexico and so make the bodies of craniofacial patients normal.

  17. Suprascapular block associated with supraclavicular block: An alternative to isolated interscalene block for analgesia in shoulder instability surgery?

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, W; Ben Gabsia, A; Lebbi, A; Sammoud, W; Labbène, I; Ferjani, M

    2017-02-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) is the gold standard for postoperative pain management in shoulder surgery. However, this technique has side effects and potentially serious complications. The aim of this study was to compare the combinations of ultrasound-guided suprascapular (SSB) associated with supraclavicular nerve block (SCB) and ultrasound-guided ISB for postoperative analgesia after shoulder instability surgery. Sixty ASA physical status I-II patients scheduled to undergo shoulder instability surgery were included. Two groups: (i) the SSB+SCB group (n=30) in which the patients received a combination of US-guided SSB (15mL of bupivacaine 0.25%) and US-guided SCB (15mL of bupivacaine 0.25%) and (ii) the ISB group (n=30) in which the patients received US-guided ISB with 30mL of bupivacaine 0.25%. General anesthesia was administered to all patients. During the first 24h, the variables assessed were time to administer the anesthesia, duration of the analgesia, onset and duration of motor and sensory blockade, opioid consumption, cardiovascular stability, complications, and patient satisfaction. Anesthesia induction took more time for the SSB+SCB group than for the ISB group. However, the onset time of motor and sensory blockade was similar in the two groups. Statistical analysis of the visual analog postoperative pain scoring at H0, H6, H12, and H24 showed nonsignificant differences between the groups. Analgesia, the first request for morphine, and total morphine consumption during the first 24h was similar in both groups. No complication was recorded in the SSB+SCB group. However, phrenic nerve block occurred in all patients in the ISB group. US-guided SCB combined with US-guided SSB was as effective as ISB for postoperative analgesia after shoulder instability surgery without decreasing potential side effects. NCT identifier: NCT02397330. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Claudius D; Brown, Brandon T; Schmidt, Christopher C

    2013-07-01

    The reverse shoulder arthroplasty is considered to be one of the most significant technological advancements in shoulder reconstructive surgery over the past 30 years. It is able to successfully decrease pain and improve function for patients with rotator cuff-deficient shoulders. The glenoid is transformed into a sphere that articulates with a humeral socket. The current reverse prosthesis shifts the center of rotation more medial and distal, improving the deltoid's mechanical advantage. This design has resulted in successful improvement in both active shoulder elevation and in quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparison of Combined Suprascapular and Axillary Nerve Blocks to Interscalene Nerve Block for Analgesia in Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: An Equivalence Study.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Shalini; Sondekoppam, Rakesh V; Sharma, Ranjita; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Athwal, George S

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of combined suprascapular and axillary nerve block (SSAX) with interscalene block (ISB) after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Our hypothesis was that ultrasound-guided SSAX would provide postoperative analgesia equivalent to ISB. Sixty adult patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery received either SSAX or ISB prior to general anesthesia, in a randomized fashion. Pain scores, satisfaction, and adverse effects were recorded in the recovery room, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days after surgery. Combined suprascapular and axillary nerve block provided nonequivalent analgesia when compared with ISB at different time points postoperatively, except on postoperative day 7. Interscalene block had better mean static pain score in the recovery room (ISB 1.80 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.50] vs SSAX 5.45 [95% CI, 4.40-6.49; P < 0.001]). At 24 hours, SSAX had better mean static pain score (ISB 6.35 [95% CI, 5.16-7.54] vs SSAX 3.92 [95% CI, 2.52-5.31]; P = 0.01) with similar satisfaction between the groups. Combined suprascapular and axillary nerve block provides nonequivalent analgesia compared with ISB after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. While SSAX provides better quality pain relief at rest and fewer adverse effects at 24 hours, ISB provides better analgesia in the immediate postoperative period. For arthroscopic shoulder surgery, SSAX can be a clinically acceptable analgesic option with different analgesic profile compared with ISB.

  20. Recovery of shoulder strength and proprioception after open surgery for recurrent anterior instability: a comparison of two surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Rokito, Andrew S; Birdzell, Maureen Gallagher; Cuomo, Frances; Di Paola, Matthew J; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have documented a decrease in proprioceptive capacity in the unstable shoulder. The degree to which surgical approach affects recovery of strength and proprioception is unknown. The recovery of strength and proprioception after open surgery for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability was compared for 2 surgical procedures. A prospective analysis of 55 consecutive patients with posttraumatic unilateral recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability was performed. Thirty patients (group 1) underwent an open inferior capsular shift with detachment of the subscapularis, and 25 (group 2) underwent an anterior capsulolabral reconstruction. Mean preoperative proprioception and strength values were significantly lower for the affected shoulders in both groups. At 6 months after surgery, there were no significant differences for mean strength and proprioception values between the unaffected and operative sides for group 2 patients. In group 1 patients, however, there were still significant deficits in mean position sense and strength values. Complete restoration of proprioception and strength, however, was evident by 12 months in group 1. This study demonstrates that there are significant deficits in both strength and proprioception in patients with posttraumatic, recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. Although both are completely restored by 1 year after surgery, a subscapularis-splitting approach allows for complete recovery of strength and position sense as early as 6 months postoperatively. Detachment of the subscapularis delays recovery of strength and position sense for up to 12 months after surgery. Copyright 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of clinical efficacy among remifentanil, nicardipine, and remifentanil plus nicardipine continuous infusion for hypotensive anesthesia during arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Yub; Song, Seong Hun; Cho, Jae Ho; Cho, Hyung Rae

    2017-01-01

    Hypotensive anesthesia is crucial during arthroscopic shoulder surgery to reduce bleeding and allow for clear visibility. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of continuous infusion of remifentanil, nicardipine, and remifentanil plus nicardipine to control hypotensive anesthesia in arthroscopic shoulder surgery. For this study, we enrolled 45 consecutive patients who were scheduled to have arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery and randomly allocated them into remifentanil (group R, n = 15), nicardipine (group N, n = 15), and remifentanil plus nicardipine (group RN, n = 15) groups. During the surgeries, these drugs were administered with continuous infusion. We analyzed the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate during surgery, stay time in the recovery room, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, use of antiemetics in the recovery room, and postoperative blood urea nitrogen and creatinine changes. The VAS score in the recovery room was higher for group R (mean 5.6, SD 1.4) than for groups N (mean 3.9, SD 0.9) and RN (mean 4.0, SD 1.1; p = 0.000). There were no statistical differences regarding other clinical variables among the three groups (all p > 0.05) except for MAP at 120 min of surgery between groups N and RN (N: 84.67 (SD 10.7) mmHg, RN: 65.4 (SD 9.2) mmHg, p = 0.027). The continuous infusion of remifentanil plus nicardipine appeared to be advantageous for maintaining hypotensive anesthesia until 120 min of arthroscopic shoulder surgery without rebound pain in a postanesthesia care unit.

  2. Scapulohumeral rhythm in shoulders with reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Walker, David; Matsuki, Keisuke; Struk, Aimee M; Wright, Thomas W; Banks, Scott A

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about kinematic function of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) is a common metric for assessing muscle function and shoulder joint motion. The purpose of this study was to compare SHR in shoulders with RTSA to normal shoulders. Twenty-eight subjects, more than 12 months after unilateral RTSA, were recruited for an Institutional Review Board-approved study. Subjects performed arm abduction in the coronal plane with and without a 1.4-kg hand-held weight. Three-dimensional model-image registration techniques were used to measure orientation and position for the humerus and scapula from fluoroscopic images. Analysis of variance and Tukey tests were used to assess groupwise and pairwise differences. SHR in RTSA shoulders (1.3:1) was significantly lower than in normal shoulders (3:1). Below 30° abduction, RTSA and normal shoulders show a wide range of SHR (1.3:1 to 17:1). Above 30° abduction, SHR in RTSA shoulders was 1.3:1 for unweighted abduction and 1.3:1 for weighted abduction. Maximum RTSA shoulder abduction in weighted trials was lower than in unweighted trials. SHR variability in RTSA shoulders decreased with increasing arm elevation. RTSA shoulders show kinematics that are significantly different from normal shoulders. SHR in RTSA shoulders was significantly lower than in normal shoulders, indicating that RTSA shoulders use more scapulothoracic motion and less glenohumeral motion to elevate the arm. With these observations, it may be possible to improve rehabilitation protocols, with particular attention to the periscapular muscles, and implant design or placement to optimize functional outcomes in shoulders with RTSA. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre- or postoperative interscalene block and/or general anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Laura; Zhou, Cheng; Murdoch, John A C; Bicknell, Ryan; Hopman, Wilma M; Phelan, Rachel; Shyam, Vidur

    2017-10-01

    Arthroscopic shoulder surgery can be performed with an interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) alone, ISBPB combined with general anesthesia (GA), or GA alone. Postoperative pain is typically managed with opioids; however, both GA and opioids have adverse effects which can delay discharge. This retrospective study compares the efficacy of four methods of anesthesia management for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Charts of all patients who underwent shoulder surgery by a single surgeon from 2012-2015 were categorized by analgesic regimen: GA only (n = 177), single-shot ISBPB only (n = 124), or pre- vs postoperative ISBPB combined with GA (ISBPB + GA [n = 72] vs GA + ISBPB [n = 52], respectively). The primary outcome measure was the time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Mean (SD) time in the PACU ranged from 70.5 (39.9) min for ISBPB only to 111.2 (56.9) min for GA only. Use of ISBPB in any combination and regardless of timing resulted in significantly reduced PACU time, with a mean drop of 27.2 min (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.3 to 37.2; P < 0.001). The largest mean pairwise difference was between GA only and ISBPB only, with a mean difference of 40.7 min (95% CI, 25.5 to 55.8; P < 0.001). Use of ISBPB also reduced pain upon arrival at the PACU and, in some cases, upon discharge from the PACU (i.e., ISBPB only but not ISBPB + GA compared with GA). An ISBPB (alone or prior to GA) also reduced analgesic requirements. Previously reported benefits of an ISBPB for arthroscopic shoulder surgery are confirmed. Postoperative ISBPBs may also be beneficial for reducing pain and opioid requirements and could be targeted for patients in severe pain upon emergence. A sufficiently powered randomized-controlled trial could determine the relative efficacy, safety, and associated financial implications associated with each method.

  4. Can arthroscopic revision surgery for shoulder instability be a fair option?

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, Silvana; Garofalo, Raffaele; Tafuri, Silvio; Cesari, Eugenio; Rose, Giacomo Delle; Castagna, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of arthroscopic capsuloplasty in the treatment of failed primary arthroscopic treatment of glenohumeral instability. we retrospectively examined at a minimum of 3-years follow-up 22 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment between 1999 and 2007 who had recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a post-surgical failure. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate which variable could influence the definitive result and clinical outcomes at final follow-up. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. we observed after revision surgery an overall failure rate of 8/22 (36.4%) including frank dislocations, subluxations and also apprehension that seriously inhibit the patient's quality of life. No significant differences were observed in the examined parameters. according to our outcomes we generally do not recommend an arthroscopic revision procedure for failed instability surgery.

  5. Supraclavicular block versus interscalene brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery: A meta-analysis of clinical control trials.

    PubMed

    Guo, C W; Ma, J X; Ma, X L; Lu, B; Wang, Y; Tian, A X; Sun, L; Wang, Y; Dong, B C; Teng, Y B

    2017-09-01

    The ultrasound-guided interscalene block (ISB) has been considered a standard technique in managing pain after shoulder surgery. However, this method was associated with the incidence of hemi-diaphragmatic paresis. In contrast to ISB, supraclavicular block (SCB) was suggested to provide effective anaesthesia for shoulder surgery with a low rate of side-effects. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to compare SCB with ISB for evaluating the efficacy and safety. The literature was searched from PubMed, Wiley Online Library, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library by two reviewers up to April 2017. All available RCTs written in English that met the criteria were included. Two authors pulled data from relevant articles and assessed the quality with the Cochrane Handbook. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to analyse the data. Five RCTs and one prospective clinical study met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. We considered that there were no statistically significant differences between supraclavicular and interscalene groups in procedural time (P = 0.81), rescue analgesia (P = 0.53), and dyspnoea (P = 0.6). The incidence of hoarseness and Horner syndrome was statistically lower in the SCB group than in the ISB group (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.00001, respectively). The meta-analysis showed that ultrasound-guided SCB could become a feasible alternative technique to the ISB in shoulder surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Management of shoulder instability in a military population.

    PubMed

    Pimple, M K; DaCosta, A; Clasper, J C

    2008-03-01

    Recurrent instability is common after shoulder dislocation in the young, particularly those engaged in physical jobs or sport. The management of recurrent traumatic shoulder instability is predominantly operative. However, the best method of surgery i.e. open or arthroscopic is still a matter of debate. We have developed an algorithm to decide on the choice of surgery and the aim of this study is to report this and compare the two different groups of military patients. A retrospective review of all shoulder stabilisations performed on military personnel, by a single surgeon, between August 2004 and August 2005 at a district general hospital serving both military and civilian population was undertaken. The presentation, clinical and operative findings were noted and compared in the groups treated by arthroscopic or open stabilisation. Using our protocol 39 shoulder stabilisations were performed in military personnel. Of the shoulders, 25 (64%) underwent arthroscopic and 14 (36%) underwent open stabilisation. The indication for surgery was more than 2 episodes of shoulder dislocation. Open surgery was found to be more common in those who had their first dislocation at a younger age. Bilateral shoulder laxity was the most common indication to choose the open method. Both open and arthroscopic stabilisation gave good results in the high demand military population. Only one patient had recurrent instability after arthroscopic procedure. However, this was not statistically significant when compared with open stabilisation.

  7. Influence of body mass index on the outcome of brachial plexus surgery: are there any differences between elbow and shoulder results?

    PubMed

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Roberto S; Di Masi, Gilda; Bonilla, Gonzalo; Siqueira, Mario G

    2014-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has recently been identified as a predictor of outcomes following reconstructive surgery of shoulder palsies. In this study, we sought to determine if the same holds true for the reconstruction of elbow flexion. Forty patients who had undergone partial ulnar-to-biceps nerve transfer (Oberlin's procedure) for shoulder palsy were assessed and compared against 18 previously reported patients who had undergone reconstruction for elbow palsies. The British Medical Research Council (BMRC) scale and an index dividing shoulder abduction strength in the affected arm by healthy arm were recorded. All patients had undergone surgery within 12 months of injury and had ≥ 12 months of follow-up. M4 or M3 biceps strength was obtained in 90 % of patients. Final strength on the affected side averaged 5.8 kg, versus 20.2 kg on the normal side, for a mean recovery index score of 0.30. In this sample of 40 patients, BMI did not predict percentage strength or BMRC grade recovery. Neither did age, number of roots involved, the affected side, nor time to surgery. Comparing patients with elbow versus shoulder reconstruction, there were no differences, except that patients undergoing Oberlin's procedure had a statistically longer duration of time between injury and surgical repair (7.4 vs 5.1 months, p < 0.006). Our data suggest that proximal muscle re-innervation is functionally more dependent upon BMI than distal re-innervation, likely because proximal muscles must support the weight of the entire extremity, while more distal muscles do not. BMI should be taken into consideration when planning surgery.

  8. Does intravenous ketamine enhance analgesia after arthroscopic shoulder surgery with ultrasound guided single-injection interscalene block?: a randomized, prospective, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Youn Jin; Baik, Hee Jung; Han, Jong In; Chung, Rack Kyung

    2014-07-01

    Ketamine has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antihyperalgesic effect and prevents pain associated with wind-up. We investigated whether low doses of ketamine infusion during general anesthesia combined with single-shot interscalene nerve block (SSISB) would potentiate analgesic effect of SSISB. Forty adult patients scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery were enrolled and randomized to either the control group or the ketamine group. All patients underwent SSISB and followed by general anesthesia. During an operation, intravenous ketamine was infused to the patients of ketamine group continuously. In control group, patients received normal saline in volumes equivalent to ketamine infusions. Pain score by numeric rating scale was similar between groups at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hr following surgery, which was maintained lower than 3 in both groups. The time to first analgesic request after admission on post-anesthesia care unit was also not significantly different between groups. Intraoperative low dose ketamine did not decrease acute postoperative pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery with a preincisional ultrasound guided SSISB. The preventive analgesic effect of ketamine could be mitigated by SSISB, which remains one of the most effective methods of pain relief after arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  9. The effect of surgeon and hospital volume on shoulder arthroplasty perioperative quality metrics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshu; Yian, Edward H; Dillon, Mark T; Takayanagi, Miwa; Burke, Mary F; Navarro, Ronald A

    2014-08-01

    There has been a significant increase in both the incidence of shoulder arthroplasty and the number of surgeons performing these procedures. Literature regarding the relationship between surgeon or hospital volume and the performance of modern shoulder arthroplasty is limited. This study examines the effect of surgeon or hospital shoulder arthroplasty volume on perioperative metrics related to shoulder hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Blood loss, length of stay, and operative time were the main endpoints analyzed. Prospective data were analyzed from a multicenter shoulder arthroplasty registry; 1176 primary shoulder arthroplasty cases were analyzed. Correlation and analysis of covariance were used to examine the association between surgeon and hospital volume and perioperative metrics adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Surgeon volume is inversely correlated with length of stay for hemiarthroplasty and total shoulder arthroplasty and with blood loss and operative time for all 3 procedures. Hospital volume is inversely correlated with length of stay for hemiarthroplasty, with blood loss for total and reverse shoulder arthroplasty, and with operative time for all 3 procedures. High-volume surgeons performed shoulder arthroplasty 30 to 50 minutes faster than low-volume surgeons did. Higher surgeon and hospital case volumes led to improved perioperative metrics with all shoulder arthroplasty procedures, including reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, which has not been previously described in the literature. Surgeon volume had a larger effect on metrics than hospital volume did. This study supports the concept that complex shoulder procedures are, on average, performed more efficiently by higher volume surgeons in higher volume centers. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and variance of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Lee D; Flanigan, David C; Norwig, John; Jost, Patrick; Bradley, James

    2005-08-01

    Shoulder injuries are the fourth most common musculoskeletal injury encountered in American football players. There is little information in the literature on the role of playing position in the type of shoulder injuries seen. There is a high prevalence of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate American football players, with type of injury varying by playing position. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. A total of 336 elite collegiate American football players were invited to the National Football League Combine for physical testing and medical evaluation. Current and historical data were evaluated for the purpose of this study, and all players underwent radiographic examinations, including plain radiographs and/or magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. All shoulder pathological conditions and shoulder surgical procedures were recorded. Players were categorized by position for the analysis of position-specific trends. Of the players, 50% had a history of shoulder injuries, with a total of 226 shoulder injuries (1.3 injuries per player injured); 56 players (34%) had a total of 73 surgeries. The most common injuries were acromioclavicular separation (41%), anterior instability (20%), rotator cuff injury (12%), clavicle fracture (4%), and posterior instability (4%). The most common surgeries performed were anterior instability reconstruction (48%), Mumford/Weaver-Dunn surgery (15%), posterior instability surgery (10%), and rotator cuff surgery (10%). Shoulder injuries were more common in quarterbacks and defensive backs. Surgery was more common in linebackers or linemen. A history of anterior instability was more common in defensive players, with surgery required 76% of the time. Linemen had more rotator cuff injuries and posterior instability than players in other positions. Shoulder injuries are common injuries in elite collegiate football players, with one-third undergoing surgical procedures. There are definitive trends in the types of injuries

  11. Ipsilateral shoulder pain in patients following lung resection in the decubitus position.

    PubMed

    Bando, Takae; Kondo, Kazuya; Onishi, Chiemi; Kajiura, Koichiro; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Yamada, Kazuyo; Sato, Hiromi; Imai, Yoshie

    2018-03-01

    To examine the frequency, influencing factors and clinical course of shoulder pain in patients following lung resection. Thoracoscopes have been introduced in the surgical treatment of lung cancer and allow for less invasive surgery with a minimal incision. However, decubitus position-related shoulder pain on the operated side has not yet been investigated. A longitudinal descriptive study. Patients who underwent lung resection in the decubitus position. Patients were interviewed 2 days before surgery and once daily for 5 days after surgery. Interview items included background data, the concomitant use of epidural anaesthesia, operative duration, the presence of preoperative shoulder stiffness (excluding shoulder pain), type of surgery and site of operation. The intensity of pain was approximately 5 on an 11-point numerical rating scale. Descriptive statistics on patient backgrounds were obtained using SPSS Statistics 22 for Windows. Of the 74 patients who underwent lung resection in a decubitus position, 30 (40.5%) developed shoulder pain on the operated side. The highest rating occurred 1 day after surgery and decreased over time. The following two factors were found to influence shoulder pain on the operated side: operative duration (Z = -2.63; p = .01) and the presence of preoperative shoulder stiffness (excluding shoulder pain) (χ 2  = 4.16; p = .04). This study demonstrated that approximately 40% of patients who underwent lung resection in the decubitus position developed shoulder pain. The presence of postoperative shoulder pain was related to both the duration of the operation and to the presence of preoperative shoulder stiffness. Although the shoulder pain resolves within 4 days, it causes the patient additional discomfort and distress. Therefore, further research is needed on positioning for thoracotomy in order to investigate ways to reduce or eliminate this complication of lung surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. New technique targeting the C5 nerve root proximal to the traditional interscalene sonoanatomical approach is analgesic for outpatient arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Dobie, Katherine H; Shi, Yaping; Shotwell, Matthew S; Sandberg, Warren S

    2016-11-01

    Regional anesthesia and analgesia for shoulder surgery is most commonly performed via interscalene nerve block. We developed an ultrasound-guided technique that specifically targets the C5 nerve root proximal to the traditional interscalene block and assessed its efficacy for shoulder analgesia. Prospective case series. Vanderbilt Bone and Joint Surgery Center. Patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy at an ambulatory surgery center. Thirty-five outpatient shoulder arthroscopy patients underwent an analgesic nerve block using a new technique where ultrasound visualization of the C5 nerve root served as the primary target at a level proximal to the traditional interscalene approach. The block was performed with 15mL of 0.5% plain ropivicaine. Post anesthesia care unit pain scores, opioid consumption, hand strength, and duration of block were recorded. Cadaver dissection after injection with methylene blue confirmed that the primary target under ultrasound visualization was the C5 nerve root. Pain scores revealed 97% patients had 0/10 pain at arrival to PACU, with 91% having a pain score of 3/10 or less at discharge from PACU. Medical Research Council (MRC) hand strength mean (SD) score was 4.17 (0.92) on a scale of 1-5. The mean (SD) duration of the block was 13.9 (3.5) hours. A new technique for ultrasound-guided blockade at the level of the C5 nerve root proximal to the level of the traditional interscalene block is efficacious for shoulder post-operative pain control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The incidence and demographics of shoulder repair in Wisconsin, 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Ablove, Robert H; Aul, Allison; Baer, Geoffrey

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated a profound increase in the incidence of shoulder surgery. Superior labral anterior and posterior (SLAP) repair is a common procedure that has been noted in other studies to be increasing. The purpose of this study is to report the incidence and demographics of a single shoulder surgery code in the state of Wisconsin in order to evaluate whether it is being performed in increasing numbers relative to population. In a retrospective review of the Wisconsin Hospital Association statewide database for the years 2002-2010, we queried one ICD-9 procedure code: 81.83, other repair of shoulder (not replacement or repair of recurrent dislocation). This code was selected because it would include SLAP repair and exclude most other common shoulder surgeries. The data retrieved includes ICD-9 diagnosis codes, county of surgery, patient age, and gender. The number of surgeries performed in Wisconsin over the course of the study increased by 91.4% between 2002 and 2010, starting at 5649 in 2002 and rising to 10,812 by 2010. The incidence of surgeries increased 83.1% over this time period: from 103.8 per 100,000 in 2002 to 190.1 per 100,000 in 2010. The ratio of male to female surgeries remained nearly constant at 3:2 throughout the length of the study. The mean patient age at time of surgery increased 2.6 years, from 48.3 in 2002 to 50.9 in 2010. The increase in number of shoulder surgeries is well beyond expectations based on population growth. The relatively high percentage of females does not correspond with reported gender ratios in other studies of similar shoulder procedures. The high mean age of patients and the large number of surgeries in older patients also is concerning. More educational effort needs to be given regarding the diagnosis and treatment of common shoulder conditions.

  14. Comparison of continuous interscalene block and subacromial infusion of local anesthetic for postoperative analgesia after open shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Baskan, Semih; Cankaya, Deniz; Unal, Hidayet; Yoldas, Burak; Taspinar, Vildan; Deveci, Alper; Tabak, Yalcin; Baydar, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of continuous interscalene block (CISB) and subacromial infusion of local anesthetic (CSIA) for postoperative analgesia after open shoulder surgery. This randomized, prospective, double-blinded, single-center study included 40 adult patients undergoing open shoulder surgery. All patients received a standardized general anesthetic. The patients were separated into group CISB and group CSIA. A loading dose of 40 mL 0.25% bupivacaine was administered and patient-controlled analgesia was applied by catheter with 0.1% bupivacaine 5 mL/h throughout 24 h basal infusion, 2 mL bolus dose, and 20 min knocked time in both groups postoperatively. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores, additional analgesia need, local anesthetic consumption, complications, and side effects were recorded during the first 24 h postoperatively. The range of motion (ROM) score was recorded preoperatively and in the first and third weeks postoperatively. A statistically significant difference was determined between the groups in respect of consumption of local anesthetic, VAS scores, additional analgesia consumption, complications, and side effects, with lower values recorded in the CISB group. There were no significant differences in ROM scoring in the preoperative and postoperative third week between the two groups but there were significant differences in ROM scoring in the postoperative first week, with higher ROM scoring values in the group CISB patients. The results of this study have shown that continuous interscalene infusion of bupivacaine is an effective and safe method of postoperative analgesia after open shoulder surgery.

  15. Effectiveness of telerehabilitation programme following surgery in shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS): study protocol for a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Pastora-Bernal, Jose-Manuel; Martín-Valero, Rocío; Barón-López, Francisco Javier; García-Gómez, Oscar

    2017-02-23

    Shoulder pain is common in society, with high prevalence in the general population. Shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) is the most frequent cause. Patients suffer pain, muscle weakness and loss of movement in the affected joint. Initial treatment is predominantly conservative. The surgical option has high success rates and is often used when conservative strategy fails. Traditional physiotherapy and post-operative exercises are needed for the recovery of joint range, muscle strength, stability and functionality. Telerehabilitation programmes have shown positive results in some orthopaedic conditions after surgery. Customized telerehabilitation intervention programmes should be developed to recover shoulder function after SIS surgery. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a telerehabilitation intervention compared with usual care in patients after subacromial decompression surgery. We will compare an intervention group receiving videoconferences and a telerehabilitation programme to a control group receiving traditional physiotherapy intervention in a single-blind, randomized controlled non-inferiority trial study design. Through this study, we will further develop our preliminary data set and practical experience with the telerehabilitation programmes to evaluate their effectiveness and compare this with traditional intervention. We will also explore patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Patient enrolment is ongoing. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02909920 . 14 September 2016.

  16. Physical examination of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    King, Joseph J; Wright, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes the overall assessment of the shoulder joint and seeks to help direct clinicians to diagnose shoulder pathology using standard and specific physical examinations. The history and standard examination can prompt the examiner to focus on specific tests to further evaluate the shoulder and limit the differential diagnoses. An appropriate and directed shoulder physical examination allows the clinician to focus on further diagnostic strategies and treatment options for the patient. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nerve supply of the subscapularis during anterior shoulder surgery: definition of a potential risk area.

    PubMed

    Leschinger, Tim; Hackl, Michael; Zeifang, Felix; Scaal, Martin; Müller, Lars Peter; Wegmann, Kilian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the position of the subscapular nerves relative to surgical landmarks during exposure and to analyze the pattern of innervation of the subscapularis to avoid injury during anterior shoulder surgery. 20 embalmed human cadaveric shoulder specimens were used in the study. The muscular insertions of the subscapular nerves were marked and their closest branches to the musculotendinous junction and the coracoid process were measured in horizontal and vertical distances. In addition, the innervation pattern of each specimen was documented. 14/20 specimens showed an innervation of the subscapularis with an upper, middle and lower subscapular nerve branch. Even though the nerve branches were in average more than 2 cm medial to the musculotendinous junction, minimal distances of 1.1-1.3 cm were found. The mean vertical distance as measured from the medial base of the coracoid to the nerve innervation point into the muscle was 0.7 cm for the upper nerve branch, 2.2 cm for the middle nerve branch and 4.4 cm for the lower nerve branch. The subscapularis has a variable nerve supply, which increases the risk of muscle denervation during open shoulder surgery. Dissection or release should be avoided at the anterior aspect of the subscapularis muscle more than 1 cm medial to the musculotendinous junction. In approaches with a horizontal incision of the subscapularis, splitting should be performed at a vertical distance of 3.2-3.6 cm to the coracoid base to avoid iatrogenic subscapular nerve injuries.

  18. Questions and Answers About Shoulder Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... months your shoulder is not better. Rotator Cuff Tear Treatment for a rotator cuff tear may also include: Heat or cold to the ... into your shoulder joint. Surgery to repair the tear if you don’t see improvement with other ...

  19. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Rick; McCulloch, Pat; Van Baalen, Mary; Watson, Richard; Bowen, Steve; Blatt, Terri

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors associated with the mechanism of injury that leads to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Despite the injury prevention measures taken from the 2003 Shoulder Tiger Team recommendations, shoulder injuries and subsequent shoulder surgeries remain relatively unchanged.

  20. Constructing a simple parametric model of shoulder from medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmani, H.; Fofi, D.; Merienne, F.; Trouilloud, P.

    2006-02-01

    The modelling of the shoulder joint is an important step to set a Computer-Aided Surgery System for shoulder prosthesis placement. Our approach mainly concerns the bones structures of the scapulo-humeral joint. Our goal is to develop a tool that allows the surgeon to extract morphological data from medical images in order to interpret the biomechanical behaviour of a prosthesised shoulder for preoperative and peroperative virtual surgery. To provide a light and easy-handling representation of the shoulder, a geometrical model composed of quadrics, planes and other simple forms is proposed.

  1. Funding sources and financial disclosures, and their relationship to study outcomes and level of evidence in the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery.

    PubMed

    Foughty, Zachary; Antalis, Matthew S; Ringenberg, Jonathan; Hall, Adam D

    2017-06-01

    Concern exists regarding the reliability of published manuscripts due to influence of industry funding and author financial conflicts of interest (COI). We aim to determine whether COI affect the outcome of a research study or the level of evidence (LOE). We reviewed 244 consecutive original articles in Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. Articles included only those available in the printed journal. For LOE, 178 articles from the Shoulder and Elbow section were used (basic science articles were excluded). COI was determined by comparing financial disclosures and stated funding sources to the study content. COI were present in 44 of 244 articles (18%); of these, 24 (55%) had positive outcomes. Of the 200 without COI, 128 (64%) had positive outcomes. This difference in proportions was determined to be significant (P = .007). COI were present in 27 shoulder and elbow articles; of these, only 1 was LOE I or II (4%). Of the 151 without COI, 34 (23%) were LOE I or II. This difference in proportions was determined to be significant (P = .023). We found that Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery articles with COI are neither more likely to have positive outcomes nor higher LOE than those with no COI. Although the χ 2 analysis found a statistically significant relationship between COI and study outcomes, the study outcomes were more often positive in articles without COI. This is contrary to previously published analyses that found outcomes to be more positive in articles with COI. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Operative shoulder instability injury management in Australian Football League players: A case series.

    PubMed

    Bonacci, Jason; Manson, Brent; Bowe, Steven J; Gill, Stephen; Seward, Hugh; Hoy, Greg; Page, Richard

    2017-11-27

    The purpose of this study was to review the surgical management procedures of shoulder instability injuries in Australian Football League (AFL) players, and determine outcomes regarding return to sport and injury recurrence. Retrospective cohort study. Elite AFL players with shoulder instability resulting in surgery were assessed in a retrospective cohort design (72 players/77 shoulders). Type of initial injury, surgical management, return to sport and injury recurrence were obtained. The mean follow-up period post-surgery was 2.9 years. Return to sport outcomes were compared between arthroscopic and open surgery using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine associations between injury recurrence, type of injury, participant age and method of surgery. Shoulder instability injuries occurred most frequently during tackling (40%). Arthroscopic surgery was preferred for primary shoulder instability. Nine (16%) recurrences occurred in those who underwent arthroscopic surgery compared to two (9%) following open surgery. Return to the elite level was slightly but significantly (2 weeks, p=0.049) longer for open compared to arthroscopic surgery. Recurrence was 5 times more likely if the primary injury was a dislocation and more likely in players who were younger at the time of surgery. Tackling was the predominant mechanism for shoulder instability injuries in AFL players and arthroscopic surgery was more commonly performed for primary injuries. Sustaining a dislocation as the primary injury and younger age increased the likelihood of recurrent instability. Careful consideration should be given to the operative management of these individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Should continuous rather than single-injection interscalene block be routinely offered for major shoulder surgery? A meta-analysis of the analgesic and side-effects profiles.

    PubMed

    Vorobeichik, L; Brull, R; Bowry, R; Laffey, J G; Abdallah, F W

    2018-04-01

    Major shoulder surgery is associated with moderate-to-severe pain, but consensus on the optimal analgesic approach is lacking. Continuous catheter-based interscalene block (CISB) prolongs the analgesic benefits of its single-injection counterpart (SISB), but concerns over CISB complications and difficulties in interpreting comparative evidence examining major and minor shoulder procedures simultaneously, despite their differences in postoperative pain, have limited CISB popularity. This meta-analysis evaluates the CISB analgesic role and complications compared with SISB for major shoulder surgery. We retrieved randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of CISB to SISB on analgesic outcomes and side-effects after major shoulder surgery. Postoperative opioid consumption at 24 h was designated as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included 24-48 h opioid consumption, postoperative rest and dynamic pain scores up to 72 h, time-to-first analgesic, recovery room and hospital stay durations, patient satisfaction, postoperative nausea and vomiting, respiratory function, and block-related complications. Data from 15 RCTs were pooled using random-effects modelling. Compared with SISB, CISB reduced 24- and 48-h oral morphine consumption by a weighted mean difference [95% confidence interval] of 50.9 mg [-81.6, -20.2], (P=0.001) and 44.7 mg [-80.9, -8.7], (P<0.0001), respectively. Additionally, CISB provided superior rest and dynamic pain control beyond 48 h, prolonged time-to-first analgesic, enhanced satisfaction, and reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting without complications. CISB caused an 11.0-11.7% decrease in respiratory indices. Result heterogeneity was successfully explained. High-level evidence indicates that CISB provides superior analgesia up to 48 h after major shoulder surgery, without increasing side-effects, compared with SISB. The importance of CISB-related changes in respiratory indices is questionable. Copyright © 2017 British

  4. Cerebral oxygenation in the beach chair position for shoulder surgery in regional anesthesia: impact on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, José A; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Brada, Muriel; Saporito, Andrea; Borgeat, Alain; Bühler, Philipp

    2016-12-01

    Beach chair position is considered a potential risk factor for central neurological events particularly if combined with low blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of regional anesthesia on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome. This is a prospective, assessor-blinded observational study evaluating patients in the beach chair position undergoing shoulder surgery under regional anesthesia. University hospital operating room. Forty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I-II physical status scheduled for elective shoulder surgery. Cerebral saturation and blood flow of the middle cerebral artery were measured prior to anesthesia and continued after beach chair positioning until discharge to the postanesthesia care unit. The anesthesiologist was blinded for these values. Controlled hypotension with systolic blood pressure≤100mm Hg was maintained during surgery. Neurobehavioral tests and values of regional cerebral saturation, bispectral index, the mean maximal blood flow of the middle cerebral artery, and invasive blood pressure were measured prior to regional anesthesia, and measurements were repeated after placement of the patient on the beach chair position and every 20 minutes thereafter until discharge to postanesthesia care unit. The neurobehavioral tests were repeated the day after surgery. The incidence of cerebral desaturation events was 5%. All patients had a significant blood pressure drop 5 minutes after beach chair positioning, measured at the heart as well as the acoustic meatus levels, when compared with baseline values (P<.05). There was no decrease in either the regional cerebral saturation (P=.136) or the maximal blood flow of the middle cerebral artery (P=.212) at the same time points. Some neurocognitive tests showed an impairment 24 hours after surgery (P<.001 for 2 of 3 tests). Beach chair position in patients undergoing regional anesthesia for shoulder surgery had no major impact on

  5. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a nationwide Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim was to examine exposure-response relationships between cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), and to compare sex-specific exposure-response relationships. The secondary aim was to examine the time window of relevant exposures. We conducted a nationwide register study of all persons born in Denmark (1933-1977), who had at least 5 years of full-time employment. In the follow-up period (2003-2008), we identified first-time events of surgery for SIS. Cumulative exposure estimates for a 10-year exposure time window with a 1-year lag time were obtained by linking occupational codes with a job exposure matrix. The exposure estimates were expressed as, for example, arm-elevation-years in accordance with the pack-year concept of tobacco consumption. We used a multivariable logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis. The adjusted OR (ORadj) increased to a maximum of 2.1 for arm-elevation-years, repetition-years and force-years, and to 1.5 for hand-arm-vibration-years. Sex-specific exposure-response relationships were similar for men and women, when assessed using a relative risk scale. The ORadj increased gradually with the number of years contributing to the cumulative exposure estimates. The excess fraction was 24%. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures carried an increase in risk of surgery for SIS with similar exposure-response curves for men and women. The risk of surgery for SIS increased gradually, when the period of exposure assessment was extended. In the general working population, a substantial fraction of all first-time operations for SIS could be related to occupational exposures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Shoulder arthroscopy: the basics.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Kevin W; Wright, Thomas W

    2015-04-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy is a commonly performed and accepted procedure for a wide variety of pathologies. Surgeon experience, patient positioning, knowledge of surgical anatomy, proper portal placement, and proper use of instrumentation can improve technical success and minimize complication risks. This article details the surgical anatomy, indications, patient positioning, portal placement, instrumentation, and complications for basic shoulder arthroscopy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of beach-chair position and induced hypotension on cerebral oxygen saturation in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Min, Kyeong Tae; Chun, Yong-Min; Kim, Eun Jung; Choi, Seung Ho

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the beach-chair position and induced hypotension on regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery by using near-infrared spectroscopy. Twenty-eight patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were enrolled prospectively. After induction of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation was controlled to maintain Paco(2) at 35 to 40 mm Hg. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. After radial artery cannulation, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured at the external auditory meatus level and maintained between 60 and 65 mm Hg. The rSO(2) was measured by use of near-infrared spectroscopy. MAP and rSO(2) were recorded at the following times: before induction (T(0)), immediately after induction (T(1) [baseline]), after beach-chair position (T(2)), immediately after induced hypotension (T(3)), 1 hour after induced hypotension (T(4)), and after supine position at the end of surgery (T(5)). Cerebral desaturation was defined as a reduction in rSO(2) to less than 80% of baseline value for 15 seconds or greater. A total of 27 patients were evaluated until the end of this study. The MAP at T(2) was significantly lower than that at T(1). The MAP values at T(3) and T(4) were significantly lower than those at T(1) and T(2). The rSO(2) at T(2) was significantly lower than that at T(1). Unlike the pattern of change in the MAP, there was no additional decrease in rSO(2) at T(3) and T(4). There were 2 patients who had an episode of cerebral desaturation. The beach-chair position combined with induced hypotension significantly decreases rSO(2) in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia. Level IV, study of nonconsecutive patients without consistently applied reference gold standard. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical outcomes after arthroscopic release for recalcitrant frozen shoulder.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Moradi, Ali; Pour, Mostafa Khalili; Moghadam, Mohammad Hallaj; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2014-09-01

    To explain the role of arthroscopic release in intractable frozen shoulders. We used different questionnaires and measuring tools to understand whether arthroscopic release is the superior modality to treat patients with intractable frozen shoulders. Between 2007 and 2013, in a prospective study, we enrolled 80 patients (52 females and 28 males) with recalcitrant frozen shoulder, who underwent arthroscopic release at Ghaem Hospital, a tertiary referral center, in Mashhad, Iran. Before operation, all patients filled out the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Constant, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), ROWE and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain questionnaires. We measured the difference in range of motion between both the normal and the frozen shoulders in each patient. The average age of the patients was 50.8±7.1 years. In 49 patients, the right shoulder was affected and in the remaining 31 the left side was affected. Before surgery, the patients were suffering from this disease on average for 11.7±10.3 months. The average time to follow-up was 47.2±6.8 months (14 to 60 months). Diabetes mellitus (38%) and history of shoulder trauma (23%) were the most common comorbidities in our patients. We did not find any significant differences between baseline characteristics of diabetics patients with non-diabetics ones. After surgery, the average time to achieve maximum pain improvement and range of motion were 3.6±2.1 and 3.6±2 months, respectively. The VAS score, constant shoulder score, Rowe score, UCLA shoulder score, and DASH score showed significant improvement in shoulder function after surgery, and shoulder range of motion improved in all directions compared to pre-operation range of motion. According to our results, arthroscopic release of recalcitrant frozen shoulder is a valuable modality in treating this disease. This method could decrease pain and improve both subjective and objective mid-term outcomes.

  9. Clinical Outcomes after Arthroscopic Release for Recalcitrant Frozen Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Moradi, Ali; Pour, Mostafa Khalili; Moghadam, Mohammad Hallaj; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: To explain the role of arthroscopic release in intractable frozen shoulders. We used different questionnaires and measuring tools to understand whether arthroscopic release is the superior modality to treat patients with intractable frozen shoulders. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, in a prospective study, we enrolled 80 patients (52 females and 28 males) with recalcitrant frozen shoulder, who underwent arthroscopic release at Ghaem Hospital, a tertiary referral center, in Mashhad, Iran. Before operation, all patients filled out the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Constant, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), ROWE and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain questionnaires. We measured the difference in range of motion between both the normal and the frozen shoulders in each patient. Results: The average age of the patients was 50.8±7.1 years. In 49 patients, the right shoulder was affected and in the remaining 31 the left side was affected. Before surgery, the patients were suffering from this disease on average for 11.7±10.3 months. The average time to follow-up was 47.2±6.8 months (14 to 60 months). Diabetes mellitus (38%) and history of shoulder trauma (23%) were the most common comorbidities in our patients. We did not find any significant differences between baseline characteristics of diabetics patients with non-diabetics ones. After surgery, the average time to achieve maximum pain improvement and range of motion were 3.6±2.1 and 3.6±2 months, respectively. The VAS score, constant shoulder score, Rowe score, UCLA shoulder score, and DASH score showed significant improvement in shoulder function after surgery, and shoulder range of motion improved in all directions compared to pre-operation range of motion. Conclusions: According to our results, arthroscopic release of recalcitrant frozen shoulder is a valuable modality in treating this disease. This method could decrease pain and improve both subjective and objective mid

  10. Continuous interscalene brachial plexus blockade provides good analgesia at home after major shoulder surgery-report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karen C; Greengrass, Roy A; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Klein, Stephen M; Steele, Susan M

    2003-01-01

    Continuous interscalene brachial plexus blockade (CIBPB) in a hospital setting can provide excellent surgical conditions and postoperative analgesia for major shoulder surgery. This is a case report of four patients on the efficacy and advantages of CIBPB for postoperative analgesia at home. Four patients scheduled for rotator cuff repair under CIBPB were discharged home the day of surgery with an interscalene catheter connected to an automated infusion pump administering 0.2% ropivacaine at 10 mL x hr(-1) for 72 hr. Prior to discharge, patients and their attendant were given verbal and written instructions concerning local anesthetic toxicity and explicit contact information for an anesthesiologist or nurse. Outcomes were measured pre- and postoperatively, including verbal analogue pain scores (pain VAS), verbal analogue nausea scores (nausea VAS), side effects, cognitive function (mini-mental state questionnaire), sleep (hours/night), and patient satisfaction (Likert scale). Postoperative VAS scores over three days were very low. Two patients reported only one episode of nausea. There were no complications associated with local anesthetic toxicity or catheter use. Cognitive function improved over three days. Sleep increased from a mean of five hours before surgery to seven hours over the next three nights. Patient satisfaction with care was high. Significant cost savings were documented. The use of CIBPB for 72 hr in patients undergoing major ambulatory shoulder surgery can result in good analgesia with minimal opioid requirement, cost savings and possibly improvement in outcome measures.

  11. Immediate breast reconstruction with a Latissimus dorsi flap has no detrimental effects on shoulder motion or postsurgical complications up to 1 year after surgery.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Riza Rute; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Derchain, Sophie F M; Sarian, Luís Otávio

    2013-05-01

    Mastectomy negatively affects scapulothoracic and glenohumeral kinematics. Breast reconstructive methods such as the latissimus dorsi flap can result in anatomical modifications that may in theory further affect the shoulder apparatus. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction on the recovery of shoulder motion and other postsurgical problems during the first year after mastectomy. This was a prospective cohort study of 104 consecutive mastectomies (47 with immediate latissimus dorsi flaps). Shoulder range of motion was assessed before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Pain, tissue adhesion, scar enlargement, and web syndrome were assessed during follow-up. There was a 30 percent decrease of shoulder range of motion 1 month after surgery, with gradual recovery over time. However, mean abduction and flexion capacities did not reach baseline levels and were on average 5 to 10 percent lower than baseline, even after 1 year. Over time, the latissimus dorsi flap was not associated with restriction of flexion or abduction. Scar enlargement (at the first month, p = 0.009) and tissue adhesion (at month 12, p = 0.032) were significantly less common in the latissimus dorsi flap group. The authors' study clearly suggests that the additional anatomical manipulation required for the latissimus dorsi flap procedure does not further affect shoulder kinematics and is associated with a lower incidence of tissue adhesion. Therapeutic, II.

  12. The association of foot arch posture and prior history of shoulder or elbow surgery in elite-level baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Luis A; Roach, Kathryn E; Kaplan, Lee D; Lesniak, Bryson; Cunningham, Sean

    2013-11-01

    Case-control. The specific aim of this study was to examine the association between abnormal foot arch postures and a history of shoulder or elbow surgery in baseball pitchers. Pitching a baseball generates forces throughout the musculoskeletal structures of the upper and lower limbs. Structures such as the longitudinal arch of the foot are adaptable to stresses over time. Repeated pitching-related stresses may contribute to acquiring abnormal foot arch postures. Inversely, congenitally abnormal foot arch posture may lead to altered stresses of the upper limb during pitching. A convenience sample of 77 pitchers was recruited from a Division I university team and a professional baseball franchise. Subjects who had a history of shoulder or elbow surgery to the pitching arm were classified as cases. Subjects who met the criteria for classification of pes planus or pes cavus based on longitudinal arch angle were classified as having abnormal foot arch posture. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the association between abnormal foot arch posture and pitching-arm injury requiring surgery. Twenty-three subjects were classified as cases. The odds of being a case were 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.6; P = .02) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot arch posture and 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 8.1; P = .04) times greater for subjects with abnormal foot posture on the lunge leg. Abnormal foot arch posture and a surgical history in the pitching shoulder or elbow may be associated. Because the foot and its arches are adaptable and change over time, the pathomechanics of this association should be further explored.

  13. Anatomical shoulder arthroplasty in epileptic patients with instability arthropathy and persistent seizures.

    PubMed

    Thangarajah, Tanujan; Falworth, Mark; Lambert, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic seizures can cause shoulder dislocation, recurrent instability and eventually arthritis. The purpose of this study was to report the results, complications and rate of revision surgery following anatomical shoulder arthroplasty in epileptic patients with instability arthropathy. A consecutive series of eight patients with epilepsy underwent anatomical shoulder arthroplasty for recurrent shoulder instability and were retrospectively reviewed after a mean of 4.7 years (range, 2-7.5 years). These included three total shoulder replacements and five humeral resurfacing hemiarthroplasty procedures. Mean age of the cohort was 33 years (range, 17-44). All patients experienced post-operative grand mal seizures. Two patients with hemiarthroplasty required further surgery due to painful glenoid erosion. No residual cases of instability were noted. Mean active forward elevation and external rotation improved following surgery. The Oxford Shoulder Score improved from 15 pre-operatively (range, 7-22) to 26 post-operatively (range, 12-45) ( p = 0.031). This was accompanied by an increase in the mean Subjective Shoulder Value, which improved from 29 (range, 10-80) pre-operatively to 53 (range, 15-90) post-operatively ( p=0.042). Anatomical shoulder arthroplasty may offer a solution for the treatment of instability arthropathy in patients with epilepsy and persistent seizures.

  14. Shoulder arthroscopy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a type of surgery to examine or repair the tissues inside or around your shoulder joint. The procedure ... small incision. If the surgeon is going to repair the joint, small surgical instruments are also used, such as a shaver to remove unwanted tissue.

  15. Efficacy and safety of interscalene block combined with general anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Siyi; Zhao, Yanjun; Zhang, Huan

    2018-06-01

    There is controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of using interscalene block (ISB) combined with general anesthesia (GA) for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Our meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the utility of this approach. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, VIP and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for randomized controlled trials. The primary endpoint was extubation time. Secondary endpoints included intraoperative heart rate, pain scores on the day of and 1 day after the operation, intraoperative systolic blood pressure and adverse events. Ten RCTs involving 746 patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery met inclusion criteria. Compared with GA alone, ISB + GA was associated with a shorter extubation time(WMD = -6.13; 95% CI = -8.68 to -3.57; P < 0.00001; I 2  = 94%), a lower pain score on the day of the operation (WMD = -2.46; 95% CI = -4.53 to -0.40; P = 0.02; I 2  = 97%), a lower pain score 1 day after the operation (WMD = -1.49; 95% CI = -2.46 to -0.52; P = 0.003; I 2  = 88%), a lower intraoperative systolic blood pressure (WMD = -12.64; 95% CI = -20.90 to -4.39; P = 0.003; I 2  = 95%), a lower heart rate (WMD = -8.81; 95% CI = -15.34 to -2.28; P = 0.008; I 2  = 95%) and a lower incidence of adverse events (RR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.15-0.66; P = 0.002; I 2  = 32%). In patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery, ISB + GA is associated with a lower heart rate, lower pain scores on the day of and 1 day after the operation, a lower intraoperative systolic blood pressure, a shorter extubation time and a lower incidence of adverse events compared with GA alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability and Validity of 3 Methods of Assessing Orthopedic Resident Skill in Shoulder Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Johnathan A; Dattilo, Jonathan R; Srikumaran, Uma; Zikria, Bashir A; Jain, Amit; LaPorte, Dawn M

    Traditional measures for evaluating resident surgical technical skills (e.g., case logs) assess operative volume but not level of surgical proficiency. Our goal was to compare the reliability and validity of 3 tools for measuring surgical skill among orthopedic residents when performing 3 open surgical approaches to the shoulder. A total of 23 residents at different stages of their surgical training were tested for technical skill pertaining to 3 shoulder surgical approaches using the following measures: Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) checklists, the Global Rating Scale (GRS), and a final pass/fail assessment determined by 3 upper extremity surgeons. Adverse events were recorded. The Cronbach α coefficient was used to assess reliability of the OSATS checklists and GRS scores. Interrater reliability was calculated with intraclass correlation coefficients. Correlations among OSATS checklist scores, GRS scores, and pass/fail assessment were calculated with Spearman ρ. Validity of OSATS checklists was determined using analysis of variance with postgraduate year (PGY) as a between-subjects factor. Significance was set at p < 0.05 for all tests. Criterion validity was shown between the OSATS checklists and GRS for the 3 open shoulder approaches. Checklist scores showed superior interrater reliability compared with GRS and subjective pass/fail measurements. GRS scores were positively correlated across training years. The incidence of adverse events was significantly higher among PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents compared with more experienced residents. OSATS checklists are a valid and reliable assessment of technical skills across 3 surgical shoulder approaches. However, checklist scores do not measure quality of technique. Documenting adverse events is necessary to assess quality of technique and ultimate pass/fail status. Multiple methods of assessing surgical skill should be considered when evaluating orthopedic resident surgical performance

  17. The Kaiser Permanente shoulder arthroplasty registry: results from 6,336 primary shoulder arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Mark T; Ake, Christopher F; Burke, Mary F; Singh, Anshuman; Yian, Edward H; Paxton, Elizabeth W; Navarro, Ronald A

    2015-06-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty is being performed in the United States with increasing frequency. We describe the medium-term findings from a large integrated healthcare system shoulder arthroplasty registry. Shoulder arthroplasty cases registered between January 2005 and June 2013 were included for analysis. The registry included patient characteristics, surgical information, implant data, attrition, and patient outcomes such as surgical site infections, venous thromboembolism, and revision procedures. During the study period, 6,336 primary cases were registered. Median follow-up time for all primaries was 3.3 years; 461 cases were lost to follow-up by ending of health plan membership. Primary cases were predominantly female (56%) and white (81%), with an average age of 70 years. The most common reason for surgery was osteoarthritis in 60% of cases, followed by acute fracture (17%) and rotator cuff tear arthropathy (15%). In elective shoulder arthroplasty procedures, 200 all-cause revisions (4%) were reported, with glenoid wear being the most common reason. Most arthroplasties were elective procedures: over half performed for osteoarthritis. Glenoid wear was the most common reason for revision of primary shoulder arthroplasty in elective cases.

  18. Kinematic analysis of dynamic shoulder motion in patients with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young W; Pinto, Vivek J; Yoon, Jangwhon; Frankle, Mark A; Dunning, Page E; Sheikhzadeh, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) has been used to treat patients with irreparable rotator cuff dysfunction. Despite the proven clinical efficacy, there is minimal information regarding the underlying changes to the shoulder kinematics associated with this construct. Therefore, we sought to examine the kinematics of dynamic shoulder motion in patients with well-functioning rTSA. We tested 12 healthy subjects and 17 patients with rTSA. All rTSA patients were able to elevate their arms to at least 90° and received the implant as the primary arthroplasty at least 6 months before testing. On average, the rTSA patients elevated their arms to 112° ± 12° (mean ± SD) and reported an American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons outcome score of 90.6 ± 6.3. A 3-dimensional electromagnetic motion capture device was used to detect the dynamic motion of the trunk, scapula, and humerus during bilateral active shoulder elevation along the sagittal, scapular, and coronal planes. In both healthy and rTSA shoulders, the majority of the humeral-thoracic motion was provided by the glenohumeral motion. Therefore, the ratio of glenohumeral to scapulothoracic (ST) motion was always greater than 1.62 during elevation along the scapular plane. In comparison to healthy subjects, however, the contribution of ST motion to overall shoulder motion was significantly increased in the rTSA shoulders. This increased contribution was noted in all planes of shoulder elevation and was maintained when weights were attached to the arm. Kinematics of the rTSA shoulders are significantly altered, and more ST motion is used to achieve shoulder elevation. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shoulder arthroplasty in osteoarthritis: current concepts in biomechanics and surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, G; Nastrucci, G; Porcellini, G

    Shoulder arthroplasty is a technically demanding procedure to restore shoulder function in patients with severe osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. The modern prosthetic system exploit the benefits of modularity and the availibility of additional sizes of the prosthetic components. In this paper we describe the biomechanics of shoulder arthroplasty and the technique for shoulder replacement including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) with all-polyethylene and metal-backed glenoid component, humeral head resurfacing and stemless humeral replacement. PMID:24251240

  20. Investigation of central pain processing in shoulder pain: converging results from two musculoskeletal pain models

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Carolina; Kindler, Lindsay L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; George, Steven Z.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports suggest deficits in conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and enhanced suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR) potentially play a role in the development of chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether central pain processing was altered in 2 musculoskeletal shoulder pain models. The goals of this study were to determine whether central pain processing: 1) differs between healthy subjects and patients with clinical shoulder pain, 2) changes with induction of exercise induced muscle pain (EIMP), and 3) changes 3 months after shoulder surgery. Fifty eight patients with clinical shoulder pain and 56 age and sex matched healthy subjects were included in these analyses. The healthy cohort was examined before inducing EIMP, and 48 and 96 hours later. The clinical cohort was examined before shoulder surgery and 3 months later. CPM did not differ between the cohorts, however; SHPR was elevated for patients with shoulder pain compared to healthy controls. Induction of acute shoulder pain with EIMP resulted in increased shoulder pain intensity but did not change CPM or SHPR. Three months following shoulder surgery clinical pain intensity decreased but CPM was unchanged from pre-operative assessment. In contrast SHPR was decreased and showed values comparable with healthy controls at 3 months. Therefore, the present study suggests that: 1) clinical shoulder pain is associated with measurable changes in central pain processing, 2) exercise-induced shoulder pain did not affect measures of central pain processing, and 3) elevated SHPR was normalized with shoulder surgery. Collectively our findings support neuroplastic changes in pain modulation were associated with decreases in clinical pain intensity only, and could be detected more readily with thermal stimuli. PMID:22208804

  1. Cutoff value of Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder score in patients with rotator cuff repair: Based on the University of California at Los Angeles shoulder score.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takaki; Gotoh, Masafumi; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Kawakami, Jyunichi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Fukuda, Keiji; Ogino, Misa; Okawa, Takahiro; Shiba, Naoto

    2017-05-01

    The Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder score cutoff values were calculated in patients with rotator cuff repair using the University of California at Los Angeles shoulder score. Overall, 175 patients with rotator cuff repair were subjects in this study. The University of California at Los Angeles and Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder scores were evaluated before surgery and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. The cutoff value of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder score was determined using the 4-stage criteria of the University of California at Los Angeles shoulder score and a University of California at Los Angeles shoulder score of 28 points, which is the boundary between an excellent/good group and a fair/poor group. Both the JOA shoulder and UCLA shoulder scores showed significant improvement at 6, 9, and 12 months from the preoperative scores (p < 0.0001). There was a strong correlation between the total values of the two scores (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001). The cutoff value of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder score based on the highest accuracy from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 83 points. A Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder score cutoff value of 83 was equivalent to a University of California at Los Angeles shoulder score cutoff value of 28 for distinguishing between excellent/good and fair/poor outcomes after rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Shoulder Arthroplasty for Sequelae of Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Injury.

    PubMed

    Werthel, Jean-David; Schoch, Bradley; Frankle, Mark; Cofield, Robert; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2018-03-29

    Shoulder arthroplasty following obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI) is technically challenging because glenoid morphology, muscle balance, and humeral version are substantially altered compared with the neurologically intact shoulder. The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of shoulder arthroplasty in a group of patients with end-stage arthritis secondary to OBPI. Seven patients with OBPI and secondary glenohumeral arthritis were treated with shoulder arthroplasty between 1976 and 2014. Two underwent hemiarthroplasty (HA), 2 underwent total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), and 3 underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). One HA was lost to follow-up and was excluded. The remaining 6 patients (mean age, 62.5 years old at the time of surgery) were followed for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 7.5 years; range, 2-13 years) Outcome measures included pain, range of motion, and postoperative modified Neer ratings. Pain improved in all shoulders. Mean forward flexion was unchanged. No shoulders treated with HA/TSA regained forward elevation above 90°, compared with 1 out of the 3 RSAs. External rotation improved from a mean of -10° to 20°. Active internal rotation decreased from L1 to L5. Immediate postoperative radiographs showed either severe posterior or posterosuperior subluxation in all 3 patients treated with nonconstrained implants. Shoulder arthroplasty is an acceptable option to relieve pain in patients with symptomatic shoulder arthritis as a sequel of OBPI. However, range of motion improvements are not expected. Therapeutic V. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Media in Shoulder & Elbow Surgery: An Analysis of Twitter and Instagram.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Navarro, Sergio M; Cornaghie, Margaret M; Haeberle, Heather S; Hameed, Hafsah; Schickendantz, Mark S; Ricchetti, Eric T; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2018-07-01

    Social media provide a unique method of analyzing outcomes and quality in medicine. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the nature of social media content related to shoulder and elbow (S&E) surgery posted by patients, surgeons, and hospitals. A public search of Instagram for a two-year period yielded 1,177 patient-related posts. A categorical system assessed the perspective, timing, tone, and content of each post. Twitter accounts of 77 S&E specialists from the top five ranked U.S. News & World Report institutions were analyzed for activity and content. 5,246 Twitter and Instagram posts for the institutions were analyzed for frequency and content. Most patient-related posts were by patients (68%), postoperative (82%), positive (87%), and centered on return-to-play for Tommy John (34%), surgical site for shoulder arthroplasty (52%), and activities of daily living for rotator cuff repair (22%). 37% of surgeons had active accounts averaging 46 posts, 87% of which were practice advertisements. Hospitals averaged 273 posts over the 2-year period, focusing on education (38%) and community (18%). S&E patients share outcomes on social media in a positive tone with procedure-dependent emphases. Surgeons on social media use sites for practice augmentation. Hospitals often focused posts towards educating the community. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Propionibacterium acnes infection in shoulder arthroscopy patients with postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Horneff, John G; Hsu, Jason E; Voleti, Pramod B; O'Donnell, Judith; Huffman, G Russell

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have identified Propionibacterium acnes as the causal organism in an increasing number of postoperative shoulder infections. Most reports have found a high rate of P acnes infection after open surgery, particularly shoulder arthroplasty. However, there are limited data regarding P acnes infections after shoulder arthroscopy. We prospectively collected data on all shoulder arthroscopies performed by the senior author from January 1, 2009, until April 1, 2013. Cultures were taken in all revision shoulder arthroscopy cases performed for pain, stiffness, or weakness. In addition, 2 cultures were taken from each of a cohort of 32 primary shoulder arthroscopy cases without concern for infection to determine the false-positive rate. A total of 1,591 shoulder arthroscopies were performed during this period, 68 (4.3%) of which were revision procedures performed for pain, stiffness, or weakness. A total of 20 revision arthroscopies (29.4%) had positive culture findings, and 16 (23.5%) were positive for P acnes. In the control group, 1 patient (3.2%) had P acnes growth. The rate of P acnes infection in patients undergoing revision shoulder arthroscopy is higher than previously published and should be considered in cases characterized by refractory postoperative pain and stiffness. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [The gymnastics shoulder].

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, C; Doyscher, R; Boschert, H-P; Scheibel, M

    2014-03-01

    Adult gymnasts show a high prevalence of various shoulder pathologies. Due to the specific equipment used in gymnastics and the high training schedule with weekly training times up to 32 h, the shoulders of gymnasts are mostly subjected to symmetrical bilateral weight bearing. This is in contrast to overhead throwing, racket and martial arts sport forms in which the load is mainly located on the dominant side. Structural lesions of the shoulder and shoulder girdle in male gymnasts can arise due to high repetitive support and swing forces during exercises on the six specific types of apparatus and particularly the rings. These lesions particularly affect the biceps tendon anchor, the long head of the biceps tendon and the tendon of the supraspinatus muscle. Because possible pathologies can increasingly occur even in younger gymnasts, awareness of the treating physician and also the trainer should be increased. Early initiation of intensive conservative treatment and arthroscopic interventions in cases of failure of non-operative management are relevant for satisfying results. Modern arthroscopic reconstructive techniques are available for treating structural lesions. Nevertheless, in almost 30 % of the patients the occurrence of shoulder pain or the necessity for surgical interventions will prevent them from achieving the national or international level of competition. This underlines the necessity for development of prevention programs.

  6. Joseph Constantine Carpue and the Bicentennial of the Birth of Modern Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, M Felix

    2015-08-01

    September 2014 marked the bicentennial of the birth of modern plastic surgery. It was then that Carpue began a prospective observational study of nasal reconstruction that culminated in his 1816 monograph, which caused an explosion of interest in reconstructive surgery throughout Europe. In conducting his study, Carpue demonstrated ethical standards and the power of planning a procedure. His methods to document his results accurately would remain unsurpassed until photography was adopted at the end of the 19th century. Carpue took an apocryphal story of surgery performed in India more than twenty years earlier and transformed it into the beginning of modern plastic surgery. He succeeded in a number of unrecognized tasks that are themselves landmarks not only in plastic surgical history, but surgical history: devising the first prospective observational study, using exclusion criteria, maintaining appropriate patient confidentiality, setting a standard for preoperative disclosure and ethical approval over a century before these measures were codified, having independent documentation of his preoperative and postoperative findings, devising a method to objectively monitor and document the forehead flap, and describing the potential value of tissue expansion. He shared his experience by publishing his results and by lecturing in Europe. His contemporaries recognized him for his contributions and he was honored by election to the Royal Society. Carpue launched the modern era of plastic surgery in an ethical, logical, and objective manner. While plastic surgery has changed in the last two centuries, the principles that Carpue followed remain valid. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  7. Two-stage reimplantation for treating prosthetic shoulder infections.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Vani J; Ho, Jason C; Kovacevic, David; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2011-09-01

    Two-stage reimplantation for prosthetic joint infection reportedly has the lowest risk for recurrent infection. Most studies to date have evaluated revision surgery for infection using an anatomic prosthetic. As compared with anatomic prostheses, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is reported to have a higher rate of infection. We determined reinfection rates, functional improvement, types and rates of complications, and influence of rotator cuff tissue on function for two-stage reimplantation for prosthetic joint infection treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients treated with a two-stage reimplantation for prosthetic shoulder infection using a uniform protocol for management of infection; of these, 17 had reverse shoulder arthroplasty at second-stage surgery. Types of organisms cultured, recurrence rates, complications, function, and radiographic followup were reviewed for all patients. One of the 17 patients had recurrence of infection. The mean (± SD) Penn shoulder scores for patients treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty improved from 24.9 ± 22.3 to 66.4 ± 20.8. The average motion at last followup was 123° ± 33° of forward flexion and 26° ± 8° of external rotation in patients treated with a reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The major complication rate was 35% in reverse shoulder arthroplasty, with five dislocations and one reinfection. There was no difference in final Penn score between patients with and without external rotation weakness. Shoulder function and pain improved in patients treated with a second-stage reimplantation of a reverse prosthesis and the reinfection rate was low. Level IV, case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Outcomes of an anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty with a contralateral reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cox, Ryan M; Padegimas, Eric M; Abboud, Joseph A; Getz, Charles L; Lazarus, Mark D; Ramsey, Matthew L; Williams, Gerald R; Horneff, John G

    2018-06-01

    It is common for patients to require staged bilateral shoulder arthroplasties. There is a unique cohort of patients who require an anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and a contralateral reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). This study compared the outcomes of patients with a TSA in 1 shoulder and an RSA in the contralateral shoulder. Our institutional database was queried to identify all patients with a TSA and a contralateral RSA. Data collection included patient demographics, preoperative and latest follow-up shoulder range of motion, radiographic analysis, and postoperative complications. Identified patients were assessed at follow-up visits or contacted by phone for functional outcome scores. Nineteen patients met our inclusion/exclusion criteria. There was statistically significant greater internal rotation in the TSA shoulder (P= .044) but no significant difference in forward elevation (P = .573) or external rotation (P= .368). There was no radiographic evidence of humeral or glenoid component loosening of any arthroplasty implants. There were no significant differences between TSA and RSA shoulders for the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment (P= .381), Simple Shoulder Test (P = .352), Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (P = .709), and visual analog scale satisfaction (P= .448) or pain scores (P= .305). Thirteen patients (68.4%) preferred the RSA side, 1 patient (5.3%; z = 4.04, P < .001) patient preferred the TSA side, and 5 patients expressed no preference. Despite known limitations and differences between TSA and RSA designs, patients who have received both implants are highly satisfied with both. The only parameter in which the TSA had superior outcomes was internal rotation. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Therapy relevant imaging in modern surgical treatment of arthrosis of the shoulder: interesting facts for orthopedic surgeons].

    PubMed

    Krifter, R M; Zweiger, C; Lick-Schiffer, W; Mattiassich, G; Schüller-Weidekamm, C; Radl, R

    2013-03-01

    Imaging for shoulder surgery varies a lot nowadays. Advantages and disadvantages of possible imaging methods according to the pathology and treatment options are described. Digital projection radiography in 3 planes, ultrasonography, MRI, CT scanning and scintigrams. Special axial view to visualize the glenoid situation, as well as 3-D CT scanning for larger defects and classification. Imaging of the glenoid situation, the version and erosion in axial view x-ray is mandatory to plan and control glenoid replacement. Useful application of imaging methods for the daily routine of orthopedic surgeons. Digital 3 plane x-ray imaging in arthroplasty surgery is the minimum requirement. For rotator cuff lesions ultrasonography is good. In order to gain information on fatty infiltration of rotator muscles MRI is needed as well as for intra-articular lesions. For bony defects CT and reconstruction 3-D are recommended.

  10. [Shoulder disability questionnaires: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Fayad, F; Mace, Y; Lefevre-Colau, M M

    2005-07-01

    To identify all available shoulder disability questionnaires designed to measure physical functioning and to examine those with satisfactory clinimetric quality. We used the Medline database and the "Guide des outils de mesure de l'évaluation en médecine physique et de réadaptation" textbook to search for questionnaires. Analysis took into account the development methodology, clinimetric quality of the instruments and frequency of their utilization. We classified the instruments according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Thirty-eight instruments have been developed to measure disease-, shoulder- or upper extremity-specific outcome. Four scales assess upper-extremity disability and 3 others shoulder disability. We found 6 scales evaluating disability and shoulder pain, 7 scales measuring the quality of life in patients with various conditions of the shoulder, 14 scales combining objective and subjective measures, 2 pain scales and 2 unclassified scales. Older instruments developed before the advent of modern measurement development methodology usually combine objective and subjective measures. Recent instruments were designed with appropriate methodology. Most are self-administered questionnaires. Numerous shoulder outcome measure instruments are available. There is no "gold standard" for assessing shoulder function outcome in the general population.

  11. Bispectral index-guided general anaesthesia in combination with interscalene block reduces desflurane consumption in arthroscopic shoulder surgery: a clinical comparison of bupivacaine versus levobupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Levent; Kesimci, Elvin; Albayrak, Tuna; Kanbak, Orhan

    2015-07-21

    The goal of this study was to compare the influence of an interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) performed with either bupivacaine or levobupivacaine in conjunction with general anaesthesia (GA) on desflurane consumption, which was titrated to maintain the recovery profiles and postoperative analgesia while also keeping the bispectral index score (BIS) between 40 and 60 in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Sixty patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery were prospectively randomized to receive GA with desflurane alone (group C) or in combination with a preoperative ISB by either bupivacaine 0.25 % (group B) 40 ml or levobupivacaine 0.25 % (group L) 40 ml. BIS scores or respiratory and hemodynamic parameters during the operation, recovery characteristics, consumed doses of desflurane and pain intensities were evaluated. The eye opening time was 4.0 ± 2.5 minutes for group B, 4.6 ± 2.4 minutes for group L, and 6.2 ± 2.1 minutes for group C (p < 0.05). Group B and group L saved 36 % and 25 % desflurane per unit time respectively when compared with group C (p < 0.001and p < 0.05) while the mean pain scores and analgesic requirements the first day after surgery were higher in group C (p < 0.05). Because of lower desflurane consumption, a superior recovery profile, and a high degree of patient acceptance, general anaesthesia in combination with interscalene block may be preferred in arthroscopic shoulder surgery. The trial registration number is ACTRN12613000381785.

  12. Two-year outcomes of open shoulder anterior capsular reconstruction for instability from severe capsular deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dewing, Christopher B; Horan, Marilee P; Millett, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    To document outcomes after anterior capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent shoulder instability in 15 patients (20 shoulders) who have had multiple failed stabilizations or collagen disorders. Twenty shoulders with recurrent instability underwent revision stabilization with allograft reconstruction of anterior capsulolabral structures, which re-creates the labrum and capsular ligaments. The patients comprised 3 men and 12 women (mean age, 26 years [range, 18 to 38 years]) in whom multiple prior repairs failed and who had disability from continued pain and instability. Patients could choose to undergo either arthrodesis or salvage allograft reconstruction or to live with permanent disability. Of the patients, 5 had Ehlers-Danlos syndrome whereas 10 had hyperlaxity syndromes without genetic confirmation. Failure was defined as further instability surgery. Pain, shoulder function, instability (dislocations/subluxation), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores were documented. At follow-up, 9 of 20 shoulders (45%) remained stable. Recurrent instability was reported in 5 shoulders (25%), but the patients chose not to undergo further surgery. In the 14 shoulders without further stabilization (nonfailures), the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score increased 43 points at a mean of 3.8 years (range, 2 to 6 years) postoperatively (P < .05). Mean satisfaction with outcome in nonfailures was 7 of 10 points (range, 1 to 10). Six shoulders failed by progressing to instability surgery at a mean of 8.6 months (range, 2.8 to 24 months). In the 6 shoulders that failed, the mean number of prior surgeries was 8 (range, 3 to 15) compared with a mean of 4 prior surgeries (range, 1 to 16) for the 9 nonfailures. Treating patients in whom multiple stabilizations have failed remains challenging. In our series 9 shoulders (45%) remained completely stable at 3.8 years. Recurrent instability (3 reinjuries) requiring further stabilization occurred in 6 (30%). Subsequent

  13. Sham surgery versus labral repair or biceps tenodesis for type II SLAP lesions of the shoulder: a three-armed randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Schrøder, Cecilie Piene; Skare, Øystein; Reikerås, Olav; Mowinckel, Petter; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2017-12-01

    Labral repair and biceps tenodesis are routine operations for superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) lesion of the shoulder, but evidence of their efficacy is lacking. We evaluated the effect of labral repair, biceps tenodesis and sham surgery on SLAP lesions. A double-blind, sham-controlled trial was conducted with 118 surgical candidates (mean age 40 years), with patient history, clinical symptoms and MRI arthrography indicating an isolated type II SLAP lesion. Patients were randomly assigned to either labral repair (n=40), biceps tenodesis (n=39) or sham surgery (n=39) if arthroscopy revealed an isolated SLAP II lesion. Primary outcomes at 6 and 24 months were clinical Rowe score ranging from 0 to 100 (best possible) and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) ranging from 0 (best possible) to 2100. Secondary outcomes were Oxford Instability Shoulder Score, change in main symptoms, EuroQol (EQ-5D and EQ-VAS), patient satisfaction and complications. There were no significant between-group differences at any follow-up in any outcome. Between-group differences in Rowe scores at 2 years were: biceps tenodesis versus labral repair: 1.0 (95% CI -5.4 to 7.4), p=0.76; biceps tenodesis versus sham surgery: 1.6 (95% CI -5.0 to 8.1), p=0.64; and labral repair versus sham surgery: 0.6 (95% CI -5.9 to 7.0), p=0.86. Similar results-no differences between groups-were found for WOSI scores. Postoperative stiffness occurred in five patients after labral repair and in four patients after tenodesis. Neither labral repair nor biceps tenodesis had any significant clinical benefit over sham surgery for patients with SLAP II lesions in the population studied. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00586742. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Glenoid bone grafting in primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ernstbrunner, Lukas; Werthel, Jean-David; Wagner, Eric; Hatta, Taku; Sperling, John W; Cofield, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Severe glenoid bone loss remains a challenge in patients requiring shoulder arthroplasty and may necessitate glenoid bone grafting. The purpose of this study was to determine results, complications, and rates of failure of glenoid bone grafting in primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Forty-one shoulders that underwent primary reverse arthroplasty between 2006 and 2013 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years (mean, 2.8 years; range, 2-6 years) were reviewed. Thirty-four (83%) received corticocancellous grafts and 7 (17%) structural grafts. Active range of motion and pain levels were significantly improved (P < .001), with mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score of 77, Simple Shoulder Test score of 9, and patient satisfaction of 93% at the most recent follow-up. Preoperative severe glenoid erosion and increasing body mass index were significantly associated with worse American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores (P = .04). On radiographic evaluation, 7 patients (18%) had grade 1 or grade 2 glenoid lucency. Glenoid bone graft incorporation was observed in 31 patients (78%). Twelve patients (30%) suffered from grade 1 or grade 2 scapular notching. All of the patients with structural grafts showed graft incorporation and no signs of glenoid lucency. Although glenoid lucency, glenoid graft resorption, and scapular notching were present at short-term to midterm follow-up, none of the patients needed revision surgery. Primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty with glenoid reconstruction using bone graft relieved pain and restored shoulder function and stability. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Online resources for shoulder instability: what are patients reading?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Grant H; Taylor, Samuel A; Dy, Christopher J; Christ, Alexander; Patel, Ronak M; Dines, Joshua S

    2014-10-15

    Evaluations of the medical literature suggest that many online sites provide poor-quality information. The purpose of our study was to investigate the value of online resources for patient education about shoulder instability. Three search terms ("shoulder instability," "loose shoulder," and "shoulder dislocation") were entered into three Internet search engines. Three orthopaedic residents independently gauged the quality and accuracy of the information with use of a set of predetermined scoring criteria, in addition to noting whether or not four potential surgery options were mentioned. The readability of the web sites was evaluated with use of the Flesch-Kincaid score. Eighty-two unique web sites were evaluated. Quality and accuracy were significantly higher with use of the term "shoulder instability" compared with the term "loose shoulder" (quality, p < 0.001; accuracy, p = 0.001). However, the reading level was significantly more advanced for the "shoulder instability" web sites (p < 0.001). Quality was significantly higher on web sites with reading levels above the eighth grade level (p = 0.001) (88% of web sites). Only twenty-three sites (28%) mentioned surgical options for shoulder instability, and of these, only eight mentioned thermal capsulorrhaphy as a primary treatment. Online information regarding shoulder instability is often inaccurate and/or at an inappropriately high reading level. The quality of information is highly dependent on the specific search term used. Clinicians need to be aware of the information that is available online and should help direct patients to proper sites and guide Internet search terms. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  16. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for deltoid-deficient shoulder following latissimus dorsi flap transfer. Case report.

    PubMed

    Dosari, Mohamed Al Ateeq Al; Hameed, Shamsi; Mukhtar, Khalid; Elmhiregh, Aissam

    2017-01-01

    The usual indication for reverse shoulder arthroplasty is glenohumeral arthritis with inadequate rotator cuff and intact deltoid muscle. We report here a case of reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a lattisimus dorsi flap in a patient with deltoid-deficient shoulder following a gunshot injury. The patient was an otherwise healthy 51-year-old male with a history of gunshot injury of the left shoulder 2006. Upon presentation in 2011, the patient had a loss of most of his shoulder bony and muscular structures. Due to deltoid muscle deficiency, the patient underwent Lattisimus Dorsi muscle flap followed by reverse shoulder arthroplasty in order to establish an upper limb function. Upon discharge, 11days after the surgery, the patient was able to achieve 150° flexion and 90° abduction while in the supine position and 45° in each direction, while sitting. He was able to perform internal rotation (behind back) up to the level of the L1 vertebra, assisted active abduction of 90°, and external rotation of 20°. Power tests showed power of grade 4/5 for both shoulder flexion and extension and grade 2+/5 for both abduction and adduction. At the last follow up one year after the operation, The patient still had passive pain-free full range of motion, but no progress in active range of motion beyond that upon discharge. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty after Latissmus dori flap in patient with deltoid deficient shoulders can be a successful and reproducible approach to treat such conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Arthroscopic findings after shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    Hintermann, B; Gächter, A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the arthroscopic findings of the unstable shoulder, to provide insights into the causes and mechanisms of shoulder instability, and to establish a rationale for using special surgical procedures. Arthroscopic examination was performed on 212 patients who had at least 1 documented shoulder dislocation. Of these 212 patients, 184 (87%) patients had anterior glenoid labral tears, 168 (79%) patients had ventral capsule insufficiency, 144 (68%) patients had Hill-Sachs compression fractures, 116 (55%) patients had glenohumeral ligament insufficiency, 30 (14%) patients had complete rotator cuff tendon tears, 26 (12%) patients had posterior glenoid labral tears, 14 (7%) patients had superior labrum anterior and inferior lesions. As this prospective study shows, multiple morphologic changes are associated with instability of the glenohumeral joint; there is no single cause for an unstable shoulder. Arthroscopic examination of the shoulder before surgery revealed a significant amount of information that would have been undetected without the aid of expensive diagnostic tools. For instance, the labrum and rim of the anteroinferior glenoid showed typical abnormalities corresponding to different entities of anterior instability.

  18. Parecoxib increases muscle pain threshold and relieves shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hufei; Liu, Xinhe; Jiang, Hongye; Liu, Zimeng; Zhang, Xu-Yu; Xie, Hong-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Postlaparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP) remains a common problem after laparoscopies. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure pain threshold (PPT) of different muscles and PLSP after gynecologic laparoscopy, and to explore the effect of parecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on the changes of PPT. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups; group P and group C. In group P, parecoxib 40 mg was intravenously infused at 30 minutes before surgery and 8 and 20 hours after surgery. In group C, normal saline was infused at the corresponding time point. PPT assessment was performed 1 day before surgery and at postoperative 24 hours by using a pressure algometer at bilateral shoulder muscles (levator scapulae and supraspinatus) and forearm (flexor carpi ulnaris). Meanwhile, bilateral shoulder pain was evaluated through visual analog scale score at 24 hours after surgery. Preoperative PPT level of the shoulder, but not of the forearm, was significantly and negatively correlated with the intensity of ipsilateral PLSP. In group C, PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, decreased after laparoscopy at postoperative 24 hours. The use of parecoxib significantly improved the decline of PPT levels of bilateral shoulder muscles (all P <0.01). Meanwhile, parecoxib reduced the incidence of PLSP (group P: 45% vs group C: 83.3%; odds ratio: 0.164; 95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.382; P <0.001) and the intensity of bilateral shoulder pain (both P <0.01). Preoperative PPT levels of shoulder muscles are closely associated with the severity of shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy. PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, significantly decreased after surgery. Parecoxib improved the decrease of PPT and relieved PLSP.

  19. Arthroscopic Management of Anterior, Posterior, and Multidirectional Shoulder Instabilities.

    PubMed

    Field, Larry D; Ryu, Richard K N; Abrams, Jeffrey S; Provencher, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization offers several potential advantages compared with open surgery, including the opportunity to more accurately evaluate the glenohumeral joint at the time of diagnostic assessment; comprehensively address multiple pathologic lesions that may be identified; and avoid potential complications unique to open stabilization, such as postoperative subscapularis failure. A thorough understanding of normal shoulder anatomy and biomechanics, along with the pathoanatomy responsible for anterior, posterior, and multidirectional shoulder instability patterns, is very important in the management of patients who have shoulder instability. The treating physician also must be familiar with diagnostic imaging and physical examination maneuvers that are required to accurately diagnose shoulder instability.

  20. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in patients with os acromiale.

    PubMed

    Aibinder, William R; Schoch, Bradley S; Cofield, Robert H; Sperling, John W; Sánchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2017-09-01

    Os acromiale has been reported in up to 15% of the general population. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) increases deltoid tension, which could potentially lead to excessive stress on a pre-existent os acromiale. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome and complications of primary RTSA in patients with radiographic evidence of an os acromiale. Between 2005 and 2013, 25 shoulders underwent primary RTSA with an associated os acromiale, which was classified preacromion (3), mesoacromion (20), and meta-acromion (2). All patients were observed for a minimum of 2 years or until reoperation. Mean follow-up time was 30.8 (range, 1-81.4) months. Outcomes included pain scores, range of motion, patient satisfaction, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, and radiographic outcomes. RTSA led to an improvement in pain scores in 24 of 25 shoulders. Mean elevation, external rotation, and internal rotation were improved at final follow-up (124°, 46°, and L4, respectively). Three patients required reoperation, including revision surgery for dislocation (2) and excision of a painful os acromiale (1). Postoperative tilting of the os acromiale was noted in 7 shoulders (28%). There was no statistically significant difference in any outcome measures between shoulders with and shoulders without postoperative tilt of the os acromiale. The outcome of RTSA does not seem to be negatively affected by the presence of an os acromiale. Pain around an os acromiale after RTSA is rare. Inferior tilting is observed in approximately one-third of the shoulders after RTSA and does not seem to change the overall outcome. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test for diagnosing cubital tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Kensuke; Horiuchi, Yukio; Tanabe, Aya; Waseda, Makoto; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Koyanagi, Takahiro

    2012-06-01

    Shoulder internal rotation enhances symptom provocation attributed to cubital tunnel syndrome. We present a modified elbow flexion test--the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test--for diagnosing cubital tunnel syndrome. Fifty-five ulnar nerves in cubital tunnel syndrome patients and 123 ulnar nerves in controls were examined with 5 seconds each of elbow flexion, shoulder internal rotation, and shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion tests before and after treatment (surgery in 18; conservative in others). For the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test position, 90° abduction, maximum internal rotation, and 10° flexion of the shoulder were combined with the elbow flexion test position. The test was considered positive if any symptom for cubital tunnel syndrome developed <5 seconds. Influence of the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test was evaluated by nerve conduction studies in 10 cubital tunnel syndrome nerves and 7 control nerves. The sensitivities/specificities of the 5-second elbow flexion, shoulder internal rotation, and shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion tests were 25%/100%, 58%/100%, and 87%/98%, respectively. Sensitivity differences between the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test and the other two tests were significant. Shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test results and cubital tunnel syndrome symptoms were significantly correlated. Influence of the shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test on the ulnar nerve was seen in 8 of 10 cubital tunnel syndrome nerves but not in controls. The 5-second shoulder internal rotation elbow flexion test is specific, easy and quick provocative test for diagnosing cubital tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Shoulder-Stabilizing Braces: Can We Prevent Shoulder Labrum Injury in Collegiate Offensive Linemen?

    PubMed

    Baker, Hayden P; Tjong, Vehniah K; Dunne, Kevin F; Lindley, Tory R; Terry, Michael A

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder injuries remain one of the most common injuries among collegiate football athletes. Offensive linemen in particular are prone to posterior labral pathology. To evaluate the efficacy of shoulder bracing in collegiate offensive linemen with respect to injury prevention, severity, and lost playing time. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Offensive linemen at a single collegiate institution wore bilateral shoulder-stabilizing braces for every contact practice and game beginning in the spring of 2013. Between spring of 2007 and fall of 2012, offensive linemen did not wear any shoulder braces. Player injury data were collected for all contact practices and games throughout these time periods to highlight differences with brace use. Forty-five offensive linemen (90 shoulders) participated in spring and fall college football seasons between 2007 and 2015. There were 145 complete offensive linemen seasons over the course of the study. Offensive linemen not wearing shoulder braces completed 87 seasons; offensive linemen wearing shoulder braces completed 58 seasons. Posterior labral tear injury rates were calculated for players who wore the shoulder braces (0.71 per 1000 athlete-exposures) compared with shoulders of players who did not wear the braces (1.90 per 1000 athlete-exposures). The risk ratio was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.16-1.30; P = .14). Mean time (contact practices and games) missed due to injury was significant, favoring less time missed by players who used braces (8.7 vs 36.60 contact practices and games missed due to injury; P = .0019). No significant difference in shoulder labral tears requiring surgery was found for brace use compared with no brace use. Shoulder-stabilizing braces were shown not to prevent posterior labral tears among collegiate offensive lineman, although they were associated with less time lost to injury. The results of this study have clinical significance, indicating that wearing a shoulder brace provides a protective factor for offensive

  3. A history of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Flatow, Evan L; Harrison, Alicia K

    2011-09-01

    Management of the cuff-deficient arthritic shoulder has long been challenging. Early unconstrained shoulder arthroplasty systems were associated with high complication and implant failure rates. The evolution toward the modern reverse shoulder arthroplasty includes many variables of constrained shoulder arthroplasty designs. This review explores the development of reverse shoulder arthroplasty, specifically describing (1) the evolution of reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs, (2) the biomechanical variations in the evolution of this arthroplasty, and (3) the current issues relevant to reverse shoulder arthroplasty today. Using a PubMed search, the literature was explored for articles addressing reverse shoulder arthroplasty, focusing on those papers with historical context. Results of the early designs were apparently poor, although they were not subjected to rigorous clinical research and usually reported only in secondary literature. We identified a trend of glenoid component failure in the early reverse designs. This trend was recognized and reported by authors as the reverse shoulder evolved. Authors reported greater pain relief and better function in reverse shoulder arthroplasty with the fundamental change of Grammont's design (moving the center of rotation medially and distally). However, current reports suggest lingering concerns and challenges with today's designs. The history of reverse shoulder arthroplasty involves the designs of many forward-thinking surgeons. Many of these highly constrained systems failed, although more recent designs have demonstrated improved longevity and implant performance. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty requires ongoing study, with challenges and controversies remaining around present-day designs.

  4. Neer Award 2016: Outpatient total shoulder arthroplasty in an ambulatory surgery center is a safe alternative to inpatient total shoulder arthroplasty in a hospital: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Tyler J; Mulligan, Ryan P; Azar, Frederick M; Throckmorton, Thomas W

    2017-02-01

    Recent emphasis on safe and efficient delivery of high-quality health care has increased interest in outpatient total joint arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of outpatient total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) by comparing episode-of-care complications in matched cohorts of patients with anatomic TSA as an outpatient or inpatient procedure. Thirty patients with outpatient TSA at a freestanding ambulatory surgery center (ASC) were compared with an age- and comorbidities-matched cohort of 30 patients with traditional inpatient TSA to evaluate 90-day episode-of-care complications, including hospital admissions or readmissions and reoperations. Two-tailed t-tests were used to evaluate differences, and differences of P < .05 were considered statistically significant. No significant differences were found between the ASC and hospital cohorts regarding average age, preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists score, operative indications, or body mass index. No patient required reoperation. There were no hospital admissions from the ASC cohort and no readmissions from the hospital cohort. Minor complications in the ASC cohort were arthrofibrosis in 2 patients and mild asymptomatic anterior subluxation in 1 patient; the only major complication was in an outpatient who fell 11 weeks after surgery and disrupted his subscapularis repair. Three minor complications in the hospital cohort were mild asymptomatic anterior subluxation, blood transfusion, and superficial venous thrombosis. The complication rates (13% vs. 10%) were not significantly different. Outpatient TSA is a safe alternative to hospital admission in appropriately selected patients. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the longer term outcomes and cost-effectiveness of outpatient TSA. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gunpowder, the Prince of Wales's feathers and the origins of modern military surgery.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2012-04-01

    The history of military surgery claims many forebears. The first surgeon-soldiers were Homer's Machaon and Podalirius, followed a thousand years later by the Roman surgeons-general, Antonius Musa and Euphorbus; and later, e.g. Ambrose Paré, John Hunter and Sir John Pringle; and the 19th century innovators, Dominique-Jean Larrey (France), Friedrich von Esmarch (Prussia) and the Russian, Nikolai Pirogoff. The singular feature that distinguished modern military surgery from its earlier practice was the use of gunpowder. It was one of two inventions (the other was printing) that by the empowerment of individuals, lifted Western humankind from the medieval to the modern era. Research of primary and secondary archives. Gunpowder was first used in European warfare at Algeceras (1344-1368). Hitherto, the destruction of tissue had been the result of (relative) low-energy wounding with tissue damage caused by incisional or crushing wounds. The founder of modern surgery, Master John of Arderne (1307-1380), wrote of his experience gained as a military surgeon on the battlefield at Crecy (1346). Following Crecy, Arderne was the only chronicler who described the origins of the Prince of Wales's feathers as a royal and later commercial symbol, and the motto 'Ich Dien', 'I serve', as that of hospitals in the Western World. Later advances in military surgery incorporated both clinical experimentation and the innovation of new systems of pre-hospital battlefield care. © 2012 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. [Imaging evaluation on adaptability of proximal humeral anatomy after shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Shi, Youxing; Tang, Kanglai; Yuan, Chengsong; Tao, Xu; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Bo; Guo, Yupeng

    2015-03-24

    Modern shoulder prosthesis has evolved through four generations. And the fourth generation technology has a core three-dimensional design of restoring 3D reconstruction of proximal humeral anatomy. Thus a new shoulder prosthesis is developed on the basis of the technology of 3D prosthesis. Assessment of whether shoulder prosthesis can restore individualized reconstruction of proximal humeral anatomy is based on the adaptability of proximal humeral anatomy. To evaluate the adaptability of proximal humeral anatomy through measuring the parameters of proximal humeral anatomy after shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis and compare with normal data. The parameters of proximal humeral anatomy were analyzed and evaluated for a total of 12 cases undergoing shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis. The relevant anatomical parameters included neck-shaft angle (NSA), retroversion angle (RA), humeral head height (HH) and humeral head diameter (HD). And the anatomical parameters were compared with the data from normal side. All underwent shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis. The postoperative parameters of proximal humeral anatomy were compared with those of normal side. And the difference of NSA was < 3°, RA < 3°, HH < 3 mm and HD < 2 mm. And paired-sample t test was used to study the parameters of proximal humeral anatomy between postoperative and normal side. The normal and postoperative NSA was (140.2 ± 6.8)° and (139.5 ± 6.6)° respectively, RA (34.4 ± 3.3)° and (33.8-3.1)°, HH (15.3 ± 2.1) mm and (14.6+0.9) mm, HW (42.2 ± 2.82) mm and (41.8 ± 2.33) mm respectively. No significant difference existed between two groups (P > 0.05). Individualized shoulder prosthesis has excellent adaptability to shoulder. All core parameters are freely adjustable and specification models may be optimized. With matching tools, individualized shoulder prosthesis improves the accuracy and reliability in shoulder

  7. Shoulder arthroplasty for sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Werthel, Jean-David; Schoch, Bradley; Sperling, John W; Cofield, Robert; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-05-01

    Polio infection can often lead to orthopedic complications such as arthritis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness, skeletal deformation, and chronic instability of the joints. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes and associated complications of arthroplasty in shoulders with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Seven patients (average age, 70 years) were treated between 1976 and 2013 with shoulder arthroplasty for the sequelae of polio. One patient underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty, 2 had a hemiarthroplasty, and 4 had total shoulder arthroplasty. Average follow-up was 87 months. Outcome measures included pain, range of motion, and postoperative modified Neer ratings. Overall pain scores improved from 5 to 1.6 points (on a 5-point scale) after shoulder arthroplasty. Six shoulders had no or mild pain at latest follow-up, and 6 shoulders rated the result as much better or better. Mean shoulder elevation improved from 72° to 129°, and external rotation improved from 11° to 56°. Average strength in elevation decreased from 3.9 to 3.4 postoperatively, and external rotation strength decreased from 3.9 to 3.3. This, however, did not reach significance. Evidence of muscle imbalance with radiographic instability was found in 4 shoulders that demonstrated superior subluxation, anterior subluxation, or both. This remained asymptomatic. No shoulder required revision or reoperation. Shoulder arthroplasty provides significant pain relief and improved motion in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Muscle weakness may be responsible for postoperative instability, and careful selection of the patient with good upper extremity muscles must be made. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Deficits in Glenohumeral Passive Range of Motion Increase Risk of Shoulder Injury in Professional Baseball Pitchers: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Porterfield, Ron A; Harker, Paul; Evans, Timothy J; Andrews, James R

    2015-10-01

    Shoulder injuries from repetitive baseball pitching continue to be a serious, common problem. To determine whether passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint was predictive of shoulder injury or shoulder surgery in professional baseball pitchers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with a bubble goniometer during spring training for all major and minor league pitchers of a single professional baseball organization over a period of 8 successive seasons (2005-2012). Investigators performed a total of 505 examinations on 296 professional pitchers. Glenohumeral external and internal rotation was assessed with the pitcher supine and the arm abducted to 90° in the scapular plane with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. Total rotation was defined as the sum of internal and external glenohumeral rotation. Passive shoulder flexion was measured with the pitcher supine and the lateral border of the scapula manually stabilized. After examination, shoulder injuries and injury durations were recorded by each pitcher's respective baseball organization and reported to the league as an injury transaction as each player was placed on the disabled list. Highly significant side-to-side differences were noted within subjects for each range of motion measurement. There were 75 shoulder injuries and 20 surgeries recorded among 51 pitchers, resulting in 5570 total days on the disabled list. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, total rotation deficit, and flexion deficit were not significantly related to shoulder injury or surgery. Pitchers with insufficient external rotation (<5° greater external rotation in the throwing shoulder) were 2.2 times more likely to be placed on the disabled list for a shoulder injury (P = .014; 95% CI, 1.2-4.1) and were 4.0 times more likely to require shoulder surgery (P = .009; 95% CI, 1.5-12.6). Insufficient shoulder external rotation on the throwing side

  9. Return to sports after shoulder arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christine C; Johnson, Daniel J; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Garcia, Grant H

    2016-01-01

    Many patients prioritize the ability to return to sports following shoulder replacement surgeries, including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), and hemiarthroplasty (HA). While activity levels after hip and knee replacements have been well-established in the literature, studies on this topic in the field of shoulder arthroplasty are relatively limited. A review of the literature regarding athletic activity after shoulder arthroplasty was performed using the PubMed database. All studies relevant to shoulder arthroplasty and return to sport were included. The majority of patients returned to their prior level of activity within six months following TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA. Noncontact, low demand activities are permitted by most surgeons postoperatively and generally have higher return rates than contact sports or high-demand activities. In some series, patients reported an improvement in their ability to participate in sports following the arthroplasty procedure. The rates of return to sports following TSA (75%-100%) are slightly higher than those reported for HA (67%-76%) and RTSA (75%-85%). Patients undergoing TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA should be counseled that there is a high probability that they will be able to return to their preoperative activity level within six months postoperatively. TSA has been associated with higher rates of return to sports than RTSA and HA, although this may reflect differences in patient population or surgical indication. PMID:27672564

  10. Shoulder Pain, Functional Status, and Health-Related Quality of Life after Head and Neck Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Keck, Juanita F.; Weaver, Michael T.; Mikesky, Alan; Bunnell, Karen; Buelow, Janice M.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients experience treatment-related complications that may interfere with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this study was to describe the symptom experience (shoulder pain) and functional status factors that are related to global and domain-specific HRQOL at one month after HNC surgery. In this exploratory study, we examined 29 patients. The outcome variables included global HRQOL as well as physical, functional, emotional, and social well-being. Symptom experience and functional status factors were the independent variables. In the symptom experience variables, shoulder pain distress was negatively associated with physical well-being (R 2 = 0.24). Among the functional status variables, eating impairment was negatively related to global HRQOL (R 2 = 0.18) and physical well-being (R 2 = 0.21). Speaking impairment and impaired body image explained a large amount of the variance in functional well-being (R 2 = 0.45). This study provided initial results regarding symptom experience and functional status factors related to poor HRQOL in the early postoperative period for HNC patients. PMID:24455274

  11. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; McCulloch, P.; Van Baalen, Mary; Minard, Charles; Watson, Richard; Blatt, T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: For every one hour spent performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, astronauts in the US space program spend approximately six to ten hours training in the EVA spacesuit at NASA-Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL). In 1997, NASA introduced the planar hard upper torso (HUT) EVA spacesuit which subsequently replaced the existing pivoted HUT. An extra joint in the pivoted shoulder allows increased mobility but also increased complexity. Over the next decade a number of astronauts developed shoulder problems requiring surgical intervention, many of whom performed EVA training in the NBL. This study investigated whether changing HUT designs led to shoulder injuries requiring surgical repair. Methods: US astronaut EVA training data and spacesuit design employed were analyzed from the NBL data. Shoulder surgery data was acquired from the medical record database, and causal mechanisms were obtained from personal interviews Analysis of the individual HUT designs was performed as it related to normal shoulder biomechanics. Results: To date, 23 US astronauts have required 25 shoulder surgeries. Approximately 48% (11/23) directly attributed their injury to training in the planar HUT, whereas none attributed their injury to training in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT design limits shoulder abduction to 90 degrees compared to approximately 120 degrees in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT also forces the shoulder into a forward flexed position requiring active retraction and extension to increase abduction beyond 90 degrees. Discussion: Multiple factors are associated with mechanisms leading to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Limitations to normal shoulder mechanics, suit fit, donning/doffing, body position, pre-existing injury, tool weight and configuration, age, in-suit activity, and HUT design have all been identified as potential sources of injury. Conclusion: Crewmembers with pre-existing or current shoulder injuries or certain

  12. Do Astronauts Havbe a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions Than a Cohort of Working Professionals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Young, M.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Tarver, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated [1], but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  13. Phrenic palsy and analgesic quality of continuous supraclavicular vs. interscalene plexus blocks after shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, T; Feldmann, C; Müller, H H; Nentwig, L; Beermann, A; El-Zayat, B F; Zoremba, M; Wulf, H; Steinfeldt, T

    2016-09-01

    Hemidiaphragmatic palsy is a common consequence of the interscalene brachial plexus block. It occurs less commonly with the supraclavicular approach. Register data suggest that the analgesic quality of a supraclavicular blockade is sufficient for arthroscopic shoulder surgery, although data on the post-operative analgesic effect are lacking. After approval by the ethics committee, patients having arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized to receive a continuous interscalene or supraclavicular blockade. Phrenic nerve function was evaluated through ultrasound examination of the diaphragm in combination with spirometry. Pain scores at rest and activity etc. were determined before catheter insertion, during observation in the post- anaesthesia care unit (PACU) and on post-operative day 1 (POD1). The initial application of 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.2% was followed by continuous application of 4 ml of ropivacaine 0.2%, plus a patient controlled analgesia (PCA) bolus of 4 ml/h. One hundred and twenty patients were randomized, of which 114 data sets were analysed. Complete hemidiaphragmatic paresis occurred in 43% of the interscalene group vs. 24% in the supraclavicular group during PACU stay. Rates of dyspnoea and hoarseness were similar. Horner's syndrome occurred in 21% of the interscalene but only 3% of the supraclavicular group on POD1. Pain scores were comparable for pain at rest and during stress at each time point. This trial showed a significantly greater incidence of phrenic nerve palsy of the interscalene group in PACU, but not on POD1. Post-operative analgesic quality was similar in both groups. Continuous supraclavicular blockade is a suitable alternative to the continuous interscalene technique. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Obesity-related adipokines predict patient-reported shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Perruccio, Anthony V; Rizek, Randy; Dessouki, Omar; Evans, Heather M K; Mahomed, Nizar N

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, an inflammatory modulating effect of adipokines within synovial joints is being recognized. To date, there has been no work examining a potential association between the presence of adipokines in the shoulder and patient-reported outcomes. This study undertakes an investigation assessing these potential links. 50 osteoarthritis patients scheduled for shoulder surgery completed a pre-surgery questionnaire capturing demographic information including validated, patient-reported function (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire) and pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire) measures. Synovial fluid (SF) samples were analyzed for leptin, adiponectin, and resistin levels using Milliplex MAP assays. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the association between adipokine levels and patient-reported outcomes, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and disease severity. 54% of the cohort was female (n = 27). The mean age (SD) of the sample was 62.9 (9.9) years and the mean BMI (SD) was 28.1 (5.4) kg/m(2). From regression analyses, greater SF leptin and adiponectin levels, but not regarding resistin, were found to be associated with greater pain (p < 0.05). Adipokine levels were not associated with functional outcome scores. The identified association between shoulder-derived SF leptin and adiponectin and shoulder pain is likely explained by the pro-inflammatory characteristics of the adipokines and represents potentially important therapeutic targets. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Arthroscopic Findings in Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Hantes, Michael; Raoulis, Vasilios

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the last years, basic research and arthroscopic surgery, have improved our understanding of shoulder anatomy and pathology. It is a fact that arthroscopic treatment of shoulder instability has evolved considerably over the past decades. The aim of this paper is to present the variety of pathologies that should be identified and treated during shoulder arthroscopy when dealing with anterior shoulder instability cases. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding arthroscopic shoulder anatomy, anatomic variants, and arthroscopic findings in anterior shoulder instability, is presented. In addition, correlation of arthroscopic findings with physical examination and advanced imaging (CT and MRI) in order to improve our understanding in anterior shoulder instability pathology is discussed. Results: Shoulder instability represents a broad spectrum of disease and a thorough understanding of the pathoanatomy is the key for a successful treatment of the unstable shoulder. Patients can have a variety of pathologies concomitant with a traditional Bankart lesion, such as injuries of the glenoid (bony Bankart), injuries of the glenoid labrum, superiorly (SLAP) or anteroinferiorly (e.g. anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion, and Perthes), capsular lesions (humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament), and accompanying osseous-cartilage lesions (Hill-Sachs, glenolabral articular disruption). Shoulder arthroscopy allows for a detailed visualization and a dynamic examination of all anatomic structures, identification of pathologic findings, and treatment of all concomitant lesions. Conclusion: Surgeons must be well prepared and understanding the normal anatomy of the glenohumeral joint, including its anatomic variants to seek for the possible pathologic lesions in anterior shoulder instability during shoulder arthroscopy. Patient selection criteria, improved surgical techniques, and implants available have contributed to the enhancement of

  16. Postoperative stiff shoulder after open rotator cuff repair: a 3- to 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Vastamäki, H; Vastamäki, M

    2014-12-01

    Stiffness after a rotator cuff tear is common. So is stiffness after an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. In the literature, however, postoperative restriction of passive range of motion after open rotator cuff repair in shoulders with free passive range of motion at surgery has seldom been recognized. We hypothesize that this postoperative stiffness is more frequent than recognized and slows the primary postoperative healing after a rotator cuff reconstruction. We wondered how common is postoperative restriction of both active and passive range of motion after open rotator cuff repair in shoulders with free passive preoperative range of motion, how it recovers, and whether this condition influences short- and long-term results of surgery. We also explored factors predicting postoperative shoulder stiffness. We retrospectively identified 103 postoperative stiff shoulders among 416 consecutive open rotator cuff repairs, evaluating incidence and duration of stiffness, short-term clinical results and long-term range of motion, pain relief, shoulder strength, and functional results 3-20 (mean 8.7) years after surgery in 56 patients. The incidence of postoperative shoulder stiffness was 20%. It delayed primary postoperative healing by 3-6 months and resolved during a mean 6.3 months postoperatively. External rotation resolved first, corresponding to that of the controls at 3 months; flexion and abduction took less than 1 year after surgery. The mean summarized range of motion (flexion + abduction + external rotation) increased as high as 93% of the controls' range of motion by 6 months and 100% by 1 year. Flexion, abduction, and internal rotation improved to the level of the contralateral shoulders as did pain, strength, and function. Age at surgery and condition of the biceps tendon were related to postoperative stiffness. Postoperative stiff shoulder after open rotator cuff repair is a common complication resolving in 6-12 months with good long-term results. © The

  17. Comparing conventional and computer-assisted surgery baseplate and screw placement in reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Venne, Gabriel; Rasquinha, Brian J; Pichora, David; Ellis, Randy E; Bicknell, Ryan

    2015-07-01

    Preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation technologies have each been shown separately to be beneficial for optimizing screw and baseplate positioning in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) but to date have not been combined. This study describes development of a system for performing computer-assisted RSA glenoid baseplate and screw placement, including preoperative planning, intraoperative navigation, and postoperative evaluation, and compares this system with a conventional approach. We used a custom-designed system allowing computed tomography (CT)-based preoperative planning, intraoperative navigation, and postoperative evaluation. Five orthopedic surgeons defined common preoperative plans on 3-dimensional CT reconstructed cadaveric shoulders. Each surgeon performed 3 computer-assisted and 3 conventional simulated procedures. The 3-dimensional CT reconstructed postoperative units were digitally matched to the preoperative model for evaluation of entry points, end points, and angulations of screws and baseplate. Values were used to find accuracy and precision of the 2 groups with respect to the defined placement. Statistical analysis was performed by t tests (α = .05). Comparison of the groups revealed no difference in accuracy or precision of screws or baseplate entry points (P > .05). Accuracy and precision were improved with use of navigation for end points and angulations of 3 screws (P < .05). Accuracy of the inferior screw showed a trend of improvement with navigation (P > .05). Navigated baseplate end point precision was improved (P < .05), with a trend toward improved accuracy (P > .05). We conclude that CT-based preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation allow improved accuracy and precision for screw placement and precision for baseplate positioning with respect to a predefined placement compared with conventional techniques in RSA. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by

  18. Thromboembolism Following Shoulder Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Cameron W.; Westermann, Robert W.; Gao, Yubo; Abboud, Joseph A.; Wolf, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thromboembolism following shoulder arthroscopy is considered an uncommon complication, with fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature. Arthroscopy of the shoulder is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures, with low associated risks. Purpose: To identify potential risk factors for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following shoulder arthroscopy and to determine the overall incidence of this complication. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A retrospective case-control review was performed of patients who developed symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) following shoulder arthroscopy. Multiple surgeons from across North America were queried. For every case of DVT or PE identified, 2 control cases of shoulder arthroscopy were analyzed. The incidence of DVT/PE following shoulder arthroscopy was determined. A univariate analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model were conducted to identify any potential risk factors for the development of VTE following shoulder arthroscopy. Results: A total of 17 surgeons participated in this study and had performed a total of 15,033 cases of shoulder arthroscopy from September 2002 through August 2011. Eleven of the 17 participating surgeons had had a patient with a VTE complication during this time frame. The incidence of VTE in the 15,033 cases was 0.15%; 22 patients of the 15,033 patients had a DVT (n = 15) and/or PE (n = 8). Forty-four control cases were also analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. No significant risk factors were identified other than patient positioning. All cases and controls were positioned in the beach-chair position for surgery. Conclusion: The results of this study show that although rare, VTE occurs following shoulder arthroscopy at a rate of 0.15%. The variables analyzed in the cases of VTE compared with the control cases did not show any significant risk factors. All

  19. Association between temporal mean arterial pressure and brachial noninvasive blood pressure during shoulder surgery in the beach chair position during general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Triplet, Jacob J; Lonetta, Christopher M; Everding, Nathan G; Moor, Molly A; Levy, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of cerebral perfusion pressure during elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position is regularly performed by noninvasive brachial blood pressure (NIBP) measurements. The relationship between brachial mean arterial pressure and estimated temporal mean arterial pressure (eTMAP) is not well established and may vary with patient positioning. Establishing a ratio between eTMAP and NIBP at varying positions may provide a more accurate estimation of cerebral perfusion using noninvasive measurements. This prospective study included 57 patients undergoing elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. All patients received an interscalene block and general anesthesia. After the induction of general anesthesia, values for eTMAP and NIBP were recorded at 0°, 30°, and 70° of incline. A statistically significant, strong, and direct correlation between NIBP and eTMAP was found at 0° (r = 0.909, P ≤ .001), 30° (r = 0.874, P < .001), and 70° (r = 0.819, P < .001) of incline. The mean ratios of eTMAP to NIBP at 0°, 30°, and 70° of incline were 0.939 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.915-0.964), 0.738 (95% CI, 0.704-0.771), and 0.629 (95% CI, 0.584-0.673), respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in the eTMAP/NIBP ratio as patient incline increased from 0° to 30° (P < .001) and from 30° to 70° (P < .001). The eTMAP-to-NIBP ratio decreases as an anesthetized patient is placed into the beach chair position. Awareness of this phenomenon is important to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion and prevent hypoxic-related injuries. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position: monitoring of cerebral oxygenation using combined bispectral index and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Tomomi

    2014-10-01

    Recent research has shown that cerebrovascular complications following shoulder surgery performed in the beach chair position under general anesthesia arise secondary to cerebral ischemia. Appropriate management of cerebral oxygenation is thus one of the primary goals of anesthetic management during such procedures. The present report describes the case of a 65-year-old male patient, in which both bispectral index (BIS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to monitor cerebral oxygenation. During the positioning, we observed an increased suppression ratio (SR) while BIS and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) were at adequate level. In view of the difference in blood pressure between the heart and the base of the brain, blood pressure was maintained to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion. Although intraoperative rSO2 was at or around the cut-off point (a 12% relative decrease from baseline), no marked decrease in BIS or further increase in the SR was observed. Monitoring of cerebral perfusion using combined BIS and NIRS optimized anesthetic management during the performance of arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position.

  1. Effect of shoulder stabilization on career length in national football league athletes.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Robert H; Gill, Corey S; Lyman, Stephen; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2011-04-01

    Shoulder instability and surgical stabilization are common in college football athletes. The effect of shoulder stabilization during college on the length of an athlete's career in the National Football League (NFL) has not been well examined. Athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization before the NFL combine have a shorter career than do matched controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A database containing the injury history and career NFL statistics of athletes from 1987 to 2000 was used to match athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization and no other surgery or significant injury to controls without a history of any previous surgery or significant injury. Athletes were matched by position, year drafted, round drafted, and additional minor injury history. Forty-two athletes with a history of shoulder stabilization were identified and matched with controls. A history of shoulder stabilization significantly reduced the length of career in terms of years (5.2 ± 3.9 vs 6.9 ± 3.6 years; P = .01) and games played (56 ± 53 vs 77 ± 50, P = .03) as compared with controls. By position, linemen and linebackers (20 athletes) with a history of shoulder stabilization had a significantly shorter career in years (4.7 ± 3.8 vs 6.7 ± 3.4 years; P = .049) and games played (51 ± 58 vs 81 ± 48; P = .046) than did controls. Among the other positions (22 athletes), the difference was not statistically significant in this small cohort. A history of shoulder stabilization shortens the expected career of a professional football player, particularly for linemen and linebackers. Further research is warranted to better understand how these injuries and surgeries affect an athlete's career and what can be done to improve the long-term outcome after treatment.

  2. Cerebral oxygenation in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position: comparing general to regional anesthesia and the impact on neurobehavioral outcome.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J; Borgeat, A; Trachsel, T; Cobo Del Prado, I; De Andrés, J; Bühler, P

    2014-02-01

    Ischemic brain damage has been reported in healthy patients after beach chair position for surgery due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been described as a non-invasive, continuous method to monitor cerebral oxygen saturation. However, its impact on neurobehavioral outcome comparing different anesthesia regimens has been poorly described. In this prospective, assessor-blinded study, 90 patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position following general (G-group, n=45) or regional anesthesia (R-group; n=45) were enrolled to assess the prevalence of cerebral desaturation events comparing anesthesia regimens and their impact on neurobehavioral and neurological outcome. Anesthesiologists were blinded to regional cerebral oxygen saturation values. Baseline data assessed the day before surgery included neurological and neurobehavioral tests, which were repeated the day after surgery. The baseline data for regional cerebral oxygen saturation/bispectral index and invasive blood pressure both at heart and auditory meatus levels were taken prior to anesthesia, 5 min after induction of anesthesia, 5 min after beach chair positioning, after skin incision and thereafter all 20 min until discharge. Patients in the R-group showed significantly less cerebral desaturation events (p<0.001), drops in regional cerebral oxygen saturation values (p<0.001), significantly better neurobehavioral test results the day after surgery (p<0.001) and showed a greater hemodynamic stability in the beach chair position compared to patients in the G-group. The incidence of regional cerebral oxygen desaturations seems to influence the neurobehavioral outcome. Regional anesthesia offers more stable cardiovascular conditions for shoulder surgery in beach chair position influencing neurobehavioral test results at 24h. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Sonographic assessment of the subscapularis after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: impact of tendon integrity on shoulder function.

    PubMed

    Dedy, Nicolas J; Gouk, Conor J; Taylor, Fraser J; Thomas, Michael; Tan, S L Ezekiel

    2018-06-01

    The deltopectoral approach for reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) requires subscapularis tenotomy or lesser tuberosity osteotomy. Whether the subscapularis should be repaired at the conclusion of the procedure remains controversial. The present study sonographically assessed the subscapularis after RSA and evaluated the effect of tendon integrity on functional outcome. All patients who had undergone RSA in the Gold Coast University Hospital between 2005 and 2016 were included. Sonography was performed by a blinded examiner. Function was assessed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, the Constant-Murley, and Oxford Shoulder scores. Internal rotation ability was recorded on a 6-point scale. The study included 43 patients (48 shoulders). Median length of follow-up was 19 months (range, 4-132 months). On sonography, the subscapularis was graded intact in 6 shoulders (13%), intact with mild attenuation in 16 (33%), severely attenuated in 15 (31%), and not intact or absent in 11 (23%). Differences in Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, Constant-Murley, or Oxford Shoulder scores between intact and attenuated or absent subscapularis shoulders were not significant. Internal rotation scores were significantly higher in the intact and mildly attenuated tendon group than in the absent tendon group (U = 1.0, P = .001 and U = 28.5, P = .007, respectively). The present work is the first long-term outcome study of RSA using sonography to assess the subscapularis. Subscapularis integrity did not appear to have a measurable effect on patient outcome as measured by standard scores but was important for internal rotation ability after RSA. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures using antegrade nailing: functional outcome in the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Patino, Juan Martin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder outcomes and function after humeral shaft fractures treated with antegrade nailing. Thirty patients with acute humeral shaft fractures who underwent antegrade locked intramedullary nailing were retrospectively studied. Range of motion (ROM) of the affected shoulder was evaluated, comparing it with the nonaffected shoulder, radiologic position of the nails, complications, and need for a second surgery. The study enrolled 20 men and 10 women (average age, 41.9 years). The average follow-up was 35.8 months. The average shoulder elevation averaged 157°, internal rotation was variable (reaching the sacroiliac joint to T7), and external rotation averaged 75°. Elbow flexion-extension ROM averaged 133° (115°-145°). According to the Rodriguez-Merchan criteria, 12 patients achieved excellent results (40%), 7 good (20%), and 6 fair (23.3%); poor results were found in 5 cases (16.6%). Twelve patients achieved full mobility of the shoulder, whereas 18 had some loss of motion, with significant differences between the affected and nonaffected shoulders (P = .001). Decreased shoulder ROM is common after antegrade nailing of humeral shaft fractures. Avoidance of nail impingement can improve final outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Constrained fixed-fulcrum reverse shoulder arthroplasty improves functional outcome in epileptic patients with recurrent shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    Thangarajah, Tanujan; Higgs, Deborah; Bayley, J I L; Lambert, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report the results of fixed-fulcrum fully constrained reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of recurrent shoulder instability in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at a single facility. Cases were identified using a computerized database and all clinic notes and operative reports were reviewed. All patients with epilepsy and recurrent shoulder instability were included for study. Between July 2003 and August 2011 five shoulders in five consecutive patients with epilepsy underwent fixed-fulcrum fully constrained reverse shoulder arthroplasty for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. The mean duration of epilepsy in the cohort was 21 years (range, 5-51) and all patients suffered from grand mal seizures. RESULTS: Mean age at the time of surgery was 47 years (range, 32-64). The cohort consisted of four males and one female. Mean follow-up was 4.7 years (range, 4.3-5 years). There were no further episodes of instability, and no further stabilisation or revision procedures were performed. The mean Oxford shoulder instability score improved from 8 preoperatively (range, 5-15) to 30 postoperatively (range, 16-37) (P = 0.015) and the mean subjective shoulder value improved from 20 (range, 0-50) preoperatively to 60 (range, 50-70) postoperatively (P = 0.016). Mean active forward elevation improved from 71° preoperatively (range, 45°-130°) to 100° postoperatively (range, 80°-90°) and mean active external rotation improved from 15° preoperatively (range, 0°-30°) to 40° (20°-70°) postoperatively. No cases of scapular notching or loosening were noted. CONCLUSION: Fixed-fulcrum fully constrained reverse shoulder arthroplasty should be considered for the treatment of recurrent shoulder instability in patients with epilepsy. PMID:27458554

  6. Positive Culture Rate in Revision Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hobgood, E. Rhett

    2009-01-01

    We recognized a trend of positive cultures taken from presumably uninfected shoulders during revision arthroplasty. Owing to the indolent nature of common shoulder pathogens such as Propionibacterium acnes, these cultures often become positive several days, even weeks, after surgery. Having concern regarding the potential importance of these positive cultures, we reviewed our revision arthroplasty population to determine the rate of positive intraoperative cultures in patients presumed to be aseptic, to characterize the isolated organisms, and to determine the subsequent development of infection. We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients (28 revisions) presumed to be uninfected between April 2005 and October 2007. Intraoperative cultures were positive in eight (29%) of the 28 revisions. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated in six. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in one patient and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in one patient. One-year followup was available on 24 of the 28 revisions. Two of the eight culture-positive revisions had a subsequent infection develop. Cultures taken at revision surgery for failed shoulder arthroplasty are often positive, and our findings document the importance of these positive cultures. Our data confirm previous reports isolating Propionibacterium acnes as a primary pathogen in revision shoulder arthroplasty. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19434469

  7. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  8. Return to Sports and Recurrences After Arthroscopic Anterior Shoulder Stabilization in Martial Arts Athletes.

    PubMed

    Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A; Sirio, Adrian; Dilernia, Fernando Diaz; Bertona, Agustin; Maignon, Gastón D; Bongiovanni, Santiago L

    2017-09-01

    The high demands to the glenohumeral joint and the violent shoulder blows experienced during martial arts (MA) could compromise return to sports and increase the recurrence rate after arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability in these athletes. To report the functional outcomes, return to sports, and recurrences in a series of MA athletes with anterior shoulder instability treated with arthroscopic stabilization with suture anchors. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 20 consecutive MA athletes were treated for anterior shoulder instability at a single institution between January 2008 and December 2013. Range of motion (ROM), the Rowe score, a visual analog scale (VAS), and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System (ASOSS) were used to assess functional outcomes. Return-to-sport and recurrence rates were also evaluated. The mean age at the time of surgery was 25.4 years (range, 18-35 years), and the mean follow-up was 71 months (range, 36-96 months). No significant difference in preoperative and postoperative shoulder ROM was found. The Rowe, VAS, and ASOSS scores showed statistical improvement after surgery ( P < .001). In all, 19 athletes (95%) returned to sports. However, only 60% achieved ≥90% recovery after surgery. The recurrence rate was 20%. In this retrospective study of a consecutive cohort of MA athletes, arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization significantly improved functional scores. However, only 60% of the athletes achieved the same level of competition, and there was a 20% recurrence rate.

  9. MRI Before Radiography for Patients With New Shoulder Conditions.

    PubMed

    Small, Kirstin M; Rybicki, Frank J; Miller, Lindsay R; Daniels, Stephen D; Higgins, Laurence D

    2017-06-01

    To assess the patterns of Appropriate Criteria application among orthopedic specialists and other fields of medicine for use of MRI and radiography and the subsequent necessity for surgical intervention. The hospital electronic medical record was used to identify all shoulder MRI studies at a single large urban teaching hospital between January 2, 2011, and June 30, 2011. For each study, variables collected included ordering department, patient age, patient gender, patient's self-reported race/ethnicity, whether the patient obtained surgery for an issue related to the MRI diagnosis, the type of MRI ordered, the date of pain onset, the date of x-ray (if any), and the date of the MRI. A total of 475 patients who underwent shoulder MRI were included in our study. We found significant associations between a patient having had a prior x-ray and ordering department (P < .0001), male gender (P = .0005), and subjects who had subsequent surgery (P = .0006). Neither age nor race and ethnicity had an influence on x-ray before MRI. Orthopedic specialists ordering MRIs had the highest percentage of patients undergo subsequent surgery (33.3%) compared with the second-most, primary care (18.4%), and all other ordering departments (P = .0009). Detailed analysis suggests that providers who do not have specific training in shoulder pathology should consider consultation with an orthopedic surgeon before ordering shoulder MRI for patients who may need additional imaging after radiography. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of critical shoulder angle on secondary rotator cuff insufficiency following shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cerciello, Simone; Monk, Andrew Paul; Visonà, Enrico; Carbone, Stefano; Edwards, Thomas Bradley; Maffulli, Nicola; Walch, Gilles

    2017-07-01

    Secondary cuff failure after shoulder replacement is disabling and often requires additional surgery. Increased critical shoulder angle (CSA) has been found in patients with cuff tear compared to normal subjects. The interobserver reliability of the CSA and the relationship between CSA and symptomatic secondary cuff failure after shoulder replacement were investigated. Nineteen patients with symptomatic cuff failure after anatomic shoulder replacement (mean FU 45 months) were compared to a control group of 29 patients showing no signs of symptomatic cuff failure (mean FU 105.7 months). The CSA was measured by two blinded surgeons at a mean follow-up of 45 and 105.7 months, respectively. Inter-observer reliability was calculated. The mean CSA in the study group in neutral, internal and external rotations were 33°, 34° and 34°, respectively. Corresponding values in the control group were 32°, 32° and 32°. The interclass correlation coefficient for the whole population between the two examiners were 0.956 (P < 0.01), 0.964 (P < 0.01) and 0.955 (P < 0.01), respectively. There were no significant differences of CSA values between patients who had undergone shoulder replacement and experienced late cuff failure and those in whom the same procedure had been successful. A good inter-observer reliability was found for the CSA method.

  11. No need to change the skin knife in modern arthroplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, C; Skovby, A; Troelsen, A; Specht, C; Friis-Møller, A; Husted, H

    2014-08-01

    Earlier studies have found varying contamination rates using separate skin and deep knives in total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasty surgery. Previous studies were primarily conducted in the setting of concomitant use of laminar airflow and/or plastic adhesive draping. This has lead to conflicting conclusions regarding discarding the skin knife or not. This study evaluates the prevalence of contamination of a separate skin knife using modern antiseptic technique in primary THA and TKA without laminar airflow. Three knives from each primary THA and TKA surgery in non-laminar airflow operating rooms were collected: one used for the skin, one used for deeper tissues and one control knife. A total of 831 knife blades from 277 patients were cultured 12 days. Contamination of the skin knife was found in eight patients (2.8 %), contamination of the "deep" knife in five patients (1.8 %) and contamination of the control knife in five patients (1.8 %). No patient developed an infection with 1-year follow-up. Our findings suggest a very low rate of contamination of the skin knife using modern antiseptic technique without laminar airflow and/or plastic adhesive draping and do not support the use of a separate skin knife in arthroplasty surgery.

  12. Comparison Between Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular and Interscalene Brachial Plexus Blocks in Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Parallel Study.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Taeha; Kil, Byung Tae; Kim, Jong Hae

    2015-10-01

    Although supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SCBPB) was repopularized by the introduction of ultrasound, its usefulness in shoulder surgery has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to compare motor and sensory blockades, the incidence of side effects, and intraoperative opioid analgesic requirements between SCBPB and interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (ISBPB group: n = 47; SCBPB group: n = 46). The side effects of the brachial plexus block (Horner's syndrome, hoarseness, and subjective dyspnea), the sensory block score (graded from 0 [no cold sensation] to 100 [intact sensation] using an alcohol swab) for each of the 5 dermatomes (C5-C8 and T1), and the motor block score (graded from 0 [complete paralysis] to 6 [normal muscle force]) for muscle forces corresponding to the radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated 20 min after the brachial plexus block. Fentanyl was administered in 50 μg increments when the patients complained of pain that was not relieved by the brachial plexus block. There were no conversions to general anesthesia due to a failed brachial plexus block. The sensory block scores for the C5 to C8 dermatomes were significantly lower in the ISBPB group. However, the percentage of patients who received fentanyl was comparable between the 2 groups (27.7% [ISBPB group] and 30.4% [SCBPB group], P = 0.77). SCBPB produced significantly lower motor block scores for the radial, ulnar, and median nerves than did ISBPB. A significantly higher incidence of Horner's syndrome was observed in the ISBPB group (59.6% [ISBPB group] and 19.6% [SCBPB group], P < 0.001). No patient complained of subjective dyspnea. Despite the weaker degree of sensory blockade provided by SCBPB in comparison to ISBPB, opioid analgesic requirements are similar during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under both brachial plexus blocks

  13. Under general anesthesia arginine vasopressin prevents hypotension but impairs cerebral oxygenation during arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo Y; Kim, Seok J; Jeong, Cheol W; Jeong, Chang Y; Chung, Sung S; Lee, JongUn; Yoo, Kyung Y

    2013-12-01

    Patients undergoing surgery in the beach chair position (BCP) are at a risk of cerebral ischemia. We evaluated the effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation during surgery in the BCP. Thirty patients undergoing shoulder surgery in BCP under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia were randomly allocated either to receive IV AVP 0.07 U/kg (AVP group, N = 15) or an equal volume of saline (control group, N = 15) 2 minutes before taking BCP. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2), and regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) were measured after induction of anesthesia and before (presitting in supine position) and after patients took BCP. AVP itself given before the positioning increased MAP and decreased SjvO2 and SctO2 (P < 0.0001), with HR unaffected. Although MAP was decreased by BCP in both groups, it was higher in the AVP group (P < 0.0001). While in BCP, HR remained unaltered in the control and decreased in the AVP group. SjvO2 in BCP did not differ between the groups. SctO2 was decreased by BCP in both groups, which was more pronounced in the AVP group until the end of study. The incidence of hypotension (13% vs 67%; P = 0.003) was less frequent, and that of cerebral desaturation (>20% SctO2 decrease from presitting value) (80% vs 13%; P = 0.0003) was higher in the AVP group. The incidence of jugular desaturation (SjvO2 <50%) was comparable between the groups. A prophylactic bolus administration of AVP prevents hypotension associated with BCP in patients undergoing shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. However, it was associated with regional cerebral but not jugular venous oxygen desaturation on upright positioning.

  14. Sports after shoulder arthroplasty: a comparative analysis of hemiarthroplasty and reverse total shoulder replacement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joseph N; Garcia, Grant H; Mahony, Gregory; Wu, Hao-Hua; Dines, David M; Warren, Russell F; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, fewer postoperative sport restrictions are imposed on hemiarthroplasty (HHA) patients on than reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) patients. However, functional outcomes have been shown to be superior in RTSA. No direct comparison of RTSA vs HHA has been done on rates of return to sports in patients with glenohumeral arthritis and rotator cuff dysfunction, proximal humeral fractures, or rheumatoid arthritis. This is a retrospective review of consecutive RTSA and HHA patients collected from our institution's shoulder arthroplasty registry. All patients playing sports preoperatively with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Final follow-up included an additional patient-reported questionnaire with questions regarding physical fitness and sport activities. The study included 102 RTSA and 71 HHA patients. Average age at surgery was 72.3 years for RTSA compared with 65.6 years for HHA (P < .001). Patients undergoing RTSA had improved visual analog scale scores compared with HHA (-5.6 vs -4.2, P = .007), returned to sports after RTSA at a significantly higher rate (85.9% vs 66.7%, P = .02), and were more likely to be satisfied with their ability to play sports (P = .013). HHA patients were also more likely to have postoperative complaints than RTSA patients (63% vs 29%, P < .0001). No sports-related complications occurred. Female sex, age <70 years, surgery on the dominant extremity, and a preoperative diagnosis of arthritis with rotator cuff dysfunction predicted a higher likelihood of return to sports for patients undergoing RTSA compared with HHA. Despite traditional sport restrictions placed on RTSA, patients undergoing RTSA can return to sports at rates higher than those undergoing HHA, with fewer postoperative complaints. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frozen shoulder and the Big Five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Philippe; Franssens, Fien; Roosen, Isabelle; Dankaerts, Wim; Claes, Laurence

    2014-02-01

    In the past, several studies have suggested the existence of a "periarthritic personality" in patients with frozen shoulder. We conducted a study to determine differences in personality traits in patients with primary and secondary frozen shoulders. We prospectively evaluated 118 patients (84 women and 34 men; mean age, 53.8 years; SD 7.56) with a frozen shoulder. Of these patients, 48 had an idiopathic frozen shoulder and 70 had a secondary frozen shoulder. Personality traits were determined by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) scale. This questionnaire measures the 5 major personality traits and is based on the norms determined in a neutral test situation for 2415 controls. Compared with healthy controls, no differences in personality traits were found in patients with primary and secondary frozen shoulder, except for Conscientiousness and Extraversion, for which patients with secondary frozen shoulder scored significantly higher than healthy controls. Patients with primary frozen shoulder scored significantly higher on Openness to Experience than did patients with secondary frozen shoulder; on the other 4 Big Five personality traits, no significant differences were found between patients with primary and secondary frozen shoulder. More specifically, patients with idiopathic frozen shoulder did not score higher on the trait Neuroticism as would be expected from previous publications. Our study results do not indicate that patients with an idiopathic frozen shoulder have a specific personality compared with healthy controls. Only a few differences were found in personality traits when the entire frozen shoulder group was compared with healthy controls and between patients with primary and secondary frozen shoulders. The results of this study suggest that these differences are not sufficient to speak about a specific "frozen shoulder personality." Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  16. Stemless shoulder arthroplasty: current status.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean

    2014-09-01

    Since the original Neer humeral replacement in the 1950s, the standard primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty design has slowly evolved. Most recently, the humeral stem has become progressively shorter to help combat stem-related complications. Currently, there are several companies who have developed and marketed a stemless humeral arthroplasty component. Manufacturers' data for 5 stemless shoulder arthroplasty components currently on the market were analyzed and reviewed. A literature review of short-term results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty was completed. Of the stemless shoulder arthroplasty systems available on the market, 3 are currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States. The Tornier Simpliciti (Tornier, Edina, MN, USA) clinical trial began in 2011. The study with 2-year minimum follow-up results is scheduled for completion in November 2014. The Arthrex Eclipse (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) clinical trial was started in January 2013. The tentative study completion date is 2017. The Biomet Nano (Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) clinical trial began in October 2013 and also has a tentative completion date of 2017. No other clinical trial is currently under way in the United States. Early results for stemless shoulder arthroplasty indicate clinical results similar to standard stemmed shoulder arthroplasty. Radiographic analysis indicates implant stability without migration or subsidence at 2- to 3-year minimum follow-up.. Several stemless shoulder arthroplasty implants are available outside the United States. Early clinical and radiographic results are promising, but well-designed clinical studies and midterm results are lacking. Three clinical trials are currently under way in the United States with initial availability for use anticipated in 2015. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Failure after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: what is the success of component revision?

    PubMed

    Black, Eric M; Roberts, Susanne M; Siegel, Elana; Yannopoulos, Paul; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P

    2015-12-01

    Complication rates remain high after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Salvage options after implant failure have not been well defined. This study examines the role of reimplantation and revision RTSA after failed RTSA, reporting outcomes and complications of this salvage technique. Sixteen patients underwent component revision and reimplantation after a prior failed RTSA from 2004 to 2011. Indications included baseplate failure (7 patients, 43.8%), instability (6 patients, 37.5%), infection (2 patients, 12.5%), and humeral loosening (1 patient, 6.3%). The average age of the patient during revision surgery was 68.6 years. Outcomes information at follow-up was recorded, including visual analog scale score for pain, subjective shoulder value, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, and Simple Shoulder Test score, and these were compared with pre-revision values. Repeated surgeries and complications were noted. Average time to follow-up from revision was 58.9 months (minimum, 2 years; range, 24-103 months). The average postoperative visual analog scale score for pain was 1.7/10 (7.5/10 preoperatively; P < .0001), and the subjective shoulder value was 62% (17% preoperatively; P < .0001). The average postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score was 66.7, and the Simple Shoulder Test score was 52.6. Fourteen patients (88%) noted that they felt "better" postoperatively than before their original RTSA and would go through the procedure again if given the option. Nine patients suffered major complications (56%), and 6 of these ultimately underwent further procedures (38% of cohort). Salvage options after failure of RTSA remain limited. Component revision and reimplantation can effectively relieve pain and improve function compared with baseline values, and patient satisfaction levels are moderately high. However, complication rates and reoperation rates are significant. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees

  18. Use of scoring systems for assessing and reporting the outcome results from shoulder surgery and arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Simon; Alfahad, Nawaf; Scott, Martin; Gooding, Ben; Wallace, W Angus

    2015-01-01

    To investigate shoulder scoring systems used in Europe and North America and how outcomes might be classified after shoulder joint replacement. All research papers published in four major journals in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed for the shoulder scoring systems used in their published papers. A method of identifying how outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty might be used to categorize patients into fair, good, very good and excellent outcomes was explored using the outcome evaluations from patients treated in our own unit. A total of 174 research articles that were published in the four journals used some form of shoulder scoring system. The outcome from shoulder arthroplasty in our unit has been evaluated using the constant score (CS) and the oxford shoulder score and these scores have been used to evaluate individual patient outcomes. CSs of < 30 = unsatisfactory; 30-39 = fair; 40-59 = good; 60-69 = very good; and 70 and over = excellent. The most popular shoulder scoring systems in North America were Simple Shoulder Test and American shoulder and elbow surgeons standard shoulder assessment form score and in Europe CS, Oxford Shoulder Score and DASH score. PMID:25793164

  19. Biomechanical comparison of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems in soft tissue-constrained shoulders.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Heath B; King, Frank K; Tashjian, Robert Z; Burks, Robert T

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined the biomechanics of isolated variables in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. This study directly compared the composite performance of two reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems; each system was designed around either a medialized or a lateralized glenohumeral center of rotation. Seven pairs of shoulders were tested on a biomechanical simulator. Center of rotation, position of the humerus, passive and active range of motion, and force to abduct the arm were quantified. Native arms were tested, implanted with a Tornier Aequalis or DJO Surgical Reverse Shoulder Prosthesis (RSP), and then retested. Differences from the native state were then documented. Both systems shifted the center of rotation medially and inferiorly relative to native. Medial shifts were greater in the Aequalis implant (P < .037). All humeri shifted inferior compared with native but moved medially with the Aequalis (P < .001). Peak passive abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation did not differ between systems (P > .05). Both reverse total shoulder arthroplasty systems exhibited adduction deficits, but the RSP implant deficit was smaller (P = .046 between implants). Both systems reduced forces to abduct the arm compared with native, although the Aequalis required more force to initiate motion from the resting position (P = .022). Given the differences in system designs and configurations, outcome variables were generally comparable. The RSP implant allowed slightly more adduction, had a more lateralized humeral position, and required less force to initiate elevation. These factors may play roles in limiting scapular notching, improving active external rotation by normalizing the residual rotator cuff length, and limiting excessive stress on the deltoid. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Shoulder Instability-Return to Sport after Injury (SIRSI): a valid and reproducible scale to quantify psychological readiness to return to sport after traumatic shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Gerometta, Antoine; Klouche, Shahnaz; Herman, Serge; Lefevre, Nicolas; Bohu, Yoann

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to propose and validate a tool to quantify the psychological readiness of athletes to return to sport following traumatic shoulder instability and conservative or surgical management. «Knee» was replaced by the term «shoulder» in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury scale. This pilot test of the Shoulder Instability-Return to Sport after Injury scale (SIRSI) was performed in a group of athletes who underwent surgery for post-traumatic chronic anterior shoulder instability. The final version was then validated according to the international COSMIN methodology. A retrospective study was performed including all rugby players who had reported an episode of instability between 2012 and 2013. The WOSI and the Walch-Duplay scales were used as reference questionnaires. Sixty-two patients were included, mean age 26 ± 5.2 years old, 5 women/57 men. Patients were professional or competitive athletes (70.9%) and followed-up for 4.6 ± 1.6 years after the first episode of shoulder instability. Shoulder surgery was performed in 30/62 (48.4%) patients, a mean 1.6 ± 1.2 years after the first episode of instability. The SIRSI was strongly correlated with the reference questionnaires (r = 0.80, p < 10 -5 ). The mean SIRSI score was significantly higher in patients who returned to play rugby (60.9 ± 26.6% vs 38.1 ± 25.6%, p = 0.001). The internal consistency of the scale was high (α = 0.96). Reproducibility of the test-retest was excellent (ρ = 0.93, 95% CI [0.89-0.96], p < 10 -5 ). No ceiling/floor effects were found. The SIRSI is a valid, reproducible scale that identifies patients who are ready to return to the same sport after an episode of shoulder instability, whether they undergo surgery or not. III.

  1. The Shoulder Objective Practical Assessment Tool: Evaluation of a New Tool Assessing Residents Learning in Diagnostic Shoulder Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Christopher L; Holt, Edward M; Gooding, Benjamin W T; Tennent, Thomas D; Foden, Philip

    2015-08-01

    To design and validate an objective practical assessment tool for diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy that would provide residents with a method to evaluate their progression in this field of surgery and to identify specific learning needs. We designed and evaluated the shoulder Objective Practical Assessment Tool (OPAT). The shoulder OPAT was designed by us, and scoring domains were created using a Delphi process. The shoulder OPAT was trialed by members of the British Elbow & Shoulder Society Education Committee for internal consistency and ease of use before being offered to other trainers and residents. Inter-rater reliability and intrarater reliability were calculated. One hundred forty orthopaedic residents, of varying seniority, within 5 training regions in the United Kingdom, were questioned regarding the tool. A pilot study of 6 residents was undertaken. Internal consistency was 0.77 (standardized Cronbach α). Inter-rater reliability was 0.60, and intrarater reliability was 0.82. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) between the global summary score for the shoulder OPAT and the current assessment tool used in postgraduate training for orthopaedic residents undertaking diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy equaled 0.74. Of the residents, 82% agreed or strongly agreed when asked if the shoulder OPAT would be a useful tool in monitoring progression and 72% agreed or strongly agreed with the introduction of the shoulder OPAT within the orthopaedic domain. This study shows that the shoulder OPAT fulfills several aspects of reliability and validity when tested. Despite the inter-rater reliability being 0.60, we believe that the shoulder OPAT has the potential to play a role alongside the current assessment tool in the training of orthopaedic residents. The shoulder OPAT can be used to assess residents during shoulder arthroscopy and has the potential for use in medical education, as well as arthroscopic skills training in the operating theater. Copyright © 2015

  2. Return to Sports and Recurrences After Arthroscopic Anterior Shoulder Stabilization in Martial Arts Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A.; Sirio, Adrian; Dilernia, Fernando Diaz; Bertona, Agustin; Maignon, Gastón D.; Bongiovanni, Santiago L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The high demands to the glenohumeral joint and the violent shoulder blows experienced during martial arts (MA) could compromise return to sports and increase the recurrence rate after arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability in these athletes. Purpose: To report the functional outcomes, return to sports, and recurrences in a series of MA athletes with anterior shoulder instability treated with arthroscopic stabilization with suture anchors. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive MA athletes were treated for anterior shoulder instability at a single institution between January 2008 and December 2013. Range of motion (ROM), the Rowe score, a visual analog scale (VAS), and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System (ASOSS) were used to assess functional outcomes. Return-to-sport and recurrence rates were also evaluated. Results: The mean age at the time of surgery was 25.4 years (range, 18-35 years), and the mean follow-up was 71 months (range, 36-96 months). No significant difference in preoperative and postoperative shoulder ROM was found. The Rowe, VAS, and ASOSS scores showed statistical improvement after surgery (P < .001). In all, 19 athletes (95%) returned to sports. However, only 60% achieved ≥90% recovery after surgery. The recurrence rate was 20%. Conclusion: In this retrospective study of a consecutive cohort of MA athletes, arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization significantly improved functional scores. However, only 60% of the athletes achieved the same level of competition, and there was a 20% recurrence rate. PMID:28932751

  3. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  4. Return to Sport After Shoulder Arthroplasty in Recreational Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Aim, Florence; Werthel, Jean-David; Deranlot, Julien; Vigan, Marie; Nourissat, Geoffroy

    2018-04-01

    One of the most frequent demands from patients after shoulder replacement surgery is to return to sport. To determine the rate of return to sport after shoulder arthroplasty (total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty, hemiarthroplasty) in recreational athletes. Meta-analysis and systematic review. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis of the results in the literature as well as the presentation of results. A search of the literature was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the MINORS (Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies) score. Inclusion criteria were studies in English evaluating return to sport after shoulder replacement surgery and on patients practicing a sport regularly, whatever the level, with all ages and sports included. The main criterion was the rate of patients who returned to a sport activity. Nine studies were selected among the 35 identified, including a total of 613 patients (39% male and 61% female) with a mean age of 71.7 years (range, 22.6-92.6 years). All the included patients practiced sports before surgery. The most common reported sports were golf (n = 140), swimming (n = 128), and tennis (n = 54). The mean rate of return to sport was 80.7% (range, 57.1%-97.3%). All patients who returned to sport were practicing in the 3 months before surgery. No radiological data were reported in the literature. The subgroup analysis for resuming golf after shoulder arthroplasty revealed a rate of return to sport of 79.2% (95% CI, 62.9%-89.5%). In the swimming subgroup, the rate was 75.6% (95% CI, 61.3%-85.8%) and in the tennis subgroup was 63.5% (95% CI, 34.1%-85.5%). The subgroup analysis for reverse shoulder arthroplasty reported a lower rate of return to sport than for all types of shoulder

  5. Atypical localizations of calcific deposits in the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Vinanti, G.B.; Pavan, D.; Rossato, A.; Biz, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Calcific tendinopathies of the shoulder are due to inflammation around deposits of calcium within periarticular tendineal structures. Presentation of cases We present three cases of atypical localization of calcium deposits in the shoulder. All of the cases have been treated with arthroscopic excision, followed by post-operative rehabilitation, regaining excellent results. Patients were evaluated 6 months after surgery using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and the UCLA modified shoulder rating. Discussion Calcific tendinopathy is a self-limiting condition or is successfully treated with conservative therapy especially during the early phases of the pathology. If conservative measures fail, removal of calcium deposits is recommended. Arthroscopic management showed good results in our three cases. Conclusion We suggest that arthroscopic treatment of calcific tendonitis guarantees good results even when calcium deposits are in atypical locations. PMID:25884610

  6. Are eponyms used correctly or not? A literature review with a focus on shoulder and elbow surgery.

    PubMed

    Somford, Matthijs Paul; Nieuwe Weme, Rebecca A; van Dijk, Cornelis Niek; IJpma, Frank Fa; Eygendaal, Denise

    2016-10-01

    Eponymous terms are used frequently in daily patient care and scientific literature. They remind us of our predecessors in surgery. It is debatable whether eponymous terms are reliable in case of information transfer. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the original meaning of eponymous terms in shoulder and elbow surgery has been preserved in its use in contemporary literature. To evaluate whether eponymous terms were used correctly, we analysed the use of frequently encountered eponymous terms from January to December 2014. By means of a PubMed search, articles with eponymous terms were identified and analysed for the way an eponymous term was used, and we compared it with the original description. The original description was traced back to the index publication. The use of the eponymous term was scored as similar, divergent or undefined. In the search for eponymous terms, we included those eponymous terms that were used more than 10 times in the English, German and Dutch literature of 2014. 6 eponymous terms were eligible for analysis: Bankart lesion, Bristow-Latarjet procedure, Essex-Lopresti injury of the forearm, Galeazzi fracture, Hill-Sachs lesion and Monteggia fracture. We analysed 96 articles with the listed eponymous terms, of which 27 (28%) were scored divergent, 32 (33%) undefined and 37 (39%) similar. Bristow-Latarjet scored lowest, with 0% descriptions similar to the original, meaning that all articles had an undefined or divergent eponym, and Essex-Lopresti scored highest with 82% similarity. Eponymous terms in shoulder and elbow trauma and surgery are used inadequately and inconsistently. The use of eponymous terms probably cannot be avoided, but since the majority of eponymous terms are not used properly and understanding of its meaning and content varies from surgeon to surgeon, we should be keen on explaining the meaning of eponymous terms when using them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  7. Extra-articular shoulder resections: outcomes of 54 patients.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Andrea; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Trovarelli, Giulia; Pala, Elisa; Arbelaez, Pablo; Casanova, Josè; Berizzi, Antonio; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2017-11-01

    The survival of patients with tumors around the shoulder treated with extra-articular resection, the rates of reconstructions-related complications, and the function of the shoulder cannot be estimated because of limited available data from mainly small published related series and case reports. We studied 54 patients with tumors around the shoulder treated with extra-articular shoulder resections and proximal humeral megaprosthetic reconstructions from 1985 to 2012. Mean tumor volume was 549 cm 3 , and the mean length of the proximal humeral resection was 110 mm. Mean follow-up was 7.8 years (range, 3-21 years). We evaluated the outcomes (survival, metastases, recurrences, and function) and the survival and complications of the reconstruction. Survival of patients with malignant tumors was 47%, 38%, and 35%, at 5, 10, and 20 years, respectively. Rates for metastasis and local recurrence were 60% and 18.5%, respectively. Survival was significantly higher for patients without metastases at diagnosis, tumor volume <549 cm 3 , and type IV resections. Survival of reconstructions was 56% at 10 years and 48% 20 years. Overall, 19 patients (35.2%) experienced 30 complications (55.5%), the most common being soft tissue failures that required subsequent surgery without, however, implant removal. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score was 25 points, without any significant difference between the types of extra-articular resections. Tumor stage and volume as well as type of resection are important predictors of survival of patients with malignant tumors around the shoulder. Survival of the reconstructions is satisfactory; nevertheless, the complication rate is high. The Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score is similar with respect to the type of resection. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. John Y. Templeton III: Pioneer of modern cardiothoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Cohn, Herbert E; Yeo, Charles J; Cowan, Scott W

    2012-11-01

    John Young Templeton III was born in 1917 in Portsmouth, Virginia, and graduated from Jefferson Medical College in 1941. He completed his residency training under Dr. John H. Gibbon, Jr., and was the first resident who worked on Gibbon's heart-lung machine. After his training, he remained at Jefferson as an American Cancer Society fellow and Damon Runyon fellow and went on to become the fourth Samuel D. Gross Professor and Chair of the Department of Surgery in 1967. Dr. Templeton was the recipient of numerous grants and published over 80 papers in the field of cardiothoracic surgery. As a teacher and mentor, he was a beloved figure who placed great faith in his residents. He participated in over 60 professional societies, serving as president to many such as the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery and the Pennsylvania Association of Thoracic Surgery. He was also recognized through his many awards, in particular the John Y. Templeton III lectureship established in 1980 at Jefferson of whom Denton Cooley was the first lecturer. Dr. Templeton retired from practice in 1987. He is forever remembered as an important model of a modern surgeon evident in numerous academic achievements, the admiration and affection of his trainees, and the lives of patients that he had touched.

  9. [Evaluation of the extent of movement of the shoulder after breast cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Silvia, Silvia H; Godoy, José M

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of breast cancer generally involves quadrantectomy and mastectomy followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy depending on indication. The object of the present study was to verify the extent of movement of the shoulder after breast cancer treatment and the influence of the type of surgery (quadrantectomy and mastectomy). A total of 90 women submitted to surgery for breast cancer in the Region of Catanduva, Brazil and a control group of 20 women without surgical compromise were evaluated. The extents of bilateral flexion and abduction movements of the shoulders were assessed by goniometry. The non-matched student t-test and Fisher exact test were utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of up to 5% being considered acceptable. Differences of 20 degrees or more in the extent of movement of the shoulders of women submitted to surgery were seen in 47.7% of the cases for flexion and in 56.6% for abduction. The compromise to the movement of the shoulder in the control group was less than 20 degrees in 9 (45%) of the women. On comparing the incidence of alterations in the movements of the arms of women submitted to surgery with the control group, a significant difference was identified for both limbs (p-value < 0.01). The articular mobility of both arms of patients submitted to treatment for breast cancer can be affected.

  10. Serum C-reactive protein in patients undergoing elective shoulder arthroplasty. Prospective study.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Carlos; Santana, Fernando; Marí, Raquel; Puig, Lluis; Alier, Albert

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the normalization curve of the serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in elective shoulder arthroplasty. A prospective study including 58 consecutive patients who had undergone elective shoulder arthroplasty. Forty-one patients had received a Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty, 13 a Total Shoulder Arthroplasty and 4 a Hemiarthroplasty. Based on a pilot study, blood samples to determine CRP values were obtained at baseline (1 h before surgery), on the 1st, 2nd, 6th, 8th and 14th postoperative days. All the patients included presented no postoperative complications during inpatient stay or any re-admission during the three months after surgery. Mean CRP values showed a rapid increase on the 1st postoperative day (7-fold higher than the baseline in cuff tear arthropathy, 11-fold higher in primary osteoarthritis, 1-fold higher in acute fracture) and reached a peak on the 2nd postoperative day (14-fold higher than the baseline in cuff tear arthropathy, 24-fold higher in primary osteoarthritis and 2-fold higher in acute fracture). After the 2nd postoperative day CRP values began to slowly decrease reaching the normal range in the 14th postoperative day. Serum CRP levels after elective shoulder arthroplasty rapidly increase to reach a maximum peak after the 2nd surgery day and then slowly decrease to return to normality on the 14th day. Knowing the normalization curve of CRP can be a helpful tool to help in the diagnosis of acute infections in elective shoulder arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clavicle length, throwing performance and the reconstruction of the Homo erectus shoulder.

    PubMed

    Roach, Neil T; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-03-01

    Powerful, accurate throwing may have been an important mode of early hunting and defense. Previous work has shown that throwing performance is functionally linked to several anatomical shifts in the upper body that occurred during human evolution. The final shift to occur is the inferior reorientation of the shoulder. Fossil scapulae show the earliest evidence of a more inferior glenoid in Homo erectus. However, where the scapula rests on the thorax is uncertain. The relative length of the clavicle, the only skeletal attachment of the scapula to the torso, is quite variable. Depending on which fossils or skeletal measures are used to reconstruct the H. erectus shoulder, either a novel, anteriorly facing shoulder configuration or a modern human-like lateral orientation is possible. These competing hypotheses have led to very different conclusions regarding the throwing ability and hunting behavior of early Homo. Here, we evaluate competing models of H. erectus shoulder morphology and examine how these models relate to throwing performance. To address these questions, we collected skeletal measures from fossil and extant taxa, as well as anthropometric (N = 36) and kinematic (N = 27) data from Daasanach throwers from northwestern Kenya. Our data show that all H. erectus fossil clavicles fall within the normal range of modern human variation. We find that a commonly used metric for normalizing clavicle length, the claviculohumeral ratio, poorly predicts shoulder position on the torso. Furthermore, no significant relationship between clavicle length and any measure of throwing performance was found. These data support reconstructing the H. erectus shoulder as modern human-like, with a laterally facing glenoid, and suggest that the capacity for high speed throwing dates back nearly two million years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasound-guided continuous interscalene block: the influence of local anesthetic background delivery method on postoperative analgesia after shoulder surgery: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hamdani, Mehdi; Chassot, Olivier; Fournier, Roxane

    2014-01-01

    Automated bolus delivery has recently been shown to reduce local anesthetic consumption and improve analgesia, compared with continuous infusion, in continuous sciatic and epidural block. However, there are few data on the influence of local anesthetic delivery method on local anesthetic consumption following interscalene blockade. This randomized, double-blind trial was designed to determine whether hourly automated perineural boluses (4 mL) of local anesthesia delivered with patient-controlled pro re nata (PRN, on demand) boluses would result in a reduction in total local anesthesia consumption during continuous interscalene blockade after shoulder surgery compared with continuous perineural infusion (4 mL/h) plus patient-controlled PRN boluses. One hundred one patients undergoing major shoulder surgery under general anesthesia with ultrasound-guided continuous interscalene block were randomly assigned to receive 0.2% ropivacaine via interscalene end-hole catheter either by continuous infusion 4 mL/h (n = 50) or as automated bolus 4 mL/h (n = 51). Both delivery methods were combined with 5 mL PRN boluses of 0.2% ropivacaine with a lockout time of 30 minutes. Postoperative number of PRN boluses, 24- and 48-hour local anesthetic consumption, pain scores, rescue analgesia (morphine), and adverse events were recorded. There were no significant differences in either the number of PRN ropivacaine boluses or total 48 hour local anesthetic consumption between the groups (18.5 [11-25.2] PRN boluses in the continuous infusion group vs 17 [8.5-29] PRN boluses in the automated bolus group). Postoperative pain was similar in both groups; on day 2, the median average pain score was 4 (2-6) in the continuous infusion group versus 3 (2-5) in the automated bolus group (P = 0.54). Nor were any statistically significant intergroup differences observed with respect to morphine rescue, incidence of adverse events, or patient satisfaction. In continuous interscalene blockade under

  13. Shoulder injuries in adolescent rugby players

    PubMed Central

    Hodhody, Ghazal; Mackenzie, Tanya A

    2016-01-01

    Background Rugby is a high-intensity contact sport, frequently causing shoulder injuries. Between the ages of 12 years to 18 years, academy and county level players are being selected for professional contracts, making this is a critical stage of their career. The present study aimed to describe the patterns of injury in adolescent rugby players with shoulder injuries. Methods Academy and county level rugby players in the target age group, over a 7-year period, were included in the present study. Data collected included the mechanism of injury, position and level of play, radiology and surgical findings, and recurrence rate at a minimum of 2 years post-surgery. Results One hundred and sixty-nine cases adhered to the inclusion criteria, with most cases involving two or more pathologies in the shoulder (54%). Forwards sustained more shoulder injuries than backs, incurring more labral injuries. By contrast, backs had a higher incidence of bony pathology. The mechanism of injury frequently correlated with player positions. There was a 21% injury recurrence rate, with forwards (7%) and higher level academy players (11%) most likely to suffer a recurrence. Conclusions Shoulder injury patterns in this important group of adolescent contact athletes are complex, with recurrence rates being higher than those in older rugby players. PMID:27583014

  14. The anterior deltoid's importance in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a cadaveric biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel G; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lynch, T Sean; Edwards, Sara; Nuber, Gordon; Zhang, Li-Qun; Saltzman, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Frequently, patients who are candidates for reverse shoulder arthroplasty have had prior surgery that may compromise the anterior deltoid muscle. There have been conflicting reports on the necessity of the anterior deltoid thus it is unclear whether a dysfunctional anterior deltoid muscle is a contraindication to reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to determine the 3-dimensional (3D) moment arms for all 6 deltoid segments, and determine the biomechanical significance of the anterior deltoid before and after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Eight cadaveric shoulders were evaluated with a 6-axis force/torque sensor to assess the direction of rotation and 3D moment arms for all 6 segments of the deltoid both before and after placement of a reverse shoulder prosthesis. The 2 segments of anterior deltoid were unloaded sequentially to determine their functional role. The 3D moment arms of the deltoid were significantly altered by placement of the reverse shoulder prosthesis. The anterior and middle deltoid abduction moment arms significantly increased after placement of the reverse prosthesis (P < .05). Furthermore, the loss of the anterior deltoid resulted in a significant decrease in both abduction and flexion moments (P < .05). The anterior deltoid is important biomechanically for balanced function after a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Losing 1 segment of the anterior deltoid may still allow abduction; however, losing both segments of the anterior deltoid may disrupt balanced abduction. Surgeons should be cautious about performing reverse shoulder arthroplasty in patients who do not have a functioning anterior deltoid muscle. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Laser arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder and knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Chadwick F.; Johansen, Ed; Bonvalet, Todd; Sutter, Leroy V., Jr.; Marshall, G. June

    1990-06-01

    The laser is used less in orthopaedics than in any other medical specialty. Improving technology and the impressive effect of the CO2 laser on orthopaedic tissues has, however, accelerated the interest of orthopaedic surgeons over the past two years. The carbon dioxide laser is now commonly used in orthopaedics for difficult to access lesions of the knee - particularly those of a degenerative nature with high surface area and low volume. The results are presented in this paper and reveal no evidence of lasting complications. Although several types of lasers are being experimentally utilized in orthopaedics, the YAG and CO2 lasers are the only lasers commonly utilized. The YAG laser is utilized for shoulder arthroscopy and offers the advantage of passage of energy through fiber and the ability to utilize the tool in an aqueous environment. It is too early to determine as to whether or not the YAG laser or the CO2 laser will be the most efficient energy delivery system for use in the shoulder.

  16. Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for shoulder and neck dysfunction after neck dissection: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gane, E M; Michaleff, Z A; Cottrell, M A; McPhail, S M; Hatton, A L; Panizza, B J; O'Leary, S P

    2017-07-01

    Shoulder pain and dysfunction may occur following neck dissection among people being treated for head and neck cancer. This systematic review aims to examine the prevalence and incidence of shoulder and neck dysfunction after neck dissection and identify risk factors for these post-operative complications. Electronic databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane) were searched for articles including adults undergoing neck dissection for head and neck cancer. Studies that reported prevalence, incidence or risk factors for an outcome of the shoulder or neck were eligible and assessed using the Critical Review Form - Quantitative Studies. Seventy-five articles were included in the final review. Prevalence rates for shoulder pain were slightly higher after RND (range, 10-100%) compared with MRND (range, 0-100%) and SND (range, 9-25%). The incidence of reduced shoulder active range of motion depended on surgery type (range, 5-20%). The prevalence of reduced neck active range of motion after neck dissection was 1-13%. Type of neck dissection was a risk factor for shoulder pain, reduced function and health-related quality of life. The prevalence and incidence of shoulder and neck dysfunction after neck dissection varies by type of surgery performed and measure of dysfunction used. Pre-operative education for patients undergoing neck dissection should acknowledge the potential for post-operative shoulder and neck problems to occur and inform patients that accessory nerve preservation lowers, but does not eliminate, the risk of developing musculoskeletal complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  17. INTEGRITY OF THE SUBSCAPULARIS TENDON AFTER OPEN SURGERY FOR THE TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR SHOULDER INSTABILITY: A CLINICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Osvandré; Piluski, Paulo; Tambani, Renato; Castro, Nero; Pimentel, Gilnei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the integrity of the subscapularis tendon by strength, function and magnetic resonance imaging after deltopectoralis access for anterior shoulder instability. Methods: 20 patients with anterior shoulder instability have been evaluated. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, with a mean of 40 months. Only male patients were included, with a mean of age of 29 years (20 − 42 years). The patients have been submitted to physical examinations of mobility, muscular strength, Belly Test and Gerber Test. The isokinetic strength in internal and external rotation, in angular speeds of 600/s and 1800/s, for both shoulders was measured using a dynamometer. In 15 patients magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out on both shoulders for evaluating the thickness, cross-sectional area and atrophy of the subscapularis muscle. Results: A significant difference was found between torque peaks at the speed of 600/s for internal (p=0.036) and external (p=0.008) rotation. However, at 1800/s the opposite happens (internal rotation: p=0.133; external rotation: p=0.393). Subscapularis muscle thickness and area are significantly smaller than the normal side, with a deficit of 19% and 23%, respectively. According to Rowe and UCLA scores, we find excellent and good results for the majority of patients, with a mean of 88 and 31.6 points, respectively. Conclusion: Despite of the good functional results, open surgery can limit strength and reduce the thickness and the cross-sectional area of subscapularis muscle. However, the best results were found in the patients who had the dominant side operated. PMID:27004190

  18. INTEGRITY OF THE SUBSCAPULARIS TENDON AFTER OPEN SURGERY FOR THE TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR SHOULDER INSTABILITY: A CLINICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION.

    PubMed

    Lech, Osvandré; Piluski, Paulo; Tambani, Renato; Castro, Nero; Pimentel, Gilnei

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the integrity of the subscapularis tendon by strength, function and magnetic resonance imaging after deltopectoralis access for anterior shoulder instability. 20 patients with anterior shoulder instability have been evaluated. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, with a mean of 40 months. Only male patients were included, with a mean of age of 29 years (20 - 42 years). The patients have been submitted to physical examinations of mobility, muscular strength, Belly Test and Gerber Test. The isokinetic strength in internal and external rotation, in angular speeds of 60(0)/s and 180(0)/s, for both shoulders was measured using a dynamometer. In 15 patients magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out on both shoulders for evaluating the thickness, cross-sectional area and atrophy of the subscapularis muscle. A significant difference was found between torque peaks at the speed of 60(0)/s for internal (p=0.036) and external (p=0.008) rotation. However, at 180(0)/s the opposite happens (internal rotation: p=0.133; external rotation: p=0.393). Subscapularis muscle thickness and area are significantly smaller than the normal side, with a deficit of 19% and 23%, respectively. According to Rowe and UCLA scores, we find excellent and good results for the majority of patients, with a mean of 88 and 31.6 points, respectively. Despite of the good functional results, open surgery can limit strength and reduce the thickness and the cross-sectional area of subscapularis muscle. However, the best results were found in the patients who had the dominant side operated.

  19. Musculoskeletal injuries sustained in modern army combatives.

    PubMed

    Possley, Daniel R; Johnson, Anthony E

    2012-01-01

    Participation in martial arts has grown over the past 15 years with an estimated 8 million participants. In 2004, the Chief of Staff of the Army directed that all Initial Military Training soldiers receive Modern Army Combatives (MAC) training. The mechanical differences between the various martial arts styles incorporated into mixed martial arts/MAC pose challenges to the medical professional. We report the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries by Level 1 and 2 trained active duty soldiers participating in MAC over a 3-year period. From June 1, 2005 to January 1, 2009, the Orthopaedic Surgery service treated and tracked all injuries in MAC. Data was analyzed using the Chi(2) method of analysis. (p < 0.05). 155 of 1,025 soldiers presenting with MAC injuries reported inability to perform their military occupation specialty duties. The knee was most frequently injured followed by shoulder. Surgical intervention was warranted 24% of the time. Participants in MAC reported injuries severe enough to impact occupational duties at 15.5%. Surgical intervention was warranted only 24% of the time. The knee and shoulder are the most frequently injured body parts. Labral repair was the most frequent surgical procedure.

  20. Arthroscopic Removal and Tendon Repair for Refractory Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinitis of the Shoulder.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Hiroshi; Iwashita, Satoshi; Okubo, Atsushi; Takai, Shinro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for refractory rotator cuff calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. Subjects were 37 patients (35 women and 2 men; mean age, 47.8 years; age range 34-61 years) who had undergone arthroscopic treatment for calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. Despite sufficient nonsurgical treatments, all patients had residual calcific deposit with persistent or recurrent pain. Before surgery, all patients underwent 3-directional radiographs of the shoulder and three-dimensional computed tomography to determine the location and size of calcific deposit. Arthroscopic surgery was performed with the patient under general anesthesia in the lateral decubitus position. A 2-cm single longitudinal incision was made with a radiofrequency hook blade on the tendon surface above calcific deposit. Calcific deposit was removed as much as possible with a curette and a motorized shaver. The incised tendon was repaired with a side-to-side suture with strong sutures. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder score was used to evaluate clinical outcomes. The extent of calcific deposit removal was evaluated with radiographs obtained before surgery, 1 week after the surgery and at the final follow-up examination. The mean follow-up duration was 30.4 (range, 13-72) months. The mean shoulder score significantly improved from 69.7 (range, 58-80) points before surgery to 97.8 (range, 89-100) points at the final follow-up examination. Postoperative radiographs in all patients, showed that the calcific deposit was resolved or reduced and those from 1 week after surgery to the final examination showed no evidence of recurrence or enlargement of calcific deposit. The calcific deposit had completely resolved in 34 patients but remained in 3 patients. When treating calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, it is important to accurately determine the size and location of calcific deposit by radiographs and 3

  1. Controversies in the Management of the First Time Shoulder Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Avila Lafuente, José Luis; Moros Marco, Santos; García Pequerul, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, initial management of first anterior shoulder dislocations consists of reduction of the glenohumeral joint followed by a period of immobilization and subsequent physical therapy to recover shoulder range of motion and strength. This traditional approach in management is now controversial due to the high rate of recurrence. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the literature about the global management of patients presenting with first-time traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocation, analyzing the factors that affect shoulder instability after the first episode of dislocation. Methods: Scientific publications about the management of first-time shoulder dislocations are reviewed. Pubmed is used for that and no limit in the year of publication are stablished. These papers and their conclusions are discussed. Results: Younger patients, patient´s activities and the kind of injury are the most important factors related to the shoulder instability after a first time traumatic dislocation. Authors that recommend surgical treatment after the first episode of dislocation argue that the possibilities of recurrence are high and therefore surgery should be performed before its occurrence. Other authors, however, argue that surgical treatment is demanding, and keep in mind that complications, such as recurrence, stiffness and pain after surgery, are still present. Conclusion: Currently, there is still no consensus in the literature with regard to the management of first episode of shoulder dislocation. It is necessary to analyze carefully every individual case to manage them more or less aggressive to obtain the best result in our practice. PMID:29430264

  2. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty due to glenoid bone defects.

    PubMed

    Díaz Miñarro, J C; Izquierdo Fernández, A; Muñoz Reyes, F; Carpintero Lluch, R; Uceda Carrascosa, P; Muñoz Luna, F; López Jordán, A; Carpintero Benítez, P

    2016-01-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty is becoming a useful tool for many diseases of the shoulder. Any severe glenoid bone defect may affect the fixing of the glenoid component. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the medium-term outcomes of reverse shoulder arthroplasty associated with a glenoplasty. A retrospective study was conducted on 5 patients from our hospital, selected due to glenoid defects of different etiology. All of them where treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty associated with glenoplasty with bone graft. The minimum follow-up was one year (mean 30.4 months). All grafts were radiologically integrated, with no signs of resorption or necrosis being observed. At 12 months, the Constant score was 66.75 and the mean EVA score was 1. Glenoplasty surgery is technically demanding for restoring original bone size in patients with glenoid structural defects, enabling a reverse shoulder arthroplasty to be implanted. Thus improving both the function and clinical outcomes in selected patients with glenohumeral pathology and providing them with a solution. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Shoulder instability: impact of glenohumeral arthrotomography on treatment.

    PubMed

    el-Khoury, G Y; Kathol, M H; Chandler, J B; Albright, J P

    1986-09-01

    We used arthrotomography to study the glenoid labrum in 114 patients. Sixty-nine of the patients had anatomic instability of the shoulder (including recurrent dislocation and subluxation of the shoulder), and 45 patients had functional instability of the shoulder (denoted by chronic pain, clicking of the joint, and the sensation that an unstable condition exists without the objective signs of it). Labral tears were revealed arthrotomographically in 86% of the patients with anatomic instability, while only 40% of the patients with functional instability had labral abnormalities, and these were primarily of minor severity. Fifty-six patients (44 of whom had anatomic instability; 12, functional instability) required surgery. The surgical findings were correlated with the arthrotomographic findings, and no false-positive results were revealed. However, arthrotomography demonstrated only part of the pathologic condition of two patients. These results confirm that there is a strong correlation between labral pathologic conditions and anatomic instability of the shoulder. Arthrotomographic studies have a great impact on the selection of therapy in cases of both anatomic and functional instability of the shoulder.

  4. Resurfacing shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis: outcome in 167 patients from the Danish Shoulder Registry.

    PubMed

    Voorde, Pia C Ten; Rasmussen, Jeppe V; Olsen, Bo S; Brorson, Stig

    2015-06-01

    There is no consensus on which type of shoulder prosthesis should be used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We describe patients with RA who were treated with shoulder replacement, regarding patient-reported outcome, prosthesis survival, and causes of revision, and we compare outcome after resurfacing hemi-arthroplasty (RHA) and stemmed hemi-arthroplasty (SHA). We used data from the national Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry and included patients with RA who underwent shoulder arthroplasty in Denmark between 2006 and 2010. Patient-reported outcome was obtained 1-year postoperatively using the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder index (WOOS), and rates of revision were calculated by checking revisions reported until December 2011. The patient-reported outcome of RHA was compared to that of SHA using regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and previous surgery. During the study period, 167 patients underwent shoulder arthroplasty because of rheumatoid arthritis, 80 (48%) of whom received RHA and 34 (26%) of whom received SHA. 16 patients were treated with total stemmed shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), and 24 were treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA). 130 patients returned a completed questionnaire, and the total mean WOOS score was 63. The cumulative 5-year revision rate was 7%. Most revisions occurred after RHA, with a revision rate of 14%. Mean WOOS score was similar for RHA and for SHA. This study shows that shoulder arthroplasty, regardless of design, is a good option in terms of reducing pain and improving function in RA patients. The high revision rate in the RHA group suggests that other designs may offer better implant survival. However, this should be confirmed in larger studies.

  5. Thermal shrinkage for shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Toth, Alison P; Warren, Russell F; Petrigliano, Frank A; Doward, David A; Cordasco, Frank A; Altchek, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2011-07-01

    Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent shoulder stabilization surgery with thermal capsular shrinkage using a monopolar radiofrequency device. Follow-up included a subjective outcome questionnaire, discussion of pain, instability, and activity level. Mean follow-up was 3.3 years (range 2.0-4.7 years). The thermal capsular shrinkage procedure failed due to instability and/or pain in 31% of shoulders at a mean time of 39 months. In patients with unidirectional anterior instability and those with concomitant labral repair, the procedure proved effective. Patients with multidirectional instability had moderate success. In contrast, four of five patients with isolated posterior instability failed. Thermal capsular shrinkage has been advocated for the treatment of shoulder instability, particularly mild to moderate capsular laxity. The ease of the procedure makes it attractive. However, our retrospective review revealed an overall failure rate of 31% in 80 patients with 2-year minimum follow-up. This mid- to long-term cohort study adds to the literature lacking support for thermal capsulorrhaphy in general, particularly posterior instability. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9187-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  6. Shoulder arthroplasty options in young (<50 years old) patients: review of current concepts.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael H; Paxton, E Scott; Green, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Prosthetic shoulder arthroplasty provides excellent pain relief and functional restoration for patients with glenohumeral arthritis, but concerns of survivorship have limited its use in younger patients. Despite general reports of high long-term survivorship, implant failure and functional deterioration after total shoulder arthroplasty are major concerns in the management of younger patients. In addition to having a longer life expectancy, younger patients also tend to be more active and can be expected to place greater demands on their shoulder arthroplasty. Alternative strategies have been developed and used for shoulder arthroplasty in younger patients. This manuscript reviews current concepts of shoulder arthroplasty in young patients. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple-, But Not Single-, Dose of Parecoxib Reduces Shoulder Pain after Gynecologic Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hufei; Shu, Haihua; Yang, Lu; Cao, Minghui; Zhang, Jingjun; Liu, Kexuan; Xiao, Liangcan; Zhang, Xuyu

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate effect of single- and multiple-dose of parecoxib on shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy. Methods: 126 patients requiring elective gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly allocated to three groups. Group M (multiple-dose): receiving parecoxib 40mg at 30min before the end of surgery, at 8 and 20hr after surgery, respectively; Group S (single-dose): receiving parecoxib 40mg at 30min before the end of surgery and normal saline at the corresponding time points; Group C (control): receiving normal saline at the same three time points. The shoulder pain was evaluated, both at rest and with motion, at postoperative 6, 24 and 48hr. The impact of shoulder pain on patients' recovery (activity, mood, walking and sleep) was also evaluated. Meanwhile, rescue analgesics and complications were recorded. Results: The overall incidence of shoulder pain in group M (37.5%) was lower than that in group C (61.9%) (difference=-24.4%; 95% CI: 3.4~45.4%; P=0.023). Whereas, single-dose regimen (61.0%) showed no significant reduction (difference with control=-0.9%; 95% CI: -21.9~20.0%; P=0.931). Moreover, multiple-dose regimen reduced the maximal intensity of shoulder pain and the impact for activity and mood in comparison to the control. Multiple-dose of parecoxib decreased the consumption of rescue analgesics. The complications were similar among all groups and no severe complications were observed. Conclusions: Multiple-, but not single-, dose of parecoxib may attenuate the incidence and intensity of shoulder pain and thereby improve patients' quality of recovery following gynecologic laparoscopy. PMID:23136538

  8. Mid-term shoulder functional and quality of life outcomes after shoulder replacement in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather K; Struk, Aimee M; Reed, Austin; Wright, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder pain and loss of function are directly associated with obesity. We hypothesized that significant interactions would exist between total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and obesity status on functional and quality of life (QOL) outcomes over the long term. Clinical and QOL outcomes (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Evaluation form, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating scale, Medical Outcomes Short Form 12 (SF-12), range of motion (ROM), and strength) were longitudinally compared in patients with low and high body mass index (BMI) after a TSA or a RSA. Prospectively collected data of patients with a TSA or RSA were reviewed (N = 310). Preoperative, 2-year, and final follow-up visits were included (range 3-17 years; mean 5.0 ± 2.5 years). Patient data were stratified for analysis using BMI. Morbidly obese patients had worse preoperative functional scores and QOL compared to the other groups. There were no significant interactions of BMI group by surgery type for any of the outcome variables except for active external rotation ROM. Morbidly obese patients attained lower SF-12 scores compared to the remaining groups at each time point. Both TSA and RSA can be expected to impart positive functional outcomes in patients irrespective of BMI. Morbidly obese patients do not attain the same gains in Medical Outcomes SF-12 scores as the non-morbidly obese patients. The lower improvements in active external ROM may be due to morphological limitations of excessive adiposity. This is a level II study.

  9. Functional outcomes after shoulder resection: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Nicole M; Kim, H Mike; Armstrong, April D

    2015-09-01

    Resection arthroplasty is a salvage procedure used for the treatment of deep-seated infections after total shoulder arthroplasty, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Previous studies have reported a 50% to 66% rate of pain relief after resection arthroplasty but with significant functional limitations. Our study aimed to qualify the perspective of the patients on their limitations and satisfaction with resection arthroplasty. A retrospective record review of resection arthroplasties performed between September 2003 and December 2012 yielded 14 patients, and 7 completed the survey. The patients completed surveys with the focus on the "patient perspective." Functional scores, including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), DASH work, and DASH sports, were determined. Pain reduction and functional outcomes were similar to past reports of resection arthroplasty. Five of the 7 patients (71%) reported satisfaction with their resection arthroplasty, and 6 of the 7 patients (86%) would undergo the procedure again if given the choice. Five of the 7 patients (71%) were able to most of activities of daily living. Patients in our study were generally satisfied with their resection arthroplasty. Resection arthroplasty is a reasonable option for treatment of deep-seated periprosthetic infections or for patients with multiple previous failed procedures for total shoulder arthroplasty, hemiarthroplasty. and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Older Age as a Prognostic Factor of Attenuated Pain Recovery after Shoulder Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Corey B.; Riley, Joseph L.; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Valencia, Carolina; Wright, Thomas W.; Moser, Michael W.; Farmer, Kevin W.; George, Steven Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain and surgery are common among older adults. However, the extent to which older age affects recovery after shoulder surgery is not well understood. Objective To assess influence of older age on post-operative recovery factors three and six months after shoulder arthroscopy. Design Prospective Cohort Study Setting Institutional Patients Convenience sample of 139 individuals between 20 and 79 years of age who experienced shoulder pain, musculoskeletal dysfunction based on imaging and physician assessment, and were scheduled for an arthroscopic shoulder procedure. Main Outcome Measures Post-operative outcomes were compared among younger, middle-aged and older adults at pre-surgery, 3 months and 6 months after surgery using ANOVA modeling. Movement-evoked pain and an experimental laboratory correlate of pain processing were assessed at each time point. Older age influence on three and six month pain outcomes were determined via multivariate regression analyses after accounting for pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative prognostic factors. Results Older adults had higher movement-evoked pain intensity (F2,108 = 5.18, p=.007) and experimental pain response (F2,111 = 7.24, p=.001) at three months compared to young and middle-aged adults. After controlling for key prognostic factors, older age remained a positive predictor of three-month movement-evoked pain (R2=.05; St. Beta=.263, p=.031) and experimental pain response (R2=.07; St. Beta=.295, p=.014). Further, older age remained a positive predictor of movement-evoked pain at six months (R2=.04; St. Beta=.231, p=.004), despite no age group differences in outcome. Older age was found to be the strongest predictor of three and six month movement-evoked pain. Conclusion Older adults may experience more pain related to movement as well as endogenous pain excitation in the first few months after shoulder arthroscopy. Future age-related research should consider use of movement-evoked pain

  11. Three-dimensional shoulder kinematics normalize after rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Kolk, Arjen; de Witte, Pieter Bas; Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; van Zwet, Erik W; van Arkel, Ewoud R A; van der Zwaal, Peer; Nelissen, Rob G H H; de Groot, Jurriaan H

    2016-06-01

    Patients with a rotator cuff (RC) tear often exhibit scapular dyskinesia with increased scapular lateral rotation and decreased glenohumeral elevation with arm abduction. We hypothesized that in patients with an RC tear, scapular lateral rotation, and thus glenohumeral elevation, will be restored to normal after RC repair. Shoulder kinematics were quantitatively analyzed in 26 patients with an electromagnetic tracking device (Flock of Birds) before and 1 year after RC repair in this observational case series. We focused on humeral range of motion and scapular kinematics during abduction. The asymptomatic contralateral shoulder was used as the control. Changes in scapular kinematics were associated with the gain in range of motion. Shoulder kinematics were analyzed using a linear mixed model. Mean arm abduction and forward flexion improved after surgery by 20° (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7°-36.5°; P = .025) and 13° (95% CI, 1.2°-36.5°; P = .044), respectively. Kinematic analyses showed decreases in mean scapular protraction (ie, internal rotation) and lateral rotation (ie, upward rotation) during abduction by 3° (95% CI, 0.0°-5.2°; P = .046) and 4° (95% CI, 1.6°-8.4°; P = .042), respectively. Glenohumeral elevation increased by 5° (95% CI, 0.6°-9.7°; P = .028) at 80°. Humeral range of motion increased when scapular lateral rotation decreased and posterior tilt increased. Scapular kinematics normalize after RC repair toward a symmetrical scapular motion pattern as observed in the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder. The observed changes in scapular kinematics are associated with an increased overall range of motion and suggest restored function of shoulder muscles. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rupture of the subscapularis tendon after shoulder arthroplasty: diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bruce S; Joseph, Thomas A; Noonan, Thomas J; Horan, Marilee P; Hawkins, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and functional outcome in patients with subscapularis ruptures after shoulder arthroplasty. Prospective objective and subjective data were collected on 7 patients with symptomatic rupture of the subscapularis tendon after shoulder arthroplasty. Presenting signs and symptoms included pain, weakness in internal rotation, increased external rotation, and anterior instability. All patients were treated with surgical repair of the ruptured tendon. Four required repair augmentation with a transfer of the pectoralis major tendon. After subscapularis repair and pectoralis transfer, 2 patients continued to have anterior instability and required an additional operation to address the instability. At a mean follow-up of 2.3 years (range, 18-55 months), the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder score in this study group was 63.2. The mean patient satisfaction rating, on a 10-point scale, was 6.2. Factors associated with post-arthroplasty subscapularis ruptures included subscapularis lengthening techniques used to address internal rotation contracture and previous surgery that violated the subscapularis tendon. Symptomatic subscapularis rupture after shoulder arthroplasty introduces the need for additional surgery and a period of protected or delayed rehabilitation after arthroplasty. Although symptoms were adequately addressed with appropriate surgical treatment, decreased functional outcomes were observed.

  13. Benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin topical skin preparation decreases Propionibacterium acnes colonization in shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dizay, Hailey H; Lau, Diana G; Nottage, Wesley M

    2017-07-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive anaerobe that can lead to devastating postoperative shoulder infections. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin preoperative skin preparation reduces the incidence of P. acnes colonization during shoulder arthroscopy. Sixty-five shoulder arthroscopy patients were prospectively enrolled. A skin culture specimen was taken at the preoperative visit from standard arthroscopic portal sites. Topical benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1.2% (BPO/C) gel was applied to the shoulder every night before surgery. Skin culture was repeated in the operating room before preparation with chlorhexidine gluconate. Shoulder arthroscopy proceeded, with final culture specimens obtained from within the shoulder. P. acnes skin colonization remained similar to prior studies at 47.7% (31 of 65 patients.) With >1 application, BPO/C was 78.9% (15 of 19 patients) effective in eliminating P. acnes superficial colonization. With 1 application, it was 66.7% (8 of 12 patients) effective in eliminating superficial colonization. Deep colonization was reduced to 3.1% (2 of 65 patients) compared with previous studies of 15% to 20% (P = .006). BPO/C was 100% effective at decreasing deep colonization with >1 application. P. acnes skin colonization is high at arthroscopic shoulder portals, especially in men. Despite standard skin preparation and prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of joint inoculation is much higher than the rate of infection reported in the literature. BPO/C effectively reduces P. acnes colonization in shoulder arthroscopy. It should be considered for use before shoulder procedures with a time-related trend of >1 application. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient self-assessed shoulder comfort and function and active motion are not closely related to surgically documented rotator cuff tear integrity.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason E; Tang, Anna; Matsen, Frederick A

    2017-11-01

    The rationale for rotator cuff repair surgery is that better integrity of the cuff should be associated with better comfort and function. However, in patients with cuff disease, there is not good evidence that the degree of rotator cuff integrity is closely associated with the shoulder's comfort, function, or active motion. The goal of this study was to explore these relationships in shoulders with surgically documented cuff disease. In 55 shoulders having surgery for cuff-related symptoms, we correlated the preoperative Simple Shoulder Test score with the objectively measured preoperative active shoulder motion and with the integrity of the cuff observed at surgery. The 16 shoulders with tendinosis or partial-thickness tears had an average Simple Shoulder Test score of 3.7 ± 3.3, active abduction of 111° ± 38°, and active flexion of 115° ± 36°. The corresponding values were 3.6 ± 2.8, 94° ± 47°, and 94° ± 52° for the 22 full-thickness supraspinatus tears and 3.9 ± 2.7, 89° ± 39°, and 100° ± 39° for the 17 supraspinatus and infraspinatus tears. In this study, surgically observed cuff integrity was not strongly associated with the shoulder's comfort or function. Whereas surgeons often seek to improve the integrity of the rotator cuff, the management of patients with rotator cuff disorders needs to be informed by a better understanding of the factors other than cuff integrity that influence the comfort and functioning of shoulders with cuff disease. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reverse shoulder prosthesis in the treatment of locked anterior shoulders: a comparison with classic reverse shoulder indications.

    PubMed

    Kurowicki, Jennifer; Triplet, Jacob J; Momoh, Enesi; Moor, Molly A; Levy, Jonathan C

    2016-12-01

    Locked anterior shoulder (LAS) with static instability and anterior glenoid bone loss is challenging in the elderly population. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has been employed in treating these patients. No study has compared RSA for LAS with classically indicated RSA. A retrospective case-control study of patients treated with RSA for LAS with glenoid bone loss and static instability was performed using matched controls treated with primary RSA for classic indications. Twenty-four cases and 48 controls were evaluated. Average follow-up was 25.5 months, and median age was 76 years. Motion, outcome assessments, and postoperative radiographs were compared. Preoperatively, LAS had significantly less rotation and lower baseline outcome scores. Glenoid bone grafting was more common (P = .05) in the control group (26%) than in the LAS group (6.3%). Larger glenospheres were used more often (P = .001) in the LAS group (75%) than in the control group (29%). Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in pain, function, and outcome scores. Postoperatively, the control group had significantly better elevation and functional outcome scores. With the exception of flexion and Simple Shoulder Test score, effectiveness of treatment was similar between groups. Postoperative acromion stress fractures were seen in 21% of LAS patients and 9% of controls (P = .023) with a predominance of type 3 fractures in LAS. Two LAS patients remained dislocated. Patients with LAS treated with RSA can anticipate improvements in pain and function by use of larger glenospheres, often without the need for glenoid bone grafting. Worse postoperative motion and function and a higher incidence of acromion stress fracture may be expected. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shoulder instability: evaluation with MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Seeger, L L; Gold, R H; Bassett, L W

    1988-09-01

    Instability of the glenohumeral joint is a common cause of chronic shoulder pain and disability. One or more episodes of subluxation or dislocation may result in a tear, detachment, or attenuation of the glenoid labrum, stripping of the joint capsule from the scapula, or trauma to the tendons or muscles of the rotator cuff. A series of 27 shoulders examined with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed changes of glenohumeral instability, which were confirmed with open or arthroscopic surgery. MR imaging was capable of displaying common types of pathologic conditions resulting from instability, including labral trauma, capsular detachment, and retraction of the subscapularis muscle. MR imaging is a valuable diagnostic tool for the evaluation of glenohumeral instability.

  17. Randomised controlled trial of exercise to prevent shoulder problems in women undergoing breast cancer treatment: study protocol for the prevention of shoulder problems trial (UK PROSPER)

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Esther; Lait, Clare; Richmond, Helen; Betteley, Lauren; Lall, Ranjit; Petrou, Stavros; Rees, Sophie; Withers, Emma J; Lamb, Sarah E; Thompson, Alastair M

    2018-01-01

    Musculoskeletal shoulder problems are common after breast cancer treatment. Early postoperative exercises targeting the upper limb may improve shoulder function. This protocol describes a National Institute for Health Research-funded randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of an early supervised structured exercise programme compared with usual care, for women at high risk of developing shoulder problems after breast cancer surgery. Methods This pragmatic two-armed, multicentre RCT is underway within secondary care in the UK. PRevention Of Shoulder ProblEms tRial (PROSPER) aims to recruit 350 women from approximately 15 UK centres with follow-up at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. Recruitment processes and intervention development were optimised through qualitative research during a 6-month internal pilot phase. Participants are randomised to the PROSPER intervention or best practice usual care only. The PROSPER intervention is delivered by physiotherapists and incorporates three main components: shoulder-specific exercises targeting range of movement and strength; general physical activity and behavioural strategies to encourage adherence and support exercise behaviour. The primary outcome is upper arm function assessed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire at 12 months postrandomisation. Secondary outcomes include DASH subscales, acute and chronic pain, complications, health-related quality of life and healthcare resource use. We will interview a subsample of 20 participants to explore their experiences of the trial interventions. Discussion The PROSPER study is the first multicentre UK clinical trial to investigate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of supported exercise in the prevention of shoulder problems in high-risk women undergoing breast cancer surgery. The findings will inform future clinical practice and provide valuable insight into the role of physiotherapy

  18. Arthroscopic capsular release for idiopathic frozen shoulder with intra-articular injection and a controlled manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, P; Bunker, TD

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this prospective study was to assess the immediate and long-term effectiveness of arthroscopic capsular release in a large cohort of patients with a precise and isolated diagnosis of stage II idiopathic frozen shoulder. METHODS All patients underwent a preoperative evaluation. Patients with secondary frozen shoulder and those with concurrent pathology at arthroscopy were excluded. This left 136 patients with a stage II arthroscopically confirmed idiopathic frozen shoulder. At each postoperative attendance, a record was made of pain, function and range of motion. At 12 months, the Oxford shoulder score was calculated, and pain and range of motion were assessed. RESULTS Fifty per cent achieved good pain relief within a week and eighty per cent within six weeks of arthroscopic capsular release. The mean preoperative visual analogue scale pain score was 6.6 and the mean postoperative score was 1.0. The mean time to achieving good pain relief was 16 days following surgery. No patient could sleep through the night prior to surgery while 90% reported having a complete night’s sleep at a mean of 12 days after surgery. The mean postoperative Oxford shoulder score was 38/48 and the mean improvement was 19.2. CONCLUSIONS This large series demonstrates that arthroscopic capsular release is a safe procedure, with rapid improvement in pain and a marked improvement in range of motion. PMID:24417832

  19. In Vivo Shoulder Function After Surgical Repair of a Torn Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Bey, Michael J.; Peltz, Cathryn D.; Ciarelli, Kristin; Kline, Stephanie K.; Divine, George W.; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Muh, Stephanie; Kolowich, Patricia A.; Lock, Terrence R.; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical repair of a torn rotator cuff is based on the belief that repairing the tear is necessary to restore normal glenohumeral joint (GHJ) mechanics and achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome. Hypothesis Dynamic joint function is not completely restored by rotator cuff repair, thus compromising shoulder function and potentially leading to long-term disability. Study Design Controlled laboratory study and Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods Twenty-one rotator cuff patients and 35 control participants enrolled in the study. Biplane radiographic images were acquired bilaterally from each patient during coronal-plane abduction. Rotator cuff patients were tested at 3, 12, and 24 months after repair of a supraspinatus tendon tear. Control participants were tested once. Glenohumeral joint kinematics and joint contact patterns were accurately determined from the biplane radiographic images. Isometric shoulder strength and patient-reported outcomes were measured at each time point. Ultrasound imaging assessed rotator cuff integrity at 24 months after surgery. Results Twenty of 21 rotator cuff repairs appeared intact at 24 months after surgery. The humerus of the patients’ repaired shoulder was positioned more superiorly on the glenoid than both the patients’ contralateral shoulder and the dominant shoulder of control participants. Patient-reported outcomes improved significantly over time. Shoulder strength also increased over time, although strength deficits persisted at 24 months for most patients. Changes over time in GHJ mechanics were not detected for either the rotator cuff patients’ repaired or contralateral shoulders. Clinical outcome was associated with shoulder strength but not GHJ mechanics. Conclusion Surgical repair of an isolated supraspinatus tear may be sufficient to keep the torn rotator cuff intact and achieve satisfactory patient-reported outcomes, but GHJ mechanics and shoulder strength are not fully restored with current

  20. Patients recall worse preoperative pain after shoulder arthroplasty than originally reported: a study of recall accuracy using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jeremiah T; Li, Xinning; Fasulo, Sydney M; Testa, Edward J; Jawa, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are valuable tools for quantifying outcomes of orthopedic surgery. However, when baseline scores are not obtained, there is considerable controversy about whether PROMs can be administered retrospectively for patients to recall their preoperative state. We investigated the accuracy of patient recall after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment score. Recalled ASES scores were collected postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months from 169 patients who previously completed baseline scores before TSA. The ASES total score was divided into its two subcomponents: functional ability and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. We compared preoperative and recalled scores for each subcomponent and the total ASES score. Recalled ASES function scores were comparable to corresponding preoperative scores across all time points (analysis of variance, P = .21), but recalled VAS pain was significantly higher at all time points beyond 6 weeks after surgery (P = .0001 at 3 months; P = .005 at 6 months; and P = .001 at 12 months). As a result, the ASES total score was only comparable at 6 weeks after surgery (P = .39) and differed at all time points thereafter. Patients are able to recall preoperative function with considerable accuracy for up to 12 months after TSA. However, beyond 6 weeks postoperatively, patients recall having worse pain than they originally reported, and recalled ASES total scores are unreliable as a result. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arthroscopic management of posterior instability of the shoulder: A systematic review of predictive factors associated with poorer surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sachin Ramesh; Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Hwee Chye Tan, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review to identify factors that may lead to poorer outcomes in arthroscopic surgery for posterior shoulder instability. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for 757 unique articles. We eventually included 22 articles. Data were analysed using Review Manager 5.3. The presence of chondral damage was associated with poorer outcomes as reflected in a higher post-operative Quick Disabilities of theArm, Shoulder and Hand score (mean difference (MD) = 17.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.82-31.4; p = 0.02), higher WesternOntario Shoulder Instability (WOSI) index (MD = 468.0; 95% CI = 136.5-799.5; p = 0.006), lower Simple Shoulder Test score (MD = -2.40; 95% CI = -4.34 to -0.46; p = 0.02) and a lower Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score (MD = -15.4; 95% CI = -30.6 to -0.23; p = 0.05). The presence of previous shoulder surgery was associated with poorer outcomes as depicted by a lower American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score (MD = -93.1; 95% CI = -96.9 to -89.3; p < 0.0001). The availability of workers' compensation was associated with poorer outcomes as revealed by a lower rate of return to work (odds ratio (OR) = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.00-0.20; p = 0.0008). The presence of additional procedures while performing surgery for posterior shoulder instability was associated with poorer outcomes as reflected by lower ASES scores (MD = -6.70; 95% CI = -8.64 to -4.76; p < 0.0001), higher WOSI index (MD = 63.4; 95% CI = 33.0-93.8; p < 0.0001), lower University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) scores (MD = -2.30; 95% CI = -2.81 to -1.79; p < 0.0001), higher pain scores (MD = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.39-1.05; p < 0.0001) and higher post-operative instability (MD = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.57-1.03; p < 0.0001). The presence of chondral damage, previous shoulder surgery, concomitant surgery and workman's compensation was associated with poorer outcomes for arthroscopic repair of posterior shoulder instability. Further

  2. The efficacy of physiotherapy upon shoulder function following axillary dissection in breast cancer, a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Beurskens, Carien HG; van Uden, Caro JT; Strobbe, Luc JA; Oostendorp, Rob AB; Wobbes, Theo

    2007-01-01

    Background Many patients suffer from severe shoulder complaints after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection. Physiotherapy has been clinically observed to improve treatment of these patients. However, it is not a standard treatment regime. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of physiotherapy treatment of shoulder function, pain and quality of life in patients who have undergone breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection. Methods Thirty patients following breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection were included in a randomised controlled study. Assessments were made at baseline and after three and six months. The treatment group received standardised physiotherapy treatment of advice and exercises for the arm and shoulder for three months; the control group received a leaflet containing advice and exercises. If necessary soft tissue massage to the surgical scar was applied. Primary outcome variables were amount of pain in the shoulder/arm recorded on the Visual Analogue Scale, and shoulder mobility (flexion, abduction) measured using a digital inclinometer under standardized conditions. Secondary outcome measures were shoulder disabilities during daily activities, edema, grip strength of both hands and quality of life. The researcher was blinded to treatment allocation. Results All thirty patients completed the trial. After three and six months the treatment group showed a significant improvement in shoulder mobility and had significantly less pain than the control group. Quality of life improved significantly, however, handgrip strength and arm volume did not alter significantly. Conclusion Physiotherapy reduces pain and improves shoulder function and quality of life following axillary dissection after breast cancer. Trial registration ISRCTN31186536 PMID:17760981

  3. Effects of two stretching methods on shoulder range of motion and muscle stiffness in baseball players with posterior shoulder tightness: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Taishi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nishishita, Satoru; Yanase, Ko; Fujita, Kosuke; Umehara, Jun; Ji, Xiang; Ibuki, Satoko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-09-01

    The cross-body stretch and sleeper stretch are widely used for improving flexibility of the posterior shoulder. These stretching methods were modified by Wilk. However, few quantitative data are available on the new, modified stretching methods. A recent study reported the immediate effects of stretching and soft tissue mobilization on the shoulder range of motion (ROM) and muscle stiffness in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness. However, the long-term effect of stretching for muscle stiffness is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 stretching methods, the modified cross-body stretch (MCS) and the modified sleeper stretch (MSS), on shoulder ROM and muscle stiffness in baseball players with posterior shoulder tightness. Twenty-four college baseball players with ROM limitations in shoulder internal rotation were randomly assigned to the MCS or MSS group. We measured shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction ROM and assessed posterior shoulder muscle stiffness with ultrasonic shear wave elastography before and after a 4-week intervention. Subjects were asked to perform 3 repetitions of the stretching exercises every day, for 30 seconds, with their dominant shoulder. In both groups, shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction ROM were significantly increased after the 4-week intervention. Muscle stiffness of the teres minor decreased in the MCS group, and that of the infraspinatus decreased in the MSS group. The MCS and MSS are effective for increasing shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction ROM and decreasing muscle stiffness of the infraspinatus or teres minor. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Loose glenoid components in revision shoulder arthroplasty: is there an association with positive cultures?

    PubMed

    Lucas, Robert M; Hsu, Jason E; Whitney, Ian J; Wasserburger, Jory; Matsen, Frederick A

    2016-08-01

    Glenoid loosening is one of the most common causes of total shoulder failure. High rates of positive cultures of Propionibacterium and coagulase-negative staphylococcus have been found among shoulders having surgical revision for glenoid loosening. This study reviewed the culture results in a series of surgical revisions for failed total shoulder arthroplasty to determine the relationship between glenoid loosening and positive cultures. The medical records of 221 patients without obvious evidence of infection who underwent revision total shoulder arthroplasty were reviewed to examine the association between the security of fixation of the glenoid component and the results of cultures obtained at revision surgery. Of the revised shoulders, 53% had positive cultures; 153 of the shoulders (69%) had a loose glenoid component, whereas 68 (31%) had secure glenoid component fixation. Of the 153 loose glenoid components, 82 (54%) had at least 1 positive culture and 44 (29%) had 2 or more positive cultures of the same microorganism. Similarly, of the 68 secure glenoid components, 35 (51%) had at least 1 positive culture (P = .77) and 14 (21%) had 2 or more positive cultures of the same microorganism (P = .25). Explanted glenoid components that were loose had a higher rate of culture positivity (56% [24/43]) in comparison to explanted glenoid components that were well fixed (13% [1/8]) (P = .05). Propionibacterium and coagulase-negative staphylococcus are commonly recovered in revision shoulder arthroplasty, whether or not the glenoid components are loose. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiographic evaluation of short-stem press-fit total shoulder arthroplasty: short-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Danielle J; Parks, Di L; Torngren, Travis; Schrumpf, Mark A; Harmsen, Samuel M; Norris, Tom R; Kelly, James D

    2016-07-01

    Humeral loosening is an uncommon etiology for revision shoulder arthroplasty. We aimed to evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes of a short-stem press-fit humeral component after primary total shoulder arthroplasty. We reviewed our patient database, from January 2008 to December 2011, for primary total shoulder arthroplasties performed with a short-stem press-fit humeral component. Radiographs and clinical outcomes were evaluated in the immediate postoperative period and at the most recent follow-up, with at least 24 months of data for all patients. There were 73 shoulders that met our inclusion criteria, but 4 underwent revision before 2 years' follow-up. Only 1 of these 4 was revised for aseptic humeral loosening. Sixty-nine shoulders had at least 24 months of radiographic follow-up, and 62 had radiographic and clinical follow-up. Of the 69 shoulders, 5 underwent revision for humeral loosening: 1 for aseptic loosening and 4 for infection. Two other shoulders with humeral loosening were asymptomatic, and the patients refused revision surgery. The overall revision rate for humeral loosening was 8.2% (6 of 73 shoulders). Radiolucent zones of any size were seen in 71.0%, with 8.7% of these shoulders identified as having humeral stems at risk of future loosening. Significant improvements were made in most of the measured clinical outcomes. A high percentage of radiolucency was seen around the short-stem press-fit humeral components evaluated in this study at short-term follow-up. The overall rates of loosening and revision for the humeral implant examined in this study are higher than those noted in other recent studies evaluating press-fit stems. The cause of radiolucency and humeral loosening for this implant is not fully understood. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of shoulder internal rotation test with the elbow flexion test in the diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Kensuke; Horiuchi, Yukio; Tanabe, Aya; Morita, Kozo; Takeda, Kentaro; Ninomiya, Ken

    2011-05-01

    To compare the shoulder internal rotation test-a new, provocative test-with the elbow flexion test in the diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CubTS). Twenty-five patients with CubTS were examined before and after surgery with 10 seconds each of the elbow flexion and shoulder internal rotation tests. Fifty-four asymptomatic individuals and 14 neuropathy patients with a diagnosis other than CubTS were also examined as control cases. For the shoulder internal rotation test, the patient's upper extremity was kept at 90° abduction, maximum internal rotation, and 10° flexion at the shoulder, with 90° elbow flexion and neutral position of the forearm and wrist, with finger extension. Test results were considered positive if any slight symptom attributable to CubTS occurred within 10 seconds. Extraneural pressure inside the cubital tunnel was intraoperatively measured with the positions of both the elbow flexion and shoulder internal rotation tests, in 15 of the CubTS cases. Statistical analyses were performed using Student's t-test with a confidence level of 95%. The preoperative sensitivity in CubTS cases was 80% in the 10-second shoulder internal rotation test and 36% in the 10-second elbow flexion test, and these differences were significant. None of the control cases had positive results in either test. All the CubTS cases improved with surgery; after surgery, neither test provoked symptoms in any surgical patient. The extraneural pressure increased in both provocative positions with no significant difference. Positive results for the 10-second shoulder internal rotation test were more sensitive than that for the elbow flexion test of the same duration and seemed specific to CubTS. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Revision to Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Restores Stability for Patients With Unstable Shoulder Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Nicholas M; Chalmers, Brian P; Wagner, Eric R; Sperling, John W; Cofield, Robert H; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2017-11-01

    examinations. We evaluated pain and ROM, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate survivorship. The survivorship free from dislocation at 2 and 5 years was 87% (95% CI, 80%-94%) and 79% (95% CI, 67%-91%) respectively, with 10 of 65 (15%) patients having an episode of dislocation after revision surgery. Persistent instability was more common in those with a BMI greater than 35 kg/m 2 (hazard ratio [HR], 5; 95% CI, 2-16; p = 0.008) and prior hemiarthroplasty (HR, 5; 95% CI, 2-16; p = 0.005), whereas patients who had undergone a previous TSA were less likely to have persistent instability (HR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.0-0.30; p < 0.001) The survival free from rerevision for any indication at 2 and 5 years was 85% (95% CI, 76%-94%) and 78% (95% CI, 66%-90%) respectively; with the numbers available, we were not able to find associated factors. Fewer patients had moderate or severe pain after revision to RSA (preoperative: 48 of 65 [74%]; postoperative: nine of 65 [14%]; p < 0.001). After surgery, patients showed improvement in shoulder elevation (preoperative: 42° [± 30°], postoperative: 112° [42°]; mean difference, 70° [95% CI, - 83 o to 57°]; p < 0.001) and external rotation (preoperative: 20° [± 22°], postoperative: 42° [± 23°]; mean difference, 22° [95% CI, - 30° to - 14°]; p < 0.001). American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores improved (preoperative: 21 [± 10], postoperative: 68 [± 14], mean difference, 46 [95% CI, - 58 to - 35]; p < 0.001); where a higher score is better. Simple Shoulder Test scores also improved (preoperative: 2/12 [± 2], postoperative: 7/12 [± 3]; mean difference, 5 [95% CI, - 7 to - 2.17]; p < 0.001); where a higher score is better. Revision RSA for prosthetic instability after shoulder arthroplasty is associated with reasonable implant survival and few complications. Approximately one in seven patients will have a recurrent dislocation. In patients with persistent instability or with risk factors for instability, consideration should be

  8. Periprosthetic Joint Infection of Shoulder Arthroplasties: Diagnostic and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Sevelda, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most frequent reasons for painful shoulder arthroplasties and revision surgery of shoulder arthroplasties. Cutibacterium acnes (Propionibacterium acnes) is one of the microorganisms that most often causes the infection. However, this slow growing microorganism is difficult to detect. This paper presents an overview of different diagnostic test to detect a periprosthetic shoulder infection. This includes nonspecific diagnostic tests and specific tests (with identifying the responsible microorganism). The aspiration can combine different specific and nonspecific tests. In dry aspiration and suspected joint infection, we recommend a biopsy. Several therapeutic options exist for the treatment of PJI of shoulder arthroplasties. In acute infections, the options include leaving the implant in place with open debridement, septic irrigation with antibacterial fluids like octenidine or polyhexanide solution, and exchange of all removable components. In late infections (more than four weeks after implantation) the therapeutic options are a permanent spacer, single-stage revision, and two-stage revision with a temporary spacer. The functional results are best after single-stage revisions with a success rate similar to two-stage revisions. For single-stage revisions, the microorganism should be known preoperatively so that specific antibiotics can be mixed into the cement for implantation of the new prosthesis and specific systemic antibiotic therapy can be applied to support the surgery. PMID:29423407

  9. Use of a shorter humeral stem in revision reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Eric R; Statz, Joseph M; Houdek, Matthew T; Cofield, Robert H; Sánchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Sperling, John W

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of revision reverse arthroplasty using short bone-preserving humeral components in revising a long-stemmed component. During a 7-year period, 39 patients who underwent revision reverse shoulder arthroplasty using the long to short humeral component technique were included. The mean age was 72 years. Prior implants used in the primary setting included anatomic (n = 26), hemiarthroplasty (n = 11), and reverse (n = 2). At a follow-up of 3 years (2-5), 5 shoulders (13%) required revision surgery, including 1 for a periprosthetic humerus fracture and 4 for glenoid component loosening. The survival free of revision for any reason and revision for humeral disease was 84% and 94%, respectively. One patient experienced a nondisplaced greater tuberosity fracture at 18 months postoperatively that healed without operative intervention. There were no dislocations or infections. Overall, patients experienced excellent overall improvements in their pain levels and shoulder motion (P < .001), with a postoperative 91% satisfaction rate as well as postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score of 68 and Simple Shoulder Test score of 6.7. At most recent radiographic follow-up, 1 (5%) patient had grade 3 humeral lucency. Preserving bone stock through conversion to a shorter reverse humeral stem in the revision setting is a reasonable option with good short- to intermediate-term results and low rates of humeral complications. Using the shorter stem components provides adequate stability and high rates of humeral component ingrowth. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcomes of Latarjet versus Distal Tibial Allograft for Anterior Shoulder Instability Repair: A Prospective Matched Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Kim, Jae; O’Donnell, Patrick Joseph; O’Brien, Michael; Newgren, Jonathan; Verma, Nikhil N.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Cole, Brian J.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, the use of fresh distal tibia allograft (DTA) for glenoid reconstruction in anterior shoulder instability has been described, with encouraging short-term outcomes, however, there is little available comparative data to the Latarjet procedure, long considered the gold standard for bone loss treatment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes for patients undergoing DTA compared to a matched cohort of patients undergoing Latarjet. Methods: A review of prospectively collected data of patients with a minimum 15% anterior glenoid bone loss who underwent shoulder stabilization with either DTA or Latarjet with a minimum follow-up of 2 years was conducted. Consecutive patients undergoing DTA were matched by age, body mass index, and number of previous ipsilateral shoulder surgeries to patients undergoing Latarjet in a 1-to- 1 format. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at a minimum 2 years post operatively with American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) outcomes assessments. Complications, reoperations, and episodes of recurrent instability were also analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with student T-tests, with P<0.05 considered significant. Results: A total of 60 patients (30 Latarjet, 30 DTA) with an average age of 26.5±7.8 years were analyzed at an average 46±17 months (range, 24-87) following surgery. Twenty-two patients (73%) in each group underwent prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery (range, 1 to 3 surgeries) prior to Latarjet or DTA. There were no statistical differences in age, BMI, or number of prior surgeries between the groups. There were no differences between the groups in regards to recurrent instability events, subluxation, or apprehension on final examination (P>0.8). Patients in both groups experienced significant improvements in all outcomes scores following surgery (P>0.05 for all

  11. Nerve stress during reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Hubert; Dagneaux, Louis; Canovas, François; Waitzenegger, Thomas; Pham, Thuy Trang; Chammas, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Neurologic lesions are relatively common after total shoulder arthroplasty. These injuries are mostly due to traction. We aimed to identify the arm manipulations and steps during reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) that affect nerve stress. Stress was measured in 10 shoulders of 5 cadavers by use of a tensiometer on each nerve from the brachial plexus, with shoulders in different arm positions and during different surgical steps of RTSA. When we studied shoulder position without prostheses, relative to the neutral position, internal rotation increased stress on the radial and axillary nerves and external rotation increased stress on the musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves. Extension was correlated with increase in stress on all nerves. Abduction was correlated with increase in stress for the radial nerve. We identified 2 high-risk steps during RTSA: humeral exposition, particularly when the shoulder was in a position of more extension, and glenoid exposition. The thickness of polyethylene humeral cups used was associated with increased nerve stress in all but the ulnar nerve. During humeral preparation, the surgeon must be careful to limit shoulder extension. Care must be taken during exposure of the glenoid. Extreme rotation and oversized implants should be avoided to minimize stretch-induced neuropathies. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in shoulder muscle size and activity following treatment for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shamley, Delva R; Srinanaganathan, Ragavan; Weatherall, Rosamund; Oskrochi, Reza; Watson, Marion; Ostlere, Simon; Sugden, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    Morbidity of the shoulder after breast cancer is a well-known phenomenon. MRI studies have shown muscle morbidity in cervical cancer and prostate cancer. In breast cancer clinical observations and patient reports include muscle morbidity in a number of muscles acting at the shoulder. Several of these muscles lie in the field of surgery and radiotherapy. Timed interaction between muscles that stabilise the shoulder and those acting as prime movers is essential to achieve a smooth scapulohumeral rthythm during functional elevation of the arm. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: Seventy-four women treated for unilateral carcinoma of the breast were included in the study. All patients filled out the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). EMG activity of four muscles was recorded during scaption on the affected and unaffected side. Muscle cross sectional area and signal intensity was determined from MRI scans. The association between EMG and covariates was determined using multiple linear regression techniques. Three of the 4 muscles on the affected side demonstrated significantly less EMG activity, particularly when lowering the arm. Upper trapezius demonstrated the greatest loss in activity. Decreased activity in both upper trapezius and rhomboid were significantly associated with an increase in SPADI score and increased time since surgery. Pectoralis major and minor were significantly smaller on the affected side. Muscles affected in the long term are the muscles associated with pain and disability yet are not in the direct field of surgery or radiotherapy. Primary muscle shortening and secondary loss of muscle activity may be producing a movement disorder similar to the 'Dropped Shoulder Syndrome'. Exercise programmes should aim not only for range of movement but also for posture correction and education of potential long-term effects.

  13. Revision of failed shoulder hemiarthroplasty to reverse total arthroplasty: analysis of 157 revision implants.

    PubMed

    Merolla, Giovanni; Wagner, Eric; Sperling, John W; Paladini, Paolo; Fabbri, Elisabetta; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    There remains a paucity of studies examining the conversion of failed hemiarthroplasty (HA) to reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a large series of revision HA to RTSA. A population of 157 patients who underwent conversion of a failed HA to a revision RTSA from 2006 through 2014 were included. The mean follow-up was 49 months (range, 24-121 months). The indications for revision surgery included instability with rotator cuff insufficiency (n = 127) and glenoid wear (n = 30); instability and glenoid wear were associated in 38 cases. Eight patients with infection underwent 2-stage reimplantation. Patients experienced significant improvements in their preoperative to postoperative pain and shoulder range of motion (P < .0001), with median American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and Simple Shoulder Test scores of 60 and 6 points, respectively. There were 11 (7%) repeated revision surgeries, secondary to glenoid component loosening (n = 3), instability (n = 3), humeral component disassembly (n = 2), humeral stem loosening (n = 1), and infection (n = 2). Implant survivorship was 95.5% at 2 years and 93.3% at 5 years. There were 4 reoperations including axillary nerve neurolysis (n = 2), heterotopic ossification removal (n = 1), and hardware removal for rupture of the metal cerclage for an acromial fracture (n = 1). At final follow-up, there were 5 "at-risk" glenoid components. Patients experience satisfactory pain relief and recovery of reasonable shoulder function after revision RTSA from a failed HA. There was a relatively low revision rate, with glenoid loosening and instability being the most common causes. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - ...

  15. Effects of hook plate on shoulder function after treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Hong; Dong, Qi-Rong; Zhou, Rong-Kui; Zhen, Hua-Qing; Jiao, Ya-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Internal fixation with hook plate has been used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of its use on shoulder function, to further analyze the contributing factors, and provide a basis for selection and design of improved internal fixation treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation in the future. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with a hook plate for acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2013. There were 33 cases in total, including 25 males and 8 females, with mean age of 48.27 ± 8.7 years. There were 29 cases of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation, 4 cases of type V. The Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system was used to evaluate the shoulder function recovery status after surgery. Anteroposterior shoulder X-ray was used to assess the position of the hook plate, status of acromioclavicular joint reduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications. According to the Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system, the average scores were 78 ± 6 points 8 to 12 months after the surgery and before the removal of the hook plate, the average scores were 89 ± 5 minutes two months after the removal of hook plate. Postoperative X-ray imaging showed osteolysis in 10 cases (30.3%), osteoarthritis in six cases (18.1%), osteolysis associated with osteoarthritis in four cases(12.1%), and steel hook broken in one case (3%). The use of hook plate on open reduction and internal fixation of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation had little adverse effect on shoulder function and is an effective method for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Osteoarthritis and osteolysis are the two common complications after hook plate use, which are associated with the impairment of shoulder function. Shoulder function will be improved after removal of the hook plate.

  16. Shoulder tenotomies to improve passive motion and relieve pain in patients with spastic hemiplegia after upper motor neuron injury.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Surena; Alosh, Hassan; Baldwin, Keith; Mehta, Samir; Keenan, Mary Ann

    2011-07-01

    Shoulder adduction and internal rotation contractures commonly develop in patients with spastic hemiplegia after upper motor neuron (UMN) injury. Contractures are often painful, macerate skin, and impair axillary hygiene. We hypothesize that shoulder tenotomies are an effective means of pain relief and passive motion restoration in patients without active upper extremity motor function. A consecutive series of 36 adults (10 men, 26 women) with spastic hemiplegia from UMN injury, shoulder adduction, and internal rotation contractures, and no active movement, who underwent shoulder tenotomies of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres major, and subscapularis were evaluated. Patients were an average age of 52.2 years. Pain, passive motion, and satisfaction were considered preoperatively and postoperatively. Average follow-up was 14.3 months. Preoperatively, all patients had limited passive motion that interfered with passive functions. Nineteen patients had pain. After surgery, passive extension, flexion, abduction, and external rotation improved from 50%, 27%, 27%, and 1% to 85%, 70%, 66%, and 56%, respectively, compared with the normal contralateral side (P < .001). All patients with preoperative pain had improved pain relief at follow-up, with 18 (95%) being pain-free. Thirty-five (97%) were satisfied with the outcome of surgery, and all patients reported improved axillary hygiene and skin care. Age, gender, etiology, and chronicity of UMN injury were not associated with improvement in motion. We observed improvements in passive ROM and high patient satisfaction with surgery at early follow-up. Patients who had pain with passive motion preoperatively had significant improvements in pain after shoulder tenotomy. Shoulder tenotomy to relieve spastic contractures resulting from UMN injury can be an effective means of pain relief and improved passive range of motion in patients without active motor function. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow

  17. Calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder: midterm results after arthroscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Balke, Maurice; Bielefeld, Rebecca; Schmidt, Carolin; Dedy, Nicolas; Liem, Dennis

    2012-03-01

    Calcifying tendinitis is a common and painful disorder of the shoulder characterized by the presence of calcific deposits in the tendons of the rotator cuff. When nonoperative treatment over a prolonged period of time fails, surgical treatment should be considered. Midterm success rates are inconsistent, and the role of subacromial decompression is still unclear. Our hypotheses were that the rate of supraspinatus tears after arthroscopic treatment of calcifying tendinitis is comparable with that in the contralateral uninvolved shoulder and that subacromial decompression does not have beneficial effects compared with calcium removal alone. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. In 70 shoulders of 62 patients with a mean age of 54 years, arthroscopic removal of calcium deposits of the supraspinatus tendon was performed. In 44 shoulders, additional subacromial decompression was performed. After a mean follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-13 years), patients were clinically investigated, and function was statistically evaluated using Constant and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores. Affected and contralateral shoulders were examined by ultrasound in 48 shoulders, and rotator cuff tears were documented. The mean Constant scores of the operated shoulders were significantly lower than those of the healthy shoulders (P < .001). The ASES scores significantly (P < .001) increased after surgery but were still lower than the ASES scores of the healthy shoulders (P < .001). Concerning the additional subacromial decompression, there were no significant differences in the overall ASES and Constant scores; the subitem "pain" was significantly better in the subacromial decompression group (P = .048). Ultrasound examination at last follow-up (48 shoulders) showed a partial supraspinatus tendon tear in 11 operated and 3 contralateral shoulders. Although the good clinical results after arthroscopic treatment of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder persist midterm, the affected

  18. Revision of failed hemiarthroplasty for painful glenoid arthrosis to anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Mihir M; Sholder, Daniel; Abboud, Joseph; Lazarus, Mark D; Ramsey, Matthew L; Williams, Gerald R; Namdari, Surena

    2018-05-10

    The impending burden of revision shoulder arthroplasty has increased interest in outcomes of revision procedures. Painful glenoid arthrosis following hemiarthroplasty is a common cause of reoperation, and conversion to anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty is one option. We identified patients who underwent revision of painful hemiarthroplasty to total shoulder arthroplasty over a 15-year period in a single tertiary-care health system. Presurgical and operative data were analyzed for 28 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were contacted at a minimum of 2 years' follow-up after revision surgery for functional outcome scores, reoperations, and implant survival. The 2- and 5-year implant survival rates were 93% and 86%, respectively. Functional outcomes were obtained from 21 patients with surviving implants. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, visual analog scale score for pain, and Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation score were 78 ± 20, 2.3 ± 2.6, and 71 ± 24, respectively. The mean Short Form 12 mental and physical scores were 49 ± 10 and 43 ± 9, respectively. Of the patients, 17 (81%) were either satisfied or very satisfied with their outcome. Complications were seen in 10 patients (36%), and 6 patients (21%) required reoperation. Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty following hemiarthroplasty can achieve successful outcomes and implant survival rates. Given our poor understanding of reverse shoulder arthroplasty longevity, this procedure should remain an option for patients with glenoid arthrosis and an intact rotator cuff. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shoulder Strength Changes One Year After Axillary Lymph Node Dissection or Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Monleon, Sandra; Ferrer, Montse; Tejero, Marta; Pont, Angels; Piqueras, Merce; Belmonte, Roser

    2016-06-01

    To assess the changes in shoulder strength of patients with breast cancer during the first year after surgery; and to compare the effect of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) on shoulder strength. Prospective longitudinal observational study from presurgery to 1 year after. Tertiary hospital. Of 129 consecutive patients examined for eligibility, a sample of women (N=112) with breast cancer were included (44 underwent ALND, and 68 underwent SLNB). Not applicable. Difference between the affected and unaffected arm in strength of shoulder external rotators, internal rotators, abductors, and serratus anterior, measured by dynamometry. Evaluations were performed prior to surgery and at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. After breast cancer ALND surgery, strength decreased significantly at the first month for internal rotators, without having recovered presurgery values after 1 year of follow-up, with a mean difference of 2.26kg (P=.011). There was no significant loss of strength for patients treated with SLNB. The loss of shoulder range of motion was only significant the first month for the ALND group. The factors identified as associated with strength loss in the general estimating equation models were the ALND surgery and having received physical/occupational therapy during follow-up. One year after breast cancer surgery, patients treated with ALND had not recovered their previous shoulder internal rotators strength, whereas those who underwent SLNB presented no significant loss of strength. This provides important information for designing rehabilitation programs targeted specifically at the affected muscle group after nodal surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subjective and objective outcome after revision arthroscopic stabilization for recurrent anterior instability versus initial shoulder stabilization.

    PubMed

    Krueger, David; Kraus, Natascha; Pauly, Stephan; Chen, Jianhai; Scheibel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The value of arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization after failed instability repair is still a matter of debate. Arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization using suture anchors provides equivalent subjective and objective results compared with initial arthroscopic instability repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization using suture anchors (group 2) were matched for age, gender, and handedness (dominant or nondominant) with 20 patients who had initial arthroscopic instability repair using the same technique (group 1). At the time of follow-up, a complete physical examination of both shoulders and evaluation with the Rowe score, Walch-Duplay score, Melbourne Instability Shoulder Score, Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, and the Subjective Shoulder Value were performed. In addition, standard radiographs (true AP and axillary views) were taken to evaluate signs of osteoarthritis. After a minimum follow-up of 24 months, no recurrent dislocations were observed in either group. The apprehension sign was positive in 2 cases of revision surgery (0 vs 2; P > .05). No significant differences in the Rowe score (89 vs 81.8 points) were found between groups 1 and 2 (P > .05). However, group 2 revealed significantly lower scores in the Walch-Duplay score (85.3 vs 75.5 points), Melbourne Instability Shoulder Score (90.2 vs 73.7 points), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (89.8% vs 68.9%), and Subjective Shoulder Value (91.8% vs 69.2%) (P < .05). Signs of instability arthropathy were found more often in patients with arthroscopic revision surgery (2 vs 5; P > .05). Arthroscopic revision shoulder stabilization is associated with a lower subjective outcome compared with initial arthroscopic stabilization. The objective results found in this study may overestimate the clinical outcome in this patient population.

  1. Randomised controlled trial of exercise to prevent shoulder problems in women undergoing breast cancer treatment: study protocol for the prevention of shoulder problems trial (UK PROSPER).

    PubMed

    Bruce, Julie; Williamson, Esther; Lait, Clare; Richmond, Helen; Betteley, Lauren; Lall, Ranjit; Petrou, Stavros; Rees, Sophie; Withers, Emma J; Lamb, Sarah E; Thompson, Alastair M

    2018-03-23

    Musculoskeletal shoulder problems are common after breast cancer treatment. Early postoperative exercises targeting the upper limb may improve shoulder function. This protocol describes a National Institute for Health Research-funded randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of an early supervised structured exercise programme compared with usual care, for women at high risk of developing shoulder problems after breast cancer surgery. This pragmatic two-armed, multicentre RCT is underway within secondary care in the UK. PRevention Of Shoulder ProblEms tRial (PROSPER) aims to recruit 350 women from approximately 15 UK centres with follow-up at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. Recruitment processes and intervention development were optimised through qualitative research during a 6-month internal pilot phase. Participants are randomised to the PROSPER intervention or best practice usual care only. The PROSPER intervention is delivered by physiotherapists and incorporates three main components: shoulder-specific exercises targeting range of movement and strength; general physical activity and behavioural strategies to encourage adherence and support exercise behaviour. The primary outcome is upper arm function assessed using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire at 12 months postrandomisation. Secondary outcomes include DASH subscales, acute and chronic pain, complications, health-related quality of life and healthcare resource use. We will interview a subsample of 20 participants to explore their experiences of the trial interventions. The PROSPER study is the first multicentre UK clinical trial to investigate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of supported exercise in the prevention of shoulder problems in high-risk women undergoing breast cancer surgery. The findings will inform future clinical practice and provide valuable insight into the role of physiotherapy-supported exercise in

  2. [ Modern condition and prospects of development of cardiac surgery in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Khubulava, G G; Ryzhman, N N; Ovchinnikov, Iu V; Tyrenko, V V; Peleshko, A S

    2014-04-01

    Authors consider the problem of delivery cardiac surgical care to contingent of the Defence Ministry. Perspective directions of development of cardiac surgery in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are the development of minimally invasive cardio surgery, endovascular development of modern methods of diagnosis and treatment, further development of electrophysiological methods for diagnosis and treatment of disorders of rhythm and conduction, the introduction of various kinds of auxiliary mechanical circulatory support systems in acute and chronic heart failure, development of transplantation in cardiac surgery, improvement of algorithm selection and referral of patients requiring cardiac care by providing primary health care to troop central military medical institutions, creating a single register of cardiac patients as part of the Armed Forces in order to determine the order and place of treatment, etc.

  3. Shoulder kinematics during the wall push-up plus exercise.

    PubMed

    Lunden, Jason B; Braman, Jonathan P; Laprade, Robert F; Ludewig, Paula M

    2010-03-01

    The push-up plus exercise is a common therapeutic exercise for improving shoulder function and treating shoulder pathology. To date, the kinematics of the push-up plus exercise have not been studied. Our hypothesis was that the wall push-up plus exercise would demonstrate increased scapular internal rotation and increased humeral anterior translation during the plus phase of the exercise, thereby potentially impacting the subacromial space. Bone pins were inserted in the humerus and scapula in 12 healthy volunteers with no history of shoulder pathology. In vivo motion during the wall push-up plus exercise was tracked using an electromagnetic tracking system. During the wall push-up plus exercise, from a starting position to the push-up plus position, there was a significant increase in scapular downward rotation (P < .05) and internal rotation (P < .05). The pattern of glenohumeral motion was humeral elevation (P < .05) and movement anterior to the scapular plane (P < .05), with humeral external rotation remaining relatively constant. We found that during a wall push-up plus exercise in healthy volunteers, the scapula was placed in a position potentially associated with shoulder impingement. Because of the shoulder kinematics of the wall push-up plus exercise, utilization of this exercise without modification early on in shoulder rehabilitation, especially in patients with subacromial impingement, should be considered cautiously. Copyright 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk of insufficient internal rotation after bilateral reverse shoulder arthroplasty: clinical and patient-reported outcome in 57 patients.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Barbara; Kolling, Christoph; Schwyzer, Hans-Kaspar; Flury, Matthias; Audigé, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Bilateral reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is controversial because of potential rotational deficits impairing daily living activities. We assessed achievement of insufficient internal rotation (IR) and associated factors in bilateral RSA patients. Fifty-seven staged bilateral RSA patients with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up after the second intervention were identified from our local monocentric register. Shoulder range of motion (including IR using the Apley scratch test), strength, and Constant and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index scores were assessed preoperatively and 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Before surgery, both shoulders were similar regarding imaging parameters, but first operated shoulders tended to have poorer function. One year after the first RSA, 21% of patients had insufficient IR (not reaching the lumbosacral junction) compared with 33% after the second intervention (P = .180). At 2 years, 5% of patients had insufficient IR on both sides. Patients with insufficient IR on the second side at baseline (relative risk [RR], 1.8 [1.0-3.2]) and patients with insufficient IR 1 year after the first RSA (RR, 3.0 [1.6-5.6]) were more likely to have insufficient IR 1 year after the second RSA. Constant and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index scores and abduction of the second side were significantly worse 1 year after the second RSA (P ≤ .047); at 2 years, there were no differences in functional outcome between shoulders. A minority of bilateral RSA patients did not achieve sufficient IR on at least 1 side. Staged surgery is justified, particularly when the outcome of the initial operation is satisfactory. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional assessment using Constant's Shoulder Scale after modified radical and selective neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Chepeha, Douglas B; Taylor, Rodney J; Chepeha, Judith C; Teknos, Theodoros N; Bradford, Carol R; Sharma, Pramod K; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Wolf, Gregory T

    2002-05-01

    Constant's Shoulder Scale is a validated and widely applied instrument for assessment of shoulder function. We used this instrument to assess which treatment and demographic variables contribute to shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection in head and neck cancer patients. A convenience sample of 54 patients with 64 neck dissections and minimum follow-up of 11 months were evaluated. Thirty-two accessory nerve-sparing modified radical (MRND) and 32 selective neck (SND) dissections were performed. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the variables that were predictive for shoulder dysfunction. Clinical variables included age, time from surgery, handedness, weight, radiation therapy, neck dissection type, tumor stage, and site. Patients receiving MRND had significantly worse shoulder function than patients with SND (p =.0007). Radiation therapy contributed negatively, whereas weight contributed positively (p =.0001). The critical factors contributing to shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection were weight, radiation therapy, and neck dissection type. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Clinically orientated classification incorporating shoulder balance for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Elsebaie, H B; Dannawi, Z; Altaf, F; Zaidan, A; Al Mukhtar, M; Shaw, M J; Gibson, A; Noordeen, H

    2016-02-01

    The achievement of shoulder balance is an important measure of successful scoliosis surgery. No previously described classification system has taken shoulder balance into account. We propose a simple classification system for AIS based on two components which include the curve type and shoulder level. Altogether, three curve types have been defined according to the size and location of the curves, each curve pattern is subdivided into type A or B depending on the shoulder level. This classification was tested for interobserver reproducibility and intraobserver reliability. A retrospective analysis of the radiographs of 232 consecutive cases of AIS patients treated surgically between 2005 and 2009 was also performed. Three major types and six subtypes were identified. Type I accounted for 30 %, type II 28 % and type III 42 %. The retrospective analysis showed three patients developed a decompensation that required extension of the fusion. One case developed worsening of shoulder balance requiring further surgery. This classification was tested for interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The mean kappa coefficients for interobserver reproducibility ranged from 0.89 to 0.952, while the mean kappa value for intraobserver reliability was 0.964 indicating a good-to-excellent reliability. The treatment algorithm guides the spinal surgeon to achieve optimal curve correction and postoperative shoulder balance whilst fusing the smallest number of spinal segments. The high interobserver reproducibility and intraobserver reliability makes it an invaluable tool to describe scoliosis curves in everyday clinical practice.

  7. Posterior shoulder instability managed by arthroscopic acromial pediculated bone-block. Technique.

    PubMed

    Métais, P; Grimberg, J; Clavert, P; Kouvalchouk, J-F; Sirveaux, F; Nourissat, G; Garret, J; Mansat, P; Godenèche, A

    2017-12-01

    In posterior shoulder instability (recurrent dislocation, involuntary posterior subluxation or voluntary subluxation that has become involuntary), surgery may be considered in case of failure of functional treatment if there are no psychological contraindications. Acromial bone-block with pediculated deltoid flap, as described by Kouvalchouk, is an alternative to iliac bone-block, enabling triple shoulder locking by the blocking effect, the retention hammock provided by the deltoid flap and posterior capsule repair. Arthroscopy allows shoulder joint exploration and diagnosis of associated lesions, with opening and conservation of the posterior capsule; it greatly facilitates bone-block positioning and capsule reinsertion. The present report describes the procedure in detail. Technical note. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of functional outcomes and complications following modified Latarjet reconstruction in athletes with anterior shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    van der Watt, Christelle; de Beer, Joe F

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal management of anterior shoulder instability in athletes continues to be a challenge. The present study aimed to evaluate the functional outcomes of athletes with anterior shoulder instability following modified Latarjet reconstruction through assessing the timing of return to sport and complications. Methods Retrospective assessment was performed of athletes (n = 56) who presented with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and were treated with modified congruent arc Latarjet reconstruction over a 1-year period. Rugby union was the predominant sport performed. Pre-operative instability severity index scores were assessed. Postoperative complications were recorded as was the time taken for the athlete to return to sport. Results Arthroscopic evaluation revealed that 86% of patients had associated bony lesions affecting the glenohumeral joint. The overall complication rate relating to the Latarjet reconstruction was 7%. No episodes of recurrent shoulder instability were noted. Of the patients, 89% returned to competitive sport at the same level as that prior to surgery. The mean time post surgery to returning to full training was 3.2 months. Conclusions The modified congruent arc Latarjet procedure facilitates early rehabilitation and return to sport. These results support our systematic management protocol of performing modified Latarjet surgery in contact sport athletes with recurrent anterior instability. PMID:27582973

  9. [Significance of bone mineral density and modern cementing technique for in vitro cement penetration in total shoulder arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Pape, G; Raiss, P; Kleinschmidt, K; Schuld, C; Mohr, G; Loew, M; Rickert, M

    2010-12-01

    Loosening of the glenoid component is one of the major causes of failure in total shoulder arthroplasty. Possible risk factors for loosening of cemented components include an eccentric loading, poor bone quality, inadequate cementing technique and insufficient cement penetration. The application of a modern cementing technique has become an established procedure in total hip arthroplasty. The goal of modern cementing techniques in general is to improve the cement-penetration into the cancellous bone. Modern cementing techniques include the cement vacuum-mixing technique, retrograde filling of the cement under pressurisation and the use of a pulsatile lavage system. The main purpose of this study was to analyse cement penetration into the glenoid bone by using modern cement techniques and to investigate the relationship between the bone mineral density (BMD) and the cement penetration. Furthermore we measured the temperature at the glenoid surface before and after jet-lavage of different patients during total shoulder arthroplasty. It is known that the surrounding temperature of the bone has an effect on the polymerisation of the cement. Data from this experiment provide the temperature setting for the in-vitro study. The glenoid surface temperature was measured in 10 patients with a hand-held non-contact temperature measurement device. The bone mineral density was measured by DEXA. Eight paired cadaver scapulae were allocated (n = 16). Each pair comprised two scapulae from one donor (matched-pair design). Two different glenoid components were used, one with pegs and the other with a keel. The glenoids for the in-vitro study were prepared with the bone compaction technique by the same surgeon in all cases. Pulsatile lavage was used to clean the glenoid of blood and bone fragments. Low viscosity bone cement was applied retrogradely into the glenoid by using a syringe. A constant pressure was applied with a modified force sensor impactor. Micro-computed tomography

  10. Speed of recovery after shoulder arthroplasty: a comparison of reverse and anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan C; Everding, Nathan G; Gil, Carlos C; Stephens, Scott; Giveans, M Russell

    2014-12-01

    Whereas patient expectations after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) relate to sustained improvements in pain, function, and motion, the time necessary to reach these goals is unclear. Our purpose was to investigate the speed of recovery and to compare the effectiveness of primary TSA and RSA. We analyzed (preoperative, 3 month, 6 month, 1-year, and 2-year scores) pain scores, functional scores, and motion for 122 patients treated with primary RSA and 166 patients treated with primary TSA with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. Comparisons were made to determine the effectiveness of treatment, time required to reach a plateau in improvement, and percentage of overall improvement at 3 and 6 months. Significant improvements were observed for both TSA and RSA at all intervals (P < .001), except with internal rotation for RSA. Pain relief was rapid after both TSA and RSA. TSA patients reached a consistent plateau for pain and function by 6 months and for shoulder elevation by 1 year. RSA patients demonstrated variability with multiple false plateau points. By 6 months, TSA patients had achieved 90% to 100% of functional improvement, whereas RSA patients reached 72% to 91%. The effectiveness of TSA was greater than that of RSA for all measures with the exception of elevation and abduction. Whereas patients treated with primary TSA and RSA can expect rapid improvements in pain, those treated with TSA can anticipate a more consistent and effective recovery of pain, function, and shoulder rotation. Patients receiving RSA can expect a variable length of recovery with greater improvements in forward elevation and abduction. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arthroscopic Bankart Repair Versus Open Bristow-Latarjet for Shoulder Instability: A Matched-Pair Multicenter Study Focused on Return to Sport.

    PubMed

    Blonna, Davide; Bellato, Enrico; Caranzano, Francesco; Assom, Marco; Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    The arthroscopic Bankart repair and open Bristow-Latarjet procedure are the 2 most commonly used techniques to treat recurrent shoulder instability. To compare in a case control-matched manner the 2 techniques, with particular emphasis on return to sport after surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A study was conducted in 2 hospitals matching 60 patients with posttraumatic recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a minimum follow-up of 2 years (30 patients treated with arthroscopic Bankart procedure and 30 treated with open Bristow-Latarjet procedure). Patients with severe glenoid bone loss and revision surgeries were excluded. In one hospital, patients were treated with arthroscopic Bankart repair using anchors; in the other, patients underwent the Bristow-Latarjet procedure. Patients were matched according to age at surgery, type and level of sport practiced before shoulder instability (Degree of Shoulder Involvement in Sports [DOSIS] scale), and number of dislocations. The primary outcomes were return to sport (Subjective Patient Outcome for Return to Sports [SPORTS] score), rate of recurrent instability, Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS), Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), and range of motion (ROM). After a mean follow-up of 5.3 years (range, 2-9 years), patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair obtained better results in terms of return to sport (SPORTS score: 8 vs 6; P = .02) and ROM in the throwing position (86° vs 79°; P = .01), and they reported better subjective perception of the shoulder (SSV: 86% vs 75%; P = .02). No differences were detectable using the OSIS or WOSI. The rate of recurrent instability was not statistically different between the 2 groups (Bankart repair 10% vs Bristow-Latarjet 0%; P = .25), although the study may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference in this parameter. The multiple regression analysis showed that the independent

  12. Is reverse total shoulder arthroplasty a feasible treatment option for failed shoulder arthroplasty? A retrospective study of 44 cases with special regards to stemless and stemmed primary implants.

    PubMed

    Holschen, M; Franetzki, B; Witt, K-A; Liem, D; Steinbeck, J

    2017-08-01

    Is reverse total shoulder arthroplasty a feasible treatment option for failed shoulder arthroplasty? A retrospective study of 44 cases with special regards to stemless and stemmed primary implants. Due to humeral or glenoid bone-loss and rotator cuff insufficiency reverse total shoulder arthroplasty often means the only remaining treatment option in revision shoulder arthroplasty. This study investigates the clinical outcome of patients treated with a reverse total shoulder in revision cases with special regard to stemless and stemmed primary implants. From 2010 to 2012 60 failed shoulder arthroplasties were converted to reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Forty-four patients were available for follow-up after a mean of 24 months. Patients were assessed with X-rays, Constant- and ASES Score and a questionnaire about their subjective satisfaction. The total number of observed complications was seven (16%). Ninety-eight percent of the patients were satisfied with their clinical result. Patients achieved a mean normalized constant score of 70.2% and a mean ASES Score of 65.3. Patients with stemless primary implants achieved a higher normalized constant score than patients with stemmed primary implants (82 vs. 61.8%; p = 0009). Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty provides satisfactory clinical results and a high patient satisfaction in revision shoulder arthroplasty. The complication rate needs to be considered and discussed with the patient prior to surgery. Presence or absence of a stem of revised shoulder arthroplasties interferes with the outcome. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: (Retrospective study).

  13. History of surgical intervention of anterior shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Levy, David M; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R

    2016-06-01

    Anterior glenohumeral instability most commonly affects younger patients and has shown high recurrence rates with nonoperative management. The treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability has undergone significant evolution over the 20th and 21 centuries. This article presents a retrospective comprehensive review of the history of different operative techniques for shoulder stabilization. Bankart first described an anatomic suture repair of the inferior glenohumeral ligament and anteroinferior labrum in 1923. Multiple surgeons have since described anatomic and nonanatomic repairs, and many of the early principles of shoulder stabilization have remained even as the techniques have changed. Some methods, such as the Magnusson-Stack procedure, Putti-Platt procedure, arthroscopic stapling, and transosseous suture fixation, have been almost completely abandoned. Other strategies, such as the Bankart repair, capsular shift, and remplissage, have persisted for decades and have been adapted for arthroscopic use. The future of anterior shoulder stabilization will continue to evolve with even newer practices, such as the arthroscopic Latarjet transfer. Further research and clinical experience will dictate which future innovations are ultimately embraced. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the weight-bearing shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jacek; Borbas, Paul; Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christian; Buitrago Téllez, Carlos; Wieser, Karl

    2015-12-01

    In wheelchair-dependent individuals, pain often develops because of rotator cuff tendon failure and/or osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. The purposes of this study were to investigate (1) specific rotator cuff tear patterns, (2) structural healing, and (3) clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in a cohort of wheelchair-dependent patients. Forty-six shoulders with a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 24-82 months; SD, 13 months) from a consecutive series of 61 shoulders in 56 patients (46 men and 10 women) undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were available for analysis. Clinical outcome analysis was performed using the Constant-Murley score, the Subjective Shoulder Value, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. The integrity of the repair was analyzed by ultrasound. Of the shoulders, 87% had supraspinatus involvement, 70% had subscapularis involvement, and 57% had an anterosuperior lesion involving both the supraspinatus and subscapularis. Despite an overall structural failure rate of 33%, the patients showed improvements in the Constant-Murley score from 50 points (range, 22-86 points; SD, 16 points) preoperatively to 80 points (range, 40-98 points; SD, 12 points) postoperatively and in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score from 56 points (range, 20-92 points; SD, 20 points) preoperatively to 92 points (range, 53-100 points; SD, 10 points) postoperatively, with a mean postoperative Subjective Shoulder Value of 84% (range, 25%-100%; SD, 17%). Failure of the rotator cuff in weight-bearing shoulders occurs primarily anterosuperiorly. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair leads to a structural failure rate of 33% but satisfactory functional results with high patient satisfaction at midterm follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal dose of perineural dexmedetomidine for interscalene brachial plexus block to control postoperative pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong Soo; Seo, Kwon Hui; Kang, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Jin-Young; Kim, Yong-Shin; Han, Na-Re

    2018-04-01

    Adjuvant perineural dexmedetomidine can be used to prolong the analgesic effect of interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB). We investigated the optimal dose of dexmedetomidine in ISB for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. One hundred patients scheduled for elective shoulder arthroscopic surgery were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study. Ultrasound-guided ISB was performed before general anesthesia using 22 mL of ropivacaine 0.5% combined with 1, 1.5, or 2 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine (group D1, D2, and D3, respectively) or with normal saline as a control (group R, n = 25 per group). The primary outcome was the duration of analgesia (DOA), numeric pain rating scale (NRS), and consumption of additional analgesics during 36 h after ISB. Secondary outcome included durations of motor and sensory block (DOM and DOS), hemodynamic variables and sedation and dyspnea scores. Ninety-seven patients completed the study. The DOS, DOM, and DOA were significantly longer in the dexmedetomidine groups than in group R. The DOA was significantly longer in group D3 than in groups D1 (P = .026) and D2 (P = .039). The DOA was 808.13 ± 179.97, 1032.60 ± 288.14, 1042.04 ± 188.13, and 1223.96 ± 238.06 min in groups R, D1, D2, and D3, respectively. The NRS score was significantly higher in group R than in the dexmedetomidine groups 12 h after ISB (P < .001) and significantly lower in group D3 than in the other groups 18 h after ISB (P = .02). The incidence of hypotension was higher in groups D2 and D3 than in group R during surgery (P = .008 and P = .011, respectively). There were no significant differences in consumption of rescue analgesics, sedation, and dyspnea scores between the study groups. Perineural dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg could be the optimal dose in ISB for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in that it provides an adequate DOA. However, this dose was associated with

  16. Shoulder strength value differences between genders and age groups.

    PubMed

    Balcells-Diaz, Eudald; Daunis-I-Estadella, Pepus

    2018-03-01

    The strength of a normal shoulder differs according to gender and decreases with age. Therefore, the Constant score, which is a shoulder function measurement tool that allocates 25% of the final score to strength, differs from the absolute values but likely reflects a normal shoulder. To compare group results, a normalized Constant score is needed, and the first step to achieving normalization involves statistically establishing the gender differences and age-related decline. In this investigation, we sought to verify the gender difference and age-related decline in strength. We obtained a randomized representative sample of the general population in a small to medium-sized Spanish city. We then invited this population to participate in our study, and we measured their shoulder strength. We performed a statistical analysis with a power of 80% and a P value < .05. We observed a statistically significant difference between the genders and a statistically significant decline with age. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation to study a representative sample of the general population from which conclusions can be drawn regarding Constant score normalization. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Intraoperative Hypothermia on Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jildeh, Toufic R; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Marshall, Nathan E; Amato, Chad; Trafton, Hunter; Muh, Stephanie J; Kolowich, Patricia

    2018-05-16

    Limited evidence is available regarding the correlation between intraoperative hypothermia and perioperative complications in shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of intraoperative hypothermia in patients treated with shoulder arthroplasty and its effect on perioperative complications. A retrospective chart review was performed on 657 consecutive patients who underwent shoulder arthroplasty at a single institution between August 2013 and June 2016. Demographic data, surgery-specific data, postoperative complications, length of stay, and 30-day read-mission were recorded. Patients were classified as hypothermic if their mean intraoperative temperature was less than 36°C. Statistical analyses with univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to evaluate the association of intraoperative hypothermia with perioperative complications. The incidence of intraoperative hypothermia in shoulder arthroplasty was 52.7%. Increasing age (P=.002), lower body mass index (P=.006), interscalene anesthetic (P=.004), and lower white blood cell count (P<.001) demonstrated increased association with hypothermia. Longer operating room times and increased estimated blood loss were not found to be associated with intraoperative hypothermia. Hypothermia demonstrated no significant association with surgical site infections nor any other perioperative complications. Patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty showed a high incidence of intraoperative hypothermia. Lower body mass index, increasing age, interscalene anesthetic, and lower white blood cell count were associated with an increased incidence of hypothermia. Contrary to previous studies, intraoperative hypothermia was not found to contribute to perioperative complications in shoulder arthroplasty. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Management of acute anterior shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    Dala-Ali, Benan; Penna, Marta; McConnell, Jamie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Cobiella, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Shoulder dislocation is the most common large joint dislocation in the body. Recent advances in radiological imaging and shoulder surgery have shown the potential dangers of traditional reduction techniques such as the Kocher's and the Hippocratic methods, which are still advocated by many textbooks. Many non-specialists continue to use these techniques, unaware of their potential risks. This article reviews the clinical and radiographic presentation of dislocation; some common reduction techniques; their risks and success rate; analgesia methods to facilitate the reduction; and postreduction management. Many textbooks advocate methods that have been superceded by safer alternatives. Trainees should learn better and safer relocation methods backed up by the current evidence available. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. The Relationship Between Shoulder Stiffness and Rotator Cuff Healing: A Study of 1,533 Consecutive Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs.

    PubMed

    McNamara, William J; Lam, Patrick H; Murrell, George A C

    2016-11-16

    Retear and stiffness are not uncommon outcomes of rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rotator cuff repair healing and shoulder stiffness. A total of 1,533 consecutive shoulders had an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair by a single surgeon. Patients assessed their shoulder stiffness using a Likert scale preoperatively and at 1, 6, 12, and 24 weeks (6 months) postoperatively, and examiners evaluated passive range of motion preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Repair integrity was determined by ultrasound evaluation at 6 months. After rotator cuff repair, there was an overall significant loss of patient-ranked and examiner-assessed shoulder motion at 6 weeks compared with preoperative measurements (p < 0.0001), a partial recovery at 12 weeks, and a full recovery at 24 weeks. Shoulders that were stiff before surgery were more likely to be stiff at 6, 12, and, to a lesser extent, 24 weeks after surgery (r = 0.10 to 0.31; p < 0.0001). A stiffer shoulder at 6 and 12 weeks (but not 24 weeks) postoperatively correlated with better rotator cuff integrity at 6 months postoperatively (r = 0.11 to 0.18; p < 0.001). The retear rate of patients with ≤20° of external rotation at 6 weeks postoperatively was 7%, while the retear rate of patients with >20° of external rotation at 6 weeks was 15% (p < 0.001). In patients who developed stiffness after surgery, a rotator cuff repair was more likely to heal. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  20. Outcome after failed traumatic anterior shoulder instability repair with and without surgical revision.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Björn; Garmann, Stefan; Schulte, Tobias; Witt, Kai-Axel; Steinbeck, Jörn; Pötzl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and reasons of recurrent instability in patients with traumatic anterior shoulder instability and to document the clinical results with regard to the number of stabilizing procedures. Twenty-four patients with failed primary open or arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization were followed for a mean of 68 (36-114) months. Following recurrence of shoulder instability, eight patients chose not to be operated on again, whereas 16 underwent repeat stabilization. A persistent or recurrent Bankart lesion was found in all 16 patients and concomitant capsular redundancy in 4. After the first revision surgery, further instability occurred in 8 patients, and 6 of them were stabilized a third time. Only 7 patients (29%) achieved a good or excellent result according to the Rowe score. All shoulder scores improved after revision stabilization. However, the number of stabilizing procedures adversely affected the outcome scores, as well as postoperative range of motion and patient satisfaction. Recurrent instability after a primary stabilization procedure represents a difficult diagnostic and surgical challenge, and careful attention should be paid to address persistent or recurrent Bankart lesions and concomitant capsular reduncancy. A satisfying functional outcome can be expected mainly in patients with one revision surgery. Further stabilization attempts are associated with poorer objective and subjective results.

  1. Nine-year outcome after anatomic stemless shoulder prosthesis: clinical and radiologic results.

    PubMed

    Hawi, Nael; Magosch, Petra; Tauber, Mark; Lichtenberg, Sven; Habermeyer, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Several stemless shoulder implants are available on the market, but only a few studies have presented results with sufficient mid- to long-term follow-up. The present study evaluated clinical and radiologic outcomes 9 years after anatomic stemless shoulder replacement. This is a prospective cohort study evaluating the stemless shoulder prosthesis since 2005. Anatomic stemless shoulder replacement using a single prosthesis was performed in 49 shoulders; 17 underwent total shoulder replacement, and 32 underwent hemiarthroplasty. Forty-three patients were clinically and radiologically monitored after a mean of 9 years (range, 90-127 months; follow-up rate, 88%). The indications for shoulder replacement were primary osteoarthritis in 7 shoulders, post-traumatic in 24, instability in 7, cuff tear arthropathy in 2, postinfectious arthritis in 1, and revision arthroplasty in 2. The Constant-Murley Score improved significantly from 52% to 79% (P < .0001). The active range of motion also increased significantly for flexion from 101° to 118° (P = .022), for abduction from 79° to 105° (P = .02), and for external rotation from 21° to 43° (P < .0001). Radiologic evaluation revealed incomplete radiolucency in 1 patient without clinical significance or further intervention. No revision caused by loosening or countersinking of the humeral implant was observed. The 9-year outcome after stemless shoulder replacement is comparable to that of third- and fourth-generation standard shoulder arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in the glenohumeral compared with the subacromial space in primary shoulder arthroscopies.

    PubMed

    Patzer, Thilo; Petersdorf, Sabine; Krauspe, Ruediger; Verde, Pablo Emilio; Henrich, Birgit; Hufeland, Martin

    2018-05-01

    We hypothesized that the prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroscopy is equal in the glenohumeral space compared with the subacromial space. Patients aged 18 years or older with shoulder arthroscopies were included. The exclusion criteria were prior shoulder operations, complete rotator cuff tears, systemic inflammatory diseases, tumors, shoulder injections within 6 months of surgery, and antibiotic therapy within 14 days preoperatively. After standardized skin disinfection with Kodan Tinktur Forte Gefärbt, a skin swab was taken at the posterior portal. Arthroscopy was performed without cannulas, prospectively randomized to start either in the glenohumeral space or in the subacromial space, with direct harvesting of a soft-tissue biopsy specimen. Sample cultivation was conducted according to standardized criteria for bone and joint aspirate samples and incubated for 14 days. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight spectrometry was used for specimen identification in positive culture results. The study prospectively included 115 consecutive patients with normal C-reactive protein levels prior to surgery (54.8% men; mean age, 47.2 ± 14.6 years). P acnes was detected on the skin after disinfection in 36.5% of patients, in the glenohumeral space in 18.9%, and in the subacromial space in 3.5% (P = .016). The prevalence of P acnes is significantly higher in the glenohumeral space compared with the subacromial space in primary shoulder arthroscopies. The results do not confirm the contamination theory but also cannot clarify whether P acnes is a commensal or enters the joint hematologically or even lymphatically or via an unknown pathway. Despite standardized surgical skin disinfection, P acnes can be detected in skin swab samples in more than one-third of patients. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Checklist Intervention to Assess Resident Diagnostic Knee and Shoulder Arthroscopic Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Benedict; Gaudiani, Michael; Hammann-Scala, Jennifer; Ranawat, Anil

    The purpose of this investigation was to apply an arthroscopic shoulder and knee checklist in the evaluation of orthopedic resident arthroscopic skill efficiency and to demonstrate the use of a surgical checklist for assessing resident surgical efficiency over the course of a surgical rotation. Orthopedic surgery residents rotating on the sports medicine service at our institution between 2011 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Residents were administered a shoulder and knee arthroscopy assessment tool at the beginning and end of their 6-week rotation. The assessment tools consisted of checklist items for knee and shoulder arthroscopy skills. Residents were timed while performing these checklist tasks. The primary outcome measure was resident improvement as a function of time to completion for the checklist items, and the intervention was participation in a 6-week resident rotation with weekly arthroscopy didactics, cadaver simulator work, and operating room experience. A paired t test was used to compare means. Mean time to checklist completion during week 1 among study participants for the knee checklist was 787.4 seconds for the knee checklist and 484.4 seconds at the end of the rotation. Mean time to checklist completion during week 1 among study participants for the shoulder checklist was 1655.3 seconds and 832.7 seconds for the shoulder checklist at the end of the rotation. Mean improvement in time to completion was 303 seconds (p = 0.0006, SD = 209s) and 822.6 seconds (p = 0.00008, SD = 525.2s) for the arthroscopic knee and shoulder assessments, respectively. An arthroscopic checklist is 1 method to evaluate and assess resident efficiency and improvement during surgical training. Among residents participating in this study, we found statistically significant improvements in time for arthroscopic task completion. II. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of hook plate on shoulder function after treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hong; Dong, Qi-Rong; Zhou, Rong-Kui; Zhen, Hua-Qing; Jiao, Ya-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Internal fixation with hook plate has been used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of its use on shoulder function, to further analyze the contributing factors, and provide a basis for selection and design of improved internal fixation treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation in the future. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with a hook plate for acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2013. There were 33 cases in total, including 25 males and 8 females, with mean age of 48.27 ± 8.7 years. There were 29 cases of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation, 4 cases of type V. The Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system was used to evaluate the shoulder function recovery status after surgery. Anteroposterior shoulder X-ray was used to assess the position of the hook plate, status of acromioclavicular joint reduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications. Results: According to the Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system, the average scores were 78 ± 6 points 8 to 12 months after the surgery and before the removal of the hook plate, the average scores were 89 ± 5 minutes two months after the removal of hook plate. Postoperative X-ray imaging showed osteolysis in 10 cases (30.3%), osteoarthritis in six cases (18.1%), osteolysis associated with osteoarthritis in four cases(12.1%), and steel hook broken in one case (3%). Conclusion: The use of hook plate on open reduction and internal fixation of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation had little adverse effect on shoulder function and is an effective method for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Osteoarthritis and osteolysis are the two common complications after hook plate use, which are associated with the impairment of shoulder function. Shoulder function will be improved after removal of the hook plate. PMID

  5. Shoulder abduction and external rotation restoration with nerve transfer.

    PubMed

    Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Korompilias, Anastasios; Vekris, Marios; Lykissas, Marios; Gkiatas, Ioannis; Mitsionis, Gregory; Beris, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    In upper brachial plexus palsy patients, loss of shoulder function and elbow flexion is obvious as the result of paralysed muscles innervated by the suprascapular, axillary and musculocutaneus nerve. Shoulder stabilisation, restoration of abduction and external rotation are important as more distal functions will be affected by the shoulder situation. Between 2005 and 2011, eleven patients with upper type brachial plexus palsy were operated on with triceps nerve branch transfer to anterior axillary nerve branch and spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve for shoulder abduction and external rotation restoration. Nine patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. All patients were men with ages ranged from 21 to 35 years (average, 27.4 years). The interval between injury and surgery ranged from 4 to 11 months (average, 7.2 months). Atrophy of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscle and subluxation at the glenohumeral joint was obvious in all patients preoperatively. During the pre-op examination all patients had at least muscle grading 4 on the triceps muscle. The mean post-operative value of shoulder abduction was 112.2° (range: 60-170°) while preoperatively none of the patients was able for abduction (p<0.001). The mean post-operative value of shoulder external rotation was 66° (range: 35-110°) while preoperatively none of them was able for external rotation (p<0.001). Postoperative values of shoulder abduction were significantly better that those of external rotation (p=0.0004). The postoperative average muscle grading for shoulder abduction according the MRC scale was 3.6±0.5 and for the shoulder external rotation was 3.2±0.4. Combined nerve transfer by using the spinal accessory nerve for suprascapular nerve neurotisation and one of the triceps nerve branches for axillary nerve and teres minor branch neurotisation is an excellent choice for shoulder abduction and external rotation restoration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  6. Preseason shoulder strength measurements in professional baseball pitchers: identifying players at risk for injury.

    PubMed

    Byram, Ian R; Bushnell, Brandon D; Dugger, Keith; Charron, Kevin; Harrell, Frank E; Noonan, Thomas J

    2010-07-01

    The ability to identify pitchers at risk for injury could be valuable to a professional baseball organization. To our knowledge, there have been no prior studies examining the predictive value of preseason strength measurements. Preseason weakness of shoulder external rotators is associated with increased risk of in-season throwing-related injury in professional baseball pitchers. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Preseason shoulder strength was measured for all pitchers in a professional baseball organization over a 5-year period (2001-2005). Prone internal rotation (IR), prone external rotation (PER), seated external rotation (SER), and supraspinatus (SS) strength were tested during spring training before each season. The players were then prospectively followed throughout the season for incidence of throwing-related injury. Injuries were categorized on an ordinal scale, with no injury, injury treated conservatively, and injury resulting in surgery delineated 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Subset analyses of shoulder injuries and of players with prior surgery were also performed. The association between strength measurements and injury was analyzed using Spearman rank correlation. A statistically significant association was observed for PER strength (P = .003), SER strength (P = .048), and SS strength (P = .006) with throwing-related injury requiring surgical intervention. Supraspinatus strength was also significantly associated with incidence of any shoulder injury (P = .031). There was an association between the ratio of PER/IR strength and incidence of shoulder injury (P = .037) and some evidence for an association with overall incidence of throwing-related injury (P = .051). No associations were noted in the subgroup of players with prior surgery. Preseason weakness of external rotation and SS strength is associated with in-season throwing-related injury resulting in surgical intervention in professional baseball pitchers. Thus, preseason strength

  7. Modern Initial Management of Severe Limbs Trauma in War Surgery: Orthopaedic Damage Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    avoid fat embolism , allow an optimal nursing and medical evacuation without any secondary functional consequences [3]. 2.2.1 Indications: The...decrease the risk of fat embolism . Modern Initial Management of Severe Limbs Trauma in War Surgery: “Orthopaedic Damage Control” RTO-MP-HFM-182 17...injuries. Orthopaedic Imperious: Multiple open shaft fractures with blood loss, complex epiphysal fractures requiring a long difficult surgical bloody

  8. Shoulder injuries in US high school baseball and softball athletes, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Krajnik, Stephanie; Fogarty, Kieran J; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors that are involved in shoulder injury rates among high school athletes who participate in organized baseball and softball. Baseball- and softball-related injury data were collected during the 2005-2008 academic years from approximately 74 nationally representative high schools via High School Reporting Information Online. Certified athletic trainers reported 91 baseball shoulder injuries and 40 softball shoulder injuries during 528147 and 399522 athlete exposures, respectively. The injury rate was 1.72 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for baseball and 1.00 injuries per 10000 athlete exposures for softball. Muscle strain/incomplete tears were the most common injuries in both baseball (30.8%) and softball (35.0%). In practices, throwing, not including pitching, caused more than half of softball injuries (68.2%) as compared with competition injuries (23.5%; injury proportion ratio [IPR]: 2.90 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-7.15]; P = .015), whereas pitching was the most common mechanism in causing shoulder injuries during baseball practice (41.9%) compared with competitions (25.6%; IPR: 1.64 [95% CI: 0.88-3.04]; P = .17). Eighty-one percent of the baseball shoulder injuries and 82.5% of the softball shoulder injuries were new. Ten percent of baseball athletes and 5.3% of softball athletes sustained injuries that required surgery (IPR: 1.40 [95% CI: 0.32-6.10]; P = .93). Injuries that were sustained while the athlete was on the pitcher's mound were significantly more likely to result in surgery than any other field position (IPR: 2.64 [95% CI: 1.65-4.21]; P = .0061). Injured baseball players were more than twice as likely to be pitchers. Although rates and patterns of shoulder injuries are similar between baseball and softball players, injury rates and patterns differ between field positions within each sport, as well as by injury severity and the athletes' year in school.

  9. [Measurement of shoulder disability in the athlete: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Fayad, F; Mace, Y; Lefevre-Colau, M M; Poiraudeau, S; Rannou, F; Revel, M

    2004-08-01

    To identify all available shoulder disability questionnaires and to examine those that could be used for athlete. We systematically reviewed the literature in Medline using the keywords shoulder, function, scale, index, score, questionnaire, disability, quality of life, assessment, and evaluation. We searched for scales used for athletes with the keywords scale name AND (sport OR athlete). Data were completed by using the "Guide des Outils de Mesure et d'Evaluation en Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation" textbook. Analysis took into account the clinimetric quality of the instruments and the number of items specifically related to sports. A total of 37 instruments have been developed to measure disease-, shoulder-specific or upper extremity specific outcome. Older instruments were developed before the advent of modern measurement methods. They usually combined objective and subjective measures. Recent instruments were designed with use of more advanced methods. Most are self-administered questionnaires. Fourteen scales included items assessing sport activity. Four of these scales have been used to assess shoulder disability in athlete. Six scales have been used to assess such disability but do not have specific items related to sports. There is no gold standard for assessing shoulder outcome in the general population and no validated outcome instruments specifically for athletes. We suggest the use of ASES, WOSI and WORC scales for evaluating shoulder function in the recreational athletes. The DASH scale should be evaluated in this population. The principal criterion in evaluating shoulder function in the high level athlete is a return to the same level of sport performance. Further studies are required to identify measurement tools for shoulder disability that have a high predictive value for return to sport.

  10. Isometric Shoulder Strength Reference Values for Physically Active Collegiate Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Westrick, Richard B.; Duffey, Michele L.; Cameron, Kenneth L.; Gerber, J. Parry; Owens, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is common clinical practice to assess muscle strength during examination of patients following shoulder injury or surgery. Strength comparisons are often made between the patient’s injured and uninjured shoulders, with the uninjured side used as a reference without regard to upper extremity dominance. Despite the importance of strength measurements, little is known about expected normal baselines of the uninjured shoulder. The purpose of this study was to report normative values for isometric shoulder strength for physically active college-age men and women without history of shoulder injury. Methods: University students—546 males (18.8 ± 1.0 years, 75.3 ± 12.2 kg) and 73 females (18.7 ± 0.9 years, 62.6 ± 7.0 kg)—underwent thorough shoulder evaluations by an orthopaedic surgeon and completed bilateral isometric strength measurements with a handheld dynamometer. Variables measured included internal rotation, external rotation, abduction, supine internal rotation and external rotation at 45°, and lower trapezius in prone flexion. Results: Significant differences were found between the dominant and nondominant shoulder for internal rotation, internal rotation at 45°, abduction, and prone flexion in males and in internal rotation at 45° and prone flexion for females (P ≤ 0.01). PMID:24381696

  11. High intensity focused ultrasound surgery (HIFU) of the brain: A historical perspective, with modern applications

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Jay; Sanghvi, Narendra K; Crum, Lawrence A; Yen, Chun-Po; Medel, Ricky; Dumont, Aaron S; Sheehan, Jason P; Steiner, Ladislau; Jolesz, Ferenc; Kassell, Neal F

    2014-01-01

    The field of MRI-guided high intensity focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) is a rapidly evolving one with many potential applications in neurosurgery. This is the first of three articles on MRgFUS, this paper focuses on the historical development of the technology and it's potential applications to modern neurosurgery. The evolution of MRgFUS has occurred in parallel with modern neurological surgery and the two seemingly distinct disciplines share many of the same pioneering figures. Early studies on focused ultrasound treatment in the 1940's and 1950's demonstrated the ability to perform precise lesioning in the human brain, with a favorable risk-benefit profile. However, the need for a craniotomy, as well as lack of sophisticated imaging technology resulted in limited growth of HIFU for neurosurgery. More recently, technological advances, have permitted the combination of HIFU along with MRI guidance to provide an opportunity to effectively treat a variety of CNS disorders. Although challenges remain, HIFU-mediated neurosurgery may offer the ability to target and treat CNS conditions that were previously extremely difficult to perform. The remaining two articles in this series will focus on the physical principles of modern MRgFUS as well as current and future avenues for investigation. PMID:19190451

  12. Separated Shoulder

    MedlinePlus

    ... that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments might ... ligaments that hold your collarbone to your shoulder blade. Risk factors Participating in contact sports, such as ...

  13. Dislocated Shoulder

    MedlinePlus

    ... up of three bones: your collarbone, your shoulder blade, and your upper arm bone. The top of ... fits into a cuplike socket in your shoulder blade. A shoulder dislocation is an injury that happens ...

  14. The use of shoulder scoring systems and outcome measures in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, J; Rambani, R; Venkateswaran, B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In future, outcomes following shoulder surgery may be subject to public survey. Many outcome measures exist but we do not know whether there is a consensus between shoulder surgeons in the UK. The aim of this study was to survey the preferred outcome measures used by National Health Service (NHS) shoulder surgeons operating in the UK. Methods A total of 350 shoulder surgeons working in NHS hospitals were asked to complete a short written questionnaire regarding their use of scoring systems and outcome measures. Questionnaires were sent and responses were received by post. Results Overall, 217 responses were received (62%). Of the respondents, 171 (79%) use an outcome measure in their shoulder practice while 46 (21%) do not. There were 118 surgeons (69%) who use more than one outcome measure. The Oxford shoulder score was most commonly used by 150 surgeons (69%), followed by the Constant score with 106 (49%), the Oxford shoulder instability score with 82 (38%), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score with 54 (25%). The less commonly used outcome measures were the SF-36® and SF-12® health questionnaires with 19 (9%), the University of California at Los Angeles activity score with 8 (4%), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder assessment form with 8 (4%) and the EQ-5D™ with 10 (3%). Conclusions Validated outcome measures should be adopted by all practising surgeons in all specialties. This will allow better assessment of treatments in addition to assessment of surgical performance in a transparent way. PMID:25350180

  15. The use of shoulder scoring systems and outcome measures in the UK.

    PubMed

    Varghese, M; Lamb, J; Rambani, R; Venkateswaran, B

    2014-11-01

    In future, outcomes following shoulder surgery may be subject to public survey. Many outcome measures exist but we do not know whether there is a consensus between shoulder surgeons in the UK. The aim of this study was to survey the preferred outcome measures used by National Health Service (NHS) shoulder surgeons operating in the UK. A total of 350 shoulder surgeons working in NHS hospitals were asked to complete a short written questionnaire regarding their use of scoring systems and outcome measures. Questionnaires were sent and responses were received by post. Overall, 217 responses were received (62%). Of the respondents, 171 (79%) use an outcome measure in their shoulder practice while 46 (21%) do not. There were 118 surgeons (69%) who use more than one outcome measure. The Oxford shoulder score was most commonly used by 150 surgeons (69%), followed by the Constant score with 106 (49%), the Oxford shoulder instability score with 82 (38%), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score with 54 (25%). The less commonly used outcome measures were the SF-36® and SF-12® health questionnaires with 19 (9%), the University of California at Los Angeles activity score with 8 (4%), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder assessment form with 8 (4%) and the EQ-5D™ with 10 (3%). Conclusions Validated outcome measures should be adopted by all practising surgeons in all specialties. This will allow better assessment of treatments in addition to assessment of surgical performance in a transparent way.

  16. 21 CFR 888.3680 - Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis is a device that has a glenoid (socket) component...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as cobalt-chromium...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3680 - Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis is a device that has a glenoid (socket) component...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as cobalt-chromium...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3680 - Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis is a device that has a glenoid (socket) component...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3680 - Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis is a device that has a glenoid (socket) component...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as cobalt-chromium...

  3. 21 CFR 888.3680 - Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint glenoid (hemi-shoulder) metallic cemented prosthesis is a device that has a glenoid (socket) component...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as cobalt-chromium...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as cobalt-chromium...

  6. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Siwei; Gan, Minfeng; Sun, Han; Wu, Guizhong; Yang, Huilin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients' shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients) and group B (33 patients) in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38 ± 3.56 versus 94.24 ± 3.60, P > 0.05). Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function. PMID:27034937

  7. Clinical Outcomes and Complications during the Learning Curve for Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: An Analysis of the First 40 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kwang-Soon; Koo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the results and complications during the learning curve of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) for rotator cuff deficiency. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the first 40 cases of RTSA performed by a single surgeon. The mean age of patients was 72.7 years (range, 63 to 81 years) and mean follow-up period was 26.7 months (range, 9 to 57 months). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon (ASES) score, subjective shoulder value (SSV), and active range of motion (ROM). Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also evaluated. Results The average VAS pain score, UCLA score, ASES score, and SSV improved from 6.9%, 12.8%, 29.0%, and 29.0% before surgery to 1.6%, 27.0%, 73.3%, and 71.5% after surgery, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean forward flexion, abduction, and external rotation improved from 68.0°, 56.9°, and 28.0° before surgery to 131.0°, 112.3°, and 38.8° after surgery, respectively (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.021). However, the mean internal rotation did not improve after surgery (p = 0.889). Scapular notching was observed in 33 patients (51.5%). Eight shoulders (20%) had complications, including 2 major (1 deep infection and 1 glenoid fixation failure) and 6 minor complications (3 brachial plexus injuries, 2 acromial fractures, and 1 intraoperative periprosthetic fracture). Conclusions The first 40 cases of RTSA performed by a single surgeon during the learning curve period showed satisfactory short-term follow-up results with an acceptable complication rate. PMID:28567225

  8. Shoulder CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - shoulder; Computed axial tomography scan - shoulder; Computed tomography scan - shoulder; CT scan - shoulder ... Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye Birth defect if done during pregnancy CT scans ...

  9. Leadership characteristics and business management in modern academic surgery.

    PubMed

    Büchler, Peter; Martin, David; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter; Büchler, Markus W

    2006-04-01

    Management skills are necessary to successfully lead a surgical department in future. This article focuses on practical aspects of surgical management, leadership and training. It demonstrates how the implementation of business management concepts changes workflow management and surgical training. A systematic Medline search was performed and business management publications were analysed. Neither management nor leadership skills are inborn but acquired. Management is about planning, controlling and putting appropriate structures in place. Leadership is anticipating and coping with change and people, and adopting a visionary stance. More change requires more leadership. Changes in surgery occur with unprecedented speed because of a growing demand for surgical procedures with limited financial resources. Modern leadership and management theories have to be tailored to surgery. It is clear that not all of them are applicable but some of them are essential for surgeons. In business management, common traits of successful leaders include team orientation and communication skills. As the most important character, however, appears to be the emotional intelligence. Novel training concepts for surgeons include on-the-job training and introduction of improved workflow management systems, e.g. the central case management. The need for surgeons with advanced skills in business, finance and organisational management is evident and will require systematic and tailored training.

  10. [Open-wedge osteotomy of the glenoid for treatment of posterior shoulder instability with increased glenoid retroversion].

    PubMed

    Pogorzelski, J; Braun, S; Imhoff, A B; Beitzel, K

    2016-12-01

    Treatment of posterior shoulder instability with increased retroversion of the glenoid using open-wedge osteotomy of the glenoid neck stabilized with an autologous bone block. Symptomatic, atraumatic posterior shoulder instability with increased retroversion (>20°) of the glenoid and previously failed conservative or surgical treatment. General contraindications against surgery. Relative contraindications: osteoporosis, nicotine abuse, or suspected patient noncompliance. Posterior approach with a 7 cm long incision starting medial of the posterolateral corner of the acromion heading to the posterior axillary fold and subsequent preparation of the deltoid muscle and the infraspinatus muscle. The posterior glenohumeral capsule is incised by performing a capsular T‑shift. The osteotomy is performed intracapsulary medial to the genoid rim. The wedge bone graft, harvested from spina scapulae or iliac spine, is placed "press fit" in position. Additional fixation of the graft is not necessary if the anterior cortex is intact. For reinforcing the posterior capsule, a posterior capsule shift should be performed. Insertion of extracapsular wound drainage. Successive wound closure. Postoperative immobilization in a 0° shoulder orthesis for 6 weeks; avoidance of horizontal abduction for 8 weeks. After removing the wound drainage, start of limited active-assisted range of motion. Over-head sports after 6 months. From 2009-2015, 6 posterior open wedge glenoid osteotomies were performed. Postoperative retroversion of the glenoid was 11.2 ± 9.4° compared to 26.0 ± 8.6° before surgery. Of 6 shoulders, 2 showed postoperative signs of persistent posterior instability; the other 4 shoulders were free of complaints. No revision surgery was needed.

  11. Shoulder Instability

    MedlinePlus

    ... as bad as the pain of a sudden injury. Your shoulder might be sore when you move it. It ... Treatment How is shoulder instability treated? Treatment for shoulder instability depends on how bad your injury is and how important it is for you ...

  12. Shoulder pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - shoulder ... changes around the rotator cuff can cause shoulder pain. You may have pain when lifting the arm above your head or ... The most common cause of shoulder pain occurs when rotator cuff tendons ... The tendons become inflamed or damaged. This condition ...

  13. Shoulder surgery in the beach chair position is associated with diminished cerebral autoregulation but no differences in postoperative cognition or brain injury biomarker levels compared with supine positioning: the anesthesia patient safety foundation beach chair study.

    PubMed

    Laflam, Andrew; Joshi, Brijen; Brady, Kenneth; Yenokyan, Gayane; Brown, Charles; Everett, Allen; Selnes, Ola; McFarland, Edward; Hogue, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    Although controversial, failing to consider the gravitational effects of head elevation on cerebral perfusion is speculated to increase susceptibility to rare, but devastating, neurologic complications after shoulder surgery in the beach chair position (BCP). We hypothesized that patients in the BCP have diminished cerebral blood flow autoregulation than those who undergo surgery in the lateral decubitus position (LDP). A secondary aim was to examine whether there is a relationship between patient positioning during surgery and postoperative cognition or serum brain injury biomarker levels. Patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the BCP (n = 109) or LDP (n = 109) had mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. A continuous, moving Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between MAP and rScO2, generating the variable cerebral oximetry index (COx). When MAP is in the autoregulated range, COx approaches zero because there is no correlation between cerebral blood flow and arterial blood pressure. In contrast, when MAP is below the limit of autoregulation, COx is higher because there is a direct relationship between lower arterial blood pressure and lower cerebral blood flow. Thus, diminished autoregulation would be manifest as higher COx. Psychometric testing was performed before surgery and then 7 to 10 days and 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. A composite cognitive outcome was determined as the Z-score. Serum S100β, neuron-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were measured at baseline, after surgery, and on postoperative day 1. After adjusting for age and history of hypertension, COx (P = 0.035) was higher and rScO2 lower (P < 0.0001) in the BCP group than in the LDP group. After adjusting for baseline composite cognitive outcome, there was no difference in Z-score 7 to 10 days (P = 0.530) or 4 to 6 weeks (P = 0.202) after surgery between the BCP and the LDP groups

  14. Shoulder dystocia.

    PubMed

    Grobman, William

    2013-03-01

    The frequency of shoulder dystocia in different reports has varied, ranging 0.2-3% of all vaginal deliveries. Once a shoulder dystocia occurs, even if all actions are appropriately taken, there is an increased frequency of complications, including third- or fourth-degree perineal lacerations, postpartum hemorrhage, and neonatal brachial plexus palsies. Health care providers have a poor ability to predict shoulder dystocia for most patients and there remains no commonly accepted model to accurately predict this obstetric emergency. Consequently, optimal management of shoulder dystocia requires appropriate management at the time it occurs. Multiple investigators have attempted to enhance care of shoulder dystocia by utilizing protocols and simulation training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for acute head-splitting, 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Grubhofer, Florian; Wieser, Karl; Meyer, Dominik C; Catanzaro, Sabrina; Beeler, Silvan; Riede, Ulf; Gerber, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation of complex proximal humeral fractures in the elderly is challenging. Secondary displacement, screw perforation, and humeral head necrosis are common complications. The outcome of hemiarthroplasty is unpredictable and strongly dependent on the uncertain healing of the greater tuberosity. This multicenter study retrospectively analyzes the midterm results of primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of acute, complex fractures of the humerus in an elderly population. Fifty-two shoulders in 51 patients with a mean age of 77 years treated with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for an acute, complex fracture of the proximal humerus were clinically and radiographically analyzed after a mean follow-up period of 35 months (range, 12-90 months). There were no intraoperative complications. Revision surgery was performed in 4 shoulders. At final follow-up, the absolute and relative Constant scores averaged 62 points (range, 21-83 points) and 86% (range, 30%-100%), respectively, with a mean Subjective Shoulder Value of 83% (range, 30%-100%). Of the patients, 92% rated the treatment outcome as excellent or good. Patients with a resected or secondarily displaced greater tuberosity had an inferior clinical outcome to those with a healed greater tuberosity. The midterm clinical results are predictably good, with low complication rates and a rapid postoperative recovery of painfree everyday function. If secondary displacement of the greater tuberosity occurs, revision surgery may warrant consideration in view of potential improvement of ultimate outcome. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. One-stage surgical treatment for concomitant rotator cuff tears with shoulder stiffness has comparable results with isolated rotator cuff tears: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, Soheil; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Giugale, Juan; Lin, Albert

    2017-08-01

    Addressing preoperative shoulder stiffness before rotator cuff repair (RCR) is advocated, but the effectiveness of this approach is debatable. We hypothesized that 1-stage treatment of concomitant rotator cuff tear (RCT) with shoulder stiffness has comparable results with isolated RCT. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched using the keywords of "shoulder stiffness" OR "adhesive capsulitis" OR "frozen shoulder" AND "rotator cuff." Studies that met all the criteria compared the 2 arms of isolated RCT vs. RCT with concomitant shoulder stiffness, received no physical therapy before surgery, and reported data of preoperative and postoperative range of motion (ROM) and functional outcomes after surgery. Four level III studies met the inclusion criteria. The non-stiff group (isolated RCT) included 460 patients who underwent RCR; the stiff group (RCT with concomitant shoulder stiffness) included 111 patients who underwent RCR and manipulation under anesthesia with or without capsular release. There were significant differences in preoperative ROM between stiff and non-stiff groups. At final follow-up, there were no statistical differences in all ROM between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in comparing preoperative and postoperative outcome scores including visual analog scale for pain, Constant, modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and University of California-Los Angeles scores. Concomitant surgical treatment of nonmassive RCT and moderate shoulder stiffness in 1 stage may have comparable results to the surgical treatment of RCT in patients without preoperative stiffness. Therefore, a physical therapy regimen before surgical intervention may not be necessary. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging classification of haemodialysis-related amyloidosis of the shoulder: risk factors and arthroscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Koide, Masashi; Kanazawa, Kenji; Watanabe, Takashi; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-07-01

    This study proposed new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of haemodialysis shoulders (HDS) focusing on the changes of the rotator cuff, and rotator interval and risk factors for the development of HDS were examined. Eighty-five shoulders in 72 patients with a chief complaint of shoulder pain during haemodialysis and at least 10 years of haemodialysis were included. They were classified into 5 groups based on the thickness of the rotator cuff and conditions of rotator interval. Clinical and radiological findings in each grade were examined, and risk factors for the development of HDS were evaluated. Arthroscopic surgeries were performed on 22 shoulders in 20 patients, and arthroscopic findings were also evaluated. Positive correlations for the development of HDS were observed in duration of haemodialysis, positive hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and previous haemodialysis-related orthopaedic surgery (P < 0.001, respectively). Strong correlations were observed between positive HCV and the progression of HDS (odds ratio 24.8, 95 % confidence interval 5.7-107.6). Arthroscopically, progression of the surrounding soft tissue degeneration was observed, and operative times were lengthened depending on the progression of MRI grading. A new MRI classification of HDS which may be helpful when considering arthroscopic surgeries has been proposed. Positive HCV infection was strongly associated with the progression of HDS on MRI. Conditions of the rotator interval and the rotator cuff based on the MRI classification should be examined when treating HDS patients. III.

  18. Maximizing shoulder function after accessory nerve injury and neck dissection surgery: A multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Aoife C; Hoffman, Gary R; Osmotherly, Peter G; Chiarelli, Pauline E

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder pain and dysfunction after neck dissection may result from injury to the accessory nerve. The effect of early physical therapy in the form of intensive scapular strengthening exercises is unknown. A total of 59 neck dissection participants were prospectively recruited for this study. Participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 32), consisting of progressive scapular strengthening exercises for 12 weeks, or the control group (n = 29). Blinded assessment occurred at baseline, and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Three-month data were collected on 52 participants/53 shoulders. Per-protocol analysis demonstrated that the intervention group had statistically significantly higher active shoulder abduction at 3 months compared to the control group (+26.6°; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.28-45.95; p = .007). The intervention is a favorable treatment for maximizing shoulder abduction in the short term. The effect of the intervention compared to usual care is uncertain in the longer term. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Shoulder to Investigate the Mechanical Responses and Injuries in Side Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Masami; Miki, Kazuo; Yang, King H.

    Previous studies in both fields of automotive safety and orthopedic surgery have hypothesized that immobilization of the shoulder caused by the shoulder injury could be related to multiple rib fractures, which are frequently life threatening. Therefore, for more effective occupant protection, it is important to understand the relationship between shoulder injury and multiple rib fractures in side impact. The purpose of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human shoulder in order to understand this relationship. The shoulder model included three bones (the humerus, scapula and clavicle) and major ligaments and muscles around the shoulder. The model also included approaches to represent bone fractures and joint dislocations. The relationships between shoulder injury and immobilization of the shoulder are discussed using model responses for lateral shoulder impact. It is also discussed how the injury can be related to multiple rib fractures.

  20. Evaluation of shoulder function in clavicular fracture patients after six surgical procedures based on a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shou-Guo; Chen, Bo; Lv, Dong; Zhang, Yong; Nie, Feng-Feng; Li, Wei; Lv, Yao; Zhao, Huan-Li; Liu, Hong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using a network meta-analysis approach, our study aims to develop a ranking of the six surgical procedures, that is, Plate, titanium elastic nail (TEN), tension band wire (TBW), hook plate (HP), reconstruction plate (RP) and Knowles pin, by comparing the post-surgery constant shoulder scores in patients with clavicular fracture (CF). Methods A comprehensive search of electronic scientific literature databases was performed to retrieve publications investigating surgical procedures in CF, with the stringent eligible criteria, and clinical experimental studies of high quality and relevance to our area of interest were selected for network meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were conducted using Stata 12.0. Results A total of 19 studies met our inclusion criteria were eventually enrolled into our network meta-analysis, representing 1164 patients who had undergone surgical procedures for CF (TEN group = 240; Plate group = 164; TBW group  =  180; RP group  =  168; HP group  =  245; Knowles pin group  =  167). The network meta-analysis results revealed that RP significantly improved constant shoulder score in patients with CF when compared with TEN, and the post-operative constant shoulder scores in patients with CF after Plate, TBW, HP, Knowles pin and TEN were similar with no statistically significant differences. The treatment relative ranking of predictive probabilities of constant shoulder scores in patients with CF after surgery revealed the surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) value is the highest in RP. Conclusion The current network meta-analysis suggests that RP may be the optimum surgical treatment among six inventions for patients with CF, and it can improve the shoulder score of patients with CF. Implications for Rehabilitation RP improves shoulder joint function after surgical procedure. RP achieves stability with minimal complications after surgery. RP may be the optimum surgical treatment for

  1. [Arthroscopic therapy of the unstable shoulder joint--acceptance and critical considerations].

    PubMed

    Jerosch, J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document and to present the acceptance of arthroscopically performed stabilising procedures of the glenohumeral joint. In a nationwide survey of instructors of the association of arthroscopy, members of the arthroscopy group of the german orthopedic society, and orthopedic and trauma surgeons with special interest in joint surgery we evaluated the current treatment modalities for patients with unstable shoulder joints. After an average of 2.09 +/- 1.0 shoulder redislocations surgery is recommended. The Bankart-operation (63.4%) is the favourite procedure for open surgery. In a descended order the Weber rotation-osteotomie, the Putti-Platt operation, the Max-Lange procedure, and in a minimal amount of the cases the Bristow-procedure are performed. Looking at the arthroscopic procedures, the distribution is much more equal. The Caspari technique is used by 27.6% and the Morgan technique by 25.1%. Bone anchors are used by 20.4% and the Suretac is used by 18.9% of the surgeons. The anchor knot technique (8%) is only rarely performed. In case of an elongated capsule the majority of the surgeons would not perform arthroscopic surgery. 42.4% of the surgeons judge the arthroscopic technique less secure. However, 38.9% do not see any difference to open procedures. Taking the available information, arthroscopic stabilising procedures seems to have slightly inferior results compared to standard open surgery. The Bankart procedure with or without a capsular shift is still the golden standard.

  2. Intraoperative intra-articular injection of gentamicin: will it decrease the risk of infection in total shoulder arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Lovallo, Jeffrey; Helming, Jarrett; Jafari, S Mehdi; Owusu-Forfie, Afia; Donovan, Skye; Minnock, Christopher; Adib, Farshad

    2014-09-01

    Deep infection is a debilitating complication after shoulder arthroplasty. Intra-articular injection of antibiotic can give a higher concentration compared with intravenous administration. We hypothesized that a group of patients given an intra-articular, intraoperative injection of gentamicin would report a lower infection rate than a group without local antibiotics. Between 2005 and 2011, the senior author performed 507 shoulder arthroplasties. We retrospectively reviewed all of those cases. All patients were administered systemic prophylactic antibiotics. Beginning in June 2007, patients were also injected with 160 mg of gentamicin in the glenohumeral joint at the end of their surgery. Patient records were examined for preexisting medical conditions, type of surgery, and presence of infection. Patients receiving surgery before 2007 were compared with those after to determine the effect of prophylactic gentamicin administration in preventing deep infection associated with surgery. All patients were observed for a minimum of 1 year. Of the 507 surgeries, 164 were performed before 2007 (without intra-articular injection of gentamicin; group A) and 343 were performed with addition of gentamicin (group B). In group A, 5 patients presented with infection (3.0%) compared with 1 in group B (0.29%). The gender, mean age, mean body mass index, and prevalence of comorbidities were similar between the groups. The data from this study support the conclusion that intra-articular intraoperative gentamicin administration may reduce postoperative infection. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scapular kinematics and shoulder elevation in a traditional push-up.

    PubMed

    Suprak, David N; Bohannon, Jennifer; Morales, Gabriel; Stroschein, Joseph; San Juan, Jun G

    2013-01-01

    Proper scapulothoracic motion is critical for the health and function of the shoulder and represents a principal focus in the rehabilitation setting. Variants of the traditional push-up are used frequently to help restore proper scapular kinematics. To date, substantial research has focused on muscle activation levels of rotator cuff and scapular-stabilizing musculature, whereas a dearth of literature exists regarding scapular kinematics during push-up variants. To examine the effect of shoulder position on scapular kinematics across the range of motion (ROM) of a traditional push-up. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Sixteen healthy participants without a history of upper extremity or spine injury requiring rehabilitation or surgery. Participants performed a traditional push-up while kinematic measurements were acquired from multiple upper extremity segments. The 3 shoulder position conditions were (1) self-selected position, (2) shoulder adducted upon ascent (at side), and (3) shoulder elevated to approximately 90°. Scapular posterior tilt, upward rotation, and external rotation were examined across elbow-extension ROM and compared across conditions. Posterior tilt was greater in the self-selected and at-side conditions than in the elevated condition and increased linearly with elbow extension. External rotation was greater in the self-selected and at-side conditions compared with that in the elevated condition. In the at-side condition, upward rotation began lower than in the other conditions at the start of the concentric phase but increased above the others soon after the elbow started to extend. Performing a traditional push-up with the shoulders elevated may place the scapula in a position of impingement. Clinicians should be cognizant of shoulder elevation when prescribing and monitoring exercise progression. The results of this study will provide further direction for clinicians in prescribing rehabilitation exercises for the upper extremity

  4. The Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in Shoulder Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Michael J; Jancosko, Jason J; Mendoza, Vivian; Nottage, Wesley M

    2015-09-01

    To document the skin colonization and deep tissue inoculation rates associated with arthroscopic shoulder surgery and how these rates differ with procedural and demographic factors. We prospectively recruited outpatient shoulder arthroscopy patients who agreed to participate and met the inclusion criteria from February 2013 to May 2014. All patients received routine antibiotic prophylaxis intravenously. Initial cultures were obtained before the skin preparation by swabbing the skin at the 3 standard portal sites: posterior, anterosuperior, and anterolateral. The skin preparation used 4% chlorhexidine scrub and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol paint applied to the entire shoulder. After completion of the arthroscopic procedure, a second culture was obtained through a cannula at the surgical site. All cultures were plated for 21 days using Brucella medium. We enrolled 51 patients over a 15-month period. Cultures showed a 72.5% Propionibacterium acnes superficial colonization rate: 46.1% of female and 81.6% of male patients (P = .027). We identified a deep culture-positive inoculation rate of 19.6%, all with positive P acnes skin colonization. No correlation could be made concerning diagnosis, procedure, suture anchor use, age, or sex. The rate of skin colonization with P acnes is high at arthroscopic portals, especially in men. Despite standard skin preparation and prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of deep tissue inoculation with P acnes in shoulder arthroscopy is much higher than the rate of infection reported in the literature. Shoulder arthroscopy introduces a significant amount of P acnes into the deep tissues. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Shoulder functional performance status of Minor League professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Fronek, Jan; Yang, Jingzhen Ginger; Osbahr, Daryl C; Pollack, Keshia M; ElAttrache, Neal S; Noonan, Thomas J; Conte, Stan A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Yocum, Lewis A

    2015-01-01

    The Overhead Shoulder and Elbow Score (Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic [KJOC] score) among healthy or uninjured professional baseball pitchers is lacking. We hypothesized that shoulder function and performance status measured by the KJOC score among active Minor League professional baseball pitchers were high at pre-participation and that the pitchers who had not been previously treated for a shoulder injury and were playing without arm trouble had significantly higher KJOC scores than their counterparts. In this cross-sectional survey, data on pre-participation KJOC scores, along with other study measures, were collected from a cohort of Minor League professional baseball pitchers. Generalized estimating equations with a Poisson distribution were used for analysis. A total of 366 Minor League professional pitchers were included, with a mean KJOC score of 92.8 points (SD, 12.1 points), suggesting that participating pitchers' shoulder function and performance were high. Participating pitchers who had not received treatment for a shoulder injury had significantly higher KJOC scores than those who had received treatment, either surgical or nonsurgical (β = 0.0238, P = .0495). In addition, pitchers who were not currently injured, were playing without arm trouble, or had not missed games in the past 12 months because of a shoulder injury also had statistically significantly higher KJOC scores than their counterparts. This study provides an empirical profile of the KJOC score for a large sample of active Minor League professional baseball pitchers and identifies risk factors associated with decreased KJOC scores. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Contribution of Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty to Utilization of Primary Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B.; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Background We assessed the contribution of reverse shoulder arthroplasty to overall utilization of primary shoulder arthroplasty, and present age and sex stratified national rates of shoulder arthroplasty. We also assessed contemporary complication rates, mortality, and indications for shoulder arthroplasty, as well as estimates and indications for revision arthroplasty. Methods We used the Nationwide Inpatient Samples for 2009–2011 to calculate estimates of shoulder arthroplasty and assessed trends using joinpoint regression. Results The cumulative estimated utilization of primary shoulder arthroplasty (total anatomical, hemi, and reverse) increased significantly from 52,397 procedures (95% CI=47,093–57,701) in 2009 to 67,184 cases (95% CI=60,638–73,731) in 2011. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty accounted for 42% of all primary shoulder arthroplasty procedures in 2011. The diagnosis of concomitant diagnosis of osteoarthritis and rotator cuff impairment was found in only 29.8% of reverse shoulder arthroplasty cases. The highest rate of reverse shoulder arthroplasty was in the 75–84 year female sub-group (77; 95% CI=67–87). Revision cases were 8.8% and 8.2% of all shoulder arthroplasties in 2009 and 2011, respectively, and 35% of revision cases were secondary to mechanical complications/loosening while 18% were due to dislocation. Conclusions The utilization of primary shoulder arthroplasty significantly increased in just a three year time span, with a major contribution from reverse shoulder arthroplasty in 2011. Indications appear to have expanded as a large percentage of patients did not have rotator cuff pathology. The burden from revision arthroplasties was also substantial and efforts to optimize outcomes and longevity of primary shoulder arthroplasty are needed. Level of evidence Epidemiology Study, Database Analysis PMID:25304043

  7. An investigation of shoulder forces in active shoulder tackles in rugby union football.

    PubMed

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Fréchède, Bertrand

    2011-11-01

    In rugby union football the tackle is the most frequently executed skill and one most associated with injury, including shoulder injury to the tackler. Despite the importance of the tackle, little is known about the magnitude of shoulder forces in the tackle and influencing factors. The objectives of the study were to measure the shoulder force in the tackle, as well as the effects of shoulder padding, skill level, side of body, player size, and experimental setting on shoulder force. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and field settings using a repeated measures design. Thirty-five participants were recruited to the laboratory and 98 to the field setting. All were male aged over 18 years with rugby experience. The maximum force applied to the shoulder in an active shoulder tackle was measured with a custom built forceplate incorporated into a 45 kg tackle bag. The overall average maximum shoulder force was 1660 N in the laboratory and 1997 N in the field. This difference was significant. The shoulder force for tackling without shoulder pads was 1684 N compared to 1635 N with shoulder pads. There was no difference between the shoulder forces on the dominant and non-dominant sides. Shoulder force reduced with tackle repetition. No relationship was observed between player skill level and size. A substantial force can be applied to the shoulder and to an opponent in the tackle. This force is within the shoulder's injury tolerance range and is unaffected by shoulder pads. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain Management After Outpatient Shoulder Arthroscopy: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Warrender, William J; Syed, Usman Ali M; Hammoud, Sommer; Emper, William; Ciccotti, Michael G; Abboud, Joseph A; Freedman, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    Effective postoperative pain management after shoulder arthroscopy is a critical component to recovery, rehabilitation, and patient satisfaction. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of level 1 and level 2 evidence regarding postoperative pain management for outpatient arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Systematic review. We performed a systematic review of the various modalities reported in the literature for postoperative pain control after outpatient shoulder arthroscopy and analyzed their outcomes. Analgesic regimens reviewed include regional nerve blocks/infusions, subacromial/intra-articular injections or infusions, cryotherapy, and oral medications. Only randomized control trials with level 1 or level 2 evidence that compared 2 or more pain management modalities or placebo were included. We excluded studies without objective measures to quantify postoperative pain within the first postoperative month, subjective pain scale measurements, or narcotic consumption as outcome measures. A combined total of 40 randomized control trials met our inclusion criteria. Of the 40 included studies, 15 examined nerve blocks, 4 studied oral medication regimens, 12 studied subacromial infusion, 8 compared multiple modalities, and 1 evaluated cryotherapy. Interscalene nerve blocks (ISBs) were found to be the most effective method to control postoperative pain after shoulder arthroscopy. Increasing concentrations, continuous infusions, and patient-controlled methods can be effective for more aggressively controlling pain. Dexamethasone, clonidine, intrabursal oxycodone, and magnesium have all been shown to successfully improve the duration and adequacy of ISBs when used as adjuvants. Oral pregabalin and etoricoxib administered preoperatively have evidence supporting decreased postoperative pain and increased patient satisfaction. On the basis of the evidence in this review, we recommend the use of ISBs as the most effective analgesic for outpatient arthroscopic

  9. The cost effectiveness of vancomycin for preventing infections after shoulder arthroplasty: a break-even analysis.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M Daniel; Daniels, Stephen D; Glerum, Kimberly M; Higgins, Laurence D

    2017-03-01

    Increasing methicillin resistance and recognition of Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of infection in shoulder arthroplasty has led to the adoption of local vancomycin powder application as a more effective method to prevent expensive periprosthetic infections. However, no study has analyzed the cost effectiveness of vancomycin powder for preventing infection after shoulder replacement. Cost data for infection-related care of 16 patients treated for deep periprosthetic shoulder infection was collected from our institution for the break-even analysis. An equation was developed and applied to the data to determine how effective vancomycin powder would need to be at reducing a baseline infection rate to make prophylactic use cost effective. The efficacy of vancomycin (absolute risk reduction [ARR]) was evaluated at different unit costs, baseline infection rates, and average costs of treating infection. We determined vancomycin to be cost effective if the initial infection rate decreased by 0.04% (ARR). Using the current costs of vancomycin reported in the literature (range: $2.50/1000 mg to $44/1000 mg), we determined vancomycin to be cost effective with an ARR range of 0.01% at a cost of $2.50/1000 mg to 0.19% at $44/1000 mg. Baseline infection rate does not influence the ARR obtained at any specific cost of vancomycin or the cost of treating infection. We have derived and used a break-even equation to assess efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics during shoulder surgery. We further demonstrated the prophylactic administration of local vancomycin powder during shoulder arthroplasty to be a highly cost-effective practice. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of the athlete with a failed shoulder instability procedure.

    PubMed

    Gwathmey, F Winston; Warner, Jon J P

    2013-10-01

    The athlete with a failed instability procedure requires a thoughtful and systematic approach to achieve a good outcome. Goals of treatment should be defined and realistic expectations should be set. Revision stabilization has a high rate of recurrent instability, low rates of return to play, and low clinical outcome scores. Fundamental to successful revision surgery is choosing the correct procedure. The decision is straightforward in athletes with clear factors that predict recurrence (significant glenoid bone loss, engaging Hill-Sachs lesions) because only a bony procedure can restore the articular arc of the glenoid. Arthroscopic revision Bankart repair may be appropriate in those athletes who have an obvious Bankart tear and no bone loss after a traumatic reinjury. The challenge for the shoulder surgeon is identifying the best surgery for the athlete who does not have such clear-cut indications. Each factor that has the potential to lead to a poor outcome needs to be collected and calculated. Patient factors (age, laxity, type and level of sport), injury factors (mechanism of injury, capsulolabral injury, glenoid bone loss, Hill-Sachs lesion), and technical factors (previous surgery performed, integrity of repair, scarring) must be integrated into the treatment algorithm. Based on this collection of factors, the shoulder surgeon should be prepared to provide the athlete with the surgery that provides the best chance to return to playing sports and the lowest risk of recurrent instability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia with brachial plexus block: postoperative respiratory dysfunction of combined obstructive and restrictive pathology.

    PubMed

    Gwak, M S; Kim, W H; Choi, S J; Lee, J J; Ko, J S; Kim, G S; Kim, Y I; Kim, M H

    2013-02-01

    Changes in respiratory parameters and pulmonary function tests were evaluated after shoulder arthroscopic surgery with brachial plexus block (BPB). The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanism of respiratory dysfunction after this type of surgery. Patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair under general anesthesia (GA) with BPB were enrolled in the arthroscopy group (n = 30) while those undergoing open reduction of a clavicle or humerus fracture under GA were enrolled in the control group (n = 30). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume 1 s (FEV(1)) were measured at the outpatient clinic stage (#1) before (#2) and 20 min after BPB (#3) and 1 h after extubation (#4). Respiratory variable measurements along with the cuff leak test were performed 5 min after surgical positioning (T1) and at the start of skin closure (T2). Respiratory discomfort was evaluated after extubation. The upper airway diameters and soft tissue depth of chest wall were also measured by ultrasonography at stages #3 and #4. Static compliance decreased significantly at T2 in the arthroscopy group (50 ± 11 at T1 vs. 44 ± 9 ml/cm H(2)O at T2, p =0.035) but not in the control group. The incidence of positive cuff leak tests at T2 was significantly higher in the arthroscopy group than in the control group (47% in the arthroscopy group vs. 17% in controls, p =0.010). While FEV(1) and FVC remained stable at stages #1 and #2, FVC and FEV(1) decreased at stages #3 and #4 only in the arthroscopy group (FVC in arthroscopy group, #2: 3.26 ± 0.77 l; #3: 2.55 ± 0.63 l, p =0.015 vs. #2; #4: 2.66 ± 0.41 l, p =0.040 vs. #2). The subglottic diameter decreased at #4 in the arthroscopy group, while no changes occurred in the control group (0.70 ± 0.21 cm vs. 0.85 ± 0.23 cm in the arthroscopy and control groups, respectively, p =0.011). Depth of skin to pleura increased at both intercostal spaces 1-2 and 3-4 in the

  12. Diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome after a first shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    Nourissat, Geoffroy; Vigan, Marie; Hamonet, Claude; Doursounian, Levon; Deranlot, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Shoulder dislocation is often the first symptom of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Whether it occurs in early-onset EDS is unknown. In most cases, surgical failure leads to the diagnosis. We aimed to determine whether clinical symptoms can signal the presence of EDS at a first dislocation. In this retrospective study, we analyzed clinical and radiologic data for 27 patients with EDS and shoulder instability and a control population of 40 consecutive non-EDS patients undergoing surgery for an unstable shoulder. Data were collected on gender, age, single or bilateral disease, general hyperlaxity, shoulder hyperlaxity, number of dislocations or subluxations, nontraumatic onset, and pain specificity. Nerve and vascular injuries, joint disorders, and family history were recorded, and radiologic data were reported. Age <14 years, female sex, bilateral disorder, and general hyperlaxity were significantly more frequent in patients with EDS and a first dislocation than in those without EDS. Painless dislocation with pain after dislocation and concomitant nerve injury were more frequent in affected patients, as were hemostasis disorders and a family history of joint hyperlaxity. Bone lesions were not seen on radiographs. Only the hyperlaxity sign (external rotation >85°) did not differ between the groups. After a first dislocation in a young girl with global hyperlaxity but not necessarily shoulder hyperlaxity, painless atraumatic dislocation with pain after reduction can suggest EDS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The influence of psychiatric comorbidity on perioperative outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bot, Arjan G J; Menendez, Mariano E; Neuhaus, Valentin; Ring, David

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity has been associated with increased health risks and poor long-term treatment outcomes in numerous medical disciplines, but its effect in short-term perioperative settings is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a preoperative diagnosis of depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, or dementia on in-hospital (1) adverse events, (2) blood transfusion, and (3) nonroutine discharge in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty. Using the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database, we identified 348,824 discharges having undergone partial or total shoulder arthroplasty from 1990 to 2007. Multivariable regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome variables. The prevalence of diagnosed depressive disorder was 4.4%, anxiety disorder, 1.6%; schizophrenia, 0.6%; and dementia, 1.5%. Preoperative psychiatric disorders, with the exception of schizophrenia, were associated with higher rates of adverse events. Depression and schizophrenia were associated with higher perioperative rates of blood transfusion. Any preoperative psychiatric illness was associated with higher rates of nonroutine discharge. Patients with preoperative psychiatric illness undergoing shoulder arthroplasty are at increased risk for perioperative morbidity and posthospitalization care. Preoperative screening of psychiatric illness might help with planning of shoulder arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Humeral component retroversion in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Gulotta, Lawrence V; Choi, Dan; Marinello, Patrick; Knutson, Zakary; Lipman, Joseph; Wright, Timothy; Cordasco, Frank A; Craig, Edward V; Warren, Russell F

    2012-09-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty offers pain relief and functional improvement for patients with rotator cuff-deficient shoulders. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal amount of humeral retroversion for this prosthesis. Six cadaveric shoulders underwent computed tomography (CT) imaging and were then dissected of soft tissues, except for their tendinous attachments. A reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was implanted in 0°, 20°, 30°, and 40° of retroversion, and the shoulders were mounted on a simulator to determine the muscle forces required to achieve 30° and 60° of scaption. CT images were converted into 3-dimensional models, and the amount of internal and external rotation was determined with computer modeling at various scaption angles. No differences were found in the forces required for 30° or 60° of scaption for any muscle, at any retroversion. With increasing retroversion, more impingement-free external rotation was obtained, with a concomitant decrease in the amount of internal rotation. Above 60°, the humerus was allowed to rotate around the glenosphere unencumbered. Increasing retroversion did not affect the muscle force requirements for scaption across the shoulder. Placing the humeral component in 0° to 20° of retroversion allows maximum internal rotation with the arm at the side, a movement that is required for daily activities. This limits external rotation with the arm at the side, but has no effect on external rotation with the arm elevated. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary versus revision arthroscopic reconstruction with remplissage for shoulder instability with moderate bone loss.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Michael P; Weinberg, Douglas; Field, Larry D; O'Brien, Michael J; Hobgood, E Rhett; Savoie, Felix H

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate our outcomes of arthroscopic remplissage in this setting. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent arthroscopic remplissage of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion along with anterior capsulolabral reconstruction for anterior glenohumeral instability with moderate glenohumeral bone loss at our institution. Thirty-five patients, with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up, were identified. We assessed the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, incidence of recurrent instability, and postoperative Rowe instability score. Follow-up was available for 30 patients (31 shoulders). The mean age was 24.6 years, with a mean follow-up period of 41 months. Prior instability surgery had failed in 11 patients, and they underwent capsulolabral reconstruction and remplissage ("revision surgery"). The failure rate in revision cases (36%) was significantly higher than the failure rate in primary surgery cases (0%) (P = .01). Failure resulted from trauma in all 4 patients, and none required further surgery. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score for all patients improved from 50 preoperatively to 91 postoperatively (P < .001), with no significant postoperative difference between primary and revision patients (P = .13). The patients with clinical failure showed nonsignificant improvement from 41 preoperatively to 72 postoperatively (P = .08). The mean postoperative Rowe score for the entire cohort was 90. The Rowe score was significantly lower in the 4 cases of failure than in the 27 non-failure cases (51 v 96, P < .001). In our experience, aggressive capsulolabral reconstruction with remplissage in traumatic instability patients with moderate bone loss and engaging humeral Hill-Sachs lesions yields acceptable outcomes for primary instability surgery. However, a significantly higher failure rate occurred when arthroscopic reconstruction with remplissage was performed in the revision setting. Level IV, therapeutic

  16. Development of an exercise intervention for the prevention of musculoskeletal shoulder problems after breast cancer treatment: the prevention of shoulder problems trial (UK PROSPER).

    PubMed

    Richmond, Helen; Lait, Clare; Srikesavan, Cynthia; Williamson, Esther; Moser, Jane; Newman, Meredith; Betteley, Lauren; Fordham, Beth; Rees, Sophie; Lamb, Sarah E; Bruce, Julie

    2018-06-18

    Musculoskeletal shoulder problems are common after breast cancer treatment. There is some evidence to suggest that early postoperative exercise is safe and may improve shoulder function. We describe the development and delivery of a complex intervention for evaluation within a randomised controlled trial (RCT), designed to target prevention of musculoskeletal shoulder problems after breast cancer surgery (The Prevention of Shoulder Problems Trial; PROSPER). A pragmatic, multicentre RCT to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of best practice usual care versus a physiotherapy-led exercise and behavioural support intervention in women at high risk of shoulder problems after breast cancer treatment. PROSPER will recruit 350 women from approximately 15 UK centres, with follow-up at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is shoulder function at 12 months; secondary outcomes include postoperative pain, health related quality of life, adverse events and healthcare resource use. A multi-phased approach was used to develop the PROSPER intervention which was underpinned by existing evidence and modified for implementation after input from clinical experts and women with breast cancer. The intervention was tested and refined further after qualitative interviews with patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer; a pilot RCT was then conducted at three UK clinical centres. The PROSPER intervention incorporates three main components: shoulder-specific exercises targeting range of movement and strength; general physical activity; and behavioural strategies to encourage adherence and support exercise behaviour. The final PROSPER intervention is fully manualised with clear, documented pathways for clinical assessment, exercise prescription, use of behavioural strategies, and with guidance for treatment of postoperative complications. This paper adheres to TIDieR and CERT recommendations for the transparent, comprehensive and explicit reporting of complex interventions

  17. A comparison of peak power in the shoulder press and shoulder throw.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, W M; Neal, R J; Watts, M C

    2002-09-01

    The ability to generate peak power is central for performance in many sports. Currently two distinct resistance training methods are used to develop peak power, the heavy weight/slow velocity and light weight/fast velocity regimes. When using the light weight/fast velocity power training method it was proposed that peak power would be greater in a shoulder throw exercise compared with a normal shoulder press. Nine males performed three lifts in the shoulder press and shoulder throw at 30% and 40% of their one repetition maximum (1RM). These lifts were performed identically, except for the release of the bar in the throw condition. A potentiometer attached to the bar measured displacement and duration of the lifts. The time of bar release in the shoulder throw was determined with a pressure switch. ANOVA was used to examine statistically significant differences where the level of acceptance was set at p < 0.05. Peak power was found to be significantly greater in the shoulder throw at 30% of 1 RM condition [F, (1, 23) = 2.325 p < 0.051 and at 40% of 1 RM [F, (1, 23) = 2.905 p < 0.05] compared to values recorded for the respective shoulder presses. Peak power was also greater in the 30% of 1 RM shoulder throw (510 +/- 103W) than in the 40% of 1 RM shoulder press (471 +/- 96W). Peak power was produced significantly later in the shoulder throw versus the shoulder press. This differing power reflected a greater bar velocity of the shoulder throw at both assigned weights compared with the shoulder press.

  18. Sports- and Work-Related Outcomes After Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Grant H; Mahony, Gregory T; Fabricant, Peter D; Wu, Hao-Hua; Dines, David M; Warren, Russell F; Craig, Edward V; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2016-02-01

    With an active aging population, more patients expect to return to previous activities and work after surgery. To determine the rate and timing to return of sports and employment after shoulder hemiarthroplasty. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent shoulder hemiarthroplasty from 2007 to 2013. Follow-up consisted of a patient-reported questionnaire regarding physical fitness, sporting activities, and work status. From 105 patients screened, 79 were available for follow-up. The average follow-up time was 63.1 months, and the average age at follow-up was 69 years. Scores on the visual analog scale for pain improved from 6.2 to 2.1 (P < .001) postoperatively, and those on the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder assessment improved from 34.6 to 71.3 (P < .001). Patients older than 65 years had significantly lower absolute postoperative ASES scores (P = .041) but experienced similar improvement from their preoperative baseline (P = .158) compared with patients younger than 65 years. There were 58 patients who played sports preoperatively, and 67.2% of these restarted at least 1 of their previous sports postoperatively. The average time to return to full sports was 6.5 months for those who returned. Direct rates of return were as follows: fitness sports (69%), swimming (65%), running (64%), cycling (63%), and doubles tennis (57%). Younger age was associated with highest demand level achieved (P = .023). Forty-nine patients worked preoperatively, with 69.4% returning to previous employment after surgery; the average time to return to work was 1.4 months. In comparative analysis, patients who did not return to work had a higher mean body mass index (32 ± 7 vs 27 ± 5 kg/m(2); P < .008). In this hemiarthroplasty cohort, there was a 67.2% rate of return to 1 or more sports at an average of 6.5 months postoperatively. Patients older than 65 years experienced similar improvements in ASES

  19. Long-term prospective assessment of shoulder function after breast reconstruction involving a latissimus dorsi muscle flap transfer and postoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Morihara, Toru; Kushida, Rie; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    Several investigators have evaluated the impaired function of the shoulder after removal of the latissimus dorsi muscle for breast reconstruction. However, a few investigators have studied whether including radiotherapy has a negative effect on functional recovery of the shoulder by a long-term follow-up after surgery. In this study, we compared objective measurements of shoulder function preoperatively and postoperatively for 3 years after latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) flap transfer and postoperative radiotherapy (PRT). Eighteen patients who underwent unilateral transfer of a pedicled LDM flap and PRT within 2 months of breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in this study. Range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength in exhaustive shoulder movements were measured before surgery, and at 3 and 6 months, and 1 and 3 years. The results of ROM measurements at 3months postsurgery showed significant decreases in both flexion and abduction by 7.1 and 9.2 % and at 3 years postsurgery by 4.7 and 5.7 %. The muscle strength measurements at 3 months postsurgery showed statistically significant decreases both in adduction and in the 2nd medial rotation by 30.7 and 25.9 % and at 3 years postsurgery by 36.4 and 20.4 %. A significant improvement in these impairments was not observed for 3 years after surgery compared with that at 3 months after surgery. A combination of the LDM flap procedure and PRT could be associated with a higher incidence of tissue adhesions in both flexion and abduction and muscle deficit both in adduction and in the 2nd medial rotation.

  20. Mobile technology and telemedicine for shoulder range of motion: validation of a motion-based machine-learning software development kit.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Haeberle, Heather S; Navarro, Sergio M; Sultan, Assem A; Mont, Michael A; Ricchetti, Eric T; Schickendantz, Mark S; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2018-03-07

    Mobile technology offers the prospect of delivering high-value care with increased patient access and reduced costs. Advances in mobile health (mHealth) and telemedicine have been inhibited by the lack of interconnectivity between devices and software and inability to process consumer sensor data. The objective of this study was to preliminarily validate a motion-based machine learning software development kit (SDK) for the shoulder compared with a goniometer for 4 arcs of motion: (1) abduction, (2) forward flexion, (3) internal rotation, and (4) external rotation. A mobile application for the SDK was developed and "taught" 4 arcs of shoulder motion. Ten subjects without shoulder pain or prior shoulder surgery performed the arcs of motion for 5 repetitions. Each motion was measured by the SDK and compared with a physician-measured manual goniometer measurement. Angular differences between SDK and goniometer measurements were compared with univariate and power analyses. The comparison between the SDK and goniometer measurement detected a mean difference of less than 5° for all arcs of motion (P > .05), with a 94% chance of detecting a large effect size from a priori power analysis. Mean differences for the arcs of motion were: abduction, -3.7° ± 3.2°; forward flexion, -4.9° ± 2.5°; internal rotation, -2.4° ± 3.7°; and external rotation -2.6° ± 3.4°. The SDK has the potential to remotely substitute for a shoulder range of motion examination within 5° of goniometer measurements. An open-source motion-based SDK that can learn complex movements, including clinical shoulder range of motion, from consumer sensors offers promise for the future of mHealth, particularly in telemonitoring before and after orthopedic surgery. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain activity in the right-frontal pole and lateral occipital cortex predicts successful post-operatory outcome after surgery for anterior glenoumeral instability.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Davide; Cunningham, Gregory; Lädermann, Alexandre; Ozturk, Mehmet; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Haller, Sven

    2017-03-29

    Shoulder apprehension is more complex than a pure mechanical problem of the shoulder, creating a scar at the brain level that prevents the performance of specific movements. Surgery corrects for shoulder instability at the physical level, but a re-dislocation within the first year is rather common. Predicting which patient will be likely to have re-dislocation is therefore crucial. We hypothesized that the assessment of neural activity at baseline and follow-up is the key factor to predict the post-operatory outcome. 13 patients with shoulder apprehension (30.03 ± 7.64 years) underwent clinical and fMRI examination before and one year after surgery for shoulder dislocation contrasting apprehension cue videos and control videos. Data analyses included task-related general linear model (GLM) and correlations imaging results with clinical scores. Clinical examination showed decreased pain and increased shoulder functions for post-op vs. pre-op. Coherently, GLM results show decreased activation of the left pre-motor cortex for post-surgery vs. pre-surgery. Right-frontal pole and right-occipital cortex activity predicts good recovery of shoulder function measured by STT. Our findings demonstrate that beside physical changes, changes at the brain level also occur one year after surgery. In particular, decreased activity in pre-motor and orbito-frontal cortex is key factor for a successful post-operatory outcome.

  2. Associations Among Hip and Shoulder Range of Motion and Shoulder Injury in Professional Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Steve; Anderson, Kyle; Weber, Nick; Bajorek, Jeff; Rand, Kevin; Bey, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: The overhead throwing motion is complex, and restrictions in range of motion (ROM) at the hip may place additional demands on the shoulder that lead to injury. However, the relationship between hip and shoulder ROM in athletes with and without a history of shoulder injury is unknown. Objective: To (1) determine if differences exist in hip and shoulder ROM between professional baseball players with a history of shoulder injury and those with no history of shoulder injury and (2) assess relationships between hip and shoulder ROM in these players. Design: Cross-sectional study. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-seven professional baseball players. Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures consisted of hip extension and internal rotation, shoulder internal and external rotation, glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit, and history of shoulder injury. Differences in shoulder and hip ROM were assessed with a 1-way analysis of variance. Associations between hip and shoulder ROM were assessed with linear regression. Results: Nonpitchers with a history of shoulder injury had more external rotation and less internal rotation of the shoulder than nonpitchers with no history of shoulder injury. Glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit was greater in both pitchers and nonpitchers with a history of shoulder injury. The relationship between dominant hip extension and shoulder external rotation was significant for pitchers with a history of shoulder injury and nonpitchers with a history of shoulder injury. Conclusions: Shoulder injury may be associated with specific measures of hip and shoulder ROM, and hip extension and shoulder external rotation may be related in baseball players with a history of shoulder injury. Additional research is necessary to understand the specific mechanisms of shoulder injury in the throwing athlete. PMID:20210623

  3. [Ludwig Rehn (1849-1930) and his importance in the development of modern surgery].

    PubMed

    Sachs, M; Encke, A

    1996-01-01

    The unusual course of Ludwig Rehn's professional development directed him from a general practitioner close to Frankfurt am Main to his convocation as first Professor in ordinary for surgery to the Frankfurt University, which was newly established in 1914. Among his numerous publications, especially the following contributed immensely to the development of modern surgery: in 1884, he already described the healing of patients with Graves' disease by subtotal resection of the goiter; in 1885 he first described the high prevalence of bladder tumors in workers of an aniline factory; in 1886, he managed the first successful heart-suture after a stab-incision of the right ventricle; in 1897, he already performed an operation at the thoracal oesophagus, with an access via the posterior mediastinum; in 1920, he established the operative treatment (pericardectomy) of patients with a calcified pericarditis (armour heart).

  4. Propionibacterium acnes in primary shoulder arthroplasty: rates of colonization, patient risk factors, and efficacy of perioperative prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Chuan Kong; Marsh, Jonathan P; Drinković, Dragana; Walker, Cameron G; Poon, Peter C

    2016-05-01

    Recent literature has shown that Propionibacterium acnes can be cultured from superficial and deep layers of the shoulder. Our aims were to assess the rate of P. acnes colonization in patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty, to identify patient-related risk factors, and to evaluate the efficacy of our perioperative antisepsis protocol. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty were included in our study. Swabs were taken perioperatively (4 superficial and 2 deep wound swabs) and analyzed quantitatively for P. acnes. Cefazolin minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for P. acnes isolates from positive deep cultures. Twenty-two patients (73%) had positive cultures for P. acnes. Male gender (P = .024) and presence of hair (P = .005) had significantly higher rates of P. acnes superficial cultures. Subjects with positive superficial P. acnes cultures (P = .076) and presence of hair with a history of steroid injection (P = .092) were more likely to have deep P. acnes-positive cultures, but this was not statistically significant. Local topical antisepsis measures did not eradicate P. acnes (P = .12). Mean cefazolin minimum inhibitory concentration for P. acnes was 0.32 μg/mL. P. acnes is commonly isolated from the skin and deep surgical wounds of patients undergoing primary total shoulder arthroplasty who have not had previous shoulder surgery. Male gender and presence of hair were significant risk factors for P. acnes colonization. Perioperative local topical antisepsis and cefazolin administration were not effective in eliminating P. acnes colonization. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Winged scapula incidence and upper limb morbidity after surgery for breast cancer with axillary dissection.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Samantha Karlla Lopes de Almeida; Haddad, Cinira Assad Simão; Giron, Patricia Santolia; Pinheiro, Thaís Lúcia; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto; Facina, Gil

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of winged scapula after breast cancer surgery, its impact on shoulder morbidity and difference in incidence according to surgery type. Patients with breast cancer and surgical indication for axillary dissection were included. A total of 112 patients were surveyed with one physical evaluation before the surgery and others 15, 30, 90, and 180 days after. Winged scapula was assessed with test proposed by Hoppenfeld. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) was assessed with goniometer for flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. A verbal scale from 0 to 10 was used to assess pain. Winged scapula incidence was 8.0 % 15 days after surgery. Two patients recovered from winged scapula 90 days after surgery and four more 180 days after surgery, while three patients still had winged scapula at this time. The incidence after 15 days from surgery was 20.9 and 22.6 % among patients submitted to sentinel node biopsy or axillary lymphadenectomy (AL), respectively (p < 0.01). There was no statistical difference of incidence according to breast surgery type. Operated side shoulder flexion, adduction, and abduction ROM changes were statistically different in patients with or without winged scapula. The mean reduction was higher in patients with winged scapula. Both groups showed the same pattern over time in pain. Winged scapula incidence was 8.0 % and was higher in AL, and prevalence decreased during 6 months after surgery. Patients who developed winged scapula had more shoulder flexion, adduction, and abduction limitation.

  6. Open inferior capsular shift for multidirectional shoulder instability in adolescents with generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vavken, Patrick; Tepolt, Frances A; Kocher, Mininder S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of open inferior capsular shift for multidirectional shoulder instability in patients with generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Data were obtained for 18 open inferior capsular shift surgeries in 15 adolescent patients with generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with a mean follow-up of 7.5 years. End points were subjective clinical outcome (pain, stability, satisfaction, return to sport), objective clinical outcome (recurrence, complications), and functional outcome scores (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, 11-item version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand). Thirteen patients (87%) reported improved pain and stability and were satisfied with the procedure. Nine patients (64%) were able to return to sports. One patient (7%) was dissatisfied with continuous pain and recurrent instability and considered a surgical failure. Seven patients (47%) reported no further episodes of instability. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score at a mean of 7.5 years of follow-up was 88 ± 10 points, and the mean score for the 11-item version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand was 14 ± 14 points. The management of multidirectional shoulder instability in adolescent patients with generalized ligamentous hyperlaxity or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is challenging. Open inferior capsular shift results in improvement in subjective and objective shoulder function and stability in adolescent patients with ligamentous hyperlaxity or Ehlers-Danlos who have failed nonoperative treatment. We found no effect of the recalled number of prior dislocations, laterality, and type of hyperlaxity on subjective and objective clinical outcomes. Level IV; Case Series; Treatment Study. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative doxycycline does not decolonize Propionibacterium acnes from the skin of the shoulder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Namdari, Surena; Nicholson, Thema; Parvizi, Javad; Ramsey, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is frequently cultured in patients undergoing both primary and revision shoulder surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative oral administration of doxycycline in decreasing the colonization of skin around the shoulder by P. acnes. This was a single-institution, prospective, randomized controlled trial of male patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. Patients were randomized to receive oral doxycycline (100 mg twice a day) for 7 days or to the standard of care (no drug). Before skin incision, 2 separate 3-mm punch biopsy specimens were obtained from the sites of the anterior and posterior arthroscopic portals and were sent for culture in anaerobic and aerobic medium held for 13 days. There were 22 of 37 (59.5%) patients in the no-drug group and 16 of 37 (43.2%) patients in the doxycycline group who had at least 1 dermal culture positive for P. acnes (P = .245). In the no-drug group, 10 patients (45.5%) had 1 positive culture and 12 (54.5%) had 2 positive cultures (34 total positive cultures [45.9%]). In the doxycycline group, 6 (37.5%) patients had 1 positive culture and 10 (62.5%) had 2 positive cultures (26 total positive cultures [35.1%]; P = .774). Administration of oral doxycycline for 7 days before surgery did not reduce colonization of P. acnes significantly. Given the potential risk for emergence of bacterial resistance and the adverse effects associated with administration of antibiotics, we do not recommend routine use of oral doxycycline for preoperative decolonization of the shoulder. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neck and Upper Limb Dysfunction in Patients following Neck Dissection: Looking beyond the Shoulder.

    PubMed

    Gane, Elise M; O'Leary, Shaun P; Hatton, Anna L; Panizza, Benedict J; McPhail, Steven M

    2017-10-01

    Objective To measure patient-perceived upper limb and neck function following neck dissection and to investigate potential associations between clinical factors, symptoms, and function. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Subjects and Methods Inclusion criteria: patients treated with neck dissection (2009-2014). aged <18 years, accessory nerve or sternocleidomastoid sacrifice, previous neck dissection, preexisting shoulder/neck injury, and inability to provide informed consent (cognition, insufficient English). Primary outcomes were self-reported function of the upper limb (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) and neck (Neck Disability Index). Secondary outcomes included demographics, oncological management, self-efficacy, and pain. Generalized linear models were prepared to examine relationships between explanatory variables and self-reported function. Results Eighty-nine participants (male n = 63, 71%; median age, 62 years; median 3 years since surgery) reported mild upper limb and neck dysfunction (median [quartile 1, quartile 3] scores of 11 [3, 32] and 12 [4, 28], respectively). Significant associations were found between worse upper limb function and longer time since surgery (coefficient, 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-3.51), having disease within the thyroid (17.40; 2.37-32.44), postoperative radiation therapy (vs surgery only) (13.90; 6.67-21.14), and shoulder pain (0.65; 0.44-0.85). Worse neck function was associated with metastatic cervical lymph nodes (coefficient, 6.61; 95% CI, 1.14-12.08), shoulder pain (0.19; 0.04-0.34), neck pain (0.34; 0.21-0.47), and symptoms of neuropathic pain (0.61; 0.25-0.98). Conclusion Patients can experience upper limb and neck dysfunction following nerve-preserving neck dissection. The upper quadrant as a whole should be considered when assessing rehabilitation priorities after neck dissection.

  9. High incidence of hemiarthroplasty for shoulder osteoarthritis among recently graduated orthopaedic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tobias; Baumhauer, Judith F; O'Keefe, Regis J; Harrast, John; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Voloshin, Ilya

    2014-11-01

    Primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis is a common indication for shoulder arthroplasty. Historically, both total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and hemi-shoulder arthroplasty (HSA) have been used to treat primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. The choice between procedures is a topic of debate, with HSA proponents arguing that it is less invasive, faster, less expensive, and technically less demanding, with quality of life outcomes equivalent to those of TSA. More recent evidence suggests TSA is superior in terms of pain relief, function, ROM, strength, and patient satisfaction. We therefore investigated the practice of recently graduated orthopaedic surgeons pertaining to the surgical treatment of this disease. We hypothesized that (1) recently graduated, board eligible, orthopaedic surgeons with fellowship training in shoulder surgery are more likely to perform TSA than surgeons without this training; (2) younger patients are more likely to receive HSA than TSA; (3) patient sex affects the choice of surgery; (4) US geographic region affects practice patterns; and (5) complication rates for HSA and TSA are not different. We queried the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery's database to identify practice patterns of orthopaedic surgeons taking their board examination. We identified 771 patients with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis treated with TSA or HSA from 2006 to 2011. The rates of TSA and HSA were compared based on the treating surgeon's fellowship training, patient age and sex, US geographic region, and reported surgical complications. Surgeons with fellowship training in shoulder surgery were more likely (86% versus 72%; OR 2.32; 95% CI, 1.56-3.45, p<0.001) than surgeons without this training to perform TSA rather than HSA. The mean age for patients receiving HSA was not different from that for patients receiving TSA (66 versus 68, years, p=0.057). Men were more likely to receive HSA than TSA when compared to women (RR 1.54; 95% CI, 1.19-2.00, p=0.0012). The

  10. Performance of PROMIS Instruments in Patients With Shoulder Instability.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Chris A; Glass, Natalie A; Hancock, Kyle; Bollier, Matt; Wolf, Brian R; Hettrich, Carolyn M

    2017-02-01

    Shoulder instability is a relatively common condition occurring in 2% of the population. PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System) was developed by the National Institutes of Health in an effort to advance patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments by developing question banks for major health domains. To compare PROMIS instruments to current PRO instruments in patients who would be undergoing operative intervention for recurrent shoulder instability. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. A total of 74 patients with a primary diagnosis of shoulder instability who would be undergoing surgery were asked to fill out the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder assessment form (ASES), Marx shoulder activity scale (Marx), Short Form-36 Health Survey Physical Function subscale (SF-36 PF), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), PROMIS physical function computer adaptive test (PF CAT), and PROMIS upper extremity item bank (UE). Correlation between PRO instruments was defined as excellent (>0.7), excellent-good (0.61-0.7), good (0.4-0.6), and poor (0.2-0.3). Utilization of the PROMIS UE demonstrated excellent correlation with the SF-36 PF ( r = 0.78, P < .01) and ASES ( r = 0.71, P < .01); there was excellent-good correlation with the EQ-5D ( r = 0.66, P < .01), WOSI ( r = 0.63, P < .01), and PROMIS PF CAT ( r = 0.63, P < .01). Utilization of the PROMIS PF CAT demonstrated excellent correlation with the SF-36 PF ( r = 0.72, P < .01); there was excellent-good correlation with the ASES ( r = 0.67, P < .01) and PROMIS UE ( r = 0.63, P < .01). When utilizing the PROMIS UE, ceiling effects were present in 28.6% of patients aged 18 to 21 years. Patients, on average, answered 4.6 ± 1.8 questions utilizing the PROMIS PF CAT. The PROMIS UE and PROMIS PF CAT demonstrated good to excellent correlation with common shoulder and upper extremity PRO instruments as well as the SF-36 PF in patients with shoulder instability. In patients

  11. Evaluation and treatment of failed shoulder instability procedures.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anthony G; Gowda, Ashok L; Michael Wiater, J

    2016-09-01

    Management of the unstable shoulder after a failed stabilization procedure can be difficult and challenging. Detailed understanding of the native shoulder anatomy, including its static and dynamic restraints, is necessary for determining the patient's primary pathology. In addition, evaluation of the patient's history, physical exam, and imaging is important for identifying the cause for failure after the initial procedure. Common mistakes include under-appreciation of bony defects, failure to recognize capsular laxity, technical errors, and missed associated pathology. Many potential treatment options exist for revision surgery, including open or arthroscopic Bankart repair, bony augmentation procedures, and management of Hill Sachs defects. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss in-depth the common risk factors for post-surgical failure, components for appropriate evaluation, and the different surgical options available for revision stabilization. Level of evidence Level V.

  12. Which is your choice for prolonging the analgesic duration of single-shot interscalene brachial blocks for arthroscopic shoulder surgery? intravenous dexamethasone 5 mg vs. perineural dexamethasone 5 mg randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chun, Eun Hee; Kim, Youn Jin; Woo, Jae Hee

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intravenous (I.V.) dexamethasone with that of perineural dexamethasone on the prolongation of analgesic duration of single-shot interscalene brachial plexus blocks (SISB) in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients undergoing elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery with ultrasound-guided SISB were enrolled and randomized into 2 groups. A total volume of 12 mL of the study drug was prepared with a final concentration of 0.5% ropivacaine. In the I.V. group, patients received SISB using ropivacaine 5 mg mL with normal saline (control) with dexamethasone 5 mg I.V. injection. In the perineural group, patients received SISB using ropivacaine 5 mg mL with dexamethasone 5 mg, with normal saline 1 mL I.V. injection. The primary outcome was the time to the first analgesic request, defined as the time between the end of the operation and the first request of analgesics by the patient. The secondary outcomes included patient satisfaction scores, side effects, and neurological symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups using a computer-generated randomization table. An anesthesiologist blinded to the group assignments prepared the solutions for injection. The patients and the investigator participating in the study were also blinded to the group assignments. One hundred patients were randomized. Data were analyzed for 99 patients. One case in the I.V. group was converted to open surgery and was therefore not included in the study. Perineural dexamethasone significantly prolonged analgesic duration (median, standard error: 1080 minutes, 117.5 minutes) compared with I.V. dexamethasone (810 minutes, 48.1 minutes) (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in side effects, neurological symptoms, or changes in blood glucose values between the 2 groups. Our results show that perineural

  13. Rasch analysis indicates that the Simple Shoulder Test is robust, but minor item modifications and attention to gender differences should be considered.

    PubMed

    Raman, Jayaprakash; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David; Athwal, George S

    Repeated cross-sectional study. Multiple studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) through traditional methods supporting it as valid and reliable. Since the evidentiary pool supporting the use of the SST has only partially addressed key measurement properties and the development of SST pre-dates the common use of Rasch model, validation of SST has become a necessity to establish as a reliable and valid PRO for shoulder conditions. To date, no study has analysed SST through Rasch, a modern method for analyzing properties of measurement tools. The purpose of this study was to perform a Rasch analysis of the SST to assess the overall fit to the Rasch model, individual item fit, gender-based DIF, local dependency of items and the unidimensionality of the scale. A secondary purpose was to determine the stability of fit to the Rasch model when captured pre-operatively or post-operatively. Patients completed SST before surgery and between 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Rasch analysis was performed to analyse the carious properties of SST through the Rasch model. SST appears to be robust when tested against the Rasch model. Rasch analysis has highlighted potential areas for to improve in the SST questionnaire. The potential areas to improve are to consider questions that measure the ability of a person to lift the arm above shoulder level and to consider gender differences when measuring the ability to carry weights with the affected arm. This study adds to previous body of empirical evidence arising classical measurement approaches that have suggested that the SST has robust measurement properties, by providing evidence of adequate fit to the Rasch model after minor adjustments. The results of this study should provide confidence to clinicians on SST who wish to use a brief shoulder-specific measure in their practice. The SST appears to be robust when tested against the Rasch model despite some potential areas for

  14. Knee, Shoulder, and Fundamentals of Arthroscopic Surgery Training: Validation of a Virtual Arthroscopy Simulator.

    PubMed

    Tofte, Josef N; Westerlind, Brian O; Martin, Kevin D; Guetschow, Brian L; Uribe-Echevarria, Bastián; Rungprai, Chamnanni; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2017-03-01

    To validate the knee, shoulder, and virtual Fundamentals of Arthroscopic Training (FAST) modules on a virtual arthroscopy simulator via correlations with arthroscopy case experience and postgraduate year. Orthopaedic residents and faculty from one institution performed a standardized sequence of knee, shoulder, and FAST modules to evaluate baseline arthroscopy skills. Total operation time, camera path length, and composite total score (metric derived from multiple simulator measurements) were compared with case experience and postgraduate level. Values reported are Pearson r; alpha = 0.05. 35 orthopaedic residents (6 per postgraduate year), 2 fellows, and 3 faculty members (2 sports, 1 foot and ankle), including 30 male and 5 female residents, were voluntarily enrolled March to June 2015. Knee: training year correlated significantly with year-averaged knee composite score, r = 0.92, P = .004, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84, 0.96; operation time, r = -0.92, P = .004, 95% CI = -0.96, -0.84; and camera path length, r = -0.97, P = .0004, 95% CI = -0.98, -0.93. Knee arthroscopy case experience correlated significantly with composite score, r = 0.58, P = .0008, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.77; operation time, r = -0.54, P = .002, 95% CI = -0.75, -0.22; and camera path length, r = -0.62, P = .0003, 95% CI = -0.8, -0.33. Shoulder: training year correlated strongly with average shoulder composite score, r = 0.90, P = .006, 95% CI = 0.81, 0.95; operation time, r = -0.94, P = .001, 95% CI = -0.97, -0.89; and camera path length, r = -0.89, P = .007, 95% CI = -0.95, -0.80. Shoulder arthroscopy case experience correlated significantly with average composite score, r = 0.52, P = .003, 95% CI = 0.2, 0.74; strongly with operation time, r = -0.62, P = .0002, 95% CI = -0.8, -0.33; and camera path length, r = -0.37, P = .044, 95% CI = -0.64, -0.01, by training year. FAST: training year correlated significantly with 3 combined FAST

  15. Suprascapular nerve anatomy during shoulder motion: a cadaveric proof of concept study with implications for neurogenic shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Massimini, Daniel F; Singh, Anshu; Wells, Jessica H; Li, Guoan; Warner, Jon J P

    2013-04-01

    The suprascapular nerve (SSN) carries sensory fibers which may contribute to shoulder pain. Prior anatomic study demonstrated that alteration in SSN course with simulated rotator cuff tendon (RCT) tears cause tethering and potential traction injury to the nerve at the suprascapular notch. Because the SSN has been implicated as a major source of pain with RCT tearing, it is critical to understand nerve anatomy during shoulder motion. We hypothesized that we could evaluate the SSN course with a novel technique to evaluate effects of simulated RCT tears, repair, and/or release of the nerve. The course of the SSN was tracked with a dual fluoroscopic imaging system in a cadaveric model with simulated rotator cuff muscle forces during dynamic shoulder motion. After a simulated full-thickness supraspinatus/infraspinatus tendon tear, the SSN translated medially 3.5 mm at the spinoglenoid notch compared to the anatomic SSN course. Anatomic footprint repair of these tendons restored the SSN course to normal. Open release of the transverse scapular ligament caused the SSN to move 2.5 mm superior-posterior out of the suprascapular notch. This pilot study demonstrated that the dynamic SSN course can be evaluated and may be altered by a RCT tear. Preliminary results suggest release of the transverse scapular ligament allowed the SSN to move upward out of the notch. This provides a biomechanical proof of concept that SSN traction neuropathy may occur with RCT tears and that release of the transverse scapular ligament may alleviate this by altering the course of the nerve. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relation between the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score and Muscle Strength in Post-Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Kasahara, Yusuke; Hiraki, Koji; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2017-11-27

    Background: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure. DASH can be assessed by self-reported upper extremity disability and symptoms. We aimed to examine the relationship between the physiological outcome of muscle strength and the DASH score after cardiac surgery. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 50 consecutive cardiac patients that were undergoing cardiac surgery. Physiological outcomes of handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength and the DASH score were measured at one month after cardiac surgery and were assessed. Results were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: The final analysis comprised 43 patients (men: 32, women: 11; age: 62.1 ± 9.1 years; body mass index: 22.1 ± 4.7 kg/m²; left ventricular ejection fraction: 53.5 ± 13.7%). Respective handgrip strength, knee extensor muscle strength, and DASH score were 27.4 ± 8.3 kgf, 1.6 ± 0.4 Nm/kg, and 13.3 ± 12.3, respectively. The DASH score correlated negatively with handgrip strength ( r = -0.38, p = 0.01) and with knee extensor muscle strength ( r = -0.32, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Physiological outcomes of both handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength correlated negatively with the DASH score. The DASH score appears to be a valuable tool with which to assess cardiac patients with poor physiological outcomes, particularly handgrip strength as a measure of upper extremity function, which is probably easier to follow over time than lower extremity function after patients complete cardiac rehabilitation.

  17. Relation between the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score and Muscle Strength in Post-Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Hiraki, Koji; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure. DASH can be assessed by self-reported upper extremity disability and symptoms. We aimed to examine the relationship between the physiological outcome of muscle strength and the DASH score after cardiac surgery. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 50 consecutive cardiac patients that were undergoing cardiac surgery. Physiological outcomes of handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength and the DASH score were measured at one month after cardiac surgery and were assessed. Results were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: The final analysis comprised 43 patients (men: 32, women: 11; age: 62.1 ± 9.1 years; body mass index: 22.1 ± 4.7 kg/m2; left ventricular ejection fraction: 53.5 ± 13.7%). Respective handgrip strength, knee extensor muscle strength, and DASH score were 27.4 ± 8.3 kgf, 1.6 ± 0.4 Nm/kg, and 13.3 ± 12.3, respectively. The DASH score correlated negatively with handgrip strength (r = −0.38, p = 0.01) and with knee extensor muscle strength (r = −0.32, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Physiological outcomes of both handgrip strength and knee extensor muscle strength correlated negatively with the DASH score. The DASH score appears to be a valuable tool with which to assess cardiac patients with poor physiological outcomes, particularly handgrip strength as a measure of upper extremity function, which is probably easier to follow over time than lower extremity function after patients complete cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:29186880

  18. Early arthroscopic release in stiff shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Kumar, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of early arthroscopic release in the patients of stiff shoulder Methods: Twenty patients of stiff shoulder, who had symptoms for at least three months and failed to improve with steroid injections and physical therapy of 6 weeks duration, underwent arthroscopic release. The average time between onset of symptoms and the time of surgery was 4 months and 2 weeks. The functional outcome was evaluated using ASES and Constant and Murley scoring systems. Results: All the patients showed significant improvement in the range of motion and relief of pain by end of three months following the procedure. At 12 months, mean improvement in ASES score is 38 points and Constant and Murley score is 4O.5 points. All patients returned to work by 3-5 months (average -4.5 months). Conclusion: Early arthroscopic release showed promising results with reliable increase in range of motion, early relief of symptoms and consequent early return to work. So it is highly recommended in properly selected patients. Level of evidence: Level IV PMID:20300309

  19. Classification of instability after reverse shoulder arthroplasty guides surgical management and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Adham; Otto, Randall J; Simon, Peter; Christmas, Kaitlyn N; Tanner, Gregory; LaMartina, Joey; Levy, Jonathan C; Cuff, Derek J; Mighell, Mark A; Frankle, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Revision of unstable reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) remains a significant challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of a new treatment-guiding classification for instability after RSA, to describe the clinical outcomes of patients stabilized operatively, and to identify those with higher risk of recurrence. All patients undergoing revision for instability after RSA were identified at our institution. Demographic, clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative data were collected. A classification was developed using all identified causes of instability after RSA and allocating them to 1 of 3 defined treatment-guiding categories. Eight surgeons reviewed all data and applied the classification scheme to each case. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability was used to evaluate the classification scheme. Preoperative clinical outcomes were compared with final follow-up in stabilized shoulders. Forty-three revision cases in 34 patients met the inclusion for study. Five patients remained unstable after revision. Persistent instability most commonly occurred in persistent deltoid dysfunction and postoperative acromial fractures but also in 1 case of soft tissue impingement. Twenty-one patients remained stable at minimum 2 years of follow-up and had significant improvement of clinical outcome scores and range of motion. Reliability of the classification scheme showed substantial and almost perfect interobserver and intraobserver agreement among all the participants (κ = 0.699 and κ = 0.851, respectively). Instability after RSA can be successfully treated with revision surgery using the reliable treatment-guiding classification scheme presented herein. However, more understanding is needed for patients with greater risk of recurrent instability after revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of glenosphere diameter and eccentricity on deltoid power in reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Scalise, J; Jaczynski, A; Jacofsky, M

    2016-02-01

    The eccentric glenosphere was principally introduced into reverse shoulder arthroplasty to reduce the incidence of scapular notching. There is only limited information about the influence of its design on deltoid power and joint reaction forces. The aim of our study was to investigate how the diameter and eccentricity of the glenosphere affect the biomechanics of the deltoid and the resultant joint reaction forces. Different sizes of glenosphere and eccentricity were serially tested in ten cadaveric shoulders using a custom shoulder movement simulator. Increasing the diameter of the glenosphere alone did not alter the deltoid moment arm. However, using an eccentric glenosphere increased the moment arm of the deltoid, lowered the joint reaction force and required less deltoid force to generate movement. Eccentricity is an independent variable which increases deltoid efficiency and lowers joint reaction forces in a reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:218-23. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Medical comorbidities and perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion are risk factors for surgical site infection after shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Everhart, Joshua S; Bishop, Julie Y; Barlow, Jonathan D

    2017-11-01

    Multiple perioperative factors have been implicated in infection risk after shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to determine surgical site infection (SSI) risk due to medical comorbidities or blood transfusion after primary or revision shoulder arthroplasty. Comprehensive data on medical comorbidities, surgical indication, perioperative transfusion, and SSI were obtained for 707 patients who underwent primary or revision hemiarthroplasty or total shoulder arthroplasty in a single hospital system. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to determine the independent association between allogeneic red blood cell transfusion, medical comorbidities, and SSI after controlling for procedure. The SSI rate was 1.9% for primary hemiarthroplasties and 1.3% for primary total shoulder arthroplasties. Among patients without prior shoulder infection, revision arthroplasty or prior open reduction and internal fixation had higher SSI risk than primary arthroplasties (incidence risk ratio [IRR], 11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.84-34.0; P < .001); among primary arthroplasties, SSI risk factors included male gender (IRR, 60.0; CI, 4.39-819; P = .002), rheumatoid arthritis (IRR, 8.63; CI, 1.84-40.4; P = .006), and long-term corticosteroid use (IRR, 37.4; CI, 5.79-242; P < .001). Perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion significantly increased SSI risk and was dose dependent (IRR, 1.68 per unit packed red blood cell; CI, 1.21-2.35; P = .002). Gender, rheumatoid arthritis, and long-term (>1 year) corticosteroid use affect SSI risk after shoulder arthroplasty. Revision surgery, particularly in the setting of prior infection, increased risk of future infection. Finally, allogeneic red blood cell transfusion increases SSI risk after shoulder arthroplasty in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of Central Pain Processing in Post-Operative Shoulder Pain and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Carolina; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark; Wu, Samuel S.; Wright, Thomas W.; Moser, Michael; Farmer, Kevin; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Measures of central pain processing like conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR) have been described to assess different components of central pain modulatory mechanisms. Central pain processing potentially play a role in the development of postsurgical pain, however, the role of CPM and SHPR in explaining postoperative clinical pain and disability is still unclear. Seventy eight patients with clinical shoulder pain were included in this study. Patients were examined before shoulder surgery, at 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The primary outcome measures were pain intensity and upper extremity disability. Analyses revealed that the change score (baseline – 3 months) of 5th pain rating of SHPR accounted for a significant amount of variance in 6 month postsurgical clinical pain intensity and disability after age, sex, preoperative pain intensity, and relevant psychological factors were considered. The present study suggests that baseline measures of central pain processing were not predictive of 6 month postoperative pain outcome. Instead, the 3 month change in SHPR might be a relevant factor in the transition to elevated 6-month postoperative pain and disability outcomes. In patients with shoulder pain, the 3 month change in a measure of central pain processing might be a relevant factor in the transition to elevated 6-month postoperative pain and disability scores. PMID:24042347

  3. Posterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Antosh, Ivan J.; Tokish, John M.; Owens, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Posterior shoulder instability has become more frequently recognized and treated as a unique subset of shoulder instability, especially in the military. Posterior shoulder pathology may be more difficult to accurately diagnose than its anterior counterpart, and commonly, patients present with complaints of pain rather than instability. “Posterior instability” may encompass both dislocation and subluxation, and the most common presentation is recurrent posterior subluxation. Arthroscopic and open treatment techniques have improved as understanding of posterior shoulder instability has evolved. Evidence Acquisition: Electronic databases including PubMed and MEDLINE were queried for articles relating to posterior shoulder instability. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: In low-demand patients, nonoperative treatment of posterior shoulder instability should be considered a first line of treatment and is typically successful. Conservative treatment, however, is commonly unsuccessful in active patients, such as military members. Those patients with persistent shoulder pain, instability, or functional limitations after a trial of conservative treatment may be considered surgical candidates. Arthroscopic posterior shoulder stabilization has demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes, high patient satisfaction, and low complication rates. Advanced techniques may be required in select cases to address bone loss, glenoid dysplasia, or revision. Conclusion: Posterior instability represents about 10% of shoulder instability and has become increasingly recognized and treated in military members. Nonoperative treatment is commonly unsuccessful in active patients, and surgical stabilization can be considered in patients who do not respond. Isolated posterior labral repairs constitute up to 24% of operatively treated labral repairs in a military population. Arthroscopic posterior stabilization is typically considered as first-line surgical

  4. Shoulder replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... the opening at the end of the shoulder blade, called the socket. This type of joint allows ... head. The socket part (glenoid) of your shoulder blade will be replaced with a smooth plastic shell ( ...

  5. Obesity Has Minimal Impact on Short-Term Functional Scores After Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty for Rotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Morris, Brent J; Haigler, Richard E; Cochran, John M; Laughlin, Mitzi S; Elkousy, Hussein A; Gartsman, Gary M; Edwards, T Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The potential adverse effect of body mass index (BMI) on shoulder function scores after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has not been investigated. We conducted a study to examine outcomes of RSA performed for rotator cuff tear arthropathy (RCTA) across BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, obese). We hypothesized that, compared with normal-weight patients, obese patients would have worse shoulder function scores, worse mobility, and more complications. Using a prospective shoulder arthroplasty registry, we identified 77 primary RSAs performed for RCTA with minimum 2-year follow-up. Thirty-four patients had normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m2), 21 were overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2), and 22 were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). Shoulder function scores, mobility, and satisfaction were evaluated before surgery and at final follow-up. The 3 BMI groups were not significantly different on demographic factors, preoperative shoulder function scores, or preoperative mobility (P > .05). For each group, shoulder function scores and mobility significantly improved between the preoperative and final follow-up assessments (P < .001). Patient satisfaction was similar between groups (P = .967). Improved shoulder function scores, mobility, and patient satisfaction can be expected after RSA for RCTA in patients regardless of BMI.

  6. How do deltoid muscle moment arms change after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Walker, David R; Struk, Aimee M; Matsuki, Keisuke; Wright, Thomas W; Banks, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Although many advantages of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) have been demonstrated, a variety of complications indicate there is much to learn about how RTSA modifies normal shoulder function. This study used a subject-specific computational model driven by in vivo kinematic data to assess how RTSA affects deltoid muscle moment arms after surgery. A subject-specific 12 degree-of-freedom musculoskeletal model was used to analyze the shoulders of 26 individuals (14 RTSA and 12 normal). The model was modified from the work of Holzbaur to directly input 6 degree-of-freedom humeral and scapular kinematics obtained using fluoroscopy. The moment arms of the anterior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the deltoid were significantly different when RTSA and normal cohorts were compared at different abduction angles. Anterior and lateral deltoid moment arms were significantly larger in the RTSA group at the initial elevation of the arm. The posterior deltoid was significantly larger at maximum elevation. There was large intersubject variability within the RTSA group. Placement of implant components during RTSA can directly affect the geometric relationship between the humerus and scapula and the muscle moment arms in the RTSA shoulder. RTSA shoulders maintain the same anterior and posterior deltoid muscle moment-arm patterns as healthy shoulders but show much greater intersubject variation and larger moment-arm magnitudes. These observations provide a basis for determining optimal implant configuration and surgical placement to maximize RTSA function in a patient-specific manner. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. [The problems of cataract surgery and intraocular correction: Russian school achievements and modern trends].

    PubMed

    Maliugin, B E; Linnik, L F; Egorova, E V; Kopaeva, V G; Tolchinskaia, A I

    2007-01-01

    The development of the safest and, at the same time, efficient methods of cataract surgery, is not only a topical task of medical science and practice, but also, taking the demographic situation into account, a solution to a social problem. The article describes the main achievements of academician S. N. Fyodorov's school in the field of cataract surgery with intraocular lense (IOL) implantation. Special attention is paid to the key components of cataract extraction technique named "small incision surgery", which is based upon the use of ultrasmall surgical approaches with self-sealing ability and no need for suturing. The main advantages and disadvantages of various types of cataract lense fragmentation, including ultrasound emulsification, mechanic and hydraulic fragmentation, and laser destruction, are described. Topical issues concerning cataract extraction technique under the conditions of complicating ophthalmopathology including the weakness of ciliary zonule system, high-degree myopia, glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative syndrome, small pupil, past injuries and eye surgery, are outlined. The paper also reflects a new qualitative step in the development of intraocular aphakia correction technique under modern conditions. Basic requirements to design parameters and IOL materials are determined from the position of reestablishing the accommodative function and fine visual functions. Ways of IOL design improvement are described especially for their application in non-standard and complicated cases.

  8. Stability of conditioned pain modulation in two musculoskeletal pain models: investigating the influence of shoulder pain intensity and gender

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several chronic pain populations have demonstrated decreased conditioned pain modulation (CPM). However there is still a need to investigate the stability of CPM paradigms before the measure can be recommended for implementation. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether shoulder pain intensity and gender influence CPM stability within and between sessions. Methods This study examined two different musculoskeletal pain models, clinical shoulder pain and an experimental model of shoulder pain induced with eccentric exercise in healthy participants. Patients in the clinical cohort (N = 134) were tested before surgery and reassessed 3 months post-surgery. The healthy cohort (N = 190) was examined before inducing pain at the shoulder, and 48 and 96 hours later. Results Our results provide evidence that 1) stability of inhibition is not related to changes in pain intensity, and 2) there are sex differences for CPM stability within and between days. Conclusions Fluctuation of pain intensity did not significantly influence CPM stability. Overall, the more stable situations for CPM were females from the clinical cohort and males from the healthy cohort. PMID:23758907

  9. Shoulder balance in Lenke type 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Should we fuse to the second thoracic vertebra?

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiliang; Im, Gi Hye; Hu, Bowen; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Chunguang; Liu, Limin; Song, Yueming

    2017-12-01

    There are many different systems recommending upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) for Lenke type 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), several of which suggest that all Lenke type 2 AIS patients should be fused to the second thoracic vertebra (T2). However, all previously proposed UIV selecting systems do not accurately predict postoperative shoulder balance. We investigated whether fusing to T2 could prevent postoperative shoulder imbalance and identified circumstances under which to fuse up to T2. We retrospectively collected all patients with typical Lenke type 2 AIS who received surgery by one spine surgeon in our hospital from 2010 to 2014. Lateral shoulder balance was assessed utilizing radiographic shoulder height difference (RSH), coracoid height difference (CHD), clavicle-rib intersection difference (CRID), and clavicle angle (CA). Medial shoulder balance was assessed by T1 tilt angle and first rib angle (FRA). Lateral shoulders were considered to be level if the absolute value of RSH was less than 10 millimeters. All patients were divided into two groups as follows: 1) T2 group: UIV of T2 (n=49); and 2) below-T2 group: UIV of T3 (n=24) or T4 (n=6). Patients were assessed before surgery and at final follow-up with a minimum follow-up duration of 24 months. Seventy-nine typical Lenke type 2 AIS patients were identified. Preoperative CHD and CA were significantly associated with postoperative lateral shoulder imbalance (both p=0.045), whereas the UIV level was not significantly associated with it. Both fusing to T2 and to below T2 could improve RSH (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). Fusing to T2 slightly worsened CHD, CRID, and CA at last follow-up (all p<0.001), while fusing to below T2 improved these lateral shoulder balance parameters (p=0.042, p<0.001, and p=0.007, respectively). For medial shoulder balance, fusing to below T2 worsened T1 tilt angle and FRA at last follow-up (p=0.025 and p<0.001, respectively), while fusing to T2 effectively kept

  10. Indications for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Drake, Gregory N; O'Connor, Daniel P; Edwards, T Bradley

    2010-06-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) was introduced to treat rotator cuff tear arthropathy but is now used to treat a variety of problems. Although its use has expanded substantially since the FDA's approval in 2004, the appropriateness in patients with rotator cuff disease is unclear. We review the use of RTSA in patients with rotator cuff disease to (1) describe classification of rotator cuff tear reparability and the concept of a balanced shoulder; (2) explore the theory behind RTSA design relative to rotator cuff arthropathy; (3) discuss the indications and contraindications for RTSA; and (4) review published outcomes of RTSA for rotator cuff arthropathy. We performed a selective review of the literature on the use of RTSA in the treatment of rotator cuff disease. Modern RTSA designs restore deltoid tension and a functional fulcrum to the rotator cuff deficient shoulder, which allows recovery of active shoulder elevation and effectively restores function in short- and medium-term followup studies. In short-term followup the RTSA relieves symptoms and restores function for patients with cuff tear arthropathy and irreparable rotator cuff tears with pseudoparalysis (preserved deltoid contraction but loss of active elevation). Severely impaired deltoid function, an isolated supraspinatus tear, and the presence of full active shoulder elevation with a massive rotator cuff tear and arthritis are contraindications to RTSA. For properly selected patients who have symptomatic and disabling rotator cuff deficiency, RTSA can result in life-changing improvements in pain, motion, function, and patient satisfaction. Level V therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Dose-dependency of dexamethasone on the analgesic effect of interscalene block for arthroscopic shoulder surgery using ropivacaine 0.5%: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Youn Jin; Kim, Dong Yeon; Cho, Sooyoung

    2015-09-01

    Dexamethasone prolongs the duration of single-shot interscalene brachial plexus block (SISB). However, dose-dependency of dexamethasone as an adjuvant for SISB remains insufficiently understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of different doses of dexamethasone on the duration of SISB using ropivacaine 0.5%. A randomised, double-blind controlled trial. Single university tertiary care centre. One hundred and forty-four patients scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery were allocated randomly to one of four groups. Patients received 12 ml of ropivacaine 0.5% in 0.9% saline (control group), or containing dexamethasone 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mg for SISB. The primary endpoint was the time to the first analgesic request. Pain scores and adverse effects were also assessed up to 48 h postoperatively. Inclusion of dexamethasone 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg resulted in significant (P < 0.001) increases in time to the first analgesic request by factors of 1.6, 2.2 and 1.8, respectively. The percentages of patients not requiring analgesics in the first 48 h postoperatively with dexamethasone 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg were 3, 22, 39 and 33%, respectively (P < 0.001). There were no significant effects on pain scores or incidences of adverse effects. Dexamethasone demonstrated significant beneficial dose-dependent effects on duration to the first analgesic request, the number of patients not requiring analgesics and analgesic use in the first 48 h after SISB for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. There were no significant effects on pain scores or incidences of adverse effects. the trial was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of Korea: https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/index.jsp. Identifier: KCT0001078.

  12. The "July effect" in total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rao, Allison J; Bohl, Daniel D; Frank, Rachel M; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Nicholson, Gregory P; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-03-01

    New medical doctors enter their residency fields in July, a time in the hospital in which patient morbidity and mortality rates are perceived to be higher. It remains controversial whether a "July effect" exists in different areas of medicine and surgery, including in orthopedic surgery. The purpose of this study is to test for the July effect in patients undergoing primary total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Patients who underwent primary TSA from 2005-2012 were identified using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Cases were categorized as involving residents or fellows and as occurring during the first academic quarter. Rates of composite and any adverse event outcomes were compared between patient groups using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1591 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these cases, 711 (44.7%) had resident or fellow involvement and 390 (24.5%) were performed in the first academic quarter. There were few demographic and comorbidity differences between cases with and without residents or fellows or between cases performed during the first quarter and during the rest of the year. Overall, the rate of serious adverse events was 1.6% and the rate of any adverse events was 6.5%. Using one of the largest cohorts of primary TSA patients, this study could not provide evidence for a July effect. In the context of the recent growth in the volume of TSA procedures, these findings provide important reassurance to patients that it is safe to schedule their elective procedures at training institutions during the first part of the academic year. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bony increased-offset reversed shoulder arthroplasty: minimizing scapular impingement while maximizing glenoid fixation.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Pascal; Moineau, Grégory; Roussanne, Yannick; O'Shea, Kieran

    2011-09-01

    Scapular notching, prosthetic instability, limited shoulder rotation and loss of shoulder contour are associated with conventional medialized design reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Prosthetic (ie, metallic) lateralization increases torque at the baseplate-glenoid interface potentially leading to failure. We asked whether bony lateralization of reverse shoulder arthroplasty would avoid the problems caused by humeral medialization without increasing torque or shear force applied to the glenoid component. We prospectively followed 42 patients with rotator cuff deficiency treated with bony increased-offset reverse shoulder arthroplasty. A cylinder of autologous cancellous bone graft, harvested from the humeral head, was placed between the reamed glenoid surface and baseplate. Graft and baseplate fixation was achieved using a lengthened central peg (25 mm) and four screws. Patients underwent clinical, radiographic, and CT assessment at a minimum of 2 years after surgery. The humeral graft incorporated completely in 98% of cases (41 of 42) and partially in one. At a mean of 28 months postoperatively, no graft resorption, glenoid loosening, or postoperative instability was observed. Inferior scapular notching occurred in 19% (eight of 42). The absolute Constant-Murley score improved from 31 to 67. Thirty-six patients (86%) were able to internally rotate sufficiently to reach their back over the sacrum. Grafting of the glenoid surface during reverse shoulder arthroplasty effectively creates a long-necked scapula, providing the benefits of lateralization. Bony increased-offset reverse shoulder arthroplasty is associated with low rates of inferior scapular notching, improved shoulder rotation, no prosthetic instability and improved shoulder contour. In contrast to metallic lateralization, bony lateralization has the advantage of maintaining the prosthetic center of rotation at the prosthesis-bone interface, thus minimizing torque on the glenoid component. Level IV

  14. Key textbooks in the development of modern american plastic surgery: the first half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Nicholas T; McCarthy, Joseph G

    2013-07-01

    A number of historical texts published during the first half of the twentieth century played a pivotal role in shaping and defining modern plastic surgery in the United States. Blair's Surgery and Diseases of the Mouth and Jaws (1912), John Staige Davis's Plastic Surgery: Its Principles and Practice (1919), Gillies's Plastic Surgery of the Face (1920), Fomon's Surgery of Injury and Plastic Repair (1939), Ivy's Manual of Standard Practice of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Military Surgery Manuals (1943), Padgett and Stephenson's Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (1948), and Kazanjian and Converse's The Surgical Treatment of Facial Injuries (1949) were reviewed. These texts were published at a time when plastic surgery was developing as a distinct specialty. Each work represents a different point in this evolution. All were not inclusive of all of plastic surgery, but all had a lasting impact. Four texts were based on clinical experience from World War I; one included experience from World War II; and two included experience from both. One text became a military surgical handbook in World Wars I and II, playing an important role in care for the wounded. History has demonstrated that times of war spark medical/surgical advancements, and these wars had a dramatic impact on the development of reconstructive plastic surgery. Each of these texts documented surgical advancements and provided an intellectual platform that helped shape and create the independent discipline of plastic surgery during peacetime. For many future leaders of plastic surgery, these books served as their introduction to this new field.

  15. The impact on post-operative shoulder function of intraoperative nerve monitoring of cranial nerve XI during modified radical neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Lanišnik, Boštjan; Žitnik, Lidija; Levart, Primož; Žargi, Miha; Rodi, Zoran

    2016-12-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of the cranial nerve XI (CN XI) may decrease shoulder disability following modified radical neck dissection. Prospective study was designed comparing results of Constant Shoulder Score (CSS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and EMG score of the trapezius muscle (mT) before and after surgery. One side of the neck was monitored during surgery with intraoperative nerve monitor. EMG scores of the mT 6 months postoperatively were statistically better on monitored as compared to the non-monitored side of the neck (p = 0.041), while the differences of the CSS and SPADI were not statistically significant. Patients with better EMG scores of the mT at 6 weeks recuperated better and with smaller decrease of the CSS. Intraoperative monitoring is beneficial at the beginning of the surgeon's learning curve and in the process of familiarizing with anatomical variation of the CN XI.

  16. CT arthrography of capsular structures of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Rafii, M; Firooznia, H; Golimbu, C; Minkoff, J; Bonamo, J

    1986-02-01

    The capsular mechanism of the shoulder joint consists of the joint capsule, which is strengthened by the glenohumeral ligaments and the rotator cuff, the glenoid labrum, and a variable number of synovial recesses. Although the fibrous capsule is a lax structure, the normal function of the capsular mechanism makes it an effective barrier against anterior dislocation, particularly in external rotation. There has been a tendency in the past to overestimate the role of the glenoid labrum in stability of the shoulder joint. In patients with instability, the significance of the capsular attachment or its anomalous insertions to the glenoid has not been adequately recognized. Labral tears may develop as secondary lesions due to repeated dislocations and subluxations rather than representing the primary lesion responsible for instability. Operative visualization of capsular defects or detachments is often difficult. Prior knowledge of these lesions can effectively help the choice of an appropriate surgical procedure and reduce operating time. The results of computed tomographic (CT) arthrography of the shoulder joint in 45 patients are reported and the normal and pathologic variations of the joint capsule and particularly the capsular insertions are described. Configuration of the joint recesses and the glenoid labrum are also evaluated. These CT findings were correlated and verified by surgery or arthroscopy in 26 cases.

  17. Shouldering the load, maximising value.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    In mid-November last year Ryhurst signed what it dubbed 'a ground-breaking strategic estates partnership' agreement with the Isle of Wight NHS Trust (HEJ - January 2015). Under the Wight Life Partnership, the two organisations will work in partnership 'to comprehensively review the estate across all the Trust's sites to ensure that buildings and grounds are being fully utilised, and suitable for modern healthcare'. This is Ryhurst's third such 'whole estate' joint-venture agreement with the NHS, and the first with a non-Foundation Trust, harnessing an approach that sees the company shoulder a considerable part of the burden of making optimum use of, and deriving 'maximum value' from, large healthcare estates. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports.

  18. A retrospective study to reveal factors associated with postoperative shoulder imbalance in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with double thoracic curve.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Sung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lim, Eic Ju; Lee, Dong-Ho; Cho, Jae Hwan

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Postoperative shoulder imbalance (PSI) is a critical consideration after corrective surgery for a double thoracic curve (Lenke Type 2); however, the radiographic factors related to PSI remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the radiographic factors related to PSI after corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in patients with a double thoracic curve. METHODS This study included 80 patients with Lenke Type 2 AIS who underwent corrective surgery. Patients were grouped according to the presence [PSI(+)] or absence [PSI(-)] of shoulder imbalance at the final follow-up examination (differences of 20, 15, and 10 mm were used). Various radiographic parameters, including the Cobb angle of the proximal and middle thoracic curves (PTC and MTC), radiographic shoulder height (RSH), clavicle angle, T-1 tilt, trunk shift, and proximal and distal wedge angles (PWA and DWA), were assessed before and after surgery and compared between groups. RESULTS Overall, postoperative RSH decreased with time in the PSI(-) group but not in the PSI(+) group. Statistical analyses revealed that the preoperative Risser grade (p = 0.048), postoperative PWA (p = 0.028), and postoperative PTC/MTC ratio (p = 0.011) correlated with PSI. Presence of the adding-on phenomenon was also correlated with PSI, although this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.089). CONCLUSIONS Postoperative shoulder imbalance is common after corrective surgery for Lenke Type 2 AIS and correlates with a higher Risser grade, a larger postoperative PWA, and a higher postoperative PTC/MTC ratio. Presence of the distal adding-on phenomenon is associated with an increased PSI trend, although this result was not statistically significant. However, preoperative factors other than the Risser grade that affect the development of PSI were not identified by the study. Additional studies are required to reveal the risk factors for the development of PSI.

  19. Effects of hand grip exercise on shoulder joint internal rotation and external rotation peak torque.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Rour; Jong-Soon Kim, Laurentius

    2016-08-10

    The goal of this study is to analyze the effects of hand grip training on shoulder joint internal rotation (IR)/external rotation (ER) peak torque for healthy people. The research was conducted on 23 healthy adults in their 20 s-30 s who volunteered to participate in the experiment. Hand grip power test was performed on both hands of the research subjects before/after the test to study changes in hand grip power. Isokinetic machine was used to measure the concentric IRPT (internal rotation peak torque) and concentric ERPT (external rotation peak torque) at the velocity of 60°/sec, 90°/sec, and 180°/sec before/after the test. Hand grip training was performed daily on the subject's right hand only for four weeks according to exercise program. Finally, hand grip power of both hands and the maximum torque values of shoulder joint IR/ER were measured before/after the test and analyzed. There was a statistically significant difference in the hand grip power of the right hand, which was subject to hand grip training, after the experiment. Also, statistically significant difference for shoulder ERPT was found at 60°/sec. Hand grip training has a positive effect on shoulder joint IRPT/ERPT and therefore can help strengthen muscles around the shoulder without using weight on the shoulder. Consequently, hand grip training would help maintain strengthen the muscles around the shoulder in the early phase of rehabilitation process after shoulder surgery.

  20. Evaluation of safety effectiveness of composite shoulders, wide unpaved shoulders, and wide paved shoulders in Kansas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    Incremental increases in paved shoulder widths have been studied and are shown in the Highway Safety Manual. While : each incremental increase in shoulder width is beneficial, there is evidence that suggests the relationship between safety : improvem...

  1. Shoulder arthroscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... you very sleepy during the operation. During the procedure, the surgeon: Inserts the arthroscope into your shoulder through a small incision. The scope is connected to a video monitor in the operating room. Inspects all the tissues of your shoulder ...

  2. Periprosthetic shoulder infection in the United States: incidence and economic burden.

    PubMed

    Padegimas, Eric M; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Ramsey, Matthew L; Williams, Gerald R; Parvizi, Javad; Namdari, Surena

    2015-05-01

    Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shoulder dislocation in patients older than 60 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Rapariz, Jose M.; Martin-Martin, Silvia; Pareja-Bezares, Antonio; Ortega-Klein, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation in elderly patients is a little studied condition. The goal of this paper is to clarify the role of associated injuries with respect to loss of function and recurrence of dislocation. Materials and Methods: We have conducted a retrospective, descriptive study on 29 patients older than 60 years at the moment they suffered their first dislocation episode. All patients were assessed clinically (Constant test) and by imaging testing (X-ray, MRI). Results: Nine (31.03%) out of 29 patients had a recurrent dislocation. Four of them required reconstructive surgery to maintain joint stability. Injury to the anterior support (anterior labrum, anterior glenoid rim) showed a statistically significant relation to the recurrence of dislocations. The occurrence or non-occurrence of a rotator cuff tear does have an impact on the shoulder function. The degree of rotator cuff involvement on the coronal plane does not significantly affect the shoulder’s functional outcome. The tear extension on the sagittal plane does cause impairment on the Constant test. Conclusions: Labrum and/or anterior glenoid involvement should be suspected in elderly patients presenting with recurrent shoulder dislocation. Recurrence is due to an injury in the anterior support or both (anterior and posterior), even though shoulder function gets impaired when a rotation cuff tear occurs with anterior extension on the sagittal plane. Evidence level: IV Case series. PMID:21655003

  4. Acute Effects of Posture Shirts on Rounded-Shoulder and Forward-Head Posture in College Students.

    PubMed

    Manor, John; Hibberd, Elizabeth; Petschauer, Meredith; Myers, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture can be contributing factors to shoulder pain. Corrective techniques such as manual therapy and exercise have been shown to improve these altered postures, but there is little evidence that corrective garments such as posture shirts can alter posture. To determine the acute effects of corrective postureshirt use on rounded-shoulder and forward-head posture in asymptomatic college students. Repeated-measures intervention study with counterbalanced conditions. Research laboratory. 24 members of the general student body of a university, 18-25 y old, with a forward shoulder angle (FSA) >52° and no history of upper-extremity surgery, scoliosis, active shoulder pain, or shoulder pain in the previous 3 mo that restricted participation for 3 consecutive days. Photographic posture assessment under a control condition, under a sham or treatment condition (counterbalanced), under another control condition, and treatment or sham. FSA and forward head angle (FHA) calculated from a lateral photograph. FSA decreased relative to the control condition while participants wore the sham shirt (P = .029) but not the corrective posture shirt (P = 1.00). FHA was unchanged between groups (P = .371). Application of a corrective posture shirt did not acutely alter FSA or FHA, while application of a sham shirt may decrease FSA at rest.

  5. Ice hockey shoulder pad design and the effect on head response during shoulder-to-head impacts.

    PubMed

    Richards, Darrin; Ivarsson, B Johan; Scher, Irving; Hoover, Ryan; Rodowicz, Kathleen; Cripton, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Ice hockey body checks involving direct shoulder-to-head contact frequently result in head injury. In the current study, we examined the effect of shoulder pad style on the likelihood of head injury from a shoulder-to-head check. Shoulder-to-head body checks were simulated by swinging a modified Hybrid-III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) with and without shoulder pads into a stationary Hybrid-III ATD at 21 km/h. Tests were conducted with three different styles of shoulder pads (traditional, integrated and tethered) and without shoulder pads for the purpose of control. Head response kinematics for the stationary ATD were measured. Compared to the case of no shoulder pads, the three different pad styles significantly (p < 0.05) reduced peak resultant linear head accelerations of the stationary ATD by 35-56%. The integrated shoulder pads reduced linear head accelerations by an additional 18-21% beyond the other two styles of shoulder pads. The data presented here suggest that shoulder pads can be designed to help protect the head of the struck player in a shoulder-to-head check.

  6. Correlation of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and total rotational motion to shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Leonard C; Fleisig, Glenn S; Porterfield, Ronald; Simpson, Charles D; Harker, Paul; Paparesta, Nick; Andrews, James R

    2011-02-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) indicates a 20° or greater loss of internal rotation of the throwing shoulder compared with the nondominant shoulder. To determine whether GIRD and a deficit in total rotational motion (external rotation + internal rotation) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder correlate with shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Over 3 competitive seasons (2005 to 2007), passive range of motion measurements were evaluated on the dominant and nondominant shoulders for 170 pitcher-seasons. This included 122 professional pitchers during the 3 seasons of data collection, in which some pitchers were measured during multiple seasons. Ranges of motion were measured with a bubble goniometer during the preseason, by the same examiner each year. External and internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint was assessed with the participant supine and the arm abducted 90° in the plane of the scapula, with the scapula stabilized anteriorly at the coracoid process. The reproducibility of the test methods had an intraclass correlation coefficient of .81. Days in which the player was unable to participate because of injury or surgery were recorded during the season by the medical staff of the team and defined as an injury. Pitchers with GIRD (n = 40) were nearly twice as likely to be injured as those without but without statistical significance (P = .17). Pitchers with total rotational motion deficit greater than 5° had a higher rate of injury. Minor league pitchers were more likely than major league pitchers to be injured. However, when players were injured, major league pitchers missed a significantly greater number of games than minor league pitchers. Compared with pitchers without GIRD, pitchers with GIRD appear to be at a higher risk for injury and shoulder surgery.

  7. High Satisfaction and Return to Sports After Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in Patients Aged 55 Years and Younger.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Sinatro, Alec; Wu, Hao-Hua; Dines, Joshua S; Warren, Russell F; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2017-06-01

    Young, active candidates for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are a unique group of patients. Not only do they demand longevity and improved function, but they also desire a return to physical activities. To determine the rate of return to sports in patients aged ≤55 years undergoing TSA. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent anatomic TSA at a single institution. Exclusion criteria included age at the time of surgery >55 years and <2 years of follow-up. All patients had end-stage osteoarthritis with significant glenohumeral joint space narrowing. The final follow-up consisted of a patient-reported sports questionnaire, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and visual analog scale (VAS) score. From 70 eligible patients, 59 patients (61 shoulders) were included with an average follow-up of 61.0 months (range, 25-103 months) and average age at the time of surgery of 48.9 years (range, 25-55 years). The average VAS score improved from 5.6 to 0.9 ( P < .001), and the average ASES score improved from 39.3 to 88.4 ( P < .001). Forty-nine procedures (80.3%) were performed for a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Four shoulders returned to the operating room; none were for glenoid loosening. There was a 93.2% satisfaction rate, and 67.7% of patients (n = 40) stated that they underwent their surgery to return to sports. Moreover, patients in 96.4% of shoulders (55/57) restarted at least 1 sport at an average of 6.7 months. Direct rates of return were as follows: fitness sports (97.2%), golf (93.3%), singles tennis (87.5%), swimming (77.7%), basketball (75.0%), and flag football (66.7%). Patients in 47 shoulders (82.4%) returned to a similar or higher level of sports; 90.3% returned to high-demand sports, and 83.8% returned to high upper extremity sports. There was no significant difference in rates of return to sports by body mass index, sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, revision status, and

  8. Scapular kinematic and shoulder muscle activity alterations after serratus anterior muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Jun; Kusano, Ken; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Nishishita, Satoru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Shimizu, Itsuroh; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2018-02-23

    Although the serratus anterior muscle has an important role in scapular movement, no study to date has investigated the effect of serratus anterior fatigue on scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of serratus anterior fatigue on scapular movement and shoulder muscle activity. The study participants were 16 healthy men. Electrical muscle stimulation was used to fatigue the serratus anterior muscle. Shoulder muscle strength and endurance, scapular movement, and muscle activity were measured before and after the fatigue task. The muscle activity of the serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius, anterior and middle deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles was recorded, and the median power frequency of these muscles was calculated to examine the degree of muscle fatigue. The muscle endurance and median power frequency of the serratus anterior muscle decreased after the fatigue tasks, whereas the muscle activities of the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, and infraspinatus muscles increased. External rotation of the scapula at the shoulder elevated position increased after the fatigue task. Selective serratus anterior fatigue due to electric muscle stimulation decreased the serratus anterior endurance at the flexed shoulder position. Furthermore, the muscle activities of the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, and infraspinatus increased and the scapular external rotation was greater after serratus anterior fatigue. These results suggest that the rotator cuff and scapular muscle compensated to avoid the increase in internal rotation of the scapula caused by the dysfunction of the serratus anterior muscle. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Surgical treatment of anterior shoulder instability in rugby players: clinical and radiographic results with minimum five-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Bonnevialle, N; Mansat, P; Bellumore, Y; Mansat, M; Bonnevialle, P

    2008-11-01

    In rugby players, 9 to 11% of injuries involve shoulder trauma. Anterior dislocation is one of the most severe accidents affecting the upper limb; recurrent dislocation, observed in more than 60%, appears to be related to the characteristic mechanism of injury in this sport (tackling). Surgical treatment for this instability is a bone block or capsulolabral repair. The purpose of this work was to evaluate outcome with minimum five-years follow-up after treatment by selective capsule repair in a homogeneous series of rugby players. Between 1995 and 2001, 31 rugby players were reviewed at mean 82 months (range: 60 to 120 months) follow-up. Sixty-one percent were regional-level players. A tackle was involved in the instability accidents for half of the players. Age at surgery was 21 years (range: 16 to 34), on average 4.44 years (range: 2 to 20) after the instability accident. Signs of capsule hyperlaxity were noted in 16 shoulders (46%). Dislocation was noted in 27 shoulders, subluxation in five. Chronic pain and instability were noted for three shoulders. Disinsertion of the anteroinferior labrum was noted in 23 shoulders (65%) and was repaired with two, three or four anchors. Isolated capsule distension was observed in twelve shoulders. Neer capsuloplasty was performed on 33 shoulders, with complementary labral reinsertion for 21 of them. Ninety-seven percent of the patients were playing rugby again after surgery, the longest delay being one year after the operation. A new episode of instability after major trauma was observed in six shoulders (17%), on average 3.8 years (range: 0.5 to 6) after the operation. Isolated capsule repair had the poorest prognosis (p=0.04). Compared with the contralateral side, external rotation decreased on average 6.2 degrees (elbow to chest) and 3.4 degrees at 90 degrees abduction. Subscapular muscle force decreased on average 2.05 kg. The Rowe and Duplay-Walch scores were good or excellent for 86% and 80% of shoulders, respectively

  10. Restoration of shoulder motion using single- versus dual-nerve repair in obstetrical brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Alain Joe; AlNaeem, Hassan; Aubin-Lemay, Camille; Kvann, Julie Chakriya; Alam, Peter; Retrouvey, Helene; Aldekhayel, Salah; Zadeh, Teanoosh

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder abduction and external rotation (ER) after single-nerve repair of the upper trunk alone versus dual-nerve repair of both the upper trunk and the suprascapular nerve. METHODS A retrospective chart review of a single surgeon's experience repairing obstetrical brachial plexus injuries between June 1995 and June 2015 was performed. Eight patients underwent repair of the upper trunk alone, and 10 patients underwent repair of the upper trunk and the suprascapular nerve. Shoulder abduction and ER ranges of motion (ROMs) (in degrees) were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Postoperative ROM and the difference in ROM gained after surgery were compared by independent t-test analysis. RESULTS The mean follow-up time was 161.4 weeks (range 62-514 weeks, SD 124.0 weeks). The mean patient age at the time of surgery was 31.3 weeks (range 19.9-47.0 weeks, SD 6.9 weeks). The mean postoperative shoulder abduction ROMs were 145.0° (range 85°-180°, SD 39.4°) after single-nerve repair and 134.0° (range 90°-180°, SD 30.3°) after dual-nerve repair (p = 0.51). The mean postoperative shoulder ER ROMs were 67.5° (range 10°-95°, SD 28.8°) after single-nerve repair and 72.0° (range 10°-95°, SD 31.3°) after dual-nerve repair (p = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS The authors found no difference in shoulder abduction and ER between patients who underwent single-nerve repair of the upper trunk alone and those who underwent dual-nerve repair of both the upper trunk and the suprascapular nerve.

  11. Comprehensive Shoulder US Examination: A Standardized Approach with Multimodality Correlation for Common Shoulder Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Scott E.; Orwin, John F.; Lee, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions encountered in primary care and specialty orthopedic clinic settings. Although magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is typically the modality of choice for evaluating the soft-tissue structures of the shoulder, ultrasonography (US) is becoming an important complementary imaging tool in the evaluation of superficial soft-tissue structures such as the rotator cuff, subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, and biceps tendon. The advantages of US driving its recent increased use include low cost, accessibility, and capability for real-time high-resolution imaging that enables dynamic assessment and needle guidance. As more radiologists are considering incorporating shoulder US into their practices, the development of a standardized approach to performing shoulder US should be a priority to facilitate the delivery of high-quality patient care. Familiarity with and comfort in performing a standardized shoulder US examination, as well as knowledge of the types of anomalies that can be evaluated well with US, will enhance the expertise of those working in musculoskeletal radiology practices and add value in the form of increased patient and health care provider satisfaction. This review describes the utility and benefits of shoulder US as a tool that complements MR imaging in the assessment of shoulder pain. A standardized approach to the shoulder US examination is also described, with a review of the basic technique of this examination, normal anatomy of the shoulder, common indications for shoulder US, and characteristic US findings of common shoulder diseases—with select MR imaging and arthroscopic correlation. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2016 PMID:27726738

  12. Incidence of and risk factors for traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation: an epidemiologic study in high-school rugby players.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Maki, Nobukazu; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of reinjuries due to glenohumeral instability and the major risk factors for primary anterior shoulder dislocation in youth rugby players have been unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, mechanisms, and intrinsic risk factors of shoulder dislocation in elite high-school rugby union teams during the 2012 season. A total of 378 male rugby players from 7 high-school teams were investigated by use of self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of shoulder dislocation was 14.8%, and there were 21 events of primary shoulder dislocation of the 74 overall shoulder injuries that were sustained during the season (3.2 events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). During the season, 54.3% of the shoulders with at least one episode of shoulder dislocation had reinjury. This study also indicated that the persistence of glenohumeral instability might affect the player's self-assessed condition, regardless of the incidence during the current season. By a multivariate logistic regression method, a history of shoulder dislocation on the opposite side before the season was found to be a risk factor for contralateral primary shoulder dislocation (odds ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.97; P = .02). High-school rugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation are not playing at full capacity and also have a significant rate of reinjury as well as a high risk of dislocating the other shoulder. These findings may be helpful in deciding on the proper treatment of primary anterior shoulder dislocation in young rugby players. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electromyographical Comparison of Four Common Shoulder Exercises in Unstable and Stable Shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Aaron; Kuschinsky, Nina; Nitz, Arthur J.; Mair, Scott D.; Uhl, Tim L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines if electromyographic (EMG) amplitude differences exist between patients with shoulder instability and healthy controls performing scaption, prone horizontal abduction, prone external rotation, and push-up plus shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Thirty nine subjects were categorized by a single orthopedic surgeon as having multidirectional instability (n = 10), anterior instability (n = 9), generalized laxity (n = 10), or a healthy shoulder (n = 10). Indwelling and surface electrodes were utilized to measure EMG activity (reported as a % of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)) in various shoulder muscles during 4 common shoulder exercises. The exercises studied effectively activated the primary musculature targeted in each exercise equally among all groups. The serratus anterior generated high activity (50–80% MVIC) during a push-up plus, while the infraspinatus and teres major generated moderate-to-high activity (30–80% MVIC) during both the prone horizontal and prone external rotation exercises. Scaption exercise generated moderate activity (20–50% MVIC) in both rotator cuff and scapular musculature. Clinicians should feel confident in prescribing these shoulder-strengthening exercises in patients with shoulder instability as the activation levels are comparable to previous findings regarding EMG amplitudes and should improve the dynamic stabilization capability of both rotator cuff and scapular muscles using exercises designed to address glenohumeral joint instability. PMID:22919499

  14. Review of paved shoulders.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to review the literature on paved shoulders, (2) to survey state departments of transportation on their use of paved shoulders on two laneroads, (3) to perform a cost analysis on paved shoulders, and (4) to draw ...

  15. Sternoclavicular joint palpation pain: the shoulder's Waddell sign?

    PubMed

    Ponce, Brent A; Archie, Adam T; Watson, Shawna L; Hudson, Parke W; Menendez, Mariano E; McGwin, Gerald; Brabston, Eugene W

    2018-07-01

    who denied pain on palpation, indicating that a portion of their pain was stemming from a nonorganic source. Inclusion of SCJ palpation during a routine shoulder or upper extremity physical examination may improve selection of treatment options for patients. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The natural course of shoulder instability and treatment trends: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eljabu, W; Klinger, H M; von Knoch, M

    2017-03-01

    The natural course of shoulder instability is still not entirely clear. We aimed in this review to analyse the current scientific evidence of the natural history of shoulder instability. A systematic review of the English literature was performed using the PubMED database throughout January 2014. This review was guided, conducted and reported according to PRISMA criteria. The criteria for inclusion in the study were (1) the article was written in English, (2) the level of evidence was 1-4, (3) the article was available in full text, (4) the article investigated the natural history or course of shoulder instability, the outcome of non-operative management, or the regression of the shoulder symptoms to the mean. The methodological quality of each included study was individually assessed using a newly developed general assessment tool-Assessing the Methodological Quality of Published Papers (AMQPP). Eight articles related to shoulder instability met the inclusion criteria. Four papers were considered high-quality studies (evidence level 1 and 2). One paper assessed the natural history and the natural course of shoulder instability directly. The other studies indirectly assessed the natural history by studying non-operative and operative therapy trends. We found no articles which clearly referred to the role of 'regression to the mean'. Following the natural history and the implementation of standardised non-operative treatment programmes are an effective therapy and superior to surgery in many cases. However, primary acute shoulder dislocation in young active individuals partaking in demanding physical activities could benefit from early surgical intervention. The AMQPP score works as a quick quality-checking tool which helps researchers to identify the key points in each paper and reach a decision regarding the eligibility of the paper more easily. The AMQPP scoring system is still open for further development and expansion. Level of evidence Level IV.

  17. Avoiding superior tilt in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a review of the literature and technical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Laver, Lior; Garrigues, Grant E

    2014-10-01

    Superior tilt of the baseplate component in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty leads to tensile baseplate forces and may be a contributor to early loosening. The risk factors for this implant malposition include inadequate exposure through a superior approach and superior glenoid bone deficiency that obscures the native glenoid tilt. Here we review our preoperative evaluation and surgical management strategies to avoid superior tilt. Adequate exposure with a superior approach can be achieved but requires not just proper surgical technique but also careful patient selection. We propose that the superior approach be considered only for acute proximal humerus fractures or in patients when the following criteria are met: no prior open surgery on the shoulder; more than 30° of passive external rotation at 0° of abduction; no medial humeral osteophytes; and any superior migration must be reducible with a sulcus test during examination under anesthesia. Avoiding superior tilt when there is significant superior glenoid erosion can be accomplished with humeral head autograft, most easily performed through a deltopectoral approach. Preoperative templating is critical to determine proper graft thickness, inclination, reaming depth, and harvest technique. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Return to Play Following Anterior Shoulder Dislocation and Stabilization Surgery.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Michael A; Owens, Brett D; Dickens, Jonathan F

    2016-10-01

    Anterior shoulder instability in athletes may lead to time lost from participation and decreases in level of play. Contact, collision, and overhead athletes are at a higher risk than others. Athletes may successfully be returned to play but operative stabilization should be considered for long-term treatment of recurrent instability. Open and arthroscopic stabilization procedures for athletes with less than 20% to 25% bone loss improve return to play rates and decrease recurrent instability, with a slightly lower recurrence with open stabilization. For athletes with greater than 20% to 25% bone loss, an open osseous augmentation procedure should be considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Outpatient Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Tyler J; Throckmorton, Thomas W

    2018-01-01

    Health care policy makers have placed increased attention on the cost of health care making outpatient joint arthroplasty an attractive alternative to routine hospital admission. Recent studies have shown outpatient shoulder arthroplasty is a safe and cost-effective alternative to inpatient shoulder arthroplasty. Proper patient selection, patient education, effective pain management strategies, and attention to intraoperative blood loss are keys in the success of outpatient shoulder arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shoulder Problems in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancy, William G., Jr.

    A description is given of typical sport-related injuries to the shoulder area. These include: (1) brachial plexus injuries; (2) peripheral nerve injuries about the shoulder; (3) acromioclavicular injuries; (4) sternoclavicular injuries; (5) shoulder dislocations; (6) recurrent traumatic subluxation/dislocations; and (7) overuse injuries.…

  1. Influence of Bony Defects on Preoperative Shoulder Function in Recurrent Anteroinferior Shoulder Instability.

    PubMed

    Wolke, Julia; Herrmann, Diem Anh; Krannich, Alexander; Scheibel, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Recurrent anteroinferior shoulder dislocations are often associated with bony glenoid and humeral defects. The influence of those bony lesions on the postoperative outcomes after arthroscopic shoulder stabilization procedures has been the subject of many studies. Little is known about the influence of those lesions on preoperative function. To evaluate the influence of glenoid and humeral bony defects on preoperative shoulder function in recurrent anteroinferior shoulder instability. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in the study were 90 patients (70 men, 20 women; mean age, 27.1 years; 24 patients with prior failed stabilization) with posttraumatic recurrent anteroinferior shoulder instability who underwent preoperative computed tomography (CT) of both shoulders. The glenoid index was used to measure glenoid defect on a 3-dimensional CT. Humeral head defect was measured on a 2-dimensional CT with evaluation of the Hill-Sachs quotient, product, sum, and difference. Preoperative evaluation also included the Rowe score, Constant score, Walch-Duplay score, Melbourne Instability Shoulder Score (MISS), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), and Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). There was a weak but significant correlation of the Hill-Sachs quotient and the glenoid index with the Rowe score (P = .03, r = -0.22 and P = .03, r = 0.23, respectively). Furthermore, the Hill-Sachs product significantly correlated with the WOSI (P = .02); in particular, the physical symptoms subscore showed a significant correlation (P = .04). The glenoid index showed a significant correlation with the SSV (P < .01). No significant correlation was found between the Walch-Duplay score, Constant score, or MISS and bony defects. The results of this study show that objective and subjective scoring systems correlate significantly with the clinical condition of patients with recurrent shoulder instability and associated bony defects. It is recommended that clinicians

  2. Outcome of Expedited Rotator Cuff Surgery in Injured Workers: Determinants of Successful Recovery.

    PubMed

    Razmjou, Helen; Boljanovic, Dragana; Lincoln, Sandra; Holtby, Richard; Gallay, Stephen; Henry, Patrick; Macritchie, Iona; Borthwick, Cheryl; Mayer, Lauren; Roknic, Carolyn; Shore, Deborah; Kamino, Allison; Grossman, Julie; Hill, Joanne; Singh, Gargi; Travers, Niki; Yanofsky, Loraine; Wilson, Marni; Sumar, Shellina; Savona, Alicia; De Medeiros, Filomena; Mann, Helen; Champsi, Aisha; Chau, Stefanie; Medeiros, Danielle; Richards, Robin R

    2017-05-01

    Work-related rotator cuff injuries are a common cause of disability and employee time loss. To examine the effectiveness of expedited rotator cuff surgery in injured workers who underwent rotator cuff decompression or repair and to explore the impact of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors in predicting the outcome of surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Injured workers who were seen at a shoulder specialty program and who underwent expedited arthroscopic rotator cuff decompression or repair were observed for a period of 6 to 12 months based on their type of surgery and recovery trajectory. The primary outcome measure was the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form. The impact of surgery was assessed by whether the change in the ASES score exceeded the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 17 points. Secondary outcomes were range of motion (ROM), medication consumption, and work status. One hundred forty-six patients (43 women [29%], 103 men [71%]; mean age, 52 years; SD, 8 years) completed the study. Sixty-seven (46%) patients underwent rotator cuff repair. The mean time between the date the patient consented to have surgery and the date of surgery was 82 (SD, 44) days. There was a statistically significant improvement in ASES score and ROM and work status (52 returned to regular duties and 59 to modified duties) ( P < .0001). Eighty-four percent (n = 122) of patients exceeded the MCID of 17 points. Individual factors that affected patient overall disability were preoperative ASES, work status prior to surgery, access to care, and autonomy at work. Achieving a minimal clinically meaningful change was influenced by perceived access to care, autonomy and stress at work, and overall satisfaction with the job. Expedited rotator cuff surgery improved disability, ROM, and work status in injured workers. Successful recovery after work-related shoulder injuries may further be facilitated by improving

  3. Shoulder Arthroscopy Simulator Training Improves Shoulder Arthroscopy Performance in a Cadaver Model

    PubMed Central

    Henn, R. Frank; Shah, Neel; Warner, Jon J.P.; Gomoll, Andreas H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of shoulder arthroscopy simulator training with a cadaver model of shoulder arthroscopy. Methods Seventeen first year medical students with no prior experience in shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled and completed this study. Each subject completed a baseline proctored arthroscopy on a cadaveric shoulder, which included controlling the camera and completing a standard series of tasks using the probe. The subjects were randomized, and nine of the subjects received training on a virtual reality simulator for shoulder arthroscopy. All subjects then repeated the same cadaveric arthroscopy. The arthroscopic videos were analyzed in a blinded fashion for time to task completion and subjective assessment of technical performance. The two groups were compared with students t-tests, and change over time within groups was analyzed with paired t-tests. Results There were no observed differences between the two groups on the baseline evaluation. The simulator group improved significantly from baseline with respect to time to completion and subjective performance (p<0.05). Time to completion was significantly faster in the simulator group compared to controls at final evaluation (p<0.05). No difference was observed between the groups on the subjective scores at final evaluation (p=0.98). Conclusions Shoulder arthroscopy simulator training resulted in significant benefits in clinical shoulder arthroscopy time to task completion in this cadaver model. This study provides important additional evidence of the benefit of simulators in orthopaedic surgical training. Clinical Relevance There may be a role for simulator training in shoulder arthroscopy education. PMID:23591380

  4. Complications of shoulder dystocia.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Nafisa K; Magann, Everett F

    2014-06-01

    Complications of shoulder dystocia are divided into fetal and maternal. Fetal brachial plexus injury (BPI) is the most common fetal complication occurring in 4-40% of cases. BPI has also been reported in abdominal deliveries and in deliveries not complicated by shoulder dystocia. Fractures of the fetal humerus and clavicle occur in about 10.6% of cases of shoulder dystocia and usually heal with no sequel. Hypoxic ischemic brain injury is reported in 0.5-23% of cases of shoulder dystocia. The risk correlates with the duration of head-to-body delivery and is especially increased when the duration is >5 min. Fetal death is rare and is reported in 0.4% of cases. Maternal complications of shoulder dystocia include post-partum hemorrhage, vaginal lacerations, anal tears, and uterine rupture. The psychological stress impact of shoulder dystocia is under-recognized and deserves counseling prior to home discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seoyon; Park, Dae Hwan; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jong Won; Han, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jeon, Jae Yong; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Kim, Won

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder in breast cancer patients between 13 and 18 months after surgery. This study included 271 women who underwent surgery for breast cancer with a postoperative period of 13-18 months. Current adhesive capsulitis was defined as restriction of external rotation and one or more additional directional restrictions with history of shoulder pain. Cumulative adhesive capsulitis was defined as current adhesive capsulitis or a previous history of adhesive capsulitis after breast cancer surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine associations between current or cumulative adhesive capsulitis and potential risk factors. Among the 271 study patients, 28 (10.3%) and 21 (7.7%) had cumulative or current adhesive capsulitis, respectively. The incidences of cumulative and current adhesive capsulitis were higher in those aged 50-59 years (odds ratio [OR], 9.912; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.790-54.880; and OR, 12.395; 95% CI, 1.187-129.444, respectively) and those who underwent mastectomy (OR, 6.805; 95% CI, 1.800-25.733; and OR, 9.645; 95% CI, 2.075-44.829, respectively) or mastectomy with reconstruction (OR, 13.122; 95% CI, 2.488-69.218; and OR, 20.075; 95% CI, 2.873-140.261, respectively). Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a common problem after breast cancer treatment. An age of 50-59 years and mastectomy are major risk factors for adhesive capsulitis, and breast reconstruction additionally increases the risk. Patients with these risk factors require greater attention for early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  6. [The Throwing Shoulder].

    PubMed

    Wieser, Karl; Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C

    2016-02-03

    Repetitive top-performance of overhead athletes induces a tremendous stress for the throwing shoulder. Throwers reach rotational speed of their arm of more than 7000°/s with joint compression and distraction forces of more than 1000 N. This performance is tributary to adaption of the shoulder muscles and the joint itself. These adaptions may, however lead to two specific problems of the throwing shoulder: 1. The posterosuperior internal impingement of the rotator cuff and labrum between glenoid and humeral head during late cooking phase; 2. A decreased internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint (GIRD) with compensatory problems of the scapula-stabilizing muscles. Precise analysis of kinematics and pathomechanics aims to improve understanding and treatment of those specific problems of the throwing shoulder.

  7. Spinal cord injury following operative shoulder intervention: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Christine; Walker, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Cervical myelopathy is a spinal cord dysfunction that results from extrinsic compression of the spinal cord, its blood supply, or both. It is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in patients greater than 55 years of age. A 57-year-old male with right shoulder septic arthritis underwent surgical debridement of his right shoulder and sustained a spinal cord injury intraoperatively. The most likely etiology is damage to the cervical spinal cord during difficult intubation requiring multiple attempts in this patient with underlying asymptomatic severe cervical stenosis. Although it is not feasible to perform imaging studies on all patients undergoing intubation for surgery, this patient's outcome would suggest consideration of inclusion of additional pre-surgical screening examination techniques, such as testing for a positive Hoffman's reflex, is appropriate to detect asymptomatic patients who may have underlying cervical stenosis.

  8. Maintaining Shoulder Health After Spinal Cord Injury: A Guide to Understanding Treatments for Shoulder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Van Straaten, Meegan G.; Cloud, Beth A.; Zhao, Kristin D.; Fortune, Emma; Morrow, Melissa M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Shoulder pain from overuse of the arm is common after spinal cord injury (SCI). This pain can be difficult to eliminate. There are many other complications after SCI; therefore, shoulder pain is sometimes not the first priority. However, if neglected for too long, shoulder pain could mean that more serious problems are happening inside the shoulder joint. Here we present the options available when treatment for shoulder pain is needed. PMID:28185640

  9. Temporary ipsilateral stiff shoulder after operative fixation of distal radial fractures.

    PubMed

    Cha, Soo Min; Shin, Hyun Dae; Hwang, Sung Jin

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify variables affecting the development of temporary stiff shoulder after operative fixation for distal radial fractures (DRF). The study retrospectively analyzed 167 patients who had undergone internal fixation using volar locking plate for DRF between 2010 and 2013. Group 1 was denoted as the "normal group," and group 2 was denoted as the "stiff shoulder group." Basic demographic factors evaluated included age, sex, bone mineral density (BMD), and the dominancy. Also investigated were radiologic variables, including concurrent fractures of the styloid process, positive ulnar variances, classification of DRF, and morphologic type of the distal radioulnar joint. Finally, the type of plate, methods used for postoperative protection, and time of union were analyzed. Group 1 consisted of 114 patients, and group 2 consisted of 53 patients. On overall univariate analysis, BMD, hand dominancy, and the protective methods after plating were significantly different between the 2 groups. On multivariate analysis, a lower BMD and injury on the nondominant side were significant factors for shoulder stiffness. Stiffness was significantly higher in patients with a mean BMD < -2.6 than in patients with a mean BMD ≥ -2.6. At the final follow-up, all of the 53 patients in group 2 were relieved of the symptoms of a stiff shoulder. A lower BMD and injury on the nondominant distal radius were distinct factors for the development of a stiff shoulder after operative fixation in DRF. Fortunately, nonoperative treatments, such as stretching exercises/injections, were useful for the relief of these symptoms in the short-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Shoulder instability].

    PubMed

    Sailer, J; Imhof, H

    2004-06-01

    Shoulder instability is a common clinical feature leading to recurrent pain and limited range of motion within the glenohumeral joint. Instability can be due a single traumatic event, general joint laxity or repeated episodes of microtrauma. Differentiation between traumatic and atraumatic forms of shoulder instability requires careful histor