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Sample records for moderna notas para

  1. Analytical characterization of NOTA-modified somatropins.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Nathalie; Wynendaele, Evelien; D'Hondt, Matthias; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W; Pauwels, Ewald; Van de Wiele, Christoph; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-08-05

    Chemical modification of biomolecules like the introduction of metal-chelators into proteins can lead to heterogeneous product formation. The nature and extend of the modification is important in interpreting the biological properties of the bioconjugate, given their possible influence on the pharmacokinetics as well as on the binding affinity to the target. The present study describes the synthesis and analytical characterization of somatropin modified on its lysine's ɛ-amino groups with the acylating chelator S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA). Direct separation and identification techniques (i.e. RP-MS and CE-MS) and peptide mapping after trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion demonstrated that the use of higher amounts of p-SCN-Bn-NOTA during synthesis leads to a complex product composition with higher order substitution degrees (i.e. multiple NOTA-moieties per somatropin molecule), as well as the presence of different position isomers. From the nine lysine (Lys) residues in somatropin, Lys-70 was experimentally found to be the modification hotspot under our synthesis conditions (pH=9.0). This was supported by the in silico calculated lowest pKa value of 8.3 for Lys-70. Based on the crystal structure of somatropin in complex with the extracellular parts of the growth hormone receptor, the Lys-70 residue is positioned outside the binding pockets and will therefore not directly interfere with receptor binding. Gallium chelation by NOTA-somatropin resulted in a 100% complexation. The synthesis of NOTA-somatropin using p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and somatropin under our operational conditions is therefore a suitable synthesis procedure for the production of a target-specific radiopharmaceutical for further investigation toward treatment and visualization of growth hormone-specific cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Art Museum Education in Transition: Moderna Galerija in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleznik, Adela

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the educational practices at the Moderna galerija, a national museum of modern and contemporary art in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the last twenty years. Its aim is to reflect on the museum education in relation to broader historical context, of the former Yugoslavia (the country Slovenia was a part of until 1991) and discuss how…

  3. Art Museum Education in Transition: Moderna Galerija in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleznik, Adela

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the educational practices at the Moderna galerija, a national museum of modern and contemporary art in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the last twenty years. Its aim is to reflect on the museum education in relation to broader historical context, of the former Yugoslavia (the country Slovenia was a part of until 1991) and discuss how…

  4. RNA tertiary structure prediction with ModeRNA.

    PubMed

    Rother, Magdalena; Rother, Kristian; Puton, Tomasz; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2011-11-01

    Noncoding RNAs perform important roles in the cell. As their function is tightly connected with structure, and as experimental methods are time-consuming and expensive, the field of RNA structure prediction is developing rapidly. Here, we present a detailed study on using the ModeRNA software. The tool uses the comparative modeling approach and can be applied when a structural template is available and an alignment of reasonable quality can be performed. We guide the reader through the entire process of modeling Escherichia coli tRNA(Thr) in a conformation corresponding to the complex with an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS). We describe the choice of a template structure, preparation of input files, and explore three possible modeling strategies. In the end, we evaluate the resulting models using six alternative benchmarks. The ModeRNA software can be freely downloaded from http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/moderna/ under the conditions of the General Public License. It runs under LINUX, Windows and Mac OS. It is also available as a server at http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/modernaserver/. The models and the script to reproduce the study from this article are available at http://www.genesilico.pl/moderna/examples/.

  5. Dissociation kinetics of Mn2+ complexes of NOTA and DOTA.

    PubMed

    Drahoš, Bohuslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Bonnet, Célia S; Hermann, Petr; Lukeš, Ivan; Tóth, Éva

    2011-03-07

    The kinetics of transmetallation of [Mn(nota)](-) and [Mn(dota)](2-) was investigated in the presence of Zn(2+) (5-50-fold excess) at variable pH (3.5-5.6) by (1)H relaxometry. The dissociation is much faster for [Mn(nota)](-) than for [Mn(dota)](2-) under both experimental and physiologically relevant conditions (t(½) = 74 h and 1037 h for [Mn(nota)](-) and [Mn(dota)](2-), respectively, at pH 7.4, c(Zn(2+)) = 10(-5) M, 25 °C). The dissociation of the complexes proceeds mainly via spontaneous ([Mn(nota)](-)k(0) = (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10(-6) s(-1); [Mn(dota)](2-)k(0) = (1.8 ± 0.6) × 10(-7) s(-1)) and proton-assisted pathways ([Mn(nota)](-)k(1) = (7.8 ± 0.1) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1); [Mn(dota)](2-)k(1) = (4.0 ± 0.6) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1), k(2) = (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10(3) M(-2) s(-1)). The observed suppression of the reaction rates with increasing Zn(2+) concentration is explained by the formation of a dinuclear Mn(2+)-L-Zn(2+) complex which is about 20-times more stable for [Mn(dota)](2-) than for [Mn(nota)](-) (K(MnLZn) = 68 and 3.6, respectively), and which dissociates very slowly (k(3)∼10(-5) M(-1) s(-1)). These data provide the first experimental proof that not all Mn(2+) complexes are kinetically labile. The absence of coordinated water makes both [Mn(nota)](-) and [Mn(dota)](2-) complexes inefficient for MRI applications. Nevertheless, the higher kinetic inertness of [Mn(dota)](2-) indicates a promising direction in designing ligands for Mn(2+) complexation.

  6. In Vitro Functional Quality Characterization of NOTA-Modified Somatropins.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Nathalie; Yao, Han; Wynendaele, Evelien; Verbeke, Frederick; Xu, Xiaolong; Gevaert, Bert; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Sathekge, Mike; De Saeger, Sarah; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2017-03-07

    Chemical modifications on protein biopharmaceuticals introduce extra variability in addition to their inherent complexity, hence require more comprehensive analytical and functional characterization during their discovery, development, and manufacturing. Somatropin (i.e., recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH) modified with the chelating agent S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) allows the incorporation of radiometals for research and possible theranostic purposes. We previously demonstrated that this conjugation leads to multiple substitution degrees and positional isomers within the product. In vitro techniques at the molecular and cellular levels were now applied to assess their functional quality: (i) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated functional complexation with human growth hormone binding protein (hGHBp) to the different NOTA-modified somatropins as well as to gallium chelated NOTA-functionalities (Ga-10:1 NOTA-somatropin); (ii) native mass spectrometry (MS) offered in-depth information, a substitution degree up to four NOTAs was still functional; (iii) circular dichroism (CD) analysis confirmed the complexation of unmodified and NOTA-modified somatropin to hGHBp; and (iv) a hGHR bioassay demonstrated initiation of the signal transduction cascade, after binding of all investigated products to the receptor presented on cells with a similar potency (pEC50 values between 9.53 and 9.78) and efficacy (Emax values between 130 and 160%). We conclude that the NOTA-modified somatropins do not possess a significantly different in vitro functionality profile compared to unmodified somatropin. Techniques such as SEC, MS, and CD, traditionally used in the physicochemical characterization of proteins have a demonstrated potential use in the functionality evaluation not only in drug discovery and development but also in quality control settings.

  7. Optimized labeling of NOTA-conjugated octreotide with F-18.

    PubMed

    Laverman, Peter; D'Souza, Christopher A; Eek, Annemarie; McBride, William J; Sharkey, Robert M; Oyen, Wim J G; Goldenberg, David M; Boerman, Otto C

    2012-04-01

    We recently reported a facile method based on the chelation of [(18)F]aluminum fluoride (Al(18)F) by NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid). Here, we present a further optimization of the (18)F labeling of NOTA-octreotide (IMP466). Octreotide was conjugated with the NOTA chelate and was labeled with (18)F in a two-step, one-pot method. The labeling procedure was optimized with regard to the labeling buffer, ionic strength, peptide concentration, and temperature. Radiochemical yield, specific activity, in vitro stability, and receptor affinity were determined. Biodistribution of (18)F-IMP466 was studied in AR42J tumor-bearing mice. In addition, microPET/CT images were acquired. IMP466 was labeled with Al(18)F in a single step with 97% yield in the presence of 80% (v/v) acetonitrile or ethanol. The labeled product was purified by HPLC to remove unlabeled peptide and unbound Al(18)F. The radiolabeling, including purification, was performed for 45 min. Specific activities of 48,000 GBq/mmol could be obtained. (18)F-IMP466 showed a high tumor uptake and excellent tumor-to-blood ratios at 2 h post-injection. In addition, the low bone uptake indicated that the Al(18)F-NOTA complex was stable in vivo. PET/CT scans revealed excellent tumor delineation and specific accumulation in the tumor. Uptake in receptor-negative organs was low. NOTA-octreotide could be labeled with (18)F in quantitative yields using a rapid two-step, one-pot, method. The compound was stable in vivo and showed rapid accretion in SSTR(2)-receptor-expressing AR42J tumors in nude mice. This method can be used to label other NOTA-conjugated compounds such as RGD peptides, GRPR-binding peptides, and Affibody molecules with (18)F.

  8. (68)Ga small peptide imaging: comparison of NOTA and PCTA.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cara L; Yapp, Donald T T; Mandel, Derek; Gill, Rajanvir K; Boros, Eszter; Wong, May Q; Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E

    2012-11-21

    In this study, a bifunctional version of the chelate PCTA was compared to the analogous NOTA derivative for peptide conjugation, (68)Ga radiolabeling, and small peptide imaging. Both p-SCN-Bn-PCTA and p-SCN-Bn-NOTA were conjugated to cyclo-RGDyK. The resulting conjugates, PCTA-RGD and NOTA-RGD, retained their affinity for the peptide target, the α(v)β(3) receptor. Both PCTA-RGD and NOTA-RGD could be radiolabeled with (68)Ga in >95% radiochemical yield (RCY) at room temperature within 5 min. For PCTA-RGD, higher effective specific activities, up to 55 MBq/nmol, could be achieved in 95% RCY with gentle heating at 40 °C. The (68)Ga-radiolabeled conjugates were >90% stable in serum and in the presence of excess apo-transferrin over 4 h; (68)Ga-PCTA-RGD did have slightly lower stability than (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD, 93 ± 2% compared to 98 ± 1%, at the 4 h time point. Finally, the tumor and nontarget organ uptake and clearance of (68)Ga-radiolabeled PCTA-RGD and NOTA-RGD was compared in mice bearing HT-29 colorectal tumor xenografts. Activity cleared quickly from the blood and muscle tissue with >90% and >70% of the initial activity cleared within the first 40 min, respectively. The majority of activity was observed in the kidney, liver, and tumor tissue. The observed tumor uptake was specific with up to 75% of the tumor uptake blocked when the mice were preinjected with 160 nmol (100 μg) of unlabeled peptide. Uptake observed in the blocked tumors was not significantly different than the background activity observed in muscle tissue. The only significant difference between the two (68)Ga-radiolabeled bioconjugates in vivo was the kidney uptake. (68)Ga-radiolabeled PCTA-RGD had significantly lower (p < 0.05) kidney uptake (1.1 ± 0.5%) at 2 h postinjection compared to (68)Ga-radiolabeled NOTA-RGD (2.7 ± 1.3%). Overall, (68)Ga-radiolabeled PCTA-RGD and NOTA-RGD performed similarly, but the lower kidney uptake for (68)Ga-radiolabeled PCTA-RGD may be advantageous in some

  9. Density Functional Theory Study on the Complexation of NOTA as a Bifunctional Chelator with Radiometal Ions.

    PubMed

    Adeowo, F Y; Honarparvar, B; Skelton, A A

    2017-08-17

    1,4,7-Triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) is a key bifunctional chelator utilized for the complexation of metal ions in radiopharmaceutical applications; the ability of these chelators depends on the strength of their binding with ions. The focus of the present work is to evaluate the complexation of Cu(2+), Ga(3+), Sc(3+), and In(3+) radiometal ions with NOTA using density functional theory (B3LYP functional) and 6-311+G(2d,2p)/DGDZVP basis sets. The significant role of ion-water interactions in the chelation interaction energies in solution reflects the competition between ion-water and NOTA-ion interaction in the chelation process. There is reasonable agreement between experimental and theoretical binding constants, geometries, and (1)H NMR chemical shifts. Chelation interaction energies, Gibbs free energies, and entropies in solution show that the NOTA-Ga(3+) and NOTA-Cu(2+) are the most and least stable complexes, respectively. The natural atomic charges and second order perturbation analysis reveal charge transfer between NOTA and radiometal ions. The theoretical (1)H NMR chemical shifts of NOTA are in good agreement with experiment; these values are influenced by the presence of the ions, which have a deshielding effect on the protons of NOTA. Global scalar properties such as EHOMO/ELUMO, ΔELUMO-HOMO, and chemical hardness/softness confirm that the NOTA-Cu(2+) complex, which has a singly occupied molecular orbital, has the lowest ΔELUMO-HOMO value, the least chemical hardness, and the highest chemical softness. The significant variation of the hardness and ΔELUMO-HOMO values of the complexes can be attributed to the different positions of the metal ions on the periodic table. This study affirms that, among the radiometal ions, Ga(3+) can be used to effectively radiolabel NOTA chelator for radiopharmaceutical usage as it binds most stably with NOTA.

  10. The Assessment of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills with "None of the Above"--Items (NOTA Items).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochy, Filip; Moerkerke, George; De Corte, Erik; Segers, Mien

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the discussion of whether "none of the above" (NOTA) questions should be used on tests. Discusses a study in which a protocol analysis was conducted on written statements of examinees while answering NOTA items. Explains that a multiple-choice test was given to university students finding that NOTA options seem to be more attractive.…

  11. Brain metastasis in carcinoma breast demonstrated on (68)Ga NOTA-bisphosphonate PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Passah, Averilicia; Tripathi, Madhavi; Kumar, Rajeev; Das, Chandan J; Goyal, Ankur; Bal, Chandrasekhar S

    2014-07-01

    Ga NOTA-bisphosphonate is a new bone-seeking PET radiotracer undergoing clinical evaluation. We report a case of a carcinoma breast who underwent Ga NOTA-bisphosphonate PET/CT for detection of skeletal metastasis. In addition to skeletal metastasis, a focal area of abnormal radiotracer uptake was noted in the brain, which was confirmed as brain metastasis on MRI.

  12. ModeRNA: a tool for comparative modeling of RNA 3D structure

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Magdalena; Rother, Kristian; Puton, Tomasz; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2011-01-01

    RNA is a large group of functionally important biomacromolecules. In striking analogy to proteins, the function of RNA depends on its structure and dynamics, which in turn is encoded in the linear sequence. However, while there are numerous methods for computational prediction of protein three-dimensional (3D) structure from sequence, with comparative modeling being the most reliable approach, there are very few such methods for RNA. Here, we present ModeRNA, a software tool for comparative modeling of RNA 3D structures. As an input, ModeRNA requires a 3D structure of a template RNA molecule, and a sequence alignment between the target to be modeled and the template. It must be emphasized that a good alignment is required for successful modeling, and for large and complex RNA molecules the development of a good alignment usually requires manual adjustments of the input data based on previous expertise of the respective RNA family. ModeRNA can model post-transcriptional modifications, a functionally important feature analogous to post-translational modifications in proteins. ModeRNA can also model DNA structures or use them as templates. It is equipped with many functions for merging fragments of different nucleic acid structures into a single model and analyzing their geometry. Windows and UNIX implementations of ModeRNA with comprehensive documentation and a tutorial are freely available. PMID:21300639

  13. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 Peptide for Noninvasive Visualization of CXCR4 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuefeng; Niu, Gang; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Xiangyu; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Jacobson, Orit; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in tumor aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastasis formation. Quantification of CXCR4 expression by tumors may have an impact on prediction and evaluation of tumor response to therapies. In this study, we developed a robust and straightforward F-18 labeling route of T140, a CXCR4 peptide-based antagonist. Procedures T140 derivative was conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with Al[18F]. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 was evaluated in vitro in cell-based assay and stability in mouse serum and in vivo using CXCR4 positive and negative tumor xenograft models. Results Labeling of Al[18F]NOTA-T140 was completed within 30 min with a radiochemical yield of 58±5.3 % at the end of synthesis, based on fluoride-18 activity. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 accumulated in CHO-CXCR4 positive but not negative tumors. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 uptake in the tumors correlated with CXCR4 protein expression. Moreover, Al[18F]NOTA-T140 had high accumulation in CXCR4-positive metastatic tumors. Conclusions The simplicity of Al[18F]NOTA-T140 labeling along with its properties to specifically image CXCR4 expression by tumors warrant further clinical application for the diagnosis of CXCR4 clinically. PMID:26126597

  14. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 Peptide for Noninvasive Visualization of CXCR4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuefeng; Niu, Gang; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Xiangyu; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Jacobson, Orit; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-02-01

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in tumor aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastasis formation. Quantification of CXCR4 expression by tumors may have an impact on prediction and evaluation of tumor response to therapies. In this study, we developed a robust and straightforward F-18 labeling route of T140, a CXCR4 peptide-based antagonist. T140 derivative was conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with Al[(18)F]. Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 was evaluated in vitro in cell-based assay and stability in mouse serum and in vivo using CXCR4 positive and negative tumor xenograft models. Labeling of Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 was completed within 30 min with a radiochemical yield of 58 ± 5.3 % at the end of synthesis, based on fluoride-18 activity. Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 accumulated in CHO-CXCR4 positive but not negative tumors. Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 uptake in the tumors correlated with CXCR4 protein expression. Moreover, Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 had high accumulation in CXCR4-positive metastatic tumors. The simplicity of Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 labeling along with its properties to specifically image CXCR4 expression by tumors warrant further clinical application for the diagnosis of CXCR4 clinically.

  15. Total solid-phase synthesis of NOTA-functionalized peptides for PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Brigitte; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Fournier, Patrick; Bénard, François

    2010-01-15

    A convenient approach to functionalize peptides either at the N-terminal or on a lysine side chain with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) chelating unit has been developed on solid support. The chelate was assembled in a two-step process starting with bromo-acetylated peptides. Deprotection and cleavage of the resin-bound NOTA peptides were performed with use of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the presence of thioanisole and water to give free NOTA peptides.

  16. Maleimido-functionalized NOTA derivatives as bifunctional chelators for site-specific radiolabeling.

    PubMed

    Förster, Christian; Schubert, Maik; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Steinbach, Jörg

    2011-06-22

    Two basic and simple synthetic routes for mono- and bis-maleimide bearing 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) chelators as new bifunctional chelators are described. The syntheses are characterized by their simplicity and short reaction times, as well as practical purification methods and acceptable to very good chemical yields. The usefulness of these two synthetic pathways is demonstrated by the preparation of a set of mono- and bis-maleimide functionalized NOTA derivatives. In conclusion, these two methods can easily be expanded to the syntheses of further tailored maleimide-NOTA chelators for diverse applications.

  17. (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-RGD-BBN peptide for dual integrin and GRPR-targeted tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaofei; Niu, Gang; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-09-01

    Radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and bombesin (BBN) peptide analogs have been extensively investigated for the imaging of tumor integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression, respectively. Recently, we designed and synthesized a RGD-BBN heterodimeric peptide from c(RGDyK) and BBN(7-14) through a glutamate linker. The goal of this study was to investigate the dual receptor-targeting property and tumor diagnostic value of RGD-BBN heterodimeric peptide labeled with generator-eluted (68)Ga (t(1/2) 68 min, beta(+) 89% and EC 11%), (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN. RGD-BBN heterodimer was conjugated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with (68)Ga. The dual receptor binding affinity was investigated by a radioligand competition binding assay. The in vitro and in vivo dual receptor targeting of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN was evaluated and compared with that of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD and (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN. NOTA-RGD-BBN had integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and GRPR binding affinities comparable to those of the monomeric RGD and BBN, respectively. The dual receptor targeting property of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN was validated by blocking studies in a PC-3 tumor model. (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN showed higher tumor uptake than (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD and (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN. (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN can also image tumors with either integrin or GRPR expression. (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN exhibited dual receptor targeting properties both in vitro and in vivo. The favorable characterizations of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN such as convenient synthesis, high specific activity, and high tumor uptake, warrant its further investigation for clinical cancer imaging.

  18. PET imaging of prostate tumors with 18F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN.

    PubMed

    Pan, Donghui; Yan, Yongjun; Yang, Ronghua; Xu, Yu Ping; Chen, Fei; Wang, Lizhen; Luo, Shineng; Yang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in prostate cancer provides a promising target for detection the disease. MATBBN is a new bombesin analog originating from the GRPR antagonists with a hydrophilic linker. In this study NOTA-conjugated MATBBN was labeled by the Al(18)F method and the potential of (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN for prostate tumor PET imaging was also evaluated. NOTA-MATBBN was radiolabeled with (18) F using Al(18)F complexes. Partition coefficient, in vitro stability and GRPR binding affinity were also determined. PET studies were performed with (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice. (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN can be produced within 30 min with a decay-corrected yield of 62.5 ± 2.1% and a radiochemical purity of >98%. The logP octanol-water value for the Al(18)F-labeled BBN analog was -2.40 ± 0.07 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2 h. The IC50 values of displacement for the (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN with MATBBN was 126.9 ± 2.75 nm. The PC-3 tumors were clearly visible with high contrast after injection of the labeled peptide. At 60 min post-injection, the tumor uptakes for (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN and (18)F-FDG were 4.59 ± 0.43 and 1.98 ± 0.35% injected dose/g, and tumor to muscle uptake radios for two tracers were 6.77 ± 1.10 and 1.78 ± 0.32, respectively. Dynamic PET revealed that (18) F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN was excreted mainly through the kidneys. GRPR-binding specificity was also demonstrated by reduced tumor uptake of (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN after coinjection with excess unlabeled MATBBN peptide at 1 h post-injection. NOTA- MATBBN could be labeled rapidly with (18)F using one step method. (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN may be a promising PET imaging agent for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of a maleimido derivative of NOTA for site-specific labeling of affibody molecules.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, Vladimir; Altai, Mohamed; Sandström, Mattias; Perols, Anna; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson; Boschetti, Frederic; Orlova, Anna

    2011-05-18

    Radionuclide molecular imaging has the potential to improve cancer treatment by selection of patients for targeted therapy. Affibody molecules are a class of small (7 kDa) high-affinity targeting proteins with appreciable potential as molecular imaging probes. The NOTA chelator forms stable complexes with a number of radionuclides suitable for SPECT or PET imaging. A maleimidoethylmonoamide NOTA (MMA-NOTA) has been prepared for site-specific labeling of Affibody molecules having a unique C-terminal cysteine. Coupling of the MMA-NOTA to the anti-HER2 Affibody molecule Z(HER2:2395) resulted in a conjugate with an affinity (dissociation constant) to HER2 of 72 pM. Labeling of [MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) with (111)In gave a yield of >95% after 20 min at 60 °C. In vitro cell tests demonstrated specific binding of [(111)In-MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) to HER2-expressing cell lines. In mice bearing prostate cancer DU-145 xenografts, the tumor uptake of [(111)In-MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) was 8.2 ± 0.9% IA/g and the tumor-to-blood ratio was 31 ± 1 (4 h postinjection). DU-145 xenografts were clearly visualized by a gamma camera. Direct in vivo comparison of [(111)In-MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) and [(111)In-MMA-DOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) demonstrated that both conjugates provided equal radioactivity uptake in tumors, but the tumor-to-organ ratios were better for [(111)In-MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) due to more efficient clearance from normal tissues. In conclusion, coupling of MMA-NOTA to a cysteine-containing Affibody molecule resulted in a site-specifically labeled conjugate, which retains high affinity, can be efficiently labeled, and allows for high-contrast imaging.

  20. Feasibility and kinetic characteristics of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD PET for in vivo atherosclerosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Yun-Sang; Lee, Jae Sung; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Ki-Bong; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the feasibility and kinetic characteristics of the (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD, a recently developed RGD peptide agent, were investigated for atherosclerosis imaging in comparison with (18)FDG. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet for more than 20 weeks. To evaluate the feasibility, tissue uptakes of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD and (18)FDG in the major organs were measured and compared between ApoE(-/-) and control mice. Animal PET imaging was also performed and relative uptake values in the thoracic aorta were compared between ApoE(-/-) and control mice. In humans, the kinetic characteristics and feasibility of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD PET were assessed in 4 patients with known coronary artery disease. In the tissue uptake study, the thoracic aorta showed higher uptake in ApoE(-/-) than in control mice with both (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD and (18)FDG (P < 0.001). On PET scans, the relative uptake values of the thoracic aorta were significantly higher in ApoE(-/-) with both (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD (P = 0.024) and (18)FDG (P = 0.038). In human PET, the appropriateness of reversible binding model and Logan plotting was clearly demonstrated. The aorta-to-jugular ratios were measured up to 1.25 and showed a tendency to correlate with the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level (r = 0.899, P = 0.102). (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD has potential as an in vivo atherosclerosis imaging agent. However, the lower imaging contrast and sensitivity of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD PET compared with (18)FDG PET may be a limitation for clinical application.

  1. Comparison of three dimeric 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD tracers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinxia; Lang, Lixin; Hu, Shuo; Guo, Ning; Zhu, Lei; Sun, Zhongchan; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-04-01

    RGD peptide-based radiotracers are well established as integrin αvβ3 imaging probes to evaluate tumor angiogenesis or tissue remodeling after ischemia or infarction. In order to optimize the labeling process and pharmacokinetics of the imaging probes, we synthesized three dimeric RGD peptides with or without PEGylation and performed in vivo screening. Radiolabeling was achieved through the reaction of F-18 aluminum-fluoride complex with the cyclic chelator, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA). Three imaging probes were synthesized as (18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[c(RGDfK)]2, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2, and (18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2. The receptor binding affinity was determined by competitive cell binding assay, and the stability was evaluated by mouse serum incubation. Tumor uptake and whole body distribution of the three tracers were compared through direct tissue sampling and PET quantification of U87MG tumor-bearing mice. All three compounds remained intact after 120 min incubation with mouse serum. They all had a rapid and relatively high tracer uptake in U87MG tumors with good target-to-background ratios. Compared with the other two tracers, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2 had the highest tumor uptake and the lowest accumulation in the liver. The integrin receptor specificity was confirmed by co-injection of unlabeled dimeric RGD peptide. The rapid one-step radiolabeling strategy by the complexation of (18)F-aluminum fluoride with NOTA-peptide conjugates was successfully applied to synthesize three dimeric RGD peptides. Among the three probes developed, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2 with relatively low liver uptake and high tumor accumulation appears to be a promising candidate for further translational research.

  2. Preparation of Ga-68-NOTA as a renal PET agent and feasibility tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Youn; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Young Ju; Jeong, Hyuk-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sang; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2014-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) may provide more accurate quantification of kidney function such as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than gamma imaging. The purpose of these experiments was to prepare and evaluate Ga-68 complexes as potential PET agents for measurement of GFR. We labeled EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, and NOTA with Ga-68 obtained from a Ge-68/Ga-68-generator and measured the binding to serum and red blood cells. Biodistribution study was performed in male BALB/c mice after intravenous injection together with Cr-51-EDTA as the standard for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Animal-PET study was performed using BALB/c mice. All the tested chelating agents except DTPA showed quantitative labeling yields (>99%). Among them, Ga-68-NOTA showed consistently low binding to both human and mouse RBC and serum protein. Biodistribution study showed no significant difference between Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p>0.05). Furthermore, the GFR values obtained by Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA were almost same (0.26±0.04 and 0.25±0.04mL/min, respectively). Animal-PET study showed almost the same GFR (0.25mL/min) with the values obtained by biodistribution study. We proved that an easy-to-prepare agent Ga-68-NOTA is ideal for renal PET as well as for GFR measurement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Tumor targeting efficacy of a novel PET radiotracer (1)8F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in mice].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hubing; Wang, Quanshi; Han, Yanjiang; Zhou, Wenlan; Li, Hongsheng; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the tumor targeting efficacy of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, a novel radiotracer of Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides. (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 was synthesized in one-step by conjugating NOTA-PRGD2 with (18)F-AlF at 100 degrees celsius;. The tumor targeting efficacy and in vivo biodistribution profile of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, following intravenous injection via the tail vein, were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearing subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma xenograft by radioactivity biodistribution assessment, PET/CT and microPET/CT. NOTA-PRGD2 was (18)F-fluorinated successfully in one-step with a yield of 17%-25% within 15-20 min. Radioactivity biodistribution study confirmed the tumor-targeting ability of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in the tumor-bearing mice. At 1 and 2 h following injection, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 uptake in the tumor reached 4.14∓1.44 and 2.80∓1.18 % ID/g (t=1.910, P=0.070) with tumor/brain ratios of 2.95∓0.61 and 5.21∓2.62, respectively (t=-1.686, P=0.167). Both PET/CT and microPET/CT were capable of showing the radioactivity biodistribution of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in the mouse model and clearly displayed the tumor, but microPET/CT showed a much better image quality. (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 prepared by one-step radiosynthesis can selectively target to the tumor, demonstrating its potential as a good radiotracer for tumor imaging.

  4. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  5. Kinetics of Ga(NOTA) formation from weak Ga-citrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Morfin, Jean-François; Tóth, Éva

    2011-10-17

    Gallium complexes are gaining increasing importance in biomedical imaging thanks to the practical advantages of the (68)Ga isotope in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. (68)Ga has a short half-time (t(1/2) = 68 min); thus the (68)Ga complexes have to be prepared in a limited time frame. The acceleration of the formation reaction of gallium complexes with macrocyclic ligands for application in PET imaging represents a significant coordination chemistry challenge. Here we report a detailed kinetic study of the formation reaction of the highly stable Ga(NOTA) from the weak citrate complex (H(3)NOTA = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid). The transmetalation has been studied using (71)Ga NMR over a large pH range (pH = 2.01-6.00). The formation of Ga(NOTA) is a two-step process. First, a monoprotonated intermediate containing coordinated citrate, GaHNOTA(citrate)*, forms in a rapid equilibrium step. The rate-determining step of the reaction is the deprotonation and slow rearrangement of the intermediate accompanied by the citrate release. The observed reaction rate shows an unusual pH dependency with a minimum at pH 5.17. In contrast to the typical formation reactions of poly(amino carboxylate) complexes, the Ga(NOTA) formation from the weak citrate complex becomes considerably faster with increasing proton concentration below pH 5.17. We explain this unexpected tendency by the role of protons in the decomposition of the GaHNOTA(citrate)* intermediate which proceeds via the protonation of the coordinated citrate ion and its subsequent decoordination to yield the final product Ga(NOTA). The stability constant of this intermediate, log K(GaHNOTA(citrate)*) = 15.6, is remarkably high compared to the corresponding values reported for the formation of macrocyclic lanthanide(III)-poly(amino carboxylates). These kinetic data do not only give mechanistic insight into the formation reaction of Ga(NOTA), but might also contribute to establish optimal

  6. Stability Analysis of Glutamic Acid Linked Peptides Coupled to NOTA through Different Chemical Linkages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Glutamic acid is a commonly used linker to form dimeric peptides with enhanced binding affinity than their corresponding monomeric counterparts. We have previously labeled NOTA-Bn-NCS-PEG3-E[c(RGDyK)]2 (NOTA-PRGD2) [1] with [18F]AlF and 68Ga for imaging tumor angiogenesis. The p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was attached to E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2] through a mini-PEG with a thiourea linkage, and the product [1] was stable at radiolabeling condition of 100 °C and pH 4.0 acetate buffer. However, when the same p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was directly attached to the α-amine of E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], the product NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] became unstable under similar conditions and the release of monomeric c(RGDfK) [5] was observed. The purpose of this work was to use HPLC and LC-MS to monitor the decomposition of glutamic acid linked dimeric peptides and their NOTA derivatives. A c(RGDyK) [6] and bombesin (BBN) [7] heterodimer c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and a dimeric bombesin E(BBN)2 [9], both with a glutamic acid as the linker, along with a model compound PhSCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10] were also studied. All the compounds were dissolved in 0.5 M pH 4.0 acetate buffer at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mL of each sample was heated at 100 °C for 10 min and the more stable compounds were heated for another 30 min. The samples at both time points were analyzed with analytical HPLC to monitor the decomposition of the heated samples. The samples with decomposition were further analyzed by LC-MS to determine the mass of products from the decomposition for possible structure elucidation. After 10 min heating, the obvious release of c(RGDfK) [5] was observed for NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] and Ph-SCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10]. Little or no release of monomers was observed for the remaining samples at this time point. After further heating, the release of monomers was clearly observed for E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2], E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and E(BBN)2 [9]. No decomposition or little decomposition was observed for NOTA

  7. Stability analysis of glutamic acid linked peptides coupled to NOTA through different chemical linkages.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lixin; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-11-03

    Glutamic acid is a commonly used linker to form dimeric peptides with enhanced binding affinity than their corresponding monomeric counterparts. We have previously labeled NOTA-Bn-NCS-PEG3-E[c(RGDyK)]2 (NOTA-PRGD2) [1] with [(18)F]AlF and (68)Ga for imaging tumor angiogenesis. The p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was attached to E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2] through a mini-PEG with a thiourea linkage, and the product [1] was stable at radiolabeling condition of 100 °C and pH 4.0 acetate buffer. However, when the same p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was directly attached to the α-amine of E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], the product NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] became unstable under similar conditions and the release of monomeric c(RGDfK) [5] was observed. The purpose of this work was to use HPLC and LC-MS to monitor the decomposition of glutamic acid linked dimeric peptides and their NOTA derivatives. A c(RGDyK) [6] and bombesin (BBN) [7] heterodimer c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and a dimeric bombesin E(BBN)2 [9], both with a glutamic acid as the linker, along with a model compound PhSCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10] were also studied. All the compounds were dissolved in 0.5 M pH 4.0 acetate buffer at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mL of each sample was heated at 100 °C for 10 min and the more stable compounds were heated for another 30 min. The samples at both time points were analyzed with analytical HPLC to monitor the decomposition of the heated samples. The samples with decomposition were further analyzed by LC-MS to determine the mass of products from the decomposition for possible structure elucidation. After 10 min heating, the obvious release of c(RGDfK) [5] was observed for NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] and Ph-SCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10]. Little or no release of monomers was observed for the remaining samples at this time point. After further heating, the release of monomers was clearly observed for E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2], E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and E(BBN)2 [9]. No decomposition or little decomposition was observed for NOTA

  8. Novel PET Imaging of Atherosclerosis with 68Ga-Labeled NOTA-Neomannosylated Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung Ju; Kim, Sungeun; Seo, Hong Seog; Lee, Yong Jik; Eo, Jae Seon; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Boeun; Kim, Jae Young; Park, Young Mi; Jeong, Myeongsook

    2016-11-01

    Activated macrophages take up (18)F-FDG via glucose transporters, so this compound is useful for atherosclerosis imaging by PET. However, (18)F-FDG application is limited for imaging of the heart and brain, in which glucose uptake is high, and in patients with aberrant glucose metabolism. The aims of this study were to confirm that mannosylated human serum albumin (MSA) specifically binds to the mannose receptor (MR) on macrophages and to test the feasibility of (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-MSA for PET imaging of atherosclerotic plaques. The peritoneal macrophages of C57/B6 mice were collected, incubated with rhodamine B isothiocyanate-MSA (10 μg/mL), and evaluated by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The same evaluations were performed after preincubation of the macrophages with anti-CD206 MR blocking antibodies. NOTA-MSA was synthesized by conjugating 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid to MSA, followed by labeling with (68)Ga. Rabbits with atherosclerotic aorta induced by a 3-mo cholesterol diet and chronic inflammation underwent consecutive PET/CT with (18)F-FDG and (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA at 2-d intervals. The binding of MSA to MR and its dose-dependent reduction by preincubation with anti-CD206 MR blocking antibody were confirmed. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescence colocalized at the atherosclerotic plaque. The (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA SUVs of the atherosclerotic aorta were significantly higher than those of the healthy arteries and inferior vena cava and were comparable to those obtained with (18)F-FDG. These findings suggest that MR-specific (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA is effective for detecting atherosclerosis in the aorta and is a promising radiopharmaceutical for imaging atherosclerosis because of the presence of M2 macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  9. 68Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT for Integrin Imaging in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kun; Liang, Naixin; Zhang, Jingjing; Lang, Lixin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shanqing; Zhao, Jun; Niu, Gang; Li, Fang; Zhu, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 (NOTA-PRGD2 is NOTA-PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2) PET/CT in lung cancer. Ninety-one patients (48 men and 43 women; age, 22-82 y) with suspected lung lesions on CT were enrolled with informed consent. Immediately after intravenous injection of 117.7 ± 37.7 MBq of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2, 15 patients underwent dynamic whole-body PET/CT scans for 1-2 h, and the remaining 76 patients underwent whole-body PET/CT scans at 30 ± 10 min after bolus injection. Each patient also underwent standard (18)F-FDG PET/CT for comparison. No side effect was found after (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 injection. (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 was rapidly cleared from the blood pool and primarily excreted through the urinary system. The standardized uptake values of proven malignancies were significantly higher than those of the benign ones. With an average standardized uptake value of greater than 1.3 being considered malignant, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT in diagnosing lung cancer were 83.8% (57/68), 91.3% (21/23), and 85.7% (78/91), respectively. The diagnostic value of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 for lung cancer is comparable to that of (18)F-FDG PET/CT. However, (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT is more specific than (18)F-FDG PET/CT in assessing lymph node metastasis, with positive and negative predictive values of 90.0% (27/30) and 93.8% (121/129), respectively, whereas those of (18)F-FDG PET/CT were 30.2% (29/96) and 90.5% (57/63), respectively. This study indicates the efficacy of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT in lung cancer diagnosis. (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT shows significant advantage over (18)F-FDG PET/CT in judging metastatic lymph nodes with higher specificity. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. Development of a Novel PET Tracer [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 Targeting MMP2 for Tumor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghua; Pan, Donghui; Cheng, Chao; Zhang, Dazhi; Zhang, Anyu; Wang, Lizhen; Jiang, Hongdie; Wang, Tao; Liu, Hongrui; Xu, Yuping; Yang, Runlin; Chen, Fei; Yang, Min; Zuo, Changjing

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression of gelatinases, that is, matrix metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9, has been associated with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. To image MMP2 in tumors, we developed a novel ligand termed [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6, with consideration that: c(KAHWGFTLD)NH2 (herein, C6) is a selective gelatinase inhibitor; Cy5.5-C6 has been visualized in many in vivo tumor models; positron emission tomography (PET) has a higher detection sensitivity and a wider field of view than optical imaging; fluorine-18 (18F) is the optimal PET radioisotope, and the creation of a [18F]AlF-peptide complex is a simple procedure. C6 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator NOTA (1, 4, 7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid) for radiolabeling [18F]AlF conjugation. The MMP2-binding characteristics and tumor-targeting efficacy of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 were tested in vitro and in vivo. The non-decay corrected yield of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was 46.2-64.2%, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 95%. [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was favorably retained in SKOV3 and PC3 cells, determined by cell uptake. Using NOTA-C6 as a competitive ligand, the uptake of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 in SKOV3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In biodistribution and PET imaging studies, higher radioactivity concentrations were observed in tumors. Pre-injection of C6 caused a marked reduction in tumor tissue uptake. Immunohistochemistry showed MMP2 in tumor tissues. [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was easy to synthesize and has substantial potential as an imaging agent that targets MMP2 in tumors.

  11. Development of a Novel PET Tracer [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 Targeting MMP2 for Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chao; Zhang, Dazhi; Zhang, Anyu; Wang, Lizhen; Jiang, Hongdie; Wang, Tao; Liu, Hongrui; Xu, Yuping; Yang, Runlin; Chen, Fei; Yang, Min; Zuo, Changjing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The overexpression of gelatinases, that is, matrix metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9, has been associated with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. To image MMP2 in tumors, we developed a novel ligand termed [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6, with consideration that: c(KAHWGFTLD)NH2 (herein, C6) is a selective gelatinase inhibitor; Cy5.5-C6 has been visualized in many in vivo tumor models; positron emission tomography (PET) has a higher detection sensitivity and a wider field of view than optical imaging; fluorine-18 (18F) is the optimal PET radioisotope, and the creation of a [18F]AlF-peptide complex is a simple procedure. Methods C6 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator NOTA (1, 4, 7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid) for radiolabeling [18F]AlF conjugation. The MMP2-binding characteristics and tumor-targeting efficacy of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 were tested in vitro and in vivo. Results The non-decay corrected yield of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was 46.2–64.2%, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 95%. [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was favorably retained in SKOV3 and PC3 cells, determined by cell uptake. Using NOTA-C6 as a competitive ligand, the uptake of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 in SKOV3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In biodistribution and PET imaging studies, higher radioactivity concentrations were observed in tumors. Pre-injection of C6 caused a marked reduction in tumor tissue uptake. Immunohistochemistry showed MMP2 in tumor tissues. Conclusions [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was easy to synthesize and has substantial potential as an imaging agent that targets MMP2 in tumors. PMID:26540114

  12. Comparison Study of [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2, [18F]FPPRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 for PET Imaging of U87MG Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Guo, Ning; Ma, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Shen, Baozhong; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    [18F]FPPRGD2, an F-18 labeled dimeric cyclic RGDyK peptide, has favorable properties for PET imaging of angiogenesis by targeting the αvβ3 integrin receptor. This radiotracer has been approved by the FDA for use in clinical trials. However, the time-consuming multiple-step synthetic procedure required for its preparation may hinder the widespread usage of this tracer. The recent development of a method using an F-18 fluoride-aluminum complex to radiolabel peptides provides a strategy for simplifying the labeling procedure. On the other hand, the easy-to-prepare [68Ga]-labeled NOTA-RGD derivatives have also been reported to have promising properties for imaging αvβ3 integrin receptors. The purpose of this study was to prepare [18F]FPPRDG2, [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2, and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 and to compare their pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties using small animal PET. All three compounds showed rapid and high tracer uptake in U87MG tumors with high target-to-background ratios. The uptake in the liver, kidneys and muscle were similar for all three tracers and they all showed predominant renal clearance. In conclusion, [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 have imaging properties and pharmacokinetics comparable to those of [18F]FPPRGD2. Considering their ease of preparation and good imaging qualities, [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2 and [68Ga]NOTA-PRGD2 are promising alternatives to [18F]FPPRGD2 for PET imaging of tumor αvβ3 integrin expression. PMID:22026940

  13. Comparison study of [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2, [18F]FPPRGD2, and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 for PET imaging of U87MG tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Guo, Ning; Ma, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Shen, Baozhong; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-12-21

    [(18)F]FPPRGD2, an F-18 labeled dimeric cyclic RGDyK peptide, has favorable properties for PET imaging of angiogenesis by targeting the α(v)β(3) integrin receptor. This radiotracer has been approved by the FDA for use in clinical trials. However, the time-consuming multiple-step synthetic procedure required for its preparation may hinder the widespread usage of this tracer. The recent development of a method using an F-18 fluoride-aluminum complex to radiolabel peptides provides a strategy for simplifying the labeling procedure. On the other hand, the easy-to-prepare [(68)Ga]-labeled NOTA-RGD derivatives have also been reported to have promising properties for imaging α(v)β(3) integrin receptors. The purpose of this study was to prepare [(18)F]FPPRGD2 [corrected] , [(18)F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2, and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 and to compare their pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties using small animal PET. All three compounds showed rapid and high tracer uptake in U87MG tumors with high target-to-background ratios. The uptake in the liver, kidneys, and muscle were similar for all three tracers, and they all showed predominant renal clearance. In conclusion, [(18)F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2 and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 have imaging properties and pharmacokinetics comparable to those of [(18)F]FPPRGD2. Considering their ease of preparation and good imaging qualities, [(18)F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2 and [(68)Ga]NOTA-PRGD2 are promising alternatives to [(18)F]FPPRGD2 for PET imaging of tumor α(v)β(3) integrin expression.

  14. Ficusnotins A-F: Rare diarylbutanoids from the leaves of Ficus nota.

    PubMed

    Latayada, Felmer S; Uy, Mylene M; Akihara, Yui; Ohta, Emi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Ômura, Hisashi; Ohta, Shinji

    2017-09-01

    Six diarylbutanoids, designated as ficusnotins A-F, with a rare carbon skeleton consisting of two aromatic rings separated by an unbranched C4-chain have been isolated from the leaves of Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data, as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Just Say No to NOTA: Why the Prohibition of Compensation for Human Transplant Organs in NOTA Should Be Repealed and a Regulated Market for Cadaver Organs Instituted.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristy Lynn; Finley, Marisa; Rohack, J James

    2014-01-01

    The United States faces a shortage of organs for transplantation; thousands of individuals die each year while waiting for organs. The organ donation system relies on altruism because the National Organ Transplantation Act (NOTA) prohibits donors from receiving valuable consideration for organs to be used for transplantation. This paper contains a proposal for a regulated market for cadaveric organs as a mechanism to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. A regulated market for cadaveric organs is appropriate in the United States for the following reasons: (1) it is consistent with the numerous ways in which bodies. are currently treated as commodities; (2) it is unlikely to further disadvantage the poor; (3) it would not expose organ recipients to undue harm; (4) in the current organ transplantation system, everyone except the organ donor, benefits financially; (5) the prohibition in NOTA is inconsistent with laws permitting next of kin to recover for damage to the body of a deceased family member; (6) the protection of the dignitary interests of organs for donation is inconsistent with the current protections of the dignitary interests of human specimens; and (7) permitting a market for organs promotes the American values of autonomy and liberty.

  16. One-step radiosynthesis of ¹⁸F-AlF-NOTA-RGD₂ for tumor angiogenesis PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Hongguang; Jiang, Han; Xu, Yingding; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    One of the major obstacles of the clinical translation of (18)F-labeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides has been the laborious multistep radiosynthesis. In order to facilitate the application of RGD-based positron emission tomography (PET) probes in the clinical setting we investigated in this study the feasibility of using the chelation reaction between Al(18)F and a macrocyclic chelator-conjugated dimeric RGD peptide as a simple one-step (18)F labeling strategy for development of a PET probe for tumor angiogenesis imaging. Dimeric cyclic peptide E[c(RGDyK)](2) (RGD(2)) was first conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), and the resulting bioconjugate NOTA-RGD(2) was then radiofluorinated via Al(18)F intermediate to synthesize (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2). Integrin binding affinities of the peptides were assessed by a U87MG cell-based receptor binding assay using (125)I-echistatin as the radioligand. The tumor targeting efficacy and in vivo profile of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2) were further evaluated in a subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model by microPET and biodistribution. NOTA-RGD(2) was successfully (18)F-fluorinated with good yield within 40 min using the Al(18)F intermediate. The IC(50) of (19)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2) was determined to be 46 ± 4.4 nM. Quantitative microPET studies demonstrated that (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2) showed high tumor uptake, fast clearance from the body, and good tumor to normal organ ratios. NOTA-RGD(2) bioconjugate has been successfully prepared and labeled with Al(18)F in one single step of radiosynthesis. The favorable in vivo performance and the short radiosynthetic route of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2) warrant further optimization of the probe and the radiofluorination strategy to accelerate the clinical translation of (18)F-labeled RGD peptides.

  17. One-step radiosynthesis of 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 for tumor angiogenesis PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Hongguang; Jiang, Han; Xu, Yingding; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose One of the major obstacles of the clinical translation of 18F-labeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides has been the laborious multistep radiosynthesis. In order to facilitate the application of RGD-based positron emission tomography (PET) probes in the clinical setting we investigated in this study the feasibility of using the chelation reaction between Al18F and a macrocyclic chelator-conjugated dimeric RGD peptide as a simple one-step 18F labeling strategy for development of a PET probe for tumor angiogenesis imaging. Methods Dimeric cyclic peptide E[c(RGDyK)]2 (RGD2) was first conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), and the resulting bioconjugate NOTA-RGD2 was then radiofluorinated via Al18F intermediate to synthesize 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2. Integrin binding affinities of the peptides were assessed by a U87MG cell-based receptor binding assay using 125I-echistatin as the radioligand. The tumor targeting efficacy and in vivo profile of 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 were further evaluated in a subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model by microPET and biodistribution. Results NOTA-RGD2 was successfully 18F-fluorinated with good yield within 40 min using the Al18F intermediate. The IC50 of 19F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 was determined to be 46±4.4 nM. Quantitative microPET studies demonstrated that 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 showed high tumor uptake, fast clearance from the body, and good tumor to normal organ ratios. Conclusion NOTA-RGD2 bioconjugate has been successfully prepared and labeled with Al18F in one single step of radiosynthesis. The favorable in vivo performance and the short radiosynthetic route of 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 warrant further optimization of the probe and the radiofluorination strategy to accelerate the clinical translation of 18F-labeled RGD peptides. PMID:21617974

  18. Quantitative analysis and comparison study of [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, [18F]FPPRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 using a reference tissue model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Gao, Haokao; Niu, Gang; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    With favorable pharmacokinetics and binding affinity for α(v)β(3) integrin, (18)F-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptide ([(18)F]FPPRGD2) has been intensively used as a PET imaging probe for lesion detection and therapy response monitoring. A recently introduced kit formulation method, which uses an (18)F-fluoride-aluminum complex labeled RGD tracer ([(18)F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2), provides a strategy for simplifying the labeling procedure to facilitate clinical translation. Meanwhile, an easy-to-prepare (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-PRGD2 has also been reported to have promising properties for imaging integrin α(v)β(3). The purpose of this study is to quantitatively compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of [(18)F]FPPRGD2, [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2. U87MG tumor-bearing mice underwent 60-min dynamic PET scans following the injection of three tracers. Kinetic parameters were calculated using Logan graphical analysis with reference tissue. Parametric maps were generated using voxel-level modeling. All three compounds showed high binding potential (Bp(ND) = k(3)/k(4)) in tumor voxels. [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 showed comparable Bp(ND) value (3.75±0.65) with those of [(18)F]FPPRGD2 (3.39±0.84) and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 (3.09±0.21) (p>0.05). Little difference was found in volume of distribution (V(T)) among these three RGD tracers in tumor, liver and muscle. Parametric maps showed similar kinetic parameters for all three tracers. We also demonstrated that the impact of non-specific binding could be eliminated in the kinetic analysis. Consequently, kinetic parameter estimation showed more comparable results among groups than static image analysis. In conclusion, [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 have comparable pharmacokinetics and quantitative parameters compared to those of [(18)F]FPPRGD2. Despite the apparent difference in tumor uptake (%ID/g determined from static images) and clearance pattern, the actual specific binding component extrapolated

  19. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison Study of [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, [18F]FPPRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 Using a Reference Tissue Model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ning; Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Gao, Haokao; Niu, Gang; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    With favorable pharmacokinetics and binding affinity for αvβ3 integrin, 18F-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptide ([18F]FPPRGD2) has been intensively used as a PET imaging probe for lesion detection and therapy response monitoring. A recently introduced kit formulation method, which uses an 18F-fluoride-aluminum complex labeled RGD tracer ([18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2), provides a strategy for simplifying the labeling procedure to facilitate clinical translation. Meanwhile, an easy-to-prepare 68Ga-labeled NOTA-PRGD2 has also been reported to have promising properties for imaging integrin αvβ3. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of [18F]FPPRGD2, [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2. U87MG tumor-bearing mice underwent 60-min dynamic PET scans following the injection of three tracers. Kinetic parameters were calculated using Logan graphical analysis with reference tissue. Parametric maps were generated using voxel-level modeling. All three compounds showed high binding potential (BpND = k3/k4) in tumor voxels. [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 showed comparable BpND value (3.75±0.65) with those of [18F]FPPRGD2 (3.39±0.84) and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 (3.09±0.21) (p>0.05). Little difference was found in volume of distribution (VT) among these three RGD tracers in tumor, liver and muscle. Parametric maps showed similar kinetic parameters for all three tracers. We also demonstrated that the impact of non-specific binding could be eliminated in the kinetic analysis. Consequently, kinetic parameter estimation showed more comparable results among groups than static image analysis. In conclusion, [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 have comparable pharmacokinetics and quantitative parameters compared to those of [18F]FPPRGD2. Despite the apparent difference in tumor uptake (%ID/g determined from static images) and clearance pattern, the actual specific binding component extrapolated from kinetic modeling appears to be comparable

  20. Preliminary evaluation of [18F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys39-exendin-4 in insulinoma with PET.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Zhu, Chen; Xu, Yuping; Pan, Donghui; Liu, Ping; Yang, Runlin; Wang, Lizhen; Chen, Fei; Sun, Xinchen; Luo, Shineng; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    High expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in insulinoma supplies a potential drug target for tumor imaging. Exendin-4 can specifically bind to GLP-1R as an agonist and its analogs are extensively used in receptor imaging studies. A new GLP-1R imaging agent, [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, was designed and prepared for insulinoma imaging. Cys(39)-exendin-4 was conjugated with NOTA-MAL, then the compound was radiolabeled with [(18)F]AlF complex to obtained [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4. The tumor-targeting characters of the tracer were evaluated in INS-1 cells and BALB/c nude mice models. [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 can be efficiently produced with a yield of 17.5 ± 3.2% (non-decay corrected) and radiochemical purity of >95%. The IC50 value of displacement [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 with Cys(39)-exendin-4 was 13.52 ± 1.36 nM. PET images showed excellent tumor visualization with high uptake (9.15 ± 1.6%ID/g at 30 min and 7.74 ± 0.87%ID/g at 60 min). The tumor to muscle, pancreas and liver ratios were 63.25, 3.85 and 7.29 at 60 min after injection. GLP-1R binding specificity was demonstrated by co-injection with an excess of unlabeled Cys(39)-exendin-4 and the tumor uptake was found to be reduced significantly. [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 shows favorable characteristics for insulinoma imaging and may be translated to clinical studies.

  1. Metabolically Stabilized (68)Ga-NOTA-Bombesin for PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer and Influence of Protease Inhibitor Phosphoramidon.

    PubMed

    Richter, Susan; Wuest, Melinda; Bergman, Cody N; Krieger, Stephanie; Rogers, Buck E; Wuest, Frank

    2016-04-04

    Peptide receptor-based targeted molecular imaging and therapy of cancer is on the current forefront of nuclear medicine preclinical research and clinical practice. The frequent overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors in prostate cancer stimulated the development of radiolabeled bombesin derivatives as high affinity peptide ligands for selective targeting of the GRP receptor. In this study, we have evaluated a novel (68)Ga-labeled bombesin derivative for PET imaging of prostate cancer in vivo. In addition, we were interested in testing the recently proposed "serve-and-protect" strategy to improve metabolic stability of radiolabeled peptides in vivo and to enhance tumor uptake. GRP receptor targeting peptides NOTA-BBN2 and (nat)Ga-NOTA-BBN2 demonstrated a characteristic antagonistic profile and high binding affinity toward the GRP receptor in PC3 cells (IC50 4.6-8.2 nM). Radiolabeled peptide (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN2 was obtained from NOTA-BBN2 in radiochemical yields greater than 62% (decay-corrected). Total synthesis time was 35 min, including purification using solid-phase extraction. (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN2 exhibited favorable resistance against metabolic degradation by peptidases in vivo within the investigated time frame of 60 min. Interestingly, metabolic stability was not further enhanced in the presence of protease inhibitor phosphoramidon. Dynamic PET studies showed high tumor uptake in both PC3- and LNCaP-bearing BALB/c nude mice (SUV5min > 0.6; SUV60min > 0.5). Radiotracer (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN2 represents a novel radiometal-based bombesin derivative suitable for GRP receptor targeting in PC3 and LNCaP mouse xenografts. Further increase of metabolic stability in vivo and enhanced tumor uptake were not observed upon administration of protease inhibitor phosphoramidon. This led to the conclusion that the recently proposed "serve-and-protect" strategy may not be valid for peptides exhibiting favorable intrinsic metabolic stability in vivo.

  2. Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of Folate-NOTA-Al(18)F for PET Imaging of Folate-Receptor-Positive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingshou; Meng, Xiangjun; McQuade, Paul; Rubins, Daniel; Lin, Shu-An; Zeng, Zhizhen; Haley, Hyking; Miller, Patricia; González Trotter, Dinko; Low, Philip S

    2016-05-02

    Folate-receptor-targeted PET radiotracers can potentially serve as versatile imaging agents for the diagnosis, staging, and prediction of response to therapy of patients with folate-receptor (FR)-expressing cancers. Because current FR-targeted PET reagents can be compromised by complex labeling procedures, low specific activities, poor radiochemical yields, or unwanted accumulation in FR negative tissues, we have undertaken to design an improved folate-PET agent that might be more amenable for clinical development. For this purpose, we have synthesized a folate-NOTA-Al(18)F radiotracer and examined its properties both in vitro and in vivo. Radiochemical synthesis of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F was achieved by incubating (18)F(-) with AlCl3 for 2 min followed by heating in the presence of folate-NOTA for 15 min at 100 °C. Binding of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F to FR was quantitated in homogenates of KB and Cal51 tumor xenografts in the presence and absence of excess folic acid as a competitor. In vivo imaging was performed on nu/nu mice bearing either FR+ve (KB cell) or FR-ve (A549 cell) tumor xenografts, and specific accumulation of the radiotracer in tumor and other tissues was assessed by high-resolution micro-PET and ex vivo biodistribution in the presence and absence of excess folic acid. Image quality of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F was compared with that of (99m)Tc-EC20, a clinically established folate-targeted SPECT imaging agent. Total radiochemical synthesis and purification of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F was completed within 37 min, yielding a specific activity of 68.82 ± 18.5 GBq/μmol, radiochemical yield of 18.6 ± 4.5%, and radiochemical purity of 98.3 ± 2.9%. Analysis of FR binding revealed a Kd of ∼1.0 nM, and micro-PET imaging together with ex vivo biodistribution analyses demonstrated high FR-mediated uptake in an FR+ tumor and the kidneys. Folate-NOTA-Al(18)F constitutes an easily prepared FR-targeted PET imaging agent with improved radiopharmaceutical properties and high

  3. Prospective Study of (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB: Radiation Dosimetry in Healthy Volunteers and First Application in Glioma Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Mingru; Wang, Liang; Wang, Shengjun; Kang, Fei; Li, Guoquan; Jacobson, Orit; Niu, Gang; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. As a specific imaging agent of CXCR4, (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB was investigated in this study to assess its safety, biodistribution and dosimetry properties in healthy volunteers, and to preliminarily evaluate its application in glioma patients. Six healthy volunteers underwent whole-body PET scans at 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h after (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB injection (mean dose, 182.4 ± 3.7 MBq (4.93 ± 0.10 mCi)). For time-activity curve calculations, 1 mL blood samples were obtained at 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the injection. The estimated radiation doses were calculated by OLINDA/EXM software. Eight patients with glioma were enrolled and underwent both (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB and (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans before surgery. The expression of CXCR4 on the resected brain tumor tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining. (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. A rapid activity clearance from the blood circulation was observed. The organs with the highest absorbed doses were spleen (193.8 ± 32.5 μSv/MBq) and liver (119.3 ± 25.0 μSv/MBq). The mean effective dose was 25.4 ± 6.1 μSv/MBq. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the maximum target to non-target ratios (T/NTmax) of (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB PET/CT in glioma tissues were 4.11 ± 2.90 (range, 0.45-8.21) and 9.21 ± 8.75 (range, 3.66-24.88), respectively, while those of (18)F-FDG PET/CT were 7.34 ± 2.90 (range, 3.50-12.27) and 0.86 ± 0.41 (range, 0.35-1.59). The histopathological staining confirmed that CXCR4 was overexpressed on resected tumor tissues with prominent (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB uptake. With a favorable radiation dosimetry profile, (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB is safe for clinical imaging. Compared to (18)F-FDG PET/CT, (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB PET/CT is more sensitive in detecting glioma and could have potential in diagnosing and treatment planning for CXCR4 positive patients.

  4. Morphological distinction between estuarine polychaetes: Laeonereis culveri and L. nota (Phyllodocida: Nereididae).

    PubMed

    de Jesus-Flores, Citlalli; Salazar-González, S Alejandro; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2016-03-01

    The family Nereididae includes more than 500 polychaete species described worldwide, and includes species common in many benthic environments, but some other species may tolerate freshwater or can even thrive in humid substrates in tropical forests. In estuarine environments, nereidid polychaetes can be abundant and relevant as a food source for resident or migratory birds. Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1879) is a common estuarine species found in tropical and subtropical Atlantic American shores and was described from New Jersey; its median and posterior parapodia have upper notopodial ligules usually longer than the lower ones, and the latter are parallel to the notaciculae throughout the body. L. culveri distribution is from Connecticut to central Argentina; however, this wide distribution might be due to the inclusion of several other species as junior synonyms, despite that some morphological differences were found between them. One of such species is L. nota (Treadwell, 1941), that was described from Texas; its parapodia have notopodial ligules of about the same size, and the lower ones are oblique to the notaciculae. In order to clarify the differences between these two species, and to define which inhabits the Northwestern Caribbean region, topotype materials from these two species and specimens from Chetumal Bay were collected, and their morphological features were compared. Our results indicated that L. culveri and L. nota are different species and that the latter is found in Chetumal Bay. On the basis of mature specimens, L. culveri is hereby restricted to the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, and L. nota are reinstated and its distribution extends from Texas, in the Gulf of Mexico to Chetumal Bay, in the Northwestern Caribbean Sea. A key to identify all species in Laeonereis Hartman (1945) is also included.

  5. Angiogenesis imaging in myocardial infarction using 68Ga-NOTA-RGD PET: characterization and application to therapeutic efficacy monitoring in rats.

    PubMed

    Eo, Jae Seon; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Song; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2013-06-01

    Ga-NOTA-RGD PET is a newly developed molecular imaging for angiogenesis. In this study, Ga-NOTA-RGD PET was used to investigate imaging characteristics in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model and to monitor the efficacy of an angiogenesis induction therapy. Ga-NOTA-RGD PET was performed serially in rats with MI or sham operation, and myocardial uptake was analyzed with respect to time duration and tissue characteristics. Subsequently, Ga-NOTA-RGD PET was serially performed for therapeutic efficacy monitoring in MI-induced rats, which were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) injection or saline injection. Image findings were compared with the final change in MI lesion. Ga-NOTA-RGD uptake was significantly increased in MI lesion and gradually decreased over time. Ga-NOTA-RGD uptake in the infarcted tissue corresponded with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and macrophage accumulation. In monitoring of therapeutic efficacy, the lesion uptake in the bFGF-injected group was significantly higher than that of the saline-injected and sham-operated groups on the first day. However, no significant differences were observed between bFGF and saline-injected groups at subsequent time points, corresponding to the final infarct size change. Ga-NOTA-RGD PET would be a useful angiogenesis imaging modality in MI for assessment of pathophysiology or monitoring of therapeutic efficacy.

  6. None-of-the-above (NOTA) capability for INTELL-based NCTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Eric; Mahler, Ronald P. S.; Brundage, Trent

    2001-08-01

    When trying to determine the identity of individual target classes a model database is often used which categorizes the known individuals. The models contain attributes which characterize each individual such as color, propulsion type, shape, number of wheels, etc. Based on sensed characteristics. Often new targets are introduced which are not modeled in the database but of interest to the observer. Historical classification systems will attempt to map measurements of new targets into the known model base as best as possible. This paper presents an approach for automatically generating a none-of-the-above (NOTA) class to allow for the detection of new classes.

  7. Gallium-68-labelled NOTA-oligonucleotides: an optimized method for their preparation.

    PubMed

    Gijs, Marlies; Dammicco, Sylvestre; Warnier, Corentin; Aerts, An; Impens, Nathalie R E N; D'Huyvetter, Matthias; Léonard, Marc; Baatout, Sarah; Luxen, André

    2016-02-01

    One of the most essential aspects to the success of radiopharmaceuticals is an easy and reliable radiolabelling protocol to obtain pure and stable products. In this study, we optimized the bioconjugation and gallium-68 ((68) Ga) radiolabelling conditions for a single-stranded 40-mer DNA oligonucleotide, in order to obtain highly pure and stable radiolabelled oligonucleotides. Quantitative bioconjugation was obtained for a disulfide-functionalized oligonucleotide conjugated to the macrocylic bifunctional chelator MMA-NOTA (maleimido-mono-amide (1,4,7-triazanonane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetic acid). Next, this NOTA-oligonucleotide bioconjugate was radiolabelled at room temperature with purified and pre-concentrated (68) Ga with quantitative levels of radioactive incorporation and high radiochemical and chemical purity. In addition, high chelate stability was observed in physiological-like conditions (37 °C, PBS and serum), in the presence of a transchelator (EDTA) and transferrin. A specific activity of 51.1 MBq/nmol was reached using a 1470-fold molar excess bioconjugate over (68) Ga. This study presents a fast, straightforward and reliable protocol for the preparation of (68) Ga-radiolabelled DNA oligonucleotides under mild reaction conditions and without the use of organic solvents. The methodology herein developed will be applied to the preparation of oligonucleotidic sequences (aptamers) targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) for cancer imaging. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [(68)Ga]NOTA-Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin: a Tracer for Liver Function Imaging with Improved Stability.

    PubMed

    Haubner, Roland; Schmid, Andreas M; Maurer, Andreas; Rangger, Christine; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Pichler, Bernd J; Virgolini, Irene J

    2017-02-13

    Non-invasive techniques allowing quantitative determination of the functional liver mass are of great interest for patient management in a variety of clinical settings. Recently, we presented [(68)Ga]DTPA-GSA to target the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor for this purpose. Here, we introduce [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA to improve metabolic stability of the radiopharmaceutical and compare the imaging properties with [(68)Ga]DTPA-GSA. Labeling of the compounds was carried out at room temperature using 1.9 M sodium acetate as buffer. For quality control, thin-layer, high-performance liquid, and size exclusion chromatographies were used. Metabolic stability was studied in rat and human serums. For in vivo evaluation, Fischer rats were scanned by positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and subsequently sacrificed for biodistribution studies. Time activity curves (TACs) for heart and liver were generated and corresponding parameters (T50, T90, LHL15, HH15) were calculated. [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA can be produced in high radiochemical yield and purity (>95 %) within 15 min. Stability studies revealed almost no metabolite formation over the 2-h observation period. Analysis of the TACs showed comparable results for most of the investigated parameters. The only significant difference was found in the T90 value, where [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA showed slower uptake in comparison with (68)Ga-DTPA-GSA (123 ± 10 vs. 89 ± 3 s, p < 0.01). [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA showed a significant increase of the metabolic stability and in most organs lower background activity. However, comparison of LHL15 and HH15 indicates that the increased stability did not further improve the diagnostic value. Thus, [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA and [(68)Ga]DTPA-GSA can be used equivalent for imaging hepatic function with positron emission tomography.

  9. Peptide synthesis, characterization and ⁶⁸Ga-radiolabeling of NOTA-conjugated ubiquicidin fragments for prospective infection imaging with PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ebenhan, Thomas; Chadwick, Nicholas; Sathekge, Mike M; Govender, Patrick; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Marjanovic-Painter, Biljana; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2014-01-01

    Human antimicrobial peptides are of interest for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as they exhibit desirable characteristics that make them good candidates for targeting vectors. Due to their natural role in the innate immune system they selectively bind to pathogenic bacteria and yeast, whilst remaining minimally immunogenic and cytotoxic to humans. Research into ubiquicidin (UBI)-based tracers has focused on (99m)Tc as a radionuclide, however, the use of bi-functional chelators such as 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), in combination with ⁶⁸Ga as a radionuclide, allows for a simple radiolabeling procedure which is preferable in a clinical setting using PET/CT. The peptides fragments UBI29-41, UBI30-41 were synthesized by standard microwave Fmoc/tert-butyl (tBu)-solid phase synthetic protocols. Characterizations were performed using analytical HPLC and LC/MS. Both NOTA-conjugated peptides were exposed to (nat)Ga³⁺; their complexed form was quantified by direct LC/MS injection. This complexation was utilized to testify bacterial and mammalian cell binding potential of fluorophore-linked NOTA-UBI29-41/30-41. ⁶⁸Ga labeled NOTA-UBI fragments were also tested for competitive interaction to Staphylococcus aureus to proof the binding target. ⁶⁸Ga was eluted from SnO₂- and TiO₂-based ⁶⁸Ge/⁶⁸Ga generators using fractionated elution and anion exchanged-based post-procession. NOTA-peptide radiolabeling was carried out including optimization of buffer molarity, NOTA-peptide concentration(s), incubation temperature and -duration as well as considering various SPE purification cartridges. Pure UBI29-41, UBI30-41 and NOTA-UBI30-41 were successfully characterized. Both, NOTA-UBI fragments exhibited complexation rates to (nat)Ga³⁺)≥ 99%. The percentage binding was significantly higher to Staphylococcus aureus bacilli over Mt4 human leucocytes (P>0.05) for NOTA-UBI29-41[Lys(Abz)]<NOTA-UBI30-41[Lys

  10. Radiolabeling and in vitro evaluation of (67)Ga-NOTA-modular nanotransporter--a potential Auger electron emitting EGFR-targeted radiotherapeutic.

    PubMed

    Koumarianou, Eftychia; Slastnikova, Tatiana A; Pruszynski, Marek; Rosenkranz, Andrey A; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Sobolev, Alexander S; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    Modular nanotransporters (MNTs) are vehicles designed to transport drugs from the cell surface via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal escape to nucleus. Hence their conjugation to Auger electron emitters, can cause severe cell killing, by nuclear localization. Herein we evaluate the use of MNT as a platform for targeted radiotherapy with (67)Ga. EGF was the targeting ligand on the MNT, and NOTA was selected for its radiolabeling with (67)Ga. In the radiolabeling study we dealt with the precipitation of MNT (pI 5.7) at the labeling pH (4.5-5.5) of (67)Ga. Cellular and nuclei uptake of (67)Ga-NOTA-MNT by the A431 cell line was determined. Its specific cytotoxicity was compared to that of (67)Ga-EDTA, (67)Ga-NOTA-BSA and (67)Ga-NOTA-hEGF, in A431 and U87MGWTT, cell lines, by clonogenic assay. Dosimetry studies were also performed. (67)Ga-NOTA-MNT was produced with 90% yield and specific activity of 25.6mCi/mg. The in vitro kinetics revealed an increased uptake over 24h. 55% of the internalized radioactivity was detected in the nuclei at 1h. The cytotoxicity of (67)Ga-NOTA-MNT on A431 cell line was 17 and 385-fold higher when compared to non-specific (67)Ga-NOTA-BSA and (67)Ga-EDTA. While its cytotoxic potency was 13 and 72-fold higher when compared to (67)Ga-NOTA-hEGF in the A431 and the U87MGWTT cell lines, respectively, validating its nuclear localization. The absorbed dose, for 63% cell killing, was 8Gy, confirming the high specific index of (67)Ga. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using MNT as a platform for single cell kill targeted radiotherapy by Auger electron emitters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiolabeling and in vitro evaluation of 67Ga-NOTA-modular nanotransporter – A potential Auger electron emitting EGFR-targeted radiotherapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Koumarianou, Eftychia; Slastnikova, Tatiana A.; Pruszynski, Marek; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Sobolev, Alexander S.; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Modular nanotransporters (MNTs) are vehicles designed to transport drugs from the cell surface via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal escape to nucleus. Hence their conjugation to Auger electron emitters, can cause severe cell killing, by nuclear localization. Herein we evaluate the use of MNT as a platform for targeted radiotherapy with 67Ga. Methods EGF was the targeting ligand on the MNT, and NOTA was selected for its radiolabeling with 67Ga. In the radiolabeling study we dealt with the precipitation of MNT (pI 5.7) at the labeling pH (4.5–5.5) of 67Ga. Cellular and nuclei uptake of 67Ga-NOTA-MNT by the A431 cell line was determined. Its specific cytotoxicity was compared to that of 67Ga-EDTA, 67Ga-NOTA-BSA and 67Ga-NOTA-hEGF, in A431 and U87MGWTT, cell lines, by clonogenic assay. Dosimetry studies were also performed. Results 67Ga-NOTA-MNT was produced with 90% yield and specific activity of 25.6 mCi/mg. The in vitro kinetics revealed an increased uptake over 24 h. 55% of the internalized radioactivity was detected in the nuclei at 1 h. The cytotoxicity of 67Ga-NOTA-MNT on A431 cell line was 17 and 385-fold higher when compared to non-specific 67Ga-NOTA-BSA and 67Ga-EDTA. While its cytotoxic potency was 13 and 72 – fold higher when compared to 67Ga-NOTA-hEGF in the A431 and the U87MGWTT cell lines, respectively, validating its nuclear localization. The absorbed dose, for 63% cell killing, was 9 Gy, confirms the high specific index of 67Ga. Conclusion These results demonstrate the feasibility of using MNT as a platform for single cell kill targeted radiotherapy by Auger electron emitters. PMID:24776093

  12. (67/68)Ga-labeling agent that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-methionine by lysosomal proteolysis of parental low molecular weight polypeptides to reduce renal radioactivity levels.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Kinoshita, Mai; Nemoto, Souki; Fransisco Lazaro, Guerra Gomez; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Arano, Yasushi

    2014-11-19

    The renal localization of gallium-67 or gallium-68 ((67/68)Ga)-labeled low molecular weight (LMW) probes such as peptides and antibody fragments constitutes a problem in targeted imaging. Wu et al. previously showed that (67)Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bz-NOTA)-conjugated methionine ((67)Ga-NOTA-Met) was rapidly excreted from the kidney in urine following lysosomal proteolysis of the parental (67)Ga-NOTA-Bz-SCN-disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (Bioconjugate Chem., (1997) 8, 365-369). In the present study, a new (67/68)Ga-labeling reagent for LMW probes that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-Met was designed, synthesized, and evaluated using longer-lived (67)Ga in order to reduce renal radioactivity levels. We employed a methionine-isoleucine (MI) dipeptide bond as the cleavable linkage. The amine residue of MI was coupled with SCN-Bz-NOTA for (67)Ga-labeling, while the carboxylic acid residue of MI was derivatized to maleimide for antibody conjugation in order to synthesize NOTA-MI-Mal. A Fab fragment of the anti-Her2 antibody was thiolated with iminothiolane, and NOTA-MI-Mal was conjugated with the antibody fragment by maleimide-thiol chemistry. The Fab fragment was also conjugated with SCN-Bz-NOTA (NOTA-Fab) for comparison. (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab was obtained at radiochemical yields of over 95% and was stable in murine serum for 24 h. In the biodistribution study using normal mice, (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab registered significantly lower renal radioactivity levels from 1 to 6 h postinjection than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. An analysis of urine samples obtained 6 h after the injection of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab showed that the majority of radioactivity was excreted as (67)Ga-NOTA-Met. In the biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice, the tumor to kidney ratios of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab were 4 times higher (6 h postinjection) than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. Although further studies including the structure of radiometabolites and

  13. ⁶⁸Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 as a PET Tracer for Detection of Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Vilche, Mónica; Reyes, Ana Laura; Vasilskis, Elena; Oliver, Patricia; Balter, Henia; Engler, Henry

    2016-04-01

    The cationic peptide (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 was synthesized and characterized. Biodistribution and PET/CT examinations were performed for evaluation of its biologic behavior. Differentiation of infection from sterile inflammation was investigated using microbiology methods at the sites of bacterial infections. Labeling of UBI-29-41 conjugated with NOTA with (68)Ga was optimized at 20°C-100°C and pH 3.5-5.5. Radiochemical purity, stability up to 260 min, and binding to serum proteins were determined. In vitro binding to Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated from 9.14 × 10(7) to 1.17 × 10(10) cfu/mL. Of 3 groups of Mus musculus Swiss male mice, the first was inoculated intramuscularly with 1.2 × 10(8) cfu of S. aureus to provoke infection, and the second, with 1.2 × 10(8) cfu of heat shock-treated S. aureus to generate sterile inflammation. The third mouse was not treated and served as a control. After 24 h, (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 was administrated intravenously, and biodistribution was performed at 30, 60, and 120 min. PET/CT dynamic studies (120 min) were acquired. Sinograms were reconstructed using 3D maximum-likelihood expectation maximization and analyzed with software. Infected or inflamed muscles were dissected, homogenized, and cultured in tryptic soy agar medium. Recovered S. aureus was calculated as cfu/g. (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 showed high renal excretion (83.2% ± 7.3%) of injected dose and rapid blood clearance. More than 95% was bound in vitro to 5 × 10(9) cfu/mL. A significantly higher (P< 0.05) accumulation of (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 was observed at sites of S. aureus inoculation in infected mice (ratio of target to nontarget, 5.0 at 60 min and 4.1 at 120 min) compared with animals with inflammation (ratio of target to nontarget, 1.6 at 60 min and 1.2 at 120 min). The difference in uptake of (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 in the infected muscles compared with the inflamed muscles was clearly observed in the PET/CT images and positively correlated with the

  14. In vivo imaging of Aminopeptidase N (CD13) receptors in experimental renal tumors using the novel radiotracer (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR).

    PubMed

    Máté, Gábor; Kertész, István; Enyedi, Kata Nóra; Mező, Gábor; Angyal, János; Vasas, Nikolett; Kis, Adrienn; Szabó, Éva; Emri, Miklós; Bíró, Tamás; Galuska, László; Trencsényi, György

    2015-03-10

    Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) plays an important role in tumor neoangiogenic process and the development of metastases. Furthermore, it may serve as a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Previous studies have already shown that asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) peptides specifically bind to APN/CD13. The aim of the study was to synthesize and investigate the APN/CD13 specificity of a novel (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-c(NGR) molecule in vivo using miniPET. c[KNGRE]-NH2 peptide was conjugated with p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and was labeled with Ga-68 ((68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR)). Orthotopic and heterotopic transplanted mesoblastic nephroma (NeDe) bearing Fischer-344 rats were prepared, on which biodistribution studies and miniPET scans were performed for both (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) and ανβ3 integrin selective (68)Ga-NODAGA-[c(RGD)]2 tracers. APN/CD13 receptor expression of NeDe tumors and metastases was analyzed by western blot. (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) was produced with high specific activity (5.13-5.92GBq/μmol) and with excellent radiochemical purity (95%<), at all cases. Biodistribution studies in normal rats showed that uptake of the (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) was significantly (p⩽0.05) lower in abdominal organs in comparison with (68)Ga-NODAGA-[c(RGD)]2. Both radiotracers were mainly excreted from the kidney. In NeDe tumor bearing rats higher (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) accumulation was found in the tumors than that of the (68)Ga-NODAGA-[c(RGD)]2. Using orthotopic transplantation, metastases were developed which showed specific (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) uptake. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of APN/CD13 expression in NeDe tumors and metastases. Our novel radiotracer (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) showed specific binding to the APN/CD13 expressed ortho- and heterotopic transplanted NeDe tumors. Therefore, (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) is a suitable tracer for the detection of APN/CD13 positive tumors and metastases in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and characterization of a novel Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA conjugate for melanin-targeted imaging of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chao; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Lo, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Shen, Chih-Chieh; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chen, Chuan-Lin

    2016-08-15

    Melanin is an attractive target for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma. Previous studies have demonstrated the specific binding ability of benzamide moiety to melanin. In this study, we developed a novel (18)F-labeled NOTA-benzamide conjugate, Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA, which can be synthesized in 30min with a radiochemical yield of 20-35% and a radiochemical purity of >95%. Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA is highly hydrophilic (logP=-1.96) and shows good in vitro stability. Intravenous administration of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA in two melanoma-bearing mouse models revealed highly specific uptake in B16F0 melanotic melanoma (6.67±0.91 and 1.50±0.26%ID/g at 15 and 120min p.i., respectively), but not in A375 amelanotic melanoma (0.87±0.21 and 0.24±0.09%ID/g at 15 and 120min p.i., respectively). The clearance from most normal tissues was fast. A microPET scan of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA-injected mice also displayed high-contrast tumor images as compared with normal organs. Owing to the favorable in vivo distribution of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA after intravenous administration, the estimated absorption dose was low in all normal organs and tissues. The melanin-specific binding ability, sustained tumor retention, fast normal tissues clearance and thelow projected human dosimetry supported that Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA is a very promising melanin-specific PET probe for melanin-positive melanoma.

  16. Synthesis of (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-RGD-GE11 heterodimeric peptide for dual integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hung-Man; Chen, Jyun-Hong; Lin, Kun-Liang; Lin, Wuu-Jyh

    2015-06-15

    Radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide analogs have been extensively studied for αvβ3 integrin-targeted angiogenesis imaging. According to recently presented evidence, the dodecapeptide GE11 has high affinity to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed in many types of cancer. Dual-receptor molecular imaging probes with two different heterodimeric peptides exhibit improved cancer targeting efficacy. In the present study, the design and synthesis of a new RGD-GE11 peptide heterodimer for dual αvβ3 integrin/EGFR-targeted cancer imaging are described. The RGD-GE11 heterodimer was linked with 6-aminohexanoic acid (6-Ahx) and cysteine and conjugated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N″-triacetic acid (NOTA) to form NOTA-RGD-cys-6-Ahx-GE11. The monomeric peptides, NOTA-cys-6-Ahx-GE11 and c(RGDyK), were formed by a peptide synthesizer. The peptide heterodimer NOTA-RGD-GE11 was obtained by NOTA-cys-6-Ahx-GE11 and maleimidopropyl-c(RGDyK) conjugation with a thioether linkage. The NOTA peptide conjugate was labeled with freshly eluted (68)Ga and purified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-cys-6-Ahx-GE11 was successfully prepared, in this study, with a radiochemical yield of 85% and a radiochemical purity of >98%. These results warrant further investigation of this heterodimeric peptide's binding affinity to the receptors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Impact of dianionic and dicationic linkers on tumor uptake and biodistribution of [(64) Cu]Cu/NOTA peptide-based gastrin-releasing peptide receptors antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nematallah; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Paquette, Michel; Lecomte, Roger; Guérin, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the influence of 2-aminoethyl-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid (APCA) and amino-hexanedioic-1-acid (AHDA) on tumor uptake and elimination kinetics of [(64) Cu]-radiolabeled gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) antagonists. Three GRPR antagonists containing the RM26 sequence were synthesized and conjugated with NOTA via different linkers (LK): polyethylene glycol (PEG-neutral), APCA (dicationic) or AHDA (dianionic). The NOTA-LK-RM26 peptides were radiolabeled with (64) Cu to assess their pharmacokinetic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging properties using PC3 tumor-bearing athymic nude mice. The inhibition constants (Ki ) of the 3 (nat) Cu/NOTA-LK-RM26 peptides bearing PEG, dicationic and dianionic linkers were 0.98 ± 0.48 nM, 0.95 ± 0.21 nM, and 17.97 ± 2.79 nM, respectively. The [(64) Cu] NOTA-LK-RM26 conjugates were prepared with labeling yields superior to 95% and specific activities of 67 to 77 TBq/mmol. The 3 radiopeptides were stable in vivo and showed GRPR-specific uptake in pancreas with a very fast washout of this tissue observed for [(64) Cu]-NOTA-AHDA-RM26 peptide. Results from imaging studies displayed specific PC3 tumor uptake for both [(64) Cu]-NOTA-APCA- and AHDA-RM26, similar kidney elimination and fast liver washout. Considering their adequate imaging characteristics, [(64) Cu]-NOTA-LK-RM26 bearing APCA- and AHDA-linkers are promising candidates for GRPR-targeted PET imaging prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a 64Cu-Labeled NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-Bombesin Analogue in Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Expressing Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Jeffrey M.; De Silva1, Ravindra A.; Lears, Kimberly A.; Andrews, Rebecca; Liang, Kexian; Achilefu, Samuel; Rogers, Buck E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Bombesin (BN) is an amphibian peptide that binds to the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). It has been demonstrated that BN analogues can be radiolabeled for potential diagnosis and treatment of GRPR-expressing malignancies. Previous studies have conjugated various chelators to the eight C-terminal amino acids of BN (BN(7-14)) for radiolabeling with 64Cu. Recently, (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) (NOTA) has been evaluated as the five coordinate 64Cu complex with results indicating GRPR-specific tumor uptake. This study aimed to conjugate S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-NOTA (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) to BN(7-14) such that it could form a six coordinate complex with 64Cu and evaluate the resulting peptide. Methods p-SCN-NOTA was conjugated to 8-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc)-BN(7-14) in solution to yield NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14). The unlabeled peptide was evaluated in a cell binding assay using PC-3 prostate cancer cells and 125I-Tyr4-BN to determine the IC50 value. The peptide was radiolabeled with 64Cu and evaluated for internalization into PC-3 cells and for tumor uptake in mice bearing PC-3 xenografts using biodistribution and microPET imaging studies. Results The binding assay demonstrated that NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14) bound with high affinity to GRPR with an IC50 of 1.4 nM. The radiolabeled peptide demonstrated time-dependent internalization into PC-3 cells. In vivo, the peptide demonstrated tumor-specific uptake and imaging that was comparable to that of previously reported 64Cu-labeled BN analogues. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that 64Cu-NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14) binds to GRPR expressing cells and that it can be used for imaging of GRPR-expressing prostate cancer. PMID:22261146

  19. Comparative gallium-68 labeling of TRAP-, NOTA-, and DOTA-peptides: practical consequences for the future of gallium-68-PET.

    PubMed

    Notni, Johannes; Pohle, Karolin; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-06-09

    Currently, 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-peptides are the most widely used class of 68Ga radiotracers for PET, although DOTA is not optimal for 68Ga complexation. More recently, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and particularly triazacyclononane-phosphinate (TRAP) chelators have been shown to possess superior 68Ga binding ability. Here, we report on the efficiency, reproducibility, and achievable specific activity for fully automated 68Ga labeling of DOTA-, NOTA-, and TRAP-peptide conjugates. Compared to NOTA- and DOTA-peptides, achievable specific activity (AS) for TRAP-peptide is approximately 10 and 20 times higher, respectively. AS values in the range of 5,000 GBq/μmol were routinely obtained using 1 GBq of 68Ga, equivalent to 0.11 μg of cold mass for a 185-MBq patient dose of a 3-kDa conjugate. The TRAP-peptide could be 68Ga-labeled with excellent reproducibility and > 95% radiochemical yield for precursor amounts as low as 1 nmol. High 68Ga labeling efficiency of TRAP-peptides could facilitate realization of kit labeling procedures. The good reproducibility of the automated synthesis is of relevance for GMP production, and the possibility to provide very high specific activities offers a high degree of safety in first clinical trials, due to reduction of cold mass content in tracer formulations.

  20. (68)Ga/DOTA- and (64)Cu/NOTA-phthalocyanine conjugates as fluorescent/PET bimodal imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Ranyuk, Elena; Lebel, Réjean; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Klarskov, Klaus; Lecomte, Roger; van Lier, Johan E; Guérin, Brigitte

    2013-09-18

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a series of new bimodal probes combining water-soluble sulfonated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as a fluorescence imaging unit and either (68)Ga/1,4,7,10-tetraazocyclododecane-N,N'N″,N'″-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or (64)Cu/1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) for PET imaging. The two moieties were linked through aliphatic chains of different lengths to modulate amphiphilicity. Labeling of DOTA- or NOTA-ZnPc conjugates with (68)Ga (t1/2 = 68 min) and (64)Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h) was performed at 100 °C for 15 min with >90% efficiency for all conjugates. In vitro plasma stability assays demonstrated high stability of the (64)Cu/NOTA-ZnPc conjugate, which remained intact over a 24 h time period, and reasonably high stability of the (68)Ga/DOTA-ZnPc conjugate, which released up to 7% of free (68)Ga over a 3 h period. Based on in vitro plasma stability results, we performed biodistribution studies on two (64)Cu-labeled derivatives, which allowed us to select a single candidate for preliminary in vivo experiments. Fluorescence and PET imaging confirmed the potential of these novel conjugates to act as bimodal probes.

  1. Preliminary biological evaluation of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys-Annexin V as a novel apoptosis imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxiong; Jiang, Quanfu; Hu, Minjin; Tan, Cheng; Yu, Huixin; Hua, Zichun

    2017-08-01

    A novel annexin V derivative (Cys-Annexin V) with a single cysteine residue at its C-terminal has been successfully labeled site-specifically with NOTA-maleimide aluminum [(18)F]fluoride complexation and evaluated it as a novel apoptosis agent in vitro and in vivo. The total synthesis time of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys-Annexin V from [(18)F]fluoride was about 65 min. The tracer was stable in vitro and it was excreted through renal in normal mice. The rate of the tracer bound to erythrocytes with exposed phosphatidylserine was 89.36±0.61% and this binding could be blocked by unlabeled Cys-Annexin V. In rats treated with cycloheximide, there were 6.23±0.23 times (n=4) increase in hepatic uptake of the tracer as compared to normal rats at 1h p.i. The uptake of the tracer in liver also could be blocked by co-injection of unlabeled Cys-Annexin V. These results indicated the favorable characterizations such as convenient synthesis and specific apoptotic cells targeting of(18)F-AlF-NOTA-MAL- Cys-Annexin V were suitable for its further investigation in clinical apoptosis imaging.

  2. Comparative gallium-68 labeling of TRAP-, NOTA-, and DOTA-peptides: practical consequences for the future of gallium-68-PET

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-peptides are the most widely used class of 68Ga radiotracers for PET, although DOTA is not optimal for 68Ga complexation. More recently, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and particularly triazacyclononane-phosphinate (TRAP) chelators have been shown to possess superior 68Ga binding ability. Here, we report on the efficiency, reproducibility, and achievable specific activity for fully automated 68Ga labeling of DOTA-, NOTA-, and TRAP-peptide conjugates. Findings Compared to NOTA- and DOTA-peptides, achievable specific activity (AS) for TRAP-peptide is approximately 10 and 20 times higher, respectively. AS values in the range of 5,000 GBq/μmol were routinely obtained using 1 GBq of 68Ga, equivalent to 0.11 μg of cold mass for a 185-MBq patient dose of a 3-kDa conjugate. The TRAP-peptide could be 68Ga-labeled with excellent reproducibility and > 95% radiochemical yield for precursor amounts as low as 1 nmol. Conclusions High 68Ga labeling efficiency of TRAP-peptides could facilitate realization of kit labeling procedures. The good reproducibility of the automated synthesis is of relevance for GMP production, and the possibility to provide very high specific activities offers a high degree of safety in first clinical trials, due to reduction of cold mass content in tracer formulations. PMID:22682112

  3. Comparison of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG uptake in lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Wu, Zhenyu; Liang, Sheng; Fu, Hongliang; Wu, Shuqi; Tang, Yiyun; Ye, Zhiyi; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    A widespread application of integrin αvβ3 imaging has been emerging in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. But few studies reported its value as compared with 18F-FDG PET, especially for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). In this study, we compared the tracer uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG in lymph node metastasis of DTC to evaluate 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 as compared with 18F-FDG. 20 DTC patients with presumptive lymph node metastasis were examined with 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG PET/CT. 16 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were evaluated by cytology results. For lesions without FNAB, the findings of clinical staging procedures served as the standard of reference (including neck ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin). A total of 39 presumptive lymph node metastases were visualized on PET/CT images. 35 lesions were confirmed as malignant by FNAB and other clinical findings. The mean 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 in radioactive iodine-refractory (RAIR) lesions and benign lesions were 2.5±0.9 and 2.8±0.9 respectively. The mean SUV for 18F-FDG in all malignant lesions was 4.5±1.6 while in benign lesions it was 3.3±1.2. For all malignant lesions, the mean SUV for 18F-FDG was significantly higher than that for 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 (P<0.05). No significant correlation was found between the SUVs of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG for 35 lesions (r = 0.114, P = 0.515). Moreover, 15 lesions of which the diameter larger than 1.5 cm had higher 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 uptake as compared with the lesions smaller than 1.5 cm. Although most lymph node metastases of DTC showed abnormal uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2, its diagnostic value was inferior to 18F-FDG. No correlation was found between the uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG, which may suggest the two tracers provide complementary information in DTC lesions.

  4. Comparison of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG Uptake in Lymph Node Metastasis of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sheng; Fu, Hongliang; Wu, Shuqi; Tang, Yiyun; Ye, Zhiyi; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    A widespread application of integrin αvβ3 imaging has been emerging in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. But few studies reported its value as compared with 18F-FDG PET, especially for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). In this study, we compared the tracer uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG in lymph node metastasis of DTC to evaluate 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 as compared with 18F-FDG. Methods 20 DTC patients with presumptive lymph node metastasis were examined with 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG PET/CT. 16 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were evaluated by cytology results. For lesions without FNAB, the findings of clinical staging procedures served as the standard of reference (including neck ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin). Results A total of 39 presumptive lymph node metastases were visualized on PET/CT images. 35 lesions were confirmed as malignant by FNAB and other clinical findings. The mean 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 in radioactive iodine-refractory (RAIR) lesions and benign lesions were 2.5±0.9 and 2.8±0.9 respectively. The mean SUV for 18F-FDG in all malignant lesions was 4.5±1.6 while in benign lesions it was 3.3±1.2. For all malignant lesions, the mean SUV for 18F-FDG was significantly higher than that for 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 (P<0.05). No significant correlation was found between the SUVs of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG for 35 lesions (r = 0.114, P = 0.515). Moreover, 15 lesions of which the diameter larger than 1.5cm had higher 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 uptake as compared with the lesions smaller than 1.5cm. Conclusion Although most lymph node metastases of DTC showed abnormal uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2, its diagnostic value was inferior to 18F-FDG. No correlation was found between the uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG, which may suggest the two tracers provide complementary information in DTC lesions. PMID:24956393

  5. Quantitative positron emission tomography imaging of angiogenesis in rats with forelimb ischemia using (68)Ga-NOTA-c(RGDyK).

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Hyun; Kim, Young-Hwa; Kim, Young Joo; Yang, Bo Yeun; Jeong, Jae Min; Youn, Hyewon; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2013-10-01

    Gallium-68-labeled 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA)-cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys (c(RGDyK)) was developed for αvβ3 targeting, and is a promising agent for imaging of cancer and disorders related to angiogenesis. In this study, we performed kinetic analysis of (68)Ga-NOTA-c(RGDyK) in rats with surgically induced forelimb ischemia, and immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to assess αvβ3 immuno-staining level. Animal models were created by excision of the left brachial vessels, and a sham operation was performed on the right brachial region under 2 % isoflurane anesthesia. Using an animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner, a list mode PET scan (120 min) was started with the injection of (68)Ga-NOTA-c(RGDyK) via the tail vein at 3, 5 and 7 days after ischemic surgery. Volumes of interest were drawn on the left ventricle, sham operation, control, and ischemic regions. Compartmental and two graphical analyses (Logan and RE plots) were performed for kinetic parameter estimation. The immunohistochemical analysis was also performed after the last PET scan, and cell components were scored on a six point scale for quantification of immuno-staining level (0-negative to 5-very high). A 3-compartment model with reversible binding best described the tissue time-activity curves. The distribution volume of the ischemic region was significantly higher than that of the sham operation (P < 10(-6)) and control region (P < 10(-9)). Both the Logan and RE plots showed high correlation with compartmental analysis (R(2) = 0.96 and 0.95 for Logan and RE, respectively). The temporal changes in distribution volume and binding potential were not significant. The immuno-staining level of the ischemic region was significantly higher than that of sham operation (P < 10(-4)) and control region (P < 10(-8)). Kinetic modeling studies with dynamic (68)Ga-NOTA-c(RGDyK) PET scan are feasible based on an image-derived input function in a

  6. A systematic study on the utility of CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS and NOTA-NCS as bifunctional chelators for (177)Lu radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Lohar, Sharad Pandurang; Dash, Ashutosh

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of [(R)-2-Amino-3-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS) and 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA-NCS) as bifunctional chelators for (177)Lu. While (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS could be obtained in high yields at equimolar ratios of lutetium to CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS, >95% yield of (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS could be achieved at 1:2M ratio of lutetium to NOTA-NCS. Trace metals reduced the yields of (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS significantly as compared to (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS. In vitro stability of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS was also superior to (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS. It could be concluded from this study that among the two chelators evaluated, CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS is more appropriate for preparation of (177)Lu radiopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a high-affinity NOTA-conjugated bombesin antagonist for GRPR-targeted tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Varasteh, Zohreh; Velikyan, Irina; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Sandström, Mattias; Selvaraju, Ram Kumar; Malmberg, Jennie; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna

    2013-07-17

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR/BB2) is a molecular target for the visualization of prostate cancer. This work focused on the development of high-affinity, hydrophilic, antagonistic, bombesin-based imaging agents for PET and SPECT. The bombesin antagonist analog d-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2 ([d-Phe(6),Sta(13),Leu(14)]bombesin[6-14]) was synthesized and conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N″-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a diethylene glycol (PEG2) linker. The resulting conjugate, NOTA-PEG2-[d-Phe(6),Sta(13),Leu(14)]bombesin[6-14] (NOTA-P2-RM26), was labeled with (68)Ga (T1/2 = 68 min, positron emitter) and (111)In (T1/2 = 2.8 days, gamma emitter). The labeling stability, specificity, inhibition efficiency (IC50), and dissociation constant (KD) of both labeled compounds as well as their cellular retention and internalization were investigated. The pharmacokinetics of the dual isotope ((111)In/(68)Ga)-labeled peptide in both normal NMRI mice and PC-3 tumor-bearing Balb/c nu/nu mice was also studied. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (111)In and (68)Ga at a radiochemical yield of >98%. Both conjugates were shown to have high specificity and binding affinity for GRPR. The KD value was determined to be 23 ± 13 pM for the (111)In-labeled compound in a saturation binding experiment. In addition, (nat)In- and (nat)Ga-NOTA-P2-RM26 showed low nanomolar binding inhibition concentrations (IC50 = 1.24 ± 0.29 nM and 0.91 ± 0.19 nM, respectively) in a competitive binding assay. The internalization rate of the radiolabeled conjugates was slow. The radiometal-labeled tracers demonstrated rapid blood clearance via the kidney and GRPR-specific uptake in the pancreas in normal mice. Tumor targeting and biodistribution studies in mice bearing PC-3 xenografts displayed high and specific uptake in tumors (8.1 ± 0.4%ID/g for (68)Ga and 5.7 ± 0.3%ID/g for (111)In) and high tumor-to-background ratios (tumor/blood: 12 ± 1 for (68)Ga and 10 ± 1 for (111)In

  8. Gallium(III) complexes of NOTA-bis (phosphonate) conjugates as PET radiotracers for bone imaging.

    PubMed

    Holub, Jan; Meckel, Marian; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Rösch, Frank; Hermann, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ligands with geminal bis(phosphonic acid) appended to 1,4,7-triazacyclonone-1,4-diacetic acid fragment through acetamide (NOTAM(BP) ) or methylenephosphinate (NO2AP(BP) ) spacers designed for (68) Ga were prepared. Ga(III) complexation is much faster for ligand with methylenephosphinate spacer than that with acetamide one, in both chemical (high reactant concentrations) and radiolabeling studies with no-carrier-added (68) Ga. For both ligands, formation of Ga(III) complex was slower than that with NOTA owing to the strong out-of-cage binding of bis(phosphonate) group. Radiolabeling was efficient and fast only above 60 °C and in a narrow acidity region (pH ~3). At higher temperature, hydrolysis of amide bond of the carboxamide-bis(phosphonate) conjugate was observed during complexation reaction leading to Ga-NOTA complex. In vitro sorption studies confirmed effective binding of the (68) Ga complexes to hydroxyapatite being comparable with that found for common bis(phosphonate) drugs such as pamindronate. Selective bone uptake was confirmed in healthy rats by biodistribution studies ex vivo and by positron emission tomography imaging in vivo. Bone uptake was very high, with SUV (standardized uptake value) of 6.19 ± 1.27 for [(68) Ga]NO2AP(BP) ) at 60 min p.i., which is superior to uptake of (68) Ga-DOTA-based bis(phosphonates) and [(18) F]NaF reported earlier (SUV of 4.63 ± 0.38 and SUV of 4.87 ± 0.32 for [(68) Ga]DO3AP(BP) and [(18) F]NaF, respectively, at 60 min p.i.). Coincidently, accumulation in soft tissue is generally low (e.g. for kidneys SUV of 0.26 ± 0.09 for [(68) Ga]NO2AP(BP) at 60 min p.i.), revealing the new (68) Ga complexes as ideal tracers for noninvasive, fast and quantitative imaging of calcified tissue and for metastatic lesions using PET or PET/CT. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. PET imaging with [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD for prostate cancer: a comparative study with [¹⁸F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [¹⁸F]fluoroethylcholine.

    PubMed

    Israel, Ina; Richter, Dominik; Stritzker, Jochen; van Ooschot, Michaela; Donat, Ulrike; Buck, Andreas K; Samnick, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The α(v)β₃ integrin is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa), in which it is a key player in tumour invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis formation. Therefore, α(v)β₃ integrin is considered a very promising target for molecular imaging of PCa. This study tested the potential of the novel α(v)β₃ integrin affine agent [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD in comparison with the established [¹⁸F]fluoroethylcholine (FEC) and [¹⁸F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for assessing PCa using positron emission tomography (PET). [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD showed a lower uptake in PC-3 and DU-145 cells compared with FEC and FDG. µPET imaging studies showed a good delineation of the PCa xenografts in mice. The means tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-bone-ratio amounted 5.1 ± 1.4 and 5.2 ± 1.2 for [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD compared with 2.6 ± 0.9 and 2.9 ± 1.6 for FDG, and 2.4 ± 0.7 and 0.8 ± 0.2 for FEC, respectively. The uptake of [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD into tumor was fully inhibited by c(RGDfV), known to bind specifically to α(v)β₃ integrin, confirming the specificity of the tumor uptake in vivo. These results suggest that [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD is a promising candidate for PET imaging of α(v)β₃ integrin expression in PCa and warrant further in vivo validations to ascertain its potential as an imaging agent for clinical use. The simple and fast preparation of [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD may greatly facilitate its translation to a clinical setting.

  10. 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT in localization of an occult insulinoma and appearance of coexisting esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yaping; Li, Naishi; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Fang

    2015-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman with biochemically proven endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and negative conventional imaging underwent 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT for localization of insulinoma. Focal intense radioactivity in the tail of the pancreas was observed that was subsequently confirmed as insulinoma pathologically after surgical resection. Additionally, esophageal carcinoma with lymph node and hepatic metastases was found by FDG PET/CT in the same patient. Neither the primary carcinoma nor the metastases showed increased radioactivity on 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT. PMID:26647001

  11. Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor-PET with (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105: First Clinical Experience with a Novel PET Ligand.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a key component in proteolysis and extracellular matrix degradation during cancer invasion and metastasis. uPAR overexpression is an important biomarker for aggressiveness in several solid tumors and provides independent clinical information. A recent major breakthrough was obtained with human translation of uPAR PET using (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105. Clinical results are encouraging and several large-scale clinical trials are now ongoing. This review focuses on uPAR PET with (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 as a new broadly applicable diagnostic and prognostic imaging biomarker in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo characterization of 68Ga-NOTA-VEGF 121 for the imaging of VEGF receptor expression in U87MG tumor xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong Mo; Kim, Sung-Min; Koo, Hyun-Jung; Yim, Min Su; Lee, Kyung-Han; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Choe, Yearn Seong

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) are associated with tumor growth and induction of tumor angiogenesis and are known to be overexpressed in various human tumors. In the present study, we prepared and evaluated (68)Ga-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid-benzyl (NOTA)-VEGF(121) as a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for the in vivo imaging of VEGFR expression. (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) was prepared by conjugation of VEGF(121) and p-SCN-NOTA, followed by radiolabeling with (68)GaCl(3) and then purification using a PD-10 column. Human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) binding of (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) was measured as a function of time. MicroPET and biodistribution studies of U87MG tumor xenografted mice were performed at 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121). The tumor tissues were then sectioned and subjected to immunostaining. The decay-corrected radiochemical yield of (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) was 40 ± 4.5 % and specific activity was 243.1 ± 104.6 GBq/μmol (8.6 ± 3.7 GBq/mg). (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) was avidly taken up by HAECs in a time-dependent manner, and the uptake was blocked either by 32 % with VEGF(121) or by 49 % with VEGFR2 antibody at 4 h post-incubation. In microPET images of U87MG tumor xenografted mice, radioactivity was accumulated in tumors (2.73±0.32 %ID/g at 2 h), and the uptake was blocked by 40 % in the presence of VEGF(121). In biodistribution studies, tumor uptake (1.84±0.14 %ID/g at 2 h) was blocked with VEGF(121) at a similar level (52 %) to that of microPET images. Immunostaining analysis of U87MG tumor tissues obtained after the microPET imaging showed high levels of VEGFR2 expression. These results demonstrate that (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) has potential for the in vivo imaging of VEGFR expression. In addition, our results also suggest that the in vivo characteristics of radiolabeled VEGF depend on the properties of the radioisotope and the chelator used.

  13. 68Ga-NOTA-Exendin-4 PET/CT in Localization of an Occult Insulinoma and Appearance of Coexisting Esophageal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaping; Li, Naishi; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Fang

    2016-04-01

    A 61-year-old woman with biochemically proven endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and negative conventional imaging underwent 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT for localization of insulinoma. Focal intense radioactivity in the tail of the pancreas was observed that was subsequently confirmed as insulinoma pathologically after surgical resection. In addition, esophageal carcinoma with lymph node and hepatic metastases was found by FDG PET/CT in the same patient. Neither the primary carcinoma nor the metastases showed increased radioactivity on 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT.

  14. Syntheses and preliminary evaluation of [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 for PET imaging of high aggressive hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yesen; Zhang, Deliang; Shi, Ying; Guo, Zhide; Wu, Xinying; Ren, Jian-Lin; Zhang, Xianzhong; Wu, Hua

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate a new (18) F-labeled imaging agent for diagnosing high metastatic (aggressive) hepatocellular carcinoma using positron emission tomography (PET). The new (18) F-labeled imaging agent [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 was synthesized and radiolabeled with (18) F using NOTA-AlF chelation method. The tumor-targeting characteristics of [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 was assessed in HepG2, SMCC-7721, HCC97L and HCCLM3 xenografts. The total synthesis time was about 20 min with radiochemical yield of 25 ± 6%. The specific activity was about 11.1-14.8 GBq/µmol at the end of synthesis based on the amount of peptide used and the amount of radioactivity trapped on the C18 column. The log P value of [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 was -3.166 ± 0.022. [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 accumulated in SMCC-7721 and HCCLM3 tumors (high metastatic potential) in vivo and result in tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios of 4.5 ± 0.3 and 4.7 ± 0.2 (n = 4) as measured by PET at 40 min post-injection (p.i.). Meanwhile, the tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios of HepG2 and HCC97L tumors (low metastatic potential) were1.6 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.4. The tumor uptake of [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 could be inhibited 61.9% and 57.6% by unlabeled G-TMTP1 in SMCC-7721 and HCCLM3 xenografts at 40 min p.i., respectively. Furthermore, [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 showed pretty low activity in the liver and intestines in all tumor bearing mice, such in vivo distribution pattern would be advantageous for the detection of hepatic carcinoma. Overall, [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 may specifically target high metastatic or/and aggressive hepatocellular carcinoma with low background activity and, therefore, holds the potential to be used as an imaging agent for detecting tumor lesions within the liver area. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a 18F-Labeled High Affinity NOTA Conjugated Bombesin Antagonist as a PET Ligand for GRPR-Targeted Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Velikyan, Irina; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Antoni, Gunnar; Sandström, Mattias; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in prostate cancer suggests that this receptor can be used as a potential molecular target to visualize and treat these tumors. We have previously investigated an antagonist analog of bombesin (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2, RM26) conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a diethylene glycol (PEG2) spacer (NOTA-P2-RM26) labeled with 68Ga and 111In. We found that this conjugate has favorable properties for in vivo imaging of GRPR-expression. The focus of this study was to develop a 18F-labelled PET agent to visualize GRPR. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with 18F using aluminum-fluoride chelation. Stability, in vitro binding specificity and cellular processing tests were performed. The inhibition efficiency (IC50) of the [natF]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 was compared to that of the natGa-loaded peptide using 125I-Tyr4-BBN as the displacement radioligand. The pharmacokinetics and in vivo binding specificity of the compound were studied. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with 18F within 1 h (60-65% decay corrected radiochemical yield, 55 GBq/µmol). The radiopeptide was stable in murine serum and showed high specific binding to PC-3 cells. [natF]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 showed a low nanomolar inhibition efficiency (IC50=4.4±0.8 nM). The internalization rate of the tracer was low. Less than 14% of the cell-bound radioactivity was internalized after 4 h. The biodistribution of [18F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 demonstrated rapid blood clearance, low liver uptake and low kidney retention. The tumor uptake at 3 h p.i. was 5.5±0.7 %ID/g, and the tumor-to-blood, -muscle and -bone ratios were 87±42, 159±47, 38±16, respectively. The uptake in tumors, pancreas and other GRPR-expressing organs was significantly reduced when excess amount of non-labeled peptide was co-injected. The low uptake in bone suggests a high in vivo stability of the Al-F bond. High contrast PET image was obtained 3 h p.i. The initial biological

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a (18)F-labeled high affinity NOTA conjugated bombesin antagonist as a PET ligand for GRPR-targeted tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Varasteh, Zohreh; Aberg, Ola; Velikyan, Irina; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Antoni, Gunnar; Sandström, Mattias; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in prostate cancer suggests that this receptor can be used as a potential molecular target to visualize and treat these tumors. We have previously investigated an antagonist analog of bombesin (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2, RM26) conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a diethylene glycol (PEG2) spacer (NOTA-P2-RM26) labeled with (68)Ga and (111)In. We found that this conjugate has favorable properties for in vivo imaging of GRPR-expression. The focus of this study was to develop a (18)F-labelled PET agent to visualize GRPR. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (18)F using aluminum-fluoride chelation. Stability, in vitro binding specificity and cellular processing tests were performed. The inhibition efficiency (IC50) of the [(nat)F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 was compared to that of the (nat)Ga-loaded peptide using (125)I-Tyr(4)-BBN as the displacement radioligand. The pharmacokinetics and in vivo binding specificity of the compound were studied. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (18)F within 1 h (60-65% decay corrected radiochemical yield, 55 GBq/µmol). The radiopeptide was stable in murine serum and showed high specific binding to PC-3 cells. [(nat)F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 showed a low nanomolar inhibition efficiency (IC50=4.4±0.8 nM). The internalization rate of the tracer was low. Less than 14% of the cell-bound radioactivity was internalized after 4 h. The biodistribution of [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 demonstrated rapid blood clearance, low liver uptake and low kidney retention. The tumor uptake at 3 h p.i. was 5.5±0.7 %ID/g, and the tumor-to-blood, -muscle and -bone ratios were 87±42, 159±47, 38±16, respectively. The uptake in tumors, pancreas and other GRPR-expressing organs was significantly reduced when excess amount of non-labeled peptide was co-injected. The low uptake in bone suggests a high in vivo stability of the Al-F bond. High contrast PET image was obtained 3 h p

  17. Evaluation of a Flexible NOTA-RGD Kit Solution Using Gallium-68 from Different (68)Ge/(68)Ga-Generators: Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution in Nonhuman Primates and Demonstration of Solitary Pulmonary Nodule Imaging in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ebenhan, Thomas; Schoeman, Isabel; Rossouw, Daniel D; Grobler, Anne; Marjanovic-Painter, Biljana; Wagener, Judith; Kruger, Hendrik G; Sathekge, Mike M; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2017-06-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals containing the motive tripeptide arginyl-glycyl-asparatic acid (RGD) are known to target ανβ3 integrins during tumor angiogenesis. A more generic kit radiolabeling procedure accommodating Ga-68 from different generators was developed for NOTA-RGD and evaluated for its versatile use and safety in subsequent in vivo applications. The [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD kit was further verified for its expected biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in nonhuman primates and its clinical sensitivity to detect solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) in cancer patients. Single vial kits containing 28-56 nmol of NOTA-cyclo-Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys (NOTA-RGD) and sodium acetate trihydrate buffer were formulated. Versatility of the NOTA-RGD radiolabeling performance and adaption to a TiO2- and a SnO2-based generator type, characterization and long-term storage stability of the kits were carried out. The blood clearance and urine recovery kinetics as well as the image-guided biodistribution of [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD was studied in a vervet monkey model. [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD kits were further tested clinically to target solitary pulmonary nodules. The kits could be successfully formulated warranting integrity over 3-4 months with a good [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD radiolabeling performance (radiochemical purity >95 %, decay corrected yield 76-94 %, specific activity of 8.8-37.9 GBq/μmol) The kits met all quality requirements to be further tested in vivo. [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD cleared rapidly from blood and was majorly excreted via the renal route. The liver, spleen, heart and intestines showed initial uptake with steadily declining tissue activity concentration over time. In addition, the [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD kit allowed for delineation of SPN from non-malignant lung tissue in humans. A more versatile radiolabeling procedure using kit-formulated NOTA-RGD and different generator types was achieved. The uncompromised in vivo behavior and efficient targeting of SPN warrants further investigations on the

  18. Comparative study of 64Cu/NOTA-[D-Tyr6,βAla11,Thi13,Nle14]BBN(6-14) monomer and dimers for prostate cancer PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Patrick; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Langlois, Réjean; Bénard, François; Lecomte, Roger; Guérin, Brigitte

    2012-02-14

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors [GRPR] are highly over-expressed in multiple cancers and have been studied as a diagnostic target. Multimeric gastrin-releasing peptides are expected to have enhanced tumor uptake and affinity for GRPR. In this study, a 64Cu-labeled 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid [NOTA]-monomer and two NOTA-dimers of [D-Tyr6,βAla11, Thi13, Nle14]bombesin(6-14) ] [BBN(6-14)] were compared. Monomeric and dimeric peptides were synthesized on solid phase support and radiolabeled with 64Cu. NOTA-dimer 1 consists of asymmetrically linked BBN(6-14), while NOTA-dimer 2 has similar spacer between the two BBN(6-14) ligands and the chelator. In vitro GRPR-binding affinities were determined with competitive binding assays on PC3 human prostate cancer cells. In vivo stability and biodistribution of radiolabeled compounds were assessed in Balb/c mice. Cellular uptake and efflux were measured with radiolabeled NOTA-monomer and NOTA-dimer 2 on PC3 cells for up to 4 h. In vivo biodistribution kinetics were measured in PC3 tumor-bearing Balb/c nude mice by μ-positron emission tomography [μPET] imaging and confirmed by dissection and counting. NOTA-monomer, NOTA-dimers 1 and 2 were prepared with purity of 99%. The inhibition constants of the three BBN peptides were comparable and in the low nanomolar range. All 64Cu-labeled peptides were stable up to 24 h in mouse plasma and 1 h in vivo. 64Cu/NOTA-dimer 2 featuring a longer spacer between the two BBN(6-14) ligands is a more potent GRPR-targeting probe than 64Cu/NOTA-dimer 1. PC3 tumor uptake profiles are slightly different for 64Cu/NOTA-monomer and 64Cu/NOTA-dimer 2; the monomeric BBN-peptide tracer exhibited higher tumor uptake during the first 0.5 h and a fast renal clearance resulting in higher tumor-to-muscle ratio when compared to 64Cu/NOTA-dimer 2. The latter exhibited higher tumor-to-blood ratio and was retained longer at the tumor site when compared to 64Cu/NOTA-monomer. Lower ratios of

  19. MicroPET/CT imaging of αvβ₃ integrin via a novel ⁶⁸Ga-NOTA-RGD peptidomimetic conjugate in rat myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Luca; Kusmic, Claudia; Panetta, Daniele; Arosio, Daniela; Petroni, Debora; Matteucci, Marco; Salvadori, Piero A; Casagrande, Cesare; L'Abbate, Antonio; Manzoni, Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    The αvβ3 integrin is expressed in angiogenic vessels and is a potential target for molecular imaging of evolving pathological processes. Its expression is upregulated in cancer lesions and metastases as well as in acute myocardial infarction (MI) as part of the infarct healing process. The purpose of our study was to determine the feasibility of a new imaging approach with a novel (68)Ga-2,2',2″-(1,4,7-triazonane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetic acid (NOTA)-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) construct to assess integrin expression in the evolving MI. A straightforward labelling chemistry to attach the radionuclide (68)Ga to a NOTA-based chelating agent conjugated with a cyclic RGD peptidomimetic is described. Affinity for αvβ₃ integrin was assessed by in vitro receptor binding assay. The proof-of-concept in vivo studies combined the (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD with the flow tracer (13)N-NH₃ imaging in order to obtain positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging of both integrin expression and perfusion defect at 4 weeks after infarction. Hearts were then processed for immunostaining of integrin β₃. NOTA-RGD conjugate displayed a binding affinity for αvβ₃ integrin of 27.9 ± 6.8 nM. (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD showed stability without detectable degradation or formation of by-products in urine up to 2 h following injection in the rat. MI hearts exhibited (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD uptake in correspondence to infarcted and border zone regions. The tracer signal drew a parallel with vascular remodelling due to ischaemia-induced angiogenesis as assessed by immunohistochemistry. As compared to similar imaging approaches using the (18)F-galacto-derivative, we documented for the first time with microPET/CT imaging the (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD derivative that appears eligible for PET imaging in animal models of vascular remodelling during evolving MI. The simple chemistry employed to synthesize the (68)Ga-based radiotracer may greatly facilitate its translation to a clinical setting.

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a 64Cu-labeled NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-bombesin analogue in gastrin-releasing peptide receptor expressing prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Craft, Jeffrey M; De Silva, Ravindra A; Lears, Kimberly A; Andrews, Rebecca; Liang, Kexian; Achilefu, Samuel; Rogers, Buck E

    2012-07-01

    Bombesin (BN) is an amphibian peptide that binds to the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). It has been demonstrated that BN analogues can be radiolabeled for potential diagnosis and treatment of GRPR-expressing malignancies. Previous studies have conjugated various chelators to the eight C-terminal amino acids of BN [BN(7-14)] for radiolabeling with 64Cu. Recently, (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) (NOTA) has been evaluated as the five-coordinate 64Cu complex, with results indicating GRPR-specific tumor uptake. This study aimed to conjugate S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-NOTA (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) to BN(7-14) such that it could form a six-coordinate complex with 64Cu and to evaluate the resulting peptide. p-SCN-NOTA was conjugated to 8-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc)-BN(7-14) in solution to yield NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14). The unlabeled peptide was evaluated in a cell binding assay using PC-3 prostate cancer cells and 125I-Tyr4-BN to determine the IC50 value. The peptide was radiolabeled with 64Cu and evaluated for internalization into PC-3 cells and for tumor uptake in mice bearing PC-3 xenografts using biodistribution and micro-positron emission tomography imaging studies. The binding assay demonstrated that NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14) bound with high affinity to GRPR with an IC50 of 1.4 nM. The radiolabeled peptide demonstrated time-dependent internalization into PC-3 cells. In vivo, the peptide demonstrated tumor-specific uptake and imaging that were comparable to those of previously reported 64Cu-labeled BN analogues. These studies demonstrate that 64Cu-NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14) binds to GRPR-expressing cells and that it can be used for imaging of GRPR-expressing prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preclinical evaluation of [(68)Ga]NOTA-pentixafor for PET imaging of CXCR4 expression in vivo - a comparison to [(68)Ga]pentixafor.

    PubMed

    Poschenrieder, Andreas; Schottelius, Margret; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Due to its overexpression in a variety of tumor types, the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) represents a highly relevant diagnostic and therapeutic target in nuclear oncology. Recently, [(68)Ga]pentixafor has emerged as an excellent imaging agent for positron emission tomography (PET) of CXCR4 expression in vivo. In this study, the corresponding [(68)Ga]-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) analog was preclinically evaluated and compared to the 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) parent compound [(68)Ga]pentixafor. NOTA-pentixafor was synthesized by combining solid and solution-phase peptide synthesis. The CXCR4 receptor affinities of [(68)Ga]pentixafor and [(68)Ga]NOTA-pentixafor were determined in competitive binding assays using the leukemic CXCR4-expressing Jurkat T-cell line and [(125)I]FC131 as the radioligand. Internalization and cell efflux assays were performed using CXCR4-transfected Chem-1 cells. Small-animal PET and biodistribution studies were carried out using Daudi-tumor bearing SCID mice. [(68)Ga]NOTA-pentixafor showed a 1.4-fold improved affinity towards CXCR4 (IC50). However, internalization efficiency into CXCR4(+)-Chem-1 cells was substantially decreased compared to [(68)Ga]pentixafor. Accordingly, small-animal PET imaging and biodistribution studies revealed a 9.5-fold decreased uptake of [(68)Ga]NOTA-pentixafor in Daudi lymphoma xenografts (1.7 ± 0.4 % vs 16.2 ± 3.8 % ID/g at 90 min p.i.) and higher levels of non-specific accumulation, primarily in the excretory organs such as the liver, intestines, and kidneys (2.3 ± 0.9 % vs 2.0 ± 0.3 % ID/g, 1.9 ± 0.8 % vs 0.7 ± 0.2 % ID/g, and 2.7 ± 1.1 % vs 1.7 ± 0.9 % ID/g, respectively). Despite enhanced CXCR4-affinity in vitro, the [(68)Ga]NOTA-analog of pentixafor showed reduced CXCR4 targeting efficiency in vivo. In combination with enhanced background accumulation, this resulted in significantly inferior PET imaging

  2. The effect of mini-PEG-based spacer length on binding and pharmacokinetic properties of a 68Ga-labeled NOTA-conjugated antagonistic analog of bombesin.

    PubMed

    Varasteh, Zohreh; Rosenström, Ulrika; Velikyan, Irina; Mitran, Bogdan; Altai, Mohamed; Honarvar, Hadis; Rosestedt, Maria; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna

    2014-07-17

    The overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in cancer can be used for peptide-receptor mediated radionuclide imaging and therapy. We have previously shown that an antagonist analog of bombesin RM26 conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a diethyleneglycol (PEG2) spacer (NOTA-PEG2-RM26) and labeled with 68Ga can be used for imaging of GRPR-expressing tumors. In this study, we evaluated if a variation of mini-PEG spacer length can be used for optimization of targeting properties of the NOTA-conjugated RM26. A series of analogs with different PEG-length (n = 2, 3, 4, 6) was synthesized, radiolabeled and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The IC50 values of natGa-NOTA-PEGn-RM26 (n = 2, 3, 4, 6) were 3.1 ± 0.2, 3.9 ± 0.3, 5.4 ± 0.4 and 5.8 ± 0.3 nM, respectively. In normal mice all conjugates demonstrated similar biodistribution pattern, however 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26 showed lower liver uptake. Biodistribution of 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26 was evaluated in nude mice bearing PC-3 (prostate cancer) and BT-474 (breast cancer) xenografts. High uptake in tumors (4.6 ± 0.6%ID/g and 2.8 ± 0.4%ID/g for PC-3 and BT-474 xenografts, respectively) and high tumor-to-background ratios (tumor/blood of 44 ± 12 and 42 ± 5 for PC-3 and BT-474 xenografts, respectively) were found already at 2 h p.i. of 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26. Results of this study suggest that variation in the length of the PEG spacer can be used for optimization of targeting properties of peptide-chelator conjugates. However, the influence of the mini-PEG length on biodistribution is minor when di-, tri-, tetra- and hexaethylene glycol are compared.

  3. Synthesis, preclinical validation, dosimetry, and toxicity of 68Ga-NOTA-anti-HER2 Nanobodies for iPET imaging of HER2 receptor expression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Catarina; Vaneycken, Ilse; D'huyvetter, Matthias; Heemskerk, Johannes; Keyaerts, Marleen; Vincke, Cécile; Devoogdt, Nick; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; Caveliers, Vicky

    2013-05-01

    Nanobodies are the smallest fully functional antigen-binding antibody fragments possessing ideal properties as probes for molecular imaging. In this study we labeled the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) Nanobody with (68)Ga via a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) derivative and assessed its use for HER2 iPET imaging. The 2Rs15dHis6 Nanobody and the lead optimized current-good-manufacturing-practice grade analog 2Rs15d were conjugated with S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) to enable fast and efficient (68)Ga labeling. Biodistribution and PET/CT studies were performed on HER2-positive and -negative tumor xenografts. The effect of injected mass on biodistribution was evaluated. The biodistribution data were extrapolated to calculate radiation dose estimates for the adult female using OLINDA software. A single-dose extended-toxicity study for NOTA-2Rs15d was performed on healthy mice up to a dose of 10 mg/kg. Radiolabeling was quantitative (>97%) after 5 min of incubation at room temperature; specific activity was 55-200 MBq/nmol. Biodistribution studies showed fast and specific uptake (percentage injected activity [%IA]) in HER2-positive tumors (3.13 ± 0.06 and 4.34 ± 0.90 %IA/g for (68)Ga-NOTA-2Rs15dHis6 and (68)Ga-NOTA-2Rs15d, respectively, at 1 h after injection) and high tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios at 1 h after injection, resulting in high-contrast PET/CT images with high specific tumor uptake. A remarkable finding of the biodistribution studies was that kidney uptake was reduced by 60% for the Nanobody lacking the C-terminal His6 tag. The injected mass showed an effect on the general biodistribution: a 100-fold increase in NOTA-2Rs15d mass decreased liver uptake from 7.43 ± 1.89 to 2.90 ± 0.26 %IA/g whereas tumor uptake increased from 2.49 ± 0.68 to 4.23 ± 0.99 %IA/g. The calculated effective dose, based on extrapolation of mouse data, was 0

  4. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor PET/CT with 68Ga-NOTA-Exendin-4 for Detecting Localized Insulinoma: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaping; Pan, Qingqing; Yao, Shaobo; Yu, Miao; Wu, Wenming; Xue, Huadan; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Fang; Zhao, Yupei; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    Preoperative localization of insulinoma is a clinical dilemma. We aimed to investigate whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) PET/CT with (68)Ga-NOTA-MAL-cys(40)-exendin-4 ((68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4) is efficient in detecting insulinoma. In our prospective cohort study, patients with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia were enrolled. CT, MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, and (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT were done according to standard protocols. GLP-1R PET/CT was performed 30-60 min after the injection of (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4. The gold standard for diagnosis was the histopathologic results after surgery. Of 52 recruited patients, 43 patients with histopathologically proven insulinomas were included for the imaging studies. Nine patients did not undergo surgical intervention. (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT correctly detected insulinomas in 42 of 43 patients with high tumor uptake (mean SUVavg ± SD, 10.2 ± 4.9; mean SUVmax ± SD, 23.6 ± 11.7), resulting in sensitivity of 97.7%. In contrast, (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT showed a low sensitivity of 19.5% (8/41) in this group of patients; however, it successfully localized the tumor that was false-negative with GLP-1R PET/CT. The sensitivities of CT, MR, and endoscopic ultrasonography were 74.4% (32/43), 56.0% (14/25), and 84.0% (21/25), respectively. (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT is a highly sensitive imaging technique for the localization of insulinoma. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  5. Whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD, a positron emission tomography agent for angiogenesis imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Hyun; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Ho-Young; Han, Sae-Won; Kim, Tae-You; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo

    2012-02-01

    (68)Ga labeled NOTA-RGD was a recently developed positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for the visualization of angiogenesis, and is regarded as a promising imaging agent for cancer and several other disorders. In this study, we investigated the whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD in humans. Ten cancer patients (53.7 ± 13.5 years; 61.5 ± 7.4  kg) participated in this study. PET scans were performed using a PET/computed tomography (scanner in three-dimensional mode). After an intravenous injection of 172.4 ± 20.5  MBq of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD, eight serial whole-body scans were performed during 90 minutes. Volumes of interest were drawn manually over the entire volumes of the urinary bladder, the gallbladder, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, spleen, and stomach. Time-activity curves were obtained from serial PET scan data. Residence times were calculated from areas under curve of time-activity curves and used as input to the OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software. The uptake of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD was highest in the kidneys and urinary bladder. Radiation doses to kidneys and urinary bladder were 71.6 ± 28.4  μ Gy/MBq and 239.6 ± 56.6  μ Gy/MBq. Mean effective doses were 25.0 ± 4.4  μ Sv/MBq using International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) publication 60 and 22.4 ± 3.8  μ Sv/MBq using ICRP publication 103 weighting factor. We evaluated the radiation dosimetry of (68)Ga labeled NOTA-RGD, which has an acceptable effective radiation dose.

  6. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor PET/CT with 68Ga-NOTA-Exendin-4 for Detecting Localized Insulinoma: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yaping; Pan, Qingqing; Yao, Shaobo; Yu, Miao; Wu, Wenming; Xue, Huadan; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Fang; Zhao, Yupei; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative localization of insulinoma is a clinical dilemma. We aimed to investigate whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) PET/CT with 68Ga-NOTA-MAL-cys40-exendin-4 (68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4) is efficient in detecting insulinoma. Methods In our prospective cohort study, patients with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia were enrolled. CT, MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, and 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT were done according to standard protocols. GLP-1R PET/CT was performed 30–60 min after the injection of 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4. The gold standard for diagnosis was the histopathologic results after surgery. Results Of 52 recruited patients, 43 patients with histopathologically proven insulinomas were included for the imaging studies. Nine patients did not undergo surgical intervention. 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT correctly detected insulinomas in 42 of 43 patients with high tumor uptake (mean SUVavg ± SD, 10.2 ± 4.9; mean SUVmax ± SD, 23.6 ± 11.7), resulting in sensitivity of 97.7%. In contrast, 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT showed a low sensitivity of 19.5% (8/41) in this group of patients; however, it successfully localized the tumor that was false-negative with GLP-1R PET/CT. The sensitivities of CT, MR, and endoscopic ultrasonography were 74.4% (32/43), 56.0% (14/25), and 84.0% (21/25), respectively. Conclusion 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT is a highly sensitive imaging technique for the localization of insulinoma. PMID:26795291

  7. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  8. PET imaging of angiogenesis after myocardial infarction/reperfusion using a one-step labeled integrin-targeted tracer 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haokao; Lang, Lixin; Guo, Ning; Cao, Feng; Quan, Qimeng; Hu, Shuo; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-01

    The α(v)β(3) integrin represents a potential target for noninvasive imaging of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel one-step labeled integrin α(v)β(3)-targeting positron emission tomography (PET) probe, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, for angiogenesis imaging in a myocardial infarction/reperfusion (MI/R) animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 45-min transient left coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. The myocardial infarction was confirmed by ECG, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging, and cardiac ultrasound. In vivo PET imaging was used to determine myocardial uptake of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 at different time points following reperfusion. The control peptide RAD was labeled with a similar procedure and used to confirm the specificity. Ex vivo autoradiographic analysis and CD31/CD61 double immunofluorescence staining were performed to validate the PET results. Myocardial origin of the (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 accumulation was confirmed by (18)F-FDG and autoradiography. PET imaging demonstrated increased focal accumulation of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in the infarcted area which started at day 3 (0.28 ± 0.03%ID/g, p < 0.05) and peaked between 1 and 3 weeks (0.59 ± 0.16 and 0.55 ± 0.13%ID/g, respectively). The focal accumulation decreased but still kept at a higher level than the sham group after 4 months of reperfusion (0.31 ± 0.01%ID/g, p < 0.05). Pretreatment with unlabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide significantly decreased tracer uptake, indicating integrin specificity of this tracer. At 1 week after MI/R, uptake of the control tracer (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RAD that does not bind to integrin, in the infarcted area, was only 0.21 ± 0.01%ID/g. Autoradiographic imaging showed the same trend of uptake in the myocardial infarction area. The time course of focal tracer uptake was consistent with the pattern of vascular density and integrin β(3) expression as measured by CD31 and CD61 immunostaining analysis. PET

  9. PET Imaging of Angiogenesis after Myocardial Infarction/Reperfusion using a One-Step Labeled Integrin Targeted Tracer 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haokao; Lang, Lixin; Guo, Ning; Cao, Feng; Quan, Qimeng; Hu, Shuo; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The αvβ3 integrin represents a potential target for noninvasive imaging of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel one-step labeled integrin αvβ3 targeting PET probe, 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, for angiogenesis imaging in a myocardial infract/reperfusion (MI/R) animal model. Methods Male SD rats underwent 45 min transient left coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. The myocardial infarction was confirmed by ECG, 18F-FDG imaging and cardiac ultrasound. In vivo PET imaging were used to determine myocardial uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 at different time points following reperfusion. The control peptide RAD was labeled with a similar procedure and used to confirm the specificity. Ex vivo autoradiographic analysis and CD31/CD61 double immunofluoresence staining were performed to validate the PET results. Results Myocardial origin of the 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 accumulation was confirmed by 18F-FDG and autoradiography. PET imaging demonstrated increased focal accumulation of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in the infarcted area started at day 3 (0.28 ± 0.03 %ID/g, p < 0.05), peaked between 1 and 3 weeks (0.59 ± 0.16 and 0.55 ± 0.13 %ID/g, respectively). The focal accumulation decreased but still kept at a higher level than the sham group after 4 months of reperfusion (0.31 ± 0.01 %ID/g, p < 0.05). Pretreatment with unlabeled RGD peptide significantly decreased tracer uptake, indicating integrin specificity of this tracer. At 1 week after MI/R, uptake of the control tracer 18F-AlF-NOTA-RAD that does not bind to integrin, in the infarcted area, was only 0.21 ± 0.01 %ID/g. Autoradiographic imaging showed the same trend of uptake in myocardial infarction area. The time course of focal tracer uptake was consistent with the pattern of vascular density and integrin β3 expression as measured by CD31 and CD61 immunostaining analysis. Conclusion PET imaging using one-step labeled 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 allows noninvasive visualization of ischemia

  10. (68)Ga-NOTA-CHSg and (99m)Tc-CHSg Labeled Microspheres for Lung Perfusion and Liver Radiomicrospheres Therapy Planning.

    PubMed

    Amor-Coarasa, Alejandro; Milera, Andrew; Carvajal, Denny; Gulec, Seza; Leichner, Jared; McGoron, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Fast biodegradable (12 h < half-life < 48 h) radioactive labeled microspheres are needed for PET and SPECT lung perfusion and radiomicrosphere therapy planning. An emulsion method was used to create 30.1 ±4.8  μ m size range microspheres with biodegradable Chitosan glycol (CHSg). Microspheres were characterized and labeled with (99m)Tc or (68)Ga as an alternative to MAA in perfusion PET and SPECT studies. Surface decoration of CHSg microspheres with p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was performed to increase (68)Ga  in vivo stability. (99m)Tc was labeled directly to the CHSg microspheres. Labeling yield and in vitro radiochemical stability were evaluated. In vitro CHSg microsphere degradation half-life was ~24 hours in porcine blood. Labeled microspheres were injected into Sprague Dawley rats and biodistribution was determined after 2 and 4 hours. Both (99m)Tc-CHSg and (68)Ga-NOTA-CHSg were quickly allocated in the lungs after injection. (99m)Tc-CHSg showed 91.6 ± 6.5% and 83.2 ± 4.1% of the decay corrected injected activity remaining in the lungs after 2 and 4 hours, respectively. For the obtained (68)Ga-NOTA-CHSg microspheres, lung allocation was very high with 98.9 ± 0.2% and 95.6 ± 0.9% after 2 and 4 hours, respectively. The addition of p-SCN-Bn-NOTA acts as a radioprotectant eliminating the released (68)Ga activity from the lungs to the bladder protecting the other organs.

  11. Novel radiolabeled peptides for breast and prostate tumor PET imaging: (64)Cu/and (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-[D-Tyr(6),βAla(11),Thi(13),Nle(14)]BBN(6-14).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Patrick; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Tremblay, Sébastien; Bénard, François; Lecomte, Roger; Guérin, Brigitte

    2012-08-15

    Bombesin (BBN)-based radiolabeled peptides exhibit promising properties for targeted imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR)-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with positron emission tomography (PET) the pharmacokinetic and imaging properties of two novel BBN-based radiolabeled peptides, (64)Cu/and (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14), for diagnosis of breast and prostate cancers using small animal models. Competitive binding assays on T47D breast and PC3 prostate cancer cells showed that the affinity for GRPR depends on the complexed metal and can vary up to a factor of about 3; (64)Cu/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) was found to have the lowest inhibition constant (1.60 ± 0.59 nM). (64)Cu/and (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) presented similar cell uptake on T47D and PC3 cells and were stable in vivo. Biodistribution studies of radiolabeled peptides carried out in Balb/c and tumor-bearing Balb/c nude mice showed that (64)Cu/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) presented higher GRPR-mediated uptake in pancreas and adrenal glands, but comparable PC3 tumor uptake as (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14). Finally, receptor-dependent responses were observed during blocking studies with unlabeled peptide in both biodistribution and small-animal PET imaging studies. Our results confirmed the dependence of the affinity and pharmacokinetics of BBN-based radiopeptides on the complexed radiometal. Interspecies differences between mouse and human GRPR binding properties were also noted in these preclinical studies. Considering their good imaging characteristics, both (64)Cu/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) and (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) are promising candidates for GRPR-targeted PET imaging of breast and prostate cancers.

  12. Imaging angiogenesis using (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with severe intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shi; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Yi Cheng; Li, Fang; Cui, Li Ying; Wang, Hao; Sun, Yi; Wu, Pei Lin; Zhu, Zhao Hui; Peng, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical compensation route, which has been demonstrated in the brain following ischemic stroke; however, few studies have investigated angiogenesis in chronic intracranial atherosclerosis disease (ICAD). We used (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 positron emission tomography/computed tomography based imaging to detect angiogenesis in chronic ICAD and to explore the factors that may have affected it. A total of 21 participants with unilateral severe chronic ICAD were included in the study. Of the 21 participants, 19 were men; the mean (SD) age was 52 (15) years. In 18 participants, we observed elevated (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 uptake in the peri-infarct, subcortical, and periventricular regions of the lesioned side, with a higher (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 SUVmax compared to that in the contralateral hemisphere (0.15 vs. 0.06, p=0.001). The (18)F-FDG PET SUVmax was significantly lower on the lesioned side (11.28 vs. 13.92, p=0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed that the recent group (<6 months) had a higher lesion-to-contralateral region ratio SUVmax than the remote group (>6 months) (6.73 vs. 2.36, p<0.05). Our results provide molecular imaging evidence of angiogenesis in patients with severe chronic ICAD. Furthermore, the extent of angiogenesis in chronic ICAD may be affected by the post-qualified event time interval, and not by infarction itself or the severity of the arterial lesion.

  13. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of CD105 Expression with a 64Cu-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody: NOTA Is Superior to DOTA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Engle, Jonathan W.; Bean, Jero; Yang, Yunan; Leigh, Bryan R.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing the in vivo stability of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers is of critical importance to cancer diagnosis. In the case of 64Cu-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAb), in vivo behavior and biodistribution is critically dependent on the performance of the bifunctional chelator used to conjugate the mAb to the radiolabel. This study compared the in vivo characteristics of 64Cu-labeled TRC105 (a chimeric mAb that binds to both human and murine CD105), through two commonly used chelators: 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that chelator conjugation of TRC105 did not affect its CD105 binding affinity or specificity. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in 4T1 murine breast tumor-bearing mice revealed that 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105 exhibited better stability than 64Cu-DOTA-TRC105 in vivo, which resulted in significantly lower liver uptake without compromising the tumor targeting efficiency. In conclusion, this study confirmed that NOTA is a superior chelator to DOTA for PET imaging with 64Cu-labeled TRC105. PMID:22174762

  14. Development and pre-clinical evaluation of new 68Ga-NOTA-folate conjugates for PET imaging of folate receptor-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Aljammaz, Ibrahim; Al-Otaibi, Basim; Al-Hokbany, Nourah; Amer, Suad; Okarvi, Subhani

    2014-11-01

    In an attempt to develop new folate radiotracers with favorable biochemical properties for detecting folate receptor-positive cancers, we synthesized 68Ga-NOTA- and 68Ga-NOTAM-folate conjugates using a straightforward and a one-step simple reaction. Radiochemical yields were greater than 95% (decay-corrected) with total synthesis time of less than 20 min. Radiochemical purities were always greater than 98% without high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as a rapid and simple method for 68Ga-folate conjugate preparation with high radiochemical yield in a short synthesis time. In vitro tests on the KB cell line showed that significant amounts of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human KB xenografts, demonstrated a significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for 68Ga-NOTA-folate over the 68Ga-NOTAM-folate conjugate. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess injection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. These results demonstrate that the 68Ga-NOTA-folate conjugate may be useful as a molecular probe for detection and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis, as well as monitoring tumor response to treatment. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Isomerism of [64Cu-NOTA-Bn]-labeled radiotracers: separation of two complex isomers and determination of their interconversion energy barrier using ion pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Joern; Rajander, Johan; Ihalainen, Janne A; Ramesh, Dinesh; Eklund, Patrik; Fagerholm, Veronica; Nuutila, Pirjo; Solin, Olof

    2011-05-16

    The model complex [(64)Cu((S)-p-NH(2)-Bn-NOTA)](-) ([(64)Cu]1) was used to study the isomerism of [(64)Cu-NOTA-Bn]-labeled radiotracers. Two complex isomers [(64)Cu]1a and [(64)Cu]1b, which were formed at a ratio of 1:9 during the complexation of [(64)Cu]Cu(2+) with (S)-p-NH(2)-Bn-NOTA, were separated using ion pair chromatography. To study the interconversion, the nonradioactive complex isomers Cu1a and Cu1b were separated and thermally treated at 90 °C in both ammonium acetate solution and deionized water. A faster interconversion rate was observed for both isomers with lower concentrations of ammonium ions. At the end of reaction, the thermodynamic Cu1a to Cu1b equilibrium ratio was 6:94. The particular energy barriers of the interconversion for Cu1a and Cu1b were 130 kJ mol(-1) and 140 kJ mol(-1). Spectrophotometric measurements with Cu1a and Cu1b revealed two isomers adopting different geometrical configurations.

  16. Positron emission tomography imaging of CD105 expression with a 64Cu-labeled monoclonal antibody: NOTA is superior to DOTA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Engle, Jonathan W; Bean, Jero; Yang, Yunan; Leigh, Bryan R; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing the in vivo stability of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers is of critical importance to cancer diagnosis. In the case of (64)Cu-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAb), in vivo behavior and biodistribution is critically dependent on the performance of the bifunctional chelator used to conjugate the mAb to the radiolabel. This study compared the in vivo characteristics of (64)Cu-labeled TRC105 (a chimeric mAb that binds to both human and murine CD105), through two commonly used chelators: 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that chelator conjugation of TRC105 did not affect its CD105 binding affinity or specificity. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in 4T1 murine breast tumor-bearing mice revealed that (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 exhibited better stability than (64)Cu-DOTA-TRC105 in vivo, which resulted in significantly lower liver uptake without compromising the tumor targeting efficiency. In conclusion, this study confirmed that NOTA is a superior chelator to DOTA for PET imaging with (64)Cu-labeled TRC105.

  17. [64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH2] targeting vector for positron-emission tomography imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-expressing tissues.

    PubMed

    Prasanphanich, Adam F; Nanda, Prasant K; Rold, Tammy L; Ma, Lixin; Lewis, Michael R; Garrison, Jered C; Hoffman, Timothy J; Sieckman, Gary L; Figueroa, Said D; Smith, Charles J

    2007-07-24

    Radiolabeled peptides hold promise as diagnostic/therapeutic targeting vectors for specific human cancers. We report the design and development of a targeting vector, [(64)Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] (NOTA = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid, 8-Aoc = 8-aminooctanoic acid, and BBN = bombesin), having very high selectivity and affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr). GRPrs are expressed on a variety of human cancers, including breast, lung, pancreatic, and prostate, making this a viable approach toward site-directed localization or therapy of these human diseases. In this study, [NOTA-X-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] conjugates were synthesized, where X = a specific pharmacokinetic modifier. The IC(50) of [NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] was determined by a competitive displacement cell-binding assay in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells using (125)I-[Tyr(4)]-BBN as the displacement ligand. An IC(50) of 3.1 +/- 0.5 nM was obtained, demonstrating high binding affinity of [NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN] for the GRPr. [(64)Cu-NOTA-X-BBN] conjugates were prepared by the reaction of (64)CuCl(2) with peptides in buffered aqueous solution. In vivo studies of [(64)Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] in tumor-bearing PC-3 mouse models indicated very high affinity of conjugate for the GRPr. Uptake of conjugate in tumor was 3.58 +/- 0.70% injected dose (ID) per g at 1 h postintravenous injection (p.i.). Minimal accumulation of radioactivity in liver tissue (1.58 +/- 0.40% ID per g, 1 h p.i.) is indicative of rapid renal-urinary excretion and suggests very high in vivo kinetic stability of [(64)Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] with little or no in vivo dissociation of (64)Cu(2+) from the NOTA chelator. Kidney accumulation at 1 h p.i. was 3.79 +/- 1.09% ID per g. Molecular imaging studies in GRPr-expressing tumor models produced high-contrast, high-quality micro-positron-emission tomography images.

  18. RNA 3D Structure Modeling by Combination of Template-Based Method ModeRNA, Template-Free Folding with SimRNA, and Refinement with QRNAS.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Pawel; Kasprzak, Joanna M; Kumar, Deepak; Magnus, Marcin; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2016-01-01

    RNA encompasses an essential part of all known forms of life. The functions of many RNA molecules are dependent on their ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is laborious and challenging, and therefore, the majority of known RNAs remain structurally uncharacterized. To address this problem, computational structure prediction methods were developed that either utilize information derived from known structures of other RNA molecules (by way of template-based modeling) or attempt to simulate the physical process of RNA structure formation (by way of template-free modeling). All computational methods suffer from various limitations that make theoretical models less reliable than high-resolution experimentally determined structures. This chapter provides a protocol for computational modeling of RNA 3D structure that overcomes major limitations by combining two complementary approaches: template-based modeling that is capable of predicting global architectures based on similarity to other molecules but often fails to predict local unique features, and template-free modeling that can predict the local folding, but is limited to modeling the structure of relatively small molecules. Here, we combine the use of a template-based method ModeRNA with a template-free method SimRNA. ModeRNA requires a sequence alignment of the target RNA sequence to be modeled with a template of the known structure; it generates a model that predicts the structure of a conserved core and provides a starting point for modeling of variable regions. SimRNA can be used to fold small RNAs (<80 nt) without any additional structural information, and to refold parts of models for larger RNAs that have a correctly modeled core. ModeRNA can be either downloaded, compiled and run locally or run through a web interface at http://genesilico.pl/modernaserver/ . SimRNA is currently available to download for local use as a precompiled

  19. Evaluation of an [(18)F]AlF-NOTA Analog of Exendin-4 for Imaging of GLP-1 Receptor in Insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Kiesewetter, Dale O; Guo, Ning; Guo, Jinxia; Gao, Haokao; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    The GLP-1 receptor plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and thus is a very important target for diabetes therapy. The receptor is also overexpressed in insulinoma, a tumor of pancreatic beta-cells. We previously evaluated two fluorine-18-labeled analogs of exendin-4 prepared by conjugation with [(18)F]FBEM (N-[2-(4-[(18)F]fluorobenzamide)ethyl]maleimide). Both compounds demonstrated good tumor uptake, but the synthesis of the radiotracers was time consuming. To overcome this challenge, we developed a NOTA analog and performed radiolabeling using aluminum [(18)F]fluoride complexation. Cys(40)-exendin-4 was conjugated with NOTA mono N-ethylmaleimide. [(18)F]AlF conjugation was conducted and the radiolabeled product purified by preparative HPLC. Dynamic and static PET imaging scans were conducted on nude mice with established INS-1 xenografts. Uptake of tumor and other major organs in static images was quantitated (%ID/g) and comparison with blocking studies was made. PET quantification was also compared with ex vivo biodistribution results. The radiosynthesis provided [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-cys(40)-exendin-4 in 23.6 ± 2.4 % radiochemical yield (uncorrected, n = 3) after HPLC; the process required about 55 min. The specific activity at time of injection ranged from 19.6 to 31.4 GBq (0.53-0.85 Ci)/µmol. Tumor uptake had reached its maximum (16.09 ± 1.18% ID/g, n = 4) by 5 min and remained nearly constant for the duration of the study. Kidney uptake continued to increase throughout the entire one hour time course. Pre-injection of exendin-4 caused a marked reduction in tissue uptake with the major exception of liver and kidneys, in which uptake was not affected. HPLC analysis of the radioactive components in extracts of the tumor and plasma showed primarily parent compound at 60 min post-injection, whereas extracts of kidney and urine contained exclusively one polar radioactive component. The radiotracer is prepared in a simple one-step procedure and obtained

  20. Safety, Dosimetry, and Tumor Detection Ability of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105: First-in-Human Study of a Novel Radioligand for uPAR PET Imaging.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Christensen, Camilla; Madsen, Jacob; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Holm, Søren; Andersen, Flemming Littrup; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Pappot, Helle; Brasso, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPARs) represents an established biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC), and urinary bladder cancer (UBC), and is therefore an important target for new cancer therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. In this study, uPAR PET imaging using a (68)Ga-labeled version of the uPAR-targeting peptide (AE105) was investigated in a group of patients with BC, PC, and UBC. The aim of this first-in-human, phase I clinical trial was to investigate the safety and biodistribution in normal tissues and uptake in tumor lesions. Methods: Ten patients (6 PC, 2 BC, and 2 UBC) received a single intravenous dose of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 (154 ± 59 MBq; range, 48-208 MBq). The biodistribution and radiation dosimetry were assessed by serial whole-body PET/CT scans (10 min, 1 h, and 2 h after injection). Safety assessment included measurements of vital signs with regular intervals during the imaging sessions and laboratory blood screening tests performed before and after injection. In a subgroup of patients, the in vivo stability of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 was determined in collected blood and urine. PET images were visually analyzed for visible tumor uptake of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105, and SUVs were obtained from tumor lesions by manually drawing volumes of interest in the malignant tissue. Results: No adverse events or clinically detectable pharmacologic effects were found. The radioligand exhibited good in vivo stability and fast clearance from tissue compartments primarily by renal excretion. The effective dose was 0.015 mSv/MBq, leading to a radiation burden of 3 mSv when the clinical target dose of 200 MBq was used. In addition, radioligand accumulation was seen in primary tumor lesions as well as in metastases. Conclusion: This first-in-human, phase I clinical trial demonstrates the safe use and clinical potential of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 as a new radioligand for

  1. Preclinical Comparative Study of (68)Ga-Labeled DOTA, NOTA, and HBED-CC Chelated Radiotracers for Targeting PSMA.

    PubMed

    Ray Banerjee, Sangeeta; Chen, Zhengping; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala; Chen, Jian; Mease, Ronnie C; Pomper, Martin G

    2016-06-15

    (68)Ga-labeled, low-molecular-weight imaging agents that target the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are increasingly used clinically to detect prostate and other cancers with positron emission tomography (PET). The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of three PSMA-targeted radiotracers: (68)Ga-1, using DOTA-monoamide as the chelating agent; (68)Ga-2, containing the macrocyclic chelating agent p-SCN-Bn-NOTA; and (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11, currently in clinical trials, which uses the acyclic chelating agent, HBED-CC. The PSMA-targeting scaffold for all three agents utilized a similar Glu-urea-Lys-linker construct. Each radiotracer enabled visualization of PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor, kidney, and urinary bladder as early as 15 min post-injection using small animal PET/computed tomography (PET/CT). (68)Ga-2 demonstrated the fastest rate of clearance from all tissues in this series and displayed higher uptake in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor compared to (68)Ga-1 at 1 h post-injection. There was no significant difference in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor uptake for the three agents at 2 and 3 h post-injection. (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11 demonstrated the highest uptake and retention in normal tissues, including kidney, blood, spleen, and salivary glands and PSMA-negative PC3 flu tumors up to 3 h post-injection. In this preclinical evaluation (68)Ga-2 had the most advantageous characteristics for PSMA-targeted PET imaging.

  2. Notas para la decodificacion de lesicos desconocidos en el campo del ingles cientifico (Notes for Deciphering Unknown Lexical Items in Scientific English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Cesar Morales

    1991-01-01

    This article outlines strategies for the inferring of English scientific terms by Spanish speakers. The article considers factors affecting the process of inference, the use of context morphology, and word origin in inferring word meaning. (SR)

  3. Notas para la decodificacion de lesicos desconocidos en el campo del ingles cientifico (Notes for Deciphering Unknown Lexical Items in Scientific English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Cesar Morales

    1991-01-01

    This article outlines strategies for the inferring of English scientific terms by Spanish speakers. The article considers factors affecting the process of inference, the use of context morphology, and word origin in inferring word meaning. (SR)

  4. Prognostic Value of 68Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT for Predicting Disease-Free Survival for Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Surgery: A Comparison Study With Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Il; Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Kim, E Edmund; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-08-01

    We performed pretreatment angiogenesis imaging (Ga-NOTA-arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid [RGD] PET/CT) to compare its prognostic value to dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in breast cancer patients. Forty-four female patients with stage II or III breast cancer (aged 47.3 ± 8.1 years) were prospectively enrolled and underwent Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT and DCE-MRI imaging. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and underwent surgery. With pretreatment Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT, SUVmax of the tumor in the torso (-T) and regional (-R) images were measured. With pretreatment DCE-MRI, the largest diameter of the tumor and maximum enhancement index (EImax; EImax = [highest signal / baseline signal] - 1) of the tumor were assessed. Ten patients (22.7%) were found to have breast cancer recurrence after 17.9 ± 11.2 months. The SUVmax-R (P = 0.017, cutoff >2.79) of Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT, the largest diameter of tumor (P = 0.017, cutoff >6.3 cm), and the EImax (P = 0.008, cutoff >5.38) of DCE-MRI showed significant results by univariate analysis. The 3-year disease-free survival of SUVmax-R was 91.7% versus 59.1% by Kaplan-Meier analysis (hazard ratio, 5.379). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that SUVmax-R with tumor diameter or EImax were the significant parameters. In addition, the combined parameters of SUVmax-R and EImax revealed better predictive value for prediction of breast cancer recurrence (75.0%) than each parameter of SUVmax-R (64.2%) and EImax (68.7%). Increased angiogenic activity of regional Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT (SUVmax-R) can be an early prognostic marker for the prediction of breast cancer recurrence.

  5. The feasibility of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT for monitoring early response of Endostar antiangiogenic therapy in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft model compared with 18F-FDG.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanfen; Liu, Huanhuan; Liang, Sheng; Zhang, Caiyuan; Cheng, Weiwei; Hai, Wangxi; Yin, Bing; Wang, Dengbin

    2016-05-10

    Radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides have been developed for PET imaging of integrin avβ3 in the tumor vasculature, leading to great potential for noninvasively evaluating tumor angiogenesis and monitoring antiangiogenic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel one-step labeled integrin-targeted tracer, 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, for PET/CT for detecting tumor angiogenesis and monitoring the early therapeutic efficacy of antiangiogenic agent Endostar in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) xenograft model. Mice bearing NPC underwent 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT at baseline and after 2, 4, 7, and 14 days of consecutive treatment with Endostar or PBS, compared with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Tumors were harvested at all imaging time points for histopathological analysis with H & E and microvessel density (MVD) and integrin avβ3 immunostaining. The maximum percent injected dose per gram of body weight (%ID/gmax) tumor uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT was significantly lower than that in the control group starting from day 2 (p < 0.01), much earlier and more accurately than that of 18F-FDG PET/CT. Moreover, a moderate linear correlation was observed between tumor MVD and the corresponding tumor uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT (r = 0.853, p < 0.01). 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT can be used for in vivo angiogenesis imaging and monitoring early response to Endostar antiangiogenic treatment in NPC xenograft model, favoring its potential clinical translation.

  6. ParaDIS_lib

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Richard D.

    2016-05-25

    The ParaDIS_lib software is a project that is funded by the DOE ASC Program. Its purpose is to provide visualization and analysis capabilities for the existing ParaDIS parallel dislocation dynamics simulation code.

  7. 68Ga-NOTA-Aca-BBN(7-14) PET/CT in Healthy Volunteers and Glioma Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Deling; Lang, Lixin; Zhu, Zhaohui; Wang, Ling; Wu, Peilin; Niu, Gang; Li, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to study the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)-targeting, (68)Ga-labeled bombesin (BBN) peptide derivative PET tracer, NOTA-Aca-BBN(7-14) (denoted as (68)Ga-BBN) in healthy volunteers and to assess the level of receptor expression in glioma patients. Four healthy volunteers (2 male and 2 female) underwent whole-body PET/CT at multiple time points after a bolus injection of (68)Ga-BBN (111 ± 148 MBq). Regions of interest were drawn manually over major organs, and time-activity curves were obtained. Dosimetry was calculated using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twelve patients with glioma diagnosed by contrast-enhanced MRI underwent PET/CT at 30-45 min after (68)Ga-BBN injection. Within 1 wk afterward, the tumor was surgically removed and immunohistochemical staining of tumor samples against GRPR was performed and correlated with the PET/CT results. (68)Ga-BBN was well tolerated in all healthy volunteers, with no adverse symptoms being noticed or reported. (68)Ga-BBN cleared rapidly from the circulation and was excreted mainly through the kidneys and urinary tract. The total effective dose equivalent and effective dose were 0.0335 ± 0.0079 and 0.0276 ± 0.0066 mSv/MBq, respectively. In glioma patients, all MRI-identified lesions showed high signal intensity on (68)Ga-BBN PET/CT. SUVmax and SUVmean were 2.08 ± 0.58 and 1.32 ± 0.37, respectively. With normal brain tissue as background, tumor-to-background ratios were 24.0 ± 8.85 and 13.4 ± 4.54 based on SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively. The immunohistochemical staining confirmed a positive correlation between SUV and GRPR expression level (r(2) = 0.71, P < 0.001). (68)Ga-BBN is a PET tracer with favorable pharmacokinetics and a favorable dosimetry profile. It has the potential to evaluate GRPR expression in glioma patients and guide GRPR-targeted therapy of glioma. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. 68Ga-NOTA-Aca-BBN(7–14) PET/CT in Healthy Volunteers and Glioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Deling; Lang, Lixin; Zhu, Zhaohui; Wang, Ling; Wu, Peilin; Niu, Gang; Li, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    This work was designed to study the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)– targeting, 68Ga-labeled bombesin (BBN) peptide derivative PET tracer, NOTA-Aca-BBN(7–14) (denoted as 68Ga-BBN) in healthy volunteers and to assess the level of receptor expression in glioma patients. Methods Four healthy volunteers (2 male and 2 female) underwent whole-body PET/CT at multiple time points after a bolus injection of 68Ga-BBN (111 ± 148 MBq). Regions of interest were drawn manually over major organs, and time–activity curves were obtained. Dosimetry was calculated using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twelve patients with glioma diagnosed by contrast-enhanced MRI underwent PET/CT at 30–45 min after 68Ga-BBN injection. Within 1 wk afterward, the tumor was surgically removed and immunohistochemical staining of tumor samples against GRPR was performed and correlated with the PET/CT results. Results 68Ga-BBN was well tolerated in all healthy volunteers, with no adverse symptoms being noticed or reported. 68Ga-BBN cleared rapidly from the circulation and was excreted mainly through the kidneys and urinary tract. The total effective dose equivalent and effective dose were 0.0335 ± 0.0079 and 0.0276 ± 0.0066 mSv/MBq, respectively. In glioma patients, all MRI-identified lesions showed high signal intensity on 68Ga-BBN PET/CT. SUVmax and SUVmean were 2.08 ± 0.58 and 1.32 ± 0.37, respectively. With normal brain tissue as background, tumor-to-background ratios were 24.0 ± 8.85 and 13.4 ± 4.54 based on SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively. The immunohistochemical staining confirmed a positive correlation between SUV and GRPR expression level (r2 = 0.71, P < 0.001). Conclusion 68Ga-BBN is a PET tracer with favorable pharmacokinetics and a favorable dosimetry profile. It has the potential to evaluate GRPR expression in glioma patients and guide GRPR-targeted therapy of glioma. PMID:26449838

  9. Pravastatin stimulates angiogenesis in a murine hindlimb ischemia model: a positron emission tomography imaging study with (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105.

    PubMed

    Orbay, Hakan; Hong, Hao; Koch, Jill M; Valdovinos, Hector F; Hacker, Timothy A; Theuer, Charles P; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 (TRC105 is an anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody that binds to both human and murine CD105) positron emission tomography (PET) was used to assess the response to pravastatin treatment in a murine model of peripheral artery disease (PAD). Hindlimb ischemia was induced by ligation of the right femoral arteries in BALB/c mice under anesthesia, and the left hindlimb served as an internal control. Mice in the treatment group were given intraperitoneal pravastatin daily until the end of the study, whereas the animals in the control group were injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Laser Doppler imaging showed that blood flow in the ischemic hindlimb plummeted to ~20% of the normal level after surgery, and gradually recovered to near normal level on day 10 in the treatment group and on day 20 in the control group. Angiogenesis was non-invasively monitored and quantified with (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 PET on postoperative days 3, 10, 17, and 24. Tracer uptake at 48 h post-injection in the ischemic hindlimb in the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group on day 10 (20.5 ± 1.9 %ID/g vs 11.4 ± 1.5 %ID/g), suggesting increased CD105 expression and higher level of angiogenesis upon pravastatin treatment, and gradually decreased to background levels in both groups (4.9 ± 0.8 %ID/g vs 3.4 ± 1.9 %ID/g on day 24). The in vivo PET data correlated well with ex vivo biodistribution studies performed on day 24. Increased CD105 expression on days 3 and 10 following ischemia was further confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. Taken together, our results indicated that (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 PET is a suitable and non-invasive method to monitor the angiogenesis and therapeutic response in PAD, which can also be utilized for non-invasive evaluation of other pro-angiogenic/anti-angiogenic drugs in other cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

  10. Development and preclinical studies of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 for imaging changes in tumor HER2 expression associated with response to trastuzumab by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Lam, Karen; Chan, Conrad; Reilly, Raymond M

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that microSPECT/CT imaging with (111)In-labeled pertuzumab detected decreased HER2 expression in human breast cancer (BC) xenografts in athymic mice associated with response to treatment with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Our aim was to extend these results to PET/CT by constructing F(ab')2 of pertuzumab modified with NOTA chelators for complexing (64)Cu. The effect of the administered mass (5-200 µg) of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 was studied in NOD/SCID mice engrafted with HER2-positive SK-OV-3 human ovarian cancer xenografts. Biodistribution studies were performed in non-tumor bearing Balb/c mice to predict radiation doses to normal organs in humans. Serial PET/CT imaging was conducted on mice engrafted with HER2-positive and trastuzumab-sensitive BT-474 or trastuzumab-insensitive SK-OV-3 xenografted mice treated with weekly doses of trastuzumab. There were no significant effects of the administered mass of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 on tumor or normal tissue uptake. The predicted total body dose in humans was 0.015 mSv/MBq, a 3.3-fold reduction compared to (111)In-labeled pertuzumab. MicroPET/CT images revealed specific tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 at 24 or 48 h post-injection in mice with SK-OV-3 tumors. Image analysis of mice treated with trastuzumab showed 2-fold reduced uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 in BT-474 tumors after 1 week of trastuzumab normalized to baseline, and 1.9-fold increased uptake in SK-OV-3 tumors after 3 weeks of trastuzumab, consistent with tumor response and resistance, respectively. We conclude that PET/CT imaging with (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 detected changes in HER2 expression in response to trastuzumab while delivering a lower total body radiation dose compared to (111)In-labeled pertuzumab.

  11. ScVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC and scVEGF-PEG-NOTA conjugates: comparison of easy-to-label recombinant proteins for [68Ga]PET imaging of VEGF receptors in angiogenic vasculature.

    PubMed

    Eder, Matthias; Krivoshein, Arcadius V; Backer, Marina; Backer, Joseph M; Haberkorn, Uwe; Eisenhut, Michael

    2010-05-01

    VEGF receptors play a key role in angiogenesis and are important targets for several approved and many experimental drugs. Imaging of VEGF receptor expression in malignant tumors would provide important information, which can influence patient management. The aim of this study was the development of an easy-to-label positron-emitting tracer for imaging VEGF receptors. The tracer is based on engineered single-chain VEGF (scVEGF), expressed with cysteine-containing fusion tag (Cys-tag) for site-specific conjugation of PEGylated bifunctional chelating agents, HBED-CC or NOTA, suitable for labeling with (68)Ga at ambient temperature. scVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC was synthesized by activating a single carboxyl group of the [Fe(HBED-CC)](-) complex with N-hydroxysuccinimide. Reaction of the activated complex with NH(2)-PEG-maleimide was followed by site-specific conjugation of PEGylated chelator to a thiol group in Cys-tag of scVEGF. The scVEGF-PEG-NOTA conjugate was synthesized using NHS-PEG-maleimide and p-NH(2)-Bn-NOTA. (68)Ga complexation was performed in HEPES buffer (pH 4.2) at room temperature. The functional activity after labeling was tested by radioligand cell binding assays. Biodistribution and PET studies in tumor-bearing mice were performed after 1, 2, 3 and 4 h postinjection. The radiolabeling of scVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC proved more efficient than scVEGF-PEG-NOTA allowing to stop the reaction after 4 min (>97% radiochemical yield). Radioligand cell binding assays performed on HEK-293 cells overexpressing VEGFR-2 revealed no change in the binding properties of (68)Ga-radiolabeled scVEGF relative to other scVEGF-based tracers. Both tracers showed comparable results in biodistribution, such as tumor accumulation and low liver uptake. The tracers were stable in 50% human serum for at least 72 h. The conjugates scVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC and scVEGF-PEG-NOTA revealed comparable in vivo characteristics and allowed easy-to-perform labeling with high stability for fast [(68)Ga]PET imaging

  12. MicroPET/CT imaging of patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenografts implanted subcutaneously or orthotopically in NOD-scid mice using (64)Cu-NOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 fragments.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Amanda J; Cao, Ping-Jiang; Hedley, David W; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Winnik, Mitchell A; Reilly, Raymond M

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to study microPET/CT imaging of patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenografts in NOD-scid mice using F(ab')2 fragments of the fully-human anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, panitumumab (Vectibix) labeled with (64)Cu. More than 90% of pancreatic cancers are EGFR-positive. F(ab')2 fragments were produced by proteolytic digestion of panitumumab IgG or non-specific human IgG, purified by ultrafiltration then modified with NOTA chelators for complexing (64)Cu. Panitumumab IgG and Fab fragments were similarly labeled with (64)Cu. EGFR immunoreactivity was determined in competition and direct (saturation) cell binding assays. The biodistribution of (64)Cu-labeled panitumumab IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab was compared in non-tumor-bearing Balb/c mice. MicroPET/CT and biodistribution studies were performed in NOD-scid mice engrafted subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically with patient-derived OCIP23 pancreatic tumors, or in NOD-scid with s.c. PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Panitumumab F(ab')2 fragments were produced in high purity (>90%), derivitized with 3.2±0.7 NOTA/F(ab')2, and labeled with (64)Cu (0.3-3.6MBq/μg). The binding of (64)Cu-NOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 to OCIP23 or PANC-1 cells was decreased significantly by an excess of panitumumab IgG. The Kd for binding of (64)Cu-NOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 to EGFR on PANC-1 cells was 0.14±0.05nmol/L. F(ab')2 fragments exhibited more suitable normal tissue distribution for tumor imaging with (64)Cu than panitumumab IgG or Fab. Tumor uptake at 48h post injection (p.i.) of (64)Cu-NOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 was 12.0±0.9% injected dose/g (ID/g) in s.c. and 11.8±0.9% ID/g in orthotopic OCIP23 tumors vs. 6.1±1.1% ID/g in s.c. PANC-1 xenografts. Tumor/Blood (T/B) ratios were 5:1 to 9:1 for OCIP23 and 2.4:1 for PANC-1 tumors. Tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-non-specific F(ab')2 in OCIP23 xenografts was 5-fold lower than (64)Cu-panitumumab F(ab')2. All tumor xenografts were clearly imaged by microPET/CT at 24 or 48h p

  13. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  14. Modelo de accesibilidad de conceptos matematicos aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales en la UPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidro Villamizar, Gloria Maria

    Este estudio utiliza metodologia de investigacion cualitativa, con el proposito de describir, analizar y evaluar los procesos de diseno y desarrollo de un modelo de accesibilidad que consiste en estrategias de ensenanza de las matematicas para estudiantes con impedimentos visuales matriculados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva en la UPR. Se utilizaron las siguientes estrategias para recopilar la informacion, 1) reflexiones de la investigadora en el proceso de diseno y desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas, que se registraron en un diario reflexivo. 2) entrevista semiestructurada luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas con los participantes. 3) observaciones y notas de la investigadora del trabajo de los participantes. Para obtener la informacion de los participantes se obtuvo los permisos institucionales necesarios; se seleccionaron los participantes y se validaron los instrumentos; se realizo el desarrollo de las lecciones adaptadas con los participantes; y finalmente, se analizo la informacion obtenida. El diseno de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas se hizo siguiendo las recomendaciones curriculares de los temas de matematicas aplicados en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva realizado por la investigadora durante su semestre de internado. El testimonio de las voces de los participantes se obtuvo del proceso de desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje adaptadas de temas seleccionados de conceptos matematicos requeridos en el curso de Astronomia Descriptiva y de la entrevista semiestructurada con los participantes, luego de haber trabajado las lecciones de aprendizaje. Para el desarrollo de las lecciones de aprendizaje, se utilizaron materiales tactiles adaptados, materiales tactiles disenados y materiales disponibles comercialmente. Los textos de las lecciones se imprimieron en tinta y en Braille. Se exhorta a disenar y desarrollar estrategias de ensenanza accesibles, considerando como recursos para evaluar su efectividad a

  15. Radial Velocities with PARAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  16. PET and SPECT imaging of a radiolabeled minigastrin analogue conjugated with DOTA, NOTA, and NODAGA and labeled with (64)Cu, (68)Ga, and (111)In.

    PubMed

    Roosenburg, S; Laverman, P; Joosten, L; Cooper, M S; Kolenc-Peitl, P K; Foster, J M; Hudson, C; Leyton, J; Burnet, J; Oyen, W J G; Blower, P J; Mather, S J; Boerman, O C; Sosabowski, J K

    2014-11-03

    Cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptors, overexpressed in cancer types such as small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), may serve as targets for peptide receptor radionuclide imaging. A variety of CCK and gastrin analogues has been developed, but a major drawback is metabolic instability or high kidney uptake. The minigastrin analogue PP-F11 has previously been shown to be a promising peptide for imaging of CCK-2 receptor positive tumors and was therefore further evaluated. The peptide was conjugated with one of the macrocyclic chelators DOTA, NOTA, or NODAGA. The peptide conjugates were then radiolabeled with either (68)Ga, (64)Cu, or (111)In. All (radio)labeled compounds were evaluated in vitro (IC50) and in vivo (biodistribution and PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging). IC50 values were in the low nanomolar range for all compounds (0.79-1.51 nM). In the biodistribution studies, (68)Ga- and (111)In-labeled peptides showed higher tumor-to-background ratios than the (64)Cu-labeled compounds. All tested radiolabeled compounds clearly visualized the CCK2 receptor positive tumor in PET or SPECT imaging. The chelator did not seem to affect in vivo behavior of the peptide for (111)In- and (68)Ga-labeled peptides. In contrast, the biodistribution of the (64)Cu-labeled peptides showed high uptake in the liver and in other organs, most likely caused by high blood levels, probably due to dissociation of (64)Cu from the chelator and subsequent transchelation to proteins. Based on the present study, (68)Ga-DOTA-PP-F11 might be a promising radiopharmaceutical for PET/CT imaging of CCK2 receptor expressing tumors such as MTC and SCLC. Clinical studies are warranted to investigate the potential of this tracer.

  17. Can an ¹⁸F-ALF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT Scan Predict Treatment Sensitivity to Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Ning; Gao, Song; Hu, Xudong; Zhao, Wei; Tao, Rongjie; Chen, Zhaoqiu; Zheng, Jinsong; Sun, Xiaorong; Xu, Liang; Li, Wanhu; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the value of a novel 1-step labeled integrin α(v)β3-targeting (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 (denoted as (18)F-RGD) scan in assessing sensitivity to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Twenty-five patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in this study 3-5 wk after surgical resection. All participants were investigated with (18)F-RGD PET/CT on baseline (T1) and at the third week (T2) after the start of CCRT. Tumor volume, maximal and mean standardized uptake value of the tumor (SUVmax, SUVmean), and tumor-to-nontumor ratios of the tumor volume were obtained. The MRI treatment response was assessed at the 11th week (T3). The change in the lesion volume from T1 to T3 on MRI was used as an endpoint to evaluate the predictive ability of (18)F-RGD PET/CT. With (18)F-RGD PET/CT imaging, we successfully visualized the residual lesions of GBM. Twenty-five and 23 (18)F-RGD PET/CT scans at baseline and the third week, respectively, were available for analysis. We found that (18)F-RGD PET/CT parameters, both pretreatment SUVmax on baseline (P< 0.05) and intratreatment SUVmax at the third week (SUV(maxT2)) (P< 0.05) and tumor-to-nontumor ratios at the third week (P< 0.05), were predictive of treatment sensitivity to CCRT. Additionally, the change of volume from T1 to T2 on MRI was also predictive (P< 0.05). According to receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis, the most significant parameter was SUV(maxT2) (area under the curve, 0.846). The threshold of SUV(maxT2) was 1.35, and its sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 84.6%, 90.0% and 87.0%, respectively. (18)F-RGD PET/CT allows for the noninvasive visualization of GBM lesions and the prediction of sensitivity to CCRT as early as 3 wk after treatment initiation. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Liu, Zhengwei

    2017-05-01

    We define a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of ZN para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects that are invariant under para isotopy. For each ZN, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras that play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra (PAPPA). Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras, which one can use in the study of quantum information. An important ingredient in planar para algebra theory is the string Fourier transform (SFT), which we use on the matrix algebra generated by the Pauli matrices. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivity by relating the two reflections through the string Fourier transform.

  19. Comparative evaluation of synthetic anti-HER2 Affibody molecules site-specifically labelled with 111In using N-terminal DOTA, NOTA and NODAGA chelators in mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Jennie; Perols, Anna; Varasteh, Zohreh; Altai, Mohamed; Braun, Alexis; Sandström, Mattias; Garske, Ulrike; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson

    2012-03-01

    In disseminated prostate cancer, expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is one of the pathways to androgen independence. Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER2 expression in disseminated prostate cancer might identify patients for HER2-targeted therapy. Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa) targeting proteins with high potential as tracers for radionuclide imaging. The goal of this study was to develop an optimal Affibody-based tracer for visualization of HER2 expression in prostate cancer. A synthetic variant of the anti-HER2 Z(HER2:342) Affibody molecule, Z(HER2:S1), was N-terminally conjugated with the chelators DOTA, NOTA and NODAGA. The conjugated proteins were biophysically characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor analysis. After labelling with (111)In, the biodistribution was assessed in normal mice and the two most promising conjugates were further evaluated for tumour targeting in mice bearing DU-145 prostate cancer xenografts. The HER2-binding equilibrium dissociation constants were 130, 140 and 90 pM for DOTA-Z(HER2:S1), NOTA-Z(HER2:S1) and NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1), respectively. A comparative study of (111)In-labelled DOTA-Z(HER2:S1), NOTA-Z(HER2:S1) and NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) in normal mice demonstrated a substantial influence of the chelators on the biodistribution properties of the conjugates. (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) had the most rapid clearance from blood and healthy tissues. (111)In-NOTA-Z(HER2:S1) showed high hepatic uptake and was excluded from further evaluation. (111)In-DOTA-Z(HER2:S1) and (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) demonstrated specific uptake in DU-145 prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. The tumour uptake of (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1), 5.6 ± 0.4%ID/g, was significantly lower than the uptake of (111)In-DOTA-Z(HER2:S1), 7.4 ± 0.5%ID/g, presumably because of lower bioavailability due to more rapid clearance

  20. Mensaje para alumnos y padres

    NASA Image and Video Library

    El astronauta de la NASA José Hernández alienta a los estudiantes a que sigan sus sueños. Hernández también habla acerca del papel que juegan los padres para ayudar a que sus hijos hagan realidad s...

  1. Conversations with Marcgrave: the Origin of Modern Astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere (Spanish Title: Conversando con Marcgrave: El Origen de la Astronomía Moderna en el Hemisferio Sur) Conversando Com Marcgrave: a Origem da Moderna Astronomia no Hemisfério Sul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Araújo, Fábio

    2005-12-01

    The year 2004 signals the 400th anniversary of the birth of count Mauricio of Nassau, an important character in the history of Brazil. The present text is related to the period of Dutch domination in Pernambuco. The article attempts to rescue the beginnings of Astronomy study in the South hemisphere. Therefore, we idealized a dramatization of a fictitious interview with German astronomer Georg Marcgrave, who was the constructor of the first astronomical observatory in this hemisphere and the author of the first systematic astronomical observations using telescopes in this side of the world. Our "conversation" with Marcgrave is idealized in the old Recife scenario, a place where he lived in Mauricio of Nassau's period and gathers some fellow teachers who love the teaching of Astronomy. The story, this way, is reported in a possibly light and funny atmosphere. Nevertheless, the conceptual and historical framework presented is based on reliable bibliographical sources pointed out at the end of the text. The sources range from the original book of that scientist, in which a solar eclipse is reported, passing through some other classical texts, such as that of Professor Juliano Moreira, up to more recent sources such as the very influential work of professor John North. Other influential texts about the Dutch period in Brazil, such as the classical works of Charles Boxer, Bouman and Boogaart, among others, are also used in the construction of this pedagogical dramatization, which involves an interesting chapter of the history of Astronomy. El año 2004 marca los 400 años del nacimineto del conde Mauricio de Nassau, un importante personaje de la historia del Brasil. El presente texto está relacionado con el período del dominio holandés en Pernambuco. El artículo intenta rescatar los comienzos del estudio de la Astronomía en el hemisferio Sur. Para esto, ideamos una dramatización de una entrevista ficticia con el astrónomo alemán Georg Marcgrave, constructor del

  2. Programa de conservacion para aves migratorias neotropicales

    Treesearch

    Deborah Finch; Marcia Wilson; Roberto Roca

    1992-01-01

    Mas de 250 especies de aves terrestres migran a Norte America durante la epoca reproductiva para aprovechar los sistemas templados. No obstante, las aves migratorias neotropicales pasan la mayor parte de su ciclo de vida en los habitat tropicales y subtropicales de paises latinoamericanos y caribefios donde viven en una asociacion cercana con las aves residentes. Para...

  3. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  4. Using ParaPost Tenax fiberglass and ParaCore build-up material to restore severely damaged teeth.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Ricardo; Castellon, Paulino

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a technique using ParaPost Tenax Fiber White, ParaPost Cement, and ParaPost ParaCore build-up material to restore a tooth with a significant loss of tooth structure. After successful root canal therapy, the posts were bonded in the canals and the core was built using ParaPost ParaCore build-up material. At that point, the tooth was prepared to receive a conventional porcelain-fused-to-metal crown.

  5. Calcineurin hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate.

    PubMed

    Spannaus-Martin, Donna J; Martin, Bruce L

    2004-04-01

    para-Nitrophenyl phosphorothioate (pNPT) was hydrolyzed by calcineurin at initial rates slightly, but comparable to rates for para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Kinetic characterization yielded higher estimates for both Km and Vmax compared to pNPP. Metal ion activation of phosphorothioate hydrolysis was more promiscuous. Unlike the hydrolysis of with pNPP, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ activated calcineurin as well as Mn2+.

  6. The para-HK/QK correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyckmanns, Malte; Vaughan, Owen

    2017-06-01

    We generalise the hyper-Kähler/quaternionic Kähler (HK/QK) correspondence to include para-geometries, and present a new concise proof that the target manifold of the HK/QK correspondence is quaternionic Kähler. As an application, we construct one-parameter deformations of the temporal and Euclidean supergravity c-map metrics and show that they are para-quaternionic Kähler.

  7. Process for para-ethyltoluene dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.C.

    1986-06-03

    A process is described of dehydrogenating para-ethyltoluene to selectively form para-methylstyrene comprising contacting to para-ethyltoluene under dehydrogenation reaction conditions with a catalyst composition comprising: (a) from about 30% to 60% by weight of iron oxide, calculated as ferric oxide; (b) from about 13% to 48% by weight of a potassium compound, calculated as potassium oxide; and (c) from about 0% to 5% by weight of a chromium compound, calculated as chromic oxide. The improvement is described comprising dehydrogenating the para-ethyltoluene with a catalyst composition comprising, in addition to the components (a), (b) and (c), a modifying component (d) capable of rendering the para-methylstyrene-containing dehydrogenation reaction effluent especially resistant to the subsequent formation of popcorn polymers when the dehydrogenation of para-ethyltoluene is conducted over the modified catalyst, the modifying component (d) being a bismuth compound present to the extent of from about 1% to 20% by weight of the catalyst composition, calculated as bismuth trioxide.

  8. A note on para-holomorphic Riemannian-Einstein manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Cristian; Ionescu, Alexandru; Manea, Adelina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this note is the study of Einstein condition for para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics in the para-complex geometry framework. First, we make some general considerations about para-complex Riemannian manifolds (not necessarily para-holomorphic). Next, using a one-to-one correspondence between para-holomorphic Riemannian metrics and para-Kähler-Norden metrics, we study the Einstein condition for a para-holomorphic Riemannian metric and the associated real para-Kähler-Norden metric on a para-complex manifold. Finally, it is shown that every semi-simple para-complex Lie group inherits a natural para-Kählerian-Norden Einstein metric.

  9. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  10. Ortho-para-hydrogen equilibration on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Rossow, William B.

    1992-01-01

    Voyager IRIS observations reveal that the Jovian para-hydrogen fraction is not in thermodynamic equilibrium near the NH3 cloud top, implying that a vertical gradient exists between the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25 at depth and the cloud top values. The height-dependent para-hydrogen profile is obtained using an anisotropic multiple-scattering radiative transfer model. A vertical correlation is found to exist between the location of the para-hydrogen gradient and the NH3 cloud, strongly suggesting that paramagnetic conversion on NH3 cloud particle surfaces is the dominant equilibration mechanism. Below the NH3 cloud layer, the para fraction is constant with depth and equal to the high-temperature equilibrium value of 0.25. The degree of cloud-top equilibration appears to depend on the optical depth of the NH3 cloud layer. Belt-zone variations in the para-hydrogen profile seem to be due to differences in the strength of the vertical mixing.

  11. Nota sobre "Neblina" (Notes on "Neblina")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyne, Jacques

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that the Royal Spanish Academy change the definition of "neblina" in the next edition of the "Dictionary of the Spanish Language" to "niebla ligera" or "light fog," and cites literary usage in support. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  12. Nota sobre "Neblina" (Notes on "Neblina")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyne, Jacques

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that the Royal Spanish Academy change the definition of "neblina" in the next edition of the "Dictionary of the Spanish Language" to "niebla ligera" or "light fog," and cites literary usage in support. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  13. Solar Physics Topics in High School: Analysis of a Course with Practical Activities at Dietrich Schiel Observatory. (Spanish Title: Temas de Física Solar Para Estudiantes de Escuelas Secundarias: un Análisis de un Curso con Enfoque Práctico en el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel.) Tópicos de Física Solar no Ensino Médio: Análise de um Curso com Atividades Práticas no Observatório Dietrich Schiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo Aroca, Silvia; Donizete Colombo, Pedro, Jr.; Celestino Silva, Cibelle

    2012-12-01

    This work analyses results obtained in a solar physics course for high school students promoted at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory of the University of São Paulo (USP). The course was elaborated by the authors with the intention of investigating student's concepts about the Sun, teaching topics of modern physics related to the Sun and providing students with knowledge about our star as well. The methodology of data gathering consisted of audio and video records of classes and of semi-structured interviews, and analysis of answers to written questionnaires. The results showed that most high school students conceived the Sun as made of fire, while sunspots were thought to be holes in the Sun. Even though some students did know that a spectrum is formed using a prism or diffraction grating, most of them ignored the nature of the observed spectral lines. Through the course, this topic was developed by means of a practical approach with solar and lamp spectra observations. The results obtained in the course point to the importance of science centers as partners in formal education. In this specific case, the Solar Room at the Dietrich Schiel Observatory is as a favorable environment for teaching modern physics in high school. Este artículo analiza los resultados obtenidos en un curso sobre la física solar, auspiciado por el Observatorio Dietrich Schiel de la USP para estudiantes de las escuelas secundarias. El curso fue diseñado por los autores con la intención de investigar las concepciones sobre el sol, enseñar temas relacionados con la física moderna del Sol y conocimientos generales sobre el astro rey. La metodología utilizada para la recolección de datos consistió en grabar, en audio y video, las clases, las entrevistas semi-estructuradas y las respuestas a los cuestionarios escritos. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los participantes conciben el Sol como constituido por fuego y las manchas solares en la superficie solar como agujeros. Aunque

  14. Para-methylstyrene from toluene and acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, R.A.; Occelli, M.L.

    1984-08-01

    High yields of para-methylstyrene (PMS) were obtained in this study by coupling toluene and acetaldehyde then cracking the resultant 1,1-ditolylethane (DTE) to give equimolar amounts of PMS and toluene. In the first step, a total DTE and ''trimer'' yield of 98% on toluene and 93% on acetaldehyde was obtained using 98% sulfuric acid as catalyst at 5-10/sup 0/C. In the second step, a choline chloride-offretite cracked DTE with 84.0% conversion and 91% selectivity to PMS and toluene. Additional PMS can be obtained by cracking the by-product ''trimer'' formed by coupling DTE and toluene with acetaldehyde. Zeolite Rho was as active but yielded less PMS (86%) and produced more para-ethyltoluene (PET), an undesirable by-product.

  15. Para Bombay phenotype--a case report.

    PubMed

    Mathai, J; Sulochana, P V; Sathyabhama, S

    1997-10-01

    Bombay phenotype is peculiar in that red cells are not agglutinated by antisera A, B or H; while serum contains anti A, B and H. Existence of modifying genes at independent loci with variable expression of ABO genes is postulated. We report here a case of partial suppression where antigens could be detected by elution tests and unlike classical Bombay type, normal amount of appropriate blood group substances were present in saliva. This case of para Bombay phenotype was detected as a result of discrepancy in cell and serum group ng. This highlights the importance of both forward and reverse grouping in ABO testing.

  16. La Astronomia en Mexico: hacia su Etapa Moderna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pismis, P.

    1987-05-01

    An account is given of the development of astronomical endeavors in Mexico starting with the founding of the National Astronomical Observatory in the late eighties of the last century. An important contribution of the early period, along with activity in various branches of Classical Astronomy, has been the completion of the Astrographic Catalogue of the Tacubaya Zone. The development, throughout the past few decades, leading to the present state of Astronomy in Mexico in presented, based largely on personal experience of the author.

  17. On q-DEFORMED Para Oscillators and PARA-q Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, M. Krishna; Shanta, P.; Chaturvedi, S.; Srinivasan, V.

    Three generalized commutation relations for a single mode of the harmonic oscillator which contains para-bose and q oscillator commutation relations are constructed. These are shown to be inequivalent. The coherent states of the annihilation operator for these three cases are also constructed.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

  19. Sensitization to para-tertiary-butylphenolformaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Massone, L; Anonide, A; Borghi, S; Usiglio, D

    1996-03-01

    Phenolformaldehyde resins, especially the para-tertiary-butylphenolformaldehyde resin (PTBP-FR), are widely used in industry and in numerous materials of everyday use, such as glues, adhesives, or inks. They can cause many occupational and nonoccupational cases of dermatitis. Forty-one patients with positive patch test results to PTBP-FR were selected for this study. They were patch-tested with a series of chemically related compounds and cross-reactions were noted. Phenolformaldehyde resin (PF-R) was frequently positive (65.8%), whereas other compounds gave a much smaller number of positive results. Cases of occupational exposure (24.4%), location of the dermatitis (hands were involved in 46.3% of cases), and possible sources of exposure (shoes were the responsible agent in 12.2% of cases) were evaluated. Phenolformaldehyde resins are an important cause of contact dermatitis and must be studied chemically and clinically to improve the prognosis of sensitized patients.

  20. [Laparoscopic treatment of para-esophageal hernias].

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Wagner, T; Sa Cunha, A; Rault, A; Masson, B

    2006-10-01

    This retrospective study aims at analyzing the functional results obtained in patients operated by laparoscopy for a para-esophageal hernia. From 1994 to 2004, 38 patients underwent a laparoscopic procedure for a symptomatic para-esophageal hiatal hernia of at least 3/4 of the proximal stomach: 27 females and 11 males, mean age 65 years (extreme: 22-84). There was no case on emergency, 4 patients had have at least one episode of intrathoracic volvulus. The operation consisted in gastric reduction into the abdominal cavity, excision of the sac, suture of the crura reinforced with a mesh in 6 patients and the construction of a gastric wrap. A postoperative barium swallow was performed on POD 3 in order to confirm the anatomical result. Mean operating time was 157 minutes (75-480), no case was converted into laparotomy. Four postoperative complications were observed (morbidity 10.8%): one gastric perforation diagnosed on POD 1, 2 severe dysphagias linked to the wrap, and one atelectasia. There was no death in this series. Functional results were evaluated by the mean of a questionnaire in 33 patients who had a follow up more than 6 months. Thirty-three questionnaires have been sent, 3 patients were lost and one was dead. Among the 29 patients analyzed, 14 were very satisfied, 11 were satisfied and 3 were deceived by the operation. Best results are obtained in patients with GERD, dysphagia or postprandial cardiothoracic symptoms. These results compared to the published data allow us to discuss about indications of surgery, the necessity to removal the hernia sac, and the advantages to reinforce the crura by the mean of a non absorbable mesh.

  1. Time domain para hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Gutmann, Torsten; Dillenberger, Sonja; Abdulhussaein, Safaa; Frydel, Jaroslaw; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Para hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique, which increases the NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. However the hyperpolarized signal is created as an anti-phase signal, which necessitates high magnetic field homogeneity and spectral resolution in the conventional PHIP schemes. This hampers the application of PHIP enhancement in many fields, as for example in food science, materials science or MRI, where low B(0)-fields or low B(0)-homogeneity do decrease spectral resolution, leading to potential extinction if in-phase and anti-phase hyperpolarization signals cannot be resolved. Herein, we demonstrate that the echo sequence (45°-τ-180°-τ) enables the acquisition of low resolution PHIP enhanced liquid state NMR signals of phenylpropiolic acid derivatives and phenylacetylene at a low cost low-resolution 0.54 T spectrometer. As low field TD-spectrometers are commonly used in industry or biomedicine for the relaxometry of oil-water mixtures, food, nano-particles, or other systems, we compare two variants of para-hydrogen induced polarization with data-evaluation in the time domain (TD-PHIP). In both TD-ALTADENA and the TD-PASADENA strong spin echoes could be detected under conditions when usually no anti-phase signals can be measured due to the lack of resolution. The results suggest that the time-domain detection of PHIP-enhanced signals opens up new application areas for low-field PHIP-hyperpolarization, such as non-invasive compound detection or new contrast agents and biomarkers in low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Finally, solid-state NMR calculations are presented, which show that the solid echo (90y-τ-90x-τ) version of the TD-ALTADENA experiment is able to convert up to 10% of the PHIP signal into visible magnetization.

  2. The para-Bombay phenotype in Chinese persons.

    PubMed

    Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E; Tsai, S J; Chiou, P W

    1987-01-01

    The para-Bombay phenotype occurs more frequently in Oriental than in white populations. This report describes the immunohematologic findings in 20 cases of the para-Bombay phenotype detected over a period of about 15 months in the Chinese population of Taiwan.

  3. Cooling by Para-to-Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.; Nast, T.

    1983-01-01

    Catalyst speeds conversion, increasing capacity of solid hydrogen cooling system. In radial-flow catalytic converter, para-hydrogen is converted to equilibrium mixture of para-hydrogen and ortho-hydrogen as it passes through porous cylinder of catalyst. Addition of catalyst increases capacity of hydrogen sublimation cooling systems for radiation detectors.

  4. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  5. A nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele complicating nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Hyson, E A; Belleza, N A; Lowman, R M

    1977-09-01

    Many cases of traumatic para-aortic lymphocele have been reported. Recently, a case of nontraumatic para-aortic lymphocele was investigated. The etiologic consideration for this lymphocele formation is either a localized inflammatory process, or fibrosis induced by prior passage of calculi.

  6. Ex-vivo biodistribution and micro-PET/CT imaging of 18F-FDG, 18F-FLT, 18F-FMISO, and 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in a prostate tumor-bearing nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuzhong; Wei, Renbo; Wu, Changqiang; Qing, Haomiao; Jiang, Xiao; Lu, Hao; Chen, Shirong; Li, Xinping; Xu, Guohui; Ai, Hua

    2015-09-01

    (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG), (18)F-fluoro-3'-deoxy-3'-L-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), (18)F-fluoromisonidazole ((18)F-FMISO), and (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 ((18)F-RGD) are all commonly used PET tracers for tumor diagnosis based on different mechanisms of tissue uptake. This study compared the ex-vivo biodistribution and PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging studies of these four PET tracers in a xenograft prostate tumor-bearing mouse model. Nude mice were inoculated with 5 × 10 PC-3 cells in the right armpit. The ex-vivo biodistribution of (18)F-FDG, (18)F-FLT, (18)F-FMISO, and (18)F-RGD at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after injection was compared. Micro-PET/CT images of (18)F-FDG, (18)F-FLT, and (18)F-RGD were acquired at 60 min, whereas (18)F-FMISO images were acquired at 90 min after injection. The tumors were clearly visualized by micro-PET/CT using all four PET tracers. Ex-vivo biodistribution results showed highest tumor accumulation and tumor-to-muscle ratio of (18)F-FDG at each time point, accompanied by physiologically high uptakes in the brain, heart, and intestinal tract. Modest uptake of (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FMISO in tumors was observed at 60 and 90 min after injection, with less interference from other tissues compared with (18)F-FDG. Besides, (18)F-RGD also exhibited high tumor specificity; however, relatively low uptake was observed in the tumor. Our results demonstrated the potential of (18)F-FMISO and (18)F-FLT in the diagnosis of xenograft prostate cancer.

  7. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  8. Towards a double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Vaisman, Izu

    2013-12-15

    In a previous paper, we have shown that the geometry of double field theory has a natural interpretation on flat para-Kähler manifolds. In this paper, we show that the same geometric constructions can be made on any para-Hermitian manifold. The field is interpreted as a compatible (pseudo-)Riemannian metric. The tangent bundle of the manifold has a natural, metric-compatible bracket that extends the C-bracket of double field theory. In the para-Kähler case, this bracket is equal to the sum of the Courant brackets of the two Lagrangian foliations of the manifold. Then, we define a canonical connection and an action of the field that correspond to similar objects of double field theory. Another section is devoted to the Marsden-Weinstein reduction in double field theory on para-Hermitian manifolds. Finally, we give examples of fields on some well-known para-Hermitian manifolds.

  9. a New Equation of State for Solid para-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lecheng; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Solid para-H_2 is a popular accommodating host for impurity spectroscopy due to its unique softness and the spherical symmetry of para-H_2 in its J}=0 rotational level. To simulate the properties of impurity-doped solid para-H_2, a reliable model for the `soft' pure solid para-H_2 at different pressures is highly desirable. While a couple of experimental and theoretical studies aimed at elucidating the equation of state (EOS) of solid para-H_2 have been reported, the calculated EOS was shown to be heavily dependent on the potential energy surface (PES) between two para-H_2 that was used in the simulations. The current study also demonstrates that different choices of the parameters governing the Quantum Monte Carlo simulation could produce different EOS curves. To obtain a reliable model for pure solid para-H_2, we used a new 1-D para-H_2 PES reported by Faruk et al. that was obtained by averaging over Hinde's highly accurate 6-D H_2--H_2 PES. The EOS of pure solid para-H_2 was calculated using the PIMC algorithm with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). To precisely determine the equilibrium density of solid para-H_2, both the value of the PIMC time step (τ) and the number of particles in the PBC cell were extrapolated to convergence. The resulting EOS agreed well with experimental observations, and the hcp structured solid para-H_2 was found to be more stable than the fcc one at 4.2K, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational frequency shift of para-H_2 as a function of the density of the pure solid was also calculated, and the value of the shift at the equilibrium density is found to agree well with experiment. T. Momose, H. Honshina, M. Fushitani and H. Katsuki, Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 95(2004). M. E. Fajardo, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 13504 (2013). I. F. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393(1980). F. Operetto and F. Pederiva, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184124(2006). T. Omiyinka and M. Boninsegni, Phys. Rev. B 88, 024112(2013). N. Faruk, M. Schmidt, H. Li, R. J. Le Roy, and P

  10. ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A

    2011-09-27

    The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.

  11. Cooling by conversion of para to ortho-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a solid hydrogen cooling system is significantly increased by exposing vapor created during evaporation of a solid hydrogen mass to a catalyst and thereby accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho transition of the vapor to equilibrium hydrogen. Catalyst such as nickel, copper, iron or metal hydride gels of films in a low pressure drop catalytic reactor are suitable for accelerating the endothermic para-to-ortho conversion.

  12. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in neutron thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L. L.; Brun, T. O.

    1998-01-01

    The large difference in neutron scattering cross-section at low neutron energies between ortho- and para-hydrogen was recognized early on. In view of this difference (more than an order of magnitude), one might legitimately ask whether the ortho/para ratio has a significant effect on the neutron thermalization properties of a cold hydrogen moderator. Several experiments performed in the 60`s and early 70`s with a variety of source and (liquid hydrogen) moderator configurations attempted to investigate this. The results tend to show that the ortho/para ratio does indeed have an effect on the energy spectrum of the neutron beam produced. Unfortunately, the results are not always consistent with each other and much unknown territory remains to be explored. The problem has been approached from a computational standpoint, but these isolated efforts are far from having examined the ortho/para-hydrogen problem in neutron moderation in all its complexity. Because of space limitations, the authors cannot cover, even briefly, all the aspects of the ortho/para question here. This paper will summarize experiments meant to investigate the effect of the ortho/para ratio on the neutron energy spectrum produced by liquid hydrogen moderators.

  13. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  14. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  15. A Comparative Usage-Based Approach to the Reduction of the Spanish and Portuguese Preposition "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradoville, Michael Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the frequency effect of two-word collocations involving "para" "to," "for" (e.g. "fui para," "para que") on the reduction of "para" to "pa" (in Spanish) and "pra" (in Portuguese). Collocation frequency effects demonstrate that language speakers…

  16. Hox and ParaHox genes: a review on molluscs.

    PubMed

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Barucca, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes are involved in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans during embryo development. Body plan evolution and diversification are affected by variations in the number and sequence of Hox and ParaHox genes, as well as by their expression patterns. For this reason Hox and ParaHox gene investigation in the phylum Mollusca is of great interest, as this is one of the most important taxa of protostomes, characterized by a high morphological diversity. The comparison of the works reviewed here indicates that species of molluscs, belonging to different classes, share a similar composition of Hox and ParaHox genes. Therefore evidence suggests that the wide morphological diversity of this taxon could be ascribed to differences in Hox gene interactions and expressions and changes in the Hox downstream genes rather than to Hox cluster composition. Moreover the data available on Hox and ParaHox genes in molluscs compared with those of other Lophotrochozoa shed light on the complex and controversial evolutionary histories that these genes have undergone within protostomes.

  17. Detection of the MW Transition Between Ortho and Para States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Hideto; Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Mizoguchi, Asao; Endo, Yasuki

    2017-06-01

    Thorough the detailed analysis of the hyperfine resolved rotational transitions, we have been pointed out that there exists not a little interaction between ortho and para states in the molecular Hamiltonian of S_2Cl_2. Using the ortho-para mixed molecular wavefunctions derived from the Hamiltonian, we calculated the transition moment and frequency of the ortho-para forbidden transitions in the cm- and mm-wave region, and picked up some promising candidate transitions for the spectroscopic detection. In the experiment, the S_2Cl_2 vapor with Ar buffer gas in a supersonic jet condition was used with FTMW spectrometer at National Chiao Tung University. As a result, seven hyperfine resolved rotational transitions in the cm-wave region were detected as the ortho-para transition at the predicted frequency within the experimental error range. The observed intensity was 10^{-3} smaller than that of an allowed transition, which is also consistent with the prediction. This is the first time the electric dipole transition between ortho and para states has been detected in a free isolated molecule. A. Mizoguchi, S. Ota, H. Kanamori, Y. Sumiyoshi, and Y. Endo, J. Mol. Spectrosc, 250, 86 (2008) Z. T. Dehghani, S. Ota, A. Mizoguchi and H. Kanamori, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117(39), 10041, (2013)

  18. Evolution of invertebrate deuterostomes and Hox/ParaHox genes.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tetsuro

    2011-06-01

    Transcription factors encoded by Antennapedia-class homeobox genes play crucial roles in controlling development of animals, and are often found clustered in animal genomes. The Hox and ParaHox gene clusters have been regarded as evolutionary sisters and evolved from a putative common ancestral gene complex, the ProtoHox cluster, prior to the divergence of the Cnidaria and Bilateria (bilaterally symmetrical animals). The Deuterostomia is a monophyletic group of animals that belongs to the Bilateria, and a sister group to the Protostomia. The deuterostomes include the vertebrates (to which we belong), invertebrate chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms and possibly xenoturbellids, as well as acoelomorphs. The studies of Hox and ParaHox genes provide insights into the origin and subsequent evolution of the bilaterian animals. Recently, it becomes apparent that among the Hox and ParaHox genes, there are significant variations in organization on the chromosome, expression pattern, and function. In this review, focusing on invertebrate deuterostomes, I first summarize recent findings about Hox and ParaHox genes. Next, citing unsolved issues, I try to provide clues that might allow us to reconstruct the common ancestor of deuterostomes, as well as understand the roles of Hox and ParaHox genes in the development and evolution of deuterostomes.

  19. β-Cyclodextrin- para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.; Oranskaya, E. I.

    2010-11-01

    Complex formation of β-cyclodextrin with para-aminosalicylic acid in buffer solutions is studied by UV spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric proportion of the components in the β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is 1:1. The Ketelar equation is used to calculate the stability constants of the inclusion complexes at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of the complex formation process (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) are calculated using the van't Hoff equation. The 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-para-aminosalicylic acid inclusion complex is prepared in solid form and its characteristics are determined by IR spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction techniques.

  20. Quantum simulation of driven para-Bose oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderete, C. Huerta; Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics allows paraparticles with mixed Bose-Fermi statistics that have not been experimentally confirmed. We propose a trapped-ion scheme whose effective dynamics are equivalent to a driven para-Bose oscillator of even order. Our mapping suggest highly entangled vibrational and internal ion states as the laboratory equivalent of quantum simulated parabosons. Furthermore, we show the generation and reconstruction of coherent oscillations and para-Bose analogs of Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states from population inversion measurements in the laboratory frame. Our proposal, apart from demonstrating an analog quantum simulator of para-Bose oscillators, provides a quantum state engineering tool that foreshadows the potential use of paraparticle dynamics in the design of quantum information systems.

  1. Una técnica para filtrar patrones de fringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrov, P. G.

    Se presenta una nueva técnica para filtrar los patrones de fringing producidos en los CCDs tipo RCA. El método consiste en construir un mapa con los ángulos de inclinación de las franjas en cada punto de la imagen. Este mapa es ulteriormente utilizado para alinear con el patrón de interferencia una ventana estrecha, sobre la que se aplica un filtro de mediana. Este procedimiento permite eliminar la mayor parte del ruido del patrón de fringing sin destruirlo.

  2. Ortho and para-armalcolite samples in Apollo 17.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two paragenetically contrasting forms of armalcolite are present in basalts from the Apollo 17 Taurus-Littrow landing site. These armalcolites differ in optical properties, in crystal habit and in their distribution between coarse and fine grained rocks. It is proposed to call the two armalcolite forms ortho-armalcolite and para-armalcolite. Texural relationships and the evidence of experimental melting show that ortho-armalcolite is always the first crystalline phase to appear from unusually titanium rich magmas. The origin of para-armalcolite is not yet fully understood.

  3. On some examples of para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecki, Adam

    2017-02-01

    Spaces equipped with two complementary (distinct) congruences of self-dual null strings and at least one congruence of anti-self-dual null strings are considered. It is shown that if such spaces are Einsteinian then the vacuum Einstein field equations can be reduced to a single nonlinear partial differential equation of the second order. Different forms of these equations are analyzed. Finally, several new explicit metrics of the para-Hermite and para-Kähler Einstein spaces with Λ ≠ 0 are presented. Some relation of that metrics to a modern approach to mechanical issues is discussed.

  4. Utilice en forma segura los productos con cebo para roedores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Si se usan de manera inadecuada, los productos con veneno para ratas y ratones podrían hacerle daño a usted, a sus hijos o a sus mascotas. Siempre que use pesticidas lea la etiqueta del producto y siga todas las indicaciones.

  5. Analyzing and Visualizing Cosmological Simulations with ParaView

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Jonathan; Heitmann, Katrin; Ahrens, James P; Fasel, Patricia; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Habib, Salman; Pope, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The advent of large cosmological sky surveys - ushering in the era of precision cosmology - has been accompanied by ever larger cosmological simulations. The analysis of these simulations, which currently encompass tens of billions of particles and up to a trillion particles in the near future, is often as daunting as carrying out the simulations in the first place. Therefore, the development of very efficient analysis tools combining qualitative and quantitative capabilities is a matter of some urgency. In this paper, we introduce new analysis features implemented within ParaView, a fully parallel, open-source visualization toolkit, to analyze large N-body simulations. A major aspect of ParaView is that it can live and operate on the same machines and utilize the same parallel power as the simulation codes themselves. In addition, data movement is in a serious bottleneck now and will become even more of an issue in the future; an interactive visualization and analysis tool that can handle data in situ is fast becoming essential. The new features in ParaView include particle readers and a very efficient halo finder that identifies friends-of-friends halos and determines common halo properties, including spherical overdensity properties. In combination with many other functionalities already existing within ParaView, such as histogram routines or interfaces to programming languages like Python, this enhanced version enables fast, interactive, and convenient analyses of large cosmological simulations. In addition, development paths are available for future extensions.

  6. The total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured, using the pulsed neutron source ISIS, the total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen in the vicinity of the triple point. The experimental results compare only qualitatively with the results of the Young and Koppel theory. However, a much better agreement is found once modifications are included in the model which effectively take into account the intermolecular interactions.

  7. "Espanol para ti": A Video Program That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Elena; Johnson, Holly

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of "Espanol para ti," a video program for teaching Spanish at the elementary school level. The program was designed for use in Clark County, Nevada elementary schools and is taught by a certified Spanish teacher via video twice a week, utilizing comprehensible input through visuals, games, and songs that are conducive to…

  8. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  9. Kit para aplicar la metodología de Lean en el gobierno

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Este Kit para comenzar a aplicar la metodología Lean (Gobierno optimizado) ofrece información para ayudar a las agencias de protección ambiental a planificar e implementar iniciativas Lean exitosas.

  10. Para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea: its radiographic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, A; Murayama, S; Ohuchida, T; Russell, W J

    1988-01-01

    On retrospective reviews of radiographs, periarthritis calcarea was distinguished from os acetabula by interval radiographic progression and regression. Among 59 men and 51 women, there were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications and ossifications, which were morphologically classified as 58 discrete, 58 amorphous, and 21 segmented types. Correlations with other radiographic abnormalities, symptoms, signs, and laboratory abnormalities were sought, but not established. Out of 93 serially imaged opacities, 90 changed, including 37 of the 40 instances (92.5%) of the discrete type and 53 instances (100%) of the amorphous and segmented types--due to periarthritis calcarea. At least 43 of 90 densities were newly developed. Mean age at first detection was 47.7 years. Three of the discrete densities were unchanged and represented os acetabula. Thus, recognition of para-acetabular periarthritis calcarea is not only of academic importance; it can facilitate proper treatment as well.

  11. Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

  12. Conversion of para and ortho hydrogen in the Jovian planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Hunten, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed which partially equilibrates the para and ortho rotational levels of molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Catalytic reactions between the free-radical surface sites of aerosol particles and hydrogen modecules yield significant equilibration near 1 bar pressure, if the efficiency of conversion per collision is between 10 to the -8th and 10 to the -10th and the effective eddy mixing coefficient is 10,000 sq cm/sec. At lower pressures the ortho-para ratio retains the value at the top of the cloud layer, except for a very small effect from conversion in the thermosphere. The influence of conversion on the specific heat and adiabatic lapse rate is also investigated. The effect is found to be generally small, though is can rise to 10% inside the aerosol layer.

  13. Production Ratio for Para- and Ortho-Ps in Photodetachment of Ps^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Para- and ortho-Ps atoms are formed in the photodetachment of positronium negative ion. Since the lifetime against the pair annihilation is much shorter for para-Ps( ns) than for ortho-Ps( ns), the production ratio of para- and ortho-Ps atoms is important for the photodetachment experiments. We have derived the ratio explicitly.

  14. Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Para-Phenylene PBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    give high molecular weight m-phenylene PBI (Reference 7). The polymer was completely soluble in methanesulfonic acid and 98% formic acid . Polymer with...mono- mer is a white crystalline solid which can be quantitatively hydrolized in an acid medium to give the free TAB. Stoichiometric quantities of IX...WEIGHT "PARA"-PHENYLENE PBI TECHNICAL REPORT AFML-TR-74-199 NOVEMBER 1974 Distribution limited to U.S.Government agencies only, test and evaluation

  15. Photodissociation dynamics of the ortho- and para-xylyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachner, Kai; Steglich, Mathias; Hemberger, Patrick; Fischer, Ingo

    2017-08-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of the C8H9 isomers ortho- and para-xylyl are investigated in a free jet. The xylyl radicals are generated by flash pyrolysis from 2-(2-methylphenyl)- and 2-(4-methylphenyl) ethyl nitrite and are excited into the D3 state. REMPI- spectra show vibronic structure and the origin of the transition is identified at 32 291 cm-1 for the para- and at 32 132 cm-1 for the ortho-isomer. Photofragment H-atom action spectra show bands at the same energy and thus confirm H-atom loss from xylyl radicals. To gain further insight into the photodissociation dynamics, velocity map images of the hydrogen atom photofragments are recorded. Their angular distribution is isotropic and the translational energy release is in agreement with a dissociation to products in their electronic ground state. Photodissociation of para-xylyl leads to the formation of para-xylylene (C8H8), while the data for ortho-xylyl agree much better with the isomer benzocyclobutene as the dominant molecular fragment rather than ortho-xylylene. In computations we identified a new pathway for the reaction ortho-xylyl → benzocyclobutene + H with a barrier of 3.39 eV (27 340 cm-1), which becomes accessible at the employed excitation energy. It proceeds via a combination of scissoring and rotational motion of the -CH2 and -CH3 groups. However, the observed rate constants measured by delaying the excitation and ionization laser with respect to each other are significantly faster than computed ones, indicating intrinsic non-RRKM behaviour. A comparably high value of around 30% of the excess energy is released as translation of the H-atom photofragment.

  16. Relative Contributions of Agricultural Drift, Para-Occupational ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: Increased pesticide concentrations in house dust in agricultural areas have been attributed to several exposure pathways, including agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use. Objective: To guide future exposure assessment efforts, we quantified relative contributions of these pathways using meta-regression models of published data on dust pesticide concentrations. Methods: From studies in North American agricultural areas published from 1995-2015, we abstracted dust pesticide concentrations reported as summary statistics (e.g., geometric means (GM)). We analyzed these data using mixed-effects meta-regression models that weighted each summary statistic by its inverse variance. Dependent variables were either the log-transformed GM (drift) or the log-transformed ratio of GMs from two groups (para-occupational, residential use). Results: For the drift pathway, predicted GMs decreased sharply and nonlinearly, with GMs 64% lower in homes 250 m versus 23 m from fields (inter-quartile range of published data) based on 52 statistics from 7 studies. For the para-occupational pathway, GMs were 2.3 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-3.3; 15 statistics, 5 studies) in homes of farmers who applied pesticides more versus less recently or frequently. For the residential use pathway, GMs were 1.3 (95%CI: 1.1-1.4) and 1.5 (95%CI: 1.2-1.9) times higher in treated versus untreated homes, when the probability that a pesticide was used for

  17. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  18. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.

  19. Determination of the Ratio of Ortho Hydrogen and Para Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Ihas, G. G.; Sullivan, N. S.

    2003-03-01

    The two different quantum states of hydrogen, ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen, possess different properties. The accurate determination of the ortho/para ratio in gaseous, liquid and solid state is important both for research needs and for applications in cryogenic engineering, such as H2 production, transport and storage. NMR can determine the ratio1 accurately, but it is cumbersome and often not practical. Cryogenic applications need a simple and reliable method. We report on the development of a thermal conductivity gauge employing a pure metal thin film that serves as both heater and thermometer for the detection of ortho-para hydrogen ratios in the gaseous state. This ratio-meter has been tested and found to have a nearly pressure-independent voltage response over a broad pressure range with a constant current. The thermal conductivity of hydrogen and nitrogen was measured and found to agree quantitatively with published data. The new development will be presented. *Thanks to Larry Phelps, Bill Malphurs, Stephen Wood, David Hernandez. # Supported by NASA Contract NAG3-2750 Ref. 1. D. Zhou, C. M. Edwards, and N. S. Sullivan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1528 (1989)

  20. Surgical treatment of para-oesophageal hiatal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M. L.; Duffy, J. P.; Beggs, F. D.; Salama, F. D.; Knowles, K. R.; Morgan, W. E.

    2001-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic antireflux surgery has stimulated interest in laparoscopic para-oesophageal hiatal hernia repair. This review of our practice over 10 years using a standard transthoracic technique was undertaken to establish the safety and effectiveness of the open technique to allow comparison. Sixty patients with para-oesophageal hiatal hernia were operated on between 1989 and 1999. There were 38 women and 22 men with a median age of 69.5 years. There were 47 elective and 13 emergency presentations. Operation consisted of a left thoracotomy, hernia reduction and crural repair. An antireflux procedure was added in selected patients. There were no deaths among the elective cases and one among the emergency cases. Median follow-up time was 19 months. There was one recurrence (1.5%). Seven patients (12%) required a single oesophagoscopy and dilatation up to 2 years postoperatively but have been asymptomatic since. Two patients (3%) developed symptomatic reflux which has been well controlled on proton-pump inhibitors. Transthoracic para-oesophageal hernia repair can be safely performed with minimal recurrence. PMID:11777134

  1. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  2. [Genetic analysis of an individual with para-Bombay phenotype].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-jin; Huang, Ying; Zhu, Sui-yong

    2013-04-01

    To study genetic characteristics of an individual with para-Bombay phenotype and her family members. ABO and H antigens were detected with routine serological techniques.The entire coding region of FUT1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products was purified with enzymes digestion and directly sequenced. The RBCs of the proband did not agglutinate with H antibody. The proband therefore has a para-Bombay phenotype (Bmh). Direct sequencing indicated the FUT1 sequence of the proband contained a homozygous 547-552 del AG and heterozygous 814A>G mutation, which gave rise to two haplotypes of 547-552delAG, 547-552delAG and 814A>G. The ABO blood type of the proband' s mother and sisters were all B.Sequencing of the FUT1 gene has found heterozygous 547-552 del AG, 814A>G mutations in the mother and elder sister, and heterozygous 547-552 del AG mutation in her younger sister. The FUT1 547-552 del AG and 814 A>G mutations of the proband were inherited from her mother. A complex mutation of the FUT1 gene consisting of 547-55 del AG and 814 A>G has been identified in an individual with para-Bombay phenotype.

  3. Aging in bacteria, immortality or not-a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gómez, José M G

    2010-12-01

    Bacteria were traditionally thought to have a symmetrical binary fission without a clear distinction between soma and germ-line, being thus considered as immortal biological entities. Yet it has been recently described that bacteria also undergo replicative aging (RA). That is, they exhibit finite replicative abilities under good conditions to growth. The apparently initial indistinguishability of sibling cells after cytokinesis is broken. After division, the daughter cell that inherits the "old" pole present in the "mother cell" progressively exhibits a decline in its proliferative capacity with increasing cell pole age. This is a clear hallmark and phenotypic manifestation of a bona fide RA phenomenon in toto. While the exact molecular mechanism(s) underlying to this lost of replicative potential are not yet fully understood, the "old pole cell" is considered as an aging parent that in a repeatedly manner is able to produce rejuvenated offspring which inherit a resetting of the biological clock. On the order hand, bacteria exhibit in addition to this "mandatory" RA the dubbed conditional senescence (CS). CS is defined as a decline in cellular viability observed in arrested-growing bacteria populations, a phenomenon apparently not related to RA under growing active conditions. To understand bacterial aging, it is necessary to put it within the sociality-multicellularity framework. This is a new conceptual paradigm that expresses the natural reality of the bacterial world. From this more ecological perspective these bacterial aging phenomena probably should represent an insurance/bethedging anticipative survival strategy. This is underpinned in a self-generation of an appropriate level of populational phenotypic diversity. That is, bacterial aging could be considered a communitarian adaptive response to cope with different environmental stresses and threats. I have highlighted the necessity to construct an integrative conceptual framework to achieve a unified view of bacteria aging to answer this fundamental question: what are the reasons of bacterial aging?

  4. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study.

  5. The Regulation of para-Nitrophenol Degradation in Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiongzhen; Tu, Hui; Luo, Xue; Zhang, Biying; Huang, Fei; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Shen, Wenjing; Wu, Jiale; Cui, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. The regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and PNP induced a global change in the transcriptome of P. putida DLL-E4. When grown on PNP, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpR-deleted strain. Genes related to two non-coding RNAs (ins1 and ins2), para-nitrophenol metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the outer membrane porin OprB, glucose dehydrogenase Gcd, and carbon catabolite repression were significantly upregulated when cells were grown on para-nitrophenol plus glucose. pnpA, pnpR, pnpC1C2DECX1X2, and pnpR1 are key genes in para-nitrophenol degradation, whereas pnpAb and pnpC1bC2bDbEbCbX1bX2b have lost the ability to degrade para-nitrophenol. Multiple components including transcriptional regulators and other unknown factors regulate para-nitrophenol degradation, and the transcriptional regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation is complex. Glucose utilization was enhanced at early stages of para-nitrophenol supplementation. However, it was inhibited after the total consumption of para-nitrophenol. The addition of glucose led to a significant enhancement in para-nitrophenol degradation and up-regulation in the expression of genes involved in para-nitrophenol degradation and carbon catabolite repression (CCR). It seemed that para-nitrophenol degradation can be regulated by CCR, and relief of CCR might contribute to enhanced para-nitrophenol degradation. In brief, the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation seems to be controlled by multiple factors and requires further study. PMID:27191401

  6. Studies on barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate NLO single crystal by unidirectional growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uthrakumar, R.; Vesta, C.; Jose, M.; Sugandhi, K.; Krishnan, S.; Jerome Das, S.

    2010-08-01

    The unidirectional crystal growth technique has been employed for the bulk growth of semi-organic nonlinear optical barium bis-para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol tetra hydrate single crystals along the (2 2 0) direction with almost high solute-crystal conversion efficiency. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal and powder XRD analyses in order to confirm the crystal identity. Optical absorption studies reveal very high transmittance in the entire visible and near IR region. The presence of various functional groups is confirmed by FTIR analysis. Low dielectric loss at high frequency region is indicative of enhanced optical quality with lesser defects. Photoconductivity measurements carried out on the grown crystal reveal the negative photoconducting nature.

  7. ORTHO-PARA SELECTION RULES IN THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY OF INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Le Gal, R.; Rist, C.

    2013-06-10

    The ortho-para chemistry of ammonia in the cold interstellar medium is investigated using a gas-phase chemical network. Branching ratios for the primary reaction chain involved in the formation and destruction of ortho- and para-NH{sub 3} were derived using angular momentum rules based on the conservation of the nuclear spin. We show that the 'anomalous' ortho-to-para ratio of ammonia ({approx}0.7) observed in various interstellar regions is in fact consistent with nuclear spin selection rules in a para-enriched H{sub 2} gas. This ratio is found to be independent of temperature in the range 5-30 K. We also predict an ortho-to-para ratio of {approx}2.3 for NH{sub 2}. We conclude that a low ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} naturally drives the ortho-to-para ratios of nitrogen hydrides below the statistical values.

  8. Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2003 (Interamerican Review of Adult Education, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This journal offers a collection of Spanish-language articles, including: "Educacion a Distancia y Uso de las Tecnologias: Experiencias Desafios y Oportunidades Educativas para Jovenes y Adultos" (Ma. Mercedes Ruiz); "Volver a a Educacion Fundamental? Notas para una Arquelogia de los Mandatos Fundacionales del CREFAL" (Jorge…

  9. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  10. Amazon Land Wars in the South of Para

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2007-01-01

    The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.

  11. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada. PMID:27667897

  12. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  13. Para-hydrogen narrow filament evaporation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizarova, T. G.; Gogolin, A. A.; Montero, S.

    2012-11-01

    Undercooling of liquid para-hydrogen (pH2) below its freezing point at equilibrium (13.8 K) has been shown recently in flowing micro-filaments evaporating in low density background gas [M. Kühnel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245301 (2011)]. An hydrodynamical model accounting for this process is reported here. Analytical expressions for the local temperature T of a filament, averaged over its cross section, are obtained as a function of distance z to the nozzle. Comparison with the experiment is shown. It is shown also that the thermocapillary forces induce a parabolic profile of velocity across the jet.

  14. RVA: A Plugin for ParaView 3.14

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-04

    RVA is a plugin developed for the 64-bit Windows version of the ParaView 3.14 visualization package. RVA is designed to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including: sophisticated connectivity analysis, cross sections through simulation results between

  15. Biodegradation of Para Amino Acetanilide by Halomonas sp. TBZ3

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nader; Sefidi Heris, Youssof; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Vallipour, Javad; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Golabi, Sayyed Mahdi; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic compounds are known as a group of highly persistent environmental pollutants. Halomonas sp. TBZ3 was isolated from the highly salty Urmia Lake of Iran. In this study, characterization of a new Halomonas isolate called Halomonas sp. TBZ3 and its employment for biodegradation of para-amino acetanilide (PAA), as an aromatic environmental pollutant, is described. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize the TBZ3 isolate and to elucidate its ability as a biodegradative agent that decomposes PAA. Materials and Methods: Primarily, DNA-DNA hybridization between TBZ3, Halomonas denitrificans DSM18045T and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976T was carried out. Para-amino acetanilide biodegradation was assessed using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Parameters effective on biodegradation of PAA were optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results: The DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between isolate TBZ3, H. denitrificans and H. saccharevitans revealed relatedness levels of 57% and 65%, respectively. According to GC-MS results, TBZ3 degrades PAA to benzene, hexyl butanoate, 3-methyl-1-heptanol and hexyl hexanoate. Temperature 32.92°C, pH 6.76, and salinity 14% are the optimum conditions for biodegradation with a confidence level of 95% (at level α = 0.05). Conclusions: According to our results, Halomonas sp. TBZ3 could be considered as a biological agent for bioremediation of PAA and possibly other similar aromatic compounds. PMID:26495103

  16. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4'-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot.

  17. CYP96T1 of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus Catalyzes Formation of the Para-Para' C-C Phenol Couple in the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Matthew B.; Augustin, Megan M.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2016-01-01

    The Amaryllidaceae alkaloids are a family of amino acid derived alkaloids with many biological activities; examples include haemanthamine, haemanthidine, galanthamine, lycorine, and maritidine. Central to the biosynthesis of the majority of these alkaloids is a C-C phenol-coupling reaction that can have para-para', para-ortho', or ortho-para' regiospecificity. Through comparative transcriptomics of Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus, Galanthus sp., and Galanthus elwesii we have identified a para-para' C-C phenol coupling cytochrome P450, CYP96T1, capable of forming the products (10bR,4aS)-noroxomaritidine and (10bS,4aR)-noroxomaritidine from 4′-O-methylnorbelladine. CYP96T1 was also shown to catalyzed formation of the para-ortho' phenol coupled product, N-demethylnarwedine, as less than 1% of the total product. CYP96T1 co-expresses with the previously characterized norbelladine 4′-O-methyltransferase. The discovery of CYP96T1 is of special interest because it catalyzes the first major branch in Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis. CYP96T1 is also the first phenol-coupling enzyme characterized from a monocot. PMID:26941773

  18. Oropouche Virus. 3. Entomological Observations from Three Epidemics in Para, Brazil, 1975,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-06

    by block number) OROPOUCHE VIRUS, CULICOIDES PARAENSIS, EPIDEMICS, BRAZIL, PARA I&2 ABSThAC (Cantmus = revers e e* I nessamy and idewtty by block nmbe...8217)URBAN EPIDEMTCS OF OROPOUCHE ORO FEVER IN THREE MUNICIPALITIES IN PARA, BR.tZIL WERE SrUDIED IN 1975. CULICOIDES PARAENSIS GOELDI WERE COLLECTED...Medicine and Hygiene OROPOUCHE VIRUS III. ENTOMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FROM THREE EPIDEMICS IN PARA, BRAZIL, 1975* DONALD R. ROBERTS, ALFRED L. HOCH

  19. Crystal growth and DFT insight on sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate single crystal for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Boobalan, Maria Susai; Anthuvan Babu, S.; Ramalingam, S.; Leo Rajesh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of sodium para-nitrophenolate para-nitrophenol dihydrate (SPPD) were grown by slow evaporation technique and its structure has been studied by FT-IR, FT-Raman and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The optical and electrical properties were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, and dielectric studies respectively. SPPD was thermally stable up to 128 °C as determined by TG-DTA curves. Using the Kurtz-Perry powder method, the second-harmonic generation efficiency was found to be five times to that of KDP. Third-order nonlinear response was studied using Z-scan technique with a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and NLO parameters such as intensity dependent refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient and third-order susceptibility were also estimated. The molecular geometry from X-ray experiment in the ground state has been compared using density functional theory (DFT) with appropriate basis set. The first-order hyperpolarizability also calculated using DFT approaches. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions leading to its nonlinear optical activity and charge delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital technique. HOMO-LUMO energy gap value suggests the possibility of charge transfer within the molecule. Based on optimized ground state geometries, Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to study donor-acceptor interactions.

  20. Ortho- and para-hydrogen in dense clouds, protoplanets, and planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decampli, W. M.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Bodenheimer, P.; Black, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    If ortho- and para-hydrogen achieve a thermal ratio on dynamical time scales in a molecular hydrogen cloud, then the specific heat is high enough in the temperature range 35-70 K to possibly induce hydrodynamic collapse. The ortho-para ratio in many interstellar cloud fragments is expected to meet this condition. The same may have been true for the primitive solar nebula. Detailed hydrodynamic and hydrostatic calculations are presented that show the effects of the assumed ortho-para ratio on the evolution of Jupiter during its protoplanetary phase. Some possible consequences of a thermalized ortho-para ratio in the atmospheres of the giant planets are also discussed.

  1. Para-phenylenediamine allergy: current perspectives on diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Mukkanna, Krishna Sumanth; Stone, Natalie M; Ingram, John R

    2017-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the commonest and most well-known component of hair dyes. Oxidative hair dyes and dark henna temporary tattoos contain PPD. Individuals may be sensitized to PPD by temporary henna tattooing in addition to dyeing their hair. PPD allergy can cause severe reactions and may result in complications. In recent years, frequency of positive patch test reactions to PPD has been increasing. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur, in particular to other hair dye components. Hairdressers are at a high risk for PPD allergy and require counseling regarding techniques to minimize exposure and protective measures while handling hair dye. We focus this review on the current perspectives of diagnosis and management of PPD allergy. PMID:28176912

  2. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  3. Substrate mediated smooth growth of para-sexiphenyl on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelsema, Bene; Hlawacek, Gregor; Khokhar, Fawad S.; van Gastel, Raoul; Teichert, Christian

    2010-03-01

    We report on the layer-by-layer growthof lying para-sexiphenyl (6P) molecules on metal supported graphene flakes. The formation of multilayers has been monitored in situ by means of LEEM. μ-LEED has been used to reveal a bulk-like structure of the submonolayer, monolayer and multilayer regime. Graphene is a flexible, highly conductive and transparent electrode material, making it a promising technological substrate for organic semiconductors. 6P is a blue light emitting molecule with a high charge carrier mobility. The combination of an established deposition technique with the unique properties of organic semiconductors and graphene is an enabler for future flexible and cost efficient devices based on small conjugated molecules.

  4. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  5. Electron impact ionization dynamics of para-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. B.; Ali, E.; Ning, C. G.; Colgan, J.; Ingólfsson, O.; Madison, D. H.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for the electron impact ionization of the unresolved combination of the 4 highest occupied molecular orbitals (4b3g, 5b2u, 1b1g, and 2b3u) of para-benzoquinone are reported. These were obtained in an asymmetric coplanar geometry with the scattered electron being observed at the angles -7.5°, -10.0°, -12.5° and -15.0°. The experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level, with a marginal level of agreement between them being found. The character of the ionized orbitals, through calculated momentum profiles, provides some qualitative interpretation for the measured angular distributions of the TDCS.

  6. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  7. Luttinger parameter of quasi-one-dimensional para -H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, G.; Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of para-hydrogen in one dimension and in quasi-one-dimensional configurations using the path-integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. This method produces zero-temperature exact results for a given interaction and geometry. The quasi-one-dimensional setup has been implemented in two forms: the inner channel inside a carbon nanotube coated with H2 and a harmonic confinement of variable strength. Our main result is the dependence of the Luttinger parameter on the density within the stable regime. Going from one dimension to quasi-one dimension, keeping the linear density constant, produces a systematic increase of the Luttinger parameter. This increase is, however, not enough to reach the superfluid regime and the system always remain in the quasicrystal regime, according to Luttinger liquid theory.

  8. Sponges, Tubules and Modulated Phases of Para-Antinematic Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, J. B.; Galatola, P.

    1997-10-01

    We theoretically analyze the behavior of membranes presenting a nematic susceptibility, induced by the presence of anisotropic phospholipids having a quadrupolar nematic symmetry. This kind of anisotropic phospholipids is either naturally found in some biological membranes, or can be chemically tailored by linking pairs of single surfactants at the level of their polar heads, giving rise to so-called “gemini” surfactants. We predict that such membranes can acquire a non-zero paranematic order induced by the membrane curvature, which in turn produces curvature instabilities. We call the resulting paranematic order para-antinematic, since it is opposite on opposite sides of the membrane. We find phase transitions toward sponges (L3), tubules, or modulated “egg-carton” phases.

  9. Ortho-Para Mixing Hyperfine Interaction in the H2O+ Ion and Nuclear Spin Equilibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O+, due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(Sa-Ib + Sb-Ia) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the -forbidden- ortho to para |-I| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O+ than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 108 increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O+ measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho - para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (-10-3), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, -300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O+ are mixed by -10-4 making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 - ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho - para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O+ unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

  10. The Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, Amiel; Neufeld, David A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We draw attention to an apparent confusion in the literature between the ortho-to-para ratio of molecules in FUV-pumped vibrationally excited states and the total H2 ortho-to-para abundance ratio. These ratios are not the same because the process of FUV pumping of fluorescent H2 emission in PDRs occurs via optically thick absorption lines. Thus gas with an equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 equal to 3 will yield FUV-pumped vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios smaller than 3, because the ortho-H2 pumping rates are preferentially reduced by optical depth effects. Indeed, if the ortho and para pumping lines are on the "square root" part of the curve of growth, then the expected ratio of ortho and para vibrational line strengths is 3(sup 1/2) approximately 1.7, close to the typically observed value. Thus, contrary to what has sometimes been stated in the literature, most previous measurements of the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in vibrationally excited states are entirely consistent with a total ortho-to-para ratio of 3, the equilibrium value for temperatures greater than 200 K. We present an analysis and several detailed models that illustrate the relationship between the total ratios of ortho- to para-H2 and the vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios in PDRs. Recent Infrared Space Observatory measurements of pure rotational and vibrational H2 emissions from the PDR in the star-forming region S140 provide strong observational support for our conclusions.

  11. The Ratio of Ortho- to Para-H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternberg, Amiel; Neufeld, David A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in photodissociation regions (PDRs). We draw attention to an apparent confusion in the literature between the ortho-to-para ratio of molecules in FUV-pumped vibrationally excited states and the total H2 ortho-to-para abundance ratio. These ratios are not the same because the process of FUV pumping of fluorescent H2 emission in PDRs occurs via optically thick absorption lines. Thus gas with an equilibrium ratio of ortho- to para-H2 equal to 3 will yield FUV-pumped vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios smaller than 3, because the ortho-H2 pumping rates are preferentially reduced by optical depth effects. Indeed, if the ortho and para pumping lines are on the "square root" part of the curve of growth, then the expected ratio of ortho and para vibrational line strengths is 3(sup 1/2) approximately 1.7, close to the typically observed value. Thus, contrary to what has sometimes been stated in the literature, most previous measurements of the ratio of ortho- to para-H2 in vibrationally excited states are entirely consistent with a total ortho-to-para ratio of 3, the equilibrium value for temperatures greater than 200 K. We present an analysis and several detailed models that illustrate the relationship between the total ratios of ortho- to para-H2 and the vibrationally excited ortho-to-para ratios in PDRs. Recent Infrared Space Observatory measurements of pure rotational and vibrational H2 emissions from the PDR in the star-forming region S140 provide strong observational support for our conclusions.

  12. Ortho-para mixing hyperfine interaction in the H2O+ ion and nuclear spin equilibration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Oka, Takeshi

    2013-10-03

    The ortho to para conversion of water ion, H2O(+), due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and protons has been theoretically studied to calculate the spontaneous emission lifetime between the ortho- and para-levels. The electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(SaΔIb + SbΔIa) mixes ortho (I = 1) and para (I = 0) levels to cause the "forbidden" ortho to para |ΔI| = 1 transition. The mixing term with Tab = 72.0 MHz is 4 orders of magnitude higher for H2O(+) than for its neutral counterpart H2O where the magnetic field interacting with proton spins is by molecular rotation rather than the free electron. The resultant 10(8) increase of ortho to para conversion rate possibly makes the effect of conversion in H2O(+) measurable in laboratories and possibly explains the anomalous ortho to para ratio recently reported by Herschel heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI) observation. Results of our calculations show that the ortho ↔ para mixings involving near-degenerate ortho and para levels are high (∼10(-3)), but they tend to occur at high energy levels, ∼300 K. Because of the rapid spontaneous emission, such high levels are not populated in diffuse clouds unless the radiative temperature of the environment is very high. The low-lying 101 (para) and 111 (ortho) levels of H2O(+) are mixed by ∼10(-4) making the spontaneous emission lifetime for the para 101 → ortho 000 transition 520 years and 5200 years depending on the F value of the hyperfine structure. Thus the ortho ↔ para conversion due to the unpaired electron is not likely to seriously affect thermalization of interstellar H2O(+) unless either the radiative temperature is very high or number density of the cloud is very low.

  13. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  14. Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La Guía para la evaluación del riesgo de los polinizadores de la EPA es parte de una estrategia de la evaluación de los riesgos que presentan los pesticidas para las abejas a fin de mejorar la protección de los polinizadores.

  15. Rate of para-aortic lymph node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Behrouz; Euscher, Elizabeth D.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Coleman, Robert L.; Frumovitz, Michael; Jhingran, Anuja; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with micrometastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes may benefit from extended field chemoradiation. To determine the rate of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer undergoing laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy Methods We prospectively identified consecutive patients diagnosed with stage IB2-IVA biopsy-proven cervical cancer. Eligible patients included those who were candidates for treatment with radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy and had no evidence of para-aortic lymphadenopathy (all lymph nodes < 2 cm in diameter) by preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography and laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy. All lymph nodes were assessed for metastasis by routine hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Ultrastaging (serial sectioning) and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in H&E-negative specimens. Results Thirteen (22%) of 60 consecutive patients had para-aortic lymph node metastases detected on routine H&E staining. Of the remaining 47 patients, one (2.1%) had evidence of micrometastasis, which was detected by ultrastaging. This patient completed whole pelvic radiotherapy and chemotherapy but had a recurrence 27 months after completion of therapy. Conclusions The rate of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer is low. The role of routine ultrastaging and immunohistochemical analysis in such patients remains uncertain. Future studies are needed to determine the clinical impact of para-aortic node micrometastasis in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. PMID:20837355

  16. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  17. Norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas Revisada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA emitió una propuesta para la revisión de la norma para la Certificación de Aplicadores de Plaguicidas. La norma ayudará a mantener nuestras comunidades seguras, salvaguardar el medio ambiente y reducir el riesgo a los que aplican los plaguicidas.

  18. Overproduction and localization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParA and ParB proteins

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Erin; Madiraju, Murty; Rajagopalan, Malini

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The ParA and ParB family proteins are required for accurate partitioning of replicated chromosomes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains parB, parA and two parA homologs, Rv1708 and Rv3213c. It is unknown if parA and its homologs are functionally related. To understand the roles of ParA and ParB proteins in M. tuberculosis cell cycle, we have evaluated the consequences of their overproduction and visualized their localization patterns in M. smegmatis. We show that cells overproducing of ParA, Rv1708 and Rv3213c and ParB are filamentous and multinucleoidal indicating defects in cell cycle progression. Visualization of green-fluorescent protein fusions of ParA and its homologues showed similar localization patterns with foci at poles, quarter-cell, midcell positions and spiral-like structures indicating that they are functionally related. On the other hand, the ParBGFP fusion protein localized only to the cell poles. The cyan and yellow fluorescent fusion proteins of ParA and ParB, respectively, colocalized at the cell poles indicating that these proteins interact and possibly associate with the chromosomal origin of replication. Collectively our results suggest that the M. tuberculosis Par proteins play important roles in cell cycle progression. PMID:20006309

  19. Protection of weanling hamsters from experimental infection with wild-type parainfluenza virus type 3 (para 3) by cold-adapted mutants of para 3.

    PubMed

    Crookshanks-Newman, F K; Belshe, R B

    1986-02-01

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (para 3) was adapted to replicate at 20 degrees C, a nonpermissive temperature for wild-type (wt) para 3. Serial passage at 20 degrees C resulted in the generation of cold-adapted (ca) and temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants. These mutant viruses have been characterized both in vitro and in vivo [Belshe and Hissom (1982): Journal of Medical Virology 10:235-242; Crookshanks and Belshe (1984): Journal of Medical Virology 13:243-249]. We now report the evaluation of three mutants (clone 1150, passaged 12 times in the cold [cp12], clone 1146, passaged 18 times in the cold [cp18], and clone 1328, passaged 45 times in the cold [cp45]) for their ability to protect hamsters from infection by wild-type para 3. Ether-anesthetized male syrian hamsters were intranasally vaccinated with either wt para 3 (clone 127) or one of the ca para 3 mutants and on day 28 post-vaccination; each animal was intranasally challenged with 10(5.0) pfu of wt para 3. On days 1, 2, 3, and 4 post-challenge, 4 to 13 hamsters from each group were sacrificed, and the quantity of para 3 in the nasal turbinates and lungs was determined. Wt virus induced protection from challenge. cp12, cp18, and cp45 reduced the peak titer of wt replication in the lungs by greater than 100-fold, tenfold, and tenfold, respectively. The duration of virus replication was shortened also by intranasal vaccination with the mutants. These data give evidence of an inverse relationship between the degree of protection induced by vaccination with cold-adapted mutants and the number of passages of the virus in the cold.

  20. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J I

    2011-01-25

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of production release 10.1 in September 2010. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark in the corresponding column. The definition of ''feature'' has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds, compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  1. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; ...

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  2. Evidence for para dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, D.; Quensen, J.F.; Tiedje, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    When microorganisms eluted from upper Hudson River sediment were cultured without any substrate except polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-free Hudson River sediment, methane formation was the terminal step of the anaerobic food chain. In sediments containing Aroclor 1242, addition of eubacterium-inhibiting antibiotics, which should have directly inhibited fermentative bacteria and thereby should have indirectly inhibited methanogens, resulted in no dechlorination activity or methane production. However, when substrates for methanogenic bacteria were provided along with the antibiotics (to free the methanogens from dependence on eubacteria), concomitant methane production and dechlorination of PCBs were observed. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was from the para positions, a pattern distinctly different from, and more limited than, the pattern observed with untreated or pasteurized inocula. Both methane production and dechlorination in cultures amended with antibiotics plus methanogenic substrates were inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. These results suggest that the methanogenic bacteria are among the physiological groups capable of anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs, but that the dechlorination observed with methanogenic bacteria is less extensive than the dechlorination observed with more complex anaerobic consortia. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. DYNA3D/ParaDyn Regression Test Suite Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry I.

    2016-09-01

    The following table constitutes an initial assessment of feature coverage across the regression test suite used for DYNA3D and ParaDyn. It documents the regression test suite at the time of preliminary release 16.1 in September 2016. The columns of the table represent groupings of functionalities, e.g., material models. Each problem in the test suite is represented by a row in the table. All features exercised by the problem are denoted by a check mark (√) in the corresponding column. The definition of “feature” has not been subdivided to its smallest unit of user input, e.g., algorithmic parameters specific to a particular type of contact surface. This represents a judgment to provide code developers and users a reasonable impression of feature coverage without expanding the width of the table by several multiples. All regression testing is run in parallel, typically with eight processors, except problems involving features only available in serial mode. Many are strictly regression tests acting as a check that the codes continue to produce adequately repeatable results as development unfolds; compilers change and platforms are replaced. A subset of the tests represents true verification problems that have been checked against analytical or other benchmark solutions. Users are welcomed to submit documented problems for inclusion in the test suite, especially if they are heavily exercising, and dependent upon, features that are currently underrepresented.

  4. Para-hydrogen induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koptyug, Igor V.; Kovtunov, Kirill; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar, M.Sabieh; Hilty, Christian; Han, Song-I; Pines, Alexander; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2007-01-31

    We demonstrate the creation and observation ofpara-hydrogen-induced polarization in heterogeneous hydrogenationreactions. Wilkinson's catalyst, RhCl(PPh3)3, supported on eithermodified silica gel or a polymer, is shown to hydrogenate styrene intoethylbenzene and to produce enhanced spin polarizations, observed throughNMR, when the reaction was performed with H2 gas enriched in the paraspinisomer. Furthermore, gaseous phase para-hydrogenation of propylene topropane with two catalysts, the Wilkinson's catalyst supported onmodified silica gel and Rh(cod)(sulfos) (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene;sulfos) - O3S(C6H4)CH2C(CH2PPh2)3) supported on silica gel, demonstratesheterogeneous catalytic conversion resulting in large spin polarizations.These experiments serve as a direct verification of the mechanism ofheterogeneous hydrogenation reactions involving immobilized metalcomplexes and can be potentially developed into a practical tool forproducing catalyst-free fluids with highly polarized nuclear spins for abroad range of hyperpolarized NMR and MRI applications.

  5. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1999-05-25

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  6. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  7. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Moore, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    A method for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases which exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase.

  8. Para-nitrobenzyl esterases with enhanced activity in aqueous and nonaqueous media

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, F.H.; Moore, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A method is disclosed for isolating and identifying modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases. These enzymes exhibit improved stability and/or esterase hydrolysis activity toward selected substrates and under selected reaction conditions relative to the unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The method involves preparing a library of modified para-nitrobenzyl esterase nucleic acid segments (genes) which have nucleotide sequences that differ from the nucleic acid segment which encodes for unmodified para-nitrobenzyl esterase. The library of modified para-nitrobenzyl nucleic acid segments is expressed to provide a plurality of modified enzymes. The clones expressing modified enzymes are then screened to identify which enzymes have improved esterase activity by measuring the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyze the selected substrate under the selected reaction conditions. Specific modified para-nitrobenzyl esterases are disclosed which have improved stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity in aqueous or aqueous-organic media relative to the stability and/or ester hydrolysis activity of unmodified naturally occurring para-nitrobenzyl esterase. 43 figs.

  9. Females prefer carotenoid colored males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Godfrey R; Breden, Felix; Allen, Teresa C

    2003-09-01

    The first results of female preference and chosen male mating success in a new model organism, the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae, are presented. Poecilia parae is a relative of the guppy, P. reticulata, and is assumed to have similar reproductive behavior. We tested the hypothesis that P. parae females, like female guppies, prefer carotenoid colored males as mates. Here we show that the time a female spent with males was significantly greater for carotenoid coloration in red and yellow melanzona, but time with these two morphs did not differ. The preferred red and yellow males mated significantly more often with their choosing females than did the non-preferred blue and parae males. The few blue melanzona and parae males that mated did so without performing courtship displays. Some females mated with all phenotypes including immaculata males during open group trials. Female P. parae clearly preferred males with carotenoid coloration, thereby corroborating the hypothesis. Alternative male mating tactics by blue melanzona, parae, and immaculata morphs and promiscuous mating by females also resembled features of reproductive behaviors exhibited by guppies.

  10. Quantum fluctuations increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in narrow carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Gauden, Piotr A; Terzyk, Artur P; Furmaniak, Sylwester

    2011-05-28

    Quantum fluctuations significantly increase the self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen adsorbed in narrow carbon nanotubes at 30 K comparing to its classical counterpart. Rigorous Feynman's path integral calculations reveal that self-diffusive motion of para-hydrogen in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K and pore densities below ∼29 mmol cm(-3) is one order of magnitude faster than the classical counterpart. We find that the zero-point energy and tunneling significantly smoothed out the free energy landscape of para-hydrogen molecules adsorbed in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube. This promotes a delocalization of the confined para-hydrogen at 30 K (i.e., population of unclassical paths due to quantum effects). Contrary the self-diffusive motion of classical para-hydrogen molecules in a narrow (6,6) carbon nanotube at 30 K is very slow. This is because classical para-hydrogen molecules undergo highly correlated movement when their collision diameter approached the carbon nanotube size (i.e., anomalous diffusion in quasi-one dimensional pores). On the basis of current results we predict that narrow single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising nanoporous molecular sieves being able to separate para-hydrogen molecules from mixtures of classical particles at cryogenic temperatures.

  11. Contextual Factors that Foster or Inhibit Para-Teacher Professional Development: The Case of an Indian, Non-Governmental Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2012-01-01

    The appointment of para-professionals to overcome skill shortages and/or make efficient use of expensive resources is well established in both developing and developed countries. The present research concerns para-teachers in India. The literature on para-teachers is dominated by training for special needs settings, largely in developed societies.…

  12. Irradiation of Pelvic and Para-Aortic Nodes in Carcinoma of the Cervix.

    PubMed

    Rotman; Aziz; Eifel

    1994-01-01

    Extended-field irradiation offers a significant chance of cure for patients with para-aortic node metastases if pelvic disease can be controlled. Prognosis is best for patients with microscopic para-aortic disease or with a single enlarged node. Complications of extended-field irradiation can be minimized with careful radiation therapy technique that uses multiple fields and high-energy beams of 18 MV or greater and by avoiding transperitoneal surgical staging. Although the role of prophylactic para-aortic irradiation is still being defined, randomized trials suggest that extended fields do benefit some patients with locoregionally advanced disease.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  14. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  15. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

    PubMed

    Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2006-03-15

    The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa.

  16. Measurement of the formaldehyde ortho to para ratio in three molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahane, C.; Lucas, R.; Frerking, M. A.; Langer, W. D.; Encrenaz, P.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of ortho and para H2CO in two types of clouds, a warm cloud (Orion A) and two cold clouds (L183 and TMC1), are presented. The ortho to para ratio in Orion deduced from the H2(C-13)O data is about three, while that for TMC1 is about one and that for L183 is 1-2. The former value is in agreement with the value calculated from chemical models of ortho and para H2CO production. The values for the cold clouds are consistent with thermal equilibrium at a temperature slightly smaller than 10 K.

  17. Time is of the essence for ParaHox homeobox gene clustering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ParaHox genes, and their evolutionary sisters the Hox genes, are integral to patterning the anterior-posterior axis of most animals. Like the Hox genes, ParaHox genes can be clustered and exhibit the phenomenon of colinearity - gene order within the cluster matching gene activation. Two new instances of ParaHox clustering provide the first examples of intact clusters outside chordates, with gene expression lending weight to the argument that temporal colinearity is the key to understanding clustering. See research articles: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/68 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/13/129 PMID:23803337

  18. Blood transfusion in the para-Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lin-Chu, M; Broadberry, R E

    1990-08-01

    The H-deficient phenotypes found in Chinese so far, have all been secretors of soluble blood group substances in saliva. The corresponding isoagglutinin activity (e.g. anti-B in OB(Hm) persons) has been found to be weak in all cases. To determine the clinical significance of these weak isoagglutinins 51Cr red cell survival tests were performed on three OB(Hm) individuals transfused with small volumes (4 ml) of groups B and O RBC. Rapid destruction of most of the RBC occurred whether or not the isoagglutinins of the OB(Hm) individuals were indirect antiglobulin test (IAGT) reactive. When a larger volume (54 ml packed RBC) of group B cells (weakly incompatible by IAGT) was transfused to another OB(Hm) individual with IAGT active anti-HI, the survival of the transfused RBC was 93% at 24 h, with 30% of the RBC remaining in the circulation at 28 d in contrast to 76% as would be expected if the survival was normal. Therefore when whole units of blood of normal ABO blood groups, compatible by IAGT, are transfused, the survival is expected to be almost normal. These weak isoagglutinins may not be very clinically significant and we suggest that when para-Bombay blood is not available, the compatibility testing for OA(Hm) persons should be performed with group A and group O packed RBC; OB(Hm) with group B and group O packed RBC: OAB(Hm) with groups A, B, AB and O packed RBC. For cross matching, the indirect antiglobulin test by a prewarmed technique should be used.

  19. Management of large para-esophageal hiatal hernias.

    PubMed

    Collet, D; Luc, G; Chiche, L

    2013-12-01

    Para-esophageal hernias are relatively rare and typically occur in elderly patients. The various presenting symptoms are non-specific and often occur in combination. These include symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) in 26 to 70% of cases, microcytic anemia in 17 to 47%, and respiratory symptoms in 9 to 59%. Respiratory symptoms are not completely resolved by surgical intervention. Acute complications such as gastric volvulus with incarceration or strangulation are rare (estimated incidence of 1.2% per patient per year) but gastric ischemia leading to perforation is the main cause of mortality. Only patients with symptomatic hernias should undergo surgery. Prophylactic repair to prevent acute incarceration should only be undertaken in patients younger than 75 in good condition; surgical indications must be discussed individually beyond this age. The laparoscopic approach is now generally accepted. Resection of the hernia sac is associated with a lower incidence of recurrence. Repair of the hiatus can be reinforced with prosthetic material (either synthetic or biologic), but the benefit of prosthetic repair has not been clearly shown. Results of prosthetic reinforcement vary in different studies; it has been variably associated with four times fewer recurrences or with no measurable difference. A Collis type gastroplasty may be useful to lengthen a foreshortened esophagus, but no objective criteria have been defined to support this approach. The anatomic recurrence rate can be as high as 60% at 12years. But most recurrences are asymptomatic and do not affect the quality of life index. It therefore seems more appropriate to evaluate functional results and quality of life measures rather than to gauge success by a strict evaluation of anatomic hernia reduction.

  20. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  1. A Real Importância de Sobral na Ciência Moderna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Domingos S. L.

    2006-06-01

    The Brazilian Association for the Advancement of Science (SBPC) annual meeting was held in Ceará State, and the city of Sobral was the inspiration for a number of events. The reason of this was obviously the 1919 British astronomical expedition to observe the solar eclipse, on May, 29th. The goal was to confront observations with the General Relativity predictions concerning the gravitational bending of light. It was several times repeated, in many press reports, that ``... the famous experience during the 1919 solar eclipse proved that the theory of General Relativity was right''. It is recognized nowadays that this statement is not true. Technical and instrumental conditions at the time did not allow such conclusion. I present here arguments from published sources that confirm this view of the solar eclipse observations. Of course, this alternative view on Sobral's events does not diminish, in no way, its importance in the general context of the history of contemporary science. Sobral's events will always be remembered as a milestone in it, and the reason of proud to all of us, Brazilian scientists. In its correspondent perspective, of course.

  2. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  3. Cold-plasma assisted hydrophobisation of cellulose fibres with styrene and para-halogenated homologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiolas, C.; Costa, A. P.; Santos Silva, M. J.; Belgacem, M. N.

    2012-07-01

    Cold-plasma-assisted treatment of additive-free hand sheet paper samples with styrene (ST), para-fluorostyrene (FST), para-fluoro-α-methylstyrene (FMST) and para-chloro-α-methylstyrene (ClMST) and para-bromostyrene (BrST) was studied and found that the grafting has occurred efficiently, as established by contact angle measurement. Thus, after solvent extraction of the modified substrates, in order to remove unbounded grafts, the contact angle value of a drop of water deposited at the surface of paper increased from 40° for unmodified substrate to 102, 99, 116, 100 and 107°, for ST-, FST- FMST-, ClMST- and BrST-treated samples, respectively, indicating that the surface has became totally hydrophobic. In fact, the polar component of the surface energy of treated samples decreased from 25 mJ/m2 to practically zero, indicating that treated surfaces were rendered totally non polar.

  4. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  5. Genomic organisation of the seven ParaHox genes of coelacanths.

    PubMed

    Mulley, John F; Holland, Peter W H

    2014-09-01

    Human and mouse genomes contain six ParaHox genes implicated in gut and neural patterning. In coelacanths and cartilaginous fish, an additional ParaHox gene exists-Pdx2-that dates back to the genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. Here we examine the genomic arrangement and flanking genes of all ParaHox genes in coelacanths, to determine the full complement of these genes. We find that coelacanths have seven ParaHox genes in total, in four chromosomal locations, revealing that five gene losses occurred soon after vertebrate genome duplication. Comparison of intergenic sequences reveals that some Pdx1 regulatory regions associated with development of pancreatic islets are older than tetrapods, that Pdx1 and Pdx2 share few if any conserved non-coding elements, and that there is very high sequence conservation between coelacanth species.

  6. Lampreys, the jawless vertebrates, contain only two ParaHox gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixian; Ravi, Vydianathan; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tohari, Sumanty; Pillai, Nisha E; Prasad, Aravind; Lin, Qiang; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2017-08-22

    ParaHox genes (Gsx, Pdx, and Cdx) are an ancient family of developmental genes closely related to the Hox genes. They play critical roles in the patterning of brain and gut. The basal chordate, amphioxus, contains a single ParaHox cluster comprising one member of each family, whereas nonteleost jawed vertebrates contain four ParaHox genomic loci with six or seven ParaHox genes. Teleosts, which have experienced an additional whole-genome duplication, contain six ParaHox genomic loci with six ParaHox genes. Jawless vertebrates, represented by lampreys and hagfish, are the most ancient group of vertebrates and are crucial for understanding the origin and evolution of vertebrate gene families. We have previously shown that lampreys contain six Hox gene loci. Here we report that lampreys contain only two ParaHox gene clusters (designated as α- and β-clusters) bearing five ParaHox genes (Gsxα, Pdxα, Cdxα, Gsxβ, and Cdxβ). The order and orientation of the three genes in the α-cluster are identical to that of the single cluster in amphioxus. However, the orientation of Gsxβ in the β-cluster is inverted. Interestingly, Gsxβ is expressed in the eye, unlike its homologs in jawed vertebrates, which are expressed mainly in the brain. The lamprey Pdxα is expressed in the pancreas similar to jawed vertebrate Pdx genes, indicating that the pancreatic expression of Pdx was acquired before the divergence of jawless and jawed vertebrate lineages. It is likely that the lamprey Pdxα plays a crucial role in pancreas specification and insulin production similar to the Pdx of jawed vertebrates.

  7. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    IN TRANS ATION ~TITLE: .SPANISH COASTAL PATROL SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO GUARDACOSTAS EFPANOLES PARA ARGENTINA Y MEJICO AUTHOR: M; RAMIREZ...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54... Mexico , Mr. Alvarez de Vayo, signed a contract with the Mexican War Minister, General Cardenas, to build a series of 10 coastal patrol boats and five

  8. Chordate Hox and ParaHox gene clusters differ dramatically in their repetitive element content.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter W; Ferrier, David E K

    2010-02-01

    The ParaHox and Hox gene clusters control aspects of animal anterior-posterior development and are related as paralogous evolutionary sisters. Despite this relationship, it is not clear if the clusters operate in similar ways, with similar constraints. To compare clusters, we examined the transposable-element (TE) content of amphioxus and mammalian ParaHox and Hox clusters. Chordate Hox clusters are known to be largely devoid of TEs, possibly due to gene regulation and constraints on clustering in these animals. Here, we describe several novel amphioxus TEs and show that the amphioxus ParaHox cluster is a hotspot for TE insertion. TE contents of mammalian ParaHox loci are at background levels, in stark contrast to chordate Hox clusters. This marks a significant difference between Hox and ParaHox clusters. The presence of so many potentially disruptive elements implies selection constrains these ParaHox clusters as they have not dispersed despite 500 My of evolution for each lineage.

  9. para-C-H Borylation of Benzene Derivatives by a Bulky Iridium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yutaro; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro

    2015-04-22

    A highly para-selective aromatic C-H borylation has been accomplished. By a new iridium catalyst bearing a bulky diphosphine ligand, Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP, the C-H borylation of monosubstituted benzenes can be affected with para-selectivity up to 91%. This catalytic system is quite different from the usual iridium catalysts that cannot distinguish meta- and para-C-H bonds of monosubstituted benzene derivatives, resulting in the preferred formation of meta-products. The para-selectivity increases with increasing bulkiness of the substituent on the arene, indicating that the regioselectivity of the present reaction is primarily controlled by steric repulsion between substrate and catalyst. Caramiphen, an anticholinergic drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, was converted into five derivatives via our para-selective borylation. The present [Ir(cod)OH]2/Xyl-MeO-BIPHEP catalyst represents a unique, sterically controlled, para-selective, aromatic C-H borylation system that should find use in streamlined, predictable chemical synthesis and in the rapid discovery and optimization of pharmaceuticals and materials.

  10. Diffusion Monte Carlo Study of Para-Diiodobenzene Polymorphism Revisited.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Kenta; Watson, Mark A; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Maezono, Ryo

    2015-03-10

    We revisit our investigation of the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulation of para-diiodobenzene (p-DIB) molecular crystal polymorphism. [See J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1789-1794.] We perform, for the first time, a rigorous study of finite-size effects and choice of nodal surface on the prediction of polymorph stability in molecular crystals using fixed-node DMC. Our calculations are the largest that are currently feasible using the resources of the K-computer and provide insights into the formidable challenge of predicting such properties from first principles. In particular, we show that finite-size effects can influence the trial nodal surface of a small (1 × 1 × 1) simulation cell considerably. Therefore, we repeated our DMC simulations with a 1 × 3 × 3 simulation cell, which is the largest such calculation to date. We used a density functional theory (DFT) nodal surface generated with the PBE functional, and we accumulated statistical samples with ∼6.4 × 10(5) core hours for each polymorph. Our final results predict a polymorph stability that is consistent with experiment, but they also indicate that the results in our previous paper were somewhat fortuitous. We analyze the finite-size errors using model periodic Coulomb (MPC) interactions and kinetic energy corrections, according to the CCMH scheme of Chiesa, Ceperley, Martin, and Holzmann. We investigate the dependence of the finite-size errors on different aspect ratios of the simulation cell (k-mesh convergence) in order to understand how to choose an appropriate ratio for the DMC calculations. Even in the most expensive simulations currently possible, we show that the finite size errors in the DMC total energies are much larger than the energy difference between the two polymorphs, although error cancellation means that the polymorph prediction is accurate. Finally, we found that the T-move scheme is essential for these massive DMC simulations in order to circumvent population explosions and

  11. National Labor Administration and Democracy in Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    algunas experiencias Latinoanericanas," Estudios CEDES, V. 3, N. 2 (1980); Oszlak, "Notas Criticas para una Teoria de la Burocracia Estatal," Documento...Interpretation of Weber on Bureaucracy." World Politics, V. 31, N. 2 (January, 1979), pp. 195-227. 7 2For a discussion of the "Proceso"’s labor policies and

  12. Educacion intercultural (Intercultural Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This journal, which provides abstracts of its articles primarily in Spanish and a couple in English, contains studies (estudios) and notes (notas), as well as relevant book reviews (recensiones). Studies in this issue (No. 4, 2003) are: "Estrategias de Ensenanza para la Educacion Civica y Ciudadana en el Siglo XXI" (Teaching Strategies…

  13. The PARA-suite: PAR-CLIP specific sequence read simulation and processing

    PubMed Central

    Kloetgen, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hoell, Jessica I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing technologies have profoundly impacted biology over recent years. Experimental protocols, such as photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP), which identifies protein–RNA interactions on a genome-wide scale, commonly employ deep sequencing. With PAR-CLIP, the incorporation of photoactivatable nucleosides into nascent transcripts leads to high rates of specific nucleotide conversions during reverse transcription. So far, the specific properties of PAR-CLIP-derived sequencing reads have not been assessed in depth. Methods We here compared PAR-CLIP sequencing reads to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) to identify distinctive properties that are relevant for reference-based read alignment of PAR-CLIP datasets. We developed a set of freely available tools for PAR-CLIP data analysis, called the PAR-CLIP analyzer suite (PARA-suite). The PARA-suite includes error model inference, PAR-CLIP read simulation based on PAR-CLIP specific properties, a full read alignment pipeline with a modified Burrows–Wheeler Aligner algorithm and CLIP read clustering for binding site detection. Results We show that differences in the error profiles of PAR-CLIP reads relative to regular transcriptome sequencing reads (RNA-Seq) make a distinct processing advantageous. We examine the alignment accuracy of commonly applied read aligners on 10 simulated PAR-CLIP datasets using different parameter settings and identified the most accurate setup among those read aligners. We demonstrate the performance of the PARA-suite in conjunction with different binding site detection algorithms on several real PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP datasets. Our processing pipeline allowed the improvement of both alignment and binding site detection accuracy. Availability The PARA-suite toolkit and the PARA-suite aligner are available at https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA-suite and https://github.com/akloetgen/PARA

  14. Spontaneous Emission Between - and Para-Levels of Water-Ion H_2O^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Oka, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear spin conversion interaction of water ion, H_2O^+, has been studied to derive spontaneous emission lifetime between ortho- and para-levels. H_2O^+ is a radical ion with the ^2B_1 electronic ground state. Its off-diagonal electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(S_aΔ I_b + S_bΔ I_a), connects para and ortho levels, because Δ I = I_1 - I_2 has nonvanishing matrix elements between I = 0 and 1. The mixing by this term with Tab = 72 MHz predicted by ab initio theory in the MRD-CI/Bk level, is many orders of magnitude larger than for closed shell molecules because of the large magnetic interaction due to the un-paired electron. Using the molecular constants reported by Mürtz et al. by FIR-LMR, we searched for ortho and para coupling channels below 1000 cm-1 with accidental near degeneracy between para and ortho levels. For example, hyperfine components of the 42,2(ortho) and 33,0(para) levels mix by 1.2 × 10-3 due to their near degeneracy (Δ E = 0.417 cm-1), and give the ortho-para spontaneous emission lifetime of about 0.63 year. The most significant low lying 10,1(para) and 11,1(ortho) levels, on the contrary, mix only by 8.7 × 10-5 because of their large separation (Δ E = 16.267 cm-1) and give the spontaneous emission lifetime from 10,1(para) to 00,0(ortho) of about 100 year.These results qualitatively help to understand the observed high ortho- to para- H_2O^+ ratio of 4.8 ± 0.5 toward Sgr B2 but they are too slow to compete with the conversion by collision unless the number density of the region is very low (n ˜1 cm-3) or radiative temperature is very high (T_r > 100 K). M. Staikova, B. Engels, M. Peric, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, Mol. Phys. 80, 1485 (1993) P. Mürtz, L.R. Zink, K.M. Evenson, and J.M. Brown J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9744 (1998). LP. Schilke, et al., A&A 521, L11 (2010).

  15. Vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine in a henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Rachel U; Francis, Nick D; Basarab, Tamara; Morar, Nilesh

    2008-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis reaction to topical "black henna" tattoo is usually described secondary to the organic dye para-phenylenediamine, a derivative of analine. Allergic contact dermatitis reactions to para-phenylenediamine are well recognized and most commonly involve an eczematous reaction that may become generalized and an acute angio-edema. Only four previous instances have been reported of an erythema multiforme-like reaction to para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives, including only one mild reaction to a tattoo. A vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction has not been reported. An erythema multiforme-like reaction to contact allergens is usually caused by potent allergens including plant quinolones in Compositae and sesquiterpene lactones in exotic woods, and it is also reported to topical drugs, epoxy resin, metals (particularly nickel), and various chemicals. A generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like reaction is unusual, and rarely reported. We describe a 6-year-old boy who developed a localized, eczematous and severe generalized vesicular erythema multiforme-like contact allergy to para-phenylenediamine secondary to a henna tattoo. As henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular, one should be aware of the possibility of such a reaction. This presentation also highlights the call to ban the use of para-phenylenediamine and its derivatives in dyes.

  16. Estimation of Carbon Storage in Para Rubber Plantation in Eastern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charoenjit, K.; Zuddas, P.; Allemand, P.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to estimate the carbon stock and sequestration in Para rubber plantation of East Thailand using the THAICHOTE (Thailand Earth Observation System data). For that purpose we identify the area of every stage class Para rubber plantation by the analysis of different image objects (i.e., rule base and multiple regression classifications) and we map the carbon stock and sequestration of each Para rubber class using biomass allometric regressions and carbon content equations. THAICHOTE data include Multispectral image (4 bands at 15x15 m spatial resolution), Panchromatic image (2x2 m spatial resolution) and Stereo image, data acquisition from December 2011-April 2012. The preliminary investigated area is located in Wangchun, (Eastern, Thailand) and covers about 20 Km2. Calibrating the class stage, by image analysis that integrated edge-based segmentation, reflectance, remote sensing indices, texture analysis and canopy height model (CHM), we found that best classification was obtained by multiple regression (accuracy of 80%) compared to rule base logical operation (accuracy 70%) suggesting that manual 3D stereo measurements or Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) both are able to construct the CHM. The results of this study indicate that for a total Para rubber biomass of 14,651 tons, the amount of stored carbon is of 7,326 tons. Mature stage of Para rubber plantations exhibits the highest capacity of sequestering with a global flux of 0.21 tons C/ Km2/year.

  17. The ortho/para ratio of water vapor in Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Larson, Harold P.; Weaver, Harold A.

    1986-01-01

    The ortho/para ratio of H2O is shown to be an invariant in the cometary coma. The dependence of ortho-para ratio on temperature in thermal equilibrium is given, and the nuclear-spin-temperature is defined. Its relation to the physical temperature of the cometary ices is discussed, and the prospects for using the observed ortho/para ratio to infer properties of the cometary nucleus are explored. The ortho/para ratio in Halley's comet is derived from high resolution infrared spectra of near 2.7 microns wavelength. On UT December 24.1, 1985 it was 2.73 + or - 0.17, and on UT March 22.7, 1986 it was 3.23 + or - 0.37. The nuclear-spin-temperature was 35 K (+9 K, -5 K) pre-perihelion, and less than 40 K post-perihelion, at the 67% confidence limit. Both numbers are consistent with modeled values of the equilibrium temperature of the cometary nucleus at aphelion (47 K). However, at the 95% confidence limit they are also fully consistent with temperatures less than 50 K, corresponding to an ortho/para ratio of about 3.0.

  18. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  19. Influence of Molecular Oxygen on Ortho-Para Conversion of Water Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, R. R.; Minaev, B. F.

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of influence of molecular oxygen on the probability of ortho-para conversion of water molecules and its relation to water magnetization are considered within the framework of the concept of paramagnetic spin catalysis. Matrix elements of the hyperfine ortho-para interaction via the Fermi contact mechanism are calculated, as well as the Maliken spin densities on water protons in H2O and O2 collisional complexes. The mechanism of penetration of the electron spin density into the water molecule due to partial spin transfer from paramagnetic oxygen is considered. The probability of ortho-para conversion of the water molecules is estimated by the quantum chemistry methods. The results obtained show that effective ortho-para conversion of the water molecules is possible during the existence of water-oxygen dimers. An external magnetic field affects the ortho-para conversion rate given that the wave functions of nuclear spin sublevels of the water protons are mixed in the complex with oxygen.

  20. The formaldehyde ortho/para ratio as a probe of dark cloud chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements of the H2CO ortho/para ratio toward four star-forming cores, L723, L1228, L1527, and L43, and one quiescent core, L1498. Combining these data with earlier results by Minh et al., three quiescent cores are found to have ortho/para ratios near 3, the ratio of statistical weights expected for gas-phase formation processes. In contrast, ortho/para ratios are 1.5-2.1 in five star-forming cores, suggesting thermalization at a kinetic temperature of 10 K. We attribute modification of the ortho/para ratio in the latter cores to formation and/or equilibration of H2CO on grains with sub-sequent release back into the gas phase due to the increased energy inputs from the forming star and outflow. We see accompanying enhancements in the H2CO abundance relative to H, to support this idea. The results suggest that the formaldehyde ortho/para ratio can differentiate between quiescent cores and those in which low-mass star formation has occurred.

  1. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  2. Modelos Teoricos de Linhas de Recombinacao EM Radio Frequencias Para Regioes H II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Z.; Cancoro, A. C. O.

    1987-05-01

    Foram feitos modelos de linhas de recombinção provenientes de regiões HII nas frequências de rádio para distintos números quãnticos. Estes modelos consideram regrões H II esfericamente simétricas com variações radiais na densidade e temperatura eletrônica, efeitos de colisoes inelásticas dos eletrons (alargarnento por pressão), e afastarnento do equiliíbrio termodinâmico local. 0 bojetivo é construir o perfil da linha para cada ponto da nuvern e obter o valor médio resultante da sua convoluçã com o feixe da antena de tarnanho comparável corn o tarnanho angular da nuvern para posterIor cornpara o corn

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine in a tattoo: a case report.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Ertugrul; Gun, Emrah; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2013-06-01

    It is highly popular among children and young adults to have temporary henna tattoos on their bodies in different colors and figures. Henna is a greenish natural powder obtained from the flowers and dry leaves of Lawsonia alba plant and its allergenicity is very low. Henna is also used in combination with other coloring substances such as para-phenylenediamine in order to darken the color and create a permanent tattoo effect. Para-phenylenediamine is a substance with high allergenicity potential and may cause serious allergic reactions. Here, we aimed to draw attention to the potential harms of para-phenylenediamine containing temporary tattoos by presenting a child patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis after having a scorpion-shaped temporary tattoo on his forearm.

  4. The School of Posture as a postural training method for Paraíba Telecommunications Operators.

    PubMed

    Cardia, M C; Soares Màsculo, F

    2001-01-01

    This work proposes to show the experience of posture training accomplished in the Paraíba State Telecommunication Company, using the knowledge of the Back School. The sample was composed of 12 operators, employees of the company, representing 31% of this population. The model applied in TELPA (Paraíba Telecommunication Company, Brazil) was based on the models of Sherbrooke, Canada, and of the School of Posture of Paraìba Federal University. Fifty-eight point four percent of participants showed a reduction of column pain, 25% improved the quality of the rest and the received training was considered enough for the learning of correct postures at work in 75% of the cases. The whole population approved of the training, and 83.3% of the cases considered that this training influenced their lives very positively.

  5. Sobre la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M Dominik

    2017-07-11

    Las mutaciones en un gran número de genes provocan degeneración de la retina y ceguera sin que exista actualmente cura alguna. En las últimas décadas, la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina ha evolucionado y se ha convertido en un nuevo y prometedor paradigma terapéutico para estas enfermedades poco comunes. Este artículo refleja las ideas y los conceptos que parten de la ciencia básica hacia la aplicabilidad de la terapia génica en el ámbito clínico. Se describen los avances y las reflexiones actuales sobre la eficacia de los ensayos clínicos en la actualidad y se discuten los posibles obstáculos y soluciones de cara al futuro de la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Complications of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients with endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Arduino, S; Leo, L; Febo, G; Tessarolo, M; Wierdis, T; Lanza, A

    1997-01-01

    The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) changed the staging criteria for endometrial cancer in 1988 and adopted a surgical-pathological staging involving also pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. A total of 236 patients were treated for endometrial adenocarcinoma at Department B of the Gynecologic and Obstetrics Institute, University of Turin, between January 1976 and December 1995. Our protocol for surgical staging always entails pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and a simple total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy with removal of the upper third of the vagina. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective evaluation of the morbidity in patients with endometrial cancer after surgical treatment, either TAH-BSO alone or TAH-BSO with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.

  7. Production and characterization of para-hydrogen gas for matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.; Ramanathan, N.; Gopi, R.

    2016-08-01

    Normal hydrogen (n-H2) has 3:1 ortho/para ratio and the production of enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) from normal hydrogen is useful for many applications including matrix isolation experiments. In this paper, we describe the design, development and fabrication of the ortho-para converter that is capable of producing enriched p-H2. The p-H2 thus produced was probed using infrared and Raman techniques. Using infrared measurement, the thickness and the purity of the p-H2 matrix were determined. The purity of p-H2 was determined to be >99%. Matrix isolation infrared spectra of trimethylphosphate (TMP) and acetylene (C2H2) were studied in p-H2 and n-H2 matrices and the results were compared with the conventional inert matrices.

  8. Evidence for disequilibrium of ortho and para hydrogen on Jupiter from Voyager IRIS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of an analysis of the ortho state/para state ratio (parallel/antiparallel) for molecular H2 in the Jovian atmosphere using Voyager IR spectrometer (IRIS) data are reported. The study was undertaken to expand the understanding of the thermodynamics of a predominantly H2 atmosphere, which takes about 100 million sec to reach equilibrium. IRIS data provided 4.3/cm resolution in the 300-700/cm spectral range dominated by H2 lines. Approximately 600 spectra were examined to detect any disequilibrium between the hydrogen species. The results indicate that the ortho-para ratio is not in an equilibrium state in the upper Jovian troposphere. A thorough mapping of the para-state molecules in the upper atmosphere could therefore aid in mapping the atmospheric flowfield.

  9. Evidence for disequilibrium of ortho and para hydrogen on Jupiter from Voyager IRIS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of an analysis of the ortho state/para state ratio (parallel/antiparallel) for molecular H2 in the Jovian atmosphere using Voyager IR spectrometer (IRIS) data are reported. The study was undertaken to expand the understanding of the thermodynamics of a predominantly H2 atmosphere, which takes about 100 million sec to reach equilibrium. IRIS data provided 4.3/cm resolution in the 300-700/cm spectral range dominated by H2 lines. Approximately 600 spectra were examined to detect any disequilibrium between the hydrogen species. The results indicate that the ortho-para ratio is not in an equilibrium state in the upper Jovian troposphere. A thorough mapping of the para-state molecules in the upper atmosphere could therefore aid in mapping the atmospheric flowfield.

  10. Electrical detection of ortho-para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-08-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho-para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51+/-0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon.

  11. Identificación de Intervenciones para el Desarrollo Positivo de la Juventud

    PubMed Central

    Sardiñas, Lili M.; Padilla, Viviana; Aponte, Mari; Boscio, Ana Morales; Pedrogo, Coralee Pérez; Santiago, Betzaida; Morales, Ángela Pérez; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Cesáreo, Marizaida Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Resumen En el mundo hay más personas en la etapa de la juventud que en cualquier otra etapa del desarrollo. La juventud en Puerto Rico enfrenta muchas situaciones que inciden en su desarrollo y preparación para la adultez. Por lo tanto, es imperante identificar intervenciones para el desarrollo positivo de la juventud que han demostrado ser basadas en la evidencia. Además, a partir de dicha identificación, desarrollar prácticas que ayuden a los jóvenes a desarrollarse para prevenir situaciones adversas, promover experiencias positivas y propiciar que los niños y jóvenes estén involucrados y comprometidos. Se identificaron 147 intervenciones a través de una revisión tradicional de la literatura científica estadounidense. Los resultados reflejan que las intervenciones atienden la reducción de factores de riesgo y el incremento de factores de protección. Sin embargo, ninguna intervención propicia que los niños y jóvenes estén involucrados y comprometidos con su desarrollo óptimo y con sus comunidades. No obstante, todas brindan herramientas que podrían ser de utilidad para fomentar dichas prácticas en el contexto de Puerto Rico. De las 147 intervenciones identificadas seis están diseñadas para la población puertorriqueña residente en la Isla. Con el propósito de hacer la información accesible a los profesionales y la comunidad se expandió la colección del Archivo de Programas y Prácticas Basadas en Evidencia para la Prevención. PMID:28919943

  12. Quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis of the pharmacology of para-substituted methcathinone analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bonano, J S; Banks, M L; Kolanos, R; Sakloth, F; Barnier, M L; Glennon, R A; Cozzi, N V; Partilla, J S; Baumann, M H; Negus, S S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Methcathinone (MCAT) is a potent monoamine releaser and parent compound to emerging drugs of abuse including mephedrone (4-CH3 MCAT), the para-methyl analogue of MCAT. This study examined quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) for MCAT and six para-substituted MCAT analogues on (a) in vitro potency to promote monoamine release via dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT, respectively), and (b) in vivo modulation of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a behavioural procedure used to evaluate abuse potential. Neurochemical and behavioural effects were correlated with steric (Es), electronic (σp) and lipophilic (πp) parameters of the para substituents. Experimental Approach For neurochemical studies, drug effects on monoamine release through DAT and SERT were evaluated in rat brain synaptosomes. For behavioural studies, drug effects were tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle and trained to lever-press for electrical brain stimulation. Key Results MCAT and all six para-substituted analogues increased monoamine release via DAT and SERT and dose- and time-dependently modulated ICSS. In vitro selectivity for DAT versus SERT correlated with in vivo efficacy to produce abuse-related ICSS facilitation. In addition, the Es values of the para substituents correlated with both selectivity for DAT versus SERT and magnitude of ICSS facilitation. Conclusions and Implications Selectivity for DAT versus SERT in vitro is a key determinant of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by these MCAT analogues, and steric aspects of the para substituent of the MCAT scaffold (indicated by Es) are key determinants of this selectivity. PMID:25438806

  13. Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Sofia A V; Adamski, Marcin; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Leininger, Sven; Liu, Jing; Ferrier, David E K; Adamska, Maja

    2014-10-30

    Sponges are simple animals with few cell types, but their genomes paradoxically contain a wide variety of developmental transcription factors, including homeobox genes belonging to the Antennapedia (ANTP) class, which in bilaterians encompass Hox, ParaHox and NK genes. In the genome of the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, no Hox or ParaHox genes are present, but NK genes are linked in a tight cluster similar to the NK clusters of bilaterians. It has been proposed that Hox and ParaHox genes originated from NK cluster genes after divergence of sponges from the lineage leading to cnidarians and bilaterians. On the other hand, synteny analysis lends support to the notion that the absence of Hox and ParaHox genes in Amphimedon is a result of secondary loss (the ghost locus hypothesis). Here we analysed complete suites of ANTP-class homeoboxes in two calcareous sponges, Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that these calcisponges possess orthologues of bilaterian NK genes (Hex, Hmx and Msx), a varying number of additional NK genes and one ParaHox gene, Cdx. Despite the generation of scaffolds spanning multiple genes, we find no evidence of clustering of Sycon NK genes. All Sycon ANTP-class genes are developmentally expressed, with patterns suggesting their involvement in cell type specification in embryos and adults, metamorphosis and body plan patterning. These results demonstrate that ParaHox genes predate the origin of sponges, thus confirming the ghost locus hypothesis, and highlight the need to analyse the genomes of multiple sponge lineages to obtain a complete picture of the ancestral composition of the first animal genome.

  14. Superfluid Effects in PARA-H_2 Clusters Probed by CO_2 Rotation-Vibration Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Le Roy, Robert J.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2010-06-01

    The prospect of directly observing superfluidity in para-H_2 is a tantalizing but elusive goal. Like ^4He, para-H_2 is a light zero-spin boson. However, H_2-H_2 intermolecular interactions, though weak, are stronger than He-He interactions, and hydrogen is a solid below about 14 K. This makes detection of superfluidity in bulk hydrogen problematical, to say the least. But there are still possibilities for para-H_2 in the form of clusters or in nano-confined environments, and superfluid transition temperatures as high as ˜6 K have been predicted. Spectroscopic observations of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters were at first very difficult to interpret for N > 5. However, with the help of path integral Monte Carlo simulations and an accurate new H_2-CO_2 intermolecular potential surface which explicitly incorporates dependence on the CO_2 νb{3} asymmetric stretch, it is now possible to achieve a remarkably consistent picture of (para-H_2)_N-CO_2 clusters in the size range N = 1 ˜ 20. By combining the experimental spectroscopic measurements and theoretical simulations, we determine the size evolution of the superfluid response of the CO_2-doped para-H_2 clusters, which peaks for the "magic" number N = 12. V. L. Ginzburg and A. A. Sobyanin, JETP Lett. 15, 343 (1972). A. R. W. McKellar, Paper WH04, 63rd OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, June 16-20, 2008. H. Li, P.-N. Roy, and R. J. Le Roy, J. Chem. Phys., submitted.

  15. Evaluation of an immobilized cell bioreactor for degradation of meta- and para-nitrobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretti, Steven W.; Thomas, Stuart M.

    1994-01-01

    Meta- and para-nitrobenzoic acid are pollutants found in waste streams from metal-stripping processes using cyanide-free solvents. The Kelly AFB industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) is currently incapable of removing these compounds from its wastewaters because of the presence of significant quantities of ethylenediamine, a preferred substrate and upper limit of 4-5 hours on the hydraulic residence time in the IWTP. This report describes the enrichment and preliminary characterization of a microbial consortium capable of utilizing both Meta- and Para-Nitrobenzoate as sole carbon sources.

  16. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage

    PubMed Central

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J.; Johannessen, Ole G.; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J.; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho–para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment. PMID:22837402

  17. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  18. Quantum rotation of ortho and para-water encapsulated in a fullerene cage.

    PubMed

    Beduz, Carlo; Carravetta, Marina; Chen, Judy Y-C; Concistrè, Maria; Denning, Mark; Frunzi, Michael; Horsewill, Anthony J; Johannessen, Ole G; Lawler, Ronald; Lei, Xuegong; Levitt, Malcolm H; Li, Yongjun; Mamone, Salvatore; Murata, Yasujiro; Nagel, Urmas; Nishida, Tomoko; Ollivier, Jacques; Rols, Stéphane; Rõõm, Toomas; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Turro, Nicholas J; Yang, Yifeng

    2012-08-07

    Inelastic neutron scattering, far-infrared spectroscopy, and cryogenic nuclear magnetic resonance are used to investigate the quantized rotation and ortho-para conversion of single water molecules trapped inside closed fullerene cages. The existence of metastable ortho-water molecules is demonstrated, and the interconversion of ortho-and para-water spin isomers is tracked in real time. Our investigation reveals that the ground state of encapsulated ortho water has a lifted degeneracy, associated with symmetry-breaking of the water environment.

  19. In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcato, Carla

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

  20. In para totale...una cosa da panico...sulla lingua dei giovani in Italia (In para totale...una cosa da panico...The Language of Young People in Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcato, Carla

    1997-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the language of young people in Italy today. Particular focus is on the expressions using "para" (e.g., "in para totale" = to be very bored or worried) and the phrase "una cosa da panico" (something terrible or its opposite something wonderful). (CFM)

  1. [Fut1 gene mutation for para-bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao-Bou; Fan, Li-Ping; Wai, Shi-Jin; Zeng, Feng; Lin, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Rong

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual in Fujian Province of China. The para-Bombay blood type of this individual was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1,2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of this individual was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), then the PCR product was cloned into T vector. The mutation in coding region of fut1 gene was identified by TA cloning, so as to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay blood type individual. The results indicated that the full coding region of fut1 gene was successfully amplified by PCR. AG deletion at position 547-552 on 2 homologous chromosomes was detected by TA cloning method, leading to a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that genetic mutation of fut1 gene in this para-bombay blood type individual was h1h1 homozygotic type.

  2. Performance characteristics of magnesium/para-nitrophenol cells in 2:1 magnesium electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G.; Sivashanugam, A.; Sridharan, R. )

    1993-11-01

    1 V/1 Ah magnesium/para-nitrophenol (PNP) reserve cells were fabricated and their performance was evaluated in different electrolytes [2M aqueous solutions of Mg(C1O[sub 4])[sub 2], MgCl[sub 2], and MgBr[sub 2

  3. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to…

  4. Factor Structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Santos, Mirella; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Bernal, Guillermo; Rivera-Medina, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The current concept and measures of self-efficacy for depression in adolescents do not consider developmental and cultural aspects essential to understand and assess this construct in Latino youth. We examined the factor structure of the "Escala de Autoeficacia para la Depresion en Adolescentes" (EADA), a Spanish instrument designed to…

  5. Para-Professionals in Further Education: Changing Roles in Vocational Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Roles and structures within further education colleges seem to be in constant change and development; roles are becoming blurred, and lecturers are taking on more management tasks. Alongside this has been the development of para-professional roles, using non-lecturers to undertake teaching tasks. This can allow for the greater involvement of…

  6. Ortho-para conversion of endohedral water in the fullerene C60 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugai, Anna; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Mamone, S.; Concistrè, M.; Meier, B.; Krachmalnicoff, A.; Whitby, R. J.; Levitt, M. H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, N. J.

    2015-03-01

    Water displays the phenomenon of spin isomerism in which the two proton spins either couple to form a triplet (ortho water, I = 1) or a singlet nuclear spin state (para water, I = 0). Here we study the interconversion of para and ortho water. The exact mechanism of this process is still not fully understood. In order to minimize interactions between molecules we use a sample where a single H2O is trapped in the C60 molecular cage (H2O@C60)andH2O@C60iscrystallized.H2O@C60 has long-lived ortho state and ortho-para conversion kinetics is non-exponential at LHeT. We studied mixtures of H2O@C60, D2O@C60 and C60 using IR absorption, NMR and dielectric measurements. We saw the speeding up of the interconversion with the growth of H2O@C60 concentration in C60 or when D2O@C60 was added. At some temperatures the kinetics is exponential. Models are discussed in order to explain the T and concentration dependence of ortho-para interconversion kinetics. This work was supported by institutional research funding IUT23-3 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research.

  7. Autoguía para el telescopio 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. A.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Se está desarrollando un sistema de autoguía para el telescopio de 2,15 mts. El mismo se realizará aprovechando el Offset Guider. Al ocular móvil de éste se vinculará alguna cámara digital (ST4-ST7-CH250) para lograr la visión del objeto. El funcionamiento del equipo será el siguiente: primero, dadas las coordenadas del objeto a observar, se tomarán las coordenadas del telescopio para que, a través de una base de datos, se determine un campo de objetos que sirvan para la cámara de visión, luego, la PC obtendrá el offset entre la estrella de observación y la estrella seleccionada como guía, este valor será trasladado a los motores que posicionarán en forma automática el ocular. Una vez que la estrella es visualizada en la cámara (monitor de PC ) se correrá el programa que guiará el telescopio automáticamente.

  8. UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of Sudan dyes and Para Red in food.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Wu, Y L; Shen, J Z

    2010-09-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes (Sudan Red G, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan Red 7B and Sudan IV) and Para Red in food by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and water added into the extract. The supernatant was analysed by UPLC-MS/MS after refrigeration and centrifugation. The sample was separated on an Acquity BEH C(18) column, and detected by MS/MS with the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Matrix calibration was used for quantitative testing of the method. The linear matrix calibrations of Sudan dyes and Para Red were 2-50 and 10-250 ng g(-1), respectively, and the regression coefficients were >0.9945. The recoveries were 83.4-112.3% with good coefficients of variation of 2.0-10.8%. The limits of detection were between 0.3 and 1.4 ng g(-1) for the six Sudan dyes, and between 3.7 and 6.0 ng g(-1) for Para Red. The limits of quantification were between 0.9 and 4.8 ng g(-1) for the six Sudan dyes, and between 12.2 and 19.8 ng g(-1) for Para Red.

  9. Can para-aryl-dithiols cross-link two plasmonic noble nanoparticles as monolayer dithiolate spacers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Para-aryl-dithiols (PADTs, HS-(C6H4)n-SH, n = 1, 2, and 3) have been used extensively in molecular electronics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and quantum electron tunneling between two gold or silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). One popular belief is that these dithiols cross-link ...

  10. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  11. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  12. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  13. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de…

  14. Irradiation of para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix or endometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Mattingly, R.F.; Hoffman, R.G.; Barber, S.W.; Satre, R.; Greenberg, M.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with biopsy-proved para-aortic lymph node metastases from carcinoma of the cervix (15 patients) or endometrium (7 patients) received a median dose of 5,000 rad/25 fractions. Para-aortic nodal metastases were controlled in 77% of cases. Control was significantly lower following radical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection than less extensive sampling procedures. Obstruction of the small bowel developed in 3 patients with tumor recurrence in the para-aortic region. Eight of the 10 patients who were disease-free at 2 years received >5,000 rad. Three patients were still alive without disease at 129, 63, and 60 months, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 40% for cervical cancer and 60% for endometrial cancer: in the former group, it was significantly different depending on whether the para-aortic nodes were irradiated (40%) or not (0%). The authors suggest that 5,000-5,500 rad in 5-5.5 weeks is well tolerated and can control aortic nodal metastases in cervical and possibly endometrial cancer.

  15. Interrupting Commemoration: Thinking with Art, Thinking through the Strictures of Argentina's "Espacio para la memoria"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolantonio, Mario Di

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a few buildings within the "Espacio para la memoria" in Buenos Aires have been designated as a UNESCO Centre where, amongst other educational activities, evidentiary materials of the past repression are to be stored and displayed. Another building in the complex houses a Community Centre operated by the Mothers of the Plaza de…

  16. Anuncios de servicio público para proteger a los trabajadores de plaguicidas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Estos archivos de anuncios de servicio público se pueden descargar libremente para su uso en la formación, transmisiones de audio, etc.(These public service announcement files can be freely downloaded for use in training, audio broadcasts, etc.)

  17. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  18. Fabrication and Evaluation of New Resins. Volume 1. Synthesis of Para- Ordered Aromatic Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    identify by block number) Para-ordered Polymers Polybenzobisthiazoles Poly (diphenylbenzobisimidazoles) Polybenzobisoxazoles Thermally Stable Polymers...linear polybenzobisoxazole (PBO) , but with improved solubility, higher molecular weight, and increased thermooxidative stability. PBO PBO is soluble to...order to develop high strength in the oriented film or fiber this molecular weight may have to be increased. Although the thermooxidative stability of

  19. Development of High-Activity Para- to Ortho-Hydrogen Conversion Catalysts. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-28

    and Loeb1, E. M., J. Phys. Chem. 73, 894 (1969). G. C. Michael , Ph.D. thesis, The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, 1969. Misono, M., and...hydrogen. Zhavoronkova, K. N.; Peshkov, A. V.; Spivak ,, N. A. Tr. - M’osk. Khim.-Tekhnol. Inst. im. 0. I. Mendeleeva, 99, 89-92 (1978). Ortho-para

  20. Conformational Explosion: Understanding the Complexity of the Para-Dialkylbenzene Potential Energy Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Piyush; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    This talk focuses on the single-conformation spectroscopy of small-chain para-dialkylbenzenes. This work builds on previous studies from our group on long-chain n-alkylbenzenes that identified the first folded structure in octylbenzene. The dialkylbenzenes are representative of a class of molecules that are common components of coal and aviation fuel and are known to be present in vehicle exhaust. We bring the molecules para-diethylbenzene, para-dipropylbenzene and para-dibutylbenzene into the gas phase and cool the molecules in a supersonic expansion. The jet-cooled molecules are then interrogated using laser-induced fluorescence excitation, fluorescence dip IR spectroscopy (FDIRS) and dispersed fluorescence. The LIF spectra in the S_{0}-S_{1} origin region show dramatic increases in the number of resolved transitions with increasing length of alkyl chains, reflecting an explosion in the number of unique low-energy conformations formed when two independent alkyl chains are present. Since the barriers to isomerization of the alkyl chain are similar in size, this results in an 'egg carton' shape to the potential energy surface. We use a combination of electronic frequency shift and alkyl CH stretch infrared spectra to generate a consistent set of conformational assignments.

  1. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  2. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  3. EVALUATION OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE EMISSIONS FROM SOLID MOTH REPELLANT AS A SOURCE OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mothcakes made of para-dichlorobenzene have been widely available for the general population to be used as a moth repellant to protect garments from insect damage. Usually, a mothcake is expected to last for weeks or even months during which the para-dichlorobenzene emits slowly ...

  4. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr‐Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr‐Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr‐Lox genes and the Acr‐Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co‐opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods. PMID:27098677

  5. Hox and ParaHox gene expression in early body plan patterning of polyplacophoran mollusks.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Martin; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Molecular developmental studies of various bilaterians have shown that the identity of the anteroposterior body axis is controlled by Hox and ParaHox genes. Detailed Hox and ParaHox gene expression data are available for conchiferan mollusks, such as gastropods (snails and slugs) and cephalopods (squids and octopuses), whereas information on the putative conchiferan sister group, Aculifera, is still scarce (but see Fritsch et al., 2015 on Hox gene expression in the polyplacophoran Acanthochitona crinita). In contrast to gastropods and cephalopods, the Hox genes in polyplacophorans are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence similar to the condition in annelids and other bilaterians. Here, we present the expression patterns of the Hox genes Lox5, Lox4, and Lox2, together with the ParaHox gene caudal (Cdx) in the polyplacophoran A. crinita. To localize Hox and ParaHox gene transcription products, we also investigated the expression patterns of the genes FMRF and Elav, and the development of the nervous system. Similar to the other Hox genes, all three Acr-Lox genes are expressed in an anteroposterior sequence. Transcripts of Acr-Cdx are seemingly present in the forming hindgut at the posterior end. The expression patterns of both the central class Acr-Lox genes and the Acr-Cdx gene are strikingly similar to those in annelids and nemerteans. In Polyplacophora, the expression patterns of the Hox and ParaHox genes seem to be evolutionarily highly conserved, while in conchiferan mollusks these genes are co-opted into novel functions that might have led to evolutionary novelties, at least in gastropods and cephalopods.

  6. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria.

  7. Rotational excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, Mario Hernández; Kalugina, Yulia; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Lique, François

    2014-06-14

    Rotational excitation of the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecule by collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0, 2) and ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) is investigated at low temperatures using a quantum time independent approach. Both molecules are treated as rigid rotors. The scattering calculations are based on a highly correlated ab initio 4-dimensional (4D) potential energy surface recently published. Rotationally inelastic cross sections among the 13 first rotational levels of HCN were obtained using a pure quantum close coupling approach for total energies up to 1200 cm{sup −1}. The corresponding thermal rate coefficients were computed for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The HCN rate coefficients are strongly dependent on the rotational level of the H{sub 2} molecule. In particular, the rate coefficients for collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) are significantly lower than those for collisions with ortho-H{sub 2}( j = 1) and para-H{sub 2}( j = 2). Propensity rules in favor of even Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) whereas propensity rules in favor of odd Δj transitions were found for HCN in collisions with H{sub 2}( j ⩾ 1). The new rate coefficients were compared with previously published HCN-para-H{sub 2}( j = 0) rate coefficients. Significant differences were found due the inclusion of the H{sub 2} rotational structure in the scattering calculations. These new rate coefficients will be crucial to improve the estimation of the HCN abundance in the interstellar medium.

  8. Conversion rate of para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen: implications for PHIP gas storage and utilization.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    To determine the storability of para-hydrogen before reestablishment of the room temperature thermal equilibrium mixture. Para-hydrogen was produced at near 100% purity and mixed with different oxygen quantities to determine the rate of conversion to the thermal equilibrium mixture of 75: 25% (ortho: para) by detecting the ortho-hydrogen (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance using a 9.4 T imager. The para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen velocity constant, k, near room temperature (292 K) was determined to be 8.27 ± 1.30 L/mol · min(-1). This value was calculated utilizing four different oxygen fractions. Para-hydrogen conversion to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen can be minimized for long term storage with judicious removal of oxygen contamination. Prior calculated velocity rates were confirmed demonstrating a dependence on only the oxygen concentration.

  9. Vibration and Vibration-Torsion Levels of the S_{1} and Ground Cationic D_{0}^{+} States of Para-Fluorotoluene and Para-Xylene Below 1000 \\wn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, William Duncan; Gardner, Adrian M.; Whalley, Laura E.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2017-06-01

    We have employed resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) spectroscopy and zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy to investigate the first excited electronic singlet (S_{1}) state and the cationic ground state (D_{0}^{+}) of para-fluorotoluene (pFT) and para-xylene (pXyl). Spectra have been recorded via a large number of selected intermediate levels, to support assignment of the vibration and vibration-torsion levels in these molecules and to investigate possible couplings. The study of levels in this region builds upon previous work on the lower energy regions of pFT and pXyl and here we are interested in how vibration-torsion (vibtor) levels might combine and interact with vibrational ones, and so we consider the possible couplings which occur. Comparisons between the spectra of the two molecules show a close correspondence, and the influence of the second methyl rotor in para-xylene on the onset of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) in the S_{1} state is a point of interest. This has bearing on future work which will need to consider the role of both more flexible side chains of substituted benzene molecules, and multiple side chains. A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, L. Whalley, A. Claydon, J. H. Carter and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 145, 124307 (2016). A. M. Gardner, W. D. Tuttle, P. Groner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press). W. D. Tuttle, A. M. Gardner, K. O'Regan, W. Malewicz and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., (2017, in press).

  10. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  11. Saturn’s Tropospheric Temperatures and Para-Hydrogen Distribution from Ten Years of Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Irwin, Patrick G.; Sinclair, James; Giles, Rohini; Barstow, Joanna; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/CIRS observations of Saturn’s 10-1400 cm-1 spectrum have been inverted to construct a global record of tropospheric temperature and para-hydrogen variability over the ten-year span of the Cassini mission. The data record the slow reversal of seasonal asymmetries in tropospheric conditions from northern winter (2004, Ls=293), through northern spring equinox (2009, Ls=0) to the present day (2014, Ls=60). Mid-latitude tropospheric temperatures have cooled by approximately 4-6 K in the south and warmed by 2-4 K in the north, with the seasonal contrast decreasing with depth. CIRS detected the north polar minimum 100-mbar temperatures 6-8 years after winter solstice, whereas the south polar maximum occurred 1-2 years after summer solstice, consistent with the lag times predicted by radiative equilibrium models. Warm polar cyclones and the northern hexagon persist throughout the mission, suggesting that they are permanent features of Saturn’s tropospheric circulation. The 200-mbar thermal enhancement (“knee”) that was strongest in the summer but weak or absent in winter in 2004-2006 (Fletcher et al., 2007, Icarus 189, p.457-478) has now shifted northward and is present globally in 2014, suggestive of radiative heating in Saturn’s tropospheric haze layer. Saturn’s para-H2 fraction, which serves as a tracer of both tropospheric mixing and the efficiency of re-equilibration between the ortho- and para-hydrogen states, is slowly altering: super-equilibrium conditions (para-H2 fraction exceeding equilibrium expectations and suggestive of subsiding airmasses) that dominated the southern summer hemisphere are now weakening, whereas the sub-equilibrium conditions (suggestive of uplift) of the northern winter are being replaced by equilibrium or super-equilibrium conditions in spring. The thermal ‘knee’ and the para-H2 distribution are tracking both the increased spring illumination and the increasing tropospheric haze opacity of the springtime hemisphere

  12. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  13. Two prevalent h alleles in para-Bombay haplotypes among 250,000 Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-Ping; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Wang, Wei-Ting; Peng, Chien-Ting; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Lin, Kuan-Tsou; Sun, Chien-Feng

    2004-01-01

    Alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of fucose to the C-2 position of galactose on type II precursor substrate Gal beta1-4GlcNAc beta1-R. It plays an important biological role in the formation of H antigen, a precursor oligosaccharide for both A and B antigens on red blood cells. Aberration of alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase activity by gene mutations results in decreased synthesis of H antigen, leading to the para-Bombay phenotype. In this study, we collected about 250,000 blood samples in Taiwan during 5 yr and identified the subjects with para-Bombay phenotype. Then we analyzed the sequence of the alpha(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene by direct sequencing and gene cloning methods, using the blood samples of 30 para-Bombay individuals and 30 control subjects who were randomly selected. The goals of this study were to search for new h alleles, to determine the h allele frequencies, and to test whether the sporadic theory is applicable in Taiwan. Six different h alleles (ha, 547-548 AG-del; hb, 880-881 TT-del; hc, R220C; hd, R220H; he, F174L; and hf, N327T) were observed. Two h alleles, he and hf, were newly discovered in Taiwan. The he allele has a nucleotide 522C>A point mutation, predicting the amino acid 174 substitution of Phe to Leu; the hf allele has missense mutation of nucleotide 980A>C, predicting the amino acid 327 substitution of Asn to Thr. Frequencies of the 6 alleles are ha 46.67%, hb 38.33%, hc 5.00%, hd 1.67%, he 3.33%, and hf 5.00%, respectively. These findings in the Taiwanese population confirm previous observations in other populations that the Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes are due to diverse, sporadic, nonfunctional alleles, predominantly ha and hb, leading to H deficiency of red blood cells. In contrast to previous reports of non-prevalent associations of h alleles with para-Bombay phenotype, our results suggest a regional allele preference associated with para-Bombay individuals in Taiwan.

  14. Functional expression of Drosophila para sodium channels. Modulation by the membrane protein TipE and toxin pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Warmke, J W; Reenan, R A; Wang, P; Qian, S; Arena, J P; Wang, J; Wunderler, D; Liu, K; Kaczorowski, G J; Van der Ploeg, L H; Ganetzky, B; Cohen, C J

    1997-08-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel alpha subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd congruent with 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels.

  15. Do cnidarians have a ParaHox cluster? Analysis of synteny around a Nematostella homeobox gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jerome H L; Holland, Peter W H; Ferrier, David E K

    2008-01-01

    The Hox gene cluster is renowned for its role in developmental patterning of embryogenesis along the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterians. Its supposed evolutionary sister or paralog, the ParaHox cluster, is composed of Gsx, Xlox, and Cdx, and also has important roles in anterior-posterior development. There is a debate as to whether the cnidarians, as an outgroup to bilaterians, contain true Hox and ParaHox genes, or instead the Hox-like gene complement of cnidarians arose from independent duplications to those that generated the genes of the bilaterian Hox and ParaHox clusters. A recent whole genome analysis of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis found conserved synteny between this cnidarian and vertebrates, including a region of synteny between the putative Hox cluster of N. vectensis and the Hox clusters of vertebrates. No syntenic region was identified around a potential cnidarian ParaHox cluster. Here we use different approaches to identify a genomic region in N. vectensis that is syntenic with the bilaterian ParaHox cluster. This proves that the duplication that gave rise to the Hox and ParaHox regions of bilaterians occurred before the origin of cnidarians, and the cnidarian N. vectensis has bona fide Hox and ParaHox loci.

  16. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins.

  17. Differential regulation of ParaHox genes by retinoic acid in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae).

    PubMed

    Osborne, Peter W; Benoit, Gérard; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Ferrier, David E K

    2009-03-01

    The ParaHox cluster is the evolutionary sister to the Hox cluster. Like the Hox cluster, the ParaHox cluster displays spatial and temporal regulation of the component genes along the anterior/posterior axis in a manner that correlates with the gene positions within the cluster (a feature called collinearity). The ParaHox cluster is however a simpler system to study because it is composed of only three genes. We provide a detailed analysis of the amphioxus ParaHox cluster and, for the first time in a single species, examine the regulation of the cluster in response to a single developmental signalling molecule, retinoic acid (RA). Embryos treated with either RA or RA antagonist display altered ParaHox gene expression: AmphiGsx expression shifts in the neural tube, and the endodermal boundary between AmphiXlox and AmphiCdx shifts its anterior/posterior position. We identified several putative retinoic acid response elements and in vitro assays suggest some may participate in RA regulation of the ParaHox genes. By comparison to vertebrate ParaHox gene regulation we explore the evolutionary implications. This work highlights how insights into the regulation and evolution of more complex vertebrate arrangements can be obtained through studies of a simpler, unduplicated amphioxus gene cluster.

  18. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  19. ParA encoded on chromosome II of Deinococcus radiodurans binds to nucleoid and inhibits cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Charaka, Vijaya Kumar; Mehta, Kruti P; Misra, H S

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial genome segregation and cell division has been studied mostly in bacteria harbouring single circular chromosome and low-copy plasmids. Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacterium, harbours multipartite genome system. Chromosome I encodes majority of the functions required for normal growth while other replicons encode mostly the proteins involved in secondary functions. Here, we report the characterization of putative P-loop ATPase (ParA2) encoded on chromosome II of D. radiodurans. Recombinant ParA2 was found to be a DNA-binding ATPase. E. coli cells expressing ParA2 showed cell division inhibition and mislocalization of FtsZ-YFP and those expressing ParA2-CFP showed multiple CFP foci formation on the nucleoid. Although, in trans expression of ParA2 failed to complement SlmA loss per se, it could induce unequal cell division in slmAminCDE double mutant. These results suggested that ParA2 is a nucleoid-binding protein, which could inhibits cell division in E. coli by affecting the correct localization of FtsZ and thereby cytokinesis. Helping slmAminCDE mutant to produce minicells, a phenotype associated with mutations in the 'Min' proteins, further indicated the possibility of ParA2 regulating cell division by bringing nucleoid compaction at the vicinity of septum growth.

  20. Patch tests with commercial hair dye products in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum; Ko, Hyun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye is one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The main allergen has been identified as para-phenylenediamine. To prevent the recurrence of contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, patients should discontinue the use of para-phenylenediamine-containing hair dye products. However, many patients are unable to discontinue their use for cosmetic or social reasons. Sometimes, they continue to have symptoms even after switching to so-called "less allergenic" hair dyes. To evaluate the safety of 15 commercially available hair dye products in patients with allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine. We performed patch tests using 15 hair dyes that were advertised as "hypoallergenic," "no para-phenylenediamine" and "non-allergenic" products in the market. Twenty three patients completed the study and 20 (87.0%) patients had a positive patch test reaction to at least one product. While four (26.7%) hair dye products contained para-phenylenediamine, 10 (66.7%) out of 15 contained m- aminophenol and 7 (46.7%) contained toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate. Only one product did not elicit a positive reaction in any patient. Small sample size and possibility of false-positive reactions. Dermatologists should educate patients with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine about the importance of performing sensitivity testing prior to the actual use of any hair dye product, irrespective of how it is advertised or labelled.

  1. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of Para red in foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wei, Keyi; Li, Hao; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

    2012-05-07

    Para red is a synthetic dye and a potential genotoxic carcinogen. A hapten mimicking Para red structure was synthesized by introducing a carboxyl to the naphthol part of Para red and coupled to carrier protein to form an immunogen for the production of specific antibodies. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Para red in food samples. The limit of detection and inhibition half-maximum concentrations of Para red in phosphate buffered saline with 10% methanol were 0.06 and 2.2 ng mL(-1), respectively. Cross-reactivity values of the ELISA with the tested compounds including Sudan red I, II, III, IV, and G, sunset yellow, 2-naphthol, and 4-nitroaniline were ≤0.2%. This assay was used to determine Para red in tomato sauce, chilli sauce, chilli powder and sausage samples after ultrasonic extraction, cleanup and concentration steps. The average recoveries, repeatability (intraday extractions and analysis), and intra-laboratory reproducibility (interday extractions and analysis) were in the range 90-108%, 4-12% and 8-17%, respectively. This assay was compared to a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for 28 samples, displaying a good correlation (R(2) = 0.95). Para red residues in 53 real world samples determined by ELISA were below the limit of detection.

  2. Growth rate retardation and inhibitory effect of para-JEM(R) BLUE on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Okwumabua, Ogi; Moua, Tou Vue; Danz, Tonya; Quinn, Joe; O'Connor, Mike; Gibbons-Burgener, Suzanne

    2010-09-01

    The effect of para-JEM(R) BLUE on Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) inoculated into broth-based culture media was evaluated by using 84 fecal samples with known MAP status. Results showed that growth of the organism in samples inoculated into the broth without the para-JEM BLUE was detectable 1-35 days (average of 6 days) earlier in 35 of the samples (42%) compared with the same samples inoculated in broth with para-JEM BLUE. Four additional samples (5%) that were MAP positive in the culture broth that lacked the para-JEM BLUE gave negative results when the reagent was included. Of the remaining 45 samples, growth of MAP was detected 1-4 days (average of 3 days) earlier in 4 of the samples (5%) inoculated in the broth with para-JEM BLUE compared with the same samples inoculated in the broth without the para-JEM BLUE, whereas 41 samples (49%) yielded equivalent results with respect to time-to-growth detection and negative growth, regardless of whether para-JEM BLUE was present in the culture broth. However, exclusion of para-JEM BLUE from the broth increased the number of samples that produced false-positive instrument signals compared with the number that produced false-positive signals when the reagent was added. Modification of the sample processing step had no measurable effect. Observations indicated that, although elimination of para-JEM BLUE from the broth increased false-positive instrument signals, its inclusion has an adverse effect on the growth of certain MAP, which suggests that its elimination from broth cultures may increase sensitivity.

  3. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  4. Sludge reduction by uncoupling metabolism: SBR tests with para-nitrophenol and a commercial uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Amorós-Muñoz, I

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays cost reduction is a very important issue in wastewater treatment plants. One way, is to minimize the sludge production. Microorganisms break down the organic matter into inorganic compounds through catabolism. Uncoupling metabolism is a method which promote catabolism reactions instead of anabolism ones, where adenosine triphosphate synthesis is inhibited. In this work, the influence of the addition of para-nitrophenol and a commercial reagent to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on sludge production and process performance has been analyzed. Three laboratory SBRs were operated in parallel to compare the effect of the addition of both reagents with a control reactor. SBRs were fed with synthetic wastewater and were operated with the same conditions. Results showed that sludge production was slightly reduced for the tested para-nitrophenol concentrations (20 and 25 mg/L) and for a LODOred dose of 1 mL/day. Biological process performance was not influenced and high COD removals were achieved.

  5. Development of an integrated remote monitoring technique and its application to para-stressing bridge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Motoshita, Minoru; Casas, Joan R.

    2013-12-01

    Bridge monitoring system via information technology is capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance characteristics than traditional strategies. This paper describes not only an integrated Internet monitoring system that consists of a stand-alone monitoring system (SMS) and a Web-based Internet monitoring system (IMS) for bridge maintenance but also its application to para-stressing bridge system as an intelligent structure. IMS, as a Web-based system, is capable of addressing the remote monitoring by introducing measuring information derived from SMS into the system through Internet or intranet connected by either PHS or LAN. Moreover, the key functions of IMS such as data management system, condition assessment, and decision making with the proposed system are also introduced in this paper. Another goal of this study is to establish the framework of a para-stressing bridge system which is an intelligent bridge by integrating the bridge monitoring information into the system to control the bridge performance automatically.

  6. Renormalization-group approach for para-hydrogen adsorbed on exfoliated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, E. V. L.; Carneiro, G. M.

    1986-04-01

    Heat-capacity measurements of para-hydrogen adsorbed on graphite were performed recently and revealed an interesting phase diagram similar to 4He. We report a renormalization-group study based on a three-state Potts model with vacancies which approximates the experimental situation. The resulting global phase diagram is in a three parameter space of pair-interaction constants and chemical potential as studied by Berker, Ostlund and Putnam. The Lennard-Jones or other effective potential between the para-H 2 adsorbed molecules determines the subspace relevant to this adsorbate. A method to calculate thermodynamic densities is discussed and the resulting temperature versus density diagram agrees well with the experiment.

  7. Effect of current-loop sizes on the para-Meissner effect in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, N. Murali; Lingam, Lydia S.; Ghosh, P. K.; Shrivastava, Keshav N.

    1998-01-01

    We find that there is a range of current-loop sizes and a range of temperatures under which the para-Meissner effect is predicted. When the phase φ/ φ0 of the Josephson Hamiltonian varies in a certain range, the magnetization becomes positive. In general, the magnetization can be both positive as well as negative with zero resistivity in all phases. The susceptibility as a function of temperature at small magnetic fields is explained on the basis of Josephson interaction. The transition temperature of the para-Meissner effect, TpM, is different from that of the Meissner effect, Tc> TpM. The experimental measurements of the magnetization of Tl 2CaBa 2Cu 2O 8 at low fields are in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Neurally Expressing Genes in the Para Sodium Channel Gene Cluster of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hong, C. S.; Ganetzky, B.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of para, which encodes the major class of sodium channels in the Drosophila nervous system, we have tried to locate upstream cis-acting regulatory elements by mapping the transcriptional start site and analyzing the region immediately upstream of para in region 14D of the polytene chromosomes. From these studies, we have discovered that the region contains a cluster of neurally expressing genes. Here we report the molecular characterization of the genomic organization of the 14D region and the genes within this region, which are: calnexin (Cnx), actin related protein 14D (Arp14D), calcineurin A 14D (CnnA14D), and chromosome associated protein (Cap). The tight clustering of these genes, their neuronal expression patterns, and their potential functions related to expression, modulation, or regulation of sodium channels raise the possibility that these genes represent a functionally related group sharing some coordinate regulatory mechanism. PMID:8849894

  9. Kyste géant para-urétral feminine

    PubMed Central

    Kassogué, Amadou; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Ouattara, Zanafon; Diarra, Alkadri; Tembely, Aly; Ouattara, Kalilou; Farih, My Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Le kyste géant para-urétral féminin infecté est rarement rapporté dans la littérature. Ce kyste est différent du diverticule sous urétral sur le plan clinique, diagnostique et thérapeutique. Sa pathogénie se confond avec celle des diverticules sous urétraux. Son traitement n'est pas bien codifié, vu sa rareté. Nous rapportons un cas atypique de kyste géant para urétral infecté chez une jeune femme de 26 ans. Le kyste était symptomatique et la patiente a eu un traitement chirurgical. Nous discutons les aspects cliniques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare à travers une revue de la littérature.

  10. Potential of Brachiaria mutica (Para grass) for bioethanol production from Loktak Lake.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Okram, Aswini Kumar; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; George, Emrin; Pandey, Ashok

    2017-10-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate feasibility of using the Para grass as feedstock for production of bioethanol. Process involved the pretreatment with dilute acid or alkali and followed by enzymatic saccharification with commercial cellulase. Maximum sugar release of 696mg/g was obtained from 10% biomass loading and 0.5% w/v of alkali whereas in the case of acid pretreatment maximum sugar of 660mg/g was obtained from 20% biomass loading and 2% w/v acid loading. Results showed that Para grass utilization as a biorefinery feedstock can be a potential strategy to address the sustainable utilization of this invasive grass thereby keeping its population in check in the Loktak Lake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Density Functional Approach to Para-hydrogen at Zero Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, Francesco; Barranco, Manuel; Navarro, Jesús; Pi, Marti

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a density functional (DF) built so as to reproduce either the metastable liquid or the solid equation of state of bulk para-hydrogen, as derived from quantum Monte Carlo zero temperature calculations. As an application, we have used it to study the structure and energetics of small para-hydrogen clusters made of up to N=40 molecules. We compare our results for liquid clusters with diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations and find a fair agreement between them. In particular, the transition found within DMC between hollow-core structures for small N values and center-filled structures at higher N values is reproduced. The present DF approach yields results for (pH_2)_N clusters indicating that for small N values a liquid-like character of the clusters prevails, while solid-like clusters are instead energetically favored for N ≥ 15.

  12. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a λ~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

  13. Photooxidation of Trimethyl Phosphite in Nitrogen, Oxygen, and para-Hydrogen Matrixes at Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, N; Sundararajan, K; Gopi, R; Sankaran, K

    2017-03-16

    Trimethyl phosphite (TMPhite) was photooxidized to trimethyl phosphate (TMP) in N2, O2, and para-H2 matrixes at low temperatures to correlate the conformational landscape of these two molecules. The photooxidation produced the trans (TGG)-rich conformer with respect to the ground state gauche (GGG) conformer of TMP in N2 and O2 matrixes, which has diverged from the conformational composition of freshly deposited pure TMP in the low-temperature matrixes. The enrichment of the trans conformer in preference to the gauche conformer of TMP during photooxidation is due to the TMPhite precursor, which exists exclusively in the trans conformer. Interestingly, whereas the photooxidized TMP molecule suffers site effects possibly due to the local asymmetry in N2 and O2 matrixes, in the para-H2 matrix owing to the quantum crystal nature the site effects were observed to be self-repaired.

  14. H2CS abundances and ortho-to-para ratios in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Brewer, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Several H2CS ortho and para transitions have been observed toward interstellar molecular clouds, including cold, dark clouds and star-forming regions. H2CS fractional abundances f(H2CS) about 1-2 10 to the -9th relative to molecular hydrogen toward TMC-1, Orion A, and NGC 7538, and about 5 10 to the -10th for L134N are derived. The H2CS ortho-to-para ratios in TMC-1 are about 1.8 toward the cyanopolyyne peak and the ammonia peak, which may indicate the thermalization of H2CS on 10 K grains. A ratio of about 3, the statistical value, for Orion (3N, 1E) and NGC 7538 is derived, while a value of about 2 for Orion (KL) is found.

  15. Control of Photoluminescence of Carbon Nanodots via Surface Functionalization using Para-substituted Anilines

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Kim, Ji-Hee; Seok Jeong, Mun; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, composed of polyaromatic carbon domains surrounded by amorphous carbon frames, and have attracted a great deal of attention because of their interesting properties. There are still, however, challenges ahead such as blue-biased photoluminescence, spectral broadness, undefined energy gaps and etc. In this report, we chemically modify the surface of C-dots with a series of para-substituted anilines to control their photoluminescence. Our surface functionalization endows our C-dots with new energy levels, exhibiting long-wavelength (up to 650 nm) photoluminescence of very narrow spectral widths. The roles of para-substituted anilines and their substituents in developing such energy levels are thoroughly studied by using transient absorption spectroscopy. We finally demonstrate light-emitting devices exploiting our C-dots as a phosphor, converting UV light to a variety of colors with internal quantum yields of ca. 20%. PMID:26218869

  16. Jupiter's Tropospheric Dynamics from SOFIA Mapping of Temperature, Para-Hydrogen, and Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    We request time with FORCAST to observe Jupiter at mid-infrared wavelengths using 8-37 micron grism spectroscopy of the collisionally-induced H2-He continuum to derive the zonal mean tropospheric temperatures and para-H2 distribution. In addition, we request imaging in discrete filters between 5 and 37 micron to provide spatial context for the spectroscopy. This proposal is a follow-up of our successful observations in May 2014, where we confirmed the N-S polar asymmetry in the para-H2 fraction detected by Voyager 1, also during late summer in Jupiter's northern hemisphere. In spring 2017, during a world-wide campaign in support of the Juno mission, it gets close to southern summer solstice. This timing is ideal to assess seasonable variability on the planet.

  17. Charge Transfer Directed Radical Substitution Enables para-Selective C–H Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Efficient C–H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C–H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho- and meta- selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C–H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein, we introduce a previously unappreciated concept which enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit areneto-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate that the selectivity is predictable by a simple theoretical tool and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of charge transfer directed radical substitution could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C–H functionalization reactions. PMID:27442288

  18. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C-H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Efficient C-H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C-H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C-H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C-H functionalization reactions.

  19. ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO-PARA-H{sub 2} MOLECULAR COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, A. V.; Surin, L. A.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Panfilov, V. A.; Dumesh, B. S.; Raston, P. L.; Jaeger, W.

    2009-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of the CO-para-H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, produced using a molecular jet expansion, was observed with two different techniques: OROTRON intracavity millimeter-wave spectroscopy and pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Thirteen transitions in the frequency range from 80 to 130 GHz and two transitions in the 14 GHz region were measured and assigned, allowing for a precise determination of the corresponding energy level positions of CO-para-H{sub 2}. The data obtained enable further radio astronomical searches for this molecular complex and provide a sensitive test of the currently best available intermolecular potential energy surface for the CO-H{sub 2} system.

  20. Complexation and determination of palladium (II) ion with para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid spectrophotometrically.

    PubMed

    Hanna, W G

    1999-11-15

    The complexation of para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid azo dye with Pd(II) has been studied spectrophotometrically. Protonation constant (pK(a)) of the ligand has been calculated and the stability conditional constants of para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid ligand with palladium ion has been determined at a constant temperature (25.0 degrees C), where the molar ratio of this complex is 1:1 (metal:ligand) with logbeta(1)=3.75, and 1:2 with logbeta(2)=8.55. Solid complex of para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid has been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and FTIR spectral data. A procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of Pd(II) using para-Cl-phenylazo-R-acid as a new azo chromophore is proposed where it is rapid, sensitive and highly specific. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 0.50-10.00 ppm at pH 5.0-6.0 to form a violet-red complex (epsilon=7.7 x 10(4) l(-1) mol(-1) cm(-1) at lambda(max)=560 nm). Metal ions such as Cu(II), Cr(III), La(III), Yb(III), Y(III), and Rh(III) interfere with the complex. Ammonium salt of trimellitic acid is used to precipitate some of the interfering ions and a scheme for separation of Pd(II) from a synthetic mixture similar in composition to platinum ore or deposit was made.

  1. Role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in abandoned radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Barquet-Muñoz, Salim Abraham; Rendón-Pereira, Gabriel Jaime; Acuña-González, Denise; Peñate, Monica Vanessa Heymann; Herrera-Montalvo, Luis Alonso; Gallardo-Alvarado, Lenny Nadia; Cantú-de León, David Francisco; Pareja, René

    2017-01-14

    Cervical cancer (CC) occupies fourth place in cancer incidence and mortality worldwide in women, with 560,505 new cases and 284,923 deaths per year. Approximately, nine of every ten (87%) take place in developing countries. When a macroscopic nodal involvement is discovered during a radical hysterectomy (RH), there is controversy in the literature between resect macroscopic lymph node compromise or abandonment of the surgery and sending the patient for standard chemo-radiotherapy treatment. The objective of this study is to compare the prognosis of patients with CC whom RH was abandoned and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed with that of patients who were only biopsied or with removal of a suspicious lymph node, treated with concomitant radiotherapy/chemotherapy in the standard manner. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in two institutions from Mexico and Colombia. Clinical records of patients with early-stage CC programmed for RH with an intraoperative finding of pelvic lymph, para-aortic nodes, or any extracervical involvement that contraindicates the continuation of surgery were obtained. Between January 2007 and December 2012, 42 clinical patients complied with study inclusion criteria and were selected for analysis. In patients with CC whom RH was abandoned due to lymph node affectation, there is no difference in overall survival or in disease-free period between systematic lymphadenectomy and tumor removal or lymph node biopsy, in pelvic lymph nodes as well as in para-aortic lymph nodes, when these patients receive adjuvant treatment with concomitant radiotherapy/chemotherapy. This is a hypothesis-generator study; thus, the recommendation is made to conduct randomized prospective studies to procure better knowledge on the impact of bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy on this group of patients.

  2. ParaDiS on Blue Gene/L: stepping up to the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hommes, G; Arsenlis, A; Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Cook, R; Hiratani, M; Oppestrup, T; Rhee, M; Tang, M

    2006-06-09

    This paper reports on the efforts to enable fully scalable simulations of Dislocation Line Dynamics (DLD) for direct calculations of strength of crystalline materials. DLD simulations are challenging and do not lend themselves naturally to parallel computing. Through a combinations of novel physical approaches, mathematical algorithms and computational science developments, a new DLD code ParaDiS is shown to take meaningful advantage of BG/L and, by doing so, to enable discovery class science by computation.

  3. Parallel Visualization and Analysis with ParaView on a Cray XT4

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, John; Ahrens, James; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Scienti c data sets produced by modern supercomputers like ORNL s Cray XT 4, Jaguar, can be extremely large, making visualization and analysis more di cult as moving large resultant data to dedicated analysis systems can be pro- hibitively expensive. We share our continuing work of integrating a parallel visu- alization system, ParaView, on ORNL s Jaguar system and our e orts to enable extreme scale interactive data visualization and analysis. We will discuss porting challenges and present performance numbers.

  4. 16. mu. m para-H/sub 2/ stimulated Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Chunzhi; Lin Taiji; Wu Xuhua; Niu Zhenya; Ding Yishan; Li Dianjun; Zhu Youxin; Li Yulan; Yang Jinfeng; Wang Naihong; and others

    1988-08-01

    A para-H/sub 2/ stimulated Raman laser pumped by a TEA CO/sub 2/ laser was developed. The main factors affecting Raman conversion efficiency are discussed. At a working temperature of 100 K, the maximum output energy of the Stokes beam at 16 ..mu..m was 536 mJ, corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency of 13% and a quantum conversion efficiency greater than 20%.

  5. Synthesis and Properties of Rodlike Aromatic Heterocyclic Polymers: Phenylated Para-Terphenylene-Polybenzobis-Oxazoles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    Polybenzobisoxazoles 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Dr. J. F. Wolfe Dr. F. E. Arnold 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...number) Para-ordered Polymers Polybenzobisoxazoles Polyphenylated Terphenylene 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If necessary and Identify by block...poly(amide hydrazide) fibers 1-4 recently described in the literature meet the first two of these criteria. The overriding structural feature of

  6. ParaDiS on BlueGene/L: scalable line dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulatov, V; Cai, W; Fier, J; Hiratani, M; Pierce, T; Tang, M; Rhee, M; Yates, R K; Arsenlis, A

    2004-04-29

    We describe an innovative highly parallel application program, ParaDiS, which computes the plastic strength of materials by tracing the evolution of dislocation lines over time. We discuss the issues of scaling the code to tens of thousands of processors, and present early scaling results of the code run on a prototype of the BlueGene/L supercomputer being developed by IBM in partnership with the US DOE's ASC program.

  7. Aplicación del Teorema de Nekhorochev para tiempos de estabilidad en Mecánica Celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Núñez, J.; Brunini, A.

    En Mecánica Celeste, uno de los problemas centrales consiste en la determinación de los tiempos de estabilidad. El teorema de Nekhorochev proporciona un método para dicho estudio, para un sistema determinado por un hamiltoniano descripto en las variables acción-ángulo. El trabajo consiste en la acotación tanto del potencial perturbador y de la matriz hessiana del hamiltoniano integrable para determinar luego el tiempo de estabilidad de dicho sistema, donde por estabilidad se entiende la separación en norma infinito en el espacio de las acciones.

  8. Beyond Hox: the role of ParaHox genes in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Vijay P S; Humphries, R Keith; Buske, Christian

    2012-07-19

    During the past decade it was recognized that homeobox gene families such as the clustered Hox genes play pivotal roles both in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. More recently, similar roles have also become apparent for members of the ParaHox gene cluster, evolutionarily closely related to the Hox gene cluster. This is in particular found for the caudal-type homeobox genes (Cdx) genes, known to act as upstream regulators of Hox genes. The CDX gene family member CDX2 belongs to the most frequent aberrantly expressed proto-oncogenes in human acute leukemias and is highly leukemogenic in experimental models. Correlative studies indicate that CDX2 functions as master regulator of perturbed HOX gene expression in human acute myeloid leukemia, locating this ParaHox gene at a central position for initiating and maintaining HOX gene dysregulation as a driving leukemogenic force. There are still few data about potential upstream regulators initiating aberrant CDX2 expression in human leukemias or about critical downstream targets of CDX2 in leukemic cells. Characterizing this network will hopefully open the way to therapeutic approaches that target deregulated ParaHox genes in human leukemia.

  9. ParaView visualization of Abaqus output on the mechanical deformation of complex microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingbin; Li, Jiang; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Abaqus® is a popular software suite for finite element analysis. It delivers linear and nonlinear analyses of mechanical and fluid dynamics, includes multi-body system and multi-physics coupling. However, the visualization capability of Abaqus using its CAE module is limited. Models from microtomography have extremely complicated structures, and datasets of Abaqus output are huge, requiring a visualization tool more powerful than Abaqus/CAE. We convert Abaqus output into the XML-based VTK format by developing a Python script and then using ParaView to visualize the results. Such capabilities as volume rendering, tensor glyphs, superior animation and other filters allow ParaView to offer excellent visualizing manifestations. ParaView's parallel visualization makes it possible to visualize very big data. To support full parallel visualization, the Python script achieves data partitioning by reorganizing all nodes, elements and the corresponding results on those nodes and elements. The data partition scheme minimizes data redundancy and works efficiently. Given its good readability and extendibility, the script can be extended to the processing of more different problems in Abaqus. We share the script with Abaqus users on GitHub.

  10. The "drinking-buddy" scale as a measure of para-social behavior.

    PubMed

    Powell, Larry; Richmond, Virginia P; Cantrell-Williams, Glenda

    2012-06-01

    Para-social behavior is a form of quasi-interpersonal behavior that results when audience members develop bonds with media personalities that can resemble interpersonal social interaction, but is not usually applied to political communication. This study tested whether the "Drinking-Buddy" Scale, a simple question frequently used in political communication, could be interpreted as a single-item measure of para-social behavior with respect to political candidates in terms of image judgments related to interpersonal attraction and perceived similarity to self. The participants were college students who had voted in the 2008 election. They rated the candidates, Obama or McCain, as drinking buddies and then rated the candidates' perceived similarity to themselves in attitude and background, and also the social and task attraction to the candidate. If the drinking-buddy rating serves as a proxy measure for para-social behavior, then it was expected that participants' ratings for all four kinds of similarity to and attraction toward a candidate would be higher for the candidate they chose as a drinking buddy. The directional hypotheses were supported for interpersonal attraction, but not for perceived similarity. These results indicate that the drinking-buddy scale predicts ratings of interpersonal attraction, while voters may view perceived similarity as an important but not essential factor in their candidate preference.

  11. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  12. ParaDock: a flexible non-specific DNA--rigid protein docking algorithm.

    PubMed

    Banitt, Itamar; Wolfson, Haim J

    2011-11-01

    Accurate prediction of protein-DNA complexes could provide an important stepping stone towards a thorough comprehension of vital intracellular processes. Few attempts were made to tackle this issue, focusing on binding patch prediction, protein function classification and distance constraints-based docking. We introduce ParaDock: a novel ab initio protein-DNA docking algorithm. ParaDock combines short DNA fragments, which have been rigidly docked to the protein based on geometric complementarity, to create bent planar DNA molecules of arbitrary sequence. Our algorithm was tested on the bound and unbound targets of a protein-DNA benchmark comprised of 47 complexes. With neither addressing protein flexibility, nor applying any refinement procedure, CAPRI acceptable solutions were obtained among the 10 top ranked hypotheses in 83% of the bound complexes, and 70% of the unbound. Without requiring prior knowledge of DNA length and sequence, and within <2 h per target on a standard 2.0 GHz single processor CPU, ParaDock offers a fast ab initio docking solution.

  13. The ortho:para-H_2 ratio in C- and J-type shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgenbus, D.; Cabrit, S.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Flower, D. R.

    2000-04-01

    We have computed extensive grids of models of both C- and J-type planar shock waves, propagating in dark, cold molecular clouds, in order to study systematically the behaviour of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio. Careful attention was paid to both macroscopic (dynamical) and microscopic (chemical reactions and collisional population transfer in H_2) aspects. We relate the predictions of the models to observational determinations of the ortho:para-H_2 ratio using both pure rotational lines and rovibrational lines. As an illustration, we consider ISO and ground-based H_2 observations of HH 54. Neither planar C-type nor planar J-type shocks appear able to account fully for these observations. Given the additional constraints provided by the observed ortho:para H_2 ratios, a C-type bowshock, or a C-type precursor followed by a J-type shock, remain as plausible models. Tables~2a-f and 4a-f are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  14. Theoretical study of the design of a catalyst for para to ortho hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of Petzinger and Scalapino (1973) was thoroughly reviewed, and all of the basic equations for paramagnetic para to ortho hydrogen catalysis re-derived. There are only a few minor phase errors and errors of omission in the description of the theory. Three models (described by Petzinger and Scalapino) for the rate of para to ortho H2 catalysis were worked out, and uniform agreement obtained to within a constant factor of 2 pi. The analytical methods developed in the course of this study were then extended to two new models, which more adequately describe the process of surface catalysis including transfer of hydrogen molecules onto and off of the surface. All five equations for the para to ortho catalytic rate of conversion are described. The two new equations describe the catalytic rate for these models: H2 on the surface is a 2-D gas with lifetime tau; and H2 on the surface is a 2-D liquid undergoing Brownian motion (diffusion) with surface lifetime tau.

  15. ParaSAM: a parallelized version of the significance analysis of microarrays algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashok; Zhao, Jieping; Podolsky, Robert; McIndoe, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) is a widely used permutation-based approach to identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray datasets. While SAM is freely available as an Excel plug-in and as an R-package, analyses are often limited for large datasets due to very high memory requirements. Summary: We have developed a parallelized version of the SAM algorithm called ParaSAM to overcome the memory limitations. This high performance multithreaded application provides the scientific community with an easy and manageable client-server Windows application with graphical user interface and does not require programming experience to run. The parallel nature of the application comes from the use of web services to perform the permutations. Our results indicate that ParaSAM is not only faster than the serial version, but also can analyze extremely large datasets that cannot be performed using existing implementations. Availability:A web version open to the public is available at http://bioanalysis.genomics.mcg.edu/parasam. For local installations, both the windows and web implementations of ParaSAM are available for free at http://www.amdcc.org/bioinformatics/software/parasam.aspx Contact: rmcindoe@mail.mcg.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary Data is available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20400455

  16. Base de linhas moleculares para síntese espectral estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Sanzovo, G.

    2003-08-01

    A análise das abundâncias quí micas fotosféricas em estrelas do tipo solar ou tardia, através do cálculo teórico de seus espectros, emprega a espectroscopia de alta resolução e necessita de uma base representativa de linhas atômicas e moleculares com suas respectivas constantes bem determinadas. Nesse trabalho, utilizamos como ponto de partida as extensas listas de linhas espectrais de sistemas eletrônicos de algumas moléculas diatômicas compiladas por Kurucz para a construção de uma base de linhas moleculares para a sí ntese espectral estelar. Revisamos as determinações dos fatores rotacionais de Honl-London das forças de oscilador das linhas moleculares, para cada banda vibracional de alguns sistemas eletrônicos, seguindo a regra usual de normalização. Usamos as forças de oscilador eletrônicas da literatura. Os fatores vibracionais de Franck-Condon de cada banda foram especialmente recalculados empregando-se novas constantes moleculares. Reproduzimos, com êxito, as absorções espectrais de determinadas bandas eletrônicas-vibracionais das espécies moleculares C12C12, C12N14 e Mg24H em espectros de estrelas de referência como o Sol e Arcturus.

  17. Madres para la Salud: design of a theory-based intervention for postpartum Latinas.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-05-01

    Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for "Madres para la Salud" [Mothers for Health]. Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using "bouts" of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Observing para-H2D+ absorption towards Serpens SMM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    We propose to observe the the ground-state rotational line of para-H2D+ at 1370 GHz (? = 218?m) with SOFIA/GREAT. The line is predicted to be detectable in absorption towards the luminous low-mass Class 0 protostar Serpens SMM1. This northern source consists of a warm, edge-on dust disk with a strong FIR continuum emission (280 Jy at 218 ? m) surrounded by a massive, cool envelope. According to our estimates the para H2D+ line is optically thick (? = 1) and will absorb about 60% of the continuum emission. The expected line absorption signal is at least 0.2 K in TA?, but only ?1 km/s wide. Even with SOFIA/GREAT the proposed project is challenging and needs deep integration, but it also renders possible an unambiguos detection of para-H2D+. As the object is particularly well studied in molecular lines and dust continuum, the proposed observations will allow us to test our understanding of the deuterium chemistry.

  19. [Molecular genetic basis for para-Bombay phenotypes in two cases].

    PubMed

    He, Yang-Ming; Xu, Xian-Guo; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Yan, Li-Xing

    2007-06-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the molecular genetics basis for para-Bombay phenotype. The para-Bombay phenotype of two probands was identified by routine serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase gene (FUT1 and FUT2) in the probands was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplified fragments were directly sequenced, meanwhile the mutations of FUT1 were also identified by TOPO TA cloning sequence method. The results indicated that two heterozygous mutations were detected by directly sequencing in two probands: AG deletion at position 547 - 552 and C to T mutation at position 658. Two different mutations were confirmed to be true compound heterozygotes with each mutation on a separate homologous chromosome by TOPO TA cloning sequence method. AG deletion at position 547 - 552 caused a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. C658T mutation resulted in Arg-->Cys at amino acid position 220. It is suggested that the FUT1 mutation of two probands are compound heterozygous mutation with different chromosomes, which are named h1h3 and may be the genetics basis of para-Bombay phenotype.

  20. [Formation of para-Bombay phenotype caused by homozygous or heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ping; Zheng, Yan; Sun, Dong-Ni

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for para-Bombay phenotype formation. The H antigen of these individuals were identified by serological techniques. The full coding region of alpha (1, 2) fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene of these individuals was amplified by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR product was identified by TOPO cloning sequencing. Analysis and comparison were used to explore the mechanisms of para-bombay phenotype formation in individuals. The results indicated that the full coding region of FUT1 DNA was successfully amplified by PCR and gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing and analysis found that h1 (547-552delAG) existed in one chromosome and h4 (35C > T) existed in the other chromosome of NO.1 individual. Meantime, h1 (547-552delAG) was found in two chromosomes of NO.2 and NO.3 individual. It also means that FUT1 gene of NO.1 individual was h1h4 heterozygote, FUT1 gene of NO.2 and NO.3 individuals were h1h1 homozygote. It is concluded that homozygous and heterozygous mutation of FUT1 gene can lead to the formation of para-Bombay phenotype.

  1. [Para-Bombay phenotype caused by combined heterozygote of two bases deletion on fut1 alleles].

    PubMed

    Ma, Kan-Rong; Tao, Shu-Dan; Lan, Xiao-Fei; Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Xu, Xian-Guo; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Lü, Hang-Jun; Yan, Li-Xing

    2011-02-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the molecular basis of a para-Bombay phenotype for screening and identification of rare blood group. ABO and H phenotypes of the proband were identified by serological techniques. The exon 6 to exon 7 of ABO gene and full coding region of α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (fut1) gene of the proband were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the amplified fragments. The haplotype of compound heterozygote of fut1 was also identified by cloning sequencing. The results indicated that a rare para-Bombay phenotype was confirmed by serological techniques. Two deletion or insertion variant sites near nucleotide 547 and 880 were detected in fut1 gene. The results of cloning sequence showed that one haplotype of fut1 gene was two bases deletion at 547-552 (AGAGAG→AGAG), and another one was two bases deletion at position 880-882 (TTT→T). Both two variants caused a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. It is concluded that a rare para-Bombay phenotype is found and confirmed in blood donor population. The molecular basis of this individual is compound heterozygote of two bases deletion on fut1 gene which weaken the activity of α-1, 2-fucosyltransferase.

  2. Fragrance material review on 1-(para-menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(para-Menthen-6-yl)-1-propanone were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization, data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) [Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013 A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients. Submitted with this manuscript.] for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for surgical staging of endometrial cancer: morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Larson, D M; Johnson, K; Olson, K A

    1992-06-01

    This analysis compared retrospectively the morbidity and mortality of patients with endometrial cancer who had total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO) alone or with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy performed by the same surgeon at one private institution. Between August 1987 and March 1991, 77 women with endometrial cancer were staged surgically by a standard protocol without preoperative radiotherapy. Thirty-five patients (45%) had TAH/BSO alone and 42 (55%) had TAH/BSO with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 18. Patients having lymphadenectomy had an increased mean (+/- standard deviation) operative time (129 +/- 29 versus 87 +/- 26 minutes; P less than .0001), increased mean estimated blood loss (391 +/- 192 versus 272 +/- 219 mL; P = .013), and a longer postoperative hospital stay (P = .017) compared with patients having TAH/BSO alone. However, there was no difference in transfusion rate, febrile morbidity, postoperative complications, or mortality. We conclude that pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy can be added to TAH/BSO in patients with endometrial cancer without a clinically significant increase in morbidity or mortality.

  4. El diseño final del espectrógrafo de banco (EBASIM) para CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, J.; Levato, H.

    Utilizando el código de óptica ACCOS V se ha finalizado el diseño del espectrógrafo de banco para CASLEO. En una comunicación anterior habíamos indicado que utilizaríamos un colimador de 150 mm de diámetro con un radio de curvatura de 1540 mm. Para el espejo cámara, que tiene un diámetro de 200 mm, el radio de curvatura es de 1200 mm, ambos radios con una tolerancia no mayor a los 3 mm. En la presente, se informa sobre los detalles finales del cálculo del espectrógrafo que incluye el cómputo para 5 longitudes de onda diferentes y alrededor de 100 rayos. En todos los casos el 75 % de energía está dentro de un diámetro de 13 micrones. El diseño ha sido probado entre 3500 Å hasta 9000 Å con resultados satisfactorios.

  5. ParaSAM: a parallelized version of the significance analysis of microarrays algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok; Zhao, Jieping; Podolsky, Robert; McIndoe, Richard A

    2010-06-01

    Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) is a widely used permutation-based approach to identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray datasets. While SAM is freely available as an Excel plug-in and as an R-package, analyses are often limited for large datasets due to very high memory requirements. We have developed a parallelized version of the SAM algorithm called ParaSAM to overcome the memory limitations. This high performance multithreaded application provides the scientific community with an easy and manageable client-server Windows application with graphical user interface and does not require programming experience to run. The parallel nature of the application comes from the use of web services to perform the permutations. Our results indicate that ParaSAM is not only faster than the serial version, but also can analyze extremely large datasets that cannot be performed using existing implementations. A web version open to the public is available at http://bioanalysis.genomics.mcg.edu/parasam. For local installations, both the windows and web implementations of ParaSAM are available for free at http://www.amdcc.org/bioinformatics/software/parasam.aspx.

  6. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}→H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

  7. Electrical detection of ortho–para conversion in fullerene-encapsulated water

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benno; Mamone, Salvatore; Concistrè, Maria; Alonso-Valdesueiro, Javier; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-01

    Water exists in two spin isomers, ortho and para, that have different nuclear spin states. In bulk water, rapid proton exchange and hindered molecular rotation obscure the direct observation of two spin isomers. The supramolecular endofullerene H2O@C60 provides freely rotating, isolated water molecules even at cryogenic temperatures. Here we show that the bulk dielectric constant of this substance depends on the ortho/para ratio, and changes slowly in time after a sudden temperature jump, due to nuclear spin conversion. The attribution of the effect to ortho–para conversion is validated by comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum theory. The change in dielectric constant is consistent with an electric dipole moment of 0.51±0.05 Debye for an encapsulated water molecule, indicating the partial shielding of the water dipole by the encapsulating cage. The dependence of bulk dielectric constant on nuclear spin isomer composition appears to be a previously unreported physical phenomenon. PMID:26299447

  8. The ParaShield entry vehicle concept - Basic theory and flight test development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.

    The ParaShield concept of the Space Systems Laboratory is an ultra-low ballistic coefficient entry vehicle, created to meet the need for entry vehicle technology to return mass from low earth orbit. The concept involves decoupling the ballistic coefficient from the launch vehicle parameters, to pick a value (beta) which optimizes the desired entry vehicle characteristics. Trajectory simulations show that, as the ballistic coefficient is lowered to range of 100-150 Pa, the total heat load and peak heating flux drop markedly, due to primary deceleration in regions of extremely low dynamic pressure. These same low values of beta also result in a low terminal velocity, allowing the use of simple impact attenuation to provide a soft landing on water or dry land. Because the deployable fabric framework serves the functions of both heat shield and parachute, it is referred to as a ParaShield. The experience gained from the design, construction, and integration of a ParaShield test vehicle is discussed.

  9. Para-GMRF: parallel algorithm for anomaly detection of hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Na; Wang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    The hyperspectral imager is capable of collecting hundreds of images corresponding to different wavelength channels for the observed area simultaneously, which make it possible to discriminate man-made objects from natural background. However, the price paid for the wealthy information is the enormous amounts of data, usually hundreds of Gigabytes per day. Turning the huge volume data into useful information and knowledge in real time is critical for geoscientists. In this paper, the proposed parallel Gaussian-Markov random field (Para-GMRF) anomaly detection algorithm is an attempt of applying parallel computing technology to solve the problem. Based on the locality of GMRF algorithm, we partition the 3-D hyperspectral image cube in spatial domain and distribute data blocks to multiple computers for concurrent detection. Meanwhile, to achieve load balance, a work pool scheduler is designed for task assignment. The Para-GMRF algorithm is organized in master-slave architecture, coded in C programming language using message passing interface (MPI) library and tested on a Beowulf cluster. Experimental results show that Para-GMRF algorithm successfully conquers the challenge and can be used in time sensitive areas, such as environmental monitoring and battlefield reconnaissance.

  10. Quantum chemical and experimental study of 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmannová, Lenka; Lukeš, Vladimír; Ilčin, Michal; Fodran, Peter; Herich, Peter; Kožíšek, Jozef; Liptaj, Tibor; Klein, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The conformational analysis of the para-menthane (PM) and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-para-menthane (TPM) is performed using the quantum chemical density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio Møller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2). In TPM, three hydroxyl groups generate eight stereoisomers comparing to the four para-menthane stereoisomers. From the thermodynamics point of view, the most preferred conformations show the chair-shaped configuration of the cyclohexane ring. The obtained energy barriers for the isopropyl group rotation in the chair-shaped stereoisomers are between 35 and 45 kJ mol-1. The crystal structure as well as the solvated TPM stereoisomer isolated from the Tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel, were investigated experimentally. Isolated stereoisomer corresponds to the most energetically preferred conformation and the calculated structural data agree very well with the results from the X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Finally, the influence of the conformation and the presence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the homolytic Osbnd H bond dissociation enthalpies and proton affinities were also discussed with respect to the simple alcohols (methanol, iso-propanol, iso-pentanol, tert-butanol, cyclohexanol) and phenol.

  11. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source

  12. Implementação de um algoritmo para a limpeza de mapas da RCFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, C. L.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2003-08-01

    A Radiação Cósmica de Fundo em Microondas (RCFM), descoberta por Penzias e Wilson em 1965, é uma das ferramentas mais poderosas para o estudo da cosmologia. Com a descoberta de flutuações de temperatura na RCFM, da ordem de uma parte em 105, pelo COBE (1992), uma nova era teve início. Nos últimos onze anos, diversos instrumentos fizeram novas medidas de alta precisão, refinando os resultados apresentados pelo COBE, culminando com os resultados recentes do satélite WMAP. A análise de dados da RCFM, especialmente no caso de experimentos com pequena cobertura do céu, apresenta uma série de dificuldades devido a emissões de contaminantes externos, tais como a emissão da Galáxia e de fontes pontuais, e de ruídos intrínsecos tanto ao sistema de detecção quanto à estratégia de observação do céu. Uma das soluções típicas para a filtragem de dados brutos de um experimento para medir flutuações de temperatura é aplicar um gabarito (template) e um filtro passa alta ao produzir mapas simplificados (sem considerar matrizes de correlação ou covariância). No caso de experimentos que utilizam detectores HEMT, essa combinação de filtros remove, satisfatoriamente, ruídos do tipo 1/f gerados pela instabilidade no ganho do detector acoplado ao movimento do instrumento, definido pela estratégia de observação. Entretanto, o sinal resultante medido, tanto em simulações quanto em séries temporais reais, sugere que parte do sinal cosmológico pode estar sendo removido junto com o ruído dos detectores. Este trabalho descreve as etapas para a produção de um mapa típico (simulado) e os testes preliminares de um algoritmo para remover ruídos do tipo 1/f introduzidos pela estratégia de observação sem prejudicar a qualidade do sinal cosmológico presente no mapa.

  13. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  14. Melhoramentos no código Wilson-Devinney para binárias eclipsantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    A análise de curvas de luz e velocidades radiais de sistemas binários eclipsantes pode ser feita por meio de vários modelos. Um desses é o Modelo Wilson-Devinney (WD). Ao longo dos anos, esse modelo sofreu várias alterações em seus códigos principais, com a finalidade de torná-lo mais consistente tanto fíisica como numericamente. O Modelo WD tem sido melhorado de várias maneiras em seus dois códigos: um para a predição das curvas de luz teórica e de velocidade radiais e outra para as soluções destas curvas. Teoricamente, na física do modelo, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de levar em conta os efeitos do movimento apsidal. Numericamente, nós introduzimos a possibilidade de usar o Método SIMPLEX no procedimento da solução, como uma alternativa para o já implementado Método de Mínimos Quadrados (Least Squares Method). Estas modificações, juntamente com outras já introduzidas pelo nosso grupo anteriormente, tornam o código mais eficiente na solução das curvas de luz e de velocidade radiais de binárias eclipsantes. Como o modelo tem sido usado para analisar sistemas com componentes pré-sequência principal (TY CrA, Casey et al. 1998, Vaz et al. 1998), SM 790, Stassun et al. 2003), este melhoramento beneficiará estes casos também. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos com a modificação do código WD por meio do uso de dados da estrela GL Carinae, comprovando, (1) que os parâmetros orbitais calculados por nós são coerentes com os obtidos anteriormente na literatura (Giménez & Clausen, 1986) e com os obtidos por Faria (1987), e (2) que a implementação do Método SIMPLEX torna o código mais lento mas completamente consistente internamente e evita os problemas gerados pelo uso do Método de Mínimos Quadrados, tais como imprecisão no cálculo das derivadas parciais e convergência para mínimos locais.

  15. Pre-treatment surgical para-aortic lymph node assessment in locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brockbank, Elly; Kokka, Fani; Bryant, Andrew; Pomel, Christophe; Reynolds, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common cause of death from gynaecological cancers worldwide. Locally advanced cervical cancer, FIGO stage equal or more than IB1 is treated with chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy. If there is metastatic para-aortic nodal disease radiotherapy is extended to additionally cover this area. Due to increased morbidity, ideally extended-field radiotherapy is given only when para-aortic nodal disease is proven. Therefore accurate assessment of the extent of the disease is very important for planning the most appropriate treatment. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pre-treatment surgical para-aortic lymph node assessment for woman with locally advanced cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB2 to IVA). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to January 2011). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared surgical para-aortic lymph node assessment and dissection with radiological staging techniques, in adult women diagnosed with locally advanced cervical cancer. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed whether potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria, abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. One RCT was identified so no meta-analyses were performed. Main results We found only one trial, which included 61 women, that met our inclusion criteria. This trial reported data on surgical versus clinical staging and an assessment of the two surgical staging techniques; laparoscopic (LAP) versus extraperitoneal (EXP) surgical staging. The clinical staging was either a contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI scan of the abdomen and

  16. An Experimental Investigation of Collisions of NH3 with Para-H2 at the Temperatures of Cold Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, D. R.; Timlin, R. E., Jr.; Merlin, J. M.; Sowa, M. M.; Wesolek, D. M.

    2002-03-01

    Experimentally measured cross sections for collisional broadening of ammonia by J=0, para-H2 are presented for the (J,K)=(1,1),(2,2), and (3,3) NH3 inversion transitions at temperatures from 12.5 to 40 K. The cross sections were obtained in a quasi-equilibrium environment utilizing the collisional cooling technique. These are the first laboratory measurements of interactions between NH3 and J=0, para-H2 at the temperatures of cold molecular clouds. The measured cross sections are compared to theoretical predictions using two existing ab initio NH3-H2 potential surfaces and to previously measured He broadening cross sections. In comparison to He broadening cross sections at these temperatures, the para-H2 results are up to 4 times larger. This is in contrast to 300 K experimental results where para-H2 cross sections are only 50% larger than He.

  17. Conformational isomerism in the solid-state structures of tetracaine and tamoxifen with para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylyuk, Oksana; Monachino, Melany; Lazar, Adina N.; Suwinska, Kinga; Coleman, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    The solid-state complexes between para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene and the drugs tamoxifen and tetracaine show an unusual 4:1 guest-host stoichiometry with formation of hydrophobic layer of drug molecules held between bilayers of para-sulphonato-calix[4]arene. In both structures each of the four independent drug molecules adopts different conformation due to the different mode of interaction with the anionic host, the neighbouring drug cations and water molecules.

  18. Los grandes telescopios ópticos e infrarrojos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.

    Recientemente se han puesto en funcionamiento telescopios de 8 y 10 metros de diámetro de su espejo primario que están significando un gran avance en las capacidades observacionales de la Astronomía moderna. Igualmente en nuestro país se está construyendo el Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) que situará a la Astronomía española en la vanguardia de esta disciplina. En mi charla hablaré de las oportunidades observacionales que suponen estos grandes telescopios para la Astronomía moderna. Hablaré del GTC y del esfuerzo español por ser actores principales del desarrollo de la Astronomía moderna. Por último, mostraré brevemente los proyectos futuros de grandes telescopios que se están proponiendo a ambos lados del Atlántico.

  19. Effects of para-substituents of styrene derivatives on their chemical reactivity on platinum nanoparticle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P.; Lu, Jia-En; Bonny, Lewis W.; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-06-01

    Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent aggregation, suggesting sufficient protection of the nanoparticles by the organic capping ligands, and the average core diameter was estimated to be 2.0 +/- 0.3 nm, 1.3 +/- 0.2 nm, and 1.1 +/- 0.2 nm for the nanoparticles capped with 4-tert-butylstyrene, 4-methoxystyrene, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)styrene, respectively, as a result of the decreasing rate of dehydrogenation with the increasing Taft (polar) constant of the para-substituents. Importantly, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited unique photoluminescence, where an increase of the Hammett constant of the para-substituents corresponded to a blue-shift of the photoluminescence emission, suggesting an enlargement of the HOMO-LUMO band gap of the nanoparticle-bound acetylene moieties. Furthermore, the resulting nanoparticles exhibited apparent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction in acidic media, with the best performance among the series of samples observed with the 4-tert-butylstyrene-capped nanoparticles due to an optimal combination of the nanoparticle core size and ligand effects on the bonding interactions between platinum and oxygen species.Stable platinum nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the self-assembly of para-substituted styrene derivatives onto the platinum surfaces as a result of platinum-catalyzed dehydrogenation and transformation of the vinyl groups to the acetylene ones, forming platinum-vinylidene/-acetylide interfacial bonds. Transmission electron microscopic measurements showed that the nanoparticles were well dispersed without apparent

  20. Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

  1. Supported transition metal catalysts for para- to ortho-hydrogen conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Christopher J.; Wang, Wei; Eyman, Darrell P.

    1994-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and improve on existing catalysts for the conversion of ortho- to para-hydrogen. Starting with a commercially available Air Products nickel silicate, which had a beta value of 20, we were trying to synthesize catalysts that would be an improvement to AP. This was accomplished by preparing silicates with various metals as well as different preparation methods. We also prepared supported ruthenium catalysts by various techniques using several metal precursors to improve present technology. What was also found was that the activation conditions prior to catalytic testing was highly important for both the silicates and the supported ruthenium catalysts. While not the initial focus of the research, we made some interesting observations into the adsorption of H2 on ruthenium. This helped us to get a better understanding of how ortho- to para-H2 conversion takes place, and what features in a catalyst are important to optimize activity. Reactor design was the final area in which some interesting conclusions were drawn. As discussed earlier, the reactor catalyst bed must be constructed using straight 1/8 feet OD stainless steel tubing. It was determined that the use of 1/4 feet OD tubing caused two problems. First, the radius from the center of the bed to the wall was too great for thermal equilibrium. Since the reaction of ortho- to para-H2 is exothermic, the catalyst bed center was warmer than the edges. Second, the catalyst bed was too shallow using a 1/4 feet tube. This caused reactant blow-by which was thought to decrease the measured activity when the flow rate was increased. The 1/8 feet tube corrected both of these concerns.

  2. Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, R J; Ernst, L K; Larsen, R D; Bryant, J G; Robinson, J S; Lowe, J B

    1994-01-01

    The penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the human ABO blood group oligosaccharide antigens is catalyzed by alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase(s) (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), whose expression is determined by the H and Secretor (SE) blood group loci (also known as FUT1 and FUT2, respectively). These enzymes construct Fuc alpha 1-->2Gal beta-linkages, known as H determinants, which are essential precursors to the A and B antigens. Erythrocytes from individuals with the rare Bombay and para-Bombay blood group phenotypes are deficient in H determinants, and thus A and B determinants, as a consequence of apparent homozygosity for null alleles at the H locus. We report a molecular analysis of a human alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene, thought to correspond to the H blood group locus, in a Bombay pedigree and a para-Bombay pedigree. We find inactivating point mutations in the coding regions of both alleles of this gene in each H-deficient individual. These results define the molecular basis for H blood group antigen deficiency in Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes, provide compelling evidence that this gene represents the human H blood group locus, and strongly support a hypothesis that the H and SE loci represent distinct alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes. Candidate sequences for the human SE locus are identified by low-stringency Southern blot hybridization analyses, using a probe derived from the H alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene. Images PMID:7912436

  3. Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R J; Ernst, L K; Larsen, R D; Bryant, J G; Robinson, J S; Lowe, J B

    1994-06-21

    The penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the human ABO blood group oligosaccharide antigens is catalyzed by alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase(s) (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), whose expression is determined by the H and Secretor (SE) blood group loci (also known as FUT1 and FUT2, respectively). These enzymes construct Fuc alpha 1-->2Gal beta-linkages, known as H determinants, which are essential precursors to the A and B antigens. Erythrocytes from individuals with the rare Bombay and para-Bombay blood group phenotypes are deficient in H determinants, and thus A and B determinants, as a consequence of apparent homozygosity for null alleles at the H locus. We report a molecular analysis of a human alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene, thought to correspond to the H blood group locus, in a Bombay pedigree and a para-Bombay pedigree. We find inactivating point mutations in the coding regions of both alleles of this gene in each H-deficient individual. These results define the molecular basis for H blood group antigen deficiency in Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes, provide compelling evidence that this gene represents the human H blood group locus, and strongly support a hypothesis that the H and SE loci represent distinct alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes. Candidate sequences for the human SE locus are identified by low-stringency Southern blot hybridization analyses, using a probe derived from the H alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene.

  4. ParaSight-F rapid manual diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed Central

    Uguen, C.; Rabodonirina, M.; De Pina, J. J.; Vigier, J. P.; Martet, G.; Maret, M.; Peyron, F.

    1995-01-01

    The ParaSight(R)-F test is a qualitative diagnostic test of Plasmodium falciparum, which is based on the detection by a monoclonal antibody of a species-specific soluble antigen (histidine-rich protein (HRP-II)) in whole blood and which can be performed without special equipment. A visual reading is given by a polyclonal antibody coupled with dye-loaded liposomes; when positive, a pink line appears. The test has been compared with microscopic examination of thin blood smears and with Quantitative Buffy Coat malaria test (QBC(R) in a single-blind study. A total of 358 patients who had returned to France from malarial areas and consulted their doctor with symptoms or for a routine examination were enrolled in the study; 33 of them were found to have a falciparum malaria infection by the diagnostic test. On the day of consultation, the specificity of the ParaSight(R)-F test was 99% and its sensitivity 94%. The follow-up of infected patients after treatment showed that the test became negative later than the other reference tests. There was no correlation between antigen persistence and the intensity of the ParaSight(R)-F signal or circulating parasitaemia. No cross-reaction was noted for seven malaria cases due to other Plasmodium species. The test was performed quickly (10 tests in 20 minutes), was easy to read, and required minimal space. For cases of imported malaria, the test's specificity and low threshold for detection could make it a valuable adjunct test. However, in its present form, it cannot replace microscopic techniques which are species-specific and quantitative. In endemic areas, the test seems to be very promising by its results and ease of use according to published field studies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8846490

  5. Ortho/para ratio of H2O+ toward Sagittarius B2(M) revisited.

    PubMed

    Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Higgins, Ronan; Comito, Claudia

    2013-10-03

    The HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel satellite has allowed the observation and characterization of light hydrides, the building blocks of interstellar chemistry. In this article, we revisit the ortho/para ratio for H2O(+) toward the Sgr B2(M) cloud core. The line of sight toward this star forming region passes through several spiral arms and the gas in the Bar potential in the inner Galaxy. In contrast to earlier findings, which used fewer lines to constrain the ratio, we find a ratio of 3, which is uniformly consistent with high-temperature formation of the species. In view of the reactivity of this ion, this matches the expectations.

  6. Salud Para Su Corazon (Health for Your Heart) Community Health Worker Model

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, H.; Alvarado, M.; Ortiz, G.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy. PMID:21914992

  7. Manual de reforestación para América Tropical

    Treesearch

    Blanca I. Ruiz

    2002-01-01

    Aún cuando las comunidades tengan necesidad apremiante de sembrar árboles y tengan conciencia de ésta, la tarea que enfrentan no es sencilla ni barata (capítulo 5). Sin embargo, los beneficios que proveen los árboles son incontables (capítulo 2). De hecho, sin éstos nuestra civilización no podría existir tal cual la conocemos. Este manual fue escrito para ayudar a...

  8. Summary of Documentation for DYNA3D-ParaDyn's Software Quality Assurance Regression Test Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zywicz, Edward

    2016-08-18

    The Software Quality Assurance (SQA) regression test suite for DYNA3D (Zywicz and Lin, 2015) and ParaDyn (DeGroot, et al., 2015) currently contains approximately 600 problems divided into 21 suites, and is a required component of ParaDyn’s SQA plan (Ferencz and Oliver, 2013). The regression suite allows developers to ensure that software modifications do not unintentionally alter the code response. The entire regression suite is run prior to permanently incorporating any software modification or addition. When code modifications alter test problem results, the specific cause must be determined and fully understood before the software changes and revised test answers can be incorporated. The regression suite is executed on LLNL platforms using a Python script and an associated data file. The user specifies the DYNA3D or ParaDyn executable, number of processors to use, test problems to run, and other options to the script. The data file details how each problem and its answer extraction scripts are executed. For each problem in the regression suite there exists an input deck, an eight-processor partition file, an answer file, and various extraction scripts. These scripts assemble a temporary answer file in a specific format from the simulation results. The temporary and stored answer files are compared to a specific level of numerical precision, and when differences are detected the test problem is flagged as failed. Presently, numerical results are stored and compared to 16 digits. At this accuracy level different processor types, compilers, number of partitions, etc. impact the results to various degrees. Thus, for consistency purposes the regression suite is run with ParaDyn using 8 processors on machines with a specific processor type (currently the Intel Xeon E5530 processor). For non-parallel regression problems, i.e., the two XFEM problems, DYNA3D is used instead. When environments or platforms change, executables using the current source code and the new

  9. Synthesis of icariin from kaempferol through regioselective methylation and para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Qinggang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yuan, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary The hemisynthesis of the naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid glycoside icariin (1) has been accomplished in eleven steps with 7% overall yield from kaempferol. The 4′-OH methylation of kaempferol, the 8-prenylation of 3-O-methoxymethyl-4′-O-methyl-5-O-prenyl-7-O-benzylkaempferol (8) via para-Claisen–Cope rearrangement catalyzed by Eu(fod)3 in the presence of NaHCO3, and the glycosylation of icaritin (3) are the key steps. PMID:26425179

  10. Electrically conducting poly(para-phenylene sulfide) prepared by doping with nitrosyl salts from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubner, Michael; Cukor, Peter; Jopson, Harriet; Deits, Walter

    1982-03-01

    Para(polyphenylene sulfide) may be doped spontaneously and rapidly with nitrosyl salts (NOPF6, NOSbF6) from solution to yield an electrically conducting material (10-1ohm-1cm-1). The level of conductivity is primarily dependent on the extent of dopant incorporation, which in turn is determined by the polymer’s crystallinity; the more amorphous the polymer, the more dopant it takes up and the more conductive it becomes. The incorporation of dopants produces irreversible chemical changes in the polymer resulting in the deterioration of its mechanical properties.

  11. Manual de métodos de campo para el monitoreo de aves terrestres

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; Geoffrey R. Geupel; Peter Pyle; Thomas E. Martin; David F DeSante; Borja Milá

    1996-01-01

    El presente manual es una recopilación de métodos de campo para la determinación de índices de abundancia y datos demográficos de poblaciones de aves terrestres en una amplia variedad de hábitats. Está dirigido a biólogos, técnicos de campo, e investigadores de cualquier parte del Continente Americano. Los métodos descritos incluyen cuatro tipos de censos...

  12. Salud Para Su Carozón--a Latino promotora-led cardiovascular health education program.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Jovonni R; Alvarado, Matilde

    2012-01-01

    Salud Para Su Carozón is a culturally sensitive, community-based program to increase heart healthy knowledge and behaviors among Latinos. Promotoras were trained using a 10-session manual to teach participants from 7 communities about heart disease risk factors and skills to achieve heart healthy behaviors. In 435 participants with pre-to-post self-reported data, there were increases in physical activity outside of work (57%-78%), heart health knowledge (49%-76%), and confidence in preparing heart healthy meals (66%-81%) (all Ps < .001). Results suggest that promotoras can provide effective health education to improve heart health risk behaviors in select Latino communities.

  13. [Analysis on FUT1 and FUT2 gene of 10 para-Bombay individuals in China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong-hui; Xiang, Dong; Zhu, Zi-yan; Wang, Jian-lian; Zhang, Jia-min; Liu, Xi; Shen, Wei; Chen, He-ping

    2004-10-01

    This is a study on the allele composing of ABO, FUT1 and FUT2 gene loci of 10 para-Bombay individuals in China. Ten samples coming from different districts of China were suspected of para-Bombay phenotype by primary serology tests. Routine and absorb-elution tests were conducted to identify their ABO type, and duplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied to getting their ABO genotype. Most of them were submitted to a test of their Lewis type as well. Then through direct DNA sequencing with PCR products of FUT1 and FUT2 genes, the genotypes of their H and SE gene loci were analyzed. It can be confirmed that the 10 samples are para-Bombay. All of their ABO genotypes are consistent with the serological absorb-elution results and the substances detected results in saliva. Seven out of 10 have recessive homozygous gene at their H locus. Each phenotype of h1h1 (nt547-552Deltaag), h2h2 (nt880-882Deltatt) and h4h4 (nt35 t-->c) are ascertained in 2 individuals; moreover, h3h3 (nt 658 c-->t) is identified in one individual. The rest are hh heterozygous individuals: one is h3/h(new-1); the other is h2/h(new-2); the last one is h1/h2. The h(new-1) (nt586 c-->t) allele has a point mutation at nt 586 C to T, which leads a nonsense mutation Gln(CAG) to stop (TAG).The second h (new-2) (nt328 g-->a) has an nt328 G to A missense mutation,which leads Ala (GCC),was replaced by Thr (ACC) at 110 amino acid position. All the 10 samples have Se (nt357 c-->t) synonymous mutation. One Bm(h) (B/O) individual with h4h4 phenotype has a Se(w)(nt357 c-->t; nt385 a-->t) allele, whose Lewis type is Le(a+b+). Moreover, the authors detected a (nt716 g-->a) mutation in two samples' Se gene. Four kinds of known h alleles (h1-h4), 2 kinds of novel non-functional FUT1 alleles, a Se(w) allele, and a novel SeG716A polymorphism in Chinese para-Bombay individuals were detected. At the same time, the authors noticed that all the 10 samples have the nt357 c

  14. ParaCEST MRI contrast agents capable of derivatization via"click" chemistry.

    PubMed

    Milne, Mark; Chicas, Kirby; Li, Alex; Bartha, Robert; Hudson, Robert H E

    2012-01-14

    A comprehensive series of lanthanide chelates has been prepared with a tetrapropargyl DOTAM type ligand. The complexes have been characterized by a combination of (1)H NMR, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, CEST and relaxation studies and have also been evaluated for potential use as paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (ParaCEST) contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We demonstrate the functionalization of several chelates by means of alkyne-azide "click" chemistry in which a glucosyl azide is used to produce a tetra-substituted carbohydrate-decorated lanthanide complex. The carbohydrate periphery of the chelates has a potent influence on the CEST properties as described herein.

  15. NMR at earth's magnetic field using para-hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Hamans, Bob C; Andreychenko, Anna; Heerschap, Arend; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Tessari, Marco

    2011-09-01

    A method to achieve NMR of dilute samples in the earth's magnetic field by applying para-hydrogen induced polarization is presented. Maximum achievable polarization enhancements were calculated by numerically simulating the experiment and compared to the experimental results and to the thermal equilibrium in the earth's magnetic field. Simultaneous 19F and 1H NMR detection on a sub-milliliter sample of a fluorinated alkyne at millimolar concentration (∼10(18) nuclear spins) was realized with just one single scan. A highly resolved spectrum with a signal/noise ratio higher than 50:1 was obtained without using an auxiliary magnet or any form of radio frequency shielding.

  16. Three-dimensional treatment planning for para-aortic node irradiation in patients with cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Munzenrider, J.E.; Doppke, K.P.; Brown, A.P.; Burman, C.; Cheng, E.; Chu, J.; Chui, C.; Drzymala, R.E.; Goitein, M.; Manolis, J.M. )

    1991-05-15

    Three-dimensional treatment planning has been used by four cooperating centers to prepare and analyze multiple treatment plans on two cervix cancer patients. One patient had biopsy-proven and CT-demonstrable metastasis to the para-aortic nodes, while the other was at high risk for metastatic involvement of para-aortic nodes. Volume dose distributions were analyzed, and an attempt was made to define the role of 3-D treatment planning to the para-aortic region, where moderate to high doses (50-66 Gy) are required to sterilize microscopic and gross metastasis. Plans were prepared using the 3-D capabilities for tailoring fields to the target volumes, but using standard field arrangements (3-D standard), and with full utilization of the 3-D capabilities (3-D unconstrained). In some but not all 3-D unconstrained plans, higher doses were delivered to the large nodal volume and to the volume containing gross nodal disease than in plans analyzed but not prepared with full 3-D capability (3-D standard). The small bowel was the major dose limiting organ. Its tolerance would have been exceeded in all plans which prescribed 66 Gy to the gross nodal mass, although some reduction in small bowel near-maximum dose was achieved in the 3-D unconstrained plans. All plans were able to limit doses to other normal organs to tolerance levels or less, with significant reductions seen in doses to spinal cord, kidneys, and large bowel in the 3-D unconstrained plans, as compared to the 3-D standard plans. A high probability of small bowel injury was detected in one of four 3-D standard plans prescribed to receive 50 Gy to the large para-aortic nodal volume; the small bowel dose was reduced to an acceptable level in the corresponding 3-D unconstrained plan. An optimum beam energy for treating this site was not identified, with plans using 4, 6, 10, 15, 18, and 25 MV photons all being equally acceptable. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Translation and adaptation of the Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los recursos humanos en salud.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria de Lourdes de; Peres, Aida Maris; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima

    2017-06-05

    to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the document named Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas (Regional Framework of Core Competencies in Public Health for Health Human Resources in the Region of Americas) from Spanish to Brazilian Portuguese. a methodological study comprising the following phases: authorization for translation; initial translation; synthesis of translations and consensus; back-translation and formation of an expert committee. in the translation of domain names, there was no difference in 66.7% (N = 4); in the translation of domain description and competencies there were divergences in 100% of them (N = 6, N = 56). A consensus of more than 80% was obtained in the translation and improvement in the expert committee by the change of words and expressions for approximation of meanings to the Brazilian context. the translated and adapted document has the potential of application in research, and use in the practice of collective/public health care in Brazil. realizar a tradução e adaptação cultural do Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas, do espanhol para a língua portuguesa do Brasil. pesquisa metodológica, que seguiu as fases: autorização para tradução; tradução inicial; síntese das traduções e consenso; retrotradução e composição de um comitê de especialistas. na tradução dos nomes dos domínios, não houve diferença em 66,7 % (N=4); na tradução da descrição dos domínios e das competências ocorreram divergências em 100 % destes (N=6, N=56), obteve-se consenso acima de 80% ainda na tradução, e aprimoramento no comitê de especialistas pela alteração de palavras e expressões para aproximar os significados ao contexto brasileiro. o documento traduzido e adaptado possui potencial de aplicação em pesquisas e utilização na pr

  18. Path integral molecular dynamics simulation of solid para-hydrogen with an aluminum impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirijanian, Dina T.; Alexander, Millard H.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2002-11-01

    The equilibrium properties of an aluminum impurity trapped in solid para-hydrogen have been studied. The results were compared to those of a previous study by Krumrine et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 113 (2000) 9079] with an atomic boron. In the presence of vacancy defect, when the orientation-dependent Al- pH 2 potential is used, the Al atom is displaced to a position half way between its original substituted site and the vacancy site. Thermodynamic results also indicate that the presence of a neighboring vacancy helps to stabilize the Al impurity to a far greater extent than in the case of the B impurity.

  19. Where does the electron go? The nature of ortho/para and meta group directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shubin

    2014-11-21

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution as one of the most fundamental chemical processes is affected by atoms or groups already attached to the aromatic ring. The groups that promote substitution at the ortho/para or meta positions are, respectively, called ortho/para and meta directing groups, which are often characterized by their capability to donate electrons to or withdraw electrons from the ring. Though resonance and inductive effects have been employed in textbooks to explain this phenomenon, no satisfactory quantitative interpretation is available in the literature. Here, based on the theoretical framework we recently established in density functional reactivity theory (DFRT), where electrophilicity and nucleophilicity are simultaneously quantified by the Hirshfeld charge, the nature of ortho/para and meta group directing is systematically investigated for a total of 85 systems. We find that regioselectivity of electrophilic attacks is determined by the Hirshfeld charge distribution on the aromatic ring. Ortho/para directing groups have most negative charges on the ortho/para positions, while meta directing groups often possess the largest negative charge on the meta position. Our results do not support that ortho/para directing groups are electron donors and meta directing groups are electron acceptors. Most neutral species we studied here are electron withdrawal in nature. Anionic systems are always electron donors. There are also electron donors serving as meta directing groups. We predicted ortho/para and meta group directing behaviors for a list of groups whose regioselectivity is previously unknown. In addition, strong linear correlations between the Hirshfeld charge and the highest occupied molecular orbital have been observed, providing the first link between the frontier molecular orbital theory and DFRT.

  20. Where does the electron go? The nature of ortho/para and meta group directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shubin

    2014-11-21

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution as one of the most fundamental chemical processes is affected by atoms or groups already attached to the aromatic ring. The groups that promote substitution at the ortho/para or meta positions are, respectively, called ortho/para and meta directing groups, which are often characterized by their capability to donate electrons to or withdraw electrons from the ring. Though resonance and inductive effects have been employed in textbooks to explain this phenomenon, no satisfactory quantitative interpretation is available in the literature. Here, based on the theoretical framework we recently established in density functional reactivity theory (DFRT), where electrophilicity and nucleophilicity are simultaneously quantified by the Hirshfeld charge, the nature of ortho/para and meta group directing is systematically investigated for a total of 85 systems. We find that regioselectivity of electrophilic attacks is determined by the Hirshfeld charge distribution on the aromatic ring. Ortho/para directing groups have most negative charges on the ortho/para positions, while meta directing groups often possess the largest negative charge on the meta position. Our results do not support that ortho/para directing groups are electron donors and meta directing groups are electron acceptors. Most neutral species we studied here are electron withdrawal in nature. Anionic systems are always electron donors. There are also electron donors serving as meta directing groups. We predicted ortho/para and meta group directing behaviors for a list of groups whose regioselectivity is previously unknown. In addition, strong linear correlations between the Hirshfeld charge and the highest occupied molecular orbital have been observed, providing the first link between the frontier molecular orbital theory and DFRT.

  1. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su

  2. Fire safety improvement of para-aramid fiber in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Li, Shaoxiang; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2017-02-15

    This article mainly studied fire safety effects of para-aramid fiber (AF) in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The TPU/AF composites were prepared by molten blending method, and then the fire safety effects of all TPU composites were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT), microscale combustion colorimeter test (MCC), smoke density test (SDT), and thermogravimetric/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF could improve the fire safety of TPU. Remarkably, the peak value of heat release rate (pHRR) and the peak value of smoke production rate (pSPR) for the sample with 1.0wt% content of AF were decreased by 52.0% and 40.5% compared with pure TPU, respectively. The MCC test showed that the HRR value of AF-2 decreased by 27.6% compared with pure TPU. TG test showed that AF promoted the char formation in the degradation process of TPU; as a result the residual carbon was increased. The TG-IR test revealed that AF had increased the thermal stability of TPU at the beginning and reduced the release of CO2 with the decomposition going on. Through the analysis of the results of this experiment, it will make a great influence on the study of the para-aramid fiber in the aspect of fire safety of polymer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of para-fluorine substituent of polystyrene on gradient-index fiber-optic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kotaro; Suzuki, Akifumi; Makino, Kenji; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of fluorine substituent of polystyrene (PSt) on gradient-index fiber-optic properties, a poly(para-fluorostyrene) (P(p-FSt))-based graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI POF) is fabricated, and its properties are compared with those of a PSt-based GI POF. The para-fluorine substitution positively affects the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the core, wavelength dispersion of the optimum refractive index profile, bandwidth, and attenuation. The core Tg of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF is 88 °C, which is higher than that of the PSt-based GI POF by 9 °C when both fibers have an identical numerical aperture (NA = 0.2). The optimum refractive index profile coefficient for the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF varies from 2.2 to 2.1 in the 600-800 nm range, whereas that for the PSt-based GI POF varies from 2.6 to 2.3 in the same wavelength region. The bandwidth of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF is intrinsically higher than that of PSt-based GI POF. Moreover, the fiber attenuation of the P(p-FSt)-based GI POF was significantly smaller than that of the PSt-based GI POF over the source wavelength range. Our study demonstrates that P(p-FSt) has favorable properties as a GI POF base material.

  4. Rotational relaxation of CS by collision with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2013-11-28

    Quantum mechanical investigation of the rotationally inelastic collisions of CS with ortho- and para-H{sub 2} molecules is reported. The new global four-dimensional potential energy surface presented in our recent work is used. Close coupling scattering calculations are performed in the rigid rotor approximation for ortho- and para-H{sub 2} colliding with CS in the j = 0–15 rotational levels and for collision energies ranging from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 3} cm{sup −1}. The cross sections and rate coefficients for selected rotational transitions of CS are compared with the ones previously reported for the collision of CS with He. The largest discrepancies are observed at low collision energy, below 1 cm{sup −1}. Above 10 cm{sup −1}, the approximation using the square root of the relative mass of the colliders to calculate the cross sections between a molecule and H{sub 2} from the data available with {sup 4}He is found to be a good qualitative approximation. The rate coefficients calculated with the electron gas model for the He-CS system show more discrepancy with our accurate results. However, scaling up these rates by a factor of 2 gives a qualitative agreement.

  5. Ortho-to-para ratio in interstellar water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N).

    PubMed

    Lis, Dariusz C; Bergin, Edwin A; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-10-03

    The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here.

  6. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics.

  7. The rennet-induced clotting of para-kappa-casein revisited: inhibition experiments with pepstatin A.

    PubMed

    Brinkhuis, J; Payens, T A

    1985-12-20

    The proteolysis of micellar kappa-casein by rennet was followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis and the clotting of the para-kappa-casein formed by absorbance measurements. Up to a degree of proteolysis of about 0.4 the enzyme-inhibitor pepstatin A proved able to instantaneously stop the clotting. This effect is explained by the rapid condensation of monofunctional, monomeric and polymeric particles of para-kappa-casein. At higher degrees of proteolysis pepstatin was no longer able to completely block the polymerization. This is explained by the retardation of the condensation of the monofunctionals as their size grows larger. A kinetic analysis of the enzyme-controlled stage of the clotting process predicts that the system should gel at an early degree of proteolysis of about 0.07. The actual gel points occur at considerably higher degrees of proteolysis. This suggests that the enzymic attack of the polymeric inert kappa-casein particles is not completely at random. Primary micelles of kappa-casein, however, are degraded by random attack rather than by a 'catch-and-razor' mechanism.

  8. [Study on the molecular genetics basis for one para-Bombay phenotype].

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiao-Zhen; Shao, Xiao-Chun; Xu, Xian-Guo; Hu, Qing-Fa; Wu, Jun-Jie; Zhu, Fa-Ming; Fu, Qi-Hua; Yan, Li-Xing

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the molecular genetics basis for one para-Bombay phenotype, the red blood cell phenotype of the proband was characterized by standard serological techniques. Exon 6 and 7 of ABO gene, the entire coding region of FUT1 gene and FUT2 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA of the proband respectively. The PCR products were purified by agarose gels and directly sequenced. The PCR-SSP and genescan were performed to confirm the mutations detected by sequencing. The results showed that the proband ABO genotype was A(102)A(102). Two heterozygous mutations of FUT1 gene, an A to G transition at position 682 and AG deletion at position 547-552 were detected in the proband. A682G could cause transition of Met-->Val at amino acid position 228, AG deletion at position 547-552 caused a reading frame shift and a premature stop codon. The FUT2 genotype was heterozygous for a functional allele Se(357) and a weakly functional allele Se(357), 385 (T/T homozygous at position 357 and A/T heterozygous at 385 position). It is concluded that the compound heterozygous mutation--a novel A682G missense mutation and a 547-552 del AG is the molecular mechanism of this para-Bombay phenotype.

  9. Theoretical study of the preferential solvation effect on the solvatochromic shifts of para-nitroaniline.

    PubMed

    Frutos-Puerto, Samuel; Aguilar, Manuel A; Fdez Galván, Ignacio

    2013-02-28

    The origin of the nonlinear solvatochromic shift of para-nitroaniline was investigated using a mean-field sequential QM/MM method, with electron transitions computed at the CASPT2/cc-pVDZ level. Experimental data shows that the solvatochromic shift has a strong nonlinear behavior in certain solvent mixtures. We studied the case of cyclohexane-triethylamine mixtures. The results are in good agreement with the experiments and correctly reproduce the nonlinear variation of the solvent shift. Preferential solvation is clearly observed, where the local solvent composition in the neighborhood of the solute is significantly different from the bulk. It is found that even at low triethylamine concentrations a strong hydrogen bond is formed between para-nitroaniline and triethylamine, and cyclohexane is practically absent from the first solvation layer already at a molar fraction of 0.6 in triethylamine. The hydrogen bond formed is sufficiently long-lived to determine an asymmetric environment around the solute molecule. The resulting nonlinear solvent effect is mainly due to this hydrogen bond influence, although there is also a small contribution from dielectric enrichment.

  10. Ortho-to-Para Ratio in Interstellar Water on the Sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Dariusz C.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Schilke, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) is of great interest for studies of the formation and thermal history of water ices in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disk environments. We present new Herschel observations of the fundamental rotational transitions of ortho- and para-water on the sightline toward Sagittarius B2(N), which allow improved estimates of the measurement uncertainties due to instrumental effects and assumptions about the excitation of water molecules. These new measurements, suggesting a spin temperature of 24-32 K, confirm the earlier findings of an OPR below the high-temperature value on the nearby sightline toward Sagittarius B2(M). The exact implications of the low OPR in the galactic center molecular gas remain unclear and will greatly benefit from future laboratory measurements involving water freeze-out and evaporation processes under low-temperature conditions, similar to those present in the galactic interstellar medium. Given the specific conditions in the central region of the Milky Way, akin to those encountered in active Galactic nuclei, gas-phase processes under the influence of strong X-ray and cosmic ray ionization also have to be carefully considered. We summarize some of the latest laboratory measurements and their implications here.

  11. The rapid manual ParaSight-F test. A new diagnostic tool for Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Shiff, C J; Premji, Z; Minjas, J N

    1993-01-01

    A rapid manual test for Plasmodium falciparum, the ParaSight-F test, has been used on a series of patients in a holoendemic malaria area of coastal Tanzania. The test, which is an antigen capture test detecting trophozoite-derived histidine rich protein-II, is simple to perform and provides a definitive answer in about 10 min. It requires no special equipment and is read using a single drop of blood. When compared with 272 thick blood films examined microscopically by 2 observers and confirmed by the QBC malaria test, the ParaSight-F test had 88.9% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. Detectable antigenaemia in a group of 40 people declined following treatment with Fansidar and by 10 d after treatment all but 4 individuals were antigen free. The remaining 4, although clear of peripheral parasitaemia, remained antigenaemic for 14 d. The test shows great promise for rapid effective diagnosis of P. falciparum in clinics and village health centres where there is no facility for microscopy. Because of its accuracy and rapid action it may even obviate the need for microscopical examination of blood films to diagnose P. falciparum malaria.

  12. Para-position derivatives of fungal anthelmintic cyclodepsipeptides engineered with Streptomyces venezuelae antibiotic biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Koji; Sumida, Naomi; Okakura, Kaoru; Moriya, Tatsuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Murakami, Takeshi

    2004-07-01

    PF1022A, a cyclooctadepsipeptide possessing strong anthelmintic properties and produced by the filamentous fungus Rosellinia sp. PF1022, consists of four alternating residues of N-methyl-L-leucine and four residues of D-lactate or D-phenyllactate. PF1022A derivatives obtained through modification of their benzene ring at the para-position with nitro or amino groups act as valuable starting materials for the synthesis of compounds with improved anthelmintic activities. Here we describe the production of such derivatives by fermentation through metabolic engineering of the PF1022A biosynthetic pathway in Rosellinia sp. PF1022. Three genes cloned from Streptomyces venezuelae, and required for the biosynthesis of p-aminophenylpyruvate from chorismate in the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway, were expressed in a chorismate mutase-deficient strain derived from Rosellinia sp. PF1022. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses confirmed that this approach facilitated the production of PF1022A derivatives specifically modified at the para-position. This fermentation method is environmentally safe and can be used for the industrial scale production of PF1022A derivatives.

  13. Asymmetric Top Rotors in Superfluid Para-Hydrogen Nano-Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Tao; Li, Hui; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    We present the first simulation study of bosonic clusters doped with an asymmetric top molecule. A variation of the path-integral Monte Carlo method is developed to study a para-water (pH_2O) impurity in para-hydrogen (pH_2) clusters. The growth pattern of the doped clusters is similar in nature to that of the pure clusters. The pH_2O molecule appears to rotate freely in the cluster due to its large rotational constants and the lack of adiabatic following. The presence of pH_2O substantially quenches the superfluid response of pH_2 with respect to the space fixed frame. We also study the behaviour of a sulphur dioxide (32S16O_2) dopant in the pH_2 clusters. For such a heavy rotor, the adiabatic following of the pH_2 molecules is established and the superfluid renormalization of the rotational constants is observed. The rotational structure of the SO_2-p(H_2)_N clusters' ro-vibrational spectra is predicted. The connection between the superfluid response respect to the external boundary rotation and the dopant rotation is discussed.

  14. Comparing the Well-Being of Para and Olympic Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs.

  15. WormBase ParaSite - a comprehensive resource for helminth genomics.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Shafie, Myriam; Kersey, Paul; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-11-27

    The number of publicly available parasitic worm genome sequences has increased dramatically in the past three years, and research interest in helminth functional genomics is now quickly gathering pace in response to the foundation that has been laid by these collective efforts. A systematic approach to the organisation, curation, analysis and presentation of these data is clearly vital for maximising the utility of these data to researchers. We have developed a portal called WormBase ParaSite (http://parasite.wormbase.org) for interrogating helminth genomes on a large scale. Data from over 100 nematode and platyhelminth species are integrated, adding value by way of systematic and consistent functional annotation (e.g. protein domains and Gene Ontology terms), gene expression analysis (e.g. alignment of life-stage specific transcriptome data sets), and comparative analysis (e.g. orthologues and paralogues). We provide several ways of exploring the data, including genome browsers, genome and gene summary pages, text search, sequence search, a query wizard, bulk downloads, and programmatic interfaces. In this review, we provide an overview of the back-end infrastructure and analysis behind WormBase ParaSite, and the displays and tools available to users for interrogating helminth genomic data.

  16. In-Situ Visualization Experiments with ParaView Cinema in RAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Kares, Robert John

    2015-10-15

    A previous paper described some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation. One challenge of the in-situ approach apparent in these experiments was the difficulty of choosing parameters likes isosurface values for the visualizations to be produced from the running simulation without the benefit of prior knowledge of the simulation results and the resultant cost of recomputing in-situ generated images when parameters are chosen suboptimally. A proposed method of addressing this difficulty is to simply render multiple images at runtime with a range of possible parameter values to produce a large database of images and to provide the user with a tool for managing the resulting database of imagery. Recently, ParaView/Catalyst has been extended to include such a capability via the so-called Cinema framework. Here I describe some initial experiments with the first delivery of Cinema and make some recommendations for future extensions of Cinema’s capabilities.

  17. Semantics-based distributed I/O with the ParaMEDIC framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, P.; Feng, W.; Lin, H.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Tech; North Carolina State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Many large-scale applications simultaneously rely on multiple resources for efficient execution. For example, such applications may require both large compute and storage resources; however, very few supercomputing centers can provide large quantities of both. Thus, data generated at the compute site oftentimes has to be moved to a remote storage site for either storage or visualization and analysis. Clearly, this is not an efficient model, especially when the two sites are distributed over a wide-area network. Thus, we present a framework called 'ParaMEDIC: Parallel Metadata Environment for Distributed I/O and Computing' which uses application-specific semantic information to convert the generated data to orders-of-magnitude smaller metadata at the compute site, transfer the metadata to the storage site, and re-process the metadata at the storage site to regenerate the output. Specifically, ParaMEDIC trades a small amount of additional computation (in the form of data post-processing) for a potentially significant reduction in data that needs to be transferred in distributed environments.

  18. Herschel/SPIRE observations of water production rates and ortho-to-para ratios in comets★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas G.; Rawlings, Jonathan M. C.; Swinyard, Bruce M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents Herschel/SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) spectroscopic observations of several fundamental rotational ortho- and para-water transitions seen in three Jupiter-family comets and one Oort-cloud comet. Radiative transfer models that include excitation by collisions with neutrals and electrons, and by solar infrared radiation, were used to produce synthetic emission line profiles originating in the cometary coma. Ortho-to-para ratios (OPRs) were determined and used to derived water production rates for all comets. Comparisons are made with the water production rates derived using an OPR of 3. The OPR of three of the comets in this study is much lower than the statistical equilibrium value of 3; however they agree with observations of comets 1P/Halley and C/2001 A2 (LINEAR), and the protoplanetary disc TW Hydrae. These results provide evidence suggesting that OPR variation is caused by post-sublimation gas-phase nuclear-spin conversion processes. The water production rates of all comets agree with previous work and, in general, decrease with increasing nucleocentric offset. This could be due to a temperature profile, additional water source or OPR variation in the comae, or model inaccuracies.

  19. Genetic evidence that the degradation of para-cresol by Geobacter metallireducens is catalyzed by the periplasmic para-cresol methylhydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Holmes, Dawn E; Zhang, Tian

    2015-10-01

    Two pathways for para-cresol (p-cresol) degradation by anaerobic bacteria have been elucidated; one involves fumarate addition at the methyl group of p-cresol by a hydroxylbenzylsuccinate synthase protein while the other utilizes a methylhydroxylase protein (PCMH) to catalyze hydroxylation of the methyl group of p-cresol. In Geobacter metallireducens, in vitro enzymatic assays showed that p-cresol is degraded via the methylhydroxylation pathway. However, prior to this study these results had not been confirmed by genetic analyses. In this work, the gene coding for benzylsuccinate-CoA dehydrogenase (bbsG), an enzyme required for toluene degradation by G. metallireducens that is homologous to the p-hydroxybenzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in p-cresol degradation by Desulfobacula toluolica Tol2 via fumarate addition, and the gene encoding the alpha prime subunit of PCMH (pcmI), were deleted to investigate the possibility of co-existing p-cresol degradation pathways in G. metallireducens. The absence of a functional PcmI protein completely inhibited p-cresol degradation, while deletion of the bbsG gene had little impact. These results further support the observation that G. metallireducens utilizes a PCMH-initiated pathway for p-cresol degradation.

  20. Association of plasma ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio with responsiveness of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in dialyzed patients.

    PubMed

    Kun, Szilárd; Mikolás, Esztella; Molnár, Gergo A; Sélley, Eszter; Laczy, Boglárka; Csiky, Botond; Kovács, Tibor; Wittmann, István

    2014-09-01

    Objectives Patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are often ESA-hyporesponsive associated with free radical production. Hydroxyl free radical converts phenylalanine into ortho-tyrosine, while physiological isomer para-tyrosine is formed enzymatically, mainly in the kidney. Production of 'para-tyrosine' is decreased in ESRF and it can be replaced by ortho-tyrosine in proteins. Our aim was to study the role of tyrosines in ESA-responsiveness. Methods Four groups of volunteers were involved in our cross-sectional study: healthy volunteers (CONTR; n = 16), patients on hemodialysis without ESA-treatment (non-ESA-HD; n = 8), hemodialyzed patients with ESA-treatment (ESA-HD; n = 40), and patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis (CAPD; n = 21). Plasma ortho-, para-tyrosine, and phenylalanine levels were detected using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-method. ESA-demand was expressed by ESA-dose, ESA-dose/body weight, and erythropoietin resistance index1 (ERI1, weekly ESA-dose/body weight/hemoglobin). Results We found significantly lower para-tyrosine levels in all groups of dialyzed patients when compared with control subjects, while in contrast ortho-tyrosine levels and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio were comparatively significantly higher in dialyzed patients. Among groups of dialyzed patients the ortho-tyrosine level and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio were significantly higher in ESA-HD than in the non-ESA-HD and CAPD groups. There was a correlation between weekly ESA-dose/body weight, ERI1, and ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio (r = 0.441, P = 0.001; r = 0.434, P = 0.001, respectively). Our most important finding was that the ortho-tyrosine/para-tyrosine ratio proved to be an independent predictor of ERI1 (β = 0.330, P = 0.016). In these multivariate regression models most of the known predictors of ESA-hyporesponsiveness were included. Discussion Our findings may

  1. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  2. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates.

  3. Comparing para-rowing set-ups on an ergometer using kinematic movement patterns of able-bodied rowers.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B; Eger, T; Merritt, T; Godwin, A

    2017-04-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the biomechanics of able-bodied rowing, few studies have been completed with para-rowing set-ups. The purpose of this research was to provide benchmark data for handle kinetics and joint kinematics for able-bodied athletes rowing in para- rowing set-ups on an indoor ergometer. Able-bodied varsity rowers performed maximal trials in three para-rowing set-ups; Legs, Trunk and Arms (LTA), Trunk and Arms (TA) and Arms and Shoulders (AS) rowing. The handle force kinetics of the LTA stroke were comparable to the values for able-bodied literature. Lumbar flexion at the catch, extension at the finish and total range of motion were, however, greater than values in the literature for able-bodied athletes in the LTA set-up. Additionally, rowers in TA and AS set-ups utilised more extreme ranges of motion for lumbar flexion, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction than the LTA set-up. This study provides the first biomechanical values of the para-rowing strokes for researchers, coaches and athletes to use while promoting the safest training programmes possible for para-rowing.

  4. Determination of the ortho to para ratio of H2Cl+ and H2O+ from submillimeter observations.

    PubMed

    Gerin, Maryvonne; de Luca, Massimo; Lis, Dariusz C; Kramer, Carsten; Navarro, Santiago; Neufeld, David; Indriolo, Nick; Godard, Benjamin; Le Petit, Franck; Peng, Ruisheng; Phillips, Thomas G; Roueff, Evelyne

    2013-10-03

    The opening of the submillimeter sky with the Herschel Space Observatory has led to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, H2O(+), H2Cl(+), and HCl(+), which are important intermediates in the synthesis of water vapor and hydrogen chloride. In this paper, we report new observations of H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) performed with both Herschel and ground-based telescopes, to determine the abundances of their ortho and para forms separately and derive the ortho-to-para ratio. At the achieved signal-to-noise ratio, the observations are consistent with an ortho-to-para ratios of 3 for both H2O(+) and H2Cl(+), in all velocity components detected along the lines-of-sight to the massive star-forming regions W31C and W49N. We discuss the mechanisms that contribute to establishing the observed ortho-to-para ratio and point to the need for a better understanding of chemical reactions, which are important for establishing the H2O(+) and H2Cl(+) ortho-to-para ratios.

  5. Notas sobre los Sonidos Consonantes en Espanol (Notes on Consonant Sounds in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezquerra, Raimundo

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the Spanish phonetic system, as set forth by Navarro Tomas in his "Manual de Pronunciacion Espanola," and discusses the influences exerted by certain sounds over others. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  6. Nota sobre el "Se" como Sujeto Indefinido (A Note on "Se" as an Indefinite Subject)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lujan, Marta

    1975-01-01

    Contradicts Pablo Jordan's theory that certain "se" constructions in Spanish are neither passive nor reflexive. It is claimed that syntactic evidence reveals two types of impersonal structures, the impersonal active and the passive reflexive. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  7. Notas sobre dos autores mejicoamericanos de California (Notes on Two Mexican-American Authors in California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moesser, Alba

    This paper discusses the work of two Mexican American authors, Jose A. Villerreal and Richard Vazquez, using "Pocho" by Villarreal and "Chicano" by Vazquez as the focus for discussion. Both authors describe the world of Mexican Americans and their social conditions, and both underscore the need for conserving their native…

  8. Instrumentation for Astronomy Teaching: Projecting the Sun Image. (Spanish Title: Instrumentación Para la Enseñanza de Astronomía: Proyectando la Imagen del Sol.) Instrumentação Para O Ensino de Astronomia: Projetando a Imagem do Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovan, Odilon; Balen, Osvaldo; Siqueira da Silva, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    In this work we describe a simple optical device to project the Sun image which is useful for solar eclipses observing and for sunspots' size estimating.

    Se describe un dispositivo óptico simple para proyectar la imagen del Sol, lo cual es apropiado para las observaciones de eclipses solares y para estimar las dimensiones de las manchas solares.

    É descrito um dispositivo ótico simples para projetar a imagem do Sol, adequado para observações de eclipses solares e à estimativa do tamanho das manchas solares.

  9. Fostering Communities of Learning in Two Portuguese Pre-School Classrooms Applying the Movimento da Escola Moderna (MEM) Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folque, Maria Assuncao; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2011-01-01

    This article reports upon a Portuguese pedagogical model, where children engage with the teacher in planning and assessment during routine activities like "Council Meetings", "Communication Time," and using specific tools such as an "Activities Chart" and a "Diary." The article questions how these processes generate a community of practice in…

  10. Fostering Communities of Learning in Two Portuguese Pre-School Classrooms Applying the Movimento da Escola Moderna (MEM) Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folque, Maria Assuncao; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2011-01-01

    This article reports upon a Portuguese pedagogical model, where children engage with the teacher in planning and assessment during routine activities like "Council Meetings", "Communication Time," and using specific tools such as an "Activities Chart" and a "Diary." The article questions how these processes generate a community of practice in…

  11. Amine vs. carboxylic acid protonation in ortho-, meta-, and para-aminobenzoic acid: An IRMPD spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismesia, Adam P.; Nicholls, Georgina R.; Polfer, Nicolas C.

    2017-02-01

    Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and computational chemistry are applied to the ortho-, meta-, and para- positional isomers of aminobenzoic acid to investigate whether the amine or the carboxylic acid are the favored sites of proton attachment in the gas phase. The NH and OH stretching modes yield distinct patterns that establish the carboxylic acid as the site of protonation in para-aminobenzoic acid, as opposed to the amine group in ortho- and meta-aminobenzoic acid, in agreement with computed thermochemistries. The trends for para- and meta-substitutions can be rationalized simplistically by inductive effects and resonant stabilization, and will be discussed in light of computed charge distributions based from electrostatic potentials. In ortho-aminobenzoic acid, the close proximity of the amine and acid groups allow a simultaneous interaction of the proton with both groups, thus stabilizing and delocalizing the charge more effectively, and compensating for some of the resonance stabilization effects.

  12. Molecular hydrogen in the vicinity of NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 2 - Temperature and ortho-to-para ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Susan; Reuter, Dennis C.; Mumma, Michael J.; Storrs, Alex D.

    1991-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the active star-forming region near NGC 7538 IRS 1 and IRS 2 were made. The relative intensities of the v = 1-0 Q(1), Q(3), and Q(5) lines of molecular hydrogen are used to calculate a rotational excitation temperature. Comparison of the measured intensity of the Q(2) transition relative to the intensity of Q(1) and Q(3) permitted the retrieval of the ratio of ortho-to-para hydrogen. It is found that an ortho-to-para ratio of between 1.6 and 2.35 is needed to explain the Q-branch line intensity ratios, depending on the excitation model used. This range in ortho-to-para ratios implies a range of molecular hydrogen formation temperature of approximately 105 K to 140 K.

  13. A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer with Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastasis from Co-Occurring Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miyeong; Lee, Young-Joon; Park, Ji-Ho; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Chan; Jung, Eun-Jung; Ju, Young-tae; Jeong, Chi-Young; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Ha, Woo-Song

    2017-01-01

    An 84-year-old man was diagnosed with two synchronous adenocarcinomas, a Borrmann type IV advanced gastric adenocarcinoma in his antrum and a well-differentiated Borrmann type I carcinoma on the anterior wall of the higher body of his stomach. Pre-operatively, computed tomography of the abdomen revealed the presence of advanced gastric cancer with peri-gastric and para-aortic lymph node (LN) metastasis. He planned for palliative total gastrectomy owing to the risk of obstruction by the antral lesion. We performed a frozen biopsy of a para-aortic LN during surgery and found that the origin of the para-aortic LN metastasis was from undiagnosed prostate cancer. Thus, we performed radical total gastrectomy and D2 LN dissection. Post-operatively, his total prostate-specific antigen levels were high (227 ng/mL) and he was discharged 8 days after surgery without any complications. PMID:28337367

  14. Para-axillary subcutaneous endoscopic approach in torticollis: tips and tricks in the surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Baran; Karacay, Safak; Arda, Surhan; Alici, Umut

    2015-04-01

    An obvious scar on the neck may appear following the open surgery for congenital muscular torticollis (CMT). The cosmetic result may displease the patient and the family. In this study, we describe a minimally invasive technique, para-axillary subcutaneous endoscopic approach (PASEA) in CMT. A total of 11 children (seven girls and four boys with the age range between 1 and 15 years) were operated for torticollis by PASEA. All patients had facial asymmetry and head and neck postural abnormality. Following an incision at the ipsilateral para-axillary region, a subcutaneous cavernous working space is formed toward sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. The muscle and fascia are cut by cautery under endoscopic vision. The patients had postoperative 2nd-week and 3rd-month visits. The incision scar, inspection, and palpation findings of the region, head posture, and shoulder position of the affected side were considered in evaluation of the cosmetic outcome. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion of the head and neck were compared for functional outcome. We preferred single incision surgery in our last two patients; the rest had double para-axillary incision for port insertion. Incomplete transection of the muscle was not observed. There was no serious complication. Postoperatively, head posture and shoulder elevation were corrected significantly. Range of motion of the head was improved. Postoperatively, all the patients had rotation capacity with more than 30 degrees. The range of postoperative flexion and extension movements was between 45 and 60 degrees. The open surgery techniques of CMT causes visible lifelong incision scar on the neck. PASEA leaves a cosmetically hidden scar in the axillary region. A single incision surgery is also possible. A well-formed cavernous working space is needed. External manual palpation, delicate dissection, and cutting of SCM muscle with cautery are the important components of the procedure. Surgeons having experience in pediatric

  15. Metabolism of Doubly para-Substituted Hydroxychlorobiphenyls by Bacterial Biphenyl Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Sondossi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4′-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3′-dihydroxy-4,4′-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4′-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the hydroxylated ring generated dead-end metabolites. 3,3′-Dihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl was principally metabolized through a 2,3-dioxygenation to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,3′-trihydroxy-4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, which was ultimately converted to 3-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate. Similar metabolites were produced when the biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was used to catalyze the reactions, except that for the three substrates used, the BPDO of LB400 was less efficient than that of B356, and unlike that of B356, it was unable to further oxidize the initial reaction products. Together the data show that BPDO oxidation of doubly para-substituted hydroxychlorobiphenyls may generate nonnegligible amounts of dead-end metabolites. Therefore, biphenyl dioxygenase could produce metabolites other than those expected, corresponding to dihydrodihydroxy metabolites from initial doubly para-substituted substrates. This finding shows that a clear

  16. Evolution of Antp-class genes and differential expression of Hydra Hox/paraHox genes in anterior patterning

    PubMed Central

    Gauchat, Dominique; Mazet, Françoise; Berney, Cédric; Schummer, Michèl; Kreger, Sylvia; Pawlowski, Jan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2000-01-01

    The conservation of developmental functions exerted by Antp-class homeoproteins in protostomes and deuterostomes suggested that homologs with related functions are present in diploblastic animals. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that Antp-class homeodomains belong either to non-Hox or to Hox/paraHox families. Among the 13 non-Hox families, 9 have diploblastic homologs, Msx, Emx, Barx, Evx, Tlx, NK-2, and Prh/Hex, Not, and Dlx, reported here. Among the Hox/paraHox, poriferan sequences were not found, and the cnidarian sequences formed at least five distinct cnox families. Two are significantly related to the paraHox Gsx (cnox-2) and the mox (cnox-5) sequences, whereas three display some relatedness to the Hox paralog groups 1 (cnox-1), 9/10 (cnox-3) and the paraHox cdx (cnox-4). Intermediate Hox/paraHox genes (PG 3 to 8 and lox) did not have clear cnidarian counterparts. In Hydra, cnox-1, cnox-2, and cnox-3 were not found chromosomally linked within a 150-kb range and displayed specific expression patterns in the adult head. During regeneration, cnox-1 was expressed as an early gene whatever the polarity, whereas cnox-2 was up-regulated later during head but not foot regeneration. Finally, cnox-3 expression was reestablished in the adult head once it was fully formed. These results suggest that the Hydra genes related to anterior Hox/paraHox genes are involved at different stages of apical differentiation. However, the positional information defining the oral/aboral axis in Hydra cannot be correlated strictly to that characterizing the anterior–posterior axis in vertebrates or arthropods. PMID:10781050

  17. Hole Transfer Processes in meta- and para-Conjugated Mixed Valence Compounds: Unforeseen effects of bridge substituents and solvent dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Julian; Holzapfel, Marco; Mladenova, Boryana; Kattnig, Daniel; Krummenacher, Ivo; Braunschweig, Holger; Grampp, Günter; Lambert, Christoph

    2017-04-12

    To address the question whether donor substituents can be utilized to accelerate the hole transfer (HT) between redox sites attached in para- or in meta-positions to a central benzene bridge we investigated three series of mixed valence compounds based on triarylamine redox centers that are connected to a benzene bridge via alkyne spacers at para- and meta-positions. The electron density at the bridge was tuned by substituents with different electron donating or accepting character. By analyzing optical spectra and by DFT computations we show that the HT properties are independent of bridge substituents for one of the meta-series, while donor substituents can strongly decrease the intrinsic barrier in the case of the para-series. In stark contrast, temperature-dependent ESR measurements demonstrate a dramatic increase of both the apparent barrier and the rate of HT for strong donor substituents in the para-cases. This is caused by an unprecedented substituent-dependent change of the HT mechanism from that described by transition state theory to a regime controlled by solvent dynamics. For solvents with slow longitudinal relaxation (PhNO2, oDCB), this adds an additional contribution to the intrinsic barrier via the dielectric relaxation process. Attaching the donor substituents to the bridge at positions where the molecular orbital coefficients are large accelerates the HT rate for meta-conjugated compounds just as for the para-series. This effect demonstrates that the para-meta paradigm no longer holds if appropriate substituents and substitution patterns are chosen, thereby considerably broadening the applicability of meta-topologies for optoelectronic applications.

  18. ParaHaplo: A program package for haplotype-based whole-genome association study using parallel computing.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Kazuharu; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2009-10-21

    Since more than a million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are analyzed in any given genome-wide association study (GWAS), performing multiple comparisons can be problematic. To cope with multiple-comparison problems in GWAS, haplotype-based algorithms were developed to correct for multiple comparisons at multiple SNP loci in linkage disequilibrium. A permutation test can also control problems inherent in multiple testing; however, both the calculation of exact probability and the execution of permutation tests are time-consuming. Faster methods for calculating exact probabilities and executing permutation tests are required. We developed a set of computer programs for the parallel computation of accurate P-values in haplotype-based GWAS. Our program, ParaHaplo, is intended for workstation clusters using the Intel Message Passing Interface (MPI). We compared the performance of our algorithm to that of the regular permutation test on JPT and CHB of HapMap. ParaHaplo can detect smaller differences between 2 populations than SNP-based GWAS. We also found that parallel-computing techniques made ParaHaplo 100-fold faster than a non-parallel version of the program. ParaHaplo is a useful tool in conducting haplotype-based GWAS. Since the data sizes of such projects continue to increase, the use of fast computations with parallel computing--such as that used in ParaHaplo--will become increasingly important. The executable binaries and program sources of ParaHaplo are available at the following address: http://sourceforge.jp/projects/parallelgwas/?_sl=1.

  19. Precision velocimetry planet hunting with PARAS: current performance and lessons to inform future extreme precision radial velocity instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Prasad, Neelam J. S. S. V.; Shah, Vishal; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2016-08-01

    The PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search (PARAS) instrument is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 Å, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching 1 m s-1 over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of 10 cm s-1 in the optical and <1 m s-1 in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the data reduction and RV analysis pipeline as instrument characterization progresses and we gather longer baselines of data. Secondly, we discuss how our experience with PARAS is a critical component in the development of future cutting edge instruments like (1) the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph optimized to look for planets around M dwarfs, scheduled to be commissioned on the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2017, and (2) the NEID optical spectrograph, designed in response to the NN-EXPLORE call for an extreme precision Doppler spectrometer (EPDS) for the WIYN telescope. In anticipation of instruments like TESS and GAIA, the ground-based RV support system is being reinforced. We emphasize that instruments like PARAS will play an intrinsic role in providing both complementary follow-up and battlefront experience for these next generation of precision velocimeters.

  20. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER ION IN COMET C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): IMPLICATION FOR ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E.

    2012-04-20

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

  1. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sutherland, Liese -Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; ...

    2015-12-17

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. As a result, the successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  2. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Ortho C-H Arylation of Aromatic Nitriles with Arylboronates and Observation of Partial Para Arylation.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Yuta; Kitazawa, Kentaroh; Miyake, Masashi; Kochi, Takuya; Kakiuchi, Fumitoshi

    2016-12-29

    Ruthenium-catalyzed C-H arylation of aromatic nitriles with arylboronates is described. The use of RuH2(CO){P(4-MeC6H4)3}3 as a catalyst provided higher yields of the ortho arylation products than the conventional RuH2(CO)(PPh3)3 catalyst. The arylation takes place mostly at the ortho positions, but unprecedented para arylation was also partially observed to give ortho,para diarylation products. In addition to C-H bond cleavage, the cyano group was also found to function as a directing group for cleavage of C-O bonds in aryl ethers.

  3. Evaluation of para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant as a source of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Krebs, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports results of dynamic and static chamber tests to evaluate para-dichlorobenzene emission rates from mothcakes. The data were analyzed by a model that assumes that the emission rate is controlled by gas-phase mass transfer. Results indicate that the para-dichlorobenzene emission from mothcakes is a temperature-sensitive sublimation process. Full-scale house tests were also conducted to measure mass transfer coefficients based on the model developed. The values of the mass transfer coefficient obtained are very comparable to those estimated by theoretical heat transfer studies.

  4. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  5. Genomic organization of Hox and ParaHox clusters in the echinoderm, Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Kenneth W; McDougall, Carmel; Cummins, Scott F; Hall, Mike; Degnan, Bernard M; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    The organization of echinoderm Hox clusters is of interest due to the role that Hox genes play in deuterostome development and body plan organization, and the unique gene order of the Hox complex in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, which has been linked to the unique development of the axial region. Here, it has been reported that the Hox and ParaHox clusters of Acanthaster planci, a corallivorous starfish found in the Pacific and Indian oceans, generally resembles the chordate and hemichordate clusters. The A. planci Hox cluster shared with sea urchins the loss of one of the medial Hox genes, even-skipped (Evx) at the anterior of the cluster, as well as organization of the posterior Hox genes.

  6. Wild birds as pets in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil: an ethnozoological approach.

    PubMed

    Licarião, Morgana R; Bezerra, Dandara M M; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2013-03-01

    Birds are one of the animals most widely used by humans and are highly valued as pets. The present work reports the use of wild birds as pets in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State (PB), Brazil. The owners' choice and perceptions of the species ecology was assessed as well. The methodology employed included unstructured and semi-structured interviews, guided tours and direct observations. A total of 26 bird species distributed among ten families and four orders were identified. The most frequently encountered order was Passeriformes (76.9%), with a predominance of the family Emberizidae (34.6%). The specimens kept as pets were principally obtained in public markets or between the breeders themselves. The popularity of birds as pets, compounded by the inefficiency of official controls over the commerce of wild animals has stimulated the illegal capture and breeding of wild birds in Campina Grande.

  7. Ostracoda and foraminifera from Paleocene (Olinda well), Paraíba Basin, Brazilian Northeast.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Enelise K; Melo, Robbyson M; Lopes, Fernando M; Fauth, Gerson; Costa, Denize S

    2017-08-07

    Paleocene ostracods and planktonic foraminifera from the Maria Farinha Formation, Paraíba Basin, are herein presented. Eleven ostracod species were identified in the genera Cytherella Jones, Cytherelloidea Alexander, Eocytheropteron Alexander, Semicytherura Wagner, Paracosta Siddiqui, Buntonia Howe, Soudanella Apostolescu, Leguminocythereis Howe and, probably, Pataviella Liebau. The planktonic foraminifera are represented by the genera Guembelitria Cushman, Parvularugoglobigerina Hofker, Woodringina Loeblich and Tappan, Heterohelix Ehrenberg, Zeauvigerina Finlay, Muricohedbergella Huber and Leckie, and Praemurica Olsson, Hemleben, Berggren and Liu. The ostracods and foraminifera analyzed indicate an inner shelf paleoenvironment for the studied section. Blooms of Guembelitria spp., which indicate either shallow environments or upwelling zones, were also recorded reinforcing previous paleoenvironmental interpretations based on other fossil groups for this basin.

  8. High-pressure dissociation of crystalline para-diiodobenzene: optical experiments and Car-Parrinello calculations.

    PubMed

    Brillante, Aldo; Della Valle, Raffaele G; Farina, Luca; Venuti, Elisabetta; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Emerson, Andrew P J; Syassen, Karl

    2005-03-09

    We have investigated the high-pressure properties of the molecular crystal para-diiodobenzene, by combining optical absorption, reflectance, and Raman experiments with Car-Parrinello simulations. The optical absorption edge exhibits a large red shift from 4 eV at ambient conditions to about 2 eV near 30 GPa. Reflectance measurements up to 80 GPa indicate a redistribution of oscillator strength toward the near-infrared. The calculations, which describe correctly the two known molecular crystal phases at ambient pressure, predict a nonmolecular metallic phase, stable at high pressure. This high-density phase is characterized by an extended three-dimensional network, in which chemically bound iodine atoms form layers connected by hydrocarbon bridges. Experimentally, Raman spectra of samples recovered after compression show vibrational modes of elemental solid iodine. This result points to a pressure-induced molecular dissociation process which leads to the formation of domains of iodine and disordered carbon.

  9. Blood vitamin C levels of motorized tricycle drivers in Parañaque, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sia Su, Glenn L; Kayali, Sara

    2008-08-01

    Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient maintaining the state of well being of individuals. This study examined factors affecting and the blood vitamin C levels of motorized tricycle drivers in Parañaque City, Philippines. Consenting drivers (N=49) were included in the study and were assessed through self-administered questionnaires, 24-h food recalls, and anthropometric measurements and on the analysis of their blood vitamin C levels. Factors related to the blood vitamin C levels of the motorized tricycle drivers were determined by correlation analysis. Majority (79.6%) of drivers had low blood vitamin C levels. Workplace and vitamin C supplementations (p<0.05) were significantly related to the blood vitamin C levels of the motorized tricycle drivers. Further studies are recommended to understand the problem and the determinants of vitamin C deficiency among the general population.

  10. Coordination nano-space as stage of hydrogen ortho-para conversion.

    PubMed

    Kosone, Takashi; Hori, Akihiro; Nishibori, Eiji; Kubota, Yoshiki; Mishima, Akio; Ohba, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kato, Kenichi; Kim, Jungeun; Real, José Antonio; Kitagawa, Susumu; Takata, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    The ability to design and control properties of nano-sized space in porous coordination polymers (PCPs) would provide us with an ideal stage for fascinating physical and chemical phenomena. We found an interconversion of nuclear-spin isomers for hydrogen molecule H2 adsorbed in a Hofmann-type PCP, {Fe(pz)[Pd(CN)4]} (pz=pyrazine), by the temperature dependence of Raman spectra. The ortho (o)-para (p) conversion process of H2 is forbidden for an isolated molecule. The charge density study using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction reveals the electric field generated in coordination nano-space. The present results corroborate similar findings observed on different systems and confirm that o-p conversion can occur on non-magnetic solids and that electric field can induce the catalytic hydrogen o-p conversion.

  11. Leaf Pressure Volume Data in Caxiuana and Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Thomas; Moorcroft, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Pressure volume curve measurements on leaves of canopy trees from the from the Caxiuana and Tapajos National Forests, Para, Brazil. Tapajos samples were harvested from the km 67 forested area, which is adjacent to the decommissioned throughfall exclusion drought experimental plot. Caxiuana samples were harvested from trees growing in the throughfall exclusion plots. Data were collected in 2011. Dataset includes: date of measurement, site ID, plot ID, tree ID (species, tree tag #), leaf area, fresh weight, relative weight, leaf water potential, and leaf water loss. P-V curve parameters (turgor loss point, osmotic potential, and bulk modulus of elasticity) can be found in Powell et al. (2017) Differences in xylem cavitation resistance and leaf hydraulic traits explain differences in drought tolerance among mature Amazon rainforest trees. Global Change Biology.

  12. Searching for auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    2005-03-01

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node Shell elements and eight-node Brick elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes - DYNA3D and ParaDyn - which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  13. Food for Life/Comida para la Vida: Creating a Food Festival to Raise Diabetes Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2012-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the “Food for Life Festival,” or “Festival Comida para la Vida.” This article will describe the community’s perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care. PMID:20097997

  14. pH-dependent spectral properties of para-aminobenzoic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Mitchell P; McGuire, Colin; Stennett, Elana M S; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Canache, Daniela; Novak, Marnie; Schmidtke, Sarah J

    2011-12-15

    The local environment dictates the structural and functional properties of many important chemical and biological systems. The impact of pH on the photophysical properties of a series of para-aminobenzoic acids is examined using a combination of experimental spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Following photoexcitation, PABA derivatives may undergo an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) resulting in the formation of a zwitterionic species. The thermodynamics of the excited state reaction and temperature-dependence of the radiative emission processes are evaluated through variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy carried out in a range of aqueous buffers. Quantum chemical calculations are used to analyze structural changes with modifications at the amine position and different protonation states. The ICT is only observed in the tertiary amine, which calculations show has more sp(2) character than the primary or secondary amines. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the ICT reaction is driven by entropy.

  15. Food for Life / Comida para la Vida: creating a food festival to raise diabetes awareness.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kristie; Walker, Willie; Vance, Thomas; Kaskel, Phyllis; Arniella, Guedy; Horowitz, Carol

    2009-01-01

    African and Latino Americans have higher rates of diabetes and its complications than White Americans. Identifying people with undiagnosed diabetes and helping them obtain care can help to prevent complications and mortality. To kick off a screening initiative, our community-academic partnership created the "Food for Life Festival," or "Festival Comida para la Vida." This article will describe the community's perspective on the Festival, which was designed to screen residents, and demonstrate that eating healthy can be fun, tasty, and affordable in a community-centered, culturally consonant setting. More than 1,000 residents attended the event; 382 adults were screened for diabetes, and 181 scored as high risk. Fifteen restaurants distributed free samples of healthy versions of their popular dishes. Community residents, restaurateurs, and clinicians commented that the event transformed many of their preconceived ideas about healthy foods and patient care.

  16. A Very Rare Cause of a Relapsing Para-Oesophageal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Wespi, Simon Peter; Frei, Remus; Sulz, Michael Christian

    2016-01-01

    Oesophageal involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) is uncommon and most often accompanied by involvement of more distal parts. Its presentation is mostly non-specific, and therefore a diagnosis, especially in isolated oesophageal disease, is difficult. We present the case of a 42-year-old male patient who was referred to our gastroenterology department because of a para-oesophageal abscess. Under antibiotic treatment the abscess healed, but despite great diagnostic efforts, its aetiology remained unclear. Three years later the patient was hospitalized again because of an abscess at the same site. Endoscopy showed disseminated ulcerations of the lower oesophagus, raising suspicion of CD. After excluding other possible causes, we made the diagnosis of isolated CD of the oesophagus. We review the available literature on this topic and discuss the clinical presentation, symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histology as well as treatment of oesophageal CD. PMID:27403115

  17. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  18. Evaluation of apparent viscosity of Para rubber latex by diffuse reflection near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sirisomboon, Panmanas; Chowbankrang, Rawiphan; Williams, Phil

    2012-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflection mode was used to evaluate the apparent viscosity of Para rubber field latex and concentrated latex over the wavelength range of 1100 to 2500 nm, using partial least square regression (PLSR). The model with ten principal components (PCs) developed using the raw spectra accurately predicted the apparent viscosity with correlation coefficient (r), standard error of prediction (SEP), and bias of 0.974, 8.6 cP, and -0.4 cP, respectively. The ratio of the SEP to the standard deviation (RPD) and the ratio of the SEP to the range (RER) for the prediction were 4.4 and 16.7, respectively. Therefore, the model can be used for measurement of the apparent viscosity of field latex and concentrated latex in quality assurance and process control in the factory.

  19. Path integral centroid molecular dynamics simulation of para-hydrogen sandwiched by graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamino, Yuki; Kinugawa, Kenichi

    2016-11-01

    The carbon-hydrogen composite systems of para-hydrogen (p-H2) sandwiched by a couple of graphene sheets have been investigated by means of path integral centroid molecular dynamics simulations at 17 K. It has been shown that sandwiched hydrogen is liquid-like but p-H2 molecules are preferably adsorbed onto the graphene sheets because of attractive graphene-hydrogen interaction. The diffusion coefficient of p-H2 molecules in the direction parallel to the graphene sheets is comparable to that in pure liquid p-H2. There exists a characteristic mode of 140 cm-1 of the p-H2 molecules, attributed to adsorption-binding motion perpendicular to the graphene sheets.

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Nonlinear Optical Chromophore para Bromoacetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jothy, V. Bena; Vijayakumar, T.; Jayakumar, V. S.; Udayalekshmi, K.; Ramamurthy, K.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2008-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis of the hydrogen bonded non-linear optical (NLO) material para Bromo Acetanilide (PBA) is carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Ab initio molecular orbital computations have been performed at HF/6-31G(d) level to derive equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, intensities and first hyperpolarizability. The lowering of the imino stretching wavenumbers suggests the existence of strong intermolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding substantiated by the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Blue shifting CH stretching wavenumbers, simultaneous activation of carbonyl stretching mode and the strong activation of low wavenumber H-bond stretching vibrations shows the presence of intramolecular charge transfer in the molecule.

  1. Quantum dynamical simulations for nuclear spin selective laser control of ortho- and para-fulvene.

    PubMed

    Belz, S; Grohmann, T; Leibscher, M

    2009-07-21

    In the present paper we explore the prospects for laser control of the photoinduced nonadiabatic dynamics of para- and ortho-fulvene with the help of quantum dynamical simulations. Previous investigations [Bearpark et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 5253 (1996); Alfalah et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124318 (2009)] show that photoisomerization of fulvene is hindered by ultrafast radiationless decay through a conical intersection at planar configuration. Here, we demonstrate that photoisomerization can nevertheless be initiated by damping unfavorable nuclear vibrations with properly designed laser pulses. Moreover, we show that the resulting intramolecular torsion is nuclear spin selective. The selectivity of the photoexcitation with respect to the nuclear spin isomers can be further enhanced by applying an optimized sequence of two laser pulses.

  2. pH-dependent spectral properties of para-aminobenzoic acid and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Mitchell P.; McGuire, Colin; Stennett, Elana M. S.; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Canache, Daniela; Novak, Marnie; Schmidtke, Sarah J.

    2011-12-01

    The local environment dictates the structural and functional properties of many important chemical and biological systems. The impact of pH on the photophysical properties of a series of para-aminobenzoic acids is examined using a combination of experimental spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Following photoexcitation, PABA derivatives may undergo an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) resulting in the formation of a zwitterionic species. The thermodynamics of the excited state reaction and temperature-dependence of the radiative emission processes are evaluated through variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy carried out in a range of aqueous buffers. Quantum chemical calculations are used to analyze structural changes with modifications at the amine position and different protonation states. The ICT is only observed in the tertiary amine, which calculations show has more sp 2 character than the primary or secondary amines. Thermodynamic analysis indicates the ICT reaction is driven by entropy.

  3. Ortho-, meta-, and para-benzyne. A comparative CCSD (T) investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    1993-12-01

    Geometries and energies of ortho-benzyne ( 1), mata-benzyne ( 2), and para-benzyne ( 3) have been calculated at the CCSD (T), GVB, GVB-LSDC, and MBPT (2) levels of theory employing the 6-31G(d, p) basis. Calculations suggest relative energies of O, 13.7, and 25.3 kcal/mol, respectively, and Δ H0f(298) values of 110.8, 123.9, and 135.7 kcal/mol for 1, 2, and 3. With the Δ H0f(298) value of 3, the reaction enthalpy Δ RH(298) and the activation enthalpy Δ H#(298) for the Bergman cyclization of (Z)-hexa-1,5-diy -ene to 3 are calculated to be 9.1 and 28.5 kcal/mol.

  4. The spectrochemical behavior of composites based on poly (para-phenylenevinylene), reduced graphene oxide and pyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Mirela; Baibarac, Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    A new composite material based on poly (para-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), pyrene (Py) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is synthesized using thermal conversion route. The properties of this material are investigated by Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Adding Py at PPV precursor solution (PPV PS) containing RGO, yields to important modifications in both vibrational and electronic properties of these composites. The presence of Py into PPV matrix determines a blue shift of PPV PL. According to Raman and IR studies, PPV is non-covalently functionalized with Py which interacts forward with RGO through π-π interactions causing an important modification into the polymer chains conjugation length.

  5. Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) Simulation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) simulation code. This is a highly scalable parallel FORTRAN code for simulating the thermodynamic evolution of metal alloy systems at the atomic level, and predicting the thermodynamic state, phase diagram, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The code is designed to simulate multi-component alloy systems, predict solid-state phase transformations such as austenite-martensite transformations, precipitate formation, recrystallization, capillary effects at interfaces, surface absorption, etc., which can aid the design of novel metallic alloys. While the software is mainly tailored for modeling metal alloys, it can also be used for other types of solid-state systems, and to some degree for liquid or gaseous systems, including multiphase systems forming solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  6. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer for investigation of the interaction of Para Red with serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zeng, Xiaodan; Zhang, Fusheng

    2016-03-01

    Para Red (PR) has been isolated from food additives, and shown to be toxic to humans. To facilitate examination of its toxicity, the interaction between PR and serum albumins (SA) was studied using fluorescence quenching and circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry. The experiments showed that the fluorescence intensity of serum albumins decreased with increasing concentrations of PR, which resulted from the binding of PR and SA. The binding constant, number of binding sites and thermodynamic parameters were calculated and hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions were shown to play a key role in the binding process. Competition experiments indicated that PR mainly binds to Trp residues of SA within the site I. As the CD and three-dimensional spectra revealed, the addition of PR induced a conformational change in SA.

  7. Analysis of the thermal reaction products of para polyphenylene by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the volatiles and sublimate produced when para-polyphenylene is pyrolyzed to constant weight under vacuum in the temperature range from 380 to 1000 C indicates that the polymer undergoes thermal degradation in two stages. The first stage involved dehydrohalogenation, which is essentially a curing reaction that produces crosslinking between polyphenylene chains resulting from the loss of chlorine from the polymer in the form of hydrogen chloride. The second stage of the thermal degradation is dehydrogenation because hydrogen is the major volatile species. Increasing amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and 9, 10 benzphenanthrene) in the sublimate, concomitant with increasing C/H ratios of the polymeric residue with pyrolysis temperature, is consistent with the buildup of polynuclear structures in the polymer matrix.

  8. Searching for Auxetics with DYNA3D and ParaDyn

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W G; Hoover, C G

    2004-09-11

    We sought to simulate auxetic behavior by carrying out dynamic analyses of mesoscopic model structures. We began by generating nearly periodic cellular structures. Four-node 'Shell' elements and eight-node 'Brick' elements are the basic building blocks for each cell. The shells and bricks obey standard elastic-plastic continuum mechanics. The dynamical response of the structures was next determined for a three-stage loading process: (1) homogeneous compression; (2) viscous relaxation; (3) uniaxial compression. The simulations were carried out with both serial and parallel computer codes--DYNA3D and ParaDyn--which describe the deformation of the shells and bricks with a robust contact algorithm. We summarize the results found here.

  9. Analysis of the thermal reaction products of para polyphenylene by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the volatiles and sublimate produced when para-polyphenylene is pyrolyzed to constant weight under vacuum in the temperature range from 380 to 1000 C indicates that the polymer undergoes thermal degradation in two stages. The first stage involved dehydrohalogenation, which is essentially a curing reaction that produces crosslinking between polyphenylene chains resulting from the loss of chlorine from the polymer in the form of hydrogen chloride. The second stage of the thermal degradation is dehydrogenation because hydrogen is the major volatile species. Increasing amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and 9, 10 benzphenanthrene) in the sublimate, concomitant with increasing C/H ratios of the polymeric residue with pyrolysis temperature, is consistent with the buildup of polynuclear structures in the polymer matrix.

  10. Unusual Raman spectra of para-nitroaniline by sequential Fermi resonances.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiarui; Zhu, Ling; Feng, Yanting; Li, Yongqing; Zhang, Zhenglong; Xia, Lixin; Liu, Liwei; Ma, Fengcai

    2014-01-01

    In this communication, we report the unusual Raman spectra of para-nitroaniline (PNA) by sequential Fermi resonances. The combinational mode 1292 cm(-1) in the experimental Raman spectrum indirectly gains the initial spectral weight at 1392 cm(-1) by three sequential Fermi resonances. These Fermi resonances result in the strong interaction between the donor group of NH2 and the acceptor group of NO2. Our theoretical calculations provide reasonable interpretation for the abnormal Raman spectra of PNA. Experimental surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of PNA further confirmed our conclusion, where the strongest Raman peak at 1292 cm(-1) is very weak, while the Raman peak at 1392 cm(-1) becoming the strongest Raman peak, which is consistent with the theoretical simulations.

  11. Long-range excitons in conjugated polymers with ring torsions: poly( para-phenylene) and polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Kikuo

    1998-08-01

    Ring torsion effects on the optical excitation properties of poly( para-phenylene) (PPP) and polyaniline (PAN) are investigated by extending the Shimoi-Abe model (Shimoi Y and Abe S 1996 Synth. Met. 78 219). The model is solved using the intermediate-exciton formalism. Long-range excitons are characterized, and the long-range component of the oscillator strengths is calculated. We find that ring torsions affect the long-range excitons in PAN more readily than those in PPP, due to the larger torsion angle of PAN and the large number of bonds whose hopping integrals are modulated by torsions. Next, ring torsional disorder effects simulated by the Gaussian distribution function are analysed. The long-range component of the total oscillator strengths after sample averaging is nearly independent of the disorder strength in the PPP case, while that in the PAN case decreases readily as the disorder becomes stronger.

  12. Applicability of the ParaDNA(®) Screening System to Seminal Samples.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Miller, Jamie A D; Dawnay, Nick; Duxbury, Nicola J

    2015-05-01

    Seminal fluid represents a common biological material recovered from sexual assault crime scenes. Such samples can be prescreened using different techniques to determine cell type and relative amount before submitting for full STR profiling. The ParaDNA(®) Screening System is a novel forensic test which identifies the presence of DNA through amplification and detection of two common STR loci (D16S539 and TH01) and the Amelogenin marker. The detection of the Y allele in samples could provide a useful tool in the triage and submission of sexual assault samples by enforcement authorities. Male template material was detected on a range of common sexual assault evidence items including cotton pillow cases, condoms, swab heads and glass surfaces and shows a detection limit of 1 in 1000 dilution of neat semen. These data indicate this technology has the potential to be a useful tool for the detection of male donor DNA in sexual assault casework.

  13. Shaped Ceria Nanocrystals Catalyze Efficient and Selective Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Evan W; Zheng, Haibin; Zhou, Ronghui; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena E; Bowers, Clifford R

    2015-11-23

    Intense para-hydrogen-enhanced NMR signals are observed in the hydrogenation of propene and propyne over ceria nanocubes, nano-octahedra, and nanorods. The well-defined ceria shapes, synthesized by a hydrothermal method, expose different crystalline facets with various oxygen vacancy densities, which are known to play a role in hydrogenation and oxidation catalysis. While the catalytic activity of the hydrogenation of propene over ceria is strongly facet-dependent, the pairwise selectivity is low (2.4% at 375 °C), which is consistent with stepwise H atom transfer, and it is the same for all three nanocrystal shapes. Selective semi-hydrogenation of propyne over ceria nanocubes yields hyperpolarized propene with a similar pairwise selectivity of (2.7% at 300 °C), indicating product formation predominantly by a non-pairwise addition. Ceria is also shown to be an efficient pairwise replacement catalyst for propene.

  14. [Neurocience in the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfredo Baratas

    2007-01-01

    The development of the Neurociencias in the Spain at the first third of the 20th century had a strong histological and pathological component. The work of Santiago Ramon and Cajal and Luis Simarro was continued by some excellent disciples: Nicolas Achúcarro, Gonzalo Rodriguez Lafora, Fernando de Castro, etc. Some of them had to make compatible diverse occupations, even the professional exercise of psychiatry, before obtaining a modest - but stable - position of investigation. In spite of some misalignments in the institutional development of the centers and the personal biographical ups and downs, the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios was the great institution that fomented the international formation of the investigators and equipped to them with the means to develop its work.

  15. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  16. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of deprotonated ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel J.; Gichuhi, Wilson K.; Miller, Elisa M.; Lehman, Julia H.; Lineberger, W. Carl

    2017-02-01

    The anion photoelectron spectra of ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenoxide, as well as methyl deprotonated meta-methylphenol, were measured. Using the Slow Electron Velocity Map Imaging technique, the Electron Affinities (EAs) of the o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl radicals were measured as follows: 2.1991±0.0014, 2.2177±0.0014, and 2.1199±0.0014 eV, respectively. The EA of m-methylenephenol was also obtained, 1.024±0.008 eV. In all four cases, the dominant vibrational progressions observed are due to several ring distortion vibrational normal modes that were activated upon photodetachment, leading to vibrational progressions spaced by ˜500 cm-1. Using the methylphenol O-H bond dissociation energies reported by King et al. and revised by Karsili et al., a thermodynamic cycle was constructed and the acidities of the methylphenol isomers were determined as follows: Δa c i dH298K 0=348.39 ±0.25 , 348.82±0.25, 350.08±0.25, and 349.60±0.25 kcal/mol for cis-ortho-, trans-ortho-, m-, and p-methylphenol, respectively. The excitation energies for the ground doublet state to the lowest excited doublet state electronic transition in o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl were also measured as follows: 1.029±0.009, 0.962±0.002, and 1.029±0.009 eV, respectively. In the photoelectron spectra of the neutral excited states, C-O stretching modes were excited in addition to ring distortion modes. Electron autodetachment was observed in the cases of both m- and p-methylphenoxide, with the para isomer showing a lower photon energy onset for this phenomenon.

  17. Prevalence of oral trauma in Para-Pan American Games athletes.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rafaela Amarante; Modesto, Adriana; Evans, Patricia Louise Scabell; Almeida, Anne Louise Scabell; da Silva, Juliana de Jesus Rodrigues; Guedes, Aurelino Machado Lima; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro; Ranalli, Dennis N; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey was to assess the prevalence of oral trauma in athletes representing 25 countries competing at the most recent Para-Pan American Games (III PARAPAN) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board. The examiners participated in standardization and calibration training sessions before the field phase began. Invitations were sent to >1200 participating athletes competing in eight sports and to the Medical Committee of the Para-Pan American Sports Organization before and during the III PARAPAN. A convenience sample of 120 athletes was recruited. After signing an informed consent, all athletes answered a questionnaire. Data were collected at the clinical examination and recorded in a specific trauma form. The mean age of the athletes was 32.5 years. Males comprised 79.2% of the sample; females 20.8%. The prevalence of oral trauma among the athletes was 47.5% (N = 57). However, only 15 athletes reported that these traumatic injuries were sports-related. The sport with the highest prevalence of oral trauma was judo (75%); the least was volleyball with no reported traumatic injuries. The most common traumatic injury was enamel fracture (27.4%). The teeth most affected were the maxillary permanent central incisors (N = 19), followed by the maxillary premolars (N = 8). On the basis of the results of this study of oral trauma among athletes examined at the III PARAPAN, a recommendation for enhanced educational efforts and the use of properly fitted mouthguards to prevent traumatic injuries among high-performance athletes with disabilities seems warranted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. A novel FUT1 allele was identified in a Chinese individual with para-Bombay phenotype.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Tao, S; Ying, Y; Hong, X; He, Y; Zhu, F; Lv, H; Yan, L

    2011-12-01

    The para-Bombay phenotype is characterised by H-deficient or H partially deficient red blood cells (RBCs) in individuals who secrete ABH antigens in their saliva. Samples from an individual whose RBCs had an apparent para-Bombay phenotype and his family members were investigated and a novel FUT1 allele was identified. RBCs' phenotype was characterised by standard serologic technique. Genomic DNA was sequenced with primers that amplified the coding sequence of FUT1 and FUT2, respectively. Routine ABO genotyping analysis was performed. Haplotypes of FUT1 were identified by TOPO cloning sequencing. Recombination expression vectors of FUT1 mutation alleles were constructed and transfected into COS-7 cells. The pα-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase activity of expression protein was determined. B101/O02 genotype of the proband was correlated with ABH substances in saliva. The proband carried a new FUT1 allele which showed 35C/T, 235G/C and 682A/G heterozygote by directly DNA sequencing. Two haplotypes, 235C and 35T+682G, were identified by TOPO cloning sequencing and COS-7 cells transfected with five recombination vectors including wild-type, 35T, 235C, 682G and 35T+682G alleles were established respectively. The α-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase activities of cell lysates which had transfected with 35T, 235C, 682G and 35T+682G recombination vectors showed 79·45, 16·23, 80·32 and 24·59%, respectively, compared with that of the wild-type FUT1-transfected cell lysates. A novel FUT1 allele 235C was identified, which greatly diminished the activity of α-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase. © 2011 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2011 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  19. A comparison of para-anastomotic compliance profiles after vascular anastomosis: nonpenetrating clips versus standard sutures.

    PubMed

    Baguneid, M S; Goldner, S; Fulford, P E; Hamilton, G; Walker, M G; Seifalian, A M

    2001-04-01

    Anastomotic compliance is an important predictive factor for long-term patency of small diameter vascular reconstruction. In this experimental study we compare the compliance of continuous and interrupted sutured vascular anastomoses with those using nonpenetrating clips. Both common carotid arteries in nine goats (average weight, 57 +/- 5.7 kg) were transected, and end-to-end anastomoses were constructed with nonpenetrating clips or polypropylene sutures. The latter were applied with both interrupted and continuous techniques. Intraluminal pressure was measured with a Millar Mikro-tip transducer, and vessel wall motion was determined with duplex ultrasound equipped with an echo-locked wall-tracking system. Diametrical compliance was determined. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was performed on explanted anastomoses. There was a reduction in anastomotic compliance and associated proximal and distal para-anastomotic hypercompliant zones with the use of all techniques. However, compliance loss was significantly less in those anastomoses with clips and interrupted sutures when compared with continuous suture (P <.001). Furthermore, the total compliance mismatch across anastomoses with continuous sutures was significantly greater than those with clips or interrupted sutures (P <.05). The mean time for constructing clipped anastomoses was 5.7 +/- 1.4 minutes, which was significantly less than either continuous (P <.0001) or interrupted sutures (P <.0001). Furthermore, environmental scanning electron microscopy demonstrated minimal intimal damage with good intimal apposition in the clip group. Anastomoses performed with nonpenetrating clips resulted in improved para-anastomotic compliance profiles and reduced intimal damage when compared with those with polypropylene sutures. These benefits may enhance long-term graft patency by reducing the risk of anastomotic intimal hyperplasia.

  20. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of deprotonated ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenol.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Daniel J; Gichuhi, Wilson K; Miller, Elisa M; Lehman, Julia H; Lineberger, W Carl

    2017-02-21

    The anion photoelectron spectra of ortho-, meta-, and para-methylphenoxide, as well as methyl deprotonated meta-methylphenol, were measured. Using the Slow Electron Velocity Map Imaging technique, the Electron Affinities (EAs) of the o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl radicals were measured as follows: 2.1991±0.0014, 2.2177±0.0014, and 2.1199±0.0014 eV, respectively. The EA of m-methylenephenol was also obtained, 1.024±0.008 eV. In all four cases, the dominant vibrational progressions observed are due to several ring distortion vibrational normal modes that were activated upon photodetachment, leading to vibrational progressions spaced by ∼500 cm(-1). Using the methylphenol O-H bond dissociation energies reported by King et al. and revised by Karsili et al., a thermodynamic cycle was constructed and the acidities of the methylphenol isomers were determined as follows: ΔacidH298K(0)=348.39±0.25, 348.82±0.25, 350.08±0.25, and 349.60±0.25 kcal/mol for cis-ortho-, trans-ortho-, m-, and p-methylphenol, respectively. The excitation energies for the ground doublet state to the lowest excited doublet state electronic transition in o-, m-, and p-methylphenoxyl were also measured as follows: 1.029±0.009, 0.962±0.002, and 1.029±0.009 eV, respectively. In the photoelectron spectra of the neutral excited states, C-O stretching modes were excited in addition to ring distortion modes. Electron autodetachment was observed in the cases of both m- and p-methylphenoxide, with the para isomer showing a lower photon energy onset for this phenomenon.

  1. Effects of lead on K(+)-para-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity and protection by thiol reagents.

    PubMed

    Rajanna, B; Chetty, C S; McBride, V; Rajanna, S

    1990-01-01

    Lead (Pb) inhibited K(+)-stimulated para-nitrophenyl phosphatase (K(+)-PNPPase) of rat brain P2 fraction in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 3.5 microM. Altered pH versus activity demonstrated comparable inhibitions by Pb in buffered acidic, neutral and alkaline pH ranges. Inhibition of enzyme activity was higher at lower temperatures (17-27 degrees C) compared to 37 degrees C. Preincubation of enzyme with sulfhydryl (-SH) agents such as cysteine (Cyst) and dithiothreitol (DTT) but not glutathione (GSH) protected against Pb-inhibition. Uncompetitive type of inhibition with respect to the activation of K+ was indicated by a decrease in Vmax from 16.2 to 8.37 mumoles of para-nitrophenol (PNP)/mg protein/hr and Km from 18.99 to 12.39 mM. Kinetic studies on substrate (p-nitrophenyl phosphate) activation in the presence of Pb (3.5 microM) indicated a significant decrease in Vmax from 8.94 to 4.69 mumoles of PNP/mg protein/hr with no change in Km. Cyst (3 microM) and DTT (10 microM) reversed the Pb-inhibited Vmax from 4.69 to 8.38 and 7.24 mumoles of PNP/mg protein/hr respectively. These results suggest that the critical conformational property of K(+)-PNPPase is sensitive to Pb. The data also indicates that the Pb inhibits Na(+)-K+ ATPase system by interacting with dephosphorylation of the enzyme-phosphoryl complex, while Cyst and DTT protected against Pb-inhibition.

  2. Association between anemia and subclinical infection in children in Paraíba State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Márcia Cristina; de Queiroz, Everton Oliveira; Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Background With subclinical infection, serum iron concentrations are reduced, altering the synthesis of hemoglobin, the main indicator of anemia. Objective To evaluate the association between subclinical infection and anemia in children of Paraíba State. Methods This is a cross-sectional study involving 1116 children aged 6 to 59 months from nine municipalities of Paraíba State. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected by means of a specific questionnaire. The C-reactive protein and hemoglobin levels were determined by the latex agglutination technique and automated counter, respectively. C-reactive protein values ≥ 6 mg/L were used as indicative of subclinical infection, while the presence of anemia was determined by hemoglobin values < 11.0 g/dL. The data were analyzed using the Epi Info computer program, with significance being set at 5%. Results Data from this research showed that 80.1% of the children belonged to families that were below the bread line, with per capita income < ½ of the minimum wage at that time (R$ 350.00 approximately US$ 175.00). The prevalences of subclinical infection and anemia were 11.3% and 36.3%, respectively. Subclinical infection was significantly associated with anemia (p-value < 0.05). There were lower levels of hemoglobin in children with C-reactive protein ≥ 6 mg/L, with a mean hemoglobin level in children with subclinical infection of 10.93 g/dL (standard deviation - SD = 1.21 g/dL) and without infection of 11.26 g/dL (SD = 1.18 g/dL) (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion Anemia is associated with subclinical infection in this population, indicating that this is an important variable to be considered in studies of the prevalence of anemia in children. PMID:23284254

  3. Extraperitoneal Robotic-Assisted Para-Aortic Lymphadenectomy in Gynecologic Cancer Staging: Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the current evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and applicability of extraperitoneal robotic-assisted para-aortic lymphadenectomy (ExtRA-PAL) as the staging procedure of gynecologic malignancies. PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, Web of Science databases, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for original studies reporting outcomes of ExtRA-PAL. Quality of the included studies and their level of recommendation were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines, respectively. Overall, 62 studies were identified; after a process of evidence acquisition 5 original investigations were available for this review that included 98 patients undergoing ExtRA-PAL. The main surgical indication was staging for cervical cancer (n = 71, 72%). The mean (SD) number of para-aortic node yielded was 15.4 (±4.7) nodes. Blood transfusion and intraoperative complication rates were 2% and 6%, respectively. ExtRA-PAL was completed in 88 patients (90%). Six (6%) and 4 (4%) patients had conversion to other minimally invasive procedures and open surgery, respectively. Success rate was 99% among patients undergoing ExtRA-PAL without concomitant procedures. Overall, mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 2.8 (±0.5) days. Twenty-four patients (24%) developed postoperative events. According to the Clavien-Dindo grading system, grades IIIa and IIIb morbidity rates were 12% and 2%, respectively. No grades IV and V morbidity occurred. ExtRA-PAL is associated with a high success rate and a relative low morbidity rate. However, because of the limited data on this issue, further studies are warranted to assess the long-term effectiveness of this procedure.

  4. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  5. Electron Spin Polarization Transfer to ortho-H2 by Interaction of para-H2 with Paramagnetic Species: A Key to a Novel para → ortho Conversion Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Terenzi, Camilla; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Canet, Daniel

    2015-05-07

    We report that at ambient temperature and with 100% enriched para-hydrogen (p-H2) dissolved in organic solvents, paramagnetic spin catalysis of para → ortho hydrogen conversion is accompanied at the onset by a negative ortho-hydrogen (o-H2) proton NMR signal. This novel finding indicates an electron spin polarization transfer, and we show here that this can only occur if the H2 molecule is dissociated upon its transient adsorption by the paramagnetic catalyst. Following desorption, o-H2 is created until the thermodynamic equilibrium is reached. A simple theory confirms that in the presence of a static magnetic field, the hyperfine coupling between unpaired electrons and nuclear spins is responsible for the observed polarization transfer. Owing to the negative electron gyromagnetic ratio, this explains the experimental results and ascertains an as yet unexplored mechanism for para → ortho conversion. Finally, we show that the recovery of o-H2 magnetization toward equilibrium can be simply modeled, leading to the para → ortho conversion rate.

  6. Chlorination of 2-phenoxypropanoic acid with NCP in aqueous acetic acid: using a novel ortho-para relationship and the para/meta ratio of substituent effects for mechanism elucidation.

    PubMed

    Segurado, Manuel A P; Reis, João Carlos R; de Oliveira, Jaime D Gomes; Kabilan, Senthamaraikannan; Shanthi, Manohar

    2007-07-06

    Rate constants were measured for the oxidative chlorodehydrogenation of (R,S)-2-phenoxypropanoic acid and nine ortho-, ten para- and five meta-substituted derivatives using (R,S)-1-chloro-3-methyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one (NCP) as chlorinating agent. The kinetics was run in 50% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid acidified with perchloric acid under pseudo-first-order conditions with respect to NCP at temperature intervals of 5 K between 298 and 318 K, except at the highest temperature for the meta derivatives. The dependence of rate constants on temperature was analyzed in terms of the isokinetic relationship (IKR). For the 20 reactions studied at five different temperatures, the isokinetic temperature was estimated to be 382 K, which suggests the preferential involvement of water molecules in the rate-determining step. The dependence of rate constants on meta and para substitution was analyzed using the tetralinear extension of the Hammett equation. The parameter lambda for the para/meta ratio of polar substituent effects was estimated to be 0.926, and its electrostatic modeling suggests the formation of an activated complex bearing an electric charge near the oxygen atom belonging to the phenoxy group. A new approach is introduced for examining the effect of ortho substituents on reaction rates. Using IKR-determined values of activation enthalpies for a set of nine pairs of substrates with a given substituent, a linear correlation is found between activation enthalpies of ortho and para derivatives. The correlation is interpreted in terms of the selectivity of the reactant toward para- or ortho-monosubstituted substrates, the slope of which being related to the ortho effect. This slope is thought to be approximated by the ratio of polar substituent effects from ortho and para positions in benzene derivatives. Using the electrostatic theory of through-space interactions and a dipole length of 0.153 nm, this ratio was calculated at various positions of a charged reaction

  7. Oxidative Heck Reaction as a Tool for Para-selective Olefination of Aniline: A DFT Supported Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Firouz Matloubi; Pourkaveh, Raheleh; Karimi, Ashkan

    2017-09-13

    This study describes the first para-selective palladium-catalyzed alkenylation of tertiary amines. This regioselective C-H activation was conducted without any chelation moieties. A series of olefins were reacted under mild reaction conditions at 60 °C, and the corresponding products were obtained in good yields with high selectivity.

  8. Remodelar Correctamente: Guía de Prácticas Acreditadas Seguras Para Trabajar Con Plomo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Información general sobre los requisitos legales de las prácticas relacionadas al manejo seguro del plomo para dueños de hogares, inquilinos, proveedores de cuido infantil, y padres durante las actividades de remodelación

  9. Madres Para Niños: Engaging Latina Mothers as Consultees to Promote Their Children's Early Elementary School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotek, Steven E.; Sánchez, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The Madres para Niños (MpN) program uses consultee-centered consultation as a vehicle to help immigrant Latino parents focus and reframe their preexisting child advocacy skills toward their children's successful transition into elementary school in a new geographic and cultural context. This article describes the Latina mother's experience as…

  10. 75 FR 34943 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Para-Aramid Fibers and Yarns Manufactured in a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... made from DuPont Kevlar. DuPont supplies its Kevlar staple fiber to four major and six minor yarn... para-aramid yarns: DuPont TM which makes Kevlar , and the Teijin Group which makes Twaron. DuPont TM...

  11. LBA-ECO TG-07 Trace Gas Fluxes, Undisturbed and Logged Sites, Para, Brazil: 2000-2002

    Treesearch

    M.M. Keller; R.K. Varner; J.D. Dias; H.S. Silva; P.M. Crill; Jr. de Oliveira; G.P. Asner

    2009-01-01

    Trace gas fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide were measured manually at undisturbed and logged forest sites in the Tapajos National Forest, near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Manual measurements were made approximately weekly at both the undisturbed and logged sites. Fluxes from clay and sand soils were completed at the undisturbed sites....

  12. ParaStream: A parallel streaming Delaunay triangulation algorithm for LiDAR points on multicore architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huayi; Guan, Xuefeng; Gong, Jianya

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a robust parallel Delaunay triangulation algorithm called ParaStream for processing billions of points from nonoverlapped block LiDAR files. The algorithm targets ubiquitous multicore architectures. ParaStream integrates streaming computation with a traditional divide-and-conquer scheme, in which additional erase steps are implemented to reduce the runtime memory footprint. Furthermore, a kd-tree-based dynamic schedule strategy is also proposed to distribute triangulation and merging work onto the processor cores for improved load balance. ParaStream exploits most of the computing power of multicore platforms through parallel computing, demonstrating qualities of high data throughput as well as a low memory footprint. Experiments on a 2-Way-Quad-Core Intel Xeon platform show that ParaStream can triangulate approximately one billion LiDAR points (16.4 GB) in about 16 min with only 600 MB physical memory. The total speedup (including I/O time) is about 6.62 with 8 concurrent threads.

  13. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  14. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  15. PLASMA CLEARANCE OF VITELLOGENIN IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS AFTER CESSATION OF EXPOSURE TO 17BETA-ESTRADIOL AND PARA-NONYLPHENOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experiments were performed to determine the rate of vitellogenin plasma accumulation and clearance in male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) during and after exposure to either 17b-estradiol (E2) or para-nonylphenol (p-NP). Adult fish were continuously exposed to aqu...

  16. Four novel sequences in Drosophila melanogaster homologous to the auxiliary Para sodium channel subunit TipE.

    PubMed

    Derst, Christian; Walther, Christian; Veh, Rüdiger W; Wicher, Dieter; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2006-01-20

    TipE is an auxiliary subunit of the Drosophila Para sodium channel. Here we describe four sequences, TEH1-4, homologous to TipE in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, harboring all typical structures of both TipE and the beta-Subunit family of big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels: short cytosolic N- and C-terminal stretches, two transmembrane domains, and a large extracellular loop with two disulfide bonds. Whereas TEH1 and TEH2 lack the TipE-specific extension in the extracellular loop, both TEH3 and TEH4 possess two extracellular EGF-like domains. A CNS-specific expression was found for TEH1, while TEH2-4 were more widely expressed. The genes for TEH2-4 are localized close to the tipE gene on chromosome 3L. Coexpression of TEH subunits with Para in Xenopus oocytes showed a strong (30-fold, TEH1), medium (5- to 10-fold, TEH2 and TEH3), or no (TEH4) increase in sodium current amplitude, while TipE increased the current 20-fold. In addition, steady-state inactivation and the recovery from fast inactivation were altered by coexpression of Para with TEH1. We conclude that members of the TEH-family are auxiliary subunits for Para sodium channels and possibly other ion channels.

  17. Theoretical Study of the Mechanism Behind the para-Selective Nitration of Toluene in Zeolite H-Beta

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Amity; Govind, Niranjan; Subramanian, Lalitha

    2011-11-28

    Periodic density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the origin of the favorable para-selective nitration of toluene exhibited by zeolite H-beta with acetyl nitrate nitration agent. Energy calculations were performed for each of the 32 crystallographically unique Bronsted acid sites of a beta polymorph B zeolite unit cell with multiple Bronsted acid sites of comparable stability. However, one particular aluminum T-site with three favorable Bronsted site oxygens embedded in a straight 12-T channel wall provides multiple favorable proton transfer sites. Transition state searches around this aluminum site were performed to determine the barrier to reaction for both para and ortho nitration of toluene. A three-step process was assumed for the nitration of toluene with two organic intermediates: the pi- and sigma-complexes. The rate limiting step is the proton transfer from the sigma-complex to a zeolite Bronsted site. The barrier for this step in ortho nitration is shown to be nearly 2.5 times that in para nitration. This discrepancy appears to be due to steric constraints imposed by the curvature of the large 12-T pore channels of beta and the toluene methyl group in the ortho approach that are not present in the para approach.

  18. Desarrollo de fotonovelas para concienciar sobre trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en latinos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; García, Marissa; Silva, Yormeri; Sala, Margarita; Quaranta, Michela; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar fotonovelas, un tipo de novela gráfica popular en la población latina, para crear conciencia y educar sobre los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Cuatro caricaturas ilustradas y guiones adaptados para adultos y adolescentes de ambos sexos fueron presentados en discusiones focales y en una entrevista de profundidad. Diecisiete latinos adultos (14 mujeres; 3 hombres) y 10 adolescentes (9 féminas; 1 varón) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes encontraron las fotonovelas interesantes y que captaban más la atención que los folletos tradicionales. El uso del espanglish y la clarificación de las diferencias entre los TCA fueron sugeridos por las adolescentes femeninas. Los adultos varones sugirieron cambiar el título, que se enfocara en las consecuencias en la salud de los TCA para que llame la atención en los hombres a leer la historia. Basado en la aceptación encontrada en este estudio, la fotonovela pudiera ser una avenida prometedora para crear conciencia y educar a la comunidad latina sobre los TCA en los Estados Unidos. PMID:27313838

  19. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of S2Cl2: a candidate molecule for measuring ortho-para transition.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Zeinab Tafti; Ota, Shinji; Mizoguchi, Asao; Kanamori, Hideto

    2013-10-03

    S2Cl2 is a candidate for the observation of ortho-para transition. To estimate the ortho-para mixing in a hyperfine-resolved rotational state, pure rotational transitions were measured by millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy using two different experimental set-ups. The transitions from the term value around 20 K was measured with a supersonic jet and those around 200 K were measured with a dry ice cooled gas cell. Several hundred peaks were assigned for the naturally abundant S2(35)Cl2 and S2(35)Cl(37)Cl isotopic species and the rotational molecular parameters including the fourth-order and sixth-order centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The hyperfine structures were partly resolved in some Q-branch transitions, which were well described with the hyperfine constants determined by FTMW spectroscopy in the centimeter-wave region. With the new rotational constants determined in our study and the previous hyperfine constants, it will be possible to obtain a more reliable ortho-para mixing ratio and to narrow down the possible candidate transitions in the mm-wave region for the observation of ortho-para transition.

  20. Electrochemical determination of para-nitrophenol at apatite-modified carbon paste electrode: application in river water samples.

    PubMed

    El Mhammedi, M A; Achak, M; Bakasse, M; Chtaini, A

    2009-04-15

    The behavior of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) for para-nitrophenol detection by cyclic and square wave voltammetry (SWV) was studied. The electrode was built by incorporating the hydroxyapatite (HAP) to carbon paste. The overall analysis involved a two-step procedure: an accumulation step at open circuit, followed by medium exchange to a pure electrolyte solution for the voltammetric quantification. During the preconcentration step, para-nitrophenol was adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite surface. The influence of various experimental parameters on the HAP-CPE response was investigated (i.e. pH, carbon paste composition, accumulation time). Under the optimized conditions, the reduction peak shows that the peak height was found to be directly proportional to the para-nitrophenol concentration in the range comprised between 2x10(-7) mol L(-1) and 1x10(-4) mol L(-1). With this, it was possible to determine detection limit (DL), which resulted in 8x10(-9) mol L(-1) for peak 1. The proposed electrode (HAP-CPE) presented good repeatability, evaluated in term of relative standard deviation (R.S.D.=2.87%) for n=7 and was applied for para-nitrophenol determination in water samples. The average recovery for these samples was 86.2%.