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Sample records for modifications radio-induites tardives

  1. Dysfonctionnements radio-induits du transport colique chez le rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, A.; Lebrun, F.; Ksas, B.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; MacNaughton, W. K.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptom commonly associated with whole body irradiation is diarrhoea, a still quite obscure phenomenon, which leads to decreased chance of cure of irradiated people. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for dysfunction of intestinal water and electrolyte transport regulation by the enteric nervous system after exposure to ionising radiation. This study shows decreased capacity of enteric nervous system to influence colonic transport 3days after irradiation, correlated to a diminished response to a neurotransmitter: serotonin. Radio-induced diarrhea may result from epithelial structural injury but also from impaired regulatory processes of intestinal transport. L'un des symptômes majeurs d'une irradiation corporelle totale ou abdominale est l'apparition de diarrhées, dont les causes sont encore mal connues, et qui mettent en jeu le pronostique vital de l'individu irradié. Cette étude vise à mettre en évidence l'atteinte de la régulation du transport intestinal d'eau et d'électrolytes par les rayonnements ionisants. On observe une diminution de la capacité du système nerveux entérique à influencer le transport colique 3jours après irradiation, corrélée à une diminution de la réponse épithéliale à un neurotransmetteur : la sérotonine. Les diarrhées radio-induites résulteraient d'une atteinte structurelle de l'épithélium mais également des processus de régulation du transport intestinal.

  2. Tardive Dyskinesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Tardive Dyskinesia Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Tardive Dyskinesia? Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological syndrome caused by ...

  3. Tardive dyskinesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000685.htm Tardive dyskinesia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Tardive dyskinesia is a disorder that involves involuntary movements. Most ...

  4. Unusual case reports: Tardive oculogyric crisis (tardive syndromes).

    PubMed

    Vahia, V N; Naik, P M; Deotale, P

    2007-07-01

    We report, we believe for the first time in India, two cases of tardive oculogyric crisis in patients of schizophrenia, paranoid subtype (DSM IV code 295.30) during olanzapine therapy. Relevant data on this rare condition is discussed.

  5. Unusual case reports: Tardive oculogyric crisis (tardive syndromes)

    PubMed Central

    Vahia, V. N.; Naik, P. M.; Deotale, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report, we believe for the first time in India, two cases of tardive oculogyric crisis in patients of schizophrenia, paranoid subtype (DSM IV code 295.30) during olanzapine therapy. Relevant data on this rare condition is discussed. PMID:20661391

  6. Sensory trick with metoclopramide-associated tardive tremor.

    PubMed

    Shprecher, David

    2012-01-01

    Tardive tremor is a 3-5 Hz bilateral resting and action tremor, associated with the use of dopamine receptor blocking drugs, accompanied by other tardive movement disorders and responsive to tetrabenazine or clozapine. We describe a case of a sensory trick associated with tardive tremor which raises important points about semiology and management. First, the presence of a sensory trick with tardive limb tremor suggests that the disorder may be a form of dystonia. Second, further study of osteopathic manipulative therapy for treatment of dystonia or tardive tremor is supported by a symptomatic response observed in our case.

  7. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  8. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia. PMID:22404856

  9. Oxidative stress and tardive dyskinesia: pharmacogenetic evidence.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2013-10-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious adverse effect of long-term antipsychotic use. Because of genetic susceptibility for developing TD and because it is difficult to predict and prevent its development prior to or during the early stages of medication, pharmacogenetic research of TD is important. Additionally, these studies enhance our knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying abnormal dyskinetic movements, such as Parkinson's disease. However, the pathophysiology of TD remains unclear. The oxidative stress hypothesis of TD is one of the possible pathophysiologic models for TD. Preclinical and clinical studies of the oxidative stress hypothesis of TD indicate that neurotoxic free radical production is likely a consequence of antipsychotic medication and is related to the occurrence of TD. Several studies on TD have focused on examining the genes involved in oxidative stress. Among them, manganese superoxide dismutase gene Ala-9Val polymorphisms show a relatively consistent association with TD susceptibility, although not all studies support this. Numerous pharmacogenetic studies have found a positive relationship between TD and oxidative stress based on genes involved in the antioxidant defense mechanism, dopamine turnover and metabolism, and other antioxidants such as estrogen and melatonin. However, many of the positive findings have not been replicated. We expect that more research will be needed to address these issues. PMID:23123399

  10. The dynamical structure of tremor in tardive dyskinesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, K. M.; Gao, F.; Sprague, R. L.

    1995-03-01

    The movement disorder syndrome of tardive dyskinesia arises as a consequence of prolonged regimens of neuroleptic medication, and is characterized, although not exclusively, by jerky and sometimes rhythmical stereotypical motions in a wide range of muscle systems. It is well established that the degree and variability of tremor in tardive dyskinesia is greater than that in normal age-matched subjects. The findings from the current experiment show that the dimension of the tardive dyskinetic finger tremor time series is systematically lower than that evident in normal finger tremor. Furthermore, the variability of finger motion in both groups is inversely related to the dimension of the respective attractor dynamic. The neuroleptic medication appears to constrain the degrees of freedom regulated in organization of the motor system.

  11. Analogue Functional Analysis of Movements Associated with Tardive Dyskinesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Roberts, Celeste; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2004-01-01

    We studied whether movements associated with tardive dyskinesia (TD) served operant functions in 2 men with developmental disabilities. We found that TD-related movements occurred more frequently in the alone and attention conditions and less frequently in control and demand conditions. Our findings suggest that TD-related movements may not be…

  12. Functional Analysis of Tardive Dyskinesia: Implications for Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Roberts, Celeste; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted an analogue functional analysis contrasting motor tasks with varying types of social consequences for movements associated with tardive dyskinesia (TD) in 2 men who had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and TD. Our findings suggest that TD-related movements were not a function of social reinforcement contingencies.…

  13. Tardive dyskinesia in 2 patients treated with ziprasidone

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, Jambur; Burgoyne, Karl S.; Niz, David; Smith, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is believed to have a low propensity for inducing extrapyramidal symptoms, including tardive dyskinesia (TD). Two of our patients developed TD after 23 months and 34 months of ziprasidone monotherapy, respectively. One of the patients had had earlier exposure to typical antipsychotic drugs, but no other predisposing factors for TD were noted. Therefore, patients on long-term therapy with atypical antipsychotic drugs should be screened periodically for TD. PMID:15644988

  14. A Case of Aripiprazole-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia with Dramatic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Heitzmann, Edwige; Weiner, Luisa; Michel, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is reported to be a good clinical safety profile antipsychotic. However, recent data suggest that the risk of tardive dyskinesia could be higher than initially thought. We report the case of aripiprazole-induced tardive dyskinesia with dramatic evolution in a patient with several risk factors, including older age and exposure to antipsychotic over a period longer than six months. This case and its dramatic evolution, associated with other cases recently published, suggest reconsidering the real risk of tardive dyskinesia associated with aripiprazole, particularly in the elderly.

  15. A quantitative measure of handwriting dysfluency for assessing tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Michael P; Teulings, Hans-Leo; Dean, Charles E; Lohr, James B

    2015-04-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder commonly associated with chronic exposure to antidopaminergic medications, which may be in some cases disfiguring and socially disabling. The consensus from a growing body of research on the incidence and prevalence of TD in the modern era of antipsychotics indicates that this disorder has not disappeared continues to challenge the effective management of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A fundamental component in an effective strategy for managing TD is its reliable and accurate assessment. In the present study, we examined the clinical utility of a brief handwriting dysfluency measure for quantifying TD. Digitized samples of handwritten circles and loops were obtained from 62 psychosis patients with or without TD and from 50 healthy subjects. Two measures of dysfluent pen movements were extracted from each vertical pen stroke, including normalized jerk and the number of acceleration peaks. Tardive dyskinesia patients exhibited significantly higher dysfluency scores than non-TD patients and controls. Severity of handwriting movement dysfluency was correlated with Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale severity ratings for some tasks. The procedure yielded high degrees of test-retest reliability. These results suggest that measures of handwriting movement dysfluency may be particularly useful for objectively evaluating the efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treating TD.

  16. Conservative approach to tardive dyskinesia-induced neck and upper back pain.

    PubMed

    Reifsnyder, Jeremy W; Tettambel, Melicien A

    2013-08-01

    The management of schizophrenia typically involves the use of antipsychotics (neuroleptics). Use of such medications, however, can result in tardive dyskinesia, or the involuntary contracture of muscles, and associated symptomatic somatic dysfunction. The authors present a case of a 29-year-old woman who presented to a family medicine clinic for ongoing management of schizophrenia with noticeable tardive dyskinesia and complaints of neck and upper back pain. Conventional management of tardive dyskinesia involves either a change in or reduction of the offending antipsychotic. In the present case, the patient received osteopathic manipulative treatment in addition to conventional care for the management of her neck and upper back pain. Although not curative, osteopathic manipulative treatment can provide palliative relief for patients with tardive dyskinesia.

  17. Pharmacogenetics of tardive dyskinesia: an updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Rachel K; Zai, Clement C; Müller, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious and potentially irreversible side effect of long-term exposure to antipsychotic medication characterized by involuntary trunk, limb and orofacial muscle movements. Various mechanisms have been proposed for the etiopathophysiology of antipsychotic-induced TD in schizophrenia patients with genetic factors playing a prominent role. Earlier association studies have focused on polymorphisms in CYP2D6, dopamine-, serotonin-, GABA- and glutamate genes. This review highlights recent advances in the genetic investigation of TD. Recent promising findings were obtained with the HSPG2, DPP6, MTNR1A, SLC18A2, PIP5K2A and CNR1 genes. More research, including collection of well-characterized samples, enhancement of genome-wide strategies, gene-gene interaction and epigenetic analyses, is needed before genetic tests with clinical utility can be made available for TD.

  18. Pharmacogenetics of tardive dyskinesia: an updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Rachel K; Zai, Clement C; Müller, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious and potentially irreversible side effect of long-term exposure to antipsychotic medication characterized by involuntary trunk, limb and orofacial muscle movements. Various mechanisms have been proposed for the etiopathophysiology of antipsychotic-induced TD in schizophrenia patients with genetic factors playing a prominent role. Earlier association studies have focused on polymorphisms in CYP2D6, dopamine-, serotonin-, GABA- and glutamate genes. This review highlights recent advances in the genetic investigation of TD. Recent promising findings were obtained with the HSPG2, DPP6, MTNR1A, SLC18A2, PIP5K2A and CNR1 genes. More research, including collection of well-characterized samples, enhancement of genome-wide strategies, gene-gene interaction and epigenetic analyses, is needed before genetic tests with clinical utility can be made available for TD. PMID:27469238

  19. Successful Management of Tardive Dyskinesia with Quetiapine and Clonazepam in a Patient of Schizophrenia with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-05-31

    Tardive dyskinesia is one of the most significant side effects of antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic treated schizophrenia patients with diabetes mellitus are more likely to develop tardive dyskinesia than those without diabetes. Clozapine is probably best supported for management of tardive dyskinesia. But clozapine has been strongly linked to hyperglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance, so it is not preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus. We present a case of 35-year-old male with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes mellitus with tardive dyskinesia, who was successfully treated with quetiapine and clonazepam. PMID:27121435

  20. Successful Management of Tardive Dyskinesia with Quetiapine and Clonazepam in a Patient of Schizophrenia with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia is one of the most significant side effects of antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic treated schizophrenia patients with diabetes mellitus are more likely to develop tardive dyskinesia than those without diabetes. Clozapine is probably best supported for management of tardive dyskinesia. But clozapine has been strongly linked to hyperglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance, so it is not preferred in patients with diabetes mellitus. We present a case of 35-year-old male with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes mellitus with tardive dyskinesia, who was successfully treated with quetiapine and clonazepam. PMID:27121435

  1. A Quantitative Measure of Handwriting Dysfluency for Assessing Tardive Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Caligiuri, Michael P.; Teulings, Hans-Leo; Dean, Charles E.; Lohr, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is movement disorder commonly associated with chronic exposure to antidopaminergic medications which may be in some cases disfiguring and socially disabling. The consensus from a growing body of research on the incidence and prevalence of TD in the modern era of antipsychotics indicates that this disorder has not disappeared continues to challenge the effective management of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A fundamental component in an effective strategy for managing TD is its reliable and accurate assessment. In the present study, we examined the clinical utility of a brief handwriting dysfluency measure for quantifying TD. Digitized samples of handwritten circles and loops were obtained from 62 psychosis patients with or without TD and from 50 healthy subjects. Two measures of dysfluent pen movements were extracted from each vertical pen stroke, including normalized jerk and the number of acceleration peaks. TD patients exhibited significantly higher dysfluency scores than non-TD patients and controls. Severity of handwriting movement dysfluency was correlated with AIMS severity ratings for some tasks. The procedure yielded high degrees of test-retest reliability. These results suggest that measures of handwriting movement dysfluency may be particularly useful for objectively evaluating the efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treating TD. PMID:25679121

  2. Management of aripiprazole-induced tardive Pisa syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Pettorruso, Mauro; Di Nicola, Marco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Janiri, Luigi; Fasano, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Pisa syndrome (PS) is characterized by an abnormally sustained posture with flexion of the body and head to one side and slight axial rotation of the trunk. PS has been related to the use of neuroleptics and is clinically classified as either an acute or a tardive dystonia. This is the first report describing a case of late-onset PS, occurring in a young patient treated with aripiprazole for 2 years. To establish optimal treatment management, we reviewed the literature on aripiprazole-induced PS and tardive dystonia. In light of current knowledge, we proposed a multistep algorithm to aid in the clinical management of this condition.

  3. Tardive and spontaneous dyskinesia incidence in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify the incidence rate of spontaneous dyskinesia (SD) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in a general population and to examine the association between dykinesia and potential risk factors (exposure to metoclopramide [MCP], antipsychotic drugs, and history of diabetes and psychoses). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the years 2001 through 2010, based on medical claims data from the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA). Results Thirty-four cases of TD and 229 cases of SD were identified. The incidence rate of TD among persons previously prescribed an antipsychotic or metoclopramide (MCP) (per 1,000) was 4.6 (1.6-7.7) for those with antipsychotic drug use only, 8.5 (4.8-12.2) for those with MCP use only, and 15.0 (2.0-28.1) for those with both antipsychotic and MCP use. In the general population, the incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) of TD was 4.3 and of probable SD was 28.7. The incidence rates of TD and SD increased with age and were greater for females. Those with diabetes or psychoses had almost a 3-fold greater risk of TD than those without either of these diseases. Persons with schizophrenia had 31.2 times increased risk of TD than those without the disease. Positive associations also existed between the selected diseases and the incidence rate of probable SD, with persons with schizophrenia having 4.4 times greater risk of SD than those without the disease. Conclusions SD and TD are rare in this general population. Diabetes, psychoses, and especially schizophrenia are positively associated with SD and TD. A higher proportion of those with SD present with spasm of the eyelid muscles (blepharospasm) compared more with the TD cases who present more with orofacial muscular problems. PMID:23714238

  4. Facial Stereotypic Movements and Tardive Dyskinesia in a Mentally Retarded Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, R. L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The facial stereotypies of adults diagnosed as having mental retardation and tardive dyskinesia were examined through a kinematic analysis of videotaped lip and tongue movements. The high degree of movement variability found suggests that low variability of discrete properties of movement kinematics may not be a defining feature of stereotypies.…

  5. Pallidal deep brain stimulation: an effective treatment in Chinese patients with tardive dystonia.

    PubMed

    Woo, Peter Y M; Chan, Danny T M; Zhu, X L; Yeung, Jonas H M; Chan, Anne Y Y; Au, Angie C W; Cheng, K M; Lau, K Y; Wing, Y K; Mok, Vincent C T; Poon, W S

    2014-10-01

    Tardive dystonia is an iatrogenic complication of dopamine receptor antagonist medication such as first-generation antipsychotics. It occurs in up to 2% of patients and only 10% recover after stopping medication. Deep brain stimulation for primary dystonia has proven to be effective and its application for secondary dystonias is gaining acceptance. We report our experience in treating three ethnic Chinese schizophrenia patients with severe medically refractory tardive dystonia by globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation. Preoperatively, all required assistance with essential activities of daily living and two were bed-bound. The mean Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale score was 61 (range, 44-80) and mean Global Dystonia Rating Scale score was 47 (range, 40-52). No procedure-related complications were encountered. By 3 months all could return to unassisted living and walk with support with a mean of 77% and 66% improvement in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and Global Dystonia Rating Scale scores, respectively. Quality-of-life assessment performed for two patients using the EuroQol-5 dimensions visual analogue scale showed a mean improvement of 86% at 3 months. On clinical follow-up, the effect was well maintained for a period of 3 to 10 years. Pallidal deep brain stimulation is a safe and highly effective form of symptomatic treatment for patients with medically refractory tardive dystonia.

  6. Risk Factors for Tardive Dyskinesia in Adults with Intellectual Disability, Comorbid Psychopathology, and Long-Term Psychotropic Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Neal, Daniene; Dempsey, Timothy; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2010-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are commonly used as an adjunct treatment in large-scale residential care facilities for adults with developmental disabilities. While the benefits of medication are noted, there are very severe conditions that can result from long term medication use. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) manifests as a variety of involuntary,…

  7. Successful treatment of tardive lingual dystonia with botulinum toxin: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hennings, Johannes M H; Krause, Eike; Bötzel, Kai; Wetter, Thomas C

    2008-07-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a dreaded side effect of antipsychotic medication. Recommended treatments for TD may provide reliable improvement but can be, in turn, associated with additional adverse reactions. Recently, several reports have suggested that botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection in affected muscles may significantly improve TD. Here, we report a case of severe tongue protrusion dystonia secondary to an antipsychotic medication in a young man. Several approaches including clozapine, amisulpride, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, tiapride and clonazepam failed to improve the symptoms. Injection of 50 U of BTX-A (Dysport, Ipsen, Ettlingen, Germany) into each genioglossal muscle dramatically improved tongue protrusion within few days with a sustained effect. If reasonable precautions are taken, the application seems to be well tolerated with only minor side effects. A review of the literature that is part of this article adverts BTX-A injection as a potential beneficial approach of various kinds of TD. PMID:17936461

  8. Response of tardive and L-dopa-induced dyskinesias to antidepressants.

    PubMed

    el-Awar, M; Freedman, M; Seeman, P; Goldenberg, L; Little, J; Solomon, P

    1987-11-01

    We report two patients with dyskinesia responding to antidepressants. The first is a 70-year-old man with depression, Parkinsonism and neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia who presented with hysterical mutism. After recovery from the mutism, he was started on desipramine for depression. One week later the dyskinesia improved markedly. The second patient is a 61-year-old man with Parkinson's disease, dementia, depression and L-dopa-induced oro-lingual-facial dyskinesias. He was taking levodopa, trihexyphenydil and bromocriptine. The depression was treated first with desipramine and later with trazodone. The dyskinesia improved significantly on both drugs. The response of the dyskinesias to antidepressant medication may be due to the fact that antidepressants decrease beta-adrenoreceptor sensitivity and density which in turn may result in a diminished release of dopamine since beta-adrenoceptors mediate the noradrenaline-stimulated release of dopamine. PMID:3690436

  9. Tardive Dyskinesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... with serious and chronic mental illness, such as schizophrenia , require long term treatment with antipsychotic medications. While ... Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder Schizophrenia Related Conditions Anosognosia Dual Diagnosis Psychosis Self-harm ...

  10. Likelihood of mechanistic roles for dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic receptors in tardive dyskinesia: A comparison of genetic variants in two independent patient populations

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Svetlana A; Loonen, Anton JM; Bakker, P Roberto; Freidin, Maxim B; ter Woerds, Nienke J; Al Hadithy, Asmar FY; Semke, Arkadiy V; Fedorenko, Olga Yu; Brouwers, Jacobus RBJ; Bokhan, Nikolay A; van Os, Jim; van Harten, Peter N; Wilffert, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: An established theory for the pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia is disturbed dopaminergic receptor sensitivity and/or dopaminergic intracellular signaling. We examined associations between genetic variants of neurotransmitter receptors and tardive dyskinesia. Methods: We assessed tardive dyskinesia in Caucasian psychiatric inpatients from Siberia (N = 431) and a long-stay population from the Netherlands (N = 168). These patients were genotyped for 43 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in five neurotransmitter receptor genes, and the results for the two populations were compared. Results: Several significant associations with tardive dyskinesia were identified, but only GRIN2A (rs1345423) was found in both patient populations. This lack of agreement was probably due to the small effect size of the associations, the multiple testing and the small sample size of the Dutch patient population. After reviewing the literature, we propose that the constitutive stimulatory activity of serotonergic type 2 receptors may be relevant. Conclusions: Inactivity of the serotonergic, type 2C receptor or blockade of these receptors by atypical antipsychotic drugs may decrease the vulnerability to develop tardive dyskinesia. PMID:27127627

  11. NBI‐98854, a selective monoamine transport inhibitor for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Roland; Hauser, Robert A.; Factor, Stewart A.; Burke, Joshua; Mandri, Daniel; Castro‐Gayol, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Tardive dyskinesia is a persistent movement disorder induced by chronic neuroleptic exposure. NBI‐98854 is a novel, highly selective, vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibitor. We present results of a randomized, 6‐week, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, dose‐titration study evaluating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of NBI‐98854 for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Methods Male and female adult subjects with moderate or severe tardive dyskinesia were included. NBI‐98854 or placebo was given once per day starting at 25 mg and then escalated by 25 mg to a maximum of 75 mg based on dyskinesia and tolerability assessment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale from baseline at week 6 scored by blinded, central video raters. The secondary endpoint was the Clinical Global Impression of Change—Tardive Dyskinesia score assessed by the blinded investigator. Results Two hundred five potential subjects were screened, and 102 were randomized; 76% of NBI‐98854 subjects and 80% of placebo subjects reached the maximum allowed dose. Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale scores for NBI‐98854 compared with placebo were significantly reduced (p = 0.0005). Active drug was also superior on the Clinical Global Impression of Change—Tardive Dyskinesia (p < 0.0001). Treatment‐emergent adverse event rates were 49% in the NBI‐98854 and 33% in the placebo subjects. The most common adverse events (active vs. placebo) were fatigue and headache (9.8% vs. 4.1%) and constipation and urinary tract infection (3.9% vs. 6.1%). No clinically relevant changes in safety assessments were noted. Conclusion NBI‐98854 significantly improved tardive dyskinesia and was well tolerated in patients. These results support the phase 3 clinical trials of NBI‐98854 now underway. © 2015 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder

  12. Tardive dyskinesia in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: case series and brief review of etiologic and treatment considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungjin; MacMaster, Eric; Schwartz, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring side-effect of antipsychotic medications that is potentially irreversible in affected patients. Newer atypical antipsychotics are felt by many to have a lower risk of TD. As a result, many clinicians may have developed a false sense of security when prescribing these medications. We report five cases of patients taking atypical antipsychotics who developed TD, review the risk of TD, its potential etiologic mechanisms, and treatment options available. The goal of this paper is to alert the reader to continue to be diligent in obtaining informed consent and monitoring for the onset of TD in patients taking atypical antipsychotics. PMID:24744806

  13. The vacuous chewing movement (VCM) model of tardive dyskinesia revisited: is there a relationship to dopamine D(2) receptor occupancy?

    PubMed

    Turrone, Peter; Remington, Gary; Nobrega, José N

    2002-05-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a late side effect of long-term antipsychotic use in humans, and the vacuous chewing movement (VCM) model has been used routinely to study this movement disorder in rats. Recent receptor occupancy studies in humans and rats have found that antipsychotics given in doses which lead to moderate levels of D(2) receptor blockade can achieve optimal clinical response while minimizing the emergence of acute motor side effects. This suggests that clinicians may have been using inappropriately high doses of antipsychotics. A review of the existing VCM literature indicates that most animal studies have similarly employed antipsychotic doses that are high, i.e. doses that lead to near complete D(2) receptor saturation. To verify whether the incidence or severity of VCMs would decrease with lower antipsychotic doses, we conducted initial experiments with different doses of haloperidol (HAL) given either as repeated daily injections or as depot injections over the course of several weeks. Our results demonstrate that (1) the incidence of VCMs is significantly related to HAL dose, and (2) significant levels of VCMs only emerge when haloperidol is continually present. These findings are consistent with the possibility that total D(2) occupancy, as well as 'transience' of receptor occupation, may be important in the development of late-onset antipsychotic-induced dyskinetic syndromes.

  14. Les complications tardives de prothèse totale de la hanche: à propos de 42 cas

    PubMed Central

    Azarkane, Mohamed; Boussakri, Hassan; Shimi, Mohamed; Elibrahimi, Abdlehalim; Elmrini, Abdlemeji

    2013-01-01

    L'arthroplastie de la hanche est un moyen fiable dans le traitement des affections de la hanche. En lui rendant sa mobilité sa stabilité et son indolence. Cependant cette chirurgie prothétique expose au risque de la survenue des complications qui peuvent engager le pronostic fonctionnel. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective sur une durée de 8 ans de janvier 2004 au janvier 2012 au service de traumatologie-orthopédie de CHU HASSAN II FEZ. Pendant cette période nous avons opéré 240 patients pour PTH. Après un recul moyen de 5 ans nous avons noté chez 42 (17,4%) patients une complication tardive. Nous noté 13 cas de descellement aseptique soit 5,4%. Cette complication a été survenue dans notre série sur une prothèse cimentée dans 8 cas et non cimentée dans 5 cas. Le traitement que nous avons adopté dans notre série a été une reprise de PTH sans greffe osseuse ni anneau de reconstruction dans 4 cas, reprise avec mise en place d'anneau de Kerboull dans 7 cas et reprise avec greffe osseuse et anneau de kerboull dans 2 cas. Nous avons trouvé 11 cas de sepsis tardive soit 4,6% des cas. Nous avons le diabète comme facteur de risque chez 3 malades. L'agent causal a été staphylococcus épdermidis dans 5 cas, colibacille dans 2 cas et association staphylococcus-BGN dans 1 cas. Les différentes modalités que nous avons utilisé pour traiter l'infection dans notre ont été un lavage simple, système d'irrigation-drainage et réimplantation simple en un seul temps ou en 2 temps avec couverture systématique par une antibiothérapie adaptée selon l'antibiogramme. Nous avons noté également 11 cas de fracture sur PTH intéressant dans tous les cas le fémur, nous avons traité ce type de fracture dans notre série par une tige fémorale prothétique longue dans 4 cas, une plaque vissée cerclée dans 3 cas et cerclage simple dans 4 cas. La consolidation a été obtenue chez 9 patients avec 2 cas de pseudarthrose. Nous avons noté 7 cas de

  15. Report: Protective effects of rice bran oil in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia and serotonergic responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Samad, Noreen; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-07-01

    Effect of administration of Rice bran oil (RBO) was evaluated on haloperidol elicited tardive dyskinesia in rats. Albino Wistar rats treated with haloperidol in drinking water at a dose of 0.2mg/kg/day and RBO by oral tubes at a dose of 0.4 mL/day for 5 weeks. Motor coordination, VCMs and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline)[8-OH-DPAT] _syndrome were monitored. Striatal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-EC). Rats treated with haloperidol orally at a dose of for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs, which increased progressively as the treatment continued for 5 weeks. Motor coordination impairment started after the 1st week and was maximally impaired after 3 weeks and gradually returned to the 1st week value. Co-administration of RBO prevented haloperidol_induced VCMs as well impairment of motor coordination. The intensity of 8-OH-DPAT_induced syndrome and decreased 5-HT metabolism were greater in water + haloperidol treated animals than RBO + haloperidol treated animals. The present study suggested that involvement of free radical in the development of TD and point to RBO as a possible therapeutic option to treat this hyperkinetic motor disorder. PMID:27592482

  16. Haloperidol-induced striatal Nur77 expression in a non-human primate model of tardive dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Souha; Blanchet, Pierre J.; Lévesque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a delayed and potentially irreversible motor complication arising in patients chronically exposed to antipsychotic drugs. As several modern (so-called atypical) antipsychotic drugs are common offenders, the widening clinical indications for prescription as well as exposure of vulnerable individuals, TD will remain a significant drug-induced unwanted side effect. In addition, the pathophysiology of TD remains elusive and therapeutics difficult. Based on rodent experiments, we have previously shown that the transcriptional factor Nur77 (also known as NGFI-B or Nr4a1) is induced in the striatum following antipsychotic drug exposure as part of a long-term neuroadaptive process. To confirm this, we exposed adult capuchin (Cebus apella) monkeys to prolonged treatments with haloperidol (median 18.5 months, N=11) or clozapine (median 6 months, N=6). Six untreated animals were used as controls. Six haloperidol-treated animals developed mild TD movements similar to those found in humans. No TD was observed in the clozapine group. Postmortem analysis of Nur77 expression measured by in situ hybridization revealed a stark contrast between the two drugs, as Nur77 mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen were strongly upregulated in animals exposed to haloperidol while spared following clozapine treatment. Interestingly, within the haloperidol-treated group, TD-free animals showed higher Nur77 expression in putamen subterritories compared to dyskinetic animals. This suggests that Nur77 expression might be associated with a reduced risk to TD in this experimental model and could provide a novel target for drug intervention. PMID:23551242

  17. Do tardive dyskinesia and L-dopa induced dyskinesia share common genetic risk factors? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Lior; Goldwurm, Stefano; Zozulinsky, Polina; Lifschytz, Tzuri; Cohen, Oren S; Yahalom, Gilad; Cilia, Roberto; Tesei, Silvana; Asselta, Rosanna; Inzelberg, Rivka; Kohn, Yoav; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Lerer, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) in schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotic medications and L-dopa induced dyskinesia (LID) among Parkinson's disease (PD) affected individuals share similar clinical features. Both conditions are induced by chronic exposure to drugs that target dopaminergic receptors (antagonists in TD and agonists in LID) and cause pulsatile and nonphysiological stimulation of these receptors. We hypothesized that the two motor adverse effects partially share genetic risk factors such that certain genetic variants exert a pleiotropic effect, influencing susceptibility to TD as well as to LID. In this pilot study, we focused on 21 TD-associated SNPs, previously reported in TD genome-wide association studies or in candidate gene studies. By applying logistic regression and controlling for relevant clinical risk factors, we studied the association of the SNPs with LID vulnerability in two independent pharmacogenetic samples. We included a Jewish Israeli sample of 203 PD patients treated with L-dopa for a minimum of 3 years and evaluated the existence or absence of LID (LID+ = 128; LID- = 75). An Italian sample was composed of early LID developers (within the first 3 years of treatment, N = 187) contrasted with non-early LID developers (after 7 years or more of treatment, N = 203). None of the studied SNPs were significantly associated with LID susceptibility in the two samples. Therefore, we were unable to obtain proof of concept for our initial hypothesis of an overlapping contribution of genetic risk factors to TD and LID. Further studies in larger samples are required to reach definitive conclusions. PMID:23666822

  18. Possible association between DBH 19 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia with tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Hui, Li; Han, Mei; Huang, Xu Feng; Ye, Min Jie; Zheng, Ke; He, Jin Cai; Lv, Meng Han; Zhang, Bao Hua; Soares, Jair C; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Overactivity of dopaminergic neurotransmission is a putative mechanism of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Previous studies have found dysfunction in plasma dopamine beta-hydoxylase (DBH) in schizophrenia with TD. Moreover, DBH, whose activity and levels are strongly controlled by the DBH gene, is a key enzyme in the conversion of dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) associated with excited behavior. This study examined whether the DBH5'-insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism was associated with excited behavior in schizophrenia with TD. The presence of the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism was determined in 741 schizophrenia with TD (n = 345) and without TD (n = 396). The Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were used to assess the severity of TD and psychopathology of schizophrenia. There was no significant difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism between schizophrenia with and without TD (both p > 0.05). However, the excited symptoms score was significantly different to the DBH5'-Ins/Del genotypic groups in schizophrenia with TD (p < 0.05) but not in the two groups of non-TD and total patients (both p > 0.05). The excited symptoms score was higher in TD patients with the Del/Del genotype than those with Ins alleles (p = 0.015). Our findings suggest that the DBH5'-Ins/Del polymorphism may not contribute directly to the development of TD in schizophrenia, but it may be involved in the excited behavior of TD patients. PMID:25336319

  19. Tardive Syndromes are Rarely Reversible after Discontinuing Dopamine Receptor Blocking Agents: Experience from a University-based Movement Disorder Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Zutshi, Deepti; Cloud, Leslie J.; Factor, Stewart A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have examined reversibility of tardive syndromes (TS), primarily in psychotic patients who are maintained on dopamine receptor blocking drugs. The results have varied widely. However, few have assessed remission rates after discontinuing the offending agents. This study evaluated reversibility of TS in patients who permanently withdrew the causative agent(s). We also examined for any possible clinical predictors of reversibility. Methods A retrospective cohort of 108 TS patients was studied. Most of the patients were not psychotic; most patients were being treated either for a mood disorder with atypical antipsychotics or for a gastrointestinal disturbance with metoclopramide. Patients were stratified on the basis of reversibility, and statistical tests were used for subgroup comparisons of relevant clinical variables. Logistic regression was undertaken to identify clinical variables predictive of reversibility. Results Only 13% of the cohort experienced reversibility of the TS, 2% without medical intervention. When stratified by reversibility, there were no significant differences in any study variables between subgroups. None of the study variables predicted reversibility in the logistic regression. Discussion Our study demonstrated a low remission rate for TS in a cohort of psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients seen in a movement disorder clinic after the offending agents were completely withdrawn. Such a finding has significant prognostic implications. It is possible that limitations of the retrospective design may have resulted in an underestimation. There is a clear need for prospective, multicenter, clinical trials in populations that can be safely withdrawn from dopamine receptor blocking agents so that true remission rates can be measured. PMID:25374768

  20. Hyperplasie congénitale des surrénales à révélation tardive: à propos d'un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Jayi, Sofia; Fdili, Fatima Zahra; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hekmat; Melhouf, Abdelilah

    2013-01-01

    L'hyperplasie congénitale des surrénales (HCS) par déficit en 21 hydroxylase à révélation tardive est une maladie à transmission autosomique récessive dont la présentation usuelle est une virilisation tardive para ou post pubertaire. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 17 ans, ayant consulté pour aménorrhée primaire, chez qui l'examen clinique a trouvé un morphotype masculin, des signes de virilisation, des caractères sexuels secondaires présents avec une hypertrophie péniforme du clitoris. L’échographie pelvienne a confirmé la présence de l'utérus et des ovaires et a éliminé une cause tumorale ovarienne. Le dosage du sulfate de DHA (1145 ug/dl) et la 17 OH progestérone à 49,6 ng/ml étant élevés, ont orienté le diagnostic vers l'hyperplasie congénitale des surrénales à révélation tardive par déficit partiel en 21 hydroxylase. La TDM abdominale a trouvé une hypertrophie homogène bilatérale des surrénales. La patiente a été mise sous déxaméthasone 0,5 mg/ j avec déclenchement des cycles menstruels au bout de 4 mois de traitement. Une plastie clitoridienne ainsi qu'une étude moléculaire génétique étaient prévues mais la patiente était perdue de vue. A travers cette observation, et à la lumière d'une revue de la littérature, nous insistons sur les caractéristiques cliniques et para cliniques de cette entité, ainsi que l'intérêt du diagnostic précoce pour permettre une croissance normale, une puberté féminine et une fertilité satisfaisante. PMID:23819007

  1. Home Modification

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is important to consider certain safety modifications. Adaptations such as those in the following list can ... The importance of a Consumer Perspective in Home Adaptation of Alzheimer’s Households” (Chapter 6 pp 91-112) ...

  2. Ubiquitin modifications

    PubMed Central

    Swatek, Kirby N; Komander, David

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic multifaceted post-translational modification involved in nearly all aspects of eukaryotic biology. Once attached to a substrate, the 76-amino acid protein ubiquitin is subjected to further modifications, creating a multitude of distinct signals with distinct cellular outcomes, referred to as the 'ubiquitin code'. Ubiquitin can be ubiquitinated on seven lysine (Lys) residues or on the N-terminus, leading to polyubiquitin chains that can encompass complex topologies. Alternatively or in addition, ubiquitin Lys residues can be modified by ubiquitin-like molecules (such as SUMO or NEDD8). Finally, ubiquitin can also be acetylated on Lys, or phosphorylated on Ser, Thr or Tyr residues, and each modification has the potential to dramatically alter the signaling outcome. While the number of distinctly modified ubiquitin species in cells is mind-boggling, much progress has been made to characterize the roles of distinct ubiquitin modifications, and many enzymes and receptors have been identified that create, recognize or remove these ubiquitin modifications. We here provide an overview of the various ubiquitin modifications present in cells, and highlight recent progress on ubiquitin chain biology. We then discuss the recent findings in the field of ubiquitin acetylation and phosphorylation, with a focus on Ser65-phosphorylation and its role in mitophagy and Parkin activation. PMID:27012465

  3. [Lifestyle modifications].

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2015-11-01

    Lifestyle modifications are important in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension (JSH2014) recommend salt reduction (< 6 g/day), increased intake of vegetables/fruit and fish (fish oil), reduced intake of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, weight loss (body mass index < 25kg/m2), exercise (≥ 30 min/day), reduction of alcohol intake (≤ 20-30 mL/day in men, ≤ 10-20 mL/day in women as ethanol), and quitting smoking. These lifestyle modifications are capable of reducing blood pressure and ameliorating other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the reduction in blood pressure is mild to moderate and the adherence to lifestyle modifications has been still suboptimal. PMID:26619658

  4. Ginkgo biloba and vitamin E ameliorate haloperidol-induced vacuous chewingmovement and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in a rat tardive dyskinesia model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Yun Long; Wang, Zhi Ren; An, Hui Mei; Li, Jia; Wang, Yue Chan; Lv, Meng Han; Yan, Shao Xiao; Wu, Jing Qin; Soares, Jair C; Yang, Fu De; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2016-09-01

    Neurodegeneration may be involved in the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD), and low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a role. Ginkgo biloba (EGb761), a potent antioxidant, may have neuroprotective effects. We hypothesized that there would be decreased BDNF expression in TD, but that treatment with EGb761 would increase BDNF expression and reduce TD manifestations in a rat model. Forty rats were treated with haloperidol (2mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal injections) for 5weeks. EGb761 (50mg/kg/day) and vitamin E (20mg/kg/day) were then administered by oral gavage for another 5weeks, and we compared the effects of treatment with EGb761 or vitamin E on haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) and BDNF expression in four brain regions: prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum (ST), substantia nigra (SNR), and globus pallidus (GP). Our results showed that haloperidol administration led to a progressive increase in VCMs, but both EGb761 and vitamin E significantly decreased VCMs. Haloperidol also decreased BDNF expression in all four brain regions, but both EGb761 and vitamin E administration significantly increased BDNF expression. Our results showed that both EGb761 and VE treatments exerted similar positive effects in a rat model of TD and increased BDNF expression levels in the four tested brain regions, suggesting that both EGb761 and vitamin E improve TD symptoms, possibly by enhancing BDNF in the brain and/or via their free radical-scavenging actions. PMID:27264436

  5. Ostéogenèse imparfaite type III de découverte tardive: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Rachidi, Wafae; Nassar, Kawtar; Janani, Saadia; Mkinsi, Ouafa

    2015-01-01

    Patient âgé de 52 ans, était admis dans notre établissement pour des polyarthralgies chroniques, plutôt mécaniques, touchant spécialement les articulations du membre inférieur. L'interrogatoire retrouvait l'antécédent de fractures répétées depuis l'enfance, pour des traumatismes minimes, suite à des chutes par glissement. Les signes cliniques et radiologiques, notamment, les fractures récurrentes, sclérotiques bleues, hyperlaxité ligamentaire, dentinogenèse imparfaite, syndrome dysmorphique, ostéoporose densitométrique importante, plaidaient tous en faveur d'une ostéogénèse imparfaite type III. Le patient a initié le traitement, par prise régulière du calcium (1g/jour), supplémentation en vitamine D, et il est programmé pour perfusion de Bisphosphonate (Pamidronate 60mg). Ce cas illustre une forme rare de découverte tardive d'ostéogénèse imparfaite type III. PMID:25995811

  6. Ginkgo biloba and vitamin E ameliorate haloperidol-induced vacuous chewingmovement and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in a rat tardive dyskinesia model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Yun Long; Wang, Zhi Ren; An, Hui Mei; Li, Jia; Wang, Yue Chan; Lv, Meng Han; Yan, Shao Xiao; Wu, Jing Qin; Soares, Jair C; Yang, Fu De; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2016-09-01

    Neurodegeneration may be involved in the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD), and low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a role. Ginkgo biloba (EGb761), a potent antioxidant, may have neuroprotective effects. We hypothesized that there would be decreased BDNF expression in TD, but that treatment with EGb761 would increase BDNF expression and reduce TD manifestations in a rat model. Forty rats were treated with haloperidol (2mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal injections) for 5weeks. EGb761 (50mg/kg/day) and vitamin E (20mg/kg/day) were then administered by oral gavage for another 5weeks, and we compared the effects of treatment with EGb761 or vitamin E on haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) and BDNF expression in four brain regions: prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum (ST), substantia nigra (SNR), and globus pallidus (GP). Our results showed that haloperidol administration led to a progressive increase in VCMs, but both EGb761 and vitamin E significantly decreased VCMs. Haloperidol also decreased BDNF expression in all four brain regions, but both EGb761 and vitamin E administration significantly increased BDNF expression. Our results showed that both EGb761 and VE treatments exerted similar positive effects in a rat model of TD and increased BDNF expression levels in the four tested brain regions, suggesting that both EGb761 and vitamin E improve TD symptoms, possibly by enhancing BDNF in the brain and/or via their free radical-scavenging actions.

  7. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 3: Clinical Trial Data.

    PubMed

    Preskorn, Sheldon H; Macaluso, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients who develop abnormal movements during treatment with antipsychotics. The first column in the series presented a patient who developed abnormal movements while being treated with aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder (MDD) and reviewed data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias, the clinical presentations of which closely resemble each other. The second column in the series reviewed the unique mechanism of action of aripiprazole and preclinical studies and an early-phase human translational study that suggest a low, if not absent, risk of TD with aripiprazole. This column reviews clinical trial data to assess whether those data support the conclusion that aripiprazole has a low to absent risk of causing TD when used as an augmentation strategy to treat MDD. To date, no randomized, placebo-controlled trials have established a definitive link between exposure to aripiprazole and TD in patients with MDD. One long-term, open-label, safety trial examined aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy in individuals with MDD and found a rare occurrence (4/987, 0.4%, the confidence interval of which overlaps with zero) of an adverse event termed TD. In all 4 cases, the observed movements resolved within weeks of aripiprazole discontinuation, suggesting that they were either amenable to treatment or represented an acute syndrome rather than TD. No cases of TD were reported in the registration trials for the MDD indication for aripiprazole. These data were presented in a pooled analysis of

  8. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 4: Case Report Data.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-05-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients who develop abnormal movements during treatment with antipsychotics. The first column in the series presented a patient who developed abnormal movements while being treated with aripiprazole as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder and reviewed data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias, the clinical presentations of which closely resemble each other. The second column in the series reviewed the unique mechanism of action of aripiprazole and reviewed preclinical studies and an early-phase human translational study that suggest a low, if not absent, risk of TD with aripiprazole. The third column in this series reviewed the registration trial data for aripiprazole across all of its indications and found a raw incidence of TD ranging from 0.004 (4 out of 987) in long-term studies of the drug as an augmentation strategy for major depressive disorder to 0.0016 (19 out of 11,897) based on all short-term (ie, weeks to <6 mo) and long-term (6 mo to 1 y) studies combined. This fourth column in the series reviews the "real-world" data on aripiprazole and assesses whether these data also support the conclusion that aripiprazole has a low to absent risk of causing TD. The "real-world" data consist of case reports from the medical literature and the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We found 37 cases in the medical literature reporting what was termed TD in association with aripiprazole treatment as well as 27 case reports suggesting improvement in

  9. Prevention of haloperidol-induced alterations in brain acetylcholinesterase activity by vitamins B co-administration in a rodent model of tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gersilene Valente; Gomes, Patrícia Xavier Lima; de Araújo, Fernanda Yvelize Ramos; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano Nobre; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; de Lucena, David F; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Carvalho, André Férrer; Macêdo, Danielle Silveira

    2013-03-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an iatrogenic syndrome being a significant adverse outcome of typical and atypical antipsychotic therapy. Recently we demonstrated that vitamins B (B1, B6, B12 alone or in combination) were able to prevent haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia (OD) possibly by their antioxidant activity in the striatum, using a well-established model of TD. Here, based on the fact that alterations in cholinergic neurotransmission are related to TD pathophysiology and that vitamins B seems to influence brain cholinergic neurotransmission, we decided to investigate the effects of vitamins B1, B6, B12 and their association, vitamin B cocktail in haloperidol-induced cholinergic alterations, evaluated by alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, in striatum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as a way to determine the participation of cholinergic neurotransmission, in these vitamins antidyskinetic mechanism. Haloperidol 1 mg/kg i.p. daily administration during 21 days to Wistar rats caused OD while decreased AChE activity in all brain areas studied. Vitamins B administration (B1:B6:B12 at 60:60:0.6 mg/kg, s.c) alone and vitamin B cocktail co-administered with haloperidol prevented OD development and increased AChE activity in all brain areas studied, with the maximum activity increment observed in the hippocampus of the animals co-treated with vitamin B12 and vitamin B cocktail. The antidyskinetic drug, clozapine did not induce OD and increased AChE activity similarly to the groups coadministered with vitamin B and HAL. The present data suggest that vitamins B can prevent haloperidol-induced alterations in AChE activity what can be related to the mechanism underlying their antidyskinetic effect.

  10. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Preskorn, Sheldon; Flynn, Alexandra; Macaluso, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This series of columns has 2 main goals: (1) to explain the use of class warnings by the US Food and Drug Administration and (2) to increase clinicians' awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients being treated with antipsychotic medications and why it is appropriate and good practice to refrain from immediately assuming the diagnosis is tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD). This first column in the series will focus on the second goal, which will then serve as a case example for the first goal. Clinicians should refrain from jumping to a diagnosis of TD because a host of other causes need to be ruled out first before inferring iatrogenic causation. The causal relationship between chronic treatment with dopamine antagonists and TD is based on pharmacoepidemiology (ie, the prevalence of such movement disorders is higher in individuals receiving chronic treatment with such agents than in a control group). There is nothing pathognomonic about movement disorders, nor is there any test that can currently prove a drug caused a movement disorder in a specific individual. Another goal of this series is to describe the types of research that would be needed to establish whether a specific agent has a meaningful risk of causing TD. In this first column of the series, we present the case of a patient who developed orofacial dyskinesia while being treated with aripiprazole. In this case, the movement disorder was prematurely called TD, which led to a malpractice lawsuit. This case highlights a number of key questions clinicians are likely to encounter in day-to-day practice. We then review data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for 2 movement disorders, TD and spontaneous dyskinesia. Subsequent columns in this series will review: (1) unique aspects of the psychopharmacology of aripiprazole, (2) the limited and inconsistent data in the literature concerning the causal relationship between aripiprazole and TD, (3) the use of

  11. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Preskorn, Sheldon; Flynn, Alexandra; Macaluso, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This series of columns has 2 main goals: (1) to explain the use of class warnings by the US Food and Drug Administration and (2) to increase clinicians' awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients being treated with antipsychotic medications and why it is appropriate and good practice to refrain from immediately assuming the diagnosis is tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD). This first column in the series will focus on the second goal, which will then serve as a case example for the first goal. Clinicians should refrain from jumping to a diagnosis of TD because a host of other causes need to be ruled out first before inferring iatrogenic causation. The causal relationship between chronic treatment with dopamine antagonists and TD is based on pharmacoepidemiology (ie, the prevalence of such movement disorders is higher in individuals receiving chronic treatment with such agents than in a control group). There is nothing pathognomonic about movement disorders, nor is there any test that can currently prove a drug caused a movement disorder in a specific individual. Another goal of this series is to describe the types of research that would be needed to establish whether a specific agent has a meaningful risk of causing TD. In this first column of the series, we present the case of a patient who developed orofacial dyskinesia while being treated with aripiprazole. In this case, the movement disorder was prematurely called TD, which led to a malpractice lawsuit. This case highlights a number of key questions clinicians are likely to encounter in day-to-day practice. We then review data concerning the historical background, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for 2 movement disorders, TD and spontaneous dyskinesia. Subsequent columns in this series will review: (1) unique aspects of the psychopharmacology of aripiprazole, (2) the limited and inconsistent data in the literature concerning the causal relationship between aripiprazole and TD, (3) the use of

  12. Maladie dermatophytique de revelation tardive

    PubMed Central

    Aboutou, Christelle Natacha Ebongo; Hali, Fouzia; Chihab, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    La maladie dermatophytique, décrite pour la première fois en 1959 par Hadida et Schousboe, est une infection dermatophytique chronique de la peau et des viscères. C'est une maladie rare principalement décrite au Maghreb. Les études immunologiques ont permis de mettre en évidence un déficit de l'immunité cellulaire à transmission autosomale récessive responsable d'un état de tolérance vis-à-vis du dermatophyte. Les premiers signes de cette pathologie surviennent généralement pendant l'enfance. Notre patient présente depuis l'âge de 50 ans une pachyonychie de tous les ongles et des lésions érythémato-squameuses circinées et prurigineuses généralisées à tout le tégument auxquelles se sont progressivement ajoutées une alopécie et une dépilation de toutes les aires pilaires, une kératodermie palmo-plantaire ainsi que des adénopathies axillaires et inguinales bilatérales. Tricophyton violaceum a été isolé sur les ongles. Aucun déficit immunitaire n'a été retrouvé ni atteinte viscérale dans la limite des bilans réalisés. L'évolution est marquée par des améliorations transitoires, la résistance des adénopathies et des atteintes phanériennes ainsi que les multiples rechutes malgré la mise sous griséofulvine. La maladie dermatophytique est une maladie grave mettant en jeu le pronostic vital du fait de l'évolution inexorable vers les atteintes viscérales. L'amélioration du statut immunitaire associée au traitement antifongique pourrait être la meilleure thérapeutique. PMID:27795791

  13. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 2: Preclinical and Early Phase Human Proof of Concept Studies.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients treated with antipsychotics. The first column in this series began with the case of a 76-year-old man with major depressive disorder who developed orofacial dyskinesias while being treated with aripiprazole as an antidepressant augmentation strategy. It was alleged that a higher than intended dose of aripiprazole (ie, 20 mg/d for 2 wk followed by 10 mg/d for 4 wk instead of the intended dose of 2 mg/d) was the cause of the dyskinetic movements in this man, and the authors were asked to review the case and give their opinion. The principal basis for this theory of causation was the class warning about TD in the package insert for aripiprazole. The rationale for concluding aripiprazole caused TD in the 76-year-old man led to this series of columns about aripiprazole, its potential--if any--to cause TD, and the presence of a class warning about TD in its package insert. The central point is to illustrate why class warnings exist and their implications for practice. The first column in this series focused on the historical background, incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and clinical presentations of tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias and concluded with a discussion of diagnostic considerations explaining why clinicians should avoid making a diagnosis of TD until a thorough differential diagnosis has been considered. This second column in the series reviews the pharmacology of aripiprazole and the preclinical and phase I translational human studies that suggest aripiprazole should have a low to nonexistent risk of causing TD compared with other antipsychotics. The third column in the series

  14. Determining Whether a Definitive Causal Relationship Exists Between Aripiprazole and Tardive Dyskinesia and/or Dystonia in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder, Part 2: Preclinical and Early Phase Human Proof of Concept Studies.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, Matthew; Flynn, Alexandra; Preskorn, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This series of columns has 3 main goals: (1) to explain class warnings as used by the United States Food and Drug Administration, (2) to increase awareness of movement disorders that may occur in patients treated with antipsychotic medications, and (3) to understand why clinicians should refrain from immediately assuming a diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia/dystonia (TD) in patients treated with antipsychotics. The first column in this series began with the case of a 76-year-old man with major depressive disorder who developed orofacial dyskinesias while being treated with aripiprazole as an antidepressant augmentation strategy. It was alleged that a higher than intended dose of aripiprazole (ie, 20 mg/d for 2 wk followed by 10 mg/d for 4 wk instead of the intended dose of 2 mg/d) was the cause of the dyskinetic movements in this man, and the authors were asked to review the case and give their opinion. The principal basis for this theory of causation was the class warning about TD in the package insert for aripiprazole. The rationale for concluding aripiprazole caused TD in the 76-year-old man led to this series of columns about aripiprazole, its potential--if any--to cause TD, and the presence of a class warning about TD in its package insert. The central point is to illustrate why class warnings exist and their implications for practice. The first column in this series focused on the historical background, incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and clinical presentations of tardive and spontaneous dyskinesias and concluded with a discussion of diagnostic considerations explaining why clinicians should avoid making a diagnosis of TD until a thorough differential diagnosis has been considered. This second column in the series reviews the pharmacology of aripiprazole and the preclinical and phase I translational human studies that suggest aripiprazole should have a low to nonexistent risk of causing TD compared with other antipsychotics. The third column in the series

  15. Modifications of mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 15, discusses modifications of mitosis, including endoreduplication, polyteny, endomitosis, C-mitosis, restitution, amitosis and multipolar mitoses. Apart from multipolar mitosis, all other mitotic modifications are characterized by an absent or defective spindle, and in most cases these result in the duplication of the chromosome number. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Permit application modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  17. Lifestyle modifications for GDM.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Atul; Ahuja, Kamlesh

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide more so in Southeast Asian countries like India and Pakistan. 1 GDM is associated with various adverse foetal and maternal effects. The management of GDM aims at reducing blood glucose to reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Various studies have shown that lifestyle modifications are an important tool for reducing blood glucose levels in patients with GDM. Lifestyle modifications consist of dietary modifications and daily physical activity. Dietary modifications aim to achieve glycaemic control by providing adequate calories to the mother and foetus. Exercise is an obvious adjunct to dietary modifications for management of GDM. Therefore the purpose of this review is to summarize the benefits of lifestyle interventions in patients with GDM. PMID:27582149

  18. Jackson Creek Spillway modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.J.; Young, D.J.; McCloud, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Jackson Creek Spillway in Amador County, California has been modified in response to issues raised during the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) mandated 5-year safety inspections. The calculated factors of safety for the Jackson Creek Spillway, under the probable maximum flood (PMF) and maximum credible earthquake (MCE) loading conditions, were below levels considered acceptable by the FERC and modifications to the structure were required. Woodward-Clyde Consultants, under contract to the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), designed the modifications and in the summer and fall of 1994 the modifications to the Jackson Creek Spillway were successfully constructed with both FERC and California Division of Safety of Dams (DSOD) approval. This paper will summarize the design and construction issues, and discuss the lessons learned during modification of this 67-year-old structure.

  19. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  20. Modifications of gravity.

    PubMed

    Skordis, Constantinos

    2011-12-28

    General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ΛCDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research.

  1. Readers of PCNA modifications.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Helle D; Takahashi, Tomio

    2013-08-01

    The eukaryotic sliding clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), acts as a central coordinator of DNA transactions by providing a multivalent interaction surface for factors involved in DNA replication, repair, chromatin dynamics and cell cycle regulation. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs), such as mono- and polyubiquitylation, sumoylation, phosphorylation and acetylation, further expand the repertoire of PCNA's binding partners. These modifications affect PCNA's activity in the bypass of lesions during DNA replication, the regulation of alternative damage processing pathways such as homologous recombination and DNA interstrand cross-link repair, or impact on the stability of PCNA itself. In this review, we summarise our current knowledge about how the PTMs are "read" by downstream effector proteins that mediate the appropriate action. Given the variety of interaction partners responding to PCNA's modified forms, the ensemble of PCNA modifications serves as an instructive model for the study of biological signalling through PTMs in general. PMID:23580141

  2. Biblical behavior modification.

    PubMed

    Lasure, L C; Mikulas, W L

    1996-07-01

    Although we may have formalized and systematized the field of behavior modification in the last few decades, people around the world have been using behavioral change strategies throughout history. Premack's (1965) theory of reinforcement is often called "Grandma's rule" because grandmothers have long been using it (e.g. You must finish your vegetables before you may go out and play). Franks (1969, p. 4), in one of the first behavioral texts, gave historical examples from China, Turkey, France, and Italy. Knapp and Shodahl (1974) showed how Benjamin Franklin used behavior modification. And de Silva (1984, 1985) gave examples of behavior modification by the Buddha and other early Buddhists. Conspicuously absent from our literature are examples from the Judeo-Christian tradition. In this paper, we provide a number of behavior modification examples from the Bible (New International Version). Footnotes provide references for many more examples. In the discussion, we explore implications for education and therapy. Examples are grouped by the following categories: operant conditioning, respondent conditioning, modeling, and cognitive interventions. However, the Biblical examples, like contemporary case studies, do not always fall neatly into discrete categories. They often are a combination, particularly operant and respondent conditioning interweaving.

  3. Diet Modification for Hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Heather D.; Piotrowski, Pamela

    1992-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Dietary modification is effective in achieving and maintaining improved serum lipid levels. Nutritional care provided by a dietitian includes individual dietary and lifestyle assessment, formulating an appropriate dietary regimen, education, and follow-up assessments. PMID:21221406

  4. Behavior Modification with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel G.

    1972-01-01

    The author urges wider use of positive reinforcement theories in helping emotionally disturbed and mentally handicapped children. Underlining the influence of environment on behavior, he also notes that behavior modification programs utilize fewer trained personnel more effectively and, like Tennessee's Re-Education Treatment, allow for therapy in…

  5. Behavior Modification for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Coll. of Education.

    The Active Student Participation Program (ASPP), developed by the Department of Counseling and Personnel Services in the University of Maryland College of Education, was designed to disseminate knowledge of behavior modification principles. The course has been taught since the fall of 1971, and approximately 81 in-service teachers have completed…

  6. Toy Modification Note. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; And Others

    Described are toy modifications which enable handicapped individuals to operate battery-powered toys. A battery interrupter is explained as a device which fits between the batteries in a toy and provides the ability to have a separate on-off switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Construction and use of three types…

  7. THE MODIFICATION OF STUTTERING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUTTEN, EUGENE J.; SHOEMAKER, DONALD J.

    INTENDED FOR BOTH THE COLLEGE STUDENT AND THE PROFESSIONAL SPEECH PATHOLOGIST, THE BOOK PRESENTS CURRENT LEARNING THEORIES CONCERNING STUTTERING, DATA IMPORTANT TO THE THEORIES, AND A 2-PROCESS THEORY OF LEARNING FOR THEORETICAL INTEGRATION OF THE DATA ON STUTTERING AND FOR THERAPEUTIC MODIFICATION. INFORMATION PRESENTED ABOUT BEHAVIORISTIC…

  8. Pectin modifications: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Li, Ti; Liang, Rui-Hong; Luo, Shun-Jing

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in studying modification of pectin has increased. A number of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups distributed along the backbone as well as a certain amount of neutral sugars presented as side chains make pectin capable of preparing a broad spectrum of derivatives. By forming pectin derivatives, their properties may be modified and some other new functional properties may be created. This article attempts to review the information about various methods used for pectin modification, including substitution (alkylation, amidation, quaternization, thiolation, sulfation, oxidation, etc.), chain elongation (cross-linking and grafting) and depolymerization (chemical, physical, and enzymatic degradation). Characteristics and applications of some pectin derivatives are also presented. In addition, the safety and regulatory status of pectin and its derivatives were reviewed.

  9. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  10. Tardive dyskinesia with low dose amisulpride.

    PubMed

    Tharoor, Hema; Padmavati, R

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to use amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia and also as an adjunct treatment in patients with major depression. At low doses (50 mg), amisulpride preferentially blocks presynaptic auto receptors, enhances dopamine release, and therefore acts as a dopaminergic compound able to resolve the dopaminergic hypo activity that characterizes depression. Based on experimental data, amisulpride is the drug of choice for dopaminergic transmission disorders, both in depression and in schizophrenia. This case highlights the development of dyskinesia in a depressed patient treated with low dose amisulpride and fluvoxamine.

  11. Public perceptions of hurricane modification.

    PubMed

    Klima, Kelly; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Morgan, M Granger; Grossmann, Iris

    2012-07-01

    If hurricane modification were to become a feasible strategy for potentially reducing hurricane damages, it would likely generate public discourse about whether to support its implementation. To facilitate an informed and constructive discourse, policymakers need to understand how people perceive hurricane modification. Here, we examine Florida residents' perceptions of hurricane modification techniques that aim to alter path and wind speed. Following the mental models approach, we conducted a survey study about public perceptions of hurricane modification that was guided by formative interviews on the topic. We report a set of four primary findings. First, hurricane modification was perceived as a relatively ineffective strategy for damage reduction, compared to other strategies for damage reduction. Second, hurricane modification was expected to lead to changes in projected hurricane path, but not necessarily to the successful reduction of projected hurricane strength. Third, more anger was evoked when a hurricane was described as having changed from the initially forecasted path or strength after an attempted modification. Fourth, unlike what we expected, participants who more strongly agreed with statements that recognized the uncertainty inherent in forecasts reported more rather than less anger at scientists across hurricane modification scenarios. If the efficacy of intensity-reduction techniques can be increased, people may be willing to support hurricane modification. However, such an effort would need to be combined with open and honest communications to members of the general public.

  12. Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim

    2014-06-01

    Chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystals is an increasingly popular topic in the literature. This review analyses the type of cellulose nanocrystal modification reactions that have been published in the literature thus far and looks at the steps that have been taken towards analysing the products of the nanocrystal modifications. The main categories of reactions carried out on cellulose nanocrystals are oxidations, esterifications, amidations, carbamations and etherifications. More recently nucleophilic substitutions have been used to introduce more complex functionality to cellulose nanocrystals. Multi-step modifications are also considered. This review emphasizes quantification of modification at the nanocrystal surface in terms of degree of substitution and the validity of conclusions drawn from different analysis techniques in this area. The mechanisms of the modification reactions are presented and considered with respect to the effect on the outcome of the reactions. While great strides have been made in the quality of analytical data published in the field of cellulose nanocrystal modification, there is still vast scope for improvement, both in data quality and the quality of analysis of data. Given the difficulty of surface analysis, cross-checking of results from different analysis techniques is fundamental for the development of reliable cellulose nanocrystal modification techniques.

  13. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi; Cheng, George Pak-Man; Chiu, Kin; Wang, Gui-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Data Sources: All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect. Study Selection: The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included, but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded. Results: Technology of surface modification included plasma, ion beam, layer-by-layer self-assembly, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol), polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, TiO2, heparin, F-heparin, titanium, titanium nitride, vinyl pyrrolidone, and inhibitors of cytokines. The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens, a more hydrophilic lens, or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface. Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments. Conclusion: The surface modification is an efficient, convenient, economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility of IOLs. PMID:26830993

  14. Body Modification and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength…

  15. Chromatin modifications and their function.

    PubMed

    Kouzarides, Tony

    2007-02-23

    The surface of nucleosomes is studded with a multiplicity of modifications. At least eight different classes have been characterized to date and many different sites have been identified for each class. Operationally, modifications function either by disrupting chromatin contacts or by affecting the recruitment of nonhistone proteins to chromatin. Their presence on histones can dictate the higher-order chromatin structure in which DNA is packaged and can orchestrate the ordered recruitment of enzyme complexes to manipulate DNA. In this way, histone modifications have the potential to influence many fundamental biological processes, some of which may be epigenetically inherited. PMID:17320507

  16. Chatting histone modifications in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin can be highly dynamic and can continuously exchange between an open transcriptionally active conformation and a compacted silenced one. Post-translational modifications of histones have a pivotal role in regulating chromatin states, thus influencing all chromatin dependent processes. Methylation is currently one of the best characterized histone modification and occurs on arginine and lysine residues. Histone methylation can regulate other modifications (e.g. acetylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination) in order to define a precise functional chromatin environment. In this review we focus on histone methylation and demethylation, as well as on the enzymes responsible for setting these marks. In particular we are describing novel concepts on the interdependence of histone modifications marks and discussing the molecular mechanisms governing this cross-talks. PMID:21266346

  17. Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garstang, Michael; Bruintjes, Roelof; Serafin, Robert; Orville, Harold; Boe, Bruce; Cotton, William; Warburton, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on “Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research” and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have not been comprehensively applied to weather modification. Such advances need to be capitalized upon in the form of a concerted and sustained national effort to carry out basic and applied research in weather modification. The need for credible scientific evidence and the pressure for action should be resolved. Differences in the perception of current knowledge, the utility of numerical models, and the specific needs of research and operations in weather modification must be addressed. The increasing demand for water and the cost to society inflicted by severe weather require that the intellectual, technical, and administrative resources of the nation be combined to resolve whether and to what degree humans can influence the weather.The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation


  18. Surface modification for corrosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1993-06-01

    The raw gas environments that arise from coal gasification have chemical compositions that are low in pO{sub 2} and moderate-to-high in pS{sub 2}. Metallic materials for service in such an environment undergo predominantly sulfidation attack at temperatures of 400 to 700{degree}C. Modification of alloy compositions in bulk can alter the scaling processes and lead to improvements in corrosion resistance, but the benefits can only be attained at temperatures much higher than the service temperatures of the components. Modification of surfaces of structural components by several of the coating techniques examined in this study showed substantial benefit in corrosion resistance when tested in simulated coal gasification environments. The paper presents several examples of surface modification and their corrosion performance.

  19. Laser modification of polyamide fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiyari, M. İ.

    2011-02-01

    A new method for the modification of the properties of polyamide fabric, based on exposure to the output from a CO 2 laser, has been investigated. It was found that, after laser modification of polyamide fabric, the dyeability of fabric was increased significantly, while the bursting strength was decreased. The reasons for this drastic increase in dyeability of polyamide fabrics have been analyzed with the help of FTIR and iodine sorption methods, revealing a relationship with a decrease in the crystallinity of the polyamide. It was observed that, as the laser modification of the fabric was carried out with low intensity, the concentration of free amino groups, which are necessary during dyeing with acid and reactive dyes, increased.

  20. Playing TETris with DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Delatte, Benjamin; Deplus, Rachel; Fuks, François

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of the fifth carbon of cytosine was the first epigenetic modification to be discovered in DNA. Recently, three new DNA modifications have come to light: hydroxymethylcytosine, formylcytosine, and carboxylcytosine, all generated by oxidation of methylcytosine by Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes. These modifications can initiate full DNA demethylation, but they are also likely to participate, like methylcytosine, in epigenetic signalling per se. A scenario is emerging in which coordinated regulation at multiple levels governs the participation of TETs in a wide range of physiological functions, sometimes via a mechanism unrelated to their enzymatic activity. Although still under construction, a sophisticated picture is rapidly forming where, according to the function to be performed, TETs ensure epigenetic marking to create specific landscapes, and whose improper build-up can lead to diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24825349

  1. Manufacturer evaluations of endograft modifications.

    PubMed

    Waninger, Matthew S; Whirley, Robert G; Smith, Louis J; Wolf, Ben S

    2013-03-01

    The motivation to modify the design of a vascular device can arise from a number of sources. Clinical experience with the unmodified device could suggest new design modifications to improve device performance or clinical outcomes. Similarly, clinical success with a device often suggests modifications that could broaden the applicability of the device to enable treatment of different or more advanced disease states. As a specific example, both of these scenarios have arisen during the last decade in the evolution of endovascular grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, with modifications enabling the treatment of patients with shorter infrarenal necks, more angulated anatomy, and smaller access vessels. These modifications have been made by manufacturers and additionally by physicians who create branched and fenestrated devices. The experience to date with the use of fenestrated devices and the development of chimney, snorkel, and periscope techniques suggests that modifications to off-the-shelf devices may provide some clinical benefit. This experience provides additional motivation for manufacturers to develop devices to address the clinical needs not met with their current product lines. For manufacturers, the device development process includes an assessment of the new device design to determine the appropriate evaluation strategy to support the safety and effectiveness of the modified device. This report provides a high-level overview of the process generally followed by device manufacturers to evaluate a proposed device modification before market release, in accordance with local country regulations and recognized international standards such as the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) standards for endovascular grafts (ISO 25539 Part 1).

  2. Manufacturer evaluations of endograft modifications.

    PubMed

    Waninger, Matthew S; Whirley, Robert G; Smith, Louis J; Wolf, Ben S

    2013-03-01

    The motivation to modify the design of a vascular device can arise from a number of sources. Clinical experience with the unmodified device could suggest new design modifications to improve device performance or clinical outcomes. Similarly, clinical success with a device often suggests modifications that could broaden the applicability of the device to enable treatment of different or more advanced disease states. As a specific example, both of these scenarios have arisen during the last decade in the evolution of endovascular grafts for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms, with modifications enabling the treatment of patients with shorter infrarenal necks, more angulated anatomy, and smaller access vessels. These modifications have been made by manufacturers and additionally by physicians who create branched and fenestrated devices. The experience to date with the use of fenestrated devices and the development of chimney, snorkel, and periscope techniques suggests that modifications to off-the-shelf devices may provide some clinical benefit. This experience provides additional motivation for manufacturers to develop devices to address the clinical needs not met with their current product lines. For manufacturers, the device development process includes an assessment of the new device design to determine the appropriate evaluation strategy to support the safety and effectiveness of the modified device. This report provides a high-level overview of the process generally followed by device manufacturers to evaluate a proposed device modification before market release, in accordance with local country regulations and recognized international standards such as the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) standards for endovascular grafts (ISO 25539 Part 1). PMID:23446123

  3. Black Psychologists Discuss Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardo, Harold R.; And Others

    The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss reasons why blacks should be concerned and actively involved with practices in behavior modification. The concern is that as these techniques are refined it becomes more important to be sure blacks should be involved at all levels of the application of these procedures when other blacks are subjects…

  4. Changing Attitudes Through Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, W. Scott

    This article describes the philosophy and methods used by the staff at the Granite Alternative School in changing student attitudes through behavior modification. The students involved all have a failure syndrome or low self-image, and are dropouts from traditional high schools. Among the techniques used are: (1) reinforcing good behavior (praise…

  5. Behavior Modification: The Human Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradfield, Robert H., Ed.

    To present the ideas and research of outstanding behaviorists which is directly related to the education of children, the authors tried to include a diverse group of educational situations. Two articles give an overview of behavior modification, while five educational applications are discussed. They concern learning problems, language…

  6. Plasma surface modification of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirotsu, T.

    1980-01-01

    Thin plasma polymerization films are discussed from the viewpoint of simplicity in production stages. The application of selective, absorbent films and films used in selective permeability was tested. The types of surface modification of polymers discussed are: (1) plasma etching, (2) surface coating by plasma polymerized thin films, and (3) plasma activation surface graft polymerization.

  7. Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2002-01-01

    Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)

  8. Carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrate modification is a common phenomenon in nature. Many carbohydrate modifications such as some epimerization, O-acetylation, O-sulfation, O-methylation, N-deacetylation, and N-sulfation, take place after the formation of oligosaccharide or polysaccharide backbones. These modifications can be categorized as carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications (PGMs). Carbohydrate PGMs further extend the complexity of the structures and the synthesis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They also increase the capacity of the biological information that can be controlled by finely tuning the structures of carbohydrates. Developing efficient methods to obtain structurally defined naturally occurring oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates with carbohydrate PGMs is essential for understanding the biological significance of carbohydrate PGMs. Combine with high-throughput screening methods, synthetic carbohydrates with PGMs are invaluable probes in structure-activity relationship studies. We illustrate here several classes of carbohydrates with PGMs and their applications. Recent progress in chemical, enzymatic, and chemoenzymatic syntheses of these carbohydrates and their derivatives are also presented. PMID:17340000

  9. Behavior Modification in Marriage Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Emily; Redfering, David L.

    1975-01-01

    The spouses were counseled jointly with a cognitive approach and separately with behavior modification techniques for the husband's obesity and the wife's lack of affective verbalization. After eight weeks, the husband had lost thirty pounds and the wife's affective language had increased markedly. (Author)

  10. ALKBHs-facilitated RNA modifications and de-modifications.

    PubMed

    A Alemu, Endalkachew; He, Chuan; Klungland, Arne

    2016-08-01

    The AlkB gene that protects E.coli against methylation damage to DNA was identified more than 3 decades ago. 20 years later, the AlkB protein was shown to catalyze repair of methylated DNA base lesions by oxidative demethylation. Two human AlkB homologs were characterized with similar DNA repair activities and seven additional human AlkB homologs were identified based on sequence homology. All these dioxygenases, ALKBH1-8 and FTO, contain a conserved α-ketoglutarate/iron-dependent domain for methyl modifications and de-modifications. Well-designed research over the last 10 years has identified unforeseen substrate heterogeneity for the AlkB homologs, including novel reversible methyl modifications in RNA. The discoveries of RNA demethylation catalyzed by AlkB family enzymes initiated a new realm of gene expression regulation, although the understanding of precise endogenous activities and roles of these RNA demethylases are still undeveloped. It is worth mentioning that the AlkB mechanism and use of α-ketoglutarate have also emerged to be essential for many enzymes in epigenetic reprogramming that modify and de-modify methylated bases in DNA and methylated amino acids in histones. PMID:27237585

  11. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ρ, ω and φ mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  12. Dynamic RNA modifications in disease.

    PubMed

    Klungland, Arne; Dahl, John Arne

    2014-06-01

    While the presence of 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications in mRNA was noted several decades ago, the first enzyme reversing this modification was identified very recently. Today we know of two methyltransferases introducing m6A in mRNA--METTL3 and METTL14--and two demethylases that remove it have been identified-FTO (ALKBH9) and ALKBH5. The conserved role of m6A seems to relate to meiosis, and mice lacking ALKBH5 are infertile. While loss-of-function mutation in FTO causes a recessive lethal syndrome, sequence variants in introns of the FTO gene are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25005745

  13. Modification of chemotherapy by nitroimidazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    The potentiation of chemotherapeutic agents by radiation sensitizers has been extensively studied for several years. There is little doubt that the effectiveness of certain anti-cancer drugs, primarily alkylating agents, can readily be enhanced both in vitro and in vivo through the addition of a sensitizer. While enhanced effects have been observed in certain critical normal tissues, in general most animal model studies have demonstrated a therapeutic gain at large sensitizer doses. This approach to combination therapies therefore appears promising. Yet many questions concerning the interaction between chemotherapeutic agents and radiosensitizers, particularly in the aspects of modification of chemotherapy by nitroimidazoles are reviewed and discussed. These address the importance in chemopotentiation of (i) hypoxia, (ii) alterations in DNA damage and/or repair, (iii) depletion of intracellular sulfhydryls and (iv) modification of drug pharmacokinetics.

  14. Chromatin modifications associated with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Keating, Samuel T; El-Osta, Assam

    2012-08-01

    Accelerated rates of vascular complications are associated with diabetes mellitus. Environmental factors including hyperglycaemia contribute to the progression of diabetic complications. Epidemiological and experimental animal studies identified poor glycaemic control as a major contributor to the development of complications. These studies suggest that early exposure to hyperglycaemia can instigate the development of complications that present later in the progression of the disease, despite improved glycaemic control. Recent experiments reveal a striking commonality associated with gene-activating hyperglycaemic events and chromatin modification. The best characterised to date are associated with the chemical changes of amino-terminal tails of histone H3. Enzymes that write specified histone tail modifications are not well understood in models of hyperglycaemia and metabolic memory as well as human diabetes. The best-characterised enzyme is the lysine specific Set7 methyltransferase. The contribution of Set7 to the aetiology of diabetic complications may extend to other transcriptional events through methylation of non-histone substrates. PMID:22639343

  15. [Advances in genetic modification technologies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baixue; Sun, Qixin; Li, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Genetic modification technology is a new molecular tool for targeted genome modification. It includes zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) technology and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) (CRISPR-Cas) nucleases technology. All of these nucleases create DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) at chromosomal targeted sites and induce cell endogenous mechanisms that are primarily repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathway, resulting in targeted endogenous gene knock-out or exogenous gene insertion. In recent years, genetic modification technologies have been successfully applied to bacteria, yeast, human cells, fruit fly, zebra fish, mouse, rat, livestock, cynomolgus monkey, Arabidopsis, rice, tobacco, maize, sorghum, wheat, barley and other organisms, showing its enormous advantage in gene editing field. Especially, the newly developed CRISPR-Cas9 system arose more attention because of its low cost, high effectiveness, simplicity and easiness. We reviewed the principles and the latest research progress of these three technologies, as well as prospect of future research and applications.

  16. Epigenetic Modifications in Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Ingrid A.; Charchar, Fadi J.

    2016-01-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex, polygenic condition with no single causative agent. Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of EH, hypertension remains one of the world’s leading public health problems. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications are as important as genetic predisposition in the development of EH. Indeed, a complex and interactive genetic and environmental system exists to determine an individual’s risk of EH. Epigenetics refers to all heritable changes to the regulation of gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling, without involvement of nucleotide sequence changes. Epigenetic modification is recognized as an essential process in biology, but is now being investigated for its role in the development of specific pathologic conditions, including EH. Epigenetic research will provide insights into the pathogenesis of blood pressure regulation that cannot be explained by classic Mendelian inheritance. This review concentrates on epigenetic modifications to DNA structure, including the influence of non-coding RNAs on hypertension development. PMID:27023534

  17. Protein Modification by Adenine Propenal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Base propenals are products of the reaction of DNA with oxidants such as peroxynitrite and bleomycin. The most reactive base propenal, adenine propenal, is mutagenic in Escherichia coli and reacts with DNA to form covalent adducts; however, the reaction of adenine propenal with protein has not yet been investigated. A survey of the reaction of adenine propenal with amino acids revealed that lysine and cysteine form adducts, whereas histidine and arginine do not. Nε-Oxopropenyllysine, a lysine–lysine cross-link, and S-oxopropenyl cysteine are the major products. Comprehensive profiling of the reaction of adenine propenal with human serum albumin and the DNA repair protein, XPA, revealed that the only stable adduct is Nε-oxopropenyllysine. The most reactive sites for modification in human albumin are K190 and K351. Three sites of modification of XPA are in the DNA-binding domain, and two sites are subject to regulatory acetylation. Modification by adenine propenal dramatically reduces XPA’s ability to bind to a DNA substrate. PMID:25211669

  18. DNA modifications: Another stable base in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazauskas, Pijus; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas

    2014-12-01

    Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine has been proposed to mediate active and passive DNA demethylation. Tracking the history of DNA modifications has now provided the first solid evidence that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is a stable epigenetic modification.

  19. 40 CFR 60.397 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coating Operations § 60.397 Modifications. The following physical or operational changes are not, by themselves, considered modifications of existing facilities: (a) Changes as a result of model...

  20. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  1. Modification Of Gear Teeth To Reduce Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulations yield data useful in designing for low noise. Effects of modifications in shape of gear teeth upon static transmission error and dynamic loading of gears now analyzed systematically. Design curves generated by conducting numerical simulations of dynamic effects at successive incremental modifications of gear systems operated at various applied loads. Modifications that result in minimum dynamic effect determined from design curves.

  2. Modification: A Leader Skill in Group Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    Modification mitigates negative feedback by immediately attempting to improve the feedback's level of acceptability. This article introduces modification as a group-leader skill necessary for the processing of messages containing both counterproductive and productive elements. Describes the value and application of modification in group work. (RJM)

  3. Modification Propagation in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouronte, Mary Luz; Vargas, María Luisa; Moyano, Luis Gregorio; Algarra, Francisco Javier García; Del Pozo, Luis Salvador

    To keep up with rapidly changing conditions, business systems and their associated networks are growing increasingly intricate as never before. By doing this, network management and operation costs not only rise, but are difficult even to measure. This fact must be regarded as a major constraint to system optimization initiatives, as well as a setback to derived economic benefits. In this work we introduce a simple model in order to estimate the relative cost associated to modification propagation in complex architectures. Our model can be used to anticipate costs caused by network evolution, as well as for planning and evaluating future architecture development while providing benefit optimization.

  4. RSRM Propellant Grain Geometry Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schorr, Andrew A.; Endicott, Joni B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is composed of viewgraphs about the RSRM propellant grain geometry modification project, which hopes to improve personnel and system safety by modifying propellant grain geometry to improve structural factors of safety. Using techniques such as Finite Element Analysis to determine blend radii required to reduce localized stresses, and ballistic predictions to ensure that the ballistics, ignition transient and Block Model have not been adversely affected, the project hopes to build and test FSM-10 with a new design, and determine flight effectivity pending successful test evaluation.

  5. Piperine: bioactivities and structural modifications.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huan; Lv, Min; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Piperine is a simple alkaloid isolated from the seeds of Piper nigrum. Piperine and its derivatives exhibited a wide range of biological properties such as antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, antiinflammatory activity, antimycobacterial activity, insecticidal activity, etc. Although five excellent reviews have recently been described by Srinivasan in 2007, Mao in 2011, Butt in 2013, and Meghwal in 2013, respectively, their topics were mainly focused on the biological effects. Therefore, in the present review, the progress in the structural modifications on the aliphatic chain and the amide moiety of piperine was reported. Meanwhile, the biological activities and structure-activity relationship of piperine and its derivatives were also described. PMID:25553428

  6. Transfer RNA modifications: nature's combinatorial chemistry playground.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Jane E; Alfonzo, Juan D

    2013-01-01

    Following synthesis, tRNAs are peppered by numerous chemical modifications which may differentially affect a tRNA's structure and function. Although modifications affecting the business ends of a tRNA are predictably important for cell viability, a majority of modifications play more subtle structural roles that can affect tRNA stability and folding. The current trend is that modifications act in concert and it is in the context of the specific sequence of a given tRNA that they impart their differing effects. Recent developments in the modification field have highlighted the diversity of modifications in tRNA. From these, the combinatorial nature of modifications in explaining previously described phenotypes derived from their absence has emerged as a growing theme.

  7. Ion Beam Modification of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Averback, B; de la Rubia, T D; Felter, T E; Hamza, A V; Rehn, L E

    2005-10-10

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, IBMM 2004, and is published by Elsevier-Science Publishers as a special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods B. The conference series is the major international forum to present and discuss recent research results and future directions in the field of ion beam modification, synthesis and characterization of materials. The first conference in the series was held in Budapest, Hungary, 1978, and subsequent conferences were held every two years at locations around the Globe, most recently in Japan, Brazil, and the Netherlands. The series brings together physicists, materials scientists, and ion beam specialists from all over the world. The official conference language is English. IBMM 2004 was held on September 5-10, 2004. The focus was on materials science involving both basic ion-solid interaction processes and property changes occurring either during or subsequent to ion bombardment and ion beam processing in relation to materials and device applications. Areas of research included Nanostructures, Multiscale Modeling, Patterning of Surfaces, Focused Ion Beams, Defects in Semiconductors, Insulators and Metals, Cluster Beams, Radiation Effects in Materials, Photonic Devices, Ion Implantation, Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine including New Materials, Imaging, and Treatment.

  8. Germline modification of domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tang, L.; González, R.; Dobrinski, I.

    2016-01-01

    Genetically-modified domestic animal models are of increasing significance in biomedical research and agriculture. As authentic ES cells derived from domestic animals are not yet available, the prevailing approaches for engineering genetic modifications in those animals are pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, also known as cloning). Both pronuclear microinjection and SCNT are inefficient, costly, and time-consuming. In animals produced by pronuclear microinjection, the exogenous transgene is usually inserted randomly into the genome, which results in highly variable expression patterns and levels in different founders. Therefore, significant efforts are required to generate and screen multiple founders to obtain animals with optimal transgene expression. For SCNT, specific genetic modifications (both gain-of-function and loss-of-function) can be engineered and carefully selected in the somatic cell nucleus before nuclear transfer. SCNT has been used to generate a variety of genetically modified animals such as goats, pigs, sheep and cattle; however, animals resulting from SCNT frequently suffer from developmental abnormalities associated with incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Other strategies to generate genetically-modified animals rely on the use of the spermatozoon as a natural vector to introduce genetic material into the female gamete. This sperm mediated DNA transfer (SMGT) combined with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has relatively high efficiency and allows the insertion of large DNA fragments, which, in turn, enhance proper gene expression. An approach currently being developed to complement SCNT for producing genetically modified animals is germ cell transplantation using genetically modified male germline stem cells (GSCs). This approach relies on the ability of GSCs that are genetically modified in vitro to colonize the recipient testis and produce donor derived sperm upon transplantation. As the genetic change

  9. Realities of craniofacial growth modification.

    PubMed

    Kluemper, G T; Spalding, P M

    2001-03-01

    Facial growth modification can be an effective method of resolving skeletal discrepancies. There still is much controversy regarding our understanding of the nature and extent of skeletal orthopedic change possible in individual patients and the most effective appliances and timing of such treatment. In the treatment of class II patients, growth modification can lead to an improvement, if not complete correction of the class II malocclusion. Although two-phase treatment with an early first prepubertal phase can be effective, a later single-phase approach during early puberty seems to be equally effective. Certainly, before surgical correction of the mild to moderate skeletal class II problem in a growing patient is considered, an orthopedic phase of treatment prior to the pubertal growth spurt is an appropriate first step. Skeletal class III patients with a maxillary deficiency stand to gain significant benefits from early orthopedic treatment. However, such therapy may produce more favorable changes for older children and adolescents than previously thought. Nevertheless, orthopedic correction of the mild to moderate skeletal class III should be accompanied by regular progress evaluations to avoid creating significant dental compensations in the face with little skeletal change that ultimately requires surgery anyway. Skeletal class III patients with mandibular excess and/or vertical excess are poor candidates for growth modification. Orthopedic palatal expansion appears to be effective and stable at any time prior to late puberty, a stage of development when ossification of the maxillary sutures is more advanced. Consequently, the timing for expansion may be better determined by the specific needs of each patient. A functional shift resulting from a crossbite is optimally corrected early, so that asymmetric growth of the mandible can be reduced or even prevented. Postpubertal orthopedic expansion is likely to result in bone bending, which will reverse itself over

  10. Review of Rule Modification in Sport

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative review was to analyze the state of the bibliography about rule modification in sport. In the literature reviewed, there are few studies of rule modification and related aspects. Most studies omit mentioning the purpose of the modifications, but they do refer to the goals of their analysis (improving players' performance, attracting spectators and athletes, attending to commercial pressure, adapting the sport to children’s needs and interests, preventing injuries). Eighty percent of the studies did not report the outcome of the previous modifications they analyzed. More than half of the studies (60%) achieved the proposed goals. Nearly two-thirds (63.83%) analyzed the effect of rule modification on game actions occurring during the game or through a test. Most of the studies (91.5%) did not consult the participants. Three-fourths of the studies (74.46%) examined the effect of rule modification without any knowledge of a previous analysis or without any previous analysis, and 74.47% studied rule modification related to internal logic. Modifications to be introduced in a sport should be analyzed through a reflective process before their final introduction. The following points should be considered: establishing goals, respecting the basic rules without modifying them, becoming familiar with players’ and coaches’ opinions, determining the effect of the modification on a wide spectrum of variables, elaborating useful proposals for the organizations that are responsible for competitions, using more than one type of data, modifying the internal logic and, preferably, the functional rules, and following some basic stages to consolidate rule modification. Key points Rule modification involves processes that seek change in the game conditions with a certain goal in mind. The rules related to internal logic model the game actions that are characteristic of a sport. Functional rules facilitate achieving the goals. There are few valid research

  11. Aeolian modification of planetary surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1982-01-01

    Any planet or satellite having a dynamic atmosphere and a solid surface is subject to aeolian or wind processes. A survey of the solar system shows that earth, Mars, Venus, and possibly Titan meet these criteria. Attention is given to the relevance of aeolian processes to planetary geology, approaches for investigating aeolian processes, observations on Mars, conditions on Venus, and studies of Titan with the aid of the Voyager spacecraft. It is found that aeolian processes play an important role in the modification of the surfaces of earth and Mars. Indirect evidence suggests that Venus and perhaps Titan also may experience aeolian activity. Study of aeolian activity in a planetary context thus affords the opportunity to examine a fundamental process under a wide range of environmental conditions. Each planet can be viewed as a vast natural laboratory.

  12. Paper surface modification by lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekou, E.; Kotsifaki, D. G.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    Lasers can provide a precious tool to conservation process due to their accuracy and the controlled energy they deliver, especially to fragile organic material such as paper. The current study concerns laser modification such as paper cleaning, initially of test papers artificially soiled and then of an original book of the early 20th Century. The test objects were A4 copier paper, newspaper, and paper Whatman No.1056. During the experiments, ink of a pen, pencil and ink from a stamp was mechanically employed on each paper surface. Laser cleaning was applied using a Q-switched Nd:YAG operating at 532 nm and CO2 laser at 10.6 μm for various fluences. The experimental results were presented by using optical microscopy. Eventually, laser cleaning of ink was performed to a book of 1934, by choosing the best conditions and parameters from cleaning the test samples, like Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm.

  13. Laser surface modification of PEEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; del Val, J.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2012-09-01

    Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties, which make it attractive for the field of reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, this material has a poor interfacial biocompatibility due to its large chemical stability which induces poor adhesive bonding properties. The possibilities of enhancing the PEEK adhesive properties by laser treatments have been explored in the past. This paper presents a systematic approach to discern the role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK under three laser wavelengths (λ = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) with the aim to determine the most adequate processing conditions to increase the roughness and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants. Overall results show that the ultraviolet (λ = 355 nm) laser radiation is the most suitable one to enhance surface wettability of PEEK.

  14. Messenger RNA modifications: Form, distribution, and function.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Wendy V; Bell, Tristan A; Schaening, Cassandra

    2016-06-17

    RNA contains more than 100 distinct modifications that promote the functions of stable noncoding RNAs in translation and splicing. Recent technical advances have revealed widespread and sparse modification of messenger RNAs with N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C), and pseudouridine (Ψ). Here we discuss the rapidly evolving understanding of the location, regulation, and function of these dynamic mRNA marks, collectively termed the epitranscriptome. We highlight differences among modifications and between species that could instruct ongoing efforts to understand how specific mRNA target sites are selected and how their modification is regulated. Diverse molecular consequences of individual m(6)A modifications are beginning to be revealed, but the effects of m(5)C and Ψ remain largely unknown. Future work linking molecular effects to organismal phenotypes will broaden our understanding of mRNA modifications as cell and developmental regulators. PMID:27313037

  15. Epigenetic Modifications and Plant Hormone Action.

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, Chizuko; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The action of phytohormones in plants requires the spatiotemporal regulation of their accumulation and responses at various levels. Recent studies reveal an emerging relationship between the function of phytohormones and epigenetic modifications. In particular, evidence suggests that auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signal transduction is modulated by microRNAs and epigenetic factors such as histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and DNA methylation. Furthermore, some phytohormones have been shown to affect epigenetic modifications. These findings are shedding light on the mode of action of phytohormones and are opening up a new avenue of research on phytohormones as well as on the mechanisms regulating epigenetic modifications.

  16. Enzymatic modification of flaxseed fibers.

    PubMed

    Maijala, Pekka; Mäkinen, Marliina; Galkin, Sari; Fagerstedt, Kurt; Härkäsalmi, Tiina; Viikari, Liisa

    2012-11-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibers were modified by oxidoreductive and cellulolytic enzymes. The lignin amount and intrinsic plant peroxidase activity was evaluated by histochemical and spectrophotometric assays. Peroxidase activity was not found from bast fibers. The flaxseed fibers were further separated and treated with laccase to conjugate the model compounds, that is, the hydrophobic gallate molecules on fiber surfaces. Laccase was able to slowly oxidize fiber-conjugated phenolics, but no fundamental changes in fiber cell surface structure or notable coupling of the applied hydrophobic gallate molecules onto the fibers occurred, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reactivity of the mature fibers was further investigated using cellulolytic enzymes. Cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and endoglucanase (EG)-rich enzyme preparations were applied to reach a hydrolysis degree of 1-6% (of the fiber dry matter) using a standard enzyme dosage. The CBH mixture altered the fiber surface morphology distinctly, and SEM images illustrated fibers in which the cellulose fibrils seemed to be loosened and partially hydrolyzed. In contrast, the effect of the EG-rich preparation without CBH activity was notable on the fiber surface, polishing the surfaces. The cellulolytic treatments were potentially interesting for specific enzymatic modifications of flax fiber surfaces, whereas the approach to use oxidoreductive enzyme treatments on mature linseed fibers offered little potential, obviously due to the low lignin content of the fibers.

  17. 30 CFR 282.25 - Plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan modification. 282.25 Section 282.25... § 282.25 Plan modification. Approved Delineation, Testing, and Mining Plans may be modified upon the... to modify an approved plan to adjust to changed conditions. If the lessee requests the change,...

  18. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... projects under § 72.44(g)(1)(i) and (2) of this part. (b) The following permit revisions shall follow, at... modification procedures or the fast-track modification procedures under § 72.82 of this part: (1) Consistent...: (i) Subparts E, F, and G of this part, where the Administrator is the permitting authority; or...

  19. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... projects under § 72.44(g)(1)(i) and (2) of this part. (b) The following permit revisions shall follow, at... modification procedures or the fast-track modification procedures under § 72.82 of this part: (1) Consistent...: (i) Subparts E, F, and G of this part, where the Administrator is the permitting authority; or...

  20. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... projects under § 72.44(g)(1)(i) and (2) of this part. (b) The following permit revisions shall follow, at... modification procedures or the fast-track modification procedures under § 72.82 of this part: (1) Consistent...: (i) Subparts E, F, and G of this part, where the Administrator is the permitting authority; or...

  1. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... projects under § 72.44(g)(1)(i) and (2) of this part. (b) The following permit revisions shall follow, at... modification procedures or the fast-track modification procedures under § 72.82 of this part: (1) Consistent...: (i) Subparts E, F, and G of this part, where the Administrator is the permitting authority; or...

  2. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... modification of any existing facility: (1) The addition of gravity loadout spouts to existing grain storage or... and drive units driving existing grain handling equipment. (4) The installation of permanent storage... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications....

  3. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

  4. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  5. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  6. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  7. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  8. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 282.25 - Plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan modification. 282.25 Section 282.25... Obligations and Responsibilities of Lessees § 282.25 Plan modification. Approved Delineation, Testing, and... subject to the applicable review and approval procedures of §§ 282.21, 282.22, 282.23, and 282.24 of...

  10. Harnessing epigenome modifications for better crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical DNA modifications such as methylation influence translation of the DNA code to specific genetic outcomes. While such modifications can be heritable, others are transient, and their overall contribution to plant genetic diversity remains intriguing but uncertain. The focus of this article is...

  11. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications. (a... the program so long as the modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for... of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no additional cost to...

  12. 76 FR 1063 - Modifications of Debt Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... FR 31736) that proposed amendments to Sec. 1.1001-3 to clarify the circumstances in which the credit... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ30 Modifications of Debt Instruments AGENCY: Internal... regulations relating to the modification of debt instruments. The regulations clarify the extent to which...

  13. 38 CFR 36.4315 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... back from the modification. (j) This section does not create a right of a borrower to have a loan... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan modifications. 36...) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4315...

  14. 75 FR 29784 - Petitions for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ..., Arlington, Virginia 22209- 3939, Attention: Patricia W. Silvey, Director, Office of Standards, Regulations... Wilson Boulevard, Room 2350, Arlington, Virginia 22209-3939, Attention: Patricia W. Silvey, Director... modification. II. Petitions for Modification Docket Numbers: M-2010-020-C. Petitioner: The Wolf Run...

  15. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modifications. 60.304 Section 60.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications....

  16. Behavior Modification: A Practical Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteet, James A.

    This teachers guide in behavior modification is divided into five chapters. Chapter one, "Describing Behavior," presents methods for specifying behaviors in precise wording, labeling behavior, and deciding on the target behavior (behavior designated for modification). Chapter two, "Measuring Behavior," describes and illustrates by means of graphs…

  17. 14 CFR 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Modifications. 1274.802 Section 1274.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... agreement in particular, modifications that affect funding, milestone payments, program schedule...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Modifications. 1274.802 Section 1274.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... agreement in particular, modifications that affect funding, milestone payments, program schedule...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications. 1274.802 Section 1274.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... agreement in particular, modifications that affect funding, milestone payments, program schedule...

  20. 14 CFR § 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Modifications. § 1274.802 Section § 1274.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH... cooperative agreement in particular, modifications that affect funding, milestone payments, program...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Modifications. 1274.802 Section 1274.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... agreement in particular, modifications that affect funding, milestone payments, program schedule...

  2. Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

  3. Characterization of Surface Modification of Polyethersulfone Membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surface using UV/ozone-treated grafting and interfacial polymerization on membrane surface was investigated in order to improve the resistance of membrane surface to protein adsorption. These methods of surface modification were compared in te...

  4. The pivotal regulatory landscape of RNA modifications.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Mason, Christopher E

    2014-01-01

    Posttranscriptionally modified nucleosides in RNA play integral roles in the cellular control of biological information that is encoded in DNA. The modifications of RNA span all three phylogenetic domains (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya) and are pervasive across RNA types, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and (less frequently) small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). Nucleotide modifications are also one of the most evolutionarily conserved properties of RNAs, and the sites of modification are under strong selective pressure. However, many of these modifications, as well as their prevalence and impact, have only recently been discovered. Here, we examine both labile and permanent modifications, from simple methylation to complex transcript alteration (RNA editing and intron retention); detail the models for their processing; and highlight remaining questions in the field of the epitranscriptome. PMID:24898039

  5. Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

  6. DNA modifications in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaehoon; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark in mammalian development, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, chromosomal stability and suppressing parasitic DNA elements. DNA methylation in neurons has also been suggested to play important roles for mammalian neuronal functions, and learning and memory. In this review, we first summarize recent discoveries and fundamental principles of DNA modifications in the general epigenetics field. We then describe the profiles of different DNA modifications in the mammalian brain genome. Finally, we discuss roles of DNA modifications in mammalian brain development and function. PMID:25135973

  7. 75 FR 3253 - Petitions for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... production day, persons designated by the mine operator will visually examine the trailing cables to ensure... modification of the existing standard to permit the Getman Road Builder, Serial Number 460- 002 to be...

  8. Fifth wheel modification assembly, Issue U

    SciTech Connect

    Arning, C.

    1994-12-31

    This report consists of one engineering drawing showing modifications to the Fifth Wheel System for a semi-tractor trailer truck. Notes give instructions for installation of some items, where other items may be purchased, testing instructions, and shipping instructions.

  9. A-1 modification work under way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Phil Schemanski of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne removes equipment inside the thrust drum on the A-1 Test Stand as part of a comprehensive modification project to prepare for testing the new J-2X engine.

  10. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies. PMID:26333275

  11. 7 CFR 623.14 - Easement modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.14 Easement modifications... established. A modified easement shall be perfected in accordance with State law and NRCS superior...

  12. Regulation of chromatin by histone modifications

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, Andrew J; Kouzarides, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin is not an inert structure, but rather an instructive DNA scaffold that can respond to external cues to regulate the many uses of DNA. A principle component of chromatin that plays a key role in this regulation is the modification of histones. There is an ever-growing list of these modifications and the complexity of their action is only just beginning to be understood. However, it is clear that histone modifications play fundamental roles in most biological processes that are involved in the manipulation and expression of DNA. Here, we describe the known histone modifications, define where they are found genomically and discuss some of their functional consequences, concentrating mostly on transcription where the majority of characterisation has taken place. PMID:21321607

  13. Sustainable environmental nanotechnology using nanoparticle surface modification.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive nanomaterials used for environmental remediation require surface modification to make them mobile in the subsurface. Nanomaterials released into the environment inadvertently without an engineered surface coating will acquire one (e.g. adsorption of natural organic matt...

  14. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies. PMID:26333275

  15. 47 CFR 25.118 - Modifications not requiring prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....118 Modifications not requiring prior authorization. (a) Earth station license modifications, notification required. Authorized earth station operators may make the following modifications to their... of part 1, subpart Y of this chapter: (1) Licensees may make changes to their authorized...

  16. 47 CFR 25.118 - Modifications not requiring prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....118 Modifications not requiring prior authorization. (a) Earth station license modifications, notification required. Authorized earth station operators may make the following modifications to their... of part 1, subpart Y of this chapter: (1) Licensees may make changes to their authorized...

  17. 47 CFR 25.118 - Modifications not requiring prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....118 Modifications not requiring prior authorization. (a) Earth station license modifications, notification required. Authorized earth station operators may make the following modifications to their... of part 1, subpart Y of this chapter: (1) Licensees may make changes to their authorized...

  18. 47 CFR 25.118 - Modifications not requiring prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....118 Modifications not requiring prior authorization. (a) Earth station license modifications, notification required. Authorized earth station operators may make the following modifications to their... of part 1, subpart Y of this chapter: (1) Licensees may make changes to their authorized...

  19. 47 CFR 25.118 - Modifications not requiring prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....118 Modifications not requiring prior authorization. (a) Earth station license modifications, notification required. Authorized earth station operators may make the following modifications to their... of part 1, subpart Y of this chapter: (1) Licensees may make changes to their authorized...

  20. Current status on plastic scintillators modifications.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Guillaume H V; Hamel, Matthieu; Sguerra, Fabien

    2014-11-24

    Recent developments of plastic scintillators are reviewed, from 2000 to March 2014, distributed in two different chapters. First chapter deals with the chemical modifications of the polymer backbone, whereas modifications of the fluorescent probe are presented in the second chapter. All examples are provided with the scope of detection of various radiation particles. The main characteristics of these newly created scintillators and their detection properties are given. PMID:25335882

  1. 15 Modification of phycobiliproteins at asparagine residues.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Alan V

    2006-01-01

    Side-chain amide methylation of asparagine was described in a special complement of photosynthesis accessory pigment-protein complexes called phycobiliproteins nearly 20 years ago. Since that report, several investigations have assigned this posttranslational modification a functional role in tuning the spectroscopic properties of the phycobiliprotein chromophores. Asparagine methylation has not been reported in other systems and is restricted to the broader phycobiliprotein family. The methyltransferase responsible for this modification has been partially characterized but the structural gene has not been identified.

  2. Beam distribution modification by Alfven modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2010-05-15

    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison to experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  3. Epigenetic Modifications of Histones in Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, M D; Jiao, Y; Larsson, L; Almeida, L O; Garaicoa-Pazmino, C; Le, J M; Squarize, C H; Inohara, N; Giannobile, W V; Castilho, R M

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease driven by dysbiosis, an imbalance between commensal bacteria and the host organism. Periodontitis is a leading cause of tooth loss in adults and occurs in about 50% of the US population. In addition to the clinical challenges associated with treating periodontitis, the progression and chronic nature of this disease seriously affect human health. Emerging evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with mechanisms beyond bacteria-induced protein and tissue degradation. Here, we hypothesize that bacteria are able to induce epigenetic modifications in oral epithelial cells mediated by histone modifications. In this study, we found that dysbiosis in vivo led to epigenetic modifications, including acetylation of histones and downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. In addition, in vitro exposure of oral epithelial cells to lipopolysaccharides resulted in histone modifications, activation of transcriptional coactivators, such as p300/CBP, and accumulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Given that oral epithelial cells are the first line of defense for the periodontium against bacteria, we also evaluated whether activation of pathogen recognition receptors induced histone modifications. We found that activation of the Toll-like receptors 1, 2, and 4 and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 1 induced histone acetylation in oral epithelial cells. Our findings corroborate the emerging concept that epigenetic modifications play a role in the development of periodontitis. PMID:26496800

  4. Chemical modification of polymeric microchip devices.

    PubMed

    Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales

    2007-12-15

    Analytical polymeric microchips in both fluidic and array formats offer short analysis times, coupling of many sample processing and chemical reaction steps on one platform with minimal sample and reagent consumption, as well as low cost, minimal fabrication times and disposability. However, the invariable bulk properties of most commercial polymers have driven researchers to develop new modification strategies. This article critically reviews the scope and development of chemical modifications of such polymeric chips since 2003. Surface modifications were based on chemical derivatization or activation of surface layers with reagent solutions, reactive gases and irradiation. Bulk modification of polymer chips used newly incorporation of monomers with selective chemical functionalities throughout the bulk polymer material and integrated the chip modification and fabrication into a single step. Such modifications hold a great promise for establishing a true 'lab-on-chip' as can be seen from many novel applications for modulating electroosmosis, suppressing protein adsorption in microchip capillary electrophoretic separations, extraction of analytes and for zone-specific binding of enzymes and other biomolecules. PMID:18371647

  5. Enzymatic modifications of exopolysaccharides enhance bacterial persistence

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-attached communities of bacterial cells embedded in a self-produced matrix that are found ubiquitously in nature. The biofilm matrix is composed of various extracellular polymeric substances, which confer advantages to the encapsulated bacteria by protecting them from eradication. The matrix composition varies between species and is dependent on the environmental niche that the bacteria inhabit. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a variety of important roles in biofilm formation in numerous bacterial species. The ability of bacteria to thrive in a broad range of environmental settings is reflected in part by the structural diversity of the EPS produced both within individual bacterial strains as well as by different species. This variability is achieved through polymerization of distinct sugar moieties into homo- or hetero-polymers, as well as post-polymerization modification of the polysaccharide. Specific enzymes that are unique to the production of each polymer can transfer or remove non-carbohydrate moieties, or in other cases, epimerize the sugar units. These modifications alter the physicochemical properties of the polymer, which in turn can affect bacterial pathogenicity, virulence, and environmental adaptability. Herein, we review the diversity of modifications that the EPS alginate, the Pel polysaccharide, Vibrio polysaccharide, cepacian, glycosaminoglycans, and poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine undergo during biosynthesis. These are EPS produced by human pathogenic bacteria for which studies have begun to unravel the effect modifications have on their physicochemical and biological properties. The biological advantages these polymer modifications confer to the bacteria that produce them will be discussed. The expanding list of identified modifications will allow future efforts to focus on linking these modifications to specific biosynthetic genes and biofilm phenotypes. PMID:26029200

  6. Tardive dyskinesia: update for the mental health administrator.

    PubMed

    Kalachnik, J E; Slaw, K M

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the fact that TD is not dissipating and that short of a quality TD monitoring system the mental health administrator is rolling the dice regarding patient welfare and successful litigation, the administrator should be aware of several important auxillary issues. These issues are written informed consent (for the use of psychotropic medication) and minimal effective dose (for the psychotropic medication prescribed). It is likely the quality of a facility's practices and policy in these areas will come under scrutiny at some point, especially if TD is involved. The purpose of this article, therefore, is two-fold. The first is to update the administrator on TD and the related issues of informed consent and minimal effective dose. The second is to briefly outline applied policies the administrator may implement to address these issues. While the administrator will delegate the detailed development of such policies, it is critical he or she back such policies and be able to ascertain if the concepts and procedures incorporated serve the patient and protect the facility. Only then can the administrator delegate valuable monetary resources and properly exert effective personnel influence. PMID:10314640

  7. Interpreting thelanguage of histone and DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Rothbart, Scott B.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or ‘code’ that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins has raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. PMID:24631868

  8. Modification of chemical additives to elastomeric compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhutdinov, A. A.; Grishin, B. S.

    1994-08-01

    The physicochemical principles of the modification of crystalline chemical additives to elastomeric compositions are examined. A classification of various types of modifications based on scientific principles is given. The modifications are subdivided into physical and physicochemical depending on the configuration of the molecules in the crystals, the defectiveness and dispersity of the crystalline particles, the melting points of the crystals, and the presence of necleophilic and electrophylic centres in the molecules of the components of binary and complex eutectic mixtures. The effectiveness of the modification of the chemical additives is determined by the manifestation in binary systems of these components in elastomeric compositions of physical and chemical synergism due to the occurrence of the relevant processes in such systems. A relation has been discovered between the physical and chemical phenomena accompanying the modification of the chemical additives in binary and complex eutectic mixtures, their influence on the properties of the elastomeric composition is examined, the ecological problems associated with the processing of such materials are discussed, and the relation between the structure and properties of the molecules of the additives is analysed using quantum-chemical calculations. The bibliography includes 92 references.

  9. Structural investigation into physiological DNA phosphorothioate modification

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wenxian; Hu, Zhongpei; Shen, Jie; Wang, Chunxi; Jiang, Feng; Liu, Huili; Long, Dewu; Liu, Maili; Cao, Chunyang

    2016-01-01

    DNA phosphorothioate (PT) modification, with sulfur replacing a nonbridging phosphate oxygen in a sequence and stereo specific manner, is a novel physiological variation in bacteria. But what effects on DNA properties PT modification has is still unclear. To address this, we prepared three double-stranded (ds) DNA decamers, d(CGPXGCCGCCGA) with its complementary strand d(TCGGCGPXGCCG) (where X = O or S, i.e., PT-free dsDNA, [Sp, Sp]-PT dsDNA or [Rp, Rp]-PT dsDNA) located in gene of Streptomyces lividans. Their melting temperature (Tm) measurement indicates that [Rp, Rp]-PT dsDNA is most unstable. Their electron transfer potential detection presents an order of anti-oxidation properties: Sp-PT DNA > Rp-PT DNA > PT-free DNA. Their NMR structures demonstrate that PT modification doesn’t change their B-form conformation. The sulfur in [Rp, Rp]-PT dsDNA locates in the major groove, with steric effects on protons in the sugar close to modification sites, resulting in its unstability, and facilitating its selectively interactions with ScoMcrA. We thought that PT modification was dialectical to the bacteria. It protects the hosting bacteria by working as antioxidant against H2O2, and acts as a marker, directing restriction enzyme observed in other hosts, like ScoMcrA, to correctly cleave the PT modified DNA, so that bacteria cannot spread and survive. PMID:27169778

  10. The ethics of molecular memory modification.

    PubMed

    Hui, Katrina; Fisher, Carl E

    2015-07-01

    Novel molecular interventions have recently shown the potential to erase, enhance and alter specific long-term memories. Unique features of this form of memory modification call for a close examination of its possible applications. While there have been discussions of the ethics of memory modification in the literature, molecular memory modification (MMM) can provide special insights. Previously raised ethical concerns regarding memory enhancement, such as safety issues, the 'duty to remember', selfhood and personal identity, require re-evaluation in light of MMM. As a technology that exploits the brain's updating processes, MMM helps correct the common misconception that memory is a static entity by demonstrating how memory is plastic and subject to revision even in the absence of external manipulation. Furthermore, while putatively safer than other speculative technologies because of its high specificity, MMM raises notable safety issues, including potential insidious effects on the agent's emotions and personal identity. Nonetheless, MMM possesses characteristics of a more permissible form of modification, not only because it is theoretically safer, but because its unique mechanism of action requires a heightened level of cooperation from the agent. Discussions of memory modification must consider the specific mechanisms of action, which can alter the weight and relevance of various ethical concerns. MMM also highlights the need for conceptual accuracy regarding the term 'enhancement'; this umbrella term will have to be differentiated as new technologies are applied to a widening array of purposes. PMID:25552663

  11. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Field modification of approved (permissible... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved...

  12. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Field modification of approved (permissible... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved...

  13. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Field modification of approved (permissible... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved...

  14. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Field modification of approved (permissible... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved...

  15. Hypertension improvement through healthy lifestyle modifications.

    PubMed

    Rigsby, Brenda D

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and renal disease. This disease has a disproportionate effect on African Americans when compared to other races. The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of healthy lifestyle modifications on blood pressure control among hypertensive African American adults. Thirty-six individuals participated in the 12-week project, with a 67% retention rate. Weekly sessions included interactive educational and walking components. Initial and final BMI measurements were recorded. Participants completed health risk assessments; pre and post questionnaires; and, daily logs ofblood pressure measurement, dietary consumption, and physical activity levels. Data were collected from the logs, BMI measurements, and questionnaires. Overall, the results revealed that participants experienced an increase in healthy lifestyle modification adoption resulting in blood pressure control improvement. Implementation of healthy lifestyle modifications is crucial in providing quality patient care to hypertensive individuals.

  16. Identification and interrogation of combinatorial histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Karch, Kelly R; Denizio, Jamie E; Black, Ben E; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2013-01-01

    Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  17. 49 CFR 237.133 - Supervision of repairs and modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of repairs and modifications. 237.133... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Repair and Modification of Bridges § 237.133 Supervision of repairs and modifications. Each repair or modification pursuant to this part shall be...

  18. Beam Distribution Modification by Alfven Modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2010-04-03

    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  19. Beam Distribution Modification By Alfven Modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2010-01-25

    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  20. Development of an Improved Permeability Modification Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.; Elphnick, J.

    1999-03-09

    This report describes the development of an improved permeability modification simulator performed jointly by BDM Petroleum Technologies and Schlumberger Dowell under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the US Department of Energy. The improved simulator was developed by modifying NIPER's PC-GEL permeability modification simulator to include a radial model, a thermal energy equation, a wellbore simulator, and a fully implicit time-stepping option. The temperature-dependent gelation kinetics of a delayed gel system (DGS) is also included in the simulator.

  1. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  2. Occupational Therapy Home Modification Assessment and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Emily; Smallfield, Stacy; Stark, Susan; Seibert, Carol; Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Evidence Connection articles describe a clinical application of a systematic review developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Project. This Evidence Connection provides a case report of a client referred to occupational therapy for home modification assessment and intervention, applying the evidence from the systematic review of home modifications conducted in conjunction with the EBP Project. The client received in-home occupational therapy after side effects of liver disease resulted in increased falls within her home. PMID:27548872

  3. Modification of gravity due to torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V. P.; Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Modifications of general relativity have been considered as one of the possible ways of addressing some of the outstanding problems related to the large scale gravitational physics. In this contribution we review some of the recent results which are due to the inclusion of dynamical torsion. More specifically we shall discuss the propagation of massive spin-2 particles in flat and curved space times. We shall show that, contrary to what is generally believed, spinning matter is not the sole source of torsion field. A symmetric energy momentum tensor can also couple to torsion degrees of freedom. The massive and massless spin-2 particles mix giving rise to an infrared modification of gravity.

  4. 42 CFR 84.35 - Changes or modifications of approved respirators; issuance of modification of certificate of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes or modifications of approved respirators... modifications of approved respirators; issuance of modification of certificate of approval. (a) Each applicant may, if he desires to change any feature of an approved respirator, request a modification of...

  5. 42 CFR 84.35 - Changes or modifications of approved respirators; issuance of modification of certificate of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes or modifications of approved respirators... modifications of approved respirators; issuance of modification of certificate of approval. (a) Each applicant may, if he desires to change any feature of an approved respirator, request a modification of...

  6. Tracking epigenetic histone modifications in single cells using Fab-based live endogenous modification labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Yamagata, Kazuo; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Stasevich, Timothy J.; Kainuma, Takashi; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Histone modifications play an important role in epigenetic gene regulation and genome integrity. It remains largely unknown, however, how these modifications dynamically change in individual cells. By using fluorescently labeled specific antigen binding fragments (Fabs), we have developed a general method to monitor the distribution and global level of endogenous histone H3 lysine modifications in living cells without disturbing cell growth and embryo development. Fabs produce distinct nuclear patterns that are characteristic of their target modifications. H3K27 trimethylation-specific Fabs, for example, are concentrated on inactive X chromosomes. As Fabs bind their targets transiently, the ratio of bound and free molecules depends on the target concentration, allowing us to measure changes in global modification levels. High-affinity Fabs are suitable for mouse embryo imaging, so we have used them to monitor H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation levels in mouse preimplantation embryos produced by in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer. The data suggest that a high level of H3K27 acetylation is important for normal embryo development. As Fab-based live endogenous modification labeling (FabLEM) is broadly useful for visualizing any modification, it should be a powerful tool for studying cell signaling and diagnosis in the future. PMID:21576221

  7. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    PubMed

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-01

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  8. 48 CFR 204.7106 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System... the modification makes only minor changes in the specifications of some of the items ordered on the original line item or subline item and the resulting changes in unit price can be averaged to provide a...

  9. How to Train Supervisors in Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Ronald; And Others

    This is a guide for training supervisors in the theory and application of behavior modification using material that has been implemented successfully for many years in companies throughout the country. Procedures for organizing and conducting training sessions in a supervisor training program are presented. The manual, one of four prepared to aid…

  10. Epigenetic chromatin modifications in Brassica genomes.

    PubMed

    Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Bernas, Tytus; Maluszynska, Jolanta

    2010-03-01

    Epigenetic modifications such as histone and DNA methylation are highly conserved among eukaryotes, although the nuclear patterns of these modifications vary between different species. Brassica species represent a very attractive model for analysis of epigenetic changes because of their differences in genome size, ploidy level, and the organization of heterochromatin blocks. Brassica rapa and B. oleracea are diploid species, and B. napus is an allotetraploid species that arose from the hybridization of these two diploids. We found that patterns of DNA and histone H3 methylation differ between Brassica species. The most prominent differences concern the two diploids. DNA methylation was present exclusively in the heterochromatin only in B. rapa. In B. oleracea and B. napus this modification was detected in both euchromatin and heterochromatin. A similar pattern was observed for dimethylation of lysine 9. Dimethylation of lysine 4 is a typical marker of euchromatin in Brassica species, like it is in other plant species. We conclude that the diploid species differ in patterns of analyzed epigenetic modifications and the allotetraploid B. napus has combined patterns from both diploids. Differences in patterns of DNA and histone H3 methylation between Brassica species can be attributed mainly to the genome structure and heterochromatin localization rather than ploidy level.

  11. A Modification to Maxwell's Needle Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorya, Tribhuvan N.

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's needle apparatus is used to determine the shear modulus (?) of the material of a wire of uniform cylindrical cross section. Conventionally, a single observation is taken for each observable, and the value of ? is calculated in a single shot. A modification to the above apparatus is made by varying one of the observables, namely the mass…

  12. Modification of Behavior: Application in Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ille, Sister Janiece; Bezzi, D. R.

    The emphasis of this research report was on modification of classroom behavior. After a brief introduction, the two main learning theories of Gestalt-field psychology and stimulus-response association were investigated. The importance of the individual in modifying his own behavior was stressed in Gestalt-field psychology. The importance of…

  13. 40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.14 System modification. (a) The State, or where... monitoring network that complies with the findings of the network assessments required every 5 years by § 58... schedule with respect to the SLAMS network are subject to the approval of the EPA Regional...

  14. 7 CFR 634.26 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.26... thereof, or to accomplish equitable treatment with respect to other conservation, land-use, or water... water-quality plan. A contract may be modified only if it is determined that such modifications...

  15. 7 CFR 634.26 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.26... thereof, or to accomplish equitable treatment with respect to other conservation, land-use, or water... water-quality plan. A contract may be modified only if it is determined that such modifications...

  16. Starch--value addition by modification.

    PubMed

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2005-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking and storage, particularly at low pH, retrogradation characteristics, syneresis, etc., of native starches. Oxidation, esterification, hydroxyalkylation, dextrinization, and cross-linking are some of the modifications commonly employed to prepare starch derivatives. In a way, starch modification provides desirable functional attributes as well as offering economic alternative to other hydrocolloid ingredients, such as gums and mucilages, which are unreliable in quality and availability. Resistant starch, a highly retrograded starch fractionformed upon food processing, is another useful starch derivative. It exhibits the beneficial physiological effects of therapeutic and nutritional values akin to dietary fiber. There awaits considerable opportunity for future developments, especially for tailor-made starch derivatives with multiple modifications and with the desired functional and nutritional properties, although the problem of obtaining legislative approval for the use of novel starch derivatives in processed food formulations is still under debate. Nevertheless, it can be predicted that new ventures in starch modifications and their diverse applications will continue to be of great interest in applied research.

  17. 25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian ownership which...

  18. 40 CFR 61.15 - Modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 61.15 Modification. (a) Except as... increases and to which a standard applies. (c) Emission rate shall be expressed as kg/hr of any...

  19. 40 CFR 61.15 - Modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 61.15 Modification. (a) Except as... increases and to which a standard applies. (c) Emission rate shall be expressed as kg/hr of any...

  20. 40 CFR 61.15 - Modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 61.15 Modification. (a) Except as... increases and to which a standard applies. (c) Emission rate shall be expressed as kg/hr of any...

  1. 40 CFR 35.6750 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6750 Modifications. The recipient must comply with the requirements regarding changes to the Cooperative Agreement described in 40 CFR 31.30....

  2. Information Sources, Dogmatism, and Judgmental Modifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Huey B.

    This study examined differences in the number of perceptual judgment modifications made by 36 subjects showing different levels of dogmatism when the source of information was manipulated among superior, subordinate, and peer sources. An experimental and a control group were used, and a 2x3 factorial analysis design was developed. Dogmatism was…

  3. Behavior Modification: A Curriculum for Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio State Hospital, TX. Office of Education Services.

    This set of training modules presents a general curriculum which addresses the theory, principles and procedures of behavior therapy modification techniques. It is meant to be used in a variety of hospitals, schools, and human development centers; thus it represents a common core of training upon which individual settings can build to provide…

  4. D-21B RBCC Modification Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a feasibility study on the modifications required to re-engine the Lockheed D-21 Drone for use as a NASA RBCC engine. An introduction, background information, engine configuration and performance, propulsion system integration, loads/thermal analysis, avionics/systems, flight test results, costs and work schedule, and some conclusions are presented.

  5. 7 CFR 1410.33 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Contract modifications. 1410.33 Section 1410.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.33...

  6. 7 CFR 1410.33 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contract modifications. 1410.33 Section 1410.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.33...

  7. 7 CFR 1410.33 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Contract modifications. 1410.33 Section 1410.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.33...

  8. 21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test modifications. 331.21 Section 331.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21...

  9. 21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test modifications. 331.21 Section 331.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21...

  10. 21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Test modifications. 331.21 Section 331.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21...

  11. 21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Test modifications. 331.21 Section 331.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21...

  12. 21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Test modifications. 331.21 Section 331.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21...

  13. 7 CFR 634.26 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... thereof, or to accomplish equitable treatment with respect to other conservation, land-use, or water... water-quality plan. A contract may be modified only if it is determined that such modifications are... of the State conservationist, NRCS, that the established BMPs will provide water quality benefits...

  14. Behavior Modification Techniques. I: Overcorrection. II: Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovner, Robert, Ed.; Hurley, Anne Des Noyers, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Two newsletters review the principles and application of two behavior modification techniques with mentally retarded persons: overcorrection and punishment. Overcorrection may be either restitutional, in which the client is made to restore the environment to a far better state than before the inappropriate behavior occurred, or positive practice…

  15. Test Access & Modification for Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation.

    This guide is intended to increase access for individuals with disabilities to local, state (New York), and national testing programs, as well as facilitate the consistent provision of modifications necessary to allow these individuals to demonstrate their knowledge and abilities. Ten modules cover the following topics: (1) federal and state…

  16. 36 CFR 251.61 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 251.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.61 Modifications. (a) A holder shall file a new or amended application for a special use authorization to cover new, changed, or additional use(s) or area. (1) In approving or denying changes...

  17. 36 CFR 251.61 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 251.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.61 Modifications. (a) A holder shall file a new or amended application for a special use authorization to cover new, changed, or additional use(s) or area. (1) In approving or denying changes...

  18. 7 CFR 623.14 - Easement modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Easement modifications. 623.14 Section 623.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.14 Easement...

  19. Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-07-01

    In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed.

  20. 40 CFR 60.14 - Modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.14 Modification. (a) Except as provided under... facility to a stationary source as an expansion to that source or as a replacement for an existing facility shall not by itself bring within the applicability of this part any other facility within that...

  1. 40 CFR 60.14 - Modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.14 Modification. (a) Except as provided under... facility to a stationary source as an expansion to that source or as a replacement for an existing facility shall not by itself bring within the applicability of this part any other facility within that...

  2. 75 FR 31736 - Modifications of Debt Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... deletion of a co- obligor. In response to the proposed regulations published on December 2, 1992 (57 FR... ] September 24, 1996 (TD 8675; 61 FR 32926) explains that ``for purposes of this regulation, unless there is a... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ30 Modifications of Debt Instruments AGENCY:...

  3. 7 CFR 623.14 - Easement modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Easement modifications. 623.14 Section 623.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.14 Easement...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1434 - Equipment modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment modifications. 1926.1434 Section 1926.1434 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1434 - Equipment modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment modifications. 1926.1434 Section 1926.1434 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1434 - Equipment modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment modifications. 1926.1434 Section 1926.1434 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1434 - Equipment modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment modifications. 1926.1434 Section 1926.1434 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction §...

  8. Modification of scuba regulator for IPPV.

    PubMed

    Poulton, T J; Littleton, E K; Raudenbush, J

    1985-06-01

    Attention is appropriately being focused on the performance of adequate cardiopulmonary resuscitation in aquatic situations. We modified the second stage (mouthpiece) of a standard scuba regulator to permit intermittent positive pressure ventilation using either a mask or an esophageal obturator airway. Tests demonstrated the inexpensive modification to function adequately for emergency ventilation.

  9. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  10. 21 CFR 352.77 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Test modifications. 352.77 Section 352.77 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 352.77...

  11. 21 CFR 352.77 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test modifications. 352.77 Section 352.77 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 352.77...

  12. 21 CFR 352.77 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Test modifications. 352.77 Section 352.77 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 352.77...

  13. 21 CFR 352.77 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test modifications. 352.77 Section 352.77 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 352.77...

  14. 21 CFR 352.77 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Test modifications. 352.77 Section 352.77 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 352.77...

  15. 7 CFR 987.35 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 987.35 Modifications. In the event the Committee subsequently determines that the marketing policy should be modified due to changing... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  16. 40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.14 System modification. (a) The State, or where... monitoring network that complies with the findings of the network assessments required every 5 years by § 58... schedule with respect to the SLAMS network are subject to the approval of the EPA Regional...

  17. 40 CFR 60.397 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modifications. 60.397 Section 60.397 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck...

  18. 40 CFR 60.397 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modifications. 60.397 Section 60.397 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck...

  19. 40 CFR 60.397 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modifications. 60.397 Section 60.397 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck...

  20. Structures of Modification in Contemporary American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, George A., III

    An attempt to shed some light on one type of linguistic structure, that structure which is sometimes called a structure of modification, is presented. The study is based on a fairly limited, but statistically ample corpus of 1,200 sentences taken from four metropolitan daily newspapers for the two years 1894 and 1964. From various sources a…

  1. 36 CFR 251.61 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modifications. 251.61 Section 251.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special... environment, other users, or the public....

  2. 7 CFR 1410.33 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contract modifications. 1410.33 Section 1410.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.33...

  3. 75 FR 16186 - Petitions for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration.... SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern...

  4. 75 FR 27002 - Petitions for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration.... SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern...

  5. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mutual agreement with the Chief and the participant. The Chief will consult with FWS and the Conservation... consistent with the easement and applicable law, the State Conservationist may approve modifications to the... consideration of site specific technical input from the FWS and the Conservation District. Any WRPO...

  6. A Classroom Modification of the Ames Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavornitzky, Joseph; Trzeciak, Victor

    1979-01-01

    A modification of the Ames test for detecting carcinogens and mutagens using a strain of bacteria is described. A suggestion is given for checking the correctness of procedures by using particular hair dyes which have been shown to be mutogenic. (Author/SA)

  7. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    PubMed

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-01

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process. PMID:24003985

  8. Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-07-01

    In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed. PMID:15341161

  9. 7 CFR 634.26 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... water-quality plan. A contract may be modified only if it is determined that such modifications are... of the State conservationist, NRCS, that the established BMPs will provide water quality benefits for..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts §...

  10. 7 CFR 634.26 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... water-quality plan. A contract may be modified only if it is determined that such modifications are... of the State conservationist, NRCS, that the established BMPs will provide water quality benefits for..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts §...

  11. EDITORIAL: Novel applications of surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truman, C. E.

    2008-09-01

    This cluster issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics arises from the Novel Applications of Surface Modification Conference (NASM 2007) held at Southampton University during 18-20 September 2007. It contains a collection of six papers based on both invited and contributed presentations at the conference. The NASM 2007 conference was organized by the Applied Physics and Technology Division of the Institute of Physics, and was co-sponsored by the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the British Vacuum Council. The modification of the surface of a material allows the production of far superior products in terms of reduced wear, increased corrosion resistance, better biocompatibility, improved optical properties and altered electrical/electronic properties. Clearly, as surface modification methods improve, there are many more possible applications of such surface tailoring methods. The NASM 2007 Conference was planned so that scientists, engineers and manufacturers in different fields could come together to appraise the present applications of surface modification, establish where opportunities lie, identify the most significant challenges and address how problems should be tackled. The six papers contained within the cluster illustrate the diversity and breadth of the conference. The papers describe state-of-the-art research on a wide cross-section of topics, all unified by the overall theme of novel applications of surface modification. Specifically, papers are presented which consider nanoimprint lithography, statistical distributions of the coefficient of friction, the sliding drop method for optimizing surface energies for patterning in a roll-to-roll process, shakedown of residual stresses in titanium alloys, functionalized polymers and the determination of the electrochemically active surface area of Pt/C PEM fuel cell electrodes. The papers are authored by both academics and industrialists, further

  12. Improved Collision Search for Hash Functions: New Advanced Message Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Yusuke; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we discuss the collision search for hash functions, mainly in terms of their advanced message modification. The advanced message modification is a collision search tool based on Wang et al.'s attacks. Two advanced message modifications have previously been proposed: cancel modification for MD4 and MD5, and propagation modification for SHA-0. In this paper, we propose a new concept of advanced message modification, submarine modification. As a concrete example combining the ideas underlying these modifications, we apply submarine modification to the collision search for SHA-0. As a result, we show that this can reduce the collision search attack complexity from 239 to 236 SHA-0 compression operations.

  13. Nuclear modifications of Parton Distribution Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeluyi, Adeola Adeleke

    This dissertation addresses a central question of modern nuclear physics: how does the behavior of fundamental degrees of freedom (quarks and gluons) change in the nuclear environment? This is an important aspect of experimental studies at current facilities such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLAB). It is also highly relevant to planned experimental efforts at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the future Electron Ion Collider (EIC). All these facilities probe matter via collisions involving nuclei; thus complications arise due to the presence of the attendant nuclear medium. Theoretical efforts to understand and interpret experimental results from such collisions are therefore largely dependent on the resolution of this question. The development of nuclear physics demonstrates that theoretical description is most efficient in terms of the effective degrees of freedom relevant to the scale (energy) being probed. Thus at low energies, nuclei are described as bound states of protons and neutrons (nucleons). At higher energies, the nucleons are no longer elementary, but are revealed to possess an underlying substructure: they are made up of quarks and gluons, collectively termed partons. The mometum distributions of these partons in the nucleon are referred to as Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). Parton distributions can be determined from experimental measurements of structure functions. The ratio of nuclear structure functions to nucleon structure functions (generically referred to as nuclear ratio) is a measure of the nuclear modifications of the free nucleon PDFs. Thus a study of the nuclear ratio suffices to gain an understanding of nuclear modifications. In this dissertation we aim to describe theoretically nuclear modifications in a restricted region where the nuclear ratio is less than unity, the so

  14. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.81 Field modification of approved (permissible... alter the basic functional design that was originally approved for the equipment. (c) Upon receipt...

  15. Effect of site-specific modification on restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, M; Nelson, M; Raschke, E

    1994-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases have site-specific interactions with DNA that can often be inhibited by site-specific DNA methylation and other site-specific DNA modifications. However, such inhibition cannot generally be predicted. The empirically acquired data on these effects are tabulated for over 320 restriction endonucleases. In addition, a table of known site-specific DNA modification methyltransferases and their specificities is presented along with EMBL database accession numbers for cloned genes. PMID:7937074

  16. Identification of Two Novel Modifications at Tryptophan Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shuzhen; Zhang, Kai; Tian, Shanshan; He, Xiwen; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-08-01

    Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) play important roles in cellular physiology. Mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed into a powerful tool to identify all possible protein modifications. Herein, we describe our efforts to deduce the structures of two unknown modifications at tryptophan (Trp) residues (W + 92 Da and W + 108 Da). The two modifications were further confirmed by aligning the MS/MS fragmentation of synthetic peptide with in-vivo peptide identified. Finally, the mimic experiment elucidated how two Trp modifications occur. This study, therefore, expands current knowledge of Trp modifications.

  17. Diagonal chromatography to study plant protein modifications.

    PubMed

    Walton, Alan; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Jacques, Silke; Stes, Elisabeth; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Goormachtig, Sofie; Gevaert, Kris

    2016-08-01

    An interesting asset of diagonal chromatography, which we have introduced for contemporary proteome research, is its high versatility concerning proteomic applications. Indeed, the peptide modification or sorting step that is required between consecutive peptide separations can easily be altered and thereby allows for the enrichment of specific, though different types of peptides. Here, we focus on the application of diagonal chromatography for the study of modifications of plant proteins. In particular, we show how diagonal chromatography allows for studying proteins processed by proteases, protein ubiquitination, and the oxidation of protein-bound methionines. We discuss the actual sorting steps needed for each of these applications and the obtained results. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock.

  18. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite considerable intra-subject variability and the lack of an adequate attention-placebo control group, objective assessment indicated a substantial reduction in snoring amplitude and frequency in both treatment groups. Follow-up assessments further demonstrated maintenance of change. This study has implications for modification of sleep habit disorders and learning without awareness. PMID:7380759

  19. Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xin; Yu, Jing; Hou, Yang-Long

    2015-01-01

    Progress in surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is summarized with regard to organic molecules, macromolecules and inorganic materials. Many researchers are now devoted to synthesizing new types of multi-functional MNPs, which show great application potential in both diagnosis and treatment of disease. By employing an ever-greater variety of surface modification techniques, MNPs can satisfy more and more of the demands of medical practice in areas like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorescent marking, cell targeting, and drug delivery. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51125001 and 51172005), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing,China (Grant No. 2122022), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81421004), and the Doctoral Program of the Education Ministry of China (Grant No. 20120001110078).

  20. Restriction/modification polypeptides, polynucleotides, and methods

    DOEpatents

    Westpheling, Janet; Chung, DaeHwan; Huddleston, Jennifer; Farkas, Joel A

    2015-02-24

    The present invention relates to the discovery of a novel restriction/modification system in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii. The discovered restriction enzyme is a HaeIII-like restriction enzyme that possesses a thermophilic activity profile. The restriction/modification system also includes a methyltransferase, M.CbeI, that methylates at least one cytosine residue in the CbeI recognition sequence to m.sup.4C. Thus, the invention provides, in various aspects, isolated CbeI or M.CbeI polypeptides, or biologically active fragments thereof; isolated polynucleotides that encode the CbeI or M.CbeI polypeptides or biologically active fragments thereof, including expression vectors that include such polynucleotide sequences; methods of digesting DNA using a CbeI polypeptide; methods of treating a DNA molecule using a M.CbeI polypeptide; and methods of transforming a Caldicellulosiruptor cell.

  1. RNA epigenetic modification: N6-methyladenosine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhang; Guifang, Jia

    2016-04-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is one of the most prevalent internal modifications in eukaryotic messenger RNA. The dynamic and reversible modification is installed by methyltransferase complex charactered three subunits: METTL3 (Methyltransferase-like protein 3), METTL14 (Methyltransferase-like protein 14) and WTAP (Wilms tumor 1-associating protein), and erased by two independent demethylases, FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated protein) and ALKBH5 (AlkB homolog 5), in an α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)- and Fe(II)-dependent manner. m(6)A plays funtions in controlling RNA metabolism through the recognition by m(6)A reader proteins, the YTH domain family proteins and HNRNPA2B1 (Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2B1) . In this review, we summarized distributive features and vital roles of m(6)A and its associated proteins in RNA metabolisms and biological significance, which will help us better understand this new exciting emerging epitranscriptome research field. PMID:27103452

  2. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  3. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiali; Xia, Wenshui; Liu, Ping; Cheng, Qinyuan; Tahirou, Talba; Gu, Wenxiu; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1) enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2) the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3) synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy. PMID:20714418

  4. Effectiveness of decanter modifications on organic removal

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    1992-08-20

    A series of runs were planned in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) at the Savannah River Plant to determine the effectiveness of equipment and process modifications on the PHEF decanter organic removal efficiency. Runs 54-59 were planned to test the effectiveness of spray recirculation, a new decanter, heated organic recirculation and aqueous drawoff on organic removal efficiency in the revised HAN flowsheet. Runs 60-63 were planned to provide a comparison of the original and new decanter designs on organic removal efficiency in the late wash flowsheet without organic recirculation. Operational problems were experienced in both the PHEF and IDMS pilot facilities because of the production of high boiling organics and the low organic removal efficiency of the PHEF decanters. To prevent these problems in the DWPF Salt and Chemical Cells, modifications were proposed to the decanter and flowsheet to maximize the organic removal efficiency and minimize production of high boiling organics.

  5. Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J. H.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

    1998-10-01

    While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

  6. Posttranslational Modifications of TGF-β Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaohua; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β is a prototype of the TGF-β cytokine superfamily and exerts multiple regulatory effects on cell activities. It signals through two types of membrane-bound serine/threonine kinase receptors. Upon TGF-β binding, the type II receptor TβRII recruits the type I receptor TβRI and form a functional heterocomplex. TβRII trans-phosphorylates the GS region of TβRI, thus triggering its kinase activity. Activated TβRI proceeds to activate downstream Smad2/3. Signal intensity and duration through the availability, activity and destiny of TGF-β receptors are finely controlled by multiple posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and neddylation. This chapter introduces methods for examination of these modifications of TGF-β receptors.

  7. [Impact of genetic modifications on infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Houdebine, L-M

    2004-11-01

    Genetic engineering offers the theoretical possibility to transfer any natural or modified gene into any living organism. This generates new and diverse situations which may contribute to the spreading of infectious diseases or on the contrary to control them. Problems may theoretically come from uncontrolled genes providing resistance to antibiotics, from the activation of genomic retroviral sequences, from enhanced sensitivity of the organism to pathogens, as well as from the generation of mutated microorganisms with a higher pathogenecity. On the contrary, various genetic modifications may create organisms resistant to infectious diseases, generate safe and efficient recombinant vaccines, or provide patients with proteins which stimulate their defense mechanisms. The major impacts of genetic modifications in the development of infectious diseases or on the contrary in their eradication are analyzed in this article.

  8. Medium modification of hadronic distributions in SIDIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avagyan, Harut

    2014-09-01

    Medium modifications of spin-orbit correlations in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) processes with polarized leptons and targets provide access to studies of partonic distributions in nucleons and nuclei. Measurements of multiplicities and different spin and azimuthal asymmetries can be used to extract the quark transverse momentum broadening Δ2 F and/or quark transport parameter \\qcirc studied theoretically in the corresponding cases. We will present ongoing studies of medium modifications of SIDIS observables at Jefferson Lab, and proposed future measurement to study the transverse momentum broadening and some spin and azimuthal asymmetries in reactions using polarized lepton and polarized and unpolarized nuclei. Calculations have been preformed assuming factorized Gaussian dependence on intrinsic momenta for the TMD distributions and a Gaussian dilution from the fragmentation functions.

  9. Organization of restriction-modification systems.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G G

    1991-01-01

    The genes for over 100 restriction-modification systems have now been cloned, and approximately one-half have been sequenced. Despite their similar function, they are exceedingly heterogeneous. The heterogeneity is evident at three levels: in the gene arrangements; in the enzyme compositions; and in the protein sequences. This paper summarizes the main features of the R-M systems that have been cloned. PMID:2041731

  10. Magnetic field modification of optical magnetic dipoles.

    PubMed

    Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Cebollada, Alfonso; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Meneses-Rodríguez, David

    2015-03-11

    Acting on optical magnetic dipoles opens novel routes to govern light-matter interaction. We demonstrate magnetic field modification of the magnetic dipolar moment characteristic of resonant nanoholes in thin magnetoplasmonic films. This is experimentally shown through the demonstration of the magneto-optical analogue of Babinet's principle, where mirror imaged MO spectral dependencies are obtained for two complementary magnetoplasmonic systems: holes in a perforated metallic layer and a layer of disks on a substrate. PMID:25646869

  11. Deciphering Post-translational Modification Codes

    PubMed Central

    Lothrop, Adam P.; Torres, Matthew P.; Fuchs, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occur on nearly all proteins. Many domains within proteins are modified on multiple amino acid sidechains by diverse enzymes to create a myriad of possible protein species. How these combinations of PTMs lead to distinct biological outcomes is only beginning to be understood. This manuscript highlights several examples of combinatorial PTMs in proteins, and describes recent technological developments, which are driving our ability to understand how PTM patterns may “code” for biological outcomes. PMID:23402885

  12. Regioselective chemical modification of monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Ranadive, Girish; Rosenzweig, Howard S.; Epperly, Michael; Bloomer, William

    1993-01-01

    A method of selectively modifying an immunoglobulin having at least one Fab region and at least one Fc region, each region having an isoelectric point wherein said isoelectric point of the Fab fragment of said immunoglobulin is different than the isoelectric point of the Fc fragment of the immunoglobulin, said method comprising modification of the immunoglobulin at a pH between the respective isoelectric points of the Fab and Fc fragments of the immunoglobulin.

  13. Regioselective chemical modification of monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Ranadive, G.; Rozenzweig, H.S.; Epperly, M.; Bloomer, W.

    1993-05-04

    A method is presented of selectively modifying an immunoglobulin having at least one Fab region and at least one Fc region. Each region has an isoelectric point where the isoelectric point of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin is different from the isoelectric point of the Fc fragment of the immunoglobulin. The method comprises of a modification of the immunoglobulin at a pH between the respective isoelectric points of the Fab and Fc fragments of the immunoglobulin.

  14. Magnetic field modification of optical magnetic dipoles.

    PubMed

    Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Cebollada, Alfonso; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Meneses-Rodríguez, David

    2015-03-11

    Acting on optical magnetic dipoles opens novel routes to govern light-matter interaction. We demonstrate magnetic field modification of the magnetic dipolar moment characteristic of resonant nanoholes in thin magnetoplasmonic films. This is experimentally shown through the demonstration of the magneto-optical analogue of Babinet's principle, where mirror imaged MO spectral dependencies are obtained for two complementary magnetoplasmonic systems: holes in a perforated metallic layer and a layer of disks on a substrate.

  15. Food modification versus oral liquid nutrition supplementation.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J

    2009-01-01

    Oral liquid nutrition supplements (ONS) are widely used in community, residential and healthcare settings. ONS are intended for individuals whose nutrient requirements cannot be achieved by conventional diet or food modification, or for the management of distinctive nutrient needs resulting from specific diseases and/or conditions. ONS appear to be most effective in patients with a body mass index of

  16. Crash reconstruction and crash modification factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the following question: Under what conditions can reconstructed road crashes be used to estimate the effect of a safety-related countermeasure? Results developed by Pearl and his associates are used to draw two main conclusions. First, when one can (1) identify a structural equation describing a type of crash, (2) identify an additional structural equation describing the countermeasure's impact, and (3) estimate the initiating conditions for a set of reconstructed crashes, then a lower bound for a crash modification factor can be estimated by simulating whether or not each of the reconstructed crashes would still have occurred had the countermeasure been present. If the countermeasure's effect is monotonic this bound becomes tight. Second, in situations where it is not possible to reliably identify the structural equations needed for simulation, but where one can (1) identify a set of crash inputs which, when given, make the crash outcome conditionally independent of the countermeasure, and (2) predict how the distribution of these inputs will change in response to the countermeasure, then nonparametric estimation of the countermeasure's crash modification factor is possible. When it is not possible to predict the countermeasure's effect on the conditioning variables it may still be possible to identify constraints or specifications which the countermeasure should satisfy in order to realize a target crash modification.

  17. CPLM: a database of protein lysine modifications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zexian; Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Tianshun; Pan, Zhicheng; Cheng, Han; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Zhongyi; Guo, Anyuan; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We reported an integrated database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Modifications (CPLM; http://cplm.biocuckoo.org) for protein lysine modifications (PLMs), which occur at active ε-amino groups of specific lysine residues in proteins and are critical for orchestrating various biological processes. The CPLM database was updated from our previously developed database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Acetylation (CPLA), which contained 7151 lysine acetylation sites in 3311 proteins. Here, we manually collected experimentally identified substrates and sites for 12 types of PLMs, including acetylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, methylation, butyrylation, crotonylation, glycation, malonylation, phosphoglycerylation, propionylation, succinylation and pupylation. In total, the CPLM database contained 203 972 modification events on 189 919 modified lysines in 45 748 proteins for 122 species. With the dataset, we totally identified 76 types of co-occurrences of various PLMs on the same lysine residues, and the most abundant PLM crosstalk is between acetylation and ubiquitination. Up to 53.5% of acetylation and 33.1% of ubiquitination events co-occur at 10 746 lysine sites. Thus, the various PLM crosstalks suggested that a considerable proportion of lysines were competitively and dynamically regulated in a complicated manner. Taken together, the CPLM database can serve as a useful resource for further research of PLMs. PMID:24214993

  18. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  19. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings.

  20. Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification.

    PubMed

    Strong, C

    2005-11-01

    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely.

  1. Chromatin modifications remodel cardiac gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mathiyalagan, Prabhu; Keating, Samuel T; Du, Xiao-Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2014-07-01

    Signalling and transcriptional control involve precise programmes of gene activation and suppression necessary for cardiovascular physiology. Deep sequencing of DNA-bound transcription factors reveals a remarkable complexity of co-activators or co-repressors that serve to alter chromatin modification and regulate gene expression. The regulated complexes characterized by genome-wide mapping implicate the recruitment and exchange of proteins with specific enzymatic activities that include roles for histone acetylation and methylation in key developmental programmes of the heart. As for transcriptional changes in response to pathological stress, co-regulatory complexes are also differentially utilized to regulate genes in cardiac disease. Members of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family catalyse the removal of acetyl groups from proteins whose pharmacological inhibition has profound effects preventing heart failure. HDACs interact with a complex co-regulatory network of transcription factors, chromatin-remodelling complexes, and specific histone modifiers to regulate gene expression in the heart. For example, the histone methyltransferase (HMT), enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), is regulated by HDAC inhibition and associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy. The challenge now is to target the activity of enzymes involved in protein modification to prevent or reverse the expression of genes implicated with cardiac hypertrophy. In this review, we discuss the role of HDACs and HMTs with a focus on chromatin modification and gene function as well as the clinical treatment of heart failure. PMID:24812277

  2. Integrated Microfluidics for Protein Modification Discovery.

    PubMed

    Noach-Hirsh, Meirav; Nevenzal, Hadas; Glick, Yair; Chorni, Evelin; Avrahami, Dorit; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Gerber, Doron; Tzur, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Protein post-translational modifications mediate dynamic cellular processes with broad implications in human disease pathogenesis. There is a large demand for high-throughput technologies supporting post-translational modifications research, and both mass spectrometry and protein arrays have been successfully utilized for this purpose. Protein arrays override the major limitation of target protein abundance inherently associated with MS analysis. This technology, however, is typically restricted to pre-purified proteins spotted in a fixed composition on chips with limited life-time and functionality. In addition, the chips are expensive and designed for a single use, making complex experiments cost-prohibitive. Combining microfluidics with in situ protein expression from a cDNA microarray addressed these limitations. Based on this approach, we introduce a modular integrated microfluidic platform for multiple post-translational modifications analysis of freshly synthesized protein arrays (IMPA). The system's potency, specificity and flexibility are demonstrated for tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination in quasicellular environments. Unlimited by design and protein composition, and relying on minute amounts of biological material and cost-effective technology, this unique approach is applicable for a broad range of basic, biomedical and biomarker research.

  3. Integrated Microfluidics for Protein Modification Discovery*

    PubMed Central

    Noach-Hirsh, Meirav; Nevenzal, Hadas; Glick, Yair; Chorni, Evelin; Avrahami, Dorit; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Gerber, Doron; Tzur, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Protein post-translational modifications mediate dynamic cellular processes with broad implications in human disease pathogenesis. There is a large demand for high-throughput technologies supporting post-translational modifications research, and both mass spectrometry and protein arrays have been successfully utilized for this purpose. Protein arrays override the major limitation of target protein abundance inherently associated with MS analysis. This technology, however, is typically restricted to pre-purified proteins spotted in a fixed composition on chips with limited life-time and functionality. In addition, the chips are expensive and designed for a single use, making complex experiments cost-prohibitive. Combining microfluidics with in situ protein expression from a cDNA microarray addressed these limitations. Based on this approach, we introduce a modular integrated microfluidic platform for multiple post-translational modifications analysis of freshly synthesized protein arrays (IMPA). The system's potency, specificity and flexibility are demonstrated for tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination in quasicellular environments. Unlimited by design and protein composition, and relying on minute amounts of biological material and cost-effective technology, this unique approach is applicable for a broad range of basic, biomedical and biomarker research. PMID:26276765

  4. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2009-08-28

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  5. Physical modification of food starch functionalities.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, James N; Huber, Kerry C

    2015-01-01

    Because, in general, native starches do not have properties that make them ideally suited for applications in food products, most starch is modified by dervatization to improve its functionality before use in processed food formulations, and because food processors would prefer not to have to use the modified food starch label designation required when chemically modified starches are used, there is considerable interest in providing starches with desired functionalities that have not been chemically modified. One investigated approach is property modification via physical treatments, that is, modifications of starches imparted by physical treatments that do not result in any chemical modification of the starch. Physical treatments are divided into thermal and nonthermal treatments. Thermal treatments include those that produce pregelatinized and granular cold-water-swelling starches, heat-moisture treatments, annealing, microwave heating, so-called osmotic pressure treatment, and heating of dry starch. Nonthermal treatments include ultrahigh-pressure treatments, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, use of high-pressure homogenizers, dynamic pulsed pressure, pulsed electric field, and freezing and thawing.

  6. Electrostatic Surface Modifications to Improve Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shmueli, Ron B.; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Gene therapy has the potential to treat a wide variety of diseases including genetic diseases and cancer. Areas covered in this review This review introduces biomaterials used for gene delivery and then focuses on the use of electrostatic surface modifications to improve gene delivery materials. These modifications have been used to stabilize therapeutics in vivo, add cell-specific targeting ligands, and promote controlled release. Coatings of nanoparticles and microparticles as well as non-particulate surface coatings are covered in this review. Electrostatic principles are crucial for the development of multilayer delivery structures fabricated by the layer-by-layer method. What the reader will gain The reader will gain knowledge about the composition of biomaterials used for surface modifications and how these coatings and multilayers can be utilized to improve spatial control and efficiency of delivery. Examples are shown for the delivery of nucleic acids, including DNA and siRNA, to in vitro and in vivo systems. Take home message The versatile and powerful approach of electrostatic coatings and multilayers will lead to the development of enhanced gene therapies. PMID:20201712

  7. Chemical modification study of antisense gapmers.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert; Sciabola, Simone; Salatto, Christopher; Weng, Yan; Moshinsky, Debra; Little, Jeremy; Walters, Evan; Kreeger, John; DiMattia, Debra; Chen, Tracy; Clark, Tracey; Liu, Mei; Qian, Jessie; Roy, Marc; Dullea, Robert

    2012-10-01

    A series of insertion patterns for chemically modified nucleotides [2'-O-methyl (2'-OMe), 2'-fluoro (2'-F), methoxyethyl (MOE), locked nucleic acid (LNA), and G-Clamp] within antisense gapmers is studied in vitro and in vivo in the context of the glucocorticoid receptor. Correlation between lipid transfection and unassisted (gymnotic--using no transfection agent) in vitro assays is seen to be dependent on the chemical modification, with the in vivo results corresponding to the unassisted assay in vitro. While in vitro mRNA knockdown assays are typically reasonable predictors of in vivo results, G-Clamp modified antisense oligonucleotides have poor in vivo mRNA knockdown as compared to transfected cell based assays. For LNA gapmers, knockdown is seen to be highly sensitive to the length of the antisense and number of LNA insertions, with longer 5LNA-10DNA-5LNA compounds giving less activity than 3LNA-10DNA-3LNA derivatives. Additionally, the degree of hepatoxicity for antisense gapmers with identical sequences was seen to vary widely with only subtle changes in the chemical modification pattern. While the optimization of knockdown and hepatic effects remains a sequence specific exercise, general trends emerge around preferred physical properties and modification patterns.

  8. 50 CFR 218.240 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.240 Modifications to Letters of... sonar system from one ship to another, is not considered a substantial modification. (b) If...

  9. 50 CFR 216.190 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA sonar) Sonar § 216.190 Modifications to Letters of... sonar system from one ship to another, is not considered a substantial modification. (b) If the...

  10. 50 CFR 216.190 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA sonar) Sonar § 216.190 Modifications to Letters of... sonar system from one ship to another, is not considered a substantial modification. (b) If the...

  11. 50 CFR 218.240 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.240 Modifications to Letters of... sonar system from one ship to another, is not considered a substantial modification. (b) If...

  12. 50 CFR 218.240 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.240 Modifications to Letters of... sonar system from one ship to another, is not considered a substantial modification. (b) If...

  13. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  14. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  15. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  16. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  17. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  18. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  19. 40 CFR 72.82 - Fast-track modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fast-track modifications. 72.82... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.82 Fast-track modifications. The following procedures shall apply to all fast-track modifications. (a) If the Administrator is the permitting authority,...

  20. 40 CFR 72.82 - Fast-track modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fast-track modifications. 72.82... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.82 Fast-track modifications. The following procedures shall apply to all fast-track modifications. (a) If the Administrator is the permitting authority,...

  1. 40 CFR 72.82 - Fast-track modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fast-track modifications. 72.82... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.82 Fast-track modifications. The following procedures shall apply to all fast-track modifications. (a) If the Administrator is the permitting authority,...

  2. 40 CFR 72.82 - Fast-track modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fast-track modifications. 72.82... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.82 Fast-track modifications. The following procedures shall apply to all fast-track modifications. (a) If the Administrator is the permitting authority,...

  3. 10 CFR 205.152 - Modification or rescission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modification or rescission. 205.152 Section 205.152 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Rulings § 205.152 Modification or rescission. (a) A ruling may be modified or rescinded by: (1) Publication of the modification or rescission...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1001-3 - Modifications of debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Modifications of debt instruments. 1.1001-3... Modifications of debt instruments. (a) Scope—(1) In general. This section provides rules for determining whether a modification of the terms of a debt instrument results in an exchange for purposes of §...

  5. 76 FR 6555 - Loan Guaranty Revised Loan Modification Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... receive any cash back from the modification. (b) If a loan fails to meet one or more of the conditions... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 36 RIN 2900-AN78 Loan Guaranty Revised Loan Modification Procedures AGENCY: Department... Veterans Affairs (VA) Loan Guaranty regulation related to modification of guaranteed housing loans...

  6. 42 CFR 53.156 - Fees for modification requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... processing of requests for parity, and for major and minor modifications of the terms of documents evidencing... submitted with each type of modification. (1) As used in this section, a request for parity allows new debt... modification, and (3) $5,500 for a request for parity. (c) A submitter may withdraw its request...

  7. 42 CFR 53.156 - Fees for modification requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... processing of requests for parity, and for major and minor modifications of the terms of documents evidencing... submitted with each type of modification. (1) As used in this section, a request for parity allows new debt... modification, and (3) $5,500 for a request for parity. (c) A submitter may withdraw its request...

  8. 42 CFR 53.156 - Fees for modification requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... processing of requests for parity, and for major and minor modifications of the terms of documents evidencing... submitted with each type of modification. (1) As used in this section, a request for parity allows new debt... modification, and (3) $5,500 for a request for parity. (c) A submitter may withdraw its request...

  9. 42 CFR 53.156 - Fees for modification requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... processing of requests for parity, and for major and minor modifications of the terms of documents evidencing... submitted with each type of modification. (1) As used in this section, a request for parity allows new debt... modification, and (3) $5,500 for a request for parity. (c) A submitter may withdraw its request...

  10. 42 CFR 53.156 - Fees for modification requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... processing of requests for parity, and for major and minor modifications of the terms of documents evidencing... submitted with each type of modification. (1) As used in this section, a request for parity allows new debt... modification, and (3) $5,500 for a request for parity. (c) A submitter may withdraw its request...

  11. Ecological Effects of Weather Modification: A Problem Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Charles F.; Jolly, William C.

    This publication reviews the potential hazards to the environment of weather modification techniques as they eventually become capable of producing large scale weather pattern modifications. Such weather modifications could result in ecological changes which would generally require several years to be fully evident, including the alteration of…

  12. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... modifications that directly reflect a revision to this Part 403 or to 40 CFR chapter I, subchapter N, and are... approved modification in accordance with 40 CFR 122.63(g). ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Modification of POTW...

  13. Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, Jonathan

    Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (<50 nm), it is challenging to characterize their material properties for correlation to adhesive performance. We circumvent this problem by estimating the elastic modulus of the silane-based coatings using the buckling instability formed between two materials of a large elastic mismatch. The elastic modulus is found to effectively predict the joint strength of an epoxy/aluminum joint that has been reinforced with silane coupling agents. This buckling

  14. 30 CFR 28.25 - Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes or modifications of approved fuses... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR... Approval and Disapproval § 28.25 Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification...

  15. Sleep Modifications in Acute Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Frisullo, Giovanni; Marano, Giuseppe; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Vollono, Catello; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary memory loss characterized by an abrupt onset of antero-grade and retrograde amnesia, totally reversible. Since sleep plays a major role in memory consolidation, and in the storage of memory-related traces into the brain cortex, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate changes in sleep macro-structure in TGA; (2) to assess modifications in sleep micro-structure in TGA, with particular reference to the arousal EEG and to cyclic alternating pattern (CAP); (3) to compare sleep parameters in TGA patients with a control group of patients with acute ischemic events (“minor stroke” or transient ischemic attack [TIA]) clinically and neuroradiologically “similar” to the TGA. Methods: TGA group: 17 patients, (8 men and 9 women, 60.2 ± 12.5 years). Stroke or TIA (SoT) group: 17 patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit for recent onset of minor stroke or TIA with hemispheric localization; healthy controls (HC) group: 17 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex. Patients and controls underwent full-night polysomnography. Results: In the multivariate analysis (conditions TGA, SoT, and HC) a significant effect of the condition was observed for sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings longer 1 min, REM latency, CAP time, and CAP rate. TGA and SoT differed only for CAP time and CAP rate, which were lower in the TGA group. Conclusions: Microstructural modification associated with TGA could be consequent to: (1) hippocampal dysfunction and memory impairment; (2) impairment of arousal-related structures (in particular, cholinergic pathways); (3) emotional distress. Citation: Della Marca G; Mazza M; Losurdo A; Testani E; Broccolini A; Frisullo G; Marano G; Morosetti R; Pilato F; Profice P; Vollono C; Di Lazzaro V. Sleep modifications in acute transient global amnesia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):921-927. PMID:23997704

  16. Modifications of Glycans: Biological Significance and Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Saddam M.; Campbell, Christopher; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a central role in a wide range of biological processes. As with nucleic acids and proteins, modifications of specific sites within the glycan chain can modulate a carbohydrate’s overall biological function. For example, acylation, methylation, sulfation, epimerization, and phosphorylation can occur at various positions within a carbohydrate to modulate bioactivity. Therefore, there is significant interest in identifying discrete carbohydrate modifications and understanding their biological effects. Additionally, enzymes that catalyze those modifications and proteins that bind modified glycans provide numerous targets for therapeutic intervention. This review will focus on modifications of glycans that occur after the oligomer/polymer has been assembled, generally referred to as postglycosylational modifications. PMID:22195988

  17. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Junxia; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2013-01-01

    The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM). This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation) and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.). Perspectives of further research are also discussed. PMID:24956947

  18. Modified Kriging: evaluation, modification, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes modifications to a technique developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to predict general corrections (traveltime, etc.) for a geographic grid only sparsely covered by calibration points (Hipp and Young, 1997). SNL has worked to create a modified version of linear prediction (kriging) based on the idea of blending the surface back to zero at some distance from the points or, in other words, by damping the solution through the damping of the input data points. LLNL has been working with SNL to evaluate Modified Kriging. This report documents our evaluation of the technique and our resulting recommendations to SNL.

  19. Microwave-mediated enzymatic modifications of DNA.

    PubMed

    Das, Rakha Hari; Ahirwar, Rajesh; Kumar, Saroj; Nahar, Pradip

    2015-02-15

    Here we report microwave-induced specific cleavage, ligation, dephosphorylation, and phosphorylation of nucleic acids catalyzed by restriction endonucleases, T4 DNA ligase, T4 polynucleotide kinase, and calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase. The microwave-mediated method has dramatically reduced the reaction time to 20 to 50s. In control experiments, the same reactions failed to give the desired reaction products when carried out in the same time periods but without microwave irradiation. Because the microwave method is rapid, it could be a useful alternative to the time-consuming conventional procedure for enzymatic modification of DNA. PMID:25447491

  20. Modification of acceleration element in ''TRANSPORT''

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.W.; McGill, J.

    1987-01-01

    One of the uses at LAMPF of the beam-dynamics code TRANSPORT is to model and tune the proton beams in the side-coupled linac. Significant differences are found between measured beam characteristics and those calculated by an early version of TRANSPORT. These differences are reduced to acceptable limits by modification of the original accelerator transformation matrix used in the code. The modified element and a brief description of its derivation are presented. The modified matrix reduces to the original matrix in the relativistic limit. The modified matrix is also compared to results of numerical integration to obtain some indication of its accuracy.

  1. Hurricane debbie modification experiments, august 1969.

    PubMed

    Gentry, R C

    1970-04-24

    Maximum winds in Hurricane Debbie, August 1969, decreased after modification experiments by Project Stormfury. Clouds surrounding the center of Debbie were seeded with silver iodide particles five times at approximately 2-hour intervals on both 18 and 20 August. Before the first seeding on 18 August, the maximum speed of winds at 3600 meters was 182 kilometers per hour, but, 5 hours after the fifth seeding, these winds decreased to 126 kilometers per hour. On 20 August, the corresponding change was from 183 to 156 kilometers per hour. Analyses of the data suggest that the storm was modified.

  2. ASPOD modifications of 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jennifer J. (Editor); Fogarty, Paul W.; Muller, Matthew; Martucci, Thomas A., III; Williams, Daniel; Rowney, David A.

    1994-01-01

    ASPOD, Autonomous Space Processors for Orbital Debris, provides a unique way of collecting the space debris that has built up over the past 37 years. For the past several years, ASPOD has gone through several different modifications. This year's concentrations were on the solar cutting array, the solar tracker, the earth based main frame/tilt table, the controls for the two robotic arms, and accurate autocad drawings of ASPOD. This final report contains the reports written by the students who worked on the ASPOD project this year.

  3. Comprehensive Catalog of Currently Documented Histone Modifications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingming; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2015-09-01

    Modern techniques in molecular biology, genomics, and mass spectrometry-based proteomics have identified a large number of novel histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs), many of whose functions are still under intense investigation. Here, we catalog histone PTMs under two classes: first, those whose functions have been fairly well studied and, second, those PTMs that have been more recently identified but whose functions remain unclear. We hope that this will be a useful resource for researchers from all biological or technical backgrounds, aiding in their chromatin and epigenetic pursuits.

  4. Covalent modification of proteins by cocaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shi-Xian; Bharat, Narine; Fischman, Marian C.; Landry, Donald W.

    2002-03-01

    Cocaine covalently modifies proteins through a reaction in which the methyl ester of cocaine acylates the -amino group of lysine residues. This reaction is highly specific in vitro, because no other amino acid reacts with cocaine, and only cocaine's methyl ester reacts with the lysine side chain. Covalently modified proteins were present in the plasma of rats and human subjects chronically exposed to cocaine. Modified endogenous proteins are immunogenic, and specific antibodies were elicited in mouse and detected in the plasma of human subjects. Covalent modification of proteins could explain cocaine's autoimmune effects and provide a new biochemical approach to cocaine's long-term actions.

  5. Methylation – an uncommon modification of glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Erika

    2013-01-01

    A methyl group on a sugar residue is a rarely reported event. Until now this kind of modification has been found in the kingdom of animals only in worms and molluscs, whereas it is more frequently present in some species of bacteria, fungi, algae and plants, but not in mammals. The monosaccharides involved as well as the positions of the methyl groups on the sugar vary with the species. Methylation seems to play a role in some recognition events but details are still unknown. This review summarises the current knowledge on methylation of sugars in all kinds of organism. PMID:22944672

  6. Modifications of Fabrication of Vibratory Microgyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Sam Y.; Yee, Karl Y.; Wiberg, Dean

    2005-01-01

    A micromachining process for the fabrication of vibratory microgyroscopes from silicon wafers, and aspects of the microgyroscope design that are inextricably linked with the fabrication process, have been modified in an effort to increase production yields from perspectives of both quantity and quality. Prior to the modifications, the effective production yield of working microgyroscopes was limited to one or less per wafer. The modifications are part of a continuing effort to improve the design and increase production yields to more than 30 working microgyroscopes per wafer. A discussion of pertinent aspects of the unmodified design and the unmodified fabrication process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the modifications. The design of the microgyroscope package was not conducive to high yield and rapid testing of many microgyroscopes. One of the major impediments to high yield and testing was found to lie in vibration- isolation beams around the four edges of each microgyroscope, which beams were found to be unnecessary for achieving high resonance quality factors (Q values) characterizing the vibrations of petallike cantilevers. The fabrication process included an 8- m-deep plasma etch. The purpose of the etch was to create 8- m vertical gaps, below which were to be placed large gold evaporated electrodes and sensing pads to drive and sense resonant vibrations of the "petals." The process also included a step in which bridges between dies were cut to separate the dies. The etched areas must be kept clean and smooth (free of debris and spikes), because any object close to 8 m high in those areas would stop the vibrations. However, it was found that after the etch, there remained some spikes with heights that were, variously, almost as high or as high as the etch depth. It also was found that the cutting of bridges created silicon debris, some of which lodged in the 8- m gaps and some of which landed on top of the petals. The masses added to the

  7. Modify or die? - RNA modification defects in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, L Peter; Leidel, Sebastian A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical RNA modifications are present in all kingdoms of life and many of these post-transcriptional modifications are conserved throughout evolution. However, most of the research has been performed on single cell organisms, whereas little is known about how RNA modifications contribute to the development of metazoans. In recent years, the identification of RNA modification genes in genome wide association studies (GWAS) has sparked new interest in previously neglected genes. In this review, we summarize recent findings that connect RNA modification defects and phenotypes in higher eukaryotes. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of aberrant tRNA modification in various human diseases including metabolic defects, mitochondrial dysfunctions, neurological disorders, and cancer. As the molecular mechanisms of these diseases are being elucidated, we will gain first insights into the functions of RNA modifications in higher eukaryotes and finally understand their roles during development. PMID:25692999

  8. Current practices for modification of paving asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Bahia, H.U.; Perdomo, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave binder specification, AASHTO MP1, has introduced new concepts for selecting paving asphalt binders. The specification, in addition to using rheological and failure measurements that are more related to performance, is based on the idea that the criteria to maintain a satisfactory contribution of asphalt binders to the resistance of pavement failures remains the same but have to be satisfied at critical application temperatures. The test procedures require that the material be characterized within certain ranges of strains or stresses to ensure that material and geometric non-linearities are not confounded in the measurements. These new specification concepts have resulted in re-evaluation of asphalt modification by the majority of modified asphalt suppliers. The philosophy of asphalt modification is expected to change, following these new concepts, from a general improvement of quality to more focus on using modifiers based on the most critical need as defined by two factors: (1) The application temperature domain and (2) the type of distress to be remedied. The new specification requirements should result in a more effective use of modifiers as the amount and type of modifier will be directly related to the application environment and the engineering requirements.

  9. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M.; Hirvonen, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  10. Epigenetic modification of OXT and human sociability.

    PubMed

    Haas, Brian W; Filkowski, Megan M; Cochran, R Nick; Denison, Lydia; Ishak, Alexandra; Nishitani, Shota; Smith, Alicia K

    2016-07-01

    Across many mammalian species there exist genetic and biological systems that facilitate the tendency to be social. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in social-approach behaviors in humans and others mammals. Although there exists a large, mounting body of evidence showing that oxytocin signaling genes are associated with human sociability, very little is currently known regarding the way the structural gene for oxytocin (OXT) confers individual differences in human sociability. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive approach to investigate the association between epigenetic modification of OXT via DNA methylation, and overt measures of social processing, including self-report, behavior, and brain function and structure. Genetic data were collected via saliva samples and analyzed to target and quantify DNA methylation across the promoter region of OXT We observed a consistent pattern of results across sociability measures. People that exhibit lower OXT DNA methylation (presumably linked to higher OXT expression) display more secure attachment styles, improved ability to recognize emotional facial expressions, greater superior temporal sulcus activity during two social-cognitive functional MRI tasks, and larger fusiform gyrus gray matter volume than people that exhibit higher OXT DNA methylation. These findings provide empirical evidence that epigenetic modification of OXT is linked to several overt measures of sociability in humans and serve to advance progress in translational social neuroscience research toward a better understanding of the evolutionary and genetic basis of normal and abnormal human sociability. PMID:27325757

  11. [Modification of antibiotic resistance in microbial symbiosis].

    PubMed

    Aznabaeva, L M; Usviatsov, B Ia; Bukharin, O V

    2010-01-01

    In antibiotic therapy it is necessary to use drugs active against the pathogen in its association with the host normal microflora. The aim of the study was to investigate modification of antibiotic resistance under conditions of the pathogen association with the representatives of the host normal microflora and to develop the microbiological criteria for determining effectiveness of antibacterials. Modification of microbial antibiotic resistance was investigated in 408 associations. Various changes in the antibiotic resistance of the strains were revealed: synergism, antagonism and indifference. On the basis of the results it was concluded that in the choice of the antibiotic active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes the preference should be given to oxacillin, gentamicin and levomycetin, since the resistance of the pathogens to these antibiotics under the association conditions did not increase, which could contribute to their destruction, whereas the resistance of the normoflora increased or did not change, which was important for its retention in the biocenosis. The data on changeability of the antibiotic resistance of the microbial strains under the association conditions made it possible to develop microbiological criteria for determining effectiveness of antibiotics in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of microbial etiology (RF Patent No. 2231554). PMID:21033469

  12. Posttranslational Modifications and the Immunogenicity of Biotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Jefferis, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the amino acid sequence of a protein is determined by its gene sequence, the final structure and function are determined by posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including quality control (QC) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and during passage through the Golgi apparatus. These processes are species and cell specific and challenge the biopharmaceutical industry when developing a production platform for the generation of recombinant biologic therapeutics. Proteins and glycoproteins are also subject to chemical modifications (CMs) both in vivo and in vitro. The individual is naturally tolerant to molecular forms of self-molecules but nonself variants can provoke an immune response with the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA); aggregated forms can exhibit enhanced immunogenicity and QC procedures are developed to avoid or remove them. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics (mAbs) are a special case because their purpose is to bind the target, with the formation of immune complexes (ICs), a particular form of aggregate. Such ICs may be removed by phagocytic cells that have antigen presenting capacity. These considerations may frustrate the possibility of ameliorating the immunogenicity of mAbs by rigorous exclusion of aggregates from drug product. Alternate strategies for inducing immunosuppression or tolerance are discussed. PMID:27191002

  13. Epigenetic modification of OXT and human sociability.

    PubMed

    Haas, Brian W; Filkowski, Megan M; Cochran, R Nick; Denison, Lydia; Ishak, Alexandra; Nishitani, Shota; Smith, Alicia K

    2016-07-01

    Across many mammalian species there exist genetic and biological systems that facilitate the tendency to be social. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in social-approach behaviors in humans and others mammals. Although there exists a large, mounting body of evidence showing that oxytocin signaling genes are associated with human sociability, very little is currently known regarding the way the structural gene for oxytocin (OXT) confers individual differences in human sociability. In this study, we undertook a comprehensive approach to investigate the association between epigenetic modification of OXT via DNA methylation, and overt measures of social processing, including self-report, behavior, and brain function and structure. Genetic data were collected via saliva samples and analyzed to target and quantify DNA methylation across the promoter region of OXT We observed a consistent pattern of results across sociability measures. People that exhibit lower OXT DNA methylation (presumably linked to higher OXT expression) display more secure attachment styles, improved ability to recognize emotional facial expressions, greater superior temporal sulcus activity during two social-cognitive functional MRI tasks, and larger fusiform gyrus gray matter volume than people that exhibit higher OXT DNA methylation. These findings provide empirical evidence that epigenetic modification of OXT is linked to several overt measures of sociability in humans and serve to advance progress in translational social neuroscience research toward a better understanding of the evolutionary and genetic basis of normal and abnormal human sociability.

  14. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  15. A modification of 4330 alloy steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gogolewski, R.; Cunningham, B.J. ); Gentile, R.; Fleming, S. )

    1990-08-01

    We have developed a modification of 4330 alloy steel which does not have an exact equivalent expressed in any standard specification. When we compare the ballistic performance of our modified cast steel in thicknesses of about 120 mm with that of stacked, 24 mm thick rolled 4340 alloy steel plates of comparable hardness and the same total thickness, we do not find a significant difference in terminal ballistic performance against either heavy metal kinetic energy penetrators or precision shaped charges. This result is surprising in relation to contemporary experience in which cast steel has been found to be ballistically inferior to rolled steel against either kinetic energy projectiles or shaped charge warheads. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  16. Surface modifications of some nanocomposites containing starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, M.-C.; Popescu, M.-C.; Vasile, C.

    2008-09-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted strong interest in today's materials research, due to the possible impressive enhancements of material properties, comparatively with those of pure polymers. Several starch/poly(vinylalcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been subjected to surface modification by physical treatments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure and coating with proteins (albumin) or polysaccharides (chitosan), for improving their biocompatibility. Untreated and treated surfaces have been comparatively studied by contact angle measurements, FT-IR and 2D-FT-IR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. It has been established that enhancement of the surface characteristics depends on the type and number of incorporated nanoparticles as well as on the treatment applied. Coupling of DBD exposure and coating techniques appears to be highly efficient.

  17. Modifications to the silver physical developer.

    PubMed

    Burow, David; Seifert, Donald; Cantu, Antonio A

    2003-09-01

    The silver physical developer is currently the most successful reagent used for visualizing the water-insoluble components (e.g., lipids) of latent prints on porous surfaces. It is normally used after the amino acid visualizing reagents (e.g., ninhydrin and DFO) are used. This work found that the performance of the current formulation of silver physical developer is strongly reduced when the water used is changed from the usual distilled water to the more purified reverse osmosis/deionized (RO/DI) water. Based on numerous experiments involving the systematic variation of the component concentrations, the performance was restored and even improved by reducing the concentration of all the components (except that of the ferric salt) and by including malic acid in the formulation. These modifications resulted in a new silver physical developer formulation that performs as well as or better than the current formulation and is less expensive to make.

  18. Genome modification by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Lianfeng; Huang, Xingxu

    2014-12-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9-mediated genome modification enables us to edit the genomes of a variety of organisms rapidly and efficiently. The advantages of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have made it an increasingly popular genetic engineering tool for biological and therapeutic applications. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has been employed to recruit functional domains that repress/activate gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells or organisms, in order to explore developmental mechanisms, gene expression regulation, and animal behavior. One major concern about this system is its specificity; although CRISPR-Cas9-mediated off-target mutation has been broadly studied, more efforts are required to further improve the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9. We will also discuss the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9.

  19. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders. PMID:27527165

  20. Modifications to installed Sphincter design gloveports

    SciTech Connect

    Shetty, S.S.; Gilkison, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of alternative methods for replacing Sphincter designed gloveports in gloveboxes. In addition, the paper discusses modifications that are required on metal glovebox wall panels to allow replacement of the Sphincter gloveports. A review of Westinghouse Savannah River Co. (WSRC) maintenance records showed that gloveports manufactured by Central Research, Incorporated, provide the lowest risk for failure. This assessment is based on the records of glove-to-port seal life and air in-leakage. These records also indicate the glove changes are made in shorter times with fewer workers than required by alternate gloveport designs studied. These attributes culminate in a significant decrease in radiation exposure and assimilation risk of maintenance personnel replacing gloves. Further, the Central Research design reduces the number of expandable hardware parts required to achieve a glove replacement. This reduction in expendable materials can result in a significant reduction in contaminated waste volume generated during a glove replacement.

  1. Cell Signalling Through Covalent Modification and Allostery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Louise N.

    Phosphorylation plays essential roles in nearly every aspect of cell life. Protein kinases catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to a serine, threonine or tyrosine residue in protein substrates. This covalent modification allows activation or inhibition of enzyme activity, creates recognition sites for other proteins and promotes order/disorder or disorder/order transitions. These properties regulate ­signalling pathways and cellular processes that mediate metabolism, transcription, cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytoskeleton arrangement and cell movement, apoptosis, intercellular communication, and neuronal and immunological functions. In this lecture I shall review the structural consequences of protein phosphorylation using our work on glycogen phosphorylase and the cell cycle cyclin dependent protein kinases as illustrations. Regulation of protein phosphorylation may be disrupted in the diseased state and protein kinases have become high profile targets for drug development. To date there are 11 compounds that have been approved for clinical use in the treatment of cancer.

  2. Selective Surface Modification on Lubricant Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-11-01

    While surface patterns are effective in improving tribological properties, nevertheless they alter the surface wettability, which will in turn affect the surface-lubricant interactions. When there is a shortage of lubricant on a patterned surface, the lubricant stored inside the cavities will be extracted to compensate the surface lubricant dissipation. Additionally, the lubricant retention effect provided by the cavities is competing with the release of the lubricant. With weak surface-lubricant interaction, the retention is limited. Therefore, the lubrication will have a sudden failure, giving a dramatic transition to abrasive wear. To improve the performance of polar lubricants on hydrophobic polymer surfaces, both topographical and selective surface modifications were incorporated on injection molded polypropylene surfaces. Distinctive lubrication improvement was observed when the surface structure density for the lubricant storage was high, and the release of the lubricant was controlled by the interaction with the selectively modified surfaces.

  3. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  4. Bt Toxin Modification for Enhanced Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Deist, Benjamin R.; Rausch, Michael A.; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2014-01-01

    Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

  5. Posttranslational Protein Modifications in Plant Metabolism1

    PubMed Central

    Friso, Giulia; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins greatly expand proteome diversity, increase functionality, and allow for rapid responses, all at relatively low costs for the cell. PTMs play key roles in plants through their impact on signaling, gene expression, protein stability and interactions, and enzyme kinetics. Following a brief discussion of the experimental and bioinformatics challenges of PTM identification, localization, and quantification (occupancy), a concise overview is provided of the major PTMs and their (potential) functional consequences in plants, with emphasis on plant metabolism. Classic examples that illustrate the regulation of plant metabolic enzymes and pathways by PTMs and their cross talk are summarized. Recent large-scale proteomics studies mapped many PTMs to a wide range of metabolic functions. Unraveling of the PTM code, i.e. a predictive understanding of the (combinatorial) consequences of PTMs, is needed to convert this growing wealth of data into an understanding of plant metabolic regulation. PMID:26338952

  6. Multipulse nanosecond laser modification of steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumakov, A. N.; Nikonchuk, I. S.; Gaković, B.; Petrović, S.; Trtica, M.

    2014-09-01

    Results of surface modification are presented for MnNiCrMo-steel samples exposed to a Nd:YAG laser operating in a pulse-periodic mode (10 Hz frequency, 532 nm wavelength and 17 ns pulse duration). The steel samples were irradiated in air by a series of laser pulses at a fluence of 10.7 J cm-2 close to a plasma formation threshold. Surface structures were examined by optical, scanning electron and confocal optical microscopy. The appearance of the detected surface structures strongly depends on the number of laser pulses and power density of laser radiation. Significant differences were found between laser-induced structures in the center of the laser spot, at its edges and in the nearest surrounding of the laser spot. The reasons for such differences are discussed.

  7. A study of microbial profile modification

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, J.H.; Lee, H.O.

    1995-12-31

    A microbial profile modification method using spores was investigated. A halotolerant, spore-forming, biopolymer-producing mesophile was used in Berea cores with a specifically formulated nutrient package to reduce the permeability of the rock. The degree of permeability reduction varied widely depending on the stimulation protocols used. The incubation period had a significant impact on permeability reduction, and there appeared to be an optimum incubation time for maximum permeability reduction. The reduction persisted for many PV of brine injection and appeared very stable. For our microbes used in this study, the permeability reduction was about the same when the NaCl concentration was above 2 wt% in the range from 0 wt% to 10 wt%.

  8. Shining light on modifications of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine E-mail: Clare.Burrage@nottingham.ac.uk

    2012-10-01

    Many modifications of gravity introduce new scalar degrees of freedom, and in such theories matter fields typically couple to an effective metric that depends on both the true metric of spacetime and on the scalar field and its derivatives. Scalar field contributions to the effective metric can be classified as conformal and disformal. Disformal terms introduce gradient couplings between scalar fields and the energy momentum tensor of other matter fields, and cannot be constrained by fifth force experiments because the effects of these terms are trivial around static non-relativistic sources. The use of high-precision, low-energy photon experiments to search for conformally coupled scalar fields, called axion-like particles, is well known. In this article we show that these experiments are also constraining for disformal scalar field theories, and are particularly important because of the difficulty of constraining these couplings with other laboratory experiments.

  9. Lipid modification processes induced by thiyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaljević, Branka; Bujak, Ivana Tartaro

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation by thiyl radicals (RS•) is believed to be responsible for some of the biological radiation damage. At the same time, RS• can cause isomerization of PUFA double bonds with the formation of trans isomers. The aim of this study was to better understand the competition between lipid peroxidation and geometrical isomerization processes in biomimetic model system of linoleic acid in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol using irradiation as a method for free radicals generation. In air-equilibrated conditions the propagation of lipid peroxidation was dominant up to the dose of 400 Gy, after which at higher doses up to 10 kGy the termination occurred with the predominance of geometrical isomerization. This study revealed that undesirable and permanent lipid modifications are possible at higher irradiation doses which should be considered in the planning of irradiation treatment of foods and feeds with high content of lipids and sulfur compounds.

  10. Pursuing DNA catalysts for protein modification.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Scott K

    2015-05-19

    Catalysis is a fundamental chemical concept, and many kinds of catalysts have considerable practical value. Developing entirely new catalysts is an exciting challenge. Rational design and screening have provided many new small-molecule catalysts, and directed evolution has been used to optimize or redefine the function of many protein enzymes. However, these approaches have inherent limitations that prompt the pursuit of different kinds of catalysts using other experimental methods. Nature evolved RNA enzymes, or ribozymes, for key catalytic roles that in modern biology are limited to phosphodiester cleavage/ligation and amide bond formation. Artificial DNA enzymes, or deoxyribozymes, have great promise for a broad range of catalytic activities. They can be identified from unbiased (random) sequence populations as long as the appropriate in vitro selection strategies can be implemented for their identification. Notably, in vitro selection is different in key conceptual and practical ways from rational design, screening, and directed evolution. This Account describes the development by in vitro selection of DNA catalysts for many different kinds of covalent modification reactions of peptide and protein substrates, inspired in part by our earlier work with DNA-catalyzed RNA ligation reactions. In one set of studies, we have sought DNA-catalyzed peptide backbone cleavage, with the long-term goal of artificial DNA-based proteases. We originally anticipated that amide hydrolysis should be readily achieved, but in vitro selection instead surprisingly led to deoxyribozymes for DNA phosphodiester hydrolysis; this was unexpected because uncatalyzed amide bond hydrolysis is 10(5)-fold faster. After developing a suitable selection approach that actively avoids DNA hydrolysis, we were able to identify deoxyribozymes for hydrolysis of esters and aromatic amides (anilides). Aliphatic amide cleavage remains an ongoing focus, including via inclusion of chemically modified DNA

  11. Polymer surface modification by plasmas and photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C.-M.; Ko, T.-M.; Hiraoka, H.

    1996-05-01

    Polymers have been applied successfully in fields such as adhesion, biomaterials, protective coatings, friction and wear, composites, microelectronic devices, and thin-film technology. In general, special surface properties with regard to chemical composition, hydrophilicity, roughness, crystallinity, conductivity, lubricity, and cross-linking density are required for the success of these applications. Polymers very often do not possess the surface properties needed for these applications. However, they have excellent bulk physical and chemical properties, are inexpensive, and are easy to process. For these reasons, surface modification techniques which can transform these inexpensive materials into highly valuable finished products have become an important part of the plastics and many other industries. In recent years, many advances have been made in developing surface treatments to alter the chemical and physical properties of polymer surfaces without affecting bulk properties. Common surface modification techniques include treatments by flame, corona, plasmas, photons, electron beams, ion beams, X-rays, and γ-rays. Plasma treatment is probably the most versatile surface treatment technique. Different types of gases such as argon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, carbon dioxide, and water can produce the unique surface properties required by various applications. For example, oxygen-plasma treatment can increase the surface energy of polymers, whereas fluorine-plasma treatment can decrease the surface energy and improve the chemical inertness. Cross-linking at a polymer surface can be introduced by an inert-gas plasma. Modification by plasma treatment is usually confined to the top several hundred ångströms and does not affect the bulk properties. The main disadvantage of this technique is that it requires a vacuum system, which increases the cost of operation. Thin polymer films with unique chemical and physical properties are produced by plasma polymerization

  12. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders. PMID:27527165

  13. Gas release and conductivity modification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linson, L. M.; Baxter, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of gas clouds produced by releases from orbital velocity in either a point release or venting mode is described by the modification of snowplow equations valid in an intermediate altitude regime. Quantitative estimates are produced for the time dependence of the radius of the cloud, the average internal energy, the translational velocity, and the distance traveled. The dependence of these quantities on the assumed density profile, the internal energy of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats is examined. The new feature is the inclusion of the effect of the large orbital velocity. The resulting gas cloud models are used to calculate the characteristics of the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity enhancements that would be produced by the release of barium thermite at orbital velocity in either the point release or venting modes as a function of release altitude and chemical payload weight.

  14. Genetic Modification of Stem Cells for Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M. Ian; Tang, Yao Liang

    2009-01-01

    Gene modification of cells for prior to their transplantation, especially stem cells, enhances their survival and increases their function in cell therapy. Like the Trojan horse, the gene modified cell has to gain entrance inside the host’s walls and survive and deliver its transgene products Using cellular, molecular and gene manipulation techniques the transplanted cell can be protected in a hostile environment from immune rejection, inflammation, hypoxia and apoptosis. Genetic engineering to modify cells involves constructing modules of functional gene sequences. They can be simple reporter genes or complex cassettes with gene switches, cell specific promoters and multiple transgenes. We discuss methods to deliver and construct gene cassettes with viral and non viral delivery, siRNA, and conditional Cre/Lox P. We review the current uses of gene modified stem cells in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurological diseases,( including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and spinal cord injury repair), bone defects, hemophilia, and cancer. PMID:18031863

  15. Bivalent histone modifications during tooth development.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Zhang, Bin-Peng; Xu, Ruo-Shi; Xu, Xin; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Histone methylation is one of the most widely studied post-transcriptional modifications. It is thought to be an important epigenetic event that is closely associated with cell fate determination and differentiation. To explore the spatiotemporal expression of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) epigenetic marks and methylation or demethylation transferases in tooth organ development, we measured the expression of SET7, EZH2, KDM5B and JMJD3 via immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in the first molar of BALB/c mice embryos at E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, P0 and P3, respectively. We also measured the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 with immunofluorescence staining. During murine tooth germ development, methylation or demethylation transferases were expressed in a spatial-temporal manner. The bivalent modification characterized by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 can be found during the tooth germ development, as shown by immunofluorescence. The expression of SET7, EZH2 as methylation transferases and KDM5B and JMJD3 as demethylation transferases indicated accordingly with the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively to some extent. The bivalent histone may play a critical role in tooth organ development via the regulation of cell differentiation.

  16. Biomolecular Modification of Inorganic Crystal Growth

    SciTech Connect

    De Yoreo, J J

    2007-04-27

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures are an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over materials synthesis. Conversely, the failure to prevent or limit tissue mineralization in the vascular, skeletal, and urinary systems is a common source of disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms direct or limit crystallization has long been a central challenge to the biomineralization community. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for either inhibiting crystallization or initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineralizing surfaces. In particular, biomolecules that present carboxyl groups to the growing crystal have been implicated as primary modulators of growth. Here we review the results from a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling (MM) studies to investigate the effect of specific interactions between carboxylate-rich biomolecules and atomic steps on crystal surfaces during the growth of carbonates, oxalates and phosphates of calcium. Specifically, we how the growth kinetics and morphology depend on the concentration of additives that include citrate, simple amino acids, synthetic Asp-rich polypeptides, and naturally occurring Asp-rich proteins found in both functional and pathological mineral tissues. The results reveal a consistent picture of shape modification in which stereochemical matching of modifiers to specific atomic steps drives shape modification. Inhibition and other changes in growth kinetics are shown to be due to a range of mechanisms that depend on chemistry and molecular size. Some effects are well described by classic crystal growth theories, but others, such as step acceleration due to peptide charge and hydrophylicity, were previously unrealized

  17. On the genetic modification of psychology, personality, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Neitzke, Alex B

    2012-12-01

    I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.

  18. Profile modification to minimize spur gear dynamic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Townsend, Dennis P.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical computer simulation program for dynamic modeling of low-contact-ratio spur gear systems is presented. The procedure computes the static transmission error of the gears operating under load and uses a fast Fourier transform to generate the frequency spectrum of the static transmission error at various tooth profile modifications. The dynamic loading response of an unmodified (perfect involute) gear pair was compared with that of gears with various profile modifications. Correlations were found between various profile modifications and the resulting dynamic loads. An effective error, obtained from frequency domain analysis of the static transmission error of the gears, gave a very good indication of the optimum profile modification to reduce gear dynamic loading. Design curves generated by dynamic simulation at various profile modifications are given for gear systems operated at various loads. Optimum profile modifications can be determined from these design curves for improved gear design.

  19. Profile modification to minimize spur gear dynamic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. H.; Townsend, D. P.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical computer simulation program for dynamic modeling of low-contact-ratio spur gear systems is presented. The procedure computes the static transmission error of the gears operating under load and uses a fast Fourier transform to generate the frequency spectrum of the static transmission error at various tooth profile modifications. The dynamic loading response of an unmodified (perfect involute) gear pair was compared with that of gears with various profile modifications. Correlations were found between various profile modifications and the resulting dynamic loads. An effective error, obtained from frequency domain analysis of the static transmission error of the gears, gave a very good indication of the optimum profile modification to reduce gear dynamic loading. Design curves generated by dynamic simulation at various profile modifications are given for gear systems operated at various loads. Optimum profile modifications can be determined from these design curves for improved gear design.

  20. Messenger RNA modifications – Form, distribution, and function

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Wendy V.; Bell, Tristan A.; Schaening, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    RNA contains more than 100 distinct modifications that promote the functions of stable non-coding RNAs in translation and splicing. Recent technical advances have revealed widespread and sparse modification of messenger RNAs with N6-methyladenosine (m6A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and pseudouridine (Ψ). Here we discuss the rapidly evolving understanding of the location, regulation and function of these dynamic mRNA marks, collectively termed the epitranscriptome. We highlight differences among modifications and between species that could instruct ongoing efforts to understand how specific mRNAs target sites are selected and how their modification is regulated. Diverse molecular consequences of individual m6A modifications are beginning to be revealed but the effects of m5C and Ψ remain largely unknown. Future work linking molecular effects to organismal phenotypes will broaden our understanding of mRNA modifications as cell and developmental regulators. PMID:27313037

  1. Effect Modification and Interaction Terms: It Takes Two to Tango.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    In this Investigators' Corner I look more deeply into the previously discussed phenomenon of effect modification. I revisit an explanation and examples of the phenomenon and then examine how to account for it statistically. Specifically, I show, in detail, how to write a regression equation that includes interaction terms that account for the effect modification. Finally, I look at interpretation of regression coefficients both with and without the presence of effect modification, and the associated interaction terms.

  2. Pnp gene modification for improved xylose utilization in Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G G; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-12-16

    The endogenous pnp gene encoding polynucleotide phosphorylase in the Zymomonas genome was identified as a target for modification to provide improved xylose utilizing cells for ethanol production. The cells are in addition genetically modified to have increased expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) activity, as compared to cells without this genetic modification, and are not limited in xylose isomerase activity in the absence of the pnp modification.

  3. Effect Modification and Interaction Terms: It Takes Two to Tango.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    In this Investigators' Corner I look more deeply into the previously discussed phenomenon of effect modification. I revisit an explanation and examples of the phenomenon and then examine how to account for it statistically. Specifically, I show, in detail, how to write a regression equation that includes interaction terms that account for the effect modification. Finally, I look at interpretation of regression coefficients both with and without the presence of effect modification, and the associated interaction terms. PMID:27320193

  4. Characterization and hardware modification of linear momentum exchange devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgemon, George D.; Curtis, Sally; Waites, Henry B.

    1987-01-01

    A sequence of modifications were made on the TRW Linear Momentum Exchange Devices (LMEDs) which were supplied for a joint MSFC/Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory (AFWAL) control venture called Vibrational Control of Space Structures (VCOSS)-II. The modifications were necessary to alleviate and assuage the LMED nonlinearities. Extensive discussion of the LMED modification are presented along with the test plan, test results and conclusions. In addition, a chronology of events, relative to the LMED changes, is given.

  5. Metabolic regulation of histone post-translational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jing; Krautkramer, Kimberly A.; Feldman, Jessica L.; Denu, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications regulate transcription and other DNA-templated functions. This process is dynamically regulated by specific modifying enzymes whose activities require metabolites that either serve as co-substrates or act as activators/inhibitors. Therefore, metabolism can influence histone modification by changing local concentrations of key metabolites. Physiologically, the epigenetic response to metabolism is important for nutrient sensing and environment adaption. In pathologic states, the connection between metabolism and histone modification mediates epigenetic abnormality in complex disease. In this review, we summarize recent studies of the molecular mechanisms involved in metabolic regulation of histone modifications and discuss their biological significance. PMID:25562692

  6. Space Shuttle orbiter modifications to support Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segert, Randall; Lichtenfels, Allyson

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will be the primary vehicle to support the launch, assembly, and maintenance of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). In order to accommodate this function, the Space Shuttle orbiter will require significant modifications. These modifications are currently in development in the Space Shuttle Program. The requirements for the planned modifications to the Space Shuttle orbiter are dependent on the design of the SSF. Therefore, extensive coordination is required with the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) in order to identify requirements and resolve integration issues. This paper describes the modifications to the Space Shuttle orbiter required to support SSF assembly and operations.

  7. Single-Nucleosome Mapping of Histone Modifications in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Covalent modification of histone proteins plays a role in virtually every process on eukaryotic DNA, from transcription to DNA repair. Many different residues can be covalently modified, and it has been suggested that these modifications occur in a great number of independent, meaningful combinations. Published low-resolution microarray studies on the combinatorial complexity of histone modification patterns suffer from confounding effects caused by the averaging of modification levels over multiple nucleosomes. To overcome this problem, we used a high-resolution tiled microarray with single-nucleosome resolution to investigate the occurrence of combinations of 12 histone modifications on thousands of nucleosomes in actively growing S. cerevisiae. We found that histone modifications do not occur independently; there are roughly two groups of co-occurring modifications. One group of lysine acetylations shows a sharply defined domain of two hypo-acetylated nucleosomes, adjacent to the transcriptional start site, whose occurrence does not correlate with transcription levels. The other group consists of modifications occurring in gradients through the coding regions of genes in a pattern associated with transcription. We found no evidence for a deterministic code of many discrete states, but instead we saw blended, continuous patterns that distinguish nucleosomes at one location (e.g., promoter nucleosomes) from those at another location (e.g., over the 3′ ends of coding regions). These results are consistent with the idea of a simple, redundant histone code, in which multiple modifications share the same role. PMID:16122352

  8. Fabrication and Modification of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, Mauro; Liu, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-based nanoporous particles as biodegradable drug carriers are advantageous in permeation, controlled release, and targeting. The use of biodegradable nanoporous silicon and silicon dioxide, with proper surface treatments, allows sustained drug release within the target site over a period of days, or even weeks, due to selective surface coating. A variety of surface treatment protocols are available for silicon-based particles to be stabilized, functionalized, or modified as required. Coated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains showed the effective depression of both plasma protein adsorption and cell attachment to the modified surfaces, as well as the advantage of long circulating. Porous silicon particles are micromachined by lithography. Compared to the synthesis route of the nanomaterials, the advantages include: (1) the capability to make different shapes, not only spherical particles but also square, rectangular, or ellipse cross sections, etc.; (2) the capability for very precise dimension control; (3) the capacity for porosity and pore profile control; and (4) allowance of complex surface modification. The particle patterns as small as 60 nm can be fabricated using the state-of-the-art photolithography. The pores in silicon can be fabricated by exposing the silicon in an HF/ethanol solution and then subjecting the pores to an electrical current. The size and shape of the pores inside silicon can be adjusted by the doping of the silicon, electrical current application, the composition of the electrolyte solution, and etching time. The surface of the silicon particles can be modified by many means to provide targeted delivery and on-site permanence for extended release. Multiple active agents can be co-loaded into the particles. Because the surface modification of particles can be done on wafers before the mechanical release, asymmetrical surface modification is feasible. Starting from silicon wafers, a treatment, such as KOH dipping or reactive ion

  9. Modification of Nanostructures via Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzel, Louis Avery

    Modification of nanostructures via laser processing is of great interest for a wide range of applications such as aerospace and the storage of nuclear waste. The primary goal of this dissertation is to improve the understanding of nanostructures through two primary routes: the modification of aerogels and pulsed laser ablation in ethanol. A new class of materials, patterned aerogels, was fabricated by photopolymerizing selected regions of homogeneous aerogel monoliths using visible light. The characterization and fabrication of functionally graded, cellular and compositionally anisotropic aerogels and ceramics is discussed. Visible light was utilized due to it's minimal absorption and scattering by organic molecules and oxide nanoparticles within wet gels. This allowed for the fabrication of deeply penetrating, well resolved patterns. Similarly, nanoporous monoliths with a typical aerogel core and a mechanically robust exterior ceramic layer were synthesized from silica aerogels cross-linked with polyacrylonitrile. Simple variations of the exposure geometry allowed fabrication of a wide variety of anisotropic materials without requiring layering or bonding. Nanoparticle solutions were prepared by laser ablation of metal foils (Fe and Mo) in ethanol. Ablation of Fe generated Fe3O4 and Fe3C nanoparticles which were superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization Ms = 124 emu/g. Zero field cooled (ZFC) measurements collected at an applied field of 50 Oe displayed a maximum magnetic susceptibility at 120 K with a broad distribution. Field cooled (FC) measurements showed a thermal hysteresis indicative of temperature dependent magnetic viscosity. Pulsed laser ablation of a Mo foil in ethanol generated inhomogeneous nanoparticles where Mo and MoC coexisted within the same aggregate. Formation of these unique nanoparticles is likely due to phase separation that occurs when a high temperature carbide phase cools after the laser pulse terminates. Similarly, magnetic

  10. Modification of Nanostructures via Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzel, Louis Avery

    Modification of nanostructures via laser processing is of great interest for a wide range of applications such as aerospace and the storage of nuclear waste. The primary goal of this dissertation is to improve the understanding of nanostructures through two primary routes: the modification of aerogels and pulsed laser ablation in ethanol. A new class of materials, patterned aerogels, was fabricated by photopolymerizing selected regions of homogeneous aerogel monoliths using visible light. The characterization and fabrication of functionally graded, cellular and compositionally anisotropic aerogels and ceramics is discussed. Visible light was utilized due to it's minimal absorption and scattering by organic molecules and oxide nanoparticles within wet gels. This allowed for the fabrication of deeply penetrating, well resolved patterns. Similarly, nanoporous monoliths with a typical aerogel core and a mechanically robust exterior ceramic layer were synthesized from silica aerogels cross-linked with polyacrylonitrile. Simple variations of the exposure geometry allowed fabrication of a wide variety of anisotropic materials without requiring layering or bonding. Nanoparticle solutions were prepared by laser ablation of metal foils (Fe and Mo) in ethanol. Ablation of Fe generated Fe3O4 and Fe3C nanoparticles which were superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization Ms = 124 emu/g. Zero field cooled (ZFC) measurements collected at an applied field of 50 Oe displayed a maximum magnetic susceptibility at 120 K with a broad distribution. Field cooled (FC) measurements showed a thermal hysteresis indicative of temperature dependent magnetic viscosity. Pulsed laser ablation of a Mo foil in ethanol generated inhomogeneous nanoparticles where Mo and MoC coexisted within the same aggregate. Formation of these unique nanoparticles is likely due to phase separation that occurs when a high temperature carbide phase cools after the laser pulse terminates. Similarly, magnetic

  11. Alterations of histone modifications by cobalt compounds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Ke, Qingdong; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of CoCl2 on multiple histone modifications at the global level. We found that in both human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells, exposure to CoCl2 (≥200 μM) for 24 h increased H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, uH2A and uH2B but decreased acetylation at histone H4 (AcH4). Further investigation demonstrated that in A549 cells, the increase in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 by cobalt ions exposure was probably through enhancing histone methylation processes, as methionine-deficient medium blocked the induction of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 by cobalt ions, whereas cobalt ions increased H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 by directly inhibiting JMJD2A demethylase activity in vitro, which was probably due to the competition of cobalt ions with iron for binding to the active site of JMJD2A. Furthermore, in vitro ubiquitination and deubiquitination assays revealed that the cobalt-induced histone H2A and H2B ubiquitination is the result of inhibition of deubiquitinating enzyme activity. Microarray data showed that exposed to 200 μM of CoCl2 for 24 h, A549 cells not only increased but also decreased expression of hundreds of genes involved in different cellular functions, including tumorigenesis. This study is the first to demonstrate that cobalt ions altered epigenetic homeostasis in cells. It also sheds light on the possible mechanisms involved in cobalt-induced alteration of histone modifications, which may lead to altered programs of gene expression and carcinogenesis since cobalt at higher concentrations is a known carcinogen. PMID:19376846

  12. A Modification to Goldstein's Radar Interferogram Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, I.; Stewart, M. P.; Perski, Z.; Kampes, B. M.

    2002-12-01

    The application of SAR interferometry (InSAR) to digital elevation modeling and deformation monitoring encounters problems due to noise in the interferometric phase, caused by water vapor in the atmosphere, incoherent temporal changes of the observed terrain, and geometrical decorrelation. These factors dramatically reduce the capabilities of radar interferometry in many applications, for example compromising detection and analysis of small (spatial) scale deformations. The quality of digital elevation models and displacement maps can be improved by filtering the interferometric phase. In this paper, we present a modification to the Goldstein phase filter [1]. This filter amplifies dominant frequencies in patches of the interferogram with a factor alpha, thus not affecting noisy areas, while enhancing interferometric fringes. The filter is modified by making the factor alpha dependent on coherence ie incoherent areas are filtered more strongly than coherent areas. The proposed filter is compared with other filtering techniques in the spatial and frequency domain. The effectiveness of the different filtering algorithms is evaluated using synthetic phase patches merged with real InSAR data, thus allowing preservation of realistic noise characteristics but giving control over the extent, shape and density of the simulated interferometric fringes. Finally, results are presented from interferometry data from the West Australian outback. [1] Richard M Goldstein and Charles L Werner. Radar interferogram filtering for geophysical applications. Geophysical Research Letters, 25(21): 4035-4038, November 1998.

  13. Picoseconds-Laser Modification of Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Gakovic, Biljana; Trtica, Milan; Batani, Dimitri; Desai, Tara; Redaelli, Renato

    2006-04-07

    The interaction of a Nd:YAG laser, pulse duration of 40 ps, with a titanium nitride (TiN) and tungsten-titanium (W-Ti) thin films deposited at silicon was studied. The peak intensity on targets was up to 1012 W/cm2. Results have shown that the TiN surface was modified, by the laser beam, with energy density of {>=}0.18 J/cm2 ({lambda}laser= 532 nm) as well as of 30.0 J/cm2 ({lambda}laser= 1064 nm). The W-Ti was surface modified with energy density of 5.0 J/cm2 ({lambda}laser= 532 nm). The energy absorbed from the Nd:YAG laser beam is partially converted to thermal energy, which generates a series of effects such as melting, vaporization of molten materials, dissociation and ionization of the vaporized material, appearance of plasma, etc. The following morphological changes of both targets were observed: (i) The appearance of periodic microstructures, in the central zone of the irradiated area, for laser irradiation at 532 nm. Accumulation of great number of laser pulses caused film ablation and silicon modification. (ii) Hole formation on the titanium nitride/silicon target was registered at 1064 nm. The process of the Nd:YAG laser interaction with both targets was accompanied by plasma formation above the target.

  14. [Atherogenic modification of low-density lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Sukhorukov, V N; Karagodin, V P; Orekhov, A N

    2016-05-01

    One of the first manifestations of atherosclerosis is accumulation of extra- and intracellular cholesterol esters in the arterial intima. Formation of foam cells is considered as a trigger in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) circulating in human blood is the source of lipids accumulated in the arterial walls. This review considered features and role in atherogenesis different modified forms of LDL: oxidized, small dense, electronegative and especially desialylated LDL. Desialylated LDL of human blood plasma is capable to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells and it is atherogenic. LDL possesses numerous alterations of protein, carbohydrate and lipid moieties and therefore can be termed multiple-modified LDL. Multiple modification of LDL occurs in human blood plasma and represents a cascade of successive changes in the lipoprotein particle: desialylation, loss of lipids, reduction in the particle size, increase of surface electronegative charge, etc. In addition to intracellular lipid accumulation, stimulatory effects of naturally occurring multiple-modified LDL on other processes involved in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, namely cell proliferation and fibrosis, were shown. PMID:27562992

  15. Techniques for dental implant nanosurface modifications

    PubMed Central

    Bathala, Lakshmana Rao; Sangur, Rajashekar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Dental implant has gained clinical success over last decade with the major drawback related to osseointegration as properties of metal (Titanium) are different from human bone. Currently implant procedures include endosseous type of dental implants with nanoscale surface characteristics. The objective of this review article is to summarize the role of nanotopography on titanium dental implant surfaces in order to improve osseointegration and various techniques that can generate nanoscale topographic features to titanium implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic electronic search of English language peer reviewed dental literature was performed for articles published between December 1987 to January 2012. Search was conducted in Medline, PubMed and Google scholar supplemented by hand searching of selected journals. 101 articles were assigned to full text analysis. Articles were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criterion. All articles were screened according to inclusion standard. 39 articles were included in the analysis. RESULTS Out of 39 studies, seven studies demonstrated that bone implant contact increases with increase in surface roughness. Five studies showed comparative evaluation of techniques producing microtopography and nanotopography. Eight studies concluded that osteoblasts preferably adhere to nano structure as compared to smooth surface. Six studies illustrated that nanotopography modify implant surface and their properties. Thirteen studies described techniques to produce nano roughness. CONCLUSION Modification of dental osseous implants at nanoscale level produced by various techniques can alter biological responses that may improve osseointegration and dental implant procedures. PMID:25558347

  16. On topological modifications of Newton's law

    SciTech Connect

    Floratos, E.G.; Leontaris, G.K. E-mail: leonta@uoi.gr

    2012-04-01

    Recent cosmological data for very large distances challenge the validity of the standard cosmological model. Motivated by the observed spatial flatness the accelerating expansion and the various anisotropies with preferred axes in the universe we examine the consequences of the simple hypothesis that the three-dimensional space has a global R{sup 2} × S{sup 1} topology. We take the radius of the compactification to be the observed cosmological scale beyond which the accelerated expansion starts. We derive the induced corrections to the Newton's gravitational potential and we find that for distances smaller than the S{sup 1} radius the leading 1/r-term is corrected by convergent power series of multipole form in the polar angle making explicit the induced anisotropy by the compactified third dimension. On the other hand, for distances larger than the compactification scale the asymptotic behavior of the potential exhibits a logarithmic dependence with exponentially small corrections. The change of Newton's force from 1/r{sup 2} to 1/r behavior implies a weakening of the deceleration for the expanding universe. Such topologies can also be created locally by standard Newtonian axially symmetric mass distributions with periodicity along the symmetry axis. In such cases we can use our results to obtain measurable modifications of Newtonian orbits for small distances and flat rotation spectra, for large distances at the galactic level.

  17. Does Memory Modification Threaten Our Authenticity?

    PubMed

    Erler, Alexandre

    2011-11-01

    One objection to enhancement technologies is that they might lead us to live inauthentic lives. Memory modification technologies (MMTs) raise this worry in a particularly acute manner. In this paper I describe four scenarios where the use of MMTs might be said to lead to an inauthentic life. I then undertake to justify that judgment. I review the main existing accounts of authenticity, and present my own version of what I call a "true self" account (intended as a complement, rather than a substitute, to existing accounts). I briefly describe current and prospective MMTs, distinguishing between memory enhancement and memory editing. Moving then to an assessment of the initial scenarios in the light of the accounts previously described, I argue that memory enhancement does not, by its very nature, raise serious concerns about authenticity. The main threat to authenticity posed by MMTs comes, I suggest, from memory editing. Rejecting as inadequate the worries about identity raised by the President's Council on Bioethics in Beyond Therapy, I argue instead that memory editing can cause us to live an inauthentic life in two main ways: first, by threatening its truthfulness, and secondly, by interfering with our disposition to respond in certain ways to some past events, when we have reasons to respond in such ways. This consideration allows us to justify the charge of inauthenticity in cases where existing accounts fail. It also gives us a significant moral reason not to use MMTs in ways that would lead to such an outcome.

  18. Posttranslational modification of a vanadium nitrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Heiniger, Erin K; Harwood, Caroline S

    2015-01-01

    In microbes that fix nitrogen, nitrogenase catalyzes the conversion of N2 to ammonia in an ATP-demanding reaction. To help conserve energy some bacteria inhibit nitrogenase activity upon exposure to ammonium. The purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain CGA009 can synthesize three functional nitrogenase isoenzymes: a molybdenum nitrogenase, a vanadium nitrogenase, and an iron nitrogenase. Previous studies showed that in some alphaproteobacteria, including R. palustris, molybdenum nitrogenase activity is inhibited by ADP-ribosylation when cells are exposed to ammonium. Some iron nitrogenases are also posttranslationally modified. However, the posttranslational modification of vanadium nitrogenase has not been reported. Here, we investigated the regulation of the alternative nitrogenases of R. palustris and determined that both its vanadium nitrogenase and its iron nitrogenase activities were inhibited and posttranslationally modified when cells are exposed to ammonium. Vanadium nitrogenase is not found in all strains of R. palustris, suggesting that it may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Also, phylogenetic analyses of the three nitrogenases suggest that VnfH, the target of ADP-ribosylation, may be the product of a gene duplication of nifH, the molybdenum nitrogenase homolog. PMID:26097040

  19. Surface modifications of Nitinol for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, F; Sask, K N; Brash, J L; Zhitomirsky, I

    2008-11-15

    Cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been utilized for the fabrication of composite films for the surface modification of NiTi shape memory alloys (Nitinol). In the proposed method, chitosan (CH) was used as a matrix for the incorporation of other functional materials, such as heparin, hydroxyapatite and bioglass. Chitosan-heparin films were deposited from solutions of non-stoichiometric chitosan-heparin complexes. It was found that the addition of anionic heparin to the solutions of cationic chitosan resulted in a significant increase in the cathodic deposition rate. The thickness of the films prepared by this method varied in the range of 0.1-3 microm. The ability of the chitosan-heparin films to bind antithrombin, as measured by binding of (125)I-radiolabeled antithrombin, was much greater than that of pure chitosan films. Composite chitosan-hydroxyapatite films, with thickness of 1-30 microm, were obtained as monolayers or laminates, containing chitosan-hydroxyapatite layers, separated by layers of pure chitosan. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles showed preferred orientation in the chitosan matrix with the c-axis parallel to the substrate surface. The films showed corrosion protection of the Nitinol substrates in Ringer's physiological solutions. The feasibility of the fabrication of composite films containing hydroxyapatite and bioglass in the chitosan matrix has been demonstrated. The method offers the advantages of room temperature processing. The deposition mechanisms and possible applications of the films are discussed.

  20. Electron Temperature Modification in Gas Discharge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery

    2011-10-01

    In gas discharge plasma with a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), the ionization balance results in the electron temperature Te being solely a function of the product of gas pressure p and plasma characteristic size d, Te = Te(pd), independently on plasma density and electron heating mechanism. This common feature of gas discharge plasma takes place in self-sustained discharges where ionization is locally coupled with electron heating, usually in a uniform heating electric field. At such condition, there is no room for electron temperature change at fixed pd. Variety of non-equilibrium phenomena observed in self-organized dc and rf discharge structures, and in relaxation process therein suggests the way to EEDF and Te modification. At such conditions, the electron heating can be separated (in space or/and in time) from the ionization. Few examples of such discharge structures in well know stationary dc and rf discharges and in plasma transient processes, leading to considerable mean electron energy reduction, will be considered in the presentation together with abbreviated review of existing methods and experimental results on EEDF control in laboratory plasmas. This work was supported in part by the DOE OFES (Contract No DE-SC0001939).

  1. Proposed Modification to the Plutonium Systemic Model.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Miller, Scott; Brey, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The currently accepted biokinetic model for plutonium distribution within the human body was recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in publication 67. This model was developed from human and animal studies and behavioral knowledge acquired from other known bone-seeking radionuclides. The biokinetic model provides a mathematical means of predicting the distribution, retention, and clearance of plutonium within the human body that may be used in deriving organ, tissue, and whole body dose. This work proposed a modification to the ICRP 67 systemic model for plutonium that incorporated the latest knowledge acquired from recent human injection studies with physiologically based improvements. In summary, the changes included a separation of the liver compartments, removed the intermediate soft tissue-to-bladder pathway, and added pathways from the blood compartment to both the cortical and trabecular bone volumes. The proposed model provided improved predictions for several bioassay indicators compared to the ICRP 67 model while also maintaining its basic structure. Additionally, the proposed model incorporated physiologically based improvements for the liver and skeleton and continued to ensure efficient coupling with intake biokinetic models.

  2. Surface modification of polypropylene based particle foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, P.; Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the modification of the surface properties of expanded polypropylene (EPP). EPP is a semi-hard to soft elastic thermoplastic foam. The characteristic surface of EPP shows process-related steam nozzle imprints and gussets. Therefore EPP does not satisfy the quality requirements for visible automotive applications. In order to meet these demands, plastic surfaces are usually enhanced with functional or decorative coatings, e.g. textiles, plastic films or paint. The coating of plastics with low surface energies such as PP often leads to adhesion problems by reason of the missing polar and functional groups. This paper gives an evaluation of activation and pre-treatment methods of EPP, with the aim to identify the most suitable pre-treatment method. For this purpose five typical surface treatment methods - flame treatment, corona, fluorination, atmospheric and low-pressure plasma - were performed on EPP samples. As a comparison criterion the maximum increase in the adhesion force between a polyurethane-based coating and the modified EPP substrate was selected. Moreover the influence of the selected pre-treatment method on the increase in the total surface energy and its polar component was investigated by the drop shape analysis method. The results showed that the contact angle measurement is a suitable method to determine the polar and disperse fractions of the surface tension of EPP. Furthermore, all performed methods increased the adhesion of EPP.

  3. Modification of cellulose for high glucose generation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Gu, Jian; Tian, Xiuzhi; Li, Yali; Huang, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of introduction of cyanuric chloride on glucose's yield (Y) in acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) has been studied. The content of cyanuric chloride (C) in modified MCCs was determined by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy. The chemical structures of modified MCCs were analyzed by Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy and cross polarization/magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. Crystal index (CI) and the ratio (R) representing the sum of content of (1 ̅10) and (110) to that of (200) were calculated based on diffraction intensity in wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Hydrolysis experiment and WAXD show that Y, CI and R vary with C. The modified MCC containing 3.9 mol% of cyanuric chloride has the highest Y, the highest R and the lowest CI. Variations of CI and R show that the chemical modification changed the proportion of crystal/amorphous and crystal planes, both of which influence glucose's generation in hydrolysis of cellulose.

  4. Genome-wide epigenetic modifications in cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Jung; Claus, Rainer; Weichenhan, Dieter; Plass, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations in cancer include changes in DNA methylation and associated histone modifications that influence the chromatin states and impact gene expression patterns. Due to recent technological advantages, the scientific community is now obtaining a better picture of the genome-wide epigenetic changes that occur in a cancer genome. These epigenetic alterations are associated with chromosomal instability and changes in transcriptional control which influence the overall gene expression differences seen in many human malignancies. In this review, we will briefly summarize our current knowledge of the epigenetic patterns and mechanisms of gene regulation in healthy tissues and relate this to what is known for cancer genomes. Our focus will be on DNA methylation. We will review the current standing of technologies that have been developed over recent years. This field is experiencing a revolution in the strategies used to measure epigenetic alterations, which includes the incorporation of next generation sequencing tools. We also will review strategies that utilize epigenetic information for translational purposes, with a special emphasis on the potential use of DNA methylation marks for early disease detection and prognosis. The review will close with an outlook on challenges that this field is facing.

  5. Attentional bias modification encourages healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2014-01-01

    The continual exposure to unhealthy food cues in the environment encourages poor dietary habits, in particular consuming too much fat and sugar, and not enough fruit and vegetables. According to Berridge's (2009) model of food reward, unhealthy eating is a behavioural response to biased attentional processing. The present study used an established attentional bias modification paradigm to discourage the consumption of unhealthy food and instead promote healthy eating. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who were randomly assigned to two groups: one was trained to direct their attention toward pictures of healthy food ('attend healthy' group) and the other toward unhealthy food ('attend unhealthy' group). It was found that participants trained to attend to healthy food cues demonstrated an increased attentional bias for such cues and ate relatively more of the healthy than unhealthy snacks compared to the 'attend unhealthy' group. Theoretically, the results support the postulated link between biased attentional processing and consumption (Berridge, 2009). At a practical level, they offer potential scope for interventions that focus on eating well.

  6. [Biotechnology, especially genetic modification, and legislation].

    PubMed

    de Sitter, H; Peters, P W J

    2002-05-15

    Biotechnology and genetic modification (GM) related legislation is not yet fully developed in the European Union (EU). New legislation has been recently issued ('Introduction of GMO's in the environment') and recently proposals from the European Commission ('GMO's in food and feed' and 'Traceability and labelling of GMO's') entered the decision-making process in the end of 2001. The proposals for the establishment of the European Food Authority play a role in this respect. GMO legislation is complex not in the least because of the demands for the dossiers, to be submitted with an application, while these procedures for admission must become more transparent. In this paper the relevant legislation will be discussed with the exception of that related to human health. Because of dissatisfaction with the present legislation, the European Commission in the past years granted no new approvals for introductions on the market of GMO's and for GM novel foods. New legislation should suspend the present de-facto moratorium. The tasks and position of the Inspectorate for the Health Protection and Veterinary Public Health is discussed. A provision has been made in the legislation with respect to adventitious or technically unavoidable contamination of raw materials with GMO's up to a maximum of 1%, of which the enforcement is not yet watertight. The analytical methods are being still developed.

  7. Photocatalytic patterning and modification of graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liming; Diao, Shuo; Nie, Yufeng; Yan, Kai; Liu, Nan; Dai, Boya; Xie, Qin; Reina, Alfonso; Kong, Jing; Liu, Zhongfan

    2011-03-01

    TiO(2)-based photocatalysis has been widely used to decompose various organic pollutants for the purpose of environmental protection. Such a "green" photochemical process can ultimately degrade organic compounds into CO(2) and H(2)O under ambient conditions. We demonstrate here its extended application on the engineering of single- or few-layer graphene. Using a patterned TiO(2) photomask, we have achieved various photochemical tailorings of graphene, including ribbon cutting, arbitrary patterning on any substrate, layer-by-layer thinning, and localized graphene to graphene oxide conversion. UV-visible spectroscopic studies indicate that the photogenerated, highly reactive ·OH radicals work as sharp chemical scissors. Being a solution-free, cost-effective, scalable, and easy handling technique, the presented photocatalytic patterning and modification approach allows for the versatile design and fabrication of graphene-based devices and circuits, compatible with current microelectronic technology, as demonstrated by this fabricated all-carbon field effect transistor (FET) array. PMID:21291276

  8. 30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section 746.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FEDERAL LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan modification. (a) Mining...

  9. 30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section 746.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FEDERAL LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan modification. (a) Mining...

  10. 30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section 746.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FEDERAL LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan modification. (a) Mining...

  11. 30 CFR 746.18 - Mining plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mining plan modification. 746.18 Section 746.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FEDERAL LANDS PROGRAM REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF MINING PLANS § 746.18 Mining plan modification. (a) Mining...

  12. 21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1301.51 Section 1301.51 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF... Registration § 1301.51 Modification in registration. Any registrant may apply to modify his/her registration...

  13. 40 CFR 403.18 - Modification of POTW pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF... modifications that directly reflect a revision to this Part 403 or to 40 CFR chapter I, subchapter N, and are... approved modification in accordance with 40 CFR 122.63(g)....

  14. 40 CFR 144.41 - Minor modifications of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minor modifications of permits. 144.41 Section 144.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit § 144.41 Minor modifications...

  15. 40 CFR 144.41 - Minor modifications of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minor modifications of permits. 144.41 Section 144.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit § 144.41 Minor modifications...

  16. 40 CFR 144.41 - Minor modifications of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minor modifications of permits. 144.41 Section 144.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit § 144.41 Minor modifications...

  17. 40 CFR 144.41 - Minor modifications of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minor modifications of permits. 144.41 Section 144.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit § 144.41 Minor modifications...

  18. 47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modification of directional antenna data. 73... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.152 Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after construction and final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse...

  19. Beliefs about Child Support Modification Following Remarriage and Subsequent Childbirth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hans, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Framed by equity theory, fairness beliefs regarding child support modification to account for the financial impact of remarriage and subsequent childbirth were assessed. Based on a random sample of 407 Kentucky residents using a multiple segment factorial vignette approach, modification was supported by 57% of respondents following remarriage, but…

  20. 29 CFR 4.144 - Contract modifications affecting amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract modifications affecting amount. 4.144 Section 4... modifications affecting amount. Where a contract that was originally issued in an amount not in excess of $2,500 is later modified so that its amount may exceed that figure, all the provisions of section 2(a)...

  1. 47 CFR 1.947 - Modification of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modification of licenses. 1.947 Section 1.947 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.947 Modification of licenses. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 640.6 - Modifications of Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modifications of Whole Blood. 640.6 Section 640.6...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.6 Modifications of Whole Blood. Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, of a supplement...

  3. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food...

  4. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food...

  5. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 18, Jan. 3, 2012. (a) Upon approval by...

  6. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food...

  7. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food...

  8. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission... transmission system facilities. (a) The following changes are prohibited: (1) Those that would result in...

  9. 40 CFR 228.11 - Modification in disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification in disposal site use. 228.11 Section 228.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.11 Modification in disposal site...

  10. 39 CFR 501.10 - Postage Evidencing System modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Postage Evidencing System modifications. 501.10... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.10 Postage Evidencing System modifications. (a) An... a previously approved Postage Evidencing System. The notification must include a summary of...

  11. 49 CFR 639.31 - Early lease termination or modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Early lease termination or modification. 639.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Lease Management § 639.31 Early lease termination or modification. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, if a capital lease under this part...

  12. 50 CFR 37.43 - Suspension and modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.43 Suspension and modification. If at... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suspension and modification. 37.43...

  13. 50 CFR 37.43 - Suspension and modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.43 Suspension and modification. If at... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suspension and modification. 37.43...

  14. 50 CFR 37.43 - Suspension and modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.43 Suspension and modification. If at... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suspension and modification. 37.43...

  15. 50 CFR 37.43 - Suspension and modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.43 Suspension and modification. If at... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension and modification. 37.43...

  16. 50 CFR 37.43 - Suspension and modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE COASTAL PLAIN, ARCTIC NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Administration § 37.43 Suspension and modification. If at... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension and modification. 37.43...

  17. VIEW OF INSIDE THE MODIFICATION BAY. RAILROAD CARS, SEMITRUCK TRAILERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INSIDE THE MODIFICATION BAY. RAILROAD CARS, SEMI-TRUCK TRAILERS, AND ESCORT VEHICLES WERE MODIFIED TO CARRY RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS FOR STORAGE AND DISPOSAL AND TO TRANSPORT WEAPONS COMPONENTS. (5/12/87) - Rocky Flats Plant, Transport Modification Center, North of Cactus Avenue, approximately 400 feet east of Third Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Modifications to the VV PHTS RELAP5 Model

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    Modifications and improvements to a previous RELAP5 model of the Vacuum Vessel Primary Heat Transfer System are described in this report. The modifications were new pump models, a new steam pressurizer, new coolant water control systems, additional pipe structures, and reduction of the pulse power to 6 MW.

  19. Reinforcing Productive Classroom Behavior. A Teacher's Guide to Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Irwin G.; And Others

    This guide to behavior modification provides teachers and others who work with children with some practical suggestions to reinforce productive classroom behavior. A description of common elementary classroom problems, the principles and ethical considerations in the use of behavior modification, suggestions for establishing a classroom climate…

  20. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 54952). In that.... Correction The Department is making the following correction in FR document number OST-2012-0147, appearing... Implementation Modifications AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Proposed...

  1. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography of Books on Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Karl F.; Esser, Thomas J.

    The annotated bibliography lists a selection of available materials on behavior modification for the use of vocational evaluation and work adjustment professionals. It is divided into three levels: (1) basic--books intended for those who have little or no background in psychology and behavior modification; (2) intermediate--books for those with a…

  2. 75 FR 51433 - Modifications of Debt Instruments; Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... public hearing that appeared in the Federal Register on Friday, June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31736), announced... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ30 Modifications of Debt Instruments; Hearing... relating to the modification of debt instruments. DATES: The public hearing, originally scheduled...

  3. 45 CFR 670.15 - Modification, suspension, and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification, suspension, and revocation. 670.15 Section 670.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Permits § 670.15 Modification, suspension,...

  4. 20 CFR 410.515 - Modification of benefit amounts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Modification of benefit amounts; general. 410.515 Section 410.515 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.515 Modification...

  5. 20 CFR 410.515 - Modification of benefit amounts; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of benefit amounts; general. 410.515 Section 410.515 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.515 Modification...

  6. Taking Another Look at Behavior Modification and Assertive Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palardy, J. Michael

    1996-01-01

    Behavior modification and assertive discipline approaches use rewards and negative consequences (extinction procedures) to deal with students' maladaptive behavior. Behavior modification has significant limitations, as it treats symptoms, not causes; yields only short-term benefits; has limited transfer value for other environments; and values…

  7. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) Both earth station and space station modification applications must be... applicable provisions of part 1, subpart Y of this chapter. (c) Applications for modification of earth... for earth station authorizations or § 25.164 for space stations, or included as a condition of...

  8. 36 CFR 223.112 - Modification of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Administration § 223.112 Modification of contracts. (a) Timber sale contracts may be modified only when the modification... provided in § 223.110. (b) Timber sale contracts awarded after October 1, 1995, that have been...

  9. 50 CFR 216.259 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.259 Modifications to Letters of Authorization. (a) Except as provided in... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modifications to Letters of Authorization... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING...

  10. Toy Modification Note: Build It Yourself Battery Interrupter. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; Brandenburg, S.

    This toy modification note presents illustrated instructions on how to build a battery interrupter that permits on/off control of battery-operated toys without modification of the toys themselves. The device allows for a separate control switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Information on the construction and use…

  11. 45 CFR 670.15 - Modification, suspension, and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modification, suspension, and revocation. 670.15 Section 670.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Permits § 670.15 Modification, suspension,...

  12. 45 CFR 670.15 - Modification, suspension, and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modification, suspension, and revocation. 670.15 Section 670.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Permits § 670.15 Modification, suspension,...

  13. 45 CFR 670.15 - Modification, suspension, and revocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modification, suspension, and revocation. 670.15 Section 670.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Permits § 670.15 Modification, suspension,...

  14. 12 CFR 1710.30 - Modification of certain provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modification of certain provisions. 1710.30 Section 1710.30 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Modification of Certain...

  15. Housing Modifications for Persons Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocke, Elizabeth A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines housing modification issues for both the housing consumer with visual impairments and the builder/remodeler, with emphasis on single-family housing. Suggested modifications are listed for the exterior, entrance, elevator, doors, floors, lighting and the electrical system, windows, room layout and shape, kitchen, and stairs and…

  16. 49 CFR 605.20 - Modification of prior agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... amended (49 U.S.C. 1602(g)), who engages or wishes to engage in school bus operations in competition with private school bus operators, shall seek modification of that agreement in accordance with paragraphs (b... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS Modification of Prior Agreements and...

  17. 49 CFR 605.20 - Modification of prior agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... amended (49 U.S.C. 1602(g)), who engages or wishes to engage in school bus operations in competition with private school bus operators, shall seek modification of that agreement in accordance with paragraphs (b... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS Modification of Prior Agreements and...

  18. 49 CFR 605.20 - Modification of prior agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... amended (49 U.S.C. 1602(g)), who engages or wishes to engage in school bus operations in competition with private school bus operators, shall seek modification of that agreement in accordance with paragraphs (b... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS Modification of Prior Agreements and...

  19. 49 CFR 605.20 - Modification of prior agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... amended (49 U.S.C. 1602(g)), who engages or wishes to engage in school bus operations in competition with private school bus operators, shall seek modification of that agreement in accordance with paragraphs (b... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS Modification of Prior Agreements and...

  20. 47 CFR 74.1251 - Technical and equipment modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Technical and equipment modifications. 74.1251... Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1251 Technical and equipment modifications. (a) No... translator or booster apparatus which has been certificated by the Commission without prior authority of...

  1. 47 CFR 73.1615 - Operation during modification of facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation during modification of facilities. 73... modification of facilities. When the licensee of an existing AM, FM, TV or Class A TV station is in the process of modifying existing facilities as authorized by a construction permit and determines it...

  2. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) Both earth station and space station modification applications must be... modification of space station authorizations must be submitted on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S. Only... space station authorizations shall be filed in accordance with § 25.114, but only those items...

  3. 13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION...) Modification. Upon the request of a District Organization and with the concurrence of the State or...

  4. 39 CFR 952.29 - Modification or revocation of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification or revocation of orders. 952.29 Section 952.29 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.29 Modification or revocation of orders. A...

  5. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on...

  6. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on...

  7. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on...

  8. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on...

  9. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on...

  10. 24 CFR 100.203 - Reasonable modifications of existing premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... before the modification, reasonable wear and tear excepted. The landlord may not increase for handicapped... before the modification, reasonable wear and tear excepted. It would be reasonable for the landlord to... condition, reasonable wear and tear excepted. However, it would be unreasonable for the landlord to...

  11. 24 CFR 100.203 - Reasonable modifications of existing premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... before the modification, reasonable wear and tear excepted. The landlord may not increase for handicapped... before the modification, reasonable wear and tear excepted. It would be reasonable for the landlord to... condition, reasonable wear and tear excepted. However, it would be unreasonable for the landlord to...

  12. Exploring adenylylation and phosphocholination as post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Müller, Matthias P; Albers, Michael F; Itzen, Aymelt; Hedberg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Editing the translations: Adenylylation and phosphocholination have recently been found as important post-translational modifications used by pathogenic bacteria during the infection process. This review discusses the combined use of chemical handles and specific antibodies for the identification of previously unknown substrates of these post-translational modifications in infected host cells.

  13. 21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1301.51 Section 1301.51 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Modification, Transfer and Termination...

  14. 21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1301.51 Section 1301.51 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Modification, Transfer and Termination...

  15. 21 CFR 1316.44 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1316.44 Section 1316.44 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.44 Waiver or modification of rules....

  16. 21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1301.51 Section 1301.51 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Modification, Transfer and Termination...

  17. 21 CFR 1303.33 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1303.33 Section 1303.33 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Hearings § 1303.33 Waiver or modification of rules. The Administrator or the presiding officer (with respect to...

  18. 21 CFR 1316.44 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1316.44 Section 1316.44 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.44 Waiver or modification of rules....

  19. 21 CFR 1309.61 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1309.61 Section 1309.61 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Modification, Transfer and...

  20. 21 CFR 516.161 - Modifications to indexed drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modifications to indexed drugs. 516.161 Section 516.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.161 Modifications to...

  1. 21 CFR 1303.33 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1303.33 Section 1303.33 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Hearings § 1303.33 Waiver or modification of rules. The Administrator or the presiding officer (with respect to...

  2. 21 CFR 1312.43 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1312.43 Section 1312.43 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1312.43 Waiver or modification of rules. The Administrator...

  3. 21 CFR 1312.43 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1312.43 Section 1312.43 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1312.43 Waiver or modification of rules. The Administrator...

  4. 21 CFR 1303.33 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1303.33 Section 1303.33 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Hearings § 1303.33 Waiver or modification of rules. The Administrator or the presiding officer (with respect to...

  5. 21 CFR 1303.33 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1303.33 Section 1303.33 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Hearings § 1303.33 Waiver or modification of rules. The Administrator or the presiding officer (with respect to...

  6. 21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1301.51 Section 1301.51 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Modification, Transfer and Termination...

  7. 21 CFR 1309.61 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1309.61 Section 1309.61 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Modification, Transfer and...

  8. 21 CFR 1309.61 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1309.61 Section 1309.61 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Modification, Transfer and...

  9. 21 CFR 1316.44 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1316.44 Section 1316.44 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.44 Waiver or modification of rules....

  10. 21 CFR 1309.61 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1309.61 Section 1309.61 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Modification, Transfer and...

  11. 21 CFR 1313.53 - Waiver of modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Waiver of modification of rules. 1313.53 Section 1313.53 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Hearings § 1313.53 Waiver of modification of rules....

  12. 21 CFR 1313.53 - Waiver of modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Waiver of modification of rules. 1313.53 Section 1313.53 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Hearings § 1313.53 Waiver of modification of rules....

  13. 21 CFR 1312.43 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1312.43 Section 1312.43 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1312.43 Waiver or modification of rules. The Administrator...

  14. 21 CFR 1309.61 - Modification in registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification in registration. 1309.61 Section 1309.61 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Modification, Transfer and...

  15. 21 CFR 1313.53 - Waiver of modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waiver of modification of rules. 1313.53 Section 1313.53 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF LIST I AND LIST II CHEMICALS Hearings § 1313.53 Waiver of modification of rules....

  16. 21 CFR 1312.43 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1312.43 Section 1312.43 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1312.43 Waiver or modification of rules. The Administrator...

  17. 21 CFR 1316.44 - Waiver or modification of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Waiver or modification of rules. 1316.44 Section 1316.44 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.44 Waiver or modification of rules....

  18. Crystal structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in Si

    DOE PAGES

    Verburg, P. C.; Smillie, L. A.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Haberl, B.; Bradby, J. E.; Williams, J. S.; Huis in ’t Veld, A. J.

    2015-06-04

    Laser-induced subsurface modification of dielectric materials is a well-known technology. Applications include the production of optical components and selective etching. In addition to dielectric materials, the subsurface modification technology can be applied to silicon, by employing near to mid-infrared radiation. An application of subsurface modifications in silicon is laser-induced subsurface separation, which is a method to separate wafers into individual dies. Other applications for which proofs of concept exist are the formation of waveguides and resistivity tuning. However, limited knowledge is available about the crystal structure of subsurface modifications in silicon. In this paper, we investigate the geometry and crystalmore » structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in monocrystalline silicon wafers. Finally, in addition to the generation of lattice defects, we found that transformations to amorphous silicon and Si-iii/Si-xii occur as a result of the laser irradiation.« less

  19. Low-cost modification of sediment control ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.S.; Jenkins, C.R.

    1982-12-01

    This study explores the use of low cost modifications to improve sediment pond performance. Modifications used include: 1) baffles, 2) siphon and 3) floating outlet. The baffles were constructed of brattice cloth suspended from floating pieces of pipe. The siphon outlets were made up of a small diameter siphon and a large diameter siphon drawing water from different levels and attached to the riser outlet. The floating outlet was designed to skim water from the pond surface. Data was collected on effluent water quality for a period of time before and after all modifications. Data collected prior to the modifications showed the ponds breaking effluent limitations frequently. Data collection, after the modifications, showed improved pond performance with the baffles helping the most.

  20. Crystal structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Verburg, P. C.; Smillie, L. A.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Haberl, B.; Bradby, J. E.; Williams, J. S.; Huis in ’t Veld, A. J.

    2015-06-04

    Laser-induced subsurface modification of dielectric materials is a well-known technology. Applications include the production of optical components and selective etching. In addition to dielectric materials, the subsurface modification technology can be applied to silicon, by employing near to mid-infrared radiation. An application of subsurface modifications in silicon is laser-induced subsurface separation, which is a method to separate wafers into individual dies. Other applications for which proofs of concept exist are the formation of waveguides and resistivity tuning. However, limited knowledge is available about the crystal structure of subsurface modifications in silicon. In this paper, we investigate the geometry and crystal structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in monocrystalline silicon wafers. Finally, in addition to the generation of lattice defects, we found that transformations to amorphous silicon and Si-iii/Si-xii occur as a result of the laser irradiation.

  1. Optimal Control Modification for Time-Scale Separated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recently a new optimal control modification has been introduced that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. This modification is based on an optimal control formulation to minimize the L2 norm of the tracking error. The optimal control modification adaptive law results in a stable adaptation in the presence of a large adaptive gain. This study examines the optimal control modification adaptive law in the context of a system with a time scale separation resulting from a fast plant with a slow actuator. A singular perturbation analysis is performed to derive a modification to the adaptive law by transforming the original system into a reduced-order system in slow time. A model matching conditions in the transformed time coordinate results in an increase in the actuator command that effectively compensate for the slow actuator dynamics. Simulations demonstrate effectiveness of the method.

  2. Posttranslational Modifications of Ribosomal Proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nesterchuk, M V; Sergiev, P V; Dontsova, O A

    2011-04-01

    А number of ribosomal proteins inEscherichia coliundergo posttranslational modifications. Six ribosomal proteins are methylated (S11, L3, L11, L7/L12, L16, and L33), three proteins are acetylated (S5, S18, and L7), and protein S12 is methylthiolated. Extra amino acid residues are added to protein S6. С-terminal amino acid residues are partially removed from protein L31. The functional significance of these modifications has remained unclear. These modifications are not vital to the cells, and it is likely that they have regulatory functions. This paper reviews all the known posttranslational modifications of ribosomal proteins inEscherichia coli. Certain enzymes responsible for the modifications and mechanisms of enzymatic reactions are also discussed.

  3. Iron-sulfur proteins responsible for RNA modifications.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    RNA molecules are decorated with various chemical modifications, which are introduced post-transcriptionally by RNA-modifying enzymes. These modifications are required for proper RNA function. Among more than 100 known species of RNA modifications, several modified bases in tRNAs and rRNAs are introduced by RNA-modifying enzymes containing iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters. Most Fe/S-containing RNA-modifying enzymes contain radical SAM domains that catalyze a variety of chemical reactions, including methylation, methylthiolation, carboxymethylation, tricyclic purine formation, and deazaguanine formation. Lack of these modifications can cause pathological consequences. Here, we review recent studies on the biogenesis and function of RNA modifications mediated by Fe/S proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases.

  4. 30 CFR 28.25 - Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval. 28.25 Section 28.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...

  5. 30 CFR 28.25 - Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval. 28.25 Section 28.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...

  6. 30 CFR 28.25 - Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval. 28.25 Section 28.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...

  7. 30 CFR 28.25 - Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION FOR TRAILING CABLES IN COAL MINES... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval. 28.25 Section 28.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1403 - Duty to provide access; modifications; notice of removal, increase or modification; petition for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1403 Duty to provide access; modifications; notice of removal, increase... cable television system operator's of telecommunications carrier's pole attachment agreement; (2) Any increase in pole attachment rates; or (3) Any modification of facilities other than routine maintenance...

  9. Post-translational modification profiling - A novel tool for mapping the protein modification landscape in cancer.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital; Ciechanover, Aaron; Merbl, Yifat

    2016-08-01

    The ubiquitin system plays an important role in essentially every cellular process, regulating numerous pathways ranging from development, transcription, DNA damage response, cell cycle, and signal transduction. Its best studied role involves removal of faulty proteins or those that are not necessary anymore. Aberrations in the ubiquitin system have been implicated in various pathologies including cancer, where specific mutations in E3 ligases such as Mdm2, pVHL, and BRCA1 have been linked to disease progression, prognosis, and resistance to drugs. Yet, there are hundreds of E3 ligases in the human genome and our knowledge of their target proteins and their dynamic regulation in the cellular environment is largely limited. In addition, fundamental questions related to recognition and specificity in ubiquitin conjugation remain unanswered. It is thus of major importance to characterize the ubiquitin landscape under various cellular conditions, and study how the regulatory network is altered in health and disease. To do so, analytical tools that allow identification of ubiquitin substrates, the conjugation and removal of ubiquitin, and the nature of specific ubiquitin linkages that are formed are needed. In this mini-review, we discuss common proteomic methodologies applied to studying the ubiquitome, and specifically focus on our recently developed post-translational modification (PTM) profiling approach. PTM profiling is a functional assay, amenable to biochemical manipulation, which allows the detection of protein modifications in a high-throughput manner. We discuss in detail the advantages and limitations of this system, focusing primarily on examples for analyzing the ubiquitin system in cancer. Uncovering the intricate signaling dynamics governed by and regulating ubiquitin modifications should clearly evolve into a new paradigm in understanding the molecular basis of malignant transformation and the development of novel therapeutic modalities. PMID:27229346

  10. Modification of unilateral otolith responses following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew H; Schönfeld, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to resolve the issue of spaceflight-induced, adaptive modification of the otolith system by measuring unilateral otolith responses in a pre- versus post-flight design. The study represents the first comprehensive approach to examining unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times preflight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation, utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll, designated as utriculo-ocular response (UOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). The findings demonstrate a general increase in interlabyrinth asymmetry of otolith responses on landing day relative to preflight baseline, with subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in asymmetry was consistent for the utricle tests (SVV and UOR) while apparently stronger for SVV. A similar asymmetry was observed during cVEMP testing. In addition, the results provide initial evidence of a dominant labyrinth. The findings require reconsideration of the otolith asymmetry hypothesis; in general, on landing day, the response from one labyrinth was equivalent to preflight values, while the other showed considerable discrepancy. The finding that one otolith response can return to one-g level within hours after re-entry while the other takes considerably longer demonstrates the importance of considering the otolith response as a result of both peripheral and associated central neural processing.

  11. Modification of unilateral otolith responses following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew H; Schönfeld, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to resolve the issue of spaceflight-induced, adaptive modification of the otolith system by measuring unilateral otolith responses in a pre- versus post-flight design. The study represents the first comprehensive approach to examining unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times preflight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation, utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll, designated as utriculo-ocular response (UOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). The findings demonstrate a general increase in interlabyrinth asymmetry of otolith responses on landing day relative to preflight baseline, with subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in asymmetry was consistent for the utricle tests (SVV and UOR) while apparently stronger for SVV. A similar asymmetry was observed during cVEMP testing. In addition, the results provide initial evidence of a dominant labyrinth. The findings require reconsideration of the otolith asymmetry hypothesis; in general, on landing day, the response from one labyrinth was equivalent to preflight values, while the other showed considerable discrepancy. The finding that one otolith response can return to one-g level within hours after re-entry while the other takes considerably longer demonstrates the importance of considering the otolith response as a result of both peripheral and associated central neural processing. PMID:26358122

  12. Arsenic management through well modification and simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.; Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations can be managed with a relatively simple strategy of grouting instead of completely destroying a selected interval of well. The strategy of selective grouting was investigated in Antelope Valley, California, where groundwater supplies most of the water demand. Naturally occurring arsenic typically exceeds concentrations of 10 (mu or u)g/L in the water produced from these long-screened wells. The vertical distributions of arsenic concentrations in intervals of the aquifer contributing water to selected supply wells were characterized with depth-dependent water-quality sampling and flow logs. Arsenic primarily entered the lower half of the wells where lacustrine clay deposits and a deeper aquifer occurred. Five wells were modified by grouting from below the top of the lacustrine clay deposits to the bottom of the well, which reduced produced arsenic concentrations to less than 2 (mu or u)g/L in four of the five wells. Long-term viability of well modification and reduction of specific capacity was assessed for well 4-54 with AnalyzeHOLE, which creates and uses axisymmetric, radial MODFLOW models. Two radial models were calibrated to observed borehole flows, drawdowns, and transmissivity by estimating hydraulicconductivity values in the aquifer system and gravel packs of the original and modified wells. Lithology also constrained hydraulic-conductivity estimates as regularization observations. Well encrustations caused as much as 2 (mu or u)g/L increase in simulated arsenic concentration by reducing the contribution of flow from the aquifer system above the lacustrine clay deposits. Simulated arsenic concentrations in the modified well remained less than 3 (mu or u)g/L over a 20-year period.

  13. Signature Wood Modifications Reveal Decomposer Community History

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Jonathan S.; Kaffenberger, Justin T.; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as ‘signatures’ that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying ‘rot type’ along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the

  14. Surface modification of layered silicates. I. Factors affecting thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Vikas

    2012-12-01

    The resistance of modification molecules bound to montmorillonite platelet surfaces towards structural damage at high temperature is a major parameter guiding the formation of optimal interface between the filler and polymer phases in a nanocomposite material. As nanocomposites are generated by melt-blending of modified mineral and polymer, it is necessary to quantify the thermal resistance of the filler surface modification at the compounding conditions because different modifications differ in chain length, chemical structure, chain density, and thermal performance. A number of different alkyl ammonium modifications were exchanged on the montmorillonites with cation exchange capacities in the range 680-900 µequiv. g-1 and their thermal behaviour was characterised using high resolution thermogravimetric analysis. Quantitative comparisons between different modified minerals were achieved by comparing temperature at 10% weight loss as well peak degradation temperature. Various factors affecting thermal stability, such as length and density (or number) of alkyl chains in the modification, presence of excess modification molecules on the filler surface, the chemical structure of the surface modifications, etc. were studied. The TGA findings were also correlated with X-ray diffraction of the modified platelets.

  15. mRNA modifications: Dynamic regulators of gene expression?

    PubMed Central

    Hoernes, Thomas Philipp; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Erlacher, Matthias David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The expression of a gene is a tightly regulated process and is exerted by a myriad of different mechanisms. Recently, RNA modifications located in coding sequences of mRNAs, have been identified as potential regulators of gene expression. N6-methyladenosine (m6A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C), pseudouridine (Ψ) and N1-methyladenosine (m1A) have been found within open reading frames of mRNAs. The presence of these mRNA modifications has been implicated to modulate the fate of an mRNA, ranging from maturation to its translation and even degradation. However, many aspects concerning the biological functions of mRNA modifications remain elusive. Recently, systematic in vitro studies allowed a first glimpse of the direct interplay of mRNA modifications and the efficiency and fidelity of ribosomal translation. It thereby became evident that the effects of mRNA modifications were, astonishingly versatile, depending on the type, position or sequence context. The incorporation of a single modification could either prematurely terminate protein synthesis, reduce the peptide yield or alter the amino acid sequence identity. These results implicate that mRNA modifications are a powerful mechanism to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. PMID:27351916

  16. Histone modifications predispose genome regions to breakage and translocation

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Bharat; Zhang, Zhuzhu Z.; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Lieb, Jason D.; Misteli, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are well-established hallmarks of cancer cells and often occur at nonrandom sites in the genome. The molecular features that define recurrent chromosome breakpoints are largely unknown. Using a combination of bioinformatics, biochemical analysis, and cell-based assays, we identify here specific histone modifications as facilitators of chromosome breakage and translocations. We show enrichment of several histone modifications over clinically relevant translocation-prone genome regions. Experimental modulation of histone marks sensitizes genome regions to breakage by endonuclease challenge or irradiation and promotes formation of chromosome translocations of endogenous gene loci. Our results demonstrate that histone modifications predispose genome regions to chromosome breakage and translocations. PMID:26104467

  17. Modification of Polymer Materials by Ion Bombardment: Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bielinski, D. M.; Jagielski, J.; Piatkowska, A.

    2009-03-10

    The paper discusses possibility of application of ion beam bombardment for modification of polymers. Changes to composition, structure and morphology of the surface layer produced by the treatment and their influence on engineering and functional properties of wide range of polymer materials are presented. Special attention has been devoted to modification of tribological properties. Ion bombardment results in significant reduction of friction, which can be explained by increase of hardness and wettability of polymer materials. Hard but thin enough skin does not result in cracking but improves their abrasion resistance. Contrary to conventional chemical treatment ion beam bombardment works even for polymers hardly susceptible to modification like silicone rubber or polyolefines.

  18. Vacuum cleaner modifications leading to reduced ESD hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

    1994-03-01

    After a series of meetings held in response to an Unsatisfactory Report on the use of vacuum cleaners, an experimental study of commonly available vacuum cleaners was conducted. The object of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaners as electrostatic generators. The electrical charges generated by the machine can inadvertently be transferred in normal operations to electroexplosive devices (EEDs), thereby creating a potentially hazardous situation. In the course of this study, it was determined that many inexpensive commercial cleaners could be used safely providing certain modifications were made. Details of the required modification and rationale for the modification are presented in this report.

  19. Chromatin modification by the RNA Polymerase II elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Tanny, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) involves the coordinated action of numerous regulatory factors. Among these are chromatin-modifying enzymes, which generate a stereotypic and conserved pattern of histone modifications along transcribed genes. This pattern implies a precise coordination between regulators of histone modification and the RNAP II elongation complex. Here I review the pathways and molecular events that regulate co-transcriptional histone modifications. Insight into these events will illuminate the assembly of functional RNAP II elongation complexes and how the chromatin landscape influences their composition and function. PMID:25494544

  20. Modifications of the PCPT method for HJB equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossaczký, I.; Ehrhardt, M.; Günther, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we will revisit the modification of the piecewise constant policy timestepping (PCPT) method for solving Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations. This modification is called piecewise predicted policy timestepping (PPPT) method and if properly used, it may be significantly faster. We will quickly recapitulate the algorithms of PCPT, PPPT methods and of the classical implicit method and apply them on a passport option pricing problem with non-standard payoff. We will present modifications needed to solve this problem effectively with the PPPT method and compare the performance with the PCPT method and the classical implicit method.