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Sample records for modified bcs theory

  1. The BCS Bose crossover theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S. K.; de Llano, M.; Sevilla, F. J.; Solís, M. A.; Valencia, J. J.

    2007-03-01

    We contrast four distinct versions of the BCS-Bose statistical crossover theory according to the form assumed for the electron-number equation that accompanies the BCS gap equation. The four versions correspond to explicitly accounting for two-hole-(2h) as well as two-electron-(2e) Cooper pairs (CPs), or both in equal proportions, or only either kind. This follows from a recent generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) statistical theory that includes not boson-boson interactions but rather 2e- and also (without loss of generality) 2h-CPs interacting with unpaired electrons and holes in a single-band model that is easily converted into a two-band model. The GBEC theory is essentially an extension of the Friedberg-Lee 1989 BEC theory of superconductors that excludes 2h-CPs. It can thus recover, when the numbers of 2h- and 2e-CPs in both BE-condensed and non-condensed states are separately equal, the BCS gap equation for all temperatures and couplings as well as the zero-temperature BCS (rigorous-upper-bound) condensation energy for all couplings. But ignoring either 2h- or 2e-CPs it can do neither. In particular, only half the BCS condensation energy is obtained in the two crossover versions ignoring either kind of CPs. We show how critical temperatures Tc from the original BCS-Bose crossover theory in 2D require unphysically large couplings for the Cooper/BCS model interaction to differ significantly from the Tcs of ordinary BCS theory (where the number equation is substituted by the assumption that the chemical potential equals the Fermi energy).

  2. BCS theory of driven superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komnik, Andreas; Thorwart, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We study the impact of a time-dependent external driving of the lattice phonons in a minimal model of a BCS superconductor. Upon evaluating the driving-induced vertex corrections of the phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction, we show that parametric phonon driving can be used to elevate the critical temperature Tc, while a dipolar phonon drive has no effect. We provide simple analytic expressions for the enhancement factor of Tc. Furthermore, a mean-field analysis of a nonlinear phonon-phonon interaction also shows that phonon anharmonicities further amplify Tc. Our results hold universally for the large class of normal BCS superconductors.

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and the BCS Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slichter, Charles P.

    The author describes the inspiration for the experiment by Hebel and Slichter to measure the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time in super-conductors, the design considerations for the experiment, the surprising experimental results, their theoretical treatment using the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, and how comparing the nuclear relaxation results with those for ultrasound absorption confirmed the central idea of the BCS theory, the BCS pair wave function.

  4. The role of the chemical potential in the BCS theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Dragoş-Victor; Nemnes, George Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    We study the effect of the chemical potential on the results of the BCS theory of superconductivity. We assume that the pairing interaction is manifested between electrons of single-particle energies in an interval [ μ - ħωc , μ + ħωc ] , where μ and ωc are parameters of the model- μ need not be equal to the chemical potential of the system, denoted here by μR. The BCS results are recovered if μ =μR. If μ ≠μR the physical properties change significantly: the energy gap Δ is smaller than the BCS gap, a population imbalance appears, and the superconductor-normal metal phase transition is of the first order. The quasiparticle imbalance is an equilibrium property that appears due to the asymmetry with respect to μR of the single-particle energy interval in which the pairing potential is manifested. For μR - μ taking values in some ranges, the equation for Δ may have more than one solution at the same temperature, forming branches of solutions when Δ is plotted vs. μR - μ at fixed T. The solution with the highest energy gap, which corresponds to the BCS solution when μ =μR, ceases to exist if | μ -μR | ≥ 2Δ0 (Δ0 is the BCS gap at zero temperature). Therefore the superconductivity is conditioned by the existence of the pairing interaction and also by the value of μR - μ.

  5. Supersymmetric BCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Alejandro; Russo, Jorge G.

    2012-06-01

    We implement relativistic BCS superconductivity in {N} = 1 supersymmetric field theories with a U(1) R symmetry. The simplest model contains two chiral superfields with a Kähler potential modified by quartic terms. We study the phase diagram of the gap as a function of the temperature and the specific heat. The superconducting phase transition turns out to be first order, due to the scalar contribution to the one-loop potential. By virtue of supersymmetry, the critical curves depend logarithmically with the UV cutoff, rather than quadratically as in standard BCS theory. We comment on the difficulties in having fermion condensates when the chemical potential is instead coupled to a baryonic U(1) B current. We also discuss supersymmetric models of BCS with canonical Kähler potential constructed by "integrating-in" chiral superfields.

  6. Bcs-Bec Crossover Without Appeal to Scattering Length Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    BCS-BEC (an acronym formed from Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer and Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover physics has customarily been addressed in the framework of the scattering length theory (SLT), which requires regularization/renormalization of equations involving infinities. This paper gives a frame by frame picture, as it were, of the crossover scenario without appealing to SLT. While we believe that the intuitive approach followed here will make the subject accessible to a wider readership, we also show that it sheds light on a feature that has not been under the purview of the customary approach: the role of the hole-hole scatterings vis-à-vis the electron-electron scatterings as one goes from the BCS to the BEC end. More importantly, we show that there are critical values of the concentration (n)and the interaction parameter (λ) at which the condensation of Cooper pairs takes place; this is a finding in contrast with the view that such pairs are automatically condensed.

  7. Two-color spectroscopy of fermions in mean-field BCS-BEC crossover theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koštrun, Marijan; Côté, Robin

    2006-04-01

    We calculate two-photon Raman spectra for fermionic atoms with interactions described by a single-mode mean-field BCS-BEC crossover theory. We compare calculated spectra of interacting and noninteracting systems and find that interactions lead to the appearance of correlated atomic pair signal due to Cooper pairs; splitting of peaks in the spectroscopic signal due to the gap in fermionic dispersion; and attenuation of signal due to the partial conversion of fermions into the corresponding single-mode dimer. By exploring the behavior of these effects, one can obtain quantitative estimates of the BCS parameters from the spectra.

  8. Dynamical description of the fission process using the TD-BCS theory

    SciTech Connect

    Scamps, Guillaume; Simenel, Cédric; Lacroix, Denis

    2015-10-15

    The description of fission remains a challenge for nuclear microscopic theories. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach with BCS pairing is applied to study the last stage of the fission process. A good agreement is found for the one-body observables: the total kinetic energy and the average mass asymmetry. The non-physical dependence of two-body observables with the initial shape is discussed.

  9. Ginzburg-Landau theory of a trapped Fermi gas with a BEC-BCS crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Kun; Yu Zengqiang; Yin Lan

    2009-05-15

    The Ginzburg-Landau theory of a trapped Fermi gas with a BEC-BCS crossover is derived by the path-integral method. In addition to the standard Ginzburg-Landau equation, a second equation describing the total atom density is obtained. These two coupled equations are necessary to describe both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems. The Ginzburg-Landau theory is valid near the transition temperature T{sub c} on both sides of the crossover. In the weakly interacting BEC region, it is also accurate at zero temperature where the Ginzburg-Landau equation can be mapped onto the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. The applicability of GP equation at finite temperature is discussed. On the BEC side, the fluctuation of the order parameter is studied and the renormalization to the molecule coupling constant is obtained.

  10. Self consistent theories of superfluid density and collective modes in BCS-BEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyack, Rufus; Anderson, Brandon; Wu, Chien-Te; Levin, Kathryn

    Establishing fully self consistent and sum rule compatible response functions in strongly correlated Fermi superfluids has been a historically challenging subject. In this talk, we present recent progress pertaining to response functions in many-body Fermi systems. We note that even in strict BCS theory, the textbook derivation of density and current response functions in the gradient expansion breaks certain conservation laws such as the compressibility sum rule. To include additional contributions that preserve all expected conservation laws, we show how to exploit Ward identities within two different t-matrix schemes. In this way we address the density-density response (including collective modes) and the superfluid density. Finally, we characterize approximations made in the literature where some consistency requirements have been dropped.

  11. Effective theory for the Goldstone field in the BCS-BEC crossover at T=0

    SciTech Connect

    Manes, Juan L. Valle, Manuel A.

    2009-05-15

    We perform a detailed study of the effective Lagrangian for the Goldstone mode of a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. By using a derivative expansion of the response functions, we derive the most general form of this Lagrangian at the next to leading order in the momentum expansion in terms of four coefficient functions. This involves the elimination of all the higher order time derivatives by careful use of the leading order field equations. In the infinite scattering length limit where conformal invariance is realized, we show that the effective Lagrangian must contain an unnoticed invariant combination of higher spatial gradients of the Goldstone mode, while explicit couplings to spatial gradients of the trapping potential are absent. Across the whole crossover, we determine all the coefficient functions at the one-loop level, taking into account the dependence of the gap parameter on the chemical potential in the mean-field approximation. These results are analytically expressed in terms of elliptic integrals of the first and second kind. We discuss the form of these coefficients in the extreme BCS and BEC regimes and around the unitary limit, and compare with recent work by other authors.

  12. The application of the fractional exclusion statistics to the BCS theory-A redefinition of the quasiparticle energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Dragoş-Victor; Nemnes, George Alexandru

    2016-09-01

    The effective energy of a superconductor Eeff(T) at temperature T is defined as the difference between the total energy at temperature T and the total energy at 0 K. We call the energy of the condensate, Ec, the difference between Eeff and the sum of the quasiparticle energies Eqp. Ec, Eqp, as well as the BCS quasiparticle energy ɛ are positive and depend on the gap energy Δ, which, in turn, depends on the populations of the quasiparticle states (equivalently, they depend on T). So, from the energetic point of view, the superconductor is a Fermi liquid of interacting quasiparticles. We show that the choice of quasiparticles is not unique, but there is an infinite range of possibilities. Some of these possibilities have been explored in the context of the fractional exclusion statistics (FES), which is a general method of describing interacting particle systems as ideal gases. We apply FES here and transform the Fermi liquid of BCS excitations into an ideal gas by redefining the quasiparticle energies. The new FES quasiparticles exhibit the same energy gap as the BCS quasiparticles, but a different DOS, which is finite at any quasiparticle energy. We also discuss the effect of the remnant electron-electron interaction (electron-electron interaction beyond the BCS pairing model) and show that this can stabilize the BCS condensate, increasing the critical temperature.

  13. Dynamic density and spin responses of a superfluid Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover: Path integral formulation and pair fluctuation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lianyi

    2016-10-01

    We present a standard field theoretical derivation of the dynamic density and spin linear response functions of a dilute superfluid Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover in both three and two dimensions. The derivation of the response functions is based on the elegant functional path integral approach which allows us to calculate the density-density and spin-spin correlation functions by introducing the external sources for the density and the spin density. Since the generating functional cannot be evaluated exactly, we consider two gapless approximations which ensure a gapless collective mode (Goldstone mode) in the superfluid state: the BCS-Leggett mean-field theory and the Gaussian-pair-fluctuation (GPF) theory. In the mean-field theory, our results of the response functions agree with the known results from the random phase approximation. We further consider the pair fluctuation effects and establish a theoretical framework for the dynamic responses within the GPF theory. We show that the GPF response theory naturally recovers three kinds of famous diagrammatic contributions: the Self-Energy contribution, the Aslamazov-Lakin contribution, and the Maki-Thompson contribution. We also show that unlike the equilibrium state, in evaluating the response functions, the linear (first-order) terms in the external sources as well as the induced order parameter perturbations should be treated carefully. In the superfluid state, there is an additional order parameter contribution which ensures that in the static and long wavelength limit, the density response function recovers the result of the compressibility (compressibility sum rule). We expect that the f-sum rule is manifested by the full number equation which includes the contribution from the Gaussian pair fluctuations. The dynamic density and spin response functions in the normal phase (above the superfluid critical temperature) are also derived within the Nozières-Schmitt-Rink (NSR) theory.

  14. Modified Iterative Extended Hueckel. 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronowitz, S.

    1980-01-01

    Iterative Extended Huekel is modified by inclusion of explicit effective internuclear and electronic interactions. The one electron energies are shown to obey a variational principle because of the form of the effective electronic interactions. The modifications permit mimicking of aspects of valence bond theory with the additional feature that the energies associated with valence bond type structures are explicitly calculated. In turn, a hybrid molecular, orbital valence, bond scheme is introduced which incorporates variant total molecular electronic density distributions similar to the way that Iterative Extended Hueckel incorporates atoms.

  15. The integrated bispectrum in modified gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Dipak

    2017-01-01

    Gravity-induced non-Gaussianity can provide important clues to Modified Gravity (MG) Theories. Several recent studies have suggested using the Integrated Bispectrum (IB) as a probe for squeezed configuration of bispectrum. Extending previous studies on the IB, we include redshift-space distortions to study a class of (parametrised) MG theories that include the string-inspired Dvali, Gabadadze & Porrati (DGP) model. Various contributions from redshift-space distortions are derived in a transparent manner, and squeezed contributions from these terms are derived separately. Results are obtained using the Zel'dovich Approximation (ZA). Results are also presented for projected surveys (2D). We use the Press-Schechter (PS) and Sheth-Tormen (ST) mass functions to compute the IB for collapsed objects that can readily be extended to peak-theory based approaches. The cumulant correlators (CCs) generalise the ordinary cumulants and are known to probe collapsed configurations of higher order correlation functions. We generalise the concept of CCs to halos of different masses. We also introduce a generating function based approach to analyse more general non-local biasing models. The Fourier representations of the CCs, the skew-spectrum, or the kurt-spctra are discussed in this context. The results are relevant for the study of the Minkowski Functionals (MF) of collapsed tracers in redshift-space.

  16. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The

  17. The BCS-BEC Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Meera M.

    2015-09-01

    This chapter presents the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of weakly correlated pairs of fermions to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of diatomic molecules in the atomic Fermi gas. Our aim is to provide a pedagogical review of the BCS-BEC crossover, with an emphasis on the basic concepts, particularly those that are not generally known or are difficult to find in the literature. We shall not attempt to give an exhaustive survey of current research in the limited space here; where possible, we will direct the reader to more extensive reviews.

  18. Flow equations for the BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, S.; Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Wetterich, C.

    2007-08-15

    The functional renormalization group is used for the BCS-BEC crossover in gases of ultracold fermionic atoms. In a simple truncation, we see how universality and an effective theory with composite bosonic diatom states emerge. We obtain a unified picture of the whole phase diagram. The flow reflects different effective physics at different scales. In the BEC limit as well as near the critical temperature, it describes an interacting bosonic theory.

  19. Modified contour-improved perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, Gorazd; Loewe, Marcelo; Martinez, Cristian; Valenzuela, Cristian

    2010-11-01

    The semihadronic tau decay width allows a clean extraction of the strong coupling constant at low energies. We present a modification of the standard ''contour-improved'' method based on a derivative expansion of the Adler function. The new approach has some advantages compared to contour-improved perturbation theory. The renormalization scale dependence is weaker by more than a factor of 2 and the last term of the expansion is reduced by about 10%, while the renormalization scheme dependence remains approximately equal. The extracted QCD coupling at the tau mass scale is by 2% lower than the contour-improved value. We find {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=0.1211{+-}0.0010.

  20. Density perturbations in general modified gravitational theories

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2010-07-15

    We derive the equations of linear cosmological perturbations for the general Lagrangian density f(R,{phi},X)/2+L{sub c}, where R is a Ricci scalar, {phi} is a scalar field, and X=-{partial_derivative}{sup {mu}{phi}{partial_derivative}}{sub {mu}{phi}/}2 is a field kinetic energy. We take into account a nonlinear self-interaction term L{sub c}={xi}({phi}) {open_square}{phi}({partial_derivative}{sup {mu}{phi}{partial_derivative}}{sub {mu}{phi}}) recently studied in the context of ''Galileon'' cosmology, which keeps the field equations at second order. Taking into account a scalar-field mass explicitly, the equations of matter density perturbations and gravitational potentials are obtained under a quasistatic approximation on subhorizon scales. We also derive conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with propagation speeds. Our analysis includes most of modified gravity models of dark energy proposed in literature; and thus it is convenient to test the viability of such models from both theoretical and observational points of view.

  1. Constraining modified gravitational theories by weak lensing with Euclid

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelli, Matteo; Calabrese, Erminia; De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Scaramella, Roberto

    2011-01-15

    Future proposed satellite missions such as Euclid can offer the opportunity to test general relativity on cosmic scales through mapping of the galaxy weak-lensing signal. In this paper we forecast the ability of these experiments to constrain modified gravity scenarios such as those predicted by scalar-tensor and f(R) theories. We find that Euclid will improve constraints expected from the Planck satellite on these modified theories of gravity by 2 orders of magnitude. We discuss parameter degeneracies and the possible biases introduced by modifications to gravity.

  2. BCS as Foundation and Inspiration: the Transmutation of Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    The BCS theory injected two powerful ideas into the collective consciousness of theoretical physics: pairing and spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the 50 years since the seminal work of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer, those ideas have found important use in areas quite remote from the stem application to metallic superconductivity. This is a brief and eclectic sketch of some highlights, emphasizing relatively recent developments in QCD and in the theory of quantum statistics, and including a few thoughts about future directions. A common theme is the importance of symmetry transmutation, as opposed to the simple breaking of electromagnetic U(1) symmetry in classic metallic superconductors.

  3. BCS as Foundation and Inspiration:. the Transmutation of Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    The BCS theory injected two powerful ideas into the collective consciousness of theoretical physics: pairing and spontaneous symmetry breaking. In the 50 years since the seminal work of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer, those ideas have found important use in areas quite remote from the stem application to metallic superconductivity. This is a brief and eclectic sketch of some highlights, emphasizing relatively recent developments in QCD and in the theory of quantum statistics, and including a few thoughts about future directions. A common theme is the importance of symmetry transmutation, as opposed to the simple breaking of electromagnetic U(1) symmetry in classic metallic superconductors.

  4. Fast route to nonlinear clustering statistics in modified gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Hans A.; Ferreira, Pedro G.

    2015-06-01

    We propose a simple and computationally fast method for performing N -body simulations for a large class of modified gravity theories with a screening mechanism such as chameleons, symmetrons, and Galileons. By combining the linear Klein-Gordon equation with a screening factor, calculated from analytical solutions of spherical symmetric configurations, we obtain a modified field equation of which the solution is exact in the linear regime while at the same time taking screening into account on nonlinear scales. The resulting modified field equation remains linear and can be solved just as quickly as the Poisson equation without any of the convergence problems that can arise when solving the full equation. We test our method with N -body simulations and find that it compares remarkably well with full simulations well into the nonlinear regime.

  5. Comparison of different pairing fluctuation approaches to BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Kathryn Chen Qijin Chien, C.-C. He Yan

    2010-02-15

    The subject of BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is particularly exciting because of its realization in ultracold atomic Fermi gases and its possible relevance to high temperature superconductors. In this paper we review the body of theoretical work on this subject, which represents a natural extension of the seminal papers by Leggett and by Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink (NSR). The former addressed only the ground state, now known as the 'BCS-Leggett' wave-function, and the key contributions of the latter pertain to calculations of the superfluid transition temperature T{sub c}. These two papers have given rise to two main and, importantly, distinct, theoretical schools in the BCS-BEC crossover literature. The first of these extends the BCS-Leggett ground state to finite temperature and the second extends the NSR scheme away from T{sub c} both in the superfluid and normal phases. It is now rather widely accepted that these extensions of NSR produce a different ground state than that first introduced by Leggett. This observation provides a central motivation for the present paper which seeks to clarify the distinctions in the two approaches. Our analysis shows how the NSR-based approach views the bosonic contributions more completely but treats the fermions as 'quasi-free'. By contrast, the BCS-Leggett based approach treats the fermionic contributions more completely but treats the bosons as 'quasi-free'. In a related fashion, the NSR-based schemes approach the crossover between BCS and BEC by starting from the BEC limit and the BCS-Leggett based scheme approaches this crossover by starting from the BCS limit. Ultimately, one would like to combine these two schemes. There are, however, many difficult problems to surmount in any attempt to bridge the gap in the two theory classes. In this paper we review the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches. The flexibility of the BCS-Leggett based approach and its ease of handling make it widely used in T=0

  6. Modified Rate-Theory Predictions in Comparison to Microstructural Data

    SciTech Connect

    Surh, M P; Okita, T; Wolfer, W G

    2003-11-03

    Standard rate theory methods have recently been combined with experimental microstructures to successfully reproduce measured swelling behavior in ternary steels around 400 C. Fit parameters have reasonable values except possibly for the recombination radius, R{sub c}, which can be larger than expected. Numerical simulations of void nucleation and growth reveal the importance additional recombination processes at unstable clusters. Such extra recombination may reduce the range of possible values for R{sub c}. A modified rate theory is presented here that includes the effect of these undetectably small defect clusters. The fit values for R{sub c} are not appreciably altered, as the modification has little effect on the model behavior in the late steady state. It slightly improves the predictions for early transient times, when the sink strength of stable voids and dislocations is relatively small. Standard rate theory successfully explains steady swelling behavior in high purity stainless steel.

  7. Wormhole geometries in f(R) modified theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Oliveira, Miguel A.

    2009-11-15

    In this work, we construct traversable wormhole geometries in the context of f(R) modified theories of gravity. We impose that the matter threading the wormhole satisfies the energy conditions, so that it is the effective stress-energy tensor containing higher order curvature derivatives that is responsible for the null energy condition violation. Thus, the higher order curvature terms, interpreted as a gravitational fluid, sustain these nonstandard wormhole geometries, fundamentally different from their counterparts in general relativity. In particular, by considering specific shape functions and several equations of state, exact solutions for f(R) are found.

  8. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lianyi; Lü, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2015-08-01

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show that the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2 D. We find aB≃0.56 a2 D , in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. We compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.

  9. Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É.; Park, Minjoon; Watson, Scott E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu

    2013-08-01

    We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ΛCDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.

  10. 3D weak lensing: Modified theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratten, Geraint; Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Brax, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Weak lensing (WL) promises to be a particularly sensitive probe of both the growth of large-scale structure as well as the fundamental relation between matter density perturbations and metric perturbations, thus providing a powerful tool with which we may constrain modified theories of gravity (MG) on cosmological scales. Future deep, wide-field WL surveys will provide an unprecedented opportunity to constrain deviations from General Relativity. Employing a 3D analysis based on the spherical Fourier-Bessel expansion, we investigate the extent to which MG theories will be constrained by a typical 3D WL survey configuration including noise from the intrinsic ellipticity distribution σɛ of source galaxies. Here, we focus on two classes of screened theories of gravity: (i) f (R ) chameleon models and (ii) environmentally dependent dilaton models. We use one-loop perturbation theory combined with halo models in order to accurately model the evolution of the matter power spectrum with redshift in these theories. Using a χ2 analysis, we show that for an all-sky spectroscopic survey, the parameter fR0 can be constrained in the range fR0<5 ×10-6(9 ×10-6) for n =1 (2 ) with a 3 σ confidence level. This can be achieved by using relatively low-order angular harmonics ℓ<100 . Higher-order harmonics ℓ>100 could provide tighter constraints but are subject to nonlinear effects, such as baryonic feedback, that must be accounted for. We also employ a Principal Component Analysis in order to study the parameter degeneracies in the MG parameters. The confusion from intrinsic ellipticity correlation and modification of the matter power spectrum at a small scale due to feedback mechanisms is briefly discussed.

  11. Strong-coupling BCS models of Josephson qubits.

    PubMed

    Alicki, R; Miklaszewski, W

    2013-01-23

    The strong-coupling version of the BCS theory for superconductors is used to derive microscopic models for all types of small Josephson junctions--charge qubit, flux qubit and phase qubit. Applied to Josephson qubits it yields a more complicated structure of the lowest-lying energy levels than that obtained from phenomenological models based on quantization of the Kirchhoff equations. In particular, highly degenerate levels emerge, which act as probability sinks for the qubit. The alternative formulae concerning spectra of superconducting qubits are presented and compared with the experimental data. In contrast to the existing theories those formulae contain microscopic parameters of the model. In particular, for the first time, the density of Cooper pairs at zero temperature is estimated for an Al-based flux qubit. Finally, the question whether small Josephson junctions can be treated as macroscopic quantum systems is briefly discussed.

  12. Nuclear pairing correlations within and beyond HFB-BCS models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambacurta, Danilo; Lacroix, Denis

    2015-02-01

    Pairing correlations in nuclear systems play a crucial role in several aspects, i.e. binding energies and odd-even effects, superfluid phenomena and pair transfer mechanisms, just to quote few of them. On the theoretical side, the standard description of these features is done by using BCS or HFB models which allow to describe in a simple way pairing effects. However, due to the explicit breaking of the particle number, these theories present some limitations which can be cured by using particle number projection techniques. In this paper, we will show the merits of these techniques and their accuracy in treating pairing correlations. First, a beyond BCS-HFB method is introduced where the effect of four quasi-particle states is included perturbatively and subsequently the particle number is restored. We will then show the need of restoring the good particle number also for excited states that are essential in the pair transfer process between superfluid systems. Applications to the Richardson model are shown and discussed.

  13. Gravitational Microlensing in Modified Gravity Theories - Inverse-Square Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, H.

    2011-02-01

    Microlensing studies are usually based on the lens equation that is valid only to the first order in the gravitational constant G and lens mass M. We consider corrections to the conventional lens equation in terms of differentiable functions, so that they can express not only the second-order effects of GM in general relativity but also modified gravity theories. As a generalization of Ebina et al. (Prog. Theor. Phys. 104 (2000), 1317), we show that, provided that the spacetime is static, spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, the total amplification by microlensing remains unchanged at the linear order of the correction to the deflection angle, if and only if the correction takes a particular form as the inverse square of the impact parameter, whereas the magnification factor for each image is corrected. It is concluded that the light curve shape by microlensing is inevitably changed and will thus allow us to probe modified gravity, unless a modificati on to the deflection angle takes the particular form. No systematic deviation in microlensing observations has been reported. For instance, therefore, the Yukawa-type correction is constrained as the characteristic length > 10^{14} m.

  14. Modified f( R, T) gravity theory and scalar field cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Singh, C. P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the behaviors of scalar field in modified f( R, T) gravity theory within the framework of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model. The universe is assumed to be filled with two non-interacting matter sources, scalar field (normal or phantom) with scalar potential and matter contribution due to f( R, T) action. We first explore a model where the potential is a constant, and the universe evolves as a de Sitter type. This model is compatible with phantom scalar field only which gives fine tuning with the recent observations. The model exhibits a wide variety of early time physical phenomena that eventually behaves like a cosmological constant at late times. The model shows transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion of the universe. We also explore a model where the scalar field potential and the scale factor evolve exponentially as a scalar field. This model is compatible with normal scalar field only and describes transition from inflationary to the decelerated phase at early times and quintessence to phantom phase at late times. We constraint our results with the recent observational data and find that some values of parameters are consistent with SNe Ia and H( z)+SNe Ia data to describe accelerated expansion only whereas some one give decelerated and accelerated expansions with H( z), WMAP7 and WMAP7+BAO+ H( z) observational data.

  15. A modified Lorentz theory as a test theory of special relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Gagnon, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Attention has been given recently to a modified Lorentz theory (MLT) that is based on the generalized Galilean transformation. Some explicit formulas within the framework of MLT, dealing with the one-way velocity of light, slow-clock transport, and the Doppler effect are derived. A number of typical experiments are analyzed on this basis. Results indicate that the empirical equivalence between MLT and special relativity is still maintained to second order terms. The results of previous works that predict that the MLT might be distinguished from special relativity at the third order by Doppler centrifuge tests capable of a fractional frequency detection threshold of 10 to the -15th are confirmed.

  16. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show that the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.

  17. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    DOE PAGES

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; ...

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show thatmore » the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.« less

  18. Gravitationally bound BCS state as dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Stephon; Cormack, Sam

    2017-04-01

    We explore the possibility that fermionic dark matter undergoes a BCS transition to form a superfluid. This requires an attractive interaction between fermions and we describe a possible source of this interaction induced by torsion. We describe the gravitating fermion system with the Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism in the local density approximation. We solve the Poisson equation along with the equations for the density and gap energy of the fermions to find a self-gravitating, superfluid solution for dark matter halos. In order to produce halos the size of dwarf galaxies, we require a particle mass of ~ 200 eV. We find a maximum attractive coupling strength before the halo becomes unstable. If dark matter halos do have a superfluid component, this raises the possibility that they contain vortex lines.

  19. Modified coupling procedure for the Poincare gauge theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmierczak, Marcin

    2009-06-15

    The minimal coupling procedure, which is employed in standard Yang-Mills theories, appears to be ambiguous in the case of gravity. We propose a slight modification of this procedure, which removes the ambiguity. Our modification justifies some earlier results concerning the consequences of the Poincare gauge theory of gravity. In particular, the predictions of the Einstein-Cartan theory with fermionic matter are rendered unique.

  20. Modified Enskog kinetic theory for strongly coupled plasmas.

    PubMed

    Baalrud, Scott D; Daligault, Jérôme

    2015-06-01

    Concepts underlying the Enskog kinetic theory of hard-spheres are applied to include short-range correlation effects in a model for transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas. The approach is based on an extension of the effective potential transport theory [S. D. Baalrud and J. Daligault, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] to include an exclusion radius surrounding individual charged particles that is associated with Coulomb repulsion. This is obtained by analogy with the finite size of hard spheres in Enskog's theory. Predictions for the self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients of the one-component plasma are tested against molecular dynamics simulations. The theory is found to accurately capture the kinetic contributions to the transport coefficients, but not the potential contributions that arise at very strong coupling (Γ≳30). Considerations related to a first-principles generalization of Enskog's kinetic equation to continuous potentials are also discussed.

  1. A New First-Principles Calculation of Field-Dependent RF Surface Impedance of BCS Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Binping; Reece, Charles E.

    2014-02-01

    There is a need to understand the intrinsic limit of radiofrequency (RF) surface impedance that determines the performance of superconducting RF cavities in particle accelerators. Here we present a field-dependent derivation of Mattis-Bardeen theory of the RF surface impedance of BCS superconductors based on the shifted density of states resulting from coherently moving Cooper pairs. Our theoretical prediction of the effective BCS RF surface resistance (Rs) of niobium as a function of peak surface magnetic field amplitude agrees well with recently reported record low loss resonant cavity measurements from JLab and FNAL with carefully, yet differently, prepared niobium material. The surprising reduction in resistance with increasing field is explained to be an intrinsic effect.

  2. Impurity effects on BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yanming; Zhang, Leifeng; Wang, Jibiao; Chen, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the effects of "nonmagnetic" impurities on the s -wave BCS-BEC crossover in atomic Fermi gases within a pairing fluctuation theory. Both pairing and impurity scattering T matrices are treated self-consistently at the same time. While the system is less sensitive to impurity scattering in the Born limit, for strong impurity scatterers, both the frequency and the gap function are highly renormalized, leading to significant suppression of the superfluid Tc, the order parameter, and the superfluid density. We also find the formation of impurity bands and smearing of coherence peak in the fermion density of states, leading to a spectrum weight transfer and finite lifetime of Bogoliubov quasiparticles. In the BCS regime, the superfluidity may be readily destroyed by the impurity of high density, leading to a superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition at zero temperature. In comparison, the superfluidity in unitary and BEC regimes is relatively more robust.

  3. A modified Lax-Phillips scattering theory for quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, Y.

    2015-07-15

    The Lax-Phillips scattering theory is an appealing abstract framework for the analysis of scattering resonances. Quantum mechanical adaptations of the theory have been proposed. However, since these quantum adaptations essentially retain the original structure of the theory, assuming the existence of incoming and outgoing subspaces for the evolution and requiring the spectrum of the generator of evolution to be unbounded from below, their range of applications is rather limited. In this paper, it is shown that if we replace the assumption regarding the existence of incoming and outgoing subspaces by the assumption of the existence of Lyapunov operators for the quantum evolution (the existence of which has been proved for certain classes of quantum mechanical scattering problems), then it is possible to construct a structure analogous to the Lax-Phillips structure for scattering problems for which the spectrum of the generator of evolution is bounded from below.

  4. A modified Lax-Phillips scattering theory for quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The Lax-Phillips scattering theory is an appealing abstract framework for the analysis of scattering resonances. Quantum mechanical adaptations of the theory have been proposed. However, since these quantum adaptations essentially retain the original structure of the theory, assuming the existence of incoming and outgoing subspaces for the evolution and requiring the spectrum of the generator of evolution to be unbounded from below, their range of applications is rather limited. In this paper, it is shown that if we replace the assumption regarding the existence of incoming and outgoing subspaces by the assumption of the existence of Lyapunov operators for the quantum evolution (the existence of which has been proved for certain classes of quantum mechanical scattering problems), then it is possible to construct a structure analogous to the Lax-Phillips structure for scattering problems for which the spectrum of the generator of evolution is bounded from below.

  5. Comparison of the Modified Biot-Gassmann Theory and the Kuster-Toksoz Theory in Predicting Elastic Velocities of Sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2008-01-01

    Elastic velocities of water-saturated sandstones depend primarily on porosity, effective pressure, and the degree of consolidation. If the dry-frame moduli are known, from either measurements or theoretical calculations, the effect of pore water on velocities can be modeled using the Gassmann theory. Kuster and Toksoz developed a theory based on wave-scattering theory for a variety of inclusion shapes, which provides a means for calculating dry- or wet-frame moduli. In the Kuster-Toksoz theory, elastic wave velocities through different sediments can be predicted by using different aspect ratios of the sediment's pore space. Elastic velocities increase as the pore aspect ratio increases (larger pore aspect ratio describes a more spherical pore). On the basis of the velocity ratio, which is assumed to be a function of (1-0)n, and the Biot-Gassmann theory, Lee developed a semi-empirical equation for predicting elastic velocities, which is referred to as the modified Biot-Gassmann theory of Lee. In this formulation, the exponent n, which depends on the effective pressure and the degree of consolidation, controls elastic velocities; as n increases, elastic velocities decrease. Computationally, the role of exponent n in the modified Biot-Gassmann theory by Lee is similar to the role of pore aspect ratios in the Kuster-Toksoz theory. For consolidated sediments, either theory predicts accurate velocities. However, for unconsolidated sediments, the modified Biot-Gassmann theory by Lee performs better than the Kuster-Toksoz theory, particularly in predicting S-wave velocities.

  6. Theory of room temperature ferromagnetism in Cr modified DNA nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paruğ Duru, Izzet; Değer, Caner; Eldem, Vahap; Kalayci, Taner; Aktaş, Şahin

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the magnetic properties of Cr3+ (J  <  0) ion-modified DNA (M-DNA) nanowire (1000 base) at room temperature under a uniform magnetic field (˜100 Oe) for different doping concentrations. A Monte Carlo simulation method-based Metropolis algorithm is used to figure out the thermodynamic quantities of nanowire formed by Cr M-DNA followed by analysing the dependency of the ferromagnetic behaviour of the M-DNA to dopant concentration. It is understood that ion density/base and ion density/helical of Cr3+ ions can be a tuning parameter, herewith the dopant ratio has an actual importance on the magnetic characterization of M-DNA nanowire (3%-20%). We propose the source of magnetism as an exchange interaction between Cr and DNA helical atoms indicated in the Heisenberg Hamiltonian.

  7. Non-linear structure in modified action theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marcos V.

    We study the effects and carry out a suite of cosmological simulations of modified action f(R) models where cosmic acceleration arises from an alteration of gravity instead of dark energy. These models introduce an extra scalar degree of freedom which enhances the force of gravity below the Compton scale of the scalar. The simulations exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, necessary for satisfying local constraints on gravity, where this scale depends on environment, in particular the depth of the local gravitational potential. We find that the chameleon mechanism can substantially suppress the enhancement of power spectrum in the non-linear regime if the background field value is comparable to or smaller than the depth of the gravitational potentials of typical structures. Nonetheless power spectrum enhancements at intermediate scales remain at a measurable level even when the expansion history is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant, cold dark matter model. We also investigate the effects of the modified dynamics on halo properties such as their abundance and clustering. We find that the f(R) effects on the halo mass- function and bias depend mostly on the linear power spectrum modifications, but that the chameleon mechanism suppresses the modifications at high-mass halos with deep potential wells. The f(R) modifications also affect the threshold density for collapse, or similarly the overdensity for virialization and therefore can change halo definitions from those of ACDM. As a result, simple scaling relations that take the linear matter power spectrum into a non-linear spectrum fail to capture the modifications of f(R) due to the change in collapsed structures, the chameleon mechanism, and the time evolution of the modifications. A quantification of these effects, including modifications on halo profiles, is necessary to accurately describe halo properties and potentially construct a halo model of the non-linear power spectrum.

  8. Detecting the BCS pairing amplitude via a sudden lattice ramp in a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiesinga, Eite; Nuske, Marlon; Mathey, Ludwig

    2016-05-01

    We determine the exact time evolution of an initial Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of ultra-cold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice. The dynamical evolution is triggered by ramping the lattice potential up, such that the interaction strength Uf is much larger than the hopping amplitude Jf. The quench initiates collective oscillations with frequency | Uf | /(2 π) in the momentum occupation numbers and imprints an oscillating phase with the same frequency on the order parameter Δ. The latter is not reproduced by treating the time evolution in mean-field theory. The momentum density-density or noise correlation functions oscillate at frequency | Uf | /(2 π) as well as its second harmonic. For a very deep lattice, with negligible tunneling energy, the oscillations of momentum occupation numbers are undamped. Non-zero tunneling after the quench leads to dephasing of the different momentum modes and a subsequent damping of the oscillations. This occurs even for a finite-temperature initial BCS state, but not for a non-interacting Fermi gas. We therefore propose to use this dephasing to detect a BCS state. Finally, we predict that the noise correlation functions in a honeycomb lattice will develop strong anti-correlations near the Dirac point. We acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation.

  9. Ginzburg-Landau expansion in BCS-BEC crossover region of disordered attractive Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinskii, E. Z.; Kuleeva, N. A.; Sadovskii, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied disorder effects on the coefficients of Ginzburg-Landau expansion for attractive Hubbard model within the generalized DMFT+Σ approximation for the wide region of the values of attractive potential U—from the weak-coupling limit, where superconductivity is described by BCS model, towards the strong coupling, where superconducting transition is related to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of compact Cooper pairs. For the case of semi-elliptic initial density of states disorder influence on the coefficients A and B before the square and the fourth power of the order parameter is universal for at all values of electronic correlations and is related only to the widening of the initial conduction band (density of states) by disorder. Similar universal behavior is valid for superconducting critical temperature Tc (the generalized Anderson theorem) and specific heat discontinuity at the transition. This universality is absent for the coefficient C before the gradient term, which in accordance with the standard theory of "dirty" superconductors is strongly suppressed by disorder in the weak-coupling region, but can slightly grow in BCS-BEC crossover region, becoming almost independent of disorder in the strong coupling region. This leads to rather weak disorder dependence of the penetration depth and coherence length, as well as the slope of the upper critical magnetic field at Tc, in BCS-BEC crossover and strong coupling regions.

  10. Large scale structure in Bekenstein's theory of relativistic modified Newtonian dynamics.

    PubMed

    Skordis, C; Mota, D F; Ferreira, P G; Boehm, C

    2006-01-13

    A relativistic theory of modified gravity has been recently proposed by Bekenstein. The tensor field in Einstein's theory of gravity is replaced by a scalar, a vector, and a tensor field which interact in such a way to give modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) in the weak-field nonrelativistic limit. We study the evolution of the Universe in such a theory, identifying its key properties and comparing it with the standard cosmology obtained in Einstein gravity. The evolution of the scalar field is akin to that of tracker quintessence fields. We expand the theory to linear order to find the evolution of perturbations on large scales. The impact on galaxy distributions and the cosmic microwave background is calculated in detail. We show that it may be possible to reproduce observations of the cosmic microwave background and galaxy distributions with Bekenstein's theory of MOND.

  11. Modified interfacial statistical associating fluid theory: A perturbation density functional theory for inhomogeneous complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shekhar; Dominik, Aleksandra; Chapman, Walter G.

    2007-12-01

    A density functional theory based on Wertheim's first order perturbation theory is developed for inhomogeneous complex fluids. The theory is derived along similar lines as interfacial statistical associating fluid theory [S. Tripathi and W. G. Chapman, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094506 (2005)]. However, the derivation is more general and applies broadly to a range of systems, retaining the simplicity of a segment density based theory. Furthermore, the theory gives the exact density profile for ideal chains in an external field. The general avail of the theory has been demonstrated by applying the theory to lipids near surfaces, lipid bilayers, and copolymer thin films. The theoretical results show excellent agreement with the results from molecular simulations.

  12. BcsKC is an essential protein for the type VI secretion system activity in Burkholderia cenocepacia that forms an outer membrane complex with BcsLB.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Daniel; MacDonald, Douglas K; Valvano, Miguel A

    2010-11-12

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) contributes to the virulence of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an opportunistic pathogen causing serious chronic infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. BcsK(C) is a highly conserved protein among the T6SSs in Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we show that BcsK(C) is required for Hcp secretion and cytoskeletal redistribution in macrophages upon bacterial infection. These two phenotypes are associated with a functional T6SS in B. cenocepacia. Experiments employing a bacterial two-hybrid system and pulldown assays demonstrated that BcsK(C) interacts with BcsL(B), another conserved T6SS component. Internal deletions within BcsK(C) revealed that its N-terminal domain is necessary and sufficient for interaction with BcsL(B). Fractionation experiments showed that BcsK(C) can be in the cytosol or tightly associated with the outer membrane and that BcsK(C) and BcsL(B) form a high molecular weight complex anchored to the outer membrane that requires BcsF(H) (a ClpV homolog) to be assembled. Together, our data show that BcsK(C)/BcsL(B) interaction is essential for the T6SS activity in B. cenocepacia.

  13. Modified teleparallel theories of gravity: Gauss-Bonnet and trace extensions.

    PubMed

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Böhmer, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate modified theories of gravity in the context of teleparallel geometries with possible Gauss-Bonnet contributions. The possible coupling of gravity with the trace of the energy-momentum tensor is also taken into account. This is motivated by the various different theories formulated in the teleparallel approach and the metric approach without discussing the exact relationship between them. Our formulation clarifies the connections between different well-known theories. For instance, we are able to formulate the correct teleparallel equivalent of Gauss-Bonnet modified general relativity, amongst other results. Finally, we are able to identify modified gravity models which have not been studied in the past. These appear naturally within our setup and would make a interesting starting point for further studies.

  14. Scale Invariance in 2D BCS-BEC Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensarma, Rajdeep; Taylor, Edward; Randeria, Mohit

    2013-03-01

    In 2D BCS-BEC crossover, the frequency of the breathing mode in a harmonic trap, as well as the lower edge of the radio frequency spectroscopy response, show remarkable scale-invariance throughout the crossover regime, i.e. they are independent of the coupling constant. Using functional integral methods, we study the behaviour of these quantities in the 2D BCS-BEC crossover and comment on the possible reasons for this scale independence. RS was supported by DAE, Govt. of India. MR was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1006532. ET was supported by NSERC and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

  15. Superconductivity in an electron band just above the Fermi level: possible route to BCS-BEC superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, K; Ito, Y; Ota, Y; Kotani, Y; Shimojima, T; Kiss, T; Watanabe, S; Chen, C-T; Niitaka, S; Hanaguri, T; Takagi, H; Chainani, A; Shin, S

    2014-02-28

    Conventional superconductivity follows Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS) theory of electrons-pairing in momentum-space, while superfluidity is the Bose-Einstein condensation(BEC) of atoms paired in real-space. These properties of solid metals and ultra-cold gases, respectively, are connected by the BCS-BEC crossover. Here we investigate the band dispersions in FeTe(0.6)Se(0.4)(Tc = 14.5 K ~ 1.2 meV) in an accessible range below and above the Fermi level(EF) using ultra-high resolution laser angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We uncover an electron band lying just 0.7 meV (~8 K) above EF at the Γ-point, which shows a sharp superconducting coherence peak with gap formation below Tc. The estimated superconducting gap Δ and Fermi energy [Symbol: see text]F indicate composite superconductivity in an iron-based superconductor, consisting of strong-coupling BEC in the electron band and weak-coupling BCS-like superconductivity in the hole band. The study identifies the possible route to BCS-BEC superconductivity.

  16. Microstructure-dependent piezoelectric beam based on modified strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. S.; Feng, W. J.

    2014-09-01

    A microstructure-dependent piezoelectric beam model was developed using a variational formulation, which is based on the modified strain gradient theory and the Timoshenko beam theory. The new model contains three material length scale parameters and can capture the size effect, unlike the classical beam theory. To illustrate the new piezoelectric beam model, the static bending and the free vibration problems of a simply supported beam are numerically solved. These results may be useful in the analysis and design of smart structures that are constructed from piezoelectric materials.

  17. BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature in the broken-symmetry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G. C.

    2004-09-01

    The BCS-BEC crossover is studied in a systematic way in the broken-symmetry phase between zero temperature and the critical temperature. This study bridges two regimes where quantum and thermal fluctuations are, respectively, important. The theory is implemented on physical grounds, by adopting a fermionic self-energy in the broken-symmetry phase that represents fermions coupled to superconducting fluctuations in weak coupling and to bosons described by the Bogoliubov theory in strong coupling. This extension of the theory beyond mean field proves important at finite temperature, to connect with the results in the normal phase. The order parameter, the chemical potential, and the single-particle spectral function are calculated numerically for a wide range of coupling and temperature. This enables us to assess the quantitative importance of superconducting fluctuations in the broken-symmetry phase over the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Our results are relevant to the possible realizations of this crossover with high-temperature cuprate superconductors and with ultracold fermionic atoms in a trap.

  18. Relativistic corrections to the Cooperon mass: BCS versus BEC picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipavský, P.

    2017-02-01

    Relativistic corrections to the Cooperon mass are discussed for preformed Cooper pairs that become superconductive via the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and for Cooperons in the Bardeen-Copper-Schrieffer (BCS) condensate. The distinction explains experimental results of Tate et al. (1989).

  19. On the stability conditions for theories of modified gravity in the presence of matter fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Frusciante, Noemi; Papadomanolakis, Georgios

    2017-03-01

    We present a thorough stability analysis of modified gravity theories in the presence of matter fields. We use the Effective Field Theory framework for Dark Energy and Modified Gravity to retain a general approach for the gravity sector and a Sorkin-Schutz action for the matter one. Then, we work out the proper viability conditions to guarantee in the scalar sector the absence of ghosts, gradient and tachyonic instabilities. The absence of ghosts can be achieved by demanding a positive kinetic matrix, while the lack of a gradient instability is ensured by imposing a positive speed of propagation for all the scalar modes. In case of tachyonic instability, the mass eigenvalues have been studied and we work out the appropriate expressions. For the latter, an instability occurs only when the negative mass eigenvalue is much larger, in absolute value, than the Hubble parameter. We discuss the results for the minimally coupled quintessence model showing for a particular set of parameters two typical behaviours which in turn lead to a stable and an unstable configuration. Moreover, we find that the speeds of propagation of the scalar modes strongly depend on matter densities, for the beyond Horndeski theories. Our findings can be directly employed when testing modified gravity theories as they allow to identify the correct viability space.

  20. Diffraction analysis of blazed transmission gratings with a modified extended scalar theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaijun; Kuang, Dengfeng; Fang, Zhiliang

    2008-06-01

    An alternative interpretation of the diffraction of blazed transmission gratings with moderate structure period is proposed according to a modified extended scalar theory (MEST). The diffraction field on the bottom facet of the grating is considered to be the interference of four subfields investigated in the problem of diffraction of a plane wave by an infinite half-plane. It is observed that MEST gives the total field that agrees with rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), and the result is more reliable than that of extended scalar theory (EST). The MEST is still a ray-optical-based approximation approach, and the region of validity is compared with EST and RCWA.

  1. Axisymmetric Distributions of Thick Circular Plate in a Modified Couple Stress Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Marin, Marin; Abbas, Ibrahim A.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the two-dimensional axisymmetric distributions of thick circular plate in modified couple stress theory with heat and mass diffusive sources is investigated. The problem is considered in the context of the theories of thermodiffusion elastic solid with one and two relaxation time developed by Sherief et al. [Int. J. Eng. Sci. 42, 591 (2004)] and Kumar and Kansal [Int. J. Solid Struct. 45, 5890 (2008)] by using Laplace and Hankel transforms technique. The displacements, stress components, temperature change and chemical potential are obtained in transformed domain. Particular cases of interest are also deduced.

  2. Uniform diffracted fields from a perfectly conducting cylindrical reflector with modified theory of physical optics.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, Uğur; Sarnık, Mücahit

    2013-01-01

    The uniform diffracted fields are calculated on PEC cylindrical reflector by Modified Theory of Physical Optics (MTPO). It is aimed to convert the noncontinuous solution to a continuous solution by finding a uniform equation which does not contain any expression converging to 0 in the denominator part. Three axioms of MTPO theory are used to construct the integral equations for the perfectly electrically conducting surface application. The "edge-point" technique is used to find the diffracted field, and uniform solution is to be found via "detour parameter(s)." Finally, the obtained results are to be compared with the nonuniform ones, numerically.

  3. BCS-BEC crossover physics in FeSe bulk superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibauchi, Takasada

    The physics of the crossover between weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strong-coupling Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits gives a unified framework of quantum bound (superfluid) states of interacting fermions. This crossover has been studied in the ultracold atomic systems, but is extremely difficult to be realized for electrons in solids. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and quantum oscillations, we demonstrate that the Fermi energy of the bulk superconductor FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio of the gap to Fermi energy is of the order of unity, which qualifies FeSe to be deep inside the BCS-BEC crossover regime. Thus FeSe appears to be a key material to solve the longstanding issue in the crossover physics; the presence of preformed Cooper pairs giving rise to a pseudogap above the superconducting transition temperature Tc. We report experimental signatures of preformed Cooper pairing well above Tc = 8 . 5 K in clean single crystals of FeSe. Our torque magnetometry reveals distinct diamagnetic signal below T* ~ 20 K indicating that the superconducting fluctuations above the transition temperature are strongly enhanced from the standard Gaussian theory. The transport and thermoelectric coefficients also exhibit distinct anomalies at ~T* , signaling a possible pseudogap formation. The multiband nature with the electron-hole compensation in FeSe may highlight a fundamentally new aspect of the BCS-BEC crossover physics In collaboration with S. Kasahara, T. Yamashita, Y. Matsuda (Kyoto), Y. Mizukami (Tokyo), T. Wolf, F. Hardy, C. Meingast, H. v. Löhneysen (KIT), M. D. Watson, A. I. Coldea (Oxford), T. Terashima (NIMS), W. Knafo (Toulouse), T. Hanaguri (Riken).

  4. Edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode covalently modified with 2-anthraquinonyl groups: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Kozub, Barbara R; Henstridge, Martin C; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Compton, Richard G

    2011-10-24

    An edge plane pyrolitic graphite (EPPG) electrode was modified by electrochemical reduction of anthraquinone-2-diazonium tetrafluoroborate (AQ2-N(2)(+)BF(4)(-)), giving an EPPG-AQ2-modified electrode of a surface coverage below a monolayer. Cyclic voltammograms simulated using Marcus-Hush theory for 2e(-) process assuming a uniform surface gave unrealistically low values of reorganisation energies, λ, for both electron transfer steps. Subsequently, two models of surface inhomogeneity based on Marcus-Hush theory were investigated: a distribution of formal potentials, E', and a distribution of electron tunneling distances, r(0). The simulation of cyclic voltammograms involving the distribution of formal potentials showed a better fit than the simulation with the distribution of tunneling distances. Importantly the reorganization energies used for the simulation of E' distribution were similar to the literature values for adsorbed species.

  5. Constraining Modified Theories of Gravity with Gravitational-Wave Stochastic Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Maselli, Andrea; Marassi, Stefania; Ferrari, Valeria; Kokkotas, Kostas; Schneider, Raffaella

    2016-08-26

    The direct discovery of gravitational waves has finally opened a new observational window on our Universe, suggesting that the population of coalescing binary black holes is larger than previously expected. These sources produce an unresolved background of gravitational waves, potentially observable by ground-based interferometers. In this Letter we investigate how modified theories of gravity, modeled using the parametrized post-Einsteinian formalism, affect the expected signal, and analyze the detectability of the resulting stochastic background by current and future ground-based interferometers. We find the constraints that Advanced LIGO would be able to set on modified theories, showing that they may significantly improve the current bounds obtained from astrophysical observations of binary pulsars.

  6. Constraints on modified Newtonian dynamics theories from radio tracking data of the Cassini spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hees, A.; Folkner, W. M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Park, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    The modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is an attempt to modify the gravitation theory to solve the dark matter problem. This phenomenology is very successful at the galactic level. The main effect produced by MOND in the Solar System is called the external field effect parametrized by the parameter Q2. We have used nine years of Cassini range and Doppler measurements to constrain Q2. Our estimate of this parameter based on Cassini data is given by Q2=(3±3)×10-27 s-2, which shows no deviation from General Relativity and excludes a large part of the relativistic MOND theories. This limit can also be interpreted as a limit on an external tidal potential acting on the Solar System coming from the internal mass of our Galaxy (including dark matter) or from a new hypothetical body.

  7. A density functional theory study of arsenic immobilization by the Al(III)-modified zeolite clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Awuah, Joel B; Dzade, Nelson Y; Tia, Richard; Adei, Evans; Kwakye-Awuah, Bright; Richard A Catlow, C; de Leeuw, Nora H

    2016-04-28

    We present density functional theory calculations of the adsorption of arsenic acid (AsO(OH)3) and arsenous acid (As(OH)3) on the Al(III)-modified natural zeolite clinoptilolite under anhydrous and hydrated conditions. From our calculated adsorption energies, we show that adsorption of both arsenic species is favorable (associative and exothermic) under anhydrous conditions. When the zeolite is hydrated, adsorption is less favourable, with the water molecules causing dissociation of the arsenic complexes, although exothermic adsorption is still observed for some sites. The strength of interaction of the arsenic complexes is shown to depend sensitively on the Si/Al ratio in the Al(III)-modified clinoptilolite, which decreases as the Si/Al ratio increases. The calculated large adsorption energies indicate the potential of Al(iii)-modified clinoptilolite for arsenic immobilization.

  8. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

    PubMed

    Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect.

  9. Modified free volume theory of self-diffusion and molecular theory of shear viscosity of liquid carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Nasrabad, Afshin Eskandari; Laghaei, Rozita; Eu, Byung Chan

    2005-04-28

    In previous work on the density fluctuation theory of transport coefficients of liquids, it was necessary to use empirical self-diffusion coefficients to calculate the transport coefficients (e.g., shear viscosity of carbon dioxide). In this work, the necessity of empirical input of the self-diffusion coefficients in the calculation of shear viscosity is removed, and the theory is thus made a self-contained molecular theory of transport coefficients of liquids, albeit it contains an empirical parameter in the subcritical regime. The required self-diffusion coefficients of liquid carbon dioxide are calculated by using the modified free volume theory for which the generic van der Waals equation of state and Monte Carlo simulations are combined to accurately compute the mean free volume by means of statistical mechanics. They have been computed as a function of density along four different isotherms and isobars. A Lennard-Jones site-site interaction potential was used to model the molecular carbon dioxide interaction. The density and temperature dependence of the theoretical self-diffusion coefficients are shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental data when the minimum critical free volume is identified with the molecular volume. The self-diffusion coefficients thus computed are then used to compute the density and temperature dependence of the shear viscosity of liquid carbon dioxide by employing the density fluctuation theory formula for shear viscosity as reported in an earlier paper (J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 112, 7118). The theoretical shear viscosity is shown to be robust and yields excellent density and temperature dependence for carbon dioxide. The pair correlation function appearing in the theory has been computed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. A revision of the quality of life-breast cancer survivors (QOL-BCS) instrument.

    PubMed

    Azuero, Andres; Su, Xiaogang; McNees, Patrick; Meneses, Karen

    2013-08-01

    The importance of quality of life (QOL) measurement among breast cancer survivors (BCS) is well-recognized by researchers and clinicians. With data from 427 rural BCS, the authors used a combination of clinical expertise and statistical analysis to revise a 48-item measure of QOL specific to BCS. The revised 15-item measure showed adequate psychometric properties and provides the basis for a brief yet comprehensive multidimensional measure of QOL applicable to most BCS. Future work includes fine-tuning the measurement model and examining its generalizability among non-rural BCS.

  11. Description of C isotopes within RMF+BCS approach

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, G.; Singh, D.; Kaushik, M.

    2013-06-03

    In the present investigations we have employed relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF + BCS) approach to carry out a systematic study for the ground state properties of even-even C Isotopes. One of the prime reason of this study has been to look into the role of low lying states in neutron rich reason near neutron drip line. It is found that irrespective of whether any resonant state exists or not, the occupancy of weakly bound neutron single particle states having low orbital angular momentum, (l = 0 or 1), with a well spread wave function due to the absence or very small strength of centrifugal barrier, helps to cause the occurrence of nuclei with widely extended neutron density. Such nuclei are found to have characteristically very small two-neutron separation energy and large neutron rms radius akin to that observed in weakly bound systems.

  12. Isospin Dependent Pairing Interactions and BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Sagawa, H.; Margueron, J.; Hagino, K.

    2008-11-11

    We propose new types of density dependent contact pairing interaction which reproduce the pairing gaps in symmetric and neutron matters obtained by a microscopic treatment based on the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. The BCS-BEC crossover of neutrons pairs in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matters is studied by using these contact interactions. It is shown that the bare and screened pairing interactions lead to different features of the BCS-BEC crossover in symmetric nuclear matter. We perform Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations for semi-magic Calcium, Nickel, Tin and Lead isotopes and N = 20, 28, 50 and 82 isotones using these density-dependent pairing interactions. Our calculations well account for the experimental data for the neutron number dependence of binding energy, two neutrons separation energy, and odd-even mass staggering of these isotopes. Especially the interaction IS+IV Bare without the medium polarization effect gives satisfactory results for all the isotopes.

  13. Projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation with blocking effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, H.; Krmpotić, F.

    1982-05-01

    The blocking effect is introduced through a canonical transformation in the projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is suggested that the blocking effect may play an important role in the description of the low-lying states in odd-mass nuclei. Present address: Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Member of Carrera de Investigador Científico, CONICET, Argentina. Sponsored by Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Brasil.

  14. Nonlinear light-Higgs coupling in superconductors beyond BCS: Effects of the retarded phonon-mediated interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Naoto; Murakami, Yuta; Aoki, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    We study the contribution of the Higgs amplitude mode on the nonlinear optical response of superconductors beyond the BCS approximation by taking into account the retardation effect in the phonon-mediated attractive interaction. To evaluate the vertex correction in nonlinear optical susceptibilities that contains the effect of collective modes, we propose an efficient scheme which we call the "dotted DMFT" based on the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory (nonequilibrium DMFT), to get around the difficulty of solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation and analytical continuation. The vertex correction is represented by the derivative of the self-energy with respect to the external driving field, which is self-consistently determined by the differentiated ("dotted") DMFT equations. We apply the method to the Holstein model, a prototypical electron-phonon-coupled system, to calculate the susceptibility for the third-harmonic generation including the vertex correction. The results show that, in sharp contrast to the BCS theory, the Higgs mode can contribute to the third-harmonic generation for general polarization of the laser field with an order of magnitude comparable to the contribution from the pair breaking or charge density fluctuations. The physical origin is traced back to the nonlinear resonant light-Higgs coupling, which has been absent in the BCS approximation.

  15. Effect of the particle-hole channel on BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover in atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qijin

    2016-05-01

    BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.

  16. Effect of the particle-hole channel on BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover in atomic Fermi gases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qijin

    2016-05-17

    BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor'kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.

  17. Late-time cosmic acceleration: ABCD of dark energy and modified theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sami, M.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2016-10-01

    We briefly review the problems and prospects of the standard lore of dark energy. We have shown that scalar fields, in principle, cannot address the cosmological constant problem. Indeed, a fundamental scalar field is faced with a similar problem dubbed naturalness. In order to keep the discussion pedagogical, aimed at a wider audience, we have avoided technical complications in several places and resorted to heuristic arguments based on physical perceptions. We presented underlying ideas of modified theories based upon chameleon mechanism and Vainshtein screening. We have given a lucid illustration of recently investigated ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity. Again, we have sacrificed rigor and confined to the basic ideas that led to the formulation of the theory. The review ends with a brief discussion on the difficulties of the theory applied to cosmology.

  18. LRS Bianchi type-II string cosmological models in a modified theory of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakavalli, T.; Ananda Rao, G.; Reddy, D. R. K.

    2017-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of spatially homogeneous anisotropic LRS Bianchi type-II cosmological models with string source in a modified theory of gravitation formulated by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011) which is universally known as f( R, T) gravity. Here R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the energy momentum tensor. By solving the field equation we have presented massive string and Takabyasi or p-string models in this theory. However it is interesting to note that geometric string in this space-time does not exist in this theory. Physical and geometrical properties of the strings obtained are also discussed.

  19. BCS instability and finite temperature corrections to tachyon mass in intersecting D1-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul; Sarkar, Swarnendu; Sathiapalan, B.

    2014-09-01

    A holographic description of BCS superconductivity is given in [1]. This model was constructed by insertion of a pair of D8-branes on a D4-background. The spectrum of intersecting D8-branes has tachyonic modes indicating an instability which is identified with the BCS instability in superconductors. Our aim is to study the stability of the intersecting branes under finite temperature effects. Many of the technical aspects of this problem are captured by a simpler problem of two intersecting D1-branes on flat background. In the simplified set-up we compute the one-loop finite temperature corrections to the tree-level tachyon mass-squared-squared using the frame-work of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (1 + 1)-dimensions. We show that the one-loop two-point functions are ultraviolet finite due to cancellation of ultraviolet divergence between the amplitudes containing bosons and fermions in the loop. The amplitudes are found to be infrared divergent due to the presence of massless fields in the loops. We compute the finite temperature mass-squared correction to all the massless fields and use these temperature dependent masses-squared to compute the tachyonic mass-squared correction. We show numerically the existence of a transition temperature at which the effective mass-squared of the tree-level tachyons becomes zero, thereby stabilizing the brane configuration.

  20. Quantum fluctuations in the superfluid state of the BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, Roberto B.; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Randeria, Mohit

    2008-02-15

    We determine the effects of quantum fluctuations about the T=0 mean-field solution of the BCS-BEC crossover in a dilute Fermi gas using the functional integral method. These fluctuations are described in terms of the zero-point motion of collective modes and the virtual scattering of gapped quasiparticles. We calculate their effects on various measurable properties, including chemical potential, ground-state energy, the gap, the speed of sound and the Landau critical velocity. At unitarity, we find excellent agreement with quantum Monte Carlo and experimental results. In the BCS limit, we show analytically that we obtain Fermi liquid interaction corrections to thermodynamics including the Hartree shift. In the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) limit, we show that the theory leads to an approximate description of the reduction of the scattering length for bosonic molecules and also obtain quantum depletion of the Lee-Yang form. At the end of the paper, we describe a method to include feedback of quantum fluctuations into the gap equation, and discuss the problems of self-consistent calculations in satisfying Goldstone's theorem and obtaining ultraviolet finite results at unitarity.

  1. Quantum and thermal fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover with unequal mass fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, Roberto; Zhou, Qi; Randeria, Mohit

    2008-03-01

    A lot of progress has been done in the study of the BCS-BEC crossover for equal-mass fermions in recent years by both theory and experimental groups. An extension of this problem which is starting to receive more attention is the study of mixtures of fermions with different masses, such as a mixture of ^40K and ^6Li. Using our functional integral method, which we have previously used to study the equal-mass case and which includes the effect of collective excitations (see R. B. Diener et al, cond-mat/0709.2653), we have studied the properties of a fermionic gas with unequal masses across the BCS-BEC crossover. We will present results for different thermodynamical quantities as a function of mass ratio and interaction strength: e.g. the beta parameter at unitarity, the ground state energy as a function of 1/(kFas), as well as the dimer scattering in the BEC limit as a function of mass ratio which agrees to within 20% with the exact four-body calculation of D. Petrov et al., J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S645 (2005).

  2. Agitation Rate and Time for Complete Dissolution in BCS Biowaivers Based on Investigation of a BCS Biowaiver for Dexketoprofen Tablets.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Gordon, John; Gwaza, Luther; Mangas-Sanjuan, V; Álvarez, Covadonga; Torrado, Juan J

    2015-09-08

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the validity of the existing requirements for BCS biowaivers of immediate release products containing a class I drug in relation to the agitation rate (50 or 75 rpm in the paddle apparatus) and the time limit for complete dissolution (30 min) in the current biowaivers in vitro dissolution tests. Further, the possibility of extensions will be examined since it has been proposed that the time limit for complete dissolution should be revised to 60 min, and also, if cone formation occurs with apparatus 2 at 50 rpm, then a higher agitation rate is acceptable to eliminate it. The development of four generic dexketoprofen immediate release tablets is described. Dexketoprofen is the eutomer of ketoprofen. According to the BCS, dexketoprofen is a class I drug. Three out of the four products failed to show bioequivalence for Cmax in the initial bioequivalence study conducted with the product despite similar but nonrapid dissolution profiles at 50 rpm in the paddle apparatus, or similar and very rapid dissolution profiles at 75 rpm. In conclusion, these data indicate that BCS biowaivers for class I drugs should be granted only when dissolution with the paddle apparatus is complete in 30 min at 50 rpm. The time limit for complete dissolution should not be extended to 60 min. Furthermore, the agitation rate should not be increased to 75 rpm, even in the case of a coning effect.

  3. Modified Uncertainty Theory and Parents’ Perspectives about Equivocal Diagnostic Results for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Lynam, Patrice A.

    2010-01-01

    A grounded, dimensional analysis described the experiences of five couples whose infants had equivocal diagnostic test results following positive genetic newborn screens for cystic fibrosis. We analyzed interview data collected at two times during each infant’s first year. Uncertainty emerged as the central thematic dimension. Results showed that parents passed through a series of stages similar to the process described by Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory (UIT), thus extending the application of the theory to circumstances in which the very presence of an illness is uncertain. Findings informed a modified version of the UIT comprised of five domains: stimuli frame, degree of uncertainty, opportunity-danger continuum, affective responses, and coping. This model incorporated Morse’s conception of suffering. Three contextual domains influenced parents’ experiences at various junctures along the uncertainty trajectory: individual characteristics, structure providers, and time. We discussed implications of the model for future research and clinical practice relative to genetic testing. PMID:20065305

  4. A mixed element based on Lagrange multiplier method for modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young-Rok; Lee, Byung-Chai

    2017-01-01

    A 2D mixed element is proposed for the modified couple stress theory. The C1 continuity for the displacement field is required because of the second derivatives of displacement in the energy form of the theory. The C1 continuity is satisfied in a weak sense with the Lagrange multiplier method. A supplementary rotation is introduced as an independent variable and the kinematic relation between the physical rotation and the supplementary rotation is constrained with Lagrange multipliers. Convergence criteria and a stability condition are derived, and the number and the positions of nodes for each independent variable are determined. Internal degrees of freedom are condensed out, so the element has only 21 degrees of freedom. The proposed element passes the C^{0-1} patch test. Numerical results show that the principle of limitation is applied to the element and the element is robust to mesh distortion. Furthermore, the size effects are captured well with the element.

  5. A mixed element based on Lagrange multiplier method for modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young-Rok; Lee, Byung-Chai

    2016-11-01

    A 2D mixed element is proposed for the modified couple stress theory. The C1 continuity for the displacement field is required because of the second derivatives of displacement in the energy form of the theory. The C1 continuity is satisfied in a weak sense with the Lagrange multiplier method. A supplementary rotation is introduced as an independent variable and the kinematic relation between the physical rotation and the supplementary rotation is constrained with Lagrange multipliers. Convergence criteria and a stability condition are derived, and the number and the positions of nodes for each independent variable are determined. Internal degrees of freedom are condensed out, so the element has only 21 degrees of freedom. The proposed element passes the C^{0-1} patch test. Numerical results show that the principle of limitation is applied to the element and the element is robust to mesh distortion. Furthermore, the size effects are captured well with the element.

  6. Evolution of the vortex state in the BCS-BEC crossover of a quasi two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuebing; Zhou, Kezhao; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-11-01

    We use the path-integral formalism to investigate the vortex properties of a quasi-two dimensional (2D) Fermi superfluid system trapped in an optical lattice potential. Within the framework of mean-field theory, the cooper pair density, the atom number density, and the vortex core size are calculated from weakly interacting BCS regime to strongly coupled while weakly interacting BEC regime. Numerical results show that the atoms gradually penetrate into the vortex core as the system evolves from BEC to BCS regime. Meanwhile, the presence of the optical lattice allows us to analyze the vortex properties in the crossover from three-dimensional (3D) to 2D case. Furthermore, using a simple re-normalization procedure, we find that the two-body bound state exists only when the interaction is stronger than a critical one denoted by G c which is obtained as a function of the lattice potential’s parameter. Finally, we investigate the vortex core size and find that it grows with increasing interaction strength. In particular, by analyzing the behavior of the vortex core size in both BCS and BEC regimes, we find that the vortex core size behaves quite differently for positive and negative chemical potentials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51331006, 51590883, and 11204321) and the Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJZD-EW-M05-3).

  7. Cosmological BCS mechanism and the big bang singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Stephon; Biswas, Tirthabir

    2009-07-15

    We provide a novel mechanism that resolves the big bang singularity present in Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space-times without the need for ghost fields. Building on the fact that a four-fermion interaction arises in general relativity when fermions are covariantly coupled, we show that at early times the decrease in scale factor enhances the correlation between pairs of fermions. This enhancement leads to a BCS-like condensation of the fermions and opens a gap dynamically driving the Hubble parameter H to zero and results in a nonsingular bounce, at least in some special cases.

  8. BCS-BEC crossover of spin imbalanced Fermi gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chang-Yan; He, Yan

    2015-12-01

    We study the BCS-Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) crossover of a three-dimensional spin polarized Fermi gas with Rashba spin-orbital coupling (SOC). At finite temperature, the effects of non-condensed pairs due to the thermal excitation are considered based on the G0 G pair fluctuation theory. These fluctuations generate a pseudogap even persistent above Tc. Within this framework, the Sarma state or the spin polarized superfluid state and polarized pseudogap state are explored in detail. The resulting Tc curves show that the enhancement of pairing due to the SOC roughly cancels out the suppression of pairing due to the population imbalance. Thus we observed that in a large portion of the parameter space, the polarized superfluid state are stabilized by the SOC.

  9. Modified Spin-Wave Theory on Low-Dimensional Heisenberg Ferrimagnets: A New Robust Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriki, Yusaku; Yamamoto, Shoji

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new scheme for modifying conventional spin waves so as to precisely describe low-dimensional Heisenberg ferrimagnets at finite temperatures. What is called the modified spin-wave theory was initiated by Takahashi, who intended to calculate the low-temperature thermodynamics of low-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnets, where Holstein-Primakoff bosons are constrained to keep the total uniform magnetization zero in a straightforward manner. If the concept of an ideal Bose gas with a fixed density is applied to antiferromagnets and ferrimagnets, the formulation is no longer trivial, having rich variety in the way how the conventional spin waves, especially those in ferrimagnets, are constrained and brought into interaction. Which magnetization should be kept zero, uniform, staggered, or both? One or more chemical potentials can be introduced so as to satisfy the relevant constraint condition either in diagonalizing the Hamiltonian or in minimizing the free energy, making the Bogoliubov transformation dependent on temperature or leaving it free from temperature dependence. We can bring the thus-modified spin waves into interaction on the basis of the Hartree-Fock approximation or through the use of Wick's theorem in an attempt to refine their descriptions. Comparing various modification schemes both numerically and analytically in one and two dimensions, we eventually find an excellent bosonic language capable of describing heterogeneous quantum magnets on a variety of lattices over the whole temperature range — Wick's-theorem-based interacting spin waves modified so as to keep every sublattice magnetization zero via the temperature-dependent Bogoliubov transformation.

  10. Particle-hole duality, integrability, and Russian doll BCS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, L. V.; Pogosov, W. V.

    2015-08-01

    We address a generalized Richardson model (Russian doll BCS model), which is characterized by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry. This model is known to be exactly solvable and integrable. We point out that the Russian doll BCS model, on the level of Hamiltonian, is also particle-hole symmetric. This implies that the same state can be expressed both in the particle and hole representations with two different sets of Bethe roots. We then derive exact relations between Bethe roots in the two representations, which can hardly be obtained staying on the level of Bethe equations. In a quasi-classical limit, similar identities for usual Richardson model, known from literature, are recovered from our results. We also show that these relations for Richardson roots take a remarkably simple form at half-filling and for a symmetric with respect to the middle of the interaction band distribution of one-body energy levels, since, in this special case, the rapidities in the particle and hole representations up to the translation satisfy the same system of equations.

  11. Overview of High-Temperature Superconductivity: Theory, Surfaces, Interfaces and Bulk Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    superconductivity. The RVB theory has been amplified or modified in several ways [5,6,7], the details of which we won’t go into here. Rice and Wang [8] have...similar to those of RVB theory, but different from BCS theory. Rice and Wang , however, favor a phonon interaction which mediates the attraction between...36, 857. 7. Kotliar, G. Phys. Rev. B,1988, IZ, 3664. 8. Rice, M. J.; Wang , Y. R. Phys. Rev.-B, 1988, 37, 5893. 9. Coffey, L.; Cox, D. L. Phys. Rev

  12. The biowaiver extension for BCS class III drugs: the effect of dissolution rate on the bioequivalence of BCS class III immediate-release drugs predicted by computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) guidance issued by the FDA allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I drugs. However, a number of drugs within BCS class III have been proposed to be eligible for biowaivers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs on their Essential Medicine List (EML) from 30 to 15 min for extended biowaivers; however, the impact of the shorter dissolution time on AUC(0-inf) and C(max) is unknown. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the ability of gastrointestinal simulation software to predict the oral absorption of the BCS class I drugs propranolol and metoprolol and the BCS class III drugs cimetidine, atenolol, and amoxicillin, and to perform in silico bioequivalence studies to assess the feasibility of extending biowaivers to BCS class III drugs. The drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted using physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of test drugs provided by GastroPlus (version 6.0). Virtual trials with a 200 mL dose volume at different drug release rates (T(85%) = 15 to 180 min) were performed to predict the oral absorption (C(max) and AUC(0-inf)) of the above drugs. Both BCS class I drugs satisfied bioequivalence with regard to the release rates up to 120 min. The results with BCS class III drugs demonstrated bioequivalence using the prolonged release rate, T(85%) = 45 or 60 min, indicating that the dissolution standard for bioequivalence is dependent on the intestinal membrane permeability and permeability profile throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The results of GastroPlus simulations indicate that the dissolution rate of BCS class III drugs could be prolonged to the point where dissolution, rather than permeability, would control the overall absorption. For BCS class III drugs with intestinal absorption patterns

  13. A Rapid Distortion Theory modified turbulence spectra for semi-analytical airfoil noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Leandro D.; Christophe, Julien; Schram, Christophe; Desmet, Wim

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes an implementation of the Rapid Distortion Theory, for the prediction of the noise resulting from the interaction of an airfoil with incoming turbulence. In the framework of the semi-analytical modeling strategy known as Amiet's theory, this interaction mechanism is treated in a linearized form where the airfoil thickness, camber and angle of attack are assumed negligible, leading to a frozen turbulence description of the incident gust. Important semi-analytical developments have been proposed in the literature to improve the modeling of the gust-airfoil interaction accounting for parallel and skewed gusts, non-rectangular linearized airfoil shapes or blade tip effects. This work is rather focused on the investigation of the distortion of turbulence that occurs in the vicinity of the airfoil leading edge, compared with Rapid Distortion Theory, where main results are briefly reminded in this paper. The main contribution of this work is a detailed experimental investigation of the evolution of turbulent quantities relevant to noise production, performed in the close vicinity of the airfoil leading edge subjected to grid turbulence, by means of stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. The results indicate that the distortion effects are concentrated in a narrow region close to the stagnation point of the leading edge, with dimension of the order of its radius of curvature. Additionally, it is shown that the turbulence intensity grows significantly as the flow approaches the airfoil leading-edge. Based on those results, a modified turbulence spectrum is proposed to describe the incoming turbulence in Amiet's theory. The sound predictions show a significantly better match with acoustic measurements than using the original turbulence model.

  14. Thermal effect on dynamics of thin and thick composite laminated microbeams by modified couple stress theory for different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Zajkani, Asghar; Akbarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    In this article, thermal effect on free vibration behavior of composite laminated microbeams based on the modified couple stress theory is presented. The proposed anisotropic model is developed by using a variational formulation. The governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained based on a modified couple stress theory and using the principle of minimum potential energy and considering different beam theories, i.e., Euler-Bernoulli, Timoshenko and Reddy beam theories. Unlike the classical beam theories, this model contains a material length scale parameter and can capture the size effect. Free vibration of a simply supported beam is solved by utilizing Fourier series. In addition, the fundamental frequency is achieved by using the generalized differential quadrature method for four types of cross-ply laminations with clamped-clamped, clamped-hinged and hinged-hinged boundary conditions for different beam theories. For investigating different parameters including temperature changes, material length scale parameter, beam thickness, some numerical results on different cross-ply laminated beams are presented. The fundamental frequency of different thin and thick beam theories is investigated by increasing slenderness ratio and thermal loads. The results prove that the modified couple stress theory increases the natural frequency under the thermal effects for free vibration of composite laminated microbeams.

  15. More is Different:. 50 Years of Nuclear BCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broglia, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    At the basis of BCS theory, and associated symmetry breaking phenomena in gauge space, one finds Cooper pair binding. A major question in the nuclear case concerning this issue, regards the relative role played by the bare nucleon-nucleon force and by the interaction induced by the exchange of vibrations between members of Cooper pairs. The exotic nucleus 113Li8 in which two neutrons forming an extended halo, bind weakly to the 9Li core, provides an excellent testing ground to try to shed light on this issue. Theory finds that, in this case, the exchange of collective vibrations associated with the core and with the halo fields, provides an important fraction of the glue binding the pair. Inverse kinematics and active detector based experiments, combined with a quantitative description (based on absolute differential cross sections) of single Cooper pair tunneling, the specific probe of pairing in nuclei, which forces the virtual phonon into a real final state, have tested these predictions with positive results. The extension of structure and reaction studies to open shell (superfluid) nuclei (Sn-isotopes), displaying a strong alignment of quasispin in gauge space, and associated domain wall, as testified by pairing rotational bands excited in terms of single Cooper pair tunneling, provides an overall description of the data within experimental errors. This is also true in connection with pairing vibrations as observed in closed shell nuclei. Many of the concepts which are at the basis of the development associated with a quantitative treatment of the variety of phenomena associated with the spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry in nuclei have been instrumental in connection with novel studies of soft matter, namely of protein evolution and protein folding. Although the route to these subjects and associated development does not necessarily imply the nuclear physics connection, such a connection has proven qualitatively and quantitatively inspiring. In particular

  16. Applicability of modified effective-range theory to positron-atom and positron-molecule scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Karwasz, Grzegorz

    2006-06-15

    We analyze low-energy scattering of positrons on Ar atoms and N{sub 2} molecules using the modified effective-range theory (MERT) developed by O'Malley, et al. [J. Math. Phys. 2, 491 (1961)]. We use the formulation of MERT based on exact solutions of the Schroedinger equation with polarization potential rather than low-energy expansions of phase shifts into momentum series. We show that MERT describes the experimental data well, provided that effective-range expansion is performed both for s- and p-wave scattering, which dominate in the considered regime of positron energies (0.4-2 eV). We estimate the values of the s-wave scattering length and the effective range for e{sup +}-Ar and e{sup +}-N{sub 2} collisions.

  17. Theory for self-consistent interplay between light and nanomaterials strongly modified by metallic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Akira; Osono, Katsuya; Nobuhiro, Atsushi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Ishihara, Hajime

    2013-03-28

    The design of the interplay between light and nanomaterials by the effect of localized-surface-plasmon resonance in metallic nanostructures is a fascinating subject, and recently, a lot of research has been carried out from both fundamental and applicational points of view. In this paper, we demonstrate the theories for describing the self-consistent interplay between the electronic states in the nanomaterials, the localized surface plasmons in the metallic nanostructures, and the light field, which provides insight into how the photoexcitation processes are modified through microscopic energy exchanges. As examples of such demonstrations, we show two cases, i.e., the interaction between a single metallic nanosphere and a quantum dot, and that between metallic nanostructures forming a nanogap and dimer molecules, where a peculiar dependence of photoexcitation processes on the distance between the metallic nanostructure and the absorbers arises depending on the respective characteristics of their interplay.

  18. An empirical analysis of online gamers' perceptions of game items: modified theory of consumption values approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong-Won; Lee, Kun Chang

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this article are (1) to propose a modified theory of consumption values (MTCV) for investigation of online gamer perceptions of the value of purchasable game items and (2) to apply the developed MTCV to multiple game genres and player age groups. To address these aims, 327 valid questionnaires were obtained and analyzed. The original theory of consumption values (TCV) was modified to apply to the specific characteristics of online games. The original TCV specifies five types of consumption values: functional value, social value, emotional value, conditional value, and epistemic value. After revising the TCV to apply to the examination of online games, we proposed that the MTCV be composed of character competency value, enjoyment value, visual authority value, and monetary value. The validity of the MTCV was proven by statistically analyzing the responses provided by the 327 valid questionnaires. To examine the second aim, experiments were conducted to examine the MTCV in three online game genres-massive multiplayer online role-playing games, first-person shooters games, and casual games. The second aim was also studied via questionnaires that examined the ages of online gamers. It was determined that massive multiplayer online role-playing games players regard visual authority value and monetary value as more important than do casual gamers. It was also determined that younger gamers tend to be more interested in visual authority, whereas older gamers tend to be more interested in character competency. This research provides a foundation for future studies to extend the MTCV to consider other user factors, such as cultural effects.

  19. Zero-loss image formation and modified contrast transfer theory in EFTEM.

    PubMed

    Angert, I; Majorovits, E; Schröder, R R

    2000-04-01

    For a weak phase/weak amplitude object the information transfer in the imaging process of TEM is described by the common formalism of the contrast transfer function (CTF). So far the effects of inelastic scattering were not accounted for in this formalism. In conventional imaging they were simply neglected. In energy filtering TEM (EFTEM), where removal of inelastic electrons leads to higher specimen contrast, they were modelled by a global increase of the elastic amplitude contrast. Thus, the description of inelastic and elastic scattering was mixed. Here a new ansatz is proposed which treats elastic and inelastic contrast transfer separately by adding an inelastic contribution to the scattering potentials. In EFTEM this has the effect of adding a filter contrast which depends on the characteristics of the inelastic scattering. For samples with dominant plasmon loss the additional filter contrast is restricted to low resolution. Because of its strong dependence on the nature of the inelastic scattering process, the filter contrast cannot in general be unified with the conventional elastic amplitude contrast. The modified CTF theory for EFTEM was tested experimentally on a variety of samples. Images of amorphous layers of copper, aluminium, and carbon films, as well as zero-loss images of proteins embedded in amorphous ice were evaluated. The values of the parameters of the additional filter contrast were determined for carbon film and proteins embedded in vitrified ice. Comparison of different CTF models used to reconstruct 3D volumes from zero-loss images confirmed that best agreement with the atomic model is attained with the new, modified CTF theory.

  20. Modeling gravity-driven fingering in rough-walled fractures using modified percolation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    Pore scale invasion percolation theory is modified for imbibition of.wetting fluids into fractures. The effects of gravity, local aperture field geometry, and local in-plane air/water interfacial curvatureare included in the calculation of aperture filling potential which controls wetted structure growth within the fracture. The inclusion of gravity yields fingers oriented in the direction of the gravitational gradient. These fingers widen and tend to meander and branch more as the gravitational gradient decreases. In-plane interfacial curvature also greatly affects the wetted structure in both horizontal and nonhorizontal fractures causing the formation of macroscopic wetting fronts. The modified percolation model is used to simulate imbibition into an analogue rough-walled fracture where both fingering and horizontal imbibition experiments were previously conducted. Comparison of numerical and experimental results showed reasonably good agreement. This process oriented physical and numerical modeling is-a necessary step toward including gravity-driven fingering in models of flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock.

  1. Models for low-energy Lorentz violation in the photon sector: Addendum to 'Consistency of isotropic modified Maxwell theory'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhamer, F. R.; Schreck, M.

    2012-03-01

    In a previous article, Klinkhamer and Schreck (2011) [1], we established the consistency of isotropic modified Maxwell theory for a finite range of the Lorentz-violating parameter κ, which includes both positive and negative values of κ. As an aside, we mentioned the existence of a physical model which, for low-energy photons, gives rise to isotropic modified Maxwell theory with a positive parameter κ (corresponding to a "slow" photon). Here, we present a related model which gives rise to isotropic modified Maxwell theory with a negative parameter κ (corresponding to a "fast" photon). Both models have an identical particle content, photon and Dirac particles, but differ in the type of spacetime manifold considered.

  2. Testing the flexibility of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory: evidence from an unspaced orthography (Thai).

    PubMed

    Winskel, Heather; Perea, Manuel; Peart, Emma

    2014-07-01

    In the current study, we tested the generality of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory (Tydgat & Grainger, 2009) with English native speakers (Experiment 1) and Thai native speakers (Experiment 2). Thai has a distinctive alphabetic orthography with visually complex letters (ฝ ฟ or ผ พ) and nonlinear characteristics and lacks interword spaces. We used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure to measure identification accuracy for all positions in a string of five characters, which consisted of Roman script letters, Thai letters, or symbols. For the English speakers, we found a similar pattern of results as in previous studies (i.e., a dissociation between letters and symbols). In contrast, for the Thai participants, we found that the pattern for Thai letters, Roman letters and symbols displayed a remarkably similar linear trend. Thus, while we observed qualified support for the MRF theory, in that we found an advantage for initial position, this effect also applied to symbols (i.e., our data revealed a language-specific effect). We propose that this pattern for letters and symbols in Thai has developed as a specialized adaptive mechanism for reading in this visually complex and crowded nonlinear script without interword spaces.

  3. Prediction of solubility and permeability class membership: provisional BCS classification of the world's top oral drugs.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Miller, Jonathan M; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-12-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) categorizes drugs into one of four biopharmaceutical classes according to their water solubility and membrane permeability characteristics and broadly allows the prediction of the rate-limiting step in the intestinal absorption process following oral administration. Since its introduction in 1995, the BCS has generated remarkable impact on the global pharmaceutical sciences arena, in drug discovery, development, and regulation, and extensive validation/discussion/extension of the BCS is continuously published in the literature. The BCS has been effectively implanted by drug regulatory agencies around the world in setting bioavailability/bioequivalence standards for immediate-release (IR) oral drug product approval. In this review, we describe the BCS scientific framework and impact on regulatory practice of oral drug products and review the provisional BCS classification of the top drugs on the global market. The Biopharmaceutical Drug Disposition Classification System and its association with the BCS are discussed as well. One notable finding of the provisional BCS classification is that the clinical performance of the majority of approved IR oral drug products essential for human health can be assured with an in vitro dissolution test, rather than empirical in vivo human studies.

  4. Performance assessment of several equations of state and second virial coefficients in modified Enskog theory: Results for transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, M.; Alavianmehr, M. M.; Otoofat, M.; Mohsenipour, A. A.; Ghatee, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we identify a simple method for predicting transport properties of fluids over wide ranges of temperatures and pressure. In this respect, the capability of several equations of state (EOS) and second virial coefficient correlations to predict transport properties of fluids including carbon dioxide, methane and argon using modified Enskog theory (MET) is investigated. The transport properties in question are viscosity and thermal conductivity. The results indicate that the SRK EOS employed in the modified Enskog theory outperforms other equations of state. The average absolute deviation was found to be 12.2 and 18.5% for, respectively, the calculated thermal conductivity and viscosity using the MET.

  5. BCS Biowaivers: Similarities and Differences Among EMA, FDA, and WHO Requirements.

    PubMed

    Davit, Barbara M; Kanfer, Isadore; Tsang, Yu Chung; Cardot, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), based on aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability, has enjoyed wide use since 1995 as a mechanism for waiving in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. In 2000, the US-FDA was the first regulatory agency to publish guidance for industry describing how to meet criteria for requesting a waiver of in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for highly soluble, highly permeable (BCS Class I) drugs. Subsequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) published guidelines recommending how to obtain BCS biowaivers for BCS Class III drugs (high solubility, low permeability), in addition to Class I drugs. In 2015, the US-FDA became better harmonized with the EMA and WHO following publication of two guidances for industry outlining criteria for obtaining BCS biowaivers for both Class I and Class III drugs. A detailed review and comparison of the BCS Class I and Class III criteria currently recommended by the US-FDA, EMA, and WHO revealed good convergence of the three agencies with respect to BCS biowaiver criteria. The comparison also suggested that, by applying the most conservative of the three jurisdictional approaches, it should be possible for a sponsor to design the same set of BCS biowaiver studies in preparing a submission for worldwide filing to satisfy US, European, and emerging market regulators. It is hoped that the availability of BCS Class I and Class III biowaivers in multiple jurisdictions will encourage more sponsors to request waivers of in vivo bioavailability/bioequivalence testing using the BCS approach.

  6. Transition and Damping of Collective Modes in a Trapped Fermi Gas between BCS and Unitary Limits near the Phase Transition

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hang; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhou, Li; Ma, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the transition and damping of low-energy collective modes in a trapped unitary Fermi gas by solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation in a scaled form, which is combined with both the T-matrix fluctuation theory in normal phase and the mean-field theory in order phase. In order to connect the microscopic and kinetic descriptions of many-body Feshbach scattering, we adopt a phenomenological two-fluid physical approach, and derive the coupling constants in the order phase. By solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov steady-state equation in a variational form, we calculate two viscous relaxation rates with the collision probabilities of fermion’s scattering including fermions in the normal fluid and fermion pairs in the superfluid. Additionally, by considering the pairing and depairing of fermions, we get results of the frequency and damping of collective modes versus temperature and s-wave scattering length. Our theoretical results are in a remarkable agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the sharp transition between collisionless and hydrodynamic behaviour and strong damping between BCS and unitary limits near the phase transition. The sharp transition originates from the maximum of viscous relaxation rate caused by fermion-fermion pair collision at the phase transition point when the fermion depair, while the strong damping due to the fast varying of the frequency of collective modes from BCS limit to unitary limit. PMID:26522094

  7. The efficacy of a modified Theory of Reasoned Action to explain gambling behavior in college students.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, Robert G; Andrew, Damon P S; Mahony, Daniel F

    2011-09-01

    Recently, Thrasher et al. (College Student Affairs Journal 27(1): 57-75, 2007) explored the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA; Ajzen and Fishbein, Attitudes, personality, and behavior, 1980) in explaining gambling behavior of college students. However, their study found the TRA only predicted small amounts of variance in gambling intentions. Heeding their call to enhance the efficacy of the TRA through the addition of explanatory variables to the model, the present study incorporated gambling motivations and locus of control as moderating variables within the TRA to test the potential of a modified TRA in explaining gambling behavior of college students. A total of 345 students at a major metropolitan research university in the Midwest volunteered to participate in the study. A series of hierarchical linear regressions indicated intrinsic motivation to accomplish (p = .002) significantly moderated the relationship between gambling attitudes and gambling intentions. Further, internal locus of control (p < .001), chance locus of control (p < .001), and powerful others locus of control (p < .001) also significantly moderated the relationship between gambling attitudes and gambling intentions. The significant impact of the moderating variables on the relationship between gambling attitudes and intentions suggests intrinsic motivation and locus of control can alter the impact of the relationship between gambling attitudes and gambling intentions.

  8. Estimation of thermodynamic properties of Cu-La binary alloy with modified Miedema's theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-hong; Zhang, Shi-hong; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Ming; Song, Hong-wu; Liu, Jin-song

    2016-01-01

    According to modified Miedema's theory, mixing enthalpies (Δ H), excess entropies ( S E), excess Gibbs free energy ( G E), and component activities ( a) of Cu-La binary alloy were estimated using the basic thermodynamic principles and some simple physical parameters of Cu and La, such as electronegativity, atomic volume and electron density. Based on the Cu-La binary alloy phase diagram, the Gibbs free energy of the phase precipitation reactions of Cu6La and Cu5La was deduced. The results showed that the values of Δ H, S E, and G E of Cu-La binary alloy were all negative. Compared to the ideal solution, the activities of the components presented a large negative deviation from Raoult's law, which indicated that there was a strong interaction between Cu and La. The calculated data are well consistent with the experimental data. The Gibbs free energies of the phase precipitation reactions of Cu6La are lower than those for Cu5La, which means that Cu6La is thermodynamically more stable than Cu5La. Furthermore, the experimental results show that rareearth rich Cu6La phase particles in copper matrix are formed after La microalloying.

  9. Assessing the modified receptive field (MRF) theory: Evidence from Sinhalese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Ravini; Winskel, Heather

    2016-11-01

    The current study aimed to test the applicability of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory (Tydgat & Grainger, 2009) with English native speakers (Experiment 1) and Sinhalese native speakers (Experiment 2), who were skilled readers of both Sinhala and Roman scripts. A two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure to measure identification accuracy for all positions in a string of five characters, which consisted of Roman script letters, Sinhala letters or symbols was conducted. For Roman script, the English and Sinhalese speakers displayed analogous results as in previous studies for Roman letters and symbols (i.e., an initial letter advantage and W-shaped function for Roman letters and a Λ-shaped function for symbols). In contrast for Sinhala script, the Sinhalese speakers displayed a strong linear function with accuracy for letter positions 1, 2 and 3 similarly advantaged. We propose that this characteristic pattern for Sinhala script has developed as a specialised adaptive mechanism to optimise the processing of letters when reading in this distinctive script.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers immersed in liquids based on the modified couple stress theory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chang, Win-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The modified couple stress theory is adopted to study the sensitivity of a rectangular atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever immersed in acetone, water, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and 1-butanol. The theory contains a material length scale parameter and considers the size effect in the analysis. However, this parameter is difficult to obtain via experimental measurements. In this study, a conjugate gradient method for the parameter estimation of the frequency equation is presented. The optimal method provides a quantitative approach for estimating the material length scale parameter based on the modified couple stress theory. The results show that the material length scale parameter of the AFM cantilever immersed in acetone, CCl4, water, and 1-butanol is 0, 25, 116.3, and 471 nm, respectively. In addition, the vibration sensitivities of the AFM cantilever immersed in these liquids are investigated. The results are useful for the design of AFM cantilevers immersed in liquids.

  11. BCS-BEC crossover with unequal-mass fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, Roberto B.; Randeria, Mohit

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the crossover from BCS pairing to molecular Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in an atomic gas with two fermion species with masses m{sub {up_arrow}{ne}m{down_arrow}}tuned through a Feshbach resonance. We present results for the T=0 equation of state as a function of the scattering length including the effects of Gaussian fluctuations about the mean field ground state. We compute the ground state energy as a function of m{sub {up_arrow}/}m{sub {down_arrow}}at unitarity and find excellent agreement with the quantum Monte Carlo result for m{sub {up_arrow}/}m{sub {down_arrow}=}6.67 for a {sup 40}K-{sup 6}Li mixture. We show that the dimer scattering length in the BEC limit as a function of m{sub {up_arrow}/}m{sub {down_arrow}}compares well with the exact four-body results of Petrov et al. [J. Phys. B 38, S645 (2005)]. We also derive the condition for trapping frequencies to obtain an unpolarized gas in a harmonic trap.

  12. Generic van der Waals equation of state, modified free volume theory of diffusion, and viscosity of simple liquids.

    PubMed

    Laghaei, Rozita; Nasrabad, Afshin Eskandari; Eu, Byung Chan

    2005-03-31

    The shear viscosity formula derived by the density fluctuation theory in previous papers is computed for argon, krypton, and methane by using the self-diffusion coefficients derived in the modified free volume theory with the help of the generic van der Waals equation of state. In the temperature regime near or above the critical temperature, the density dependence of the shear viscosity can be accounted for by ab initio calculations with the self-diffusion coefficients provided by the modified free volume theory if the minimum (critical) free volume is set equal to the molecular volume and the volume overlap parameter (alpha) is taken about unity in the expression for the self-diffusion coefficient. In the subcritical temperature regime, if the density fluctuation range parameter is chosen appropriately at a temperature, then the resulting expression for the shear viscosity can well account for its density and temperature dependence over the ranges of density and temperature experimentally studied. In the sense that once the density fluctuation range is fixed at a temperature, the theory can account for the experimental data at other subcritical temperatures on the basis of the intermolecular force only; the theory is predictive even in the subcritical regime of temperature. Theory is successfully tested in comparison with experimental data for self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity for argon, krypton, and methane.

  13. Vector-tensor nature of Bekenstein's relativistic theory of modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Zlosnik, T. G.; Ferreira, P. G.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2006-08-15

    Bekenstein's theory of relativistic gravity is conventionally written as a bimetric theory. The two metrics are related by a disformal transformation defined by a dynamical vector field and a scalar field. In this paper we show that the theory can be rewritten as vector-tensor theory akin to Einstein-Aether theories with noncanonical kinetic terms. We discuss some of the implications of this equivalence.

  14. A Preliminary ZEUS Lightning Location Error Analysis Using a Modified Retrieval Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elander, Valjean; Koshak, William; Phanord, Dieudonne

    2004-01-01

    The ZEUS long-range VLF arrival time difference lightning detection network now covers both Europe and Africa, and there are plans for further expansion into the western hemisphere. In order to fully optimize and assess ZEUS lightning location retrieval errors and to determine the best placement of future receivers expected to be added to the network, a software package is being developed jointly between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV). The software package, called the ZEUS Error Analysis for Lightning (ZEAL), will be used to obtain global scale lightning location retrieval error maps using both a Monte Carlo approach and chi-squared curvature matrix theory. At the core of ZEAL will be an implementation of an Iterative Oblate (IO) lightning location retrieval method recently developed at MSFC. The IO method will be appropriately modified to account for variable wave propagation speed, and the new retrieval results will be compared with the current ZEUS retrieval algorithm to assess potential improvements. In this preliminary ZEAL work effort, we defined 5000 source locations evenly distributed across the Earth. We then used the existing (as well as potential future ZEUS sites) to simulate arrival time data between source and ZEUS site. A total of 100 sources were considered at each of the 5000 locations, and timing errors were selected from a normal distribution having a mean of 0 seconds and a standard deviation of 20 microseconds. This simulated "noisy" dataset was analyzed using the IO algorithm to estimate source locations. The exact locations were compared with the retrieved locations, and the results are summarized via several color-coded "error maps."

  15. The FDA should eliminate the ambiguities in the current BCS biowaiver guidance and make public the drugs for which BCS biowaivers have been granted.

    PubMed

    Benet, L Z; Larregieu, C A

    2010-09-01

    Although US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class 1 drugs are designated as high-permeability drugs, in fact, the criterion utilized is high extent of absorption. This ambiguity should be eliminated, and the FDA criterion should explicitly be stated as > or =90% absorption based on absolute bioavailability or mass balance. Maintaining confidentiality regarding the drugs for which the FDA has approved BCS waivers of in vivo bioequivalence studies is not good public policy and should be reversed.

  16. A PARAMETRIC STUDY OF BCS RF SURFACE IMPEDANCE WITH MAGNETIC FIELD USING THE XIAO CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Charles E.; Xiao, Binping

    2013-09-01

    A recent new analysis of field-dependent BCS rf surface impedance based on moving Cooper pairs has been presented.[1] Using this analysis coded in Mathematica TM, survey calculations have been completed which examine the sensitivities of this surface impedance to variation of the BCS material parameters and temperature. The results present a refined description of the "best theoretical" performance available to potential applications with corresponding materials.

  17. Solar flare hard and soft x ray relationship determined from SMM HXRBS and BCS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toot, G. David

    1989-01-01

    The exact nature of the solar flare process is still somewhat a mystery. A key element to understanding flares if the relationship between the hard x rays emitted by the most energetic portions of the flare and the soft x rays from other areas and times. This relationship was studied by comparing hard x ray light curved from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) with the soft x ray light curve and its derivation from the Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) which is part of the X-Ray Polychrometer (XRP), these instruments being on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (SMM). Data sample was taken from flares observed with the above instruments during 1980, the peak of the previous maximum of solar activity. Flares were chosen based on complete coverage of the event by several instruments. The HXRBS data covers the x ray spectrum from about 25 keV to about 440 keV in 15 spectral channels, while the BCS data used covers a region of the Spectrum around 3 angstroms including emission from the Ca XIX ion. Both sets of data were summed over their spectral ranges and plotted against time at a maximum time resolution of around 3 seconds. The most popular theory of flares holds that a beam of electrons produces the hard x rays by bremsstrahlung while the soft x rays are the thermal response to this energy deposition. The question is whether the rate of change of soft x ray emission might reflect the variability of the electron beam and hence the variability of the hard x rays. To address this, we took the time derivative of the soft x ray light curve and compared it to the hard flares, 12 of them showed very closed agreement between the soft x ray derivative and the hard x ray light curve. The other five did not show this behavior but were similar to each other in general soft x ray behavior. Efforts to determine basic differences between the two kinds of flares continue. In addition the behavior of soft x ray temperature of flares was examined.

  18. Spin noise and magnetic screening of impurities in a BCS superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dall, Matthias; da Silva, Luis G. G. V. Dias; de Sousa, Rogério

    The coupling of a localized impurity to a BCS superconductor (SC) leads to the formation of impurity Cooper-pairs via the proximity effect, generating two bound states within the SC energy gap, the so-called Yu-Rusinov-Shiba (YSR) states. They are similar to the Andreev Bound States that originate from Andreev reflection, e.g. when the impurity is hosted in a Josephson junction, and are known to produce sharp sub-gap resonances in charge noise [de Sousa et al., PRB 2009], providing a natural explanation for the observation of microresonators in superconducting devices [Simmonds et al., PRL 2004]. Here we present a theory for the spin noise generated by magnetic impurities in a SC, and discuss the impact of the Shiba states on models of flux noise in superconducting qubits. We use a combination of analytical methods and the numerical renormalization group technique to calculate the spin noise of an Anderson impurity in a SC, unveiling the competition between the proximity effect and Kondo correlations. Both mechanisms produce magnetic screening and a corresponding reduction in spin noise, giving rise to new insights on the kinds of impurities that are responsible for the observed 1 /fα flux noise in superconducting circuits. This research is supported by NSERC CRD/478366-2015.

  19. Inhomogeneous BCS-BEC crossover for trapped cold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaricci, A.; Privitera, A.; Capone, M.

    2014-05-01

    The BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover in a lattice is a powerful paradigm that describes how a superconductor deviates from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer physics as the attractive interaction increases. Optical lattices loaded with binary mixtures of cold atoms allow one to access this phenomenon experimentally in a clean and controlled way. We show that, however, the possibility to study this phenomenon in actual cold-atoms experiments is limited by the effect of the trapping potential. Real-space dynamical mean-field theory calculations show indeed that interactions and the confining potential conspire to pack the fermions in the center of the trap, which approaches a band insulator when the attraction becomes sizeable. Interestingly, the energy gap is spatially more homogeneous than the superfluid condensate order parameter. We show how this physics reflects in several observables, and we propose an alternative strategy to disentangle the effect of the harmonic potential and measure the intrinsic properties resulting from the interaction strength.

  20. Considerations for a Pediatric Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS): application to five drugs.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Shivani V; Rodriguez, William; Khan, Mansoor; Polli, James E

    2014-06-01

    It has been advocated that biopharmaceutic risk assessment should be conducted early in pediatric product development and synchronized with the adult product development program. However, we are unaware of efforts to classify drugs into a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) framework for pediatric patients. The objective was to classify five drugs into a potential BCS. These five drugs were selected since both oral and intravenous pharmacokinetic data were available for each drug, and covered the four BCS classes in adults. Literature searches for each drug were conducted using Medline and applied to classify drugs with respect to solubility and permeability in pediatric subpopulations. Four pediatric subpopulations were considered: neonates, infants, children, and adolescents. Regarding solubility, dose numbers were calculated using a volume for each subpopulation based on body surface area (BSA) relative to 250 ml for a 1.73 m(2) adult. Dose numbers spanned a range of values, depending upon the pediatric dose formula and subpopulation. Regarding permeability, pharmacokinetic literature data required assumptions and decisions about data collection. Using a devised pediatric BCS framework, there was agreement in adult and pediatric BCS class for two drugs, azithromycin (class 3) and ciprofloxacin (class 4). There was discordance for the three drugs that have high adult permeability since all pediatric permeabilities were low: dolasetron (class 3 in pediatric), ketoprofen (class 4 in pediatric), and voriconazole (class 4 in pediatric). A main contribution of this work is the identification of critical factors required for a pediatric BCS.

  1. Apo- and Cellopentaose-bound Structures of the Bacterial Cellulose Synthase Subunit BcsZ

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Olga; Zimmer, Jochen

    2012-10-25

    Cellulose, a very abundant extracellular polysaccharide, is synthesized in a finely tuned process that involves the activity of glycosyl-transferases and hydrolases. The cellulose microfibril consists of bundles of linear {beta}-1,4-glucan chains that are synthesized inside the cell; however, the mechanism by which these polymers traverse the cell membrane is currently unknown. In Gram-negative bacteria, the cellulose synthase complex forms a trans-envelope complex consisting of at least four subunits. Although three of these subunits account for the synthesis and translocation of the polysaccharide, the fourth subunit, BcsZ, is a periplasmic protein with endo-{beta}-1,4-glucanase activity. BcsZ belongs to family eight of glycosyl-hydrolases, and its activity is required for optimal synthesis and membrane translocation of cellulose. In this study we report two crystal structures of BcsZ from Escherichia coli. One structure shows the wild-type enzyme in its apo form, and the second structure is for a catalytically inactive mutant of BcsZ in complex with the substrate cellopentaose. The structures demonstrate that BcsZ adopts an ({alpha}/{alpha}){sub 6}-barrel fold and that it binds four glucan moieties of cellopentaose via highly conserved residues exclusively on the nonreducing side of its catalytic center. Thus, the BcsZ-cellopentaose structure most likely represents a posthydrolysis state in which the newly formed nonreducing end has already left the substrate binding pocket while the enzyme remains attached to the truncated polysaccharide chain. We further show that BcsZ efficiently degrades {beta}-1,4-glucans in in vitro cellulase assays with carboxymethyl-cellulose as substrate.

  2. A Modified Hansen's Theory as Applied to the Motion of Artificial Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, Peter

    1960-01-01

    This report presents a theory of oblateness perturbations of the orbits of artificial satellites based on Hansen's theory, with modification for adaptation to fast machine computation. The theory permits the easy inclusion of any gravitational terms and is suitable for the deduction of geo-physical and geodetic data from orbit observations on artificial satellites. The computations can be carried out to any desired order compatible with the accuracy of the geodetic parameters.

  3. Novel symmetries in the modified version of two dimensional Proca theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanja, T.; Shukla, D.; Malik, R. P.

    2013-08-01

    By exploiting Stueckelberg's approach, we obtain a gauge theory for the two-dimensional, that is, (1+1)-dimensional (2D) Proca theory and demonstrate that this theory is endowed with, in addition to the usual Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries, the on-shell nilpotent (anti-)co-BRST symmetries, under which the total gauge-fixing term remains invariant. The anticommutator of the BRST and co-BRST (as well as anti-BRST and anti-co-BRST) symmetries define a unique bosonic symmetry in the theory, under which the ghost part of the Lagrangian density remains invariant. To establish connections of the above symmetries with the Hodge theory, we invoke a pseudo-scalar field in the theory. Ultimately, we demonstrate that the full theory provides a field theoretic example for the Hodge theory where the continuous symmetry transformations provide a physical realization of the de Rham cohomological operators and discrete symmetries of the theory lead to the physical realization of the Hodge duality operation of differential geometry. We also mention the physical implications and utility of our present investigation.

  4. The Modified Delphi Method to Analyze the Application of Instructional Design Theory to Online Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeedick, Danielle Marie

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, the field of instructional design theory has experienced changes in what is mostly applied to traditional, on-ground education. While instructional design theory has been (and still is being) discussed, constructed, and deconstructed, there has been no agreement among prominent instructional design theory…

  5. Ethical Decision Making in Academic Dishonesty with Application of Modified Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…

  6. Free vibration of three-dimensional anisotropic layered composite nanoplates based on modified couple-stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junhong; Chen, Jiangyi; Pan, Ernian

    2017-03-01

    Based on the modified couple-stress theory, three-dimensional analytical solutions of free vibration of a simply supported, multilayered and anisotropic composite nanoplate are derived by solving an eigenvalue system and using the propagator matrix method. By expanding the solutions of the extended displacements in terms of two-dimensional Fourier series, the final governing equations of motion with modified couple-stress effect are reduced to an eigenvalue system of ordinary differential equations. Analytical expressions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of multilayered anisotropic composite plates with modified couple-stress effect are then derived via the propagator matrix method. Numerical examples are carried out for homogeneous thick-plates and sandwich composite plates to show the effect of the non-local parameter in different layers and stacking sequence on the mode shapes. The present solutions can serve as benchmarks to various thick-plate theories and numerical methods, and could be further useful for designing layered composite structures involving small scale.

  7. Free vibration analysis of embedded magneto-electro-thermo-elastic cylindrical nanoshell based on the modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Safarpour, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, size-dependent effect of an embedded magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) nanoshell subjected to thermo-electro-magnetic loadings on free vibration behavior is investigated. Also, the surrounding elastic medium has been considered as the model of Winkler characterized by the spring. The size-dependent MEE nanoshell is investigated on the basis of the modified couple stress theory. Taking attention to the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), the modeled nanoshell and its equations of motion are derived using principle of minimum potential energy. The accuracy of the presented model is validated with some cases in the literature. Finally, using the Navier-type method, an analytical solution of governing equations for vibration behavior of simply supported MEE cylindrical nanoshell under combined loadings is presented and the effects of material length scale parameter, temperature changes, external electric potential, external magnetic potential, circumferential wave numbers, constant of spring, shear correction factor and length-to-radius ratio of the nanoshell on natural frequency are identified. Since there has been no research about size-dependent analysis MEE cylindrical nanoshell under combined loadings based on FSDT, numerical results are presented to be served as benchmarks for future analysis of MEE nanoshells using the modified couple stress theory.

  8. Modifying Health Behavior for Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention with the Health Belief Model and Social Support Theory.

    PubMed

    Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a serious health problem in Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), endemic among human populations in northeast and north Thailand where raw fish containing fluke metacercariae are frequently consumed. Recently, Thailand public health authorities have been organized to reduce morbidity and mortality particularly in the northeast through O. viverrini and CCA screening projects. Health modfication is one of activities included in this campaign, but systemic guidelines of modifying and developing health behavior for liver flukes and CCA prevention in communities towards health belief and social support theory are still various and unclear. Here we review the guidelines for modifying and developing health behavior among populations in rural communities to strengthen understanding regarding perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to liver fluke and CCA prevention. This model may be useful for public health of cancers and related organizations to further health behavior change in endemic areas.

  9. Constraints on modified gravity from Planck 2015: when the health of your theory makes the difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatelli, Valentina; Piazza, Federico; Marinoni, Christian

    2016-09-01

    We use the effective field theory of dark energy (EFT of DE) formalism to constrain dark energy models belonging to the Horndeski class with the recent Planck 2015 CMB data. The space of theories is spanned by a certain number of parameters determining the linear cosmological perturbations, while the expansion history is set to that of a standard ΛCDM model. We always demand that the theories be free of fatal instabilities. Additionally, we consider two optional conditions, namely that scalar and tensor perturbations propagate with subliminal speed. Such criteria severely restrict the allowed parameter space and are thus very effective in shaping the posteriors. As a result, we confirm that no theory performs better than ΛCDM when CMB data alone are analysed. Indeed, the healthy dark energy models considered here are not able to reproduce those phenomenological behaviours of the effective Newton constant and gravitational slip parameters that, according to previous studies, best fit the data.

  10. Examination of the Korean Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers: Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seung, HyeKyeung; Ji, Juye; Kim, Soo-Jin; Sung, Inkyung; Youn, Young-Ah; Hong, Gyunghun; Lee, Hyeonjin; Lee, Young Hwan; Lee, Hyunsuk; Youm, Hyun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the clinical utility and psychometric properties of the Korean Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (K-M-CHAT)-2. A sample of 2300 parents of 16- to 36-month-old children was recruited across South Korea. A phone interview was utilized to follow up with participants who initially screened positive for autism spectrum…

  11. Applying Rasch Model and Generalizability Theory to Study Modified-Angoff Cut Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Alvaro J.; Wang, Ze

    2012-01-01

    The traditional approach to scale modified-Angoff cut scores transfers the raw cuts to an existing raw-to-scale score conversion table. Under the traditional approach, cut scores and conversion table raw scores are not only seen as interchangeable but also as originating from a common scaling process. In this article, we propose an alternative…

  12. Gene cuisine or Frankenfood? The theory of reasoned action as an audience segmentation strategy for messages about genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Silk, Kami J; Weiner, Judith; Parrott, Roxanne L

    2005-12-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are currently a controversial topic about which the lay public in the United States knows little. Formative research has demonstrated that the lay public is uncertain and concerned about GM foods. This study (N = 858) extends focus group research by using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to examine attitudes and subjective norms related to GM foods as a theoretical strategy for audience segmentation. A hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four unique audiences based on their attitude and subjective norm toward GM foods (ambivalent-biotech, antibiotech, biotech-normer, and biotech individual). Results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and practical significance for audience segmentation.

  13. Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin E-mail: hu@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl

    2015-09-01

    We present a description for setting initial particle displacements and field values for simulations of arbitrary metric theories of gravity, for perfect and imperfect fluids with arbitrary characteristics. We extend the Zel'dovich Approximation to nontrivial theories of gravity, and show how scale dependence implies curved particle paths, even in the entirely linear regime of perturbations. For a viable choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, initial conditions set at high redshifts are affected at the level of up to 5% at Mpc scales, which exemplifies the importance of going beyond Λ-Cold Dark Matter initial conditions for modifications of gravity outside of the quasi-static approximation. In addition, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description. Our description paves the way for simulations and mock galaxy catalogs under theories of gravity beyond the standard model, crucial for progress towards precision tests of gravity and cosmology.

  14. Development and application of an analysis of axisymmetric body effects on helicopter rotor aerodynamics using modified slender body theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, G.; Johnson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A computationally efficient body analysis designed to couple with a comprehensive helicopter analysis is developed in order to calculate the body-induced aerodynamic effects on rotor performance and loads. A modified slender body theory is used as the body model. With the objective of demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and application of the method, the analysis at this stage is restricted to axisymmetric bodies at zero angle of attack. By comparing with results from an exact analysis for simple body shapes, it is found that the modified slender body theory provides an accurate potential flow solution for moderately thick bodies, with only a 10%-20% increase in computational effort over that of an isolated rotor analysis. The computational ease of this method provides a means for routine assessment of body-induced effects on a rotor. Results are given for several configurations that typify those being used in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and in the rotor-body aerodynamic interference tests being conducted at Ames. A rotor-hybrid airship configuration is also analyzed.

  15. Modifying Heathcare System Alcohol Interventions for the High-Risk Drinking Environment: Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croff, Julie M.; Clapp, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a model program in the medical context, but it may be missing a large portion of the population with low access to healthcare services. Young adults have the lowest rates of insurance, low healthcare service utilization, and high rates of substance use. Theory driven Screening and…

  16. Experimental studies of sputtering on zirconium analyzed using modified Roosandaal Sanders theory. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schomber, P.R.

    1995-03-01

    An ion optics system utilizing a wein filter velocity selector has been modeled and characterized for use as an ion source for an instrument to measure high resolution angular distributions of sputtered neutral atoms. Laser induced fluorescence detection techniques are used to measure ground state and first excited state sputtering angular distributions on a polycrystalline zirconium foil using argon and nitrogen sputter gases. The incident ion beam impact angle has been varied from 15 deg to 75 deg as measured from surface normal and the wein filter velocity selector has been used to select N2+ and N+ ion beams from the nitrogen ion beam. The experimental data gathered are compared to Roosandaal Sanders analytical sputtering theory along with data on xenon and neon. Roosandaal Sanders theory reproduces the near surface normal sputtering behavior but rapidly breaks down as the incident ion beam impact angle moves toward the surface. Modifications to the Roosandaal Sanders equation to introduce adjustable fitting parameters and non-linear least squares fitting of the experimental data to these parameters has been accomplished. The results are discussed relating the fitting parameters to physical constants based in Roosandaal Sanders Theory. Discrepancies in the theory are addressed with extensive discussion on ion surface interaction.

  17. Modified Biot-Gassmann theory for calculating elastic velocities for unconsolidated and consolidated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    The classical Biot-Gassmann theory (BGT) generally overestimates shear-wave velocities of water-saturated sediments. To overcome this problem, a new theory is developed based on BGT and on the velocity ratio as a function of G(1 - ??)n, where ?? is porosity and n and G are constants. Based on laboratory data measured at ultrasonic frequencies, parameters for the new formulation are derived. This new theory is extended to include the effect of differential pressure and consolidation on the velocity ratio by making n a function of differential pressure and the rate of porosity reduction with respect to differential pressure. A scale G is introduced to compensate for discrepancies between measured and predicted velocities, mainly caused by the presence of clay in the matrix. As differential pressure increases and the rate of porosity reduction with respect to differential pressure decreases, the exponent n decreases and elastic velocities increase. Because velocity dispersion is not considered, this new formula is optimum for analyzing velocities measured at ultrasonic frequencies or for sediments having low dispersion characteristics such as clean sandstone with high permeability and lack of grain-scale local flow. The new formula is applied to predict velocities from porosity or from porosity and P-wave velocity and is in good agreement with laboratory and well log data. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

  18. BCS-BEC crossover and phase structure of relativistic systems: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Bhaswar; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mishra, Amruta

    2009-01-01

    We investigate here the BCS-BEC crossover in relativistic systems using a variational construct for the ground state and the minimization of the thermodynamic potential. This is first studied in a four-fermion point interaction model and with a BCS type ansatz for the ground state with fermion pairs. It is shown that the antiparticle degrees of freedom play an important role in the BCS-BEC crossover physics, even when the ratio of Fermi momentum to the mass of the fermion is small. We also consider the phase structure for the case of fermion pairing with imbalanced populations. Within the ansatz, thermodynamically stable gapless modes for both fermions and antifermions are seen for strong coupling in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regime. We further investigate the effect of fluctuations of the condensate field by treating it as a dynamical field and generalize the BCS ansatz to include quanta of the condensate field also in a boson-fermion model with quartic self-interaction of the condensate field. It is seen that the critical temperature decreases with inclusion of fluctuations.

  19. NQRS Data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C24H20BCs (Subst. No. 1575)

  20. Solitons and Rabi Oscillations in a Time-Dependent BCS Pairing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barankov, Roman; Levitov, Leonid; Spivak, Boris

    2004-03-01

    Motivated by recent efforts [1] to achieve fermion pairing in cold alkali atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, we consider fast, nonadiabatic formation of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state after the coupling constant is turned on. In the nonadiabatic regime [2], the system oscillates between the normal and BCS states until BCS state settles down on time scales controlled by the quasiparticle energy relaxation. We study the collective oscillation of the BCS-Bogoliubov amplitudes u_p, v_p, along with the pairing function Δ. We demonstrate that it is an integrable dynamical problem, and obtain a family of exact solutions in the form of single solitons and soliton trains, describing periodic oscillations. We interpret the collective oscillations as Bloch precession of Anderson pseudospins [3], where each soliton causes a pseudospin a full 2π Rabi rotation. Numerical simulations of the Bloch dynamics indicate the ubiquity of the solitons, and demonstrate their robustness with respect to noise and damping. [1] B. DeMarco, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4208 (1999); A. G. Truscott et al., Science 291, 2570 (2001) [2] R. A. Barankov, L. S. Levitov, B. Z. Spivak, arXiv:cond-mat/0312053 [3] P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 112, 1900 (1958)

  1. Modifying gradient theory to predict the surface properties of halogenated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestova, T. D.; Lozovsky, T. L.; Zhelezny, V. P.

    2014-05-01

    A new method is proposed for predicting the surface tension, density profile, and thickness of the surface layer of a liquid near an interface using gradient theory. The objects of study are halogenated hydrocarbons. The algorithm for calculating surface properties includes a new modification of the Peng-Robinson cubic equation of state (EoS) that does not require information on the critical parameters, and a new procedure for calculating the influence parameter. Validation of the procedure for predicting the surface properties of liquids shows that the agreement between the calculated surface tension of halogenated hydrocarbons and the existing literature data is sufficient for practical use.

  2. Method to modify random matrix theory using short-time behavior in chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, A Matthew; Kaplan, Lev

    2009-09-01

    We discuss a modification to random matrix theory (RMT) eigenstate statistics that systematically takes into account the nonuniversal short-time behavior of chaotic systems. The method avoids diagonalization of the Hamiltonian, instead requiring only knowledge of short-time dynamics for a chaotic system or ensemble of similar systems. Standard RMT and semiclassical predictions are recovered in the limits of zero Ehrenfest time and infinite Heisenberg time, respectively. As examples, we discuss wave-function autocorrelations and cross correlations and show how the approach leads to a significant improvement in the accuracy for simple chaotic systems where comparison can be made with brute-force diagonalization.

  3. Twisting Anderson pseudospins with light: Quench dynamics in terahertz-pumped BCS superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yang-Zhi; Liao, Yunxiang; Foster, Matthew S.

    2017-03-01

    We study the preparation (pump) and the detection (probe) of far-from-equilibrium BCS superconductor dynamics in THz pump-probe experiments. In a recent experiment [R. Matsunaga, Y. I. Hamada, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, and R. Shimano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 057002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.057002], an intense monocycle THz pulse with center frequency ω ≃Δ was injected into a superconductor with BCS gap Δ ; the subsequent postpump evolution was detected via the optical conductivity. It was argued that nonlinear coupling of the pump to the Anderson pseudospins of the superconductor induces coherent dynamics of the Higgs (amplitude) mode Δ (t ) . We validate this picture in a two-dimensional BCS model with a combination of exact numerics and the Lax reduction method, and we compute the nonequilibrium phase diagram as a function of the pump intensity. The main effect of the pump is to scramble the orientations of Anderson pseudospins along the Fermi surface by twisting them in the x y plane. We show that more intense pump pulses can induce a far-from-equilibrium phase of gapless superconductivity ("phase I"), originally predicted in the context of interaction quenches in ultracold atoms. We show that the THz pump method can reach phase I at much lower energy densities than an interaction quench, and we demonstrate that Lax reduction (tied to the integrability of the BCS Hamiltonian) provides a general quantitative tool for computing coherent BCS dynamics. We also calculate the Mattis-Bardeen optical conductivity for the nonequilibrium states discussed here.

  4. Cosmological models in modified gravity theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Tsoukalas, Minas

    2017-02-01

    We construct gravitational modifications that go beyond Horndeski, namely theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings, in which the coefficient functions depend not only on the scalar field but also on its kinetic energy. Such theories prove to be ghost-free in a cosmological background. We investigate the early-time cosmology and show that a de Sitter inflationary phase can be realized as a pure result of the novel gravitational couplings. Additionally, we study the late-time evolution, where we obtain an effective dark energy sector which arises from the scalar field and its extended couplings to gravity. We extract various cosmological observables and analyze their behavior at small redshifts for three choices of potentials, namely for the exponential, the power-law, and the Higgs potentials. We show that the Universe passes from deceleration to acceleration in the recent cosmological past, while the effective dark energy equation-of-state parameter tends to the cosmological-constant value at present. Finally, the effective dark energy can be phantomlike, although the scalar field is canonical, which is an advantage of the model.

  5. Benchmark of a modified iterated perturbation theory approach on the fcc lattice at strong coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-François; Sémon, Patrick; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2012-08-01

    The dynamical mean-field theory approach to the Hubbard model requires a method to solve the problem of a quantum impurity in a bath of noninteracting electrons. Iterated perturbation theory (IPT) has proven its effectiveness as a solver in many cases of interest. Based on general principles and on comparisons with an essentially exact continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC) solver, here we show that the standard implementation of IPT fails away from half-filling when the interaction strength is much larger than the bandwidth. We propose a slight modification to the IPT algorithm that replaces one of the equations by the requirement that double occupancy calculated with IPT gives the correct value. We call this method IPT-D. We recover the Fermi liquid ground state away from half-filling. The Fermi liquid parameters, density of states, chemical potential, energy, and specific heat on the fcc lattice are calculated with both IPT-D and CTQMC as benchmark examples. We also calculated the resistivity and the optical conductivity within IPT-D. Particle-hole asymmetry persists even at coupling twice the bandwidth. A generalization to the multiorbital case is suggested. Several algorithms that speed up the calculations are described in appendixes.

  6. Bianchi type-I and -III modified holographic Ricci Dark energy models in Saez-Ballester theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, V. U. M.; Divya Prasanthi, U. Y.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study the spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-III (B-III) and locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Binachi type-I (B-I) models filled with matter and dark energy in the framework of the Saez-Ballester (1986) scalar-tensor theory of gravitation. Here, we consider the modified holographic Ricci dark energy as the viable candidate to dark energy. To obtain a deterministic solution we consider the time-varying deceleration parameter, which leads to the average scale factor a(t)=[sinh(α t)]^{1/k}. This average scale factor describes a model which generates a smooth transition of the universe from the early decelerating phase to the recent accelerating phase. The physical and kinematical aspects of the models are discussed through figures and also found to be in good agreement with recent astrophysical observations under suitable conditions.

  7. The relaxed Einstein equations in the context of a mixed UV-IR modified theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirkes, Alain

    2017-03-01

    In this article we will modify the Einstein field equations by promoting Newton’s constant G to a covariant differential operator {{G} Λ }≤ft({{\\square}g}\\right) composed of two terms which operate in different energy regimes (IR and UV). The IR term inside the covariant differential operator acts like a high-pass filter with a macroscopic distance filter scale \\sqrt{ Λ } and effectively degravitates energy sources characterized by wavelengths larger than the filter scale. While this term is predominant for cosmological energy processes it is almost inessential on astrophysical scales where the UV contribution inside {{G} Λ }≤ft({{\\square}g}\\right) leads to much stronger deviations compared to GR. In the context of this particular theory of gravity we work out the effective relaxed Einstein equations, the effective 1.5 post-Newtonian near zone mass for n-body systems as well as the IR and UV modified Schwarzschild metrics. We use these results in the context of the Double Pulsar binary system and observe that we recover, in the limit of vanishing UV-IR modification parameters, the corresponding general relativistic results.

  8. Density and spin linear response of atomic Fermi superfluids with population imbalance in the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Li, Yang; He, Yan; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2014-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of the density and spin (representing the two components) linear response of Fermi superfluids with tunable attractive interactions and population imbalance. In both linear response theories, we find that the fluctuations of the order parameter must be treated on equal footing with the gauge transformations associated with the symmetries of the Hamiltonian so that important constraints including various sum rules can be satisfied. Both theories can be applied to the whole BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover. The spin linear responses are qualitatively different with and without population imbalance because collective-mode effects from the fluctuations of the order parameter survive in the presence of population imbalance, even though the associated symmetry is not broken by the order parameter. Since a polarized superfluid becomes unstable at low temperatures in the weak and intermediate coupling regimes, we found that the density and spin susceptibilities diverge as the system approaches the unstable regime, but the emergence of phase separation preempts the divergence.

  9. Distinguishing between the Permeability Relationships with Absorption and Metabolism To Improve BCS and BDDCS Predictions in Early Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and biopharmaceutics drug distribution classification system (BDDCS) are complementary classification systems that can improve, simplify, and accelerate drug discovery, development, and regulatory processes. Drug permeability has been widely accepted as a screening tool for determining intestinal absorption via the BCS during the drug development and regulatory approval processes. Currently, predicting clinically significant drug interactions during drug development is a known challenge for industry and regulatory agencies. The BDDCS, a modification of BCS that utilizes drug metabolism instead of intestinal permeability, predicts drug disposition and potential drug–drug interactions in the intestine, the liver, and most recently the brain. Although correlations between BCS and BDDCS have been observed with drug permeability rates, discrepancies have been noted in drug classifications between the two systems utilizing different permeability models, which are accepted as surrogate models for demonstrating human intestinal permeability by the FDA. Here, we recommend the most applicable permeability models for improving the prediction of BCS and BDDCS classifications. We demonstrate that the passive transcellular permeability rate, characterized by means of permeability models that are deficient in transporter expression and paracellular junctions (e.g., PAMPA and Caco-2), will most accurately predict BDDCS metabolism. These systems will inaccurately predict BCS classifications for drugs that particularly are substrates of highly expressed intestinal transporters. Moreover, in this latter case, a system more representative of complete human intestinal permeability is needed to accurately predict BCS absorption. PMID:24628254

  10. Electronic and optical properties of pure and modified diamondoids studied by many-body perturbation theory and time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Demján, Tamás; Vörös, Márton; Palummo, Maurizia; Gali, Adam

    2014-08-14

    Diamondoids are small diamond nanoparticles (NPs) that are built up from diamond cages. Unlike usual semiconductor NPs, their atomic structure is exactly known, thus they are ideal test-beds for benchmarking quantum chemical calculations. Their usage in spintronics and bioimaging applications requires a detailed knowledge of their electronic structure and optical properties. In this paper, we apply density functional theory (DFT) based methods to understand the electronic and optical properties of a few selected pure and modified diamondoids for which accurate experimental data exist. In particular, we use many-body perturbation theory methods, in the G{sub 0}W{sub 0} and G{sub 0}W{sub 0}+BSE approximations, and time-dependent DFT in the adiabatic local density approximation. We find large quasiparticle gap corrections that can exceed thrice the DFT gap. The electron-hole binding energy can be as large as 4 eV but it is considerably smaller than the GW corrections and thus G{sub 0}W{sub 0}+BSE optical gaps are about 50% larger than the Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT gaps. We find significant differences between KS time-dependent DFT and GW+BSE optical spectra on the selected diamondoids. The calculated G{sub 0}W{sub 0} quasiparticle levels agree well with the corresponding experimental vertical ionization energies. We show that nuclei dynamics in the ionization process can be significant and its contribution may reach about 0.5 eV in the adiabatic ionization energies.

  11. Motion of a solitonic vortex in the BEC-BCS crossover.

    PubMed

    Ku, Mark J H; Ji, Wenjie; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Guardado-Sanchez, Elmer; Cheuk, Lawrence W; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W

    2014-08-08

    We observe a long-lived solitary wave in a superfluid Fermi gas of (6)Li atoms after phase imprinting. Tomographic imaging reveals the excitation to be a solitonic vortex, oriented transverse to the long axis of the cigar-shaped atom cloud. The precessional motion of the vortex is directly observed, and its period is measured as a function of the chemical potential in the BEC-BCS crossover. The long period and the correspondingly large ratio of the inertial to the bare mass of the vortex are in good agreement with estimates based on superfluid hydrodynamics that we derive here using the known equation of state in the BEC-BCS crossover.

  12. Crossover between BCS and performed-Boson theories with increasing interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Randeria, M.

    1993-08-01

    The author reviews recent work on Fermi systems with attractive interactions of arbitrary strength. First, he describes the results of a functional integral formulation to study the crossover from cooperative Cooper pairing to independent bound state formation and condensation. The inadequacy of a saddle point approximation with increasing coupling is pointed out, and the importance of temporal (quantum) fluctuations for normal state properties at intermediate and strong coupling is emphasized. Next, results from a quantum Monte Carlo simulation of the 2D attractive Hubbard model are described. The intermediate coupling normal state is found to deviate markedly from a canonical Fermi liquid: {open_quotes}spin-gap{close_quotes} behavior, with 1/T{sub 1}T {approximately} {chi}(T), is found in a degenerate Fermi system.

  13. BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) Primer: a Guide to Computational Methods in Superconductivity Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Ed. Superconductivity; Dekker: New York, 1969; vols. I and II. 16. Rice, M. J.; Wang , Y. R. Phys. Rev. B 1988, 37, 5893-5896. 17. Ott, H. R.; Rudigier...Pennsylvania State University Roches . ew York 14627 University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 r. G. Rubloff Dr. Roald Hoffmann IBM Department of Chemistry

  14. Spin-polarized neutron matter: Critical unpairing and BCS-BEC precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen; Huang, Xu-Guang; Clark, John W.

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the critical magnetic field required for complete destruction of S -wave pairing in neutron matter, thereby setting limits on the pairing and superfluidity of neutrons in the crust and outer core of magnetars. We find that for fields B ≥1017 G the neutron fluid is nonsuperfluid—if weaker spin 1 superfluidity does not intervene—a result with profound consequences for the thermal, rotational, and oscillatory behavior of magnetars. Because the dineutron is not bound in vacuum, cold dilute neutron matter cannot exhibit a proper BCS-BEC crossover. Nevertheless, owing to the strongly resonant behavior of the n n interaction at low densities, neutron matter shows a precursor of the BEC state, as manifested in Cooper-pair correlation lengths being comparable to the interparticle distance. We make a systematic quantitative study of this type of BCS-BEC crossover in the presence of neutron fluid spin polarization induced by an ultrastrong magnetic field. We evaluate the Cooper-pair wave function, quasiparticle occupation numbers, and quasiparticle spectra for densities and temperatures spanning the BCS-BEC crossover region. The phase diagram of spin-polarized neutron matter is constructed and explored at different polarizations.

  15. Fracture prediction using modified mohr coulomb theory for non-linear strain paths using AA3104-H19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Robert; Yoon, Jeong Whan

    2016-08-01

    Experiment results from uniaxial tensile tests, bi-axial bulge tests, and disk compression tests for a beverage can AA3104-H19 material are presented. The results from the experimental tests are used to determine material coefficients for both Yld2000 and Yld2004 models. Finite element simulations are developed to study the influence of materials model on the predicted earing profile. It is shown that only the YLD2004 model is capable of accurately predicting the earing profile as the YLD2000 model only predicts 4 ears. Excellent agreement with the experimental data for earing is achieved using the AA3104-H19 material data and the Yld2004 constitutive model. Mechanical tests are also conducted on the AA3104-H19 to generate fracture data under different stress triaxiality conditions. Tensile tests are performed on specimens with a central hole and notched specimens. Torsion of a double bridge specimen is conducted to generate points near pure shear conditions. The Nakajima test is utilized to produce points in bi-axial tension. The data from the experiments is used to develop the fracture locus in the principal strain space. Mapping from principal strain space to stress triaxiality space, principal stress space, and polar effective plastic strain space is accomplished using a generalized mapping technique. Finite element modeling is used to validate the Modified Mohr-Coulomb (MMC) fracture model in the polar space. Models of a hole expansion during cup drawing and a cup draw/reverse redraw/expand forming sequence demonstrate the robustness of the modified PEPS fracture theory for the condition with nonlinear forming paths and accurately predicts the onset of failure. The proposed methods can be widely used for predicting failure for the examples which undergo nonlinear strain path including rigid-packaging and automotive forming.

  16. Critical behavior in one dimension: Unconventional pairing, phase separation, BEC-BCS crossover, and magnetic Lifshitz transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptok, Andrzej; Cichy, Agnieszka; Rodríguez, Karen; Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy

    2017-03-01

    We study the superconducting properties of population-imbalanced ultracold Fermi mixtures in one-dimensional optical lattices that can be effectively described by the spin-imbalanced attractive Hubbard model in the presence of a Zeeman magnetic field. We use the mean-field theory approach to obtain the ground-state phase diagrams including some unconventional superconducting phases such as the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase, and the η phase (an extremal case of the FFLO phase), both for the case of a fixed chemical potential and for a fixed number of particles. It allows us to determine optimal regimes for the FFLO phase as well as η -pairing stability. We also investigate the evolution from the weak coupling (BCS-like limit) to the strong coupling limit of tightly bound local pairs (BEC) with increasing attraction, at T =0 . Finally, the obtained results show that in spite of the occurrence of the Lifshitz transition induced by an external magnetic field, the superconducting state can still exist in the system, at higher magnetic field values.

  17. BCS, Nambu-Jona-Lasinio, and Han-Nambu: A sketch of Nambu's works in 1960-1965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The years 1960-1965 were a remarkable period for Yoichiro Nambu. Starting with a reformulation of BCS theory with emphasis on gauge invariance, he recognized the realization of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in particle physics as evidenced by the Goldberger-Treiman relation. A concrete model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio illustrated the essence of the Nambu-Goldstone theorem and the idea of soft pions. After the proposal of the quark model by Gell-Mann, he together with Han constructed an alternative model of integrally charged quarks with possible non-Abelian gluons. All these remarkable works were performed during the years 1960-1965. Here I briefly review those works following the original papers of Nambu chronologically, together with a brief introduction to a formulation of Noether's theorem and the Ward-Takahashi identities using path integrals. This article is mostly based on a lecture given at the Nambu Memorial Symposium held at Osaka City University in September 2015, where Nambu started his professional career.

  18. Non-BCS superconducting state in yttrium hydride at a record low value of the external pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosik, Marcin W.; Szczȩśniak, Radosław; Wrona, Izabela A.; Kostrzewa, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The ab initio calculations suggest that YH3 compound is a superconductor with the maximum value of the critical temperature (TC) for the record low external pressure equal to 17.7 GPa. Due to the high value of the electron-phonon coupling constant, the thermodynamic properties of the superconducting state in YH3 have been determined in the framework of the Eliashberg formalism. It has been shown that TC changes in the range from 45.91K to 27.29 K, for the value of the Coulomb pseudopotential μ⋆ ∈ < 0.1 , 0.3 > . The parameters of the superconducting phase differ significantly from the values predicted by the BCS theory due to the significant strong-coupling and retardation effects: kBTC /ωln ∈ < 0.138 , 0.082 > , where ωln denotes the logarithmic phonon frequency. In particular, the dimensionless ratios: RΔ = 2 Δ (0) /kBTC , RC = Δ C (TC) /CN (TC) and RH =TCCN (TC) /HC2(0) take the following values: RΔ ∈ < 4.38 , 4.20 > , RC ∈ < 2.18 , 2.02 > and RH ∈ < 0.151 , 0.168 > . The symbol Δ represents the order parameter, Δ C is the specific heat jump, CN is the specific heat of the normal state, and HC is the thermodynamic critical field.

  19. Predicting medical staff intention to use an online reporting system with modified unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-Chiu; Hsu, Hui-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to report incident events using an online information system (IS) may be different from those of a paper-based reporting system. The nationwide online Patient-Safety Reporting System (PSRS) contains a value judgment behind use of the system, similar to the Value of Perceived Consequence (VPC), which is seldom discussed in ISs applications of other disciplines. This study developed a more adequate research framework by integrating the VPC construct into the well-known Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model as a theoretical base to explore the predictors of medical staff's intention to use online PSRS. The results showed that management support was an important factor to influence medical staff's intention of using PSRS. The effects of factors such as performance expectancy, perceived positive, and perceived negative consequence on medical staff's intention of using PSRS were moderated by gender, age, experience, and occupation. The results proved that the modified UTAUT model is significant and useful in predicting medical staff's intention of using the nationwide online PSRS.

  20. Vibration analysis of bonded double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplate systems based on a modified strain gradient theory incorporating surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalpoor, Ali; Kiani, Ali

    2017-03-01

    On the basis of the modified strain gradient theory, the present paper deals with the theoretical analysis of the free vibration of coupled double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplates by Kelvin-Voigt visco-Pasternak medium. To establish static equilibrium of atoms on the each nanoplate surface, the effects of the surface layers are considered. The properties of material in the thickness direction vary according to the power low distribution. Kirchhoff plate assumption and Hamilton's variational principle are employed to achieve the partial differential equations for three different cases of vibration (out-of-phase, in-phase, and one nanoplate of the system being stationary) and corresponding boundary conditions. Navier's approach which satisfies the simply supported boundary conditions applied to analytically investigate the size effect on the natural frequencies of double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplate systems. Numerical studies are carried out to illustrate the influence of viscoelastic damping structural of the nanoplates, damping coefficient of the visco-Pasternak medium, independent length scale parameter, aspect ratio, surface properties, and other factors on the frequency behavior system. Some numerical results of this research illustrate that the frequencies may increase or decrease with respect to the sign of the surface properties of FGMs.

  1. Vibration analysis of a rotating functionally graded tapered microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory by DQEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Shafiei, Navvab; Alireza Mousavi, S.

    2016-09-01

    Due to having difficulty in solving governing nonlinear differential equations of a non-uniform microbeam, a few numbers of authors have studied such fields. In the present study, for the first time, the size-dependent vibration behavior of a rotating functionally graded (FG) tapered microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory is investigated using differential quadrature element method (DQEM). It is assumed that physical and mechanical properties of the FG microbeam are varying along the thickness that will be defined as a power law equation. The governing equations are determined using Hamilton's principle, and DQEM is presented to obtain the results for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions. The accuracy and validity of the results are shown in several numerical examples. In order to display the influence of size on the first two natural frequencies and consequently changing of some important microbeam parameters such as material length scale, rate of cross section, angular velocity and gradient index of the FG material, several diagrams and tables are represented. The results of this article can be used in designing and optimizing elastic and rotary-type micro-electro-mechanical systems like micro-motors and micro-robots including rotating parts.

  2. Intermediate accelerated solutions as generic late-time attractors in a modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cid, Antonella; Leon, Genly; Leyva, Yoelsy E-mail: genly.leon@ucv.cl

    2016-02-01

    an asymptotic de Sitter-like evolution law for the scale factor. Apart from some fine-tuned examples such as the linear, and quadratic potential U(Φ) in the Jordan frame, it is true that ''intermediate accelerated'' solutions are generic late-time attractors in a modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory.

  3. Phase transitions in a MgB2 granular BCS superconductor in weak magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevyanko, V. V.; Sungurov, M. S.; Sukhareva, T. V.; Finkel', V. A.; Shakhov, Yu. N.

    2017-02-01

    The character of temperature dependences of the electric conductivity of MgB2 granular BCS superconductors at temperatures of 35-45 K in external magnetic fields H ext of up to 2 kOe is studied. An increase in the superconducting transition width Δ T c with an increase in Hext is found. The presence of a system of weak links in MgB2-based granular superconductors is established. On the basis of experimental data, MgB2 granular superconductor is assigned to two-level superconducting systems and the H-T phase diagram is constructed.

  4. BCS-BEC crossover in two dimensions: A quantum Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Bertaina, G.

    2012-09-26

    We investigate the crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluidity to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a two-dimensional Fermi gas at T= 0 using the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method. We calculate the equation of state and the gap parameter as a function of the interaction strength, observing large deviations compared to mean-field predictions. In the BEC regime our results show the important role of dimer-dimer and atom-dimer interaction effects that are completely neglected in the mean-field picture. We also consider the highly polarized gas and the competition between a polaronic and a molecular picture.

  5. Spectrum and Dynamics of the BCS-BEC Crossover from a Few-Body Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, Javier von; Greene, Chris H.

    2007-08-31

    The spectrum of two spin-up and two spin-down fermions in a trap is calculated using a correlated Gaussian basis throughout the range of the BCS-BEC crossover. These accurate calculations provide a few-body solution to the crossover problem. This solution is used to study the time evolution of the system as the scattering length is changed, mimicking experiments with Fermi gases near Fano-Feshbach resonances. The structure of avoiding crossings in the spectrum allow us to understand the dynamics of the system as a sequence of Landau-Zener transitions. Finally, we propose a ramping scheme to study atom-molecule coherence.

  6. Non-equilibrium Properties of a Pumped-Decaying Bose-Condensed Electron-Hole Gas in the BCS-BEC Crossover Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanai, R.; Littlewood, P. B.; Ohashi, Y.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate a Bose-condensed exciton gas out of equilibrium. Within the framework of the combined BCS-Leggett strong-coupling theory with the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we show how the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons is suppressed to eventually disappear, when the system is in the non-equilibrium steady state. The supply of electrons and holes from the bath is shown to induce quasi-particle excitations, leading to the partial occupation of the upper branch of Bogoliubov single-particle excitation spectrum. We also discuss how this quasi-particle induction is related to the suppression of exciton BEC, as well as the stability of the steady state.

  7. Theory of the critical current in two-band superconductors with application to Mg B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, E. J.; Carbotte, J. P.

    2005-07-01

    Using a Green’s function formulation of the superfluid current js , where a momentum qs is applied to the Cooper pair, we have calculated js as a function of qs , temperature, and impurity scattering for a two-band superconductor. We consider both renormalized BCS and full strong-coupling Eliashberg theory. There are two peaks in the current as a function of qs due to the two energy scales for the gaps, and this can give rise to nonstandard behavior for the critical current. The critical current jc , which is given as the maximum in js , can exhibit a kink as a function of temperature as the maximum is transferred from one peak to other. Other temperature variations are also possible and the universal BCS behavior is violated. The details depend on the material parameters of the system, such as the amount of coupling between the bands, the gap anisotropy, the Fermi velocities, and the density of states of each band. The Ginzburg-Landau relation between jc , the penetration depth λL , and thermodynamic critical field Hc is modified. Using Eliashberg theory with the electron-phonon spectral densities given from band structure calculations, we have applied our calculations for js and jc to the case of MgB2 and find agreement with experiment.

  8. Comparison of Deconvolution-Based and Absorption Modeling IVIVC for Extended Release Formulations of a BCS III Drug Development Candidate.

    PubMed

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Xia, Binfeng; Agrawal, Nancy G B

    2015-11-01

    In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) are predictive mathematical models describing the relationship between dissolution and plasma concentration for a given drug compound. The traditional deconvolution/convolution-based approach is the most common methodology to establish a level A IVIVC that provides point to point relationship between the in vitro dissolution and the in vivo input rate. The increasing application of absorption physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) has provided an alternative IVIVC approach. The current work established and compared two IVIVC models, via the traditional deconvolution/convolution method and via absorption PBPK modeling, for two types of modified release (MR) formulations (matrix and multi-particulate tablets) of MK-0941, a BCS III drug development candidate. Three batches with distinct release rates were studied for each formulation technology. A two-stage linear regression model was used for the deconvolution/convolution approach while optimization of the absorption scaling factors (a model parameter that relates permeability and input rate) in Gastroplus(TM) Advanced Compartmental Absorption and Transit model was used for the absorption PBPK approach. For both types of IVIVC models established, and for either the matrix or the multiparticulate formulations, the average absolute prediction errors for AUC and C max were below 10% and 15%, respectively. Both the traditional deconvolution/convolution-based and the absorption/PBPK-based level A IVIVC model adequately described the compound pharmacokinetics to guide future formulation development. This case study highlights the potential utility of absorption PBPK model to complement the traditional IVIVC approaches for MR products.

  9. Effects of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS) on the production of ethanol from low-grade starch materials

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, C.H.; Chung, D.S.; Seib, P.A.

    1995-02-01

    Yeast fermentation was performed on grain and bakery byproducts with and without adding the same volume of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS). Starch material in the grain and bakery byproducts effectively was converted to fermentable sugars with conversion ratios of 93-97% by successive treatments of samples with bacterial {alpha}-amylase and fungal glucoamylase. The yeast fermentation of these enzyme-digested byproducts alone showed that ethanol concentrations of 16.4-42.7 mL/100 g dry solid in the broth were achieved with fermentation efficiencies of 87-96%. Addition of BCS to the grain byproducts increased ethanol concentration by 10-86% by increasing the potential glucose content of the broth. The rates of fermentation measured by CO{sub 2} gas production demonstrated that BCS addition to bakery byproducts reduced the fermentation time from 62-72 h to 34-35 h. In bakery byproducts that were low in amino nitrogen, exhaustion of nitrogenous compounds in substrates was found to be a limiting factor for yeast growth. Because BCS is a rich source of nitrogen, adding BCS to these substrates markedly increased the fermentation rate. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Application of the SD technique for solving a BCS-reduced Hubbard like Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Fettes, W.; Morgenstern, I.; Husslein, T.

    1997-10-01

    The authors present exact and stochastic diagonalization results for a BCS-reduced Hubbard model. The kinetic Hamiltonian is the same as in the single band Hubbard model with additional next nearest neighbor hopping. The interaction of this model is designed to inhibit superconductivity in the d{sub x{sup 2}{minus}y{sup 2}} channel. The ground state of this model is studied by exact and stochastic diagonalization technique. The authors present a review of the technical details of the application of the stochastic diagonalization algorithm on this problem. To verify their results obtained with the stochastic diagonalization, they are compared with the exact diagonalization results. In order to show the convergence of the stochastic diagonalization the authors give a detailed analysis of the behavior of physical properties with increasing number of states. Finally they study superconductivity in this BCS-reduced Hubbard model. As an indicator of superconductivity they use the occurrence of Off Diagonal Long Range Order. The authors study the scaling behavior of this model for various attractive interactions and in addition the dependence of the superconducting correlation functions from the filling of the system.

  11. Use of amino acids as counterions improves the solubility of the BCS II model drug, indomethacin.

    PubMed

    ElShaer, Amr; Khan, Sheraz; Perumal, Dhaya; Hanson, Peter; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2011-07-01

    The number of new chemical entities (NCE) is increasing every day after the introduction of combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening to the drug discovery cycle. One third of these new compounds have aqueous solubility less than 20µg/mL [1]. Therefore, a great deal of interest has been forwarded to the salt formation technique to overcome solubility limitations. This study aims to improve the drug solubility of a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II (BCS II) model drug (Indomethacin; IND) using basic amino acids (L-arginine, L-lysine and L-histidine) as counterions. Three new salts were prepared using freeze drying method and characterised by FT-IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)HNMR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of pH on IND solubility was also investigated using pH-solubility profile. Both arginine and lysine formed novel salts with IND, while histidine failed to dissociate the free acid and in turn no salt was formed. Arginine and lysine increased IND solubility by 10,000 and 2296 fold, respectively. An increase in dissolution rate was also observed for the novel salts. Since these new salts have improved IND solubility to that similar to BCS class I drugs, IND salts could be considered for possible waivers of bioequivalence.

  12. Dipole modes of a superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture in the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Wen; Chen, Bingyan; Zhang, Xuewu

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by the first experimental realization by the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS) group of a mixture of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a Fermi superfluid continuously changing from a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) (Ferrier-Barbut et al 2014 Science 345 1035), we analytically study the dipole modes of the superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture in the BCS-BEC crossover. The analytical approach can explicitly reveal relationships between the frequencies of the dipole modes and the microscopic properties of the novel system. We start from coupled hydrodynamic equations, where the equation of state for the Fermi superfluid in the crossover is an analytical fitting formula based on experimental data, and by using a scaling approach we analytically study eigenfrequencies of the dipole modes for the coupled system in the ENS experimental parameters. Without the boson-fermion interaction in the equilibrium density profiles, our theoretical results can be reduced to the mean-field model and is consistent with the experimental data. However, by further taking into account the boson-fermion interaction numerically and analytically, we find that the results disagree with the experiment, especially in the parameter regime where the boson interaction is smaller than the boson-fermion interaction.

  13. A real space auxiliary field approach to the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarat, Sabyasachi; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2015-03-01

    The BCS to BEC crossover in attractive Fermi systems is a prototype of weak to strong coupling evolution in many body physics. While extensive numerical results are available, and several approximate methods have been developed, most of these schemes are unsuccessful in the presence of spatial inhomogeneity. Such situations call for a real space approach that can handle large spatial scales and retain the crucial thermal fluctuations. With this in mind we present comprehensive results of a real space auxiliary field approach to the BCS to BEC crossover in the attractive Hubbard model in two dimensions. The scheme reproduces the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov ground state, and leads to a T c scale that agrees with quantum Monte Carlo estimates to within a few percent. We provide results on the T c , amplitude and phase fluctuations, density of states, and the momentum resolved spectral function, over the entire interaction and temperature window. We suggest how the method generalises successfully to the presence of disorder, trapping, and population imbalance.

  14. Calculation of composition distribution of ultrafine ion-H2O-H2SO4 clusters using a modified binary ion nucleation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Smith, A. S.; Chan, L. Y.; Yue, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Thomson's ion nucleation theory was modified to include the effects of curvature dependence of the microscopic surface tension of field dependent, nonlinear, dielectric properties of the liquid; and of sulfuric acid hydrate formation in binary mixtures of water and sulfuric acid vapors. The modified theory leads to a broadening of the ion cluster spectrum, and shifts it towards larger numbers of H2O and H2SO4 molecules. Whether there is more shifting towards larger numbers of H2O or H2SO4 molecules depends on the relative humidity and relative acidity of the mixture. Usually, a broadening of the spectrum is accompanied by a lowering of the mean cluster intensity. For fixed values of relative humidity and relative acidity, a similar broadening pattern is observed when the temperature is lowered. These features of the modified theory illustrate that a trace of sulfuric acid can facilitate the formation of ultrafine, stable, prenucleation ion clusters as well as the growth of the prenucleation ion clusters towards the critical saddle point conditions, even with low values of relative humidity and relative acidity.

  15. Modified Statistical Dynamical Diffraction Theory: A Novel Metrological Analysis Method for Partially Relaxed and Defective Carbon-doped Silicon and Silicon Germanium Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreeman, Paul K.

    The statistical dynamical diffraction theory, which has been initially developed by late Kato remained in obscurity for many years due to intense and difficult mathematical treatment that proved to be quite challenging to implement and apply. With assistance of many authors in past (including Bushuev, Pavlov, Pungeov, and among the others), it became possible to implement this unique x-ray diffraction theory that combines the kinematical (ideally imperfect) and dynamical (the characteristically perfect diffraction) into a single system of equations controlled by two factors determined by long range order and correlation function within the structure. The first stage is completed by the publication (Shreeman and Matyi, J. Appl. Cryst., 43, 550 (2010)) demonstrating the functionality of this theory with new modifications hence called modified statistical dynamical diffraction theory (mSDDT). The foundation of the theory is also incorporated into this dissertation, and the next stage of testing the model against several ion-implanted SiGe materials has been published: (Shreeman and Matyi, physica status solidi (a)208(11), 2533-2538, 2011). The dissertation with all the previous results summarized, dives into comprehensive analysis of HRXRD analyses complete with several different types of reflections (symmetrical, asymmetrical and skewed geometry). The dynamical results (with almost no defects) are compared with well-known commercial software. The defective materials, to which commercially available modeling software falls short, is then characterized and discussed in depth. The results will exemplify the power of the novel approach in the modified statistical dynamical diffraction theory: Ability to detect and measure defective structures qualitatively and quantitatively. The analysis will be compared alongside with TEM data analysis for verification and confirmation. The application of this theory will accelerate the ability to quickly characterize the relaxed

  16. Modified transition state theory and negative apparent activation energies of simple metathesis reactions: application to the reaction CH3 + HBr --> CH4 + Br.

    PubMed

    Krasnoperov, Lev N; Peng, Jingping; Marshall, Paul

    2006-03-09

    A modified transition state theory (MTST) has been developed for gas-phase reactions with "negative barriers". The theory was applied to the reactions CH3 + HBr(DBr) --> CH4(CH3D) + Br (1a, 1b), which exhibit negative temperature dependences. Accurate ab initio calculations performed with coupled cluster theory extrapolated to the complete basis set limit revealed a transition state located at -2.3 kJ mol(-1) relative to the ground state of the reactants (in reaction 1a), as well as a shallow bound complex. The negative temperature dependence, the absolute values of the rate constant, and the isotope substitution effect are reproduced with good accuracy (10%), without any adjustment or fitting parameters. Analytical expressions are presented for MTST including angular momentum conservation, centrifugal barriers and tunneling. This analysis uses information about the possibly loose entrance barrier and the transition state but does not invoke a statistical intermediate complex.

  17. Modified first-order Horava-Lifshitz gravity: Hamiltonian analysis of the general theory and accelerating FRW cosmology in a power-law F(R) model

    SciTech Connect

    Carloni, Sante; Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Oksanen, Markku

    2010-09-15

    We propose the most general modified first-order Horava-Lifshitz gravity, whose action does not contain time derivatives higher than the second order. The Hamiltonian structure of this theory is studied in all the details in the case of the spatially-flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time, demonstrating many of the features of the general theory. It is shown that, with some plausible assumptions, including the projectability of the lapse function, this model is consistent. As a large class of such theories, the modified Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity is introduced. The study of its ultraviolet properties shows that its z=3 version seems to be renormalizable in the same way as the original Horava-Lifshitz proposal. The Hamiltonian analysis of the modified Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity shows that it is in general a consistent theory. The F(R) gravity action is also studied in the fixed-gauge form, where the appearance of a scalar field is particularly illustrative. Then the spatially-flat FRW cosmology for this F(R) gravity is investigated. It is shown that a special choice of parameters for this theory leads to the same equations of motion as in the case of traditional F(R) gravity. Nevertheless, the cosmological structure of the modified Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity turns out to be much richer than for its traditional counterpart. The emergence of multiple de Sitter solutions indicates the possibility of unification of early-time inflation with late-time acceleration within the same model. Power-law F(R) theories are also investigated in detail. It is analytically shown that they have a quite rich cosmological structure: early-/late-time cosmic acceleration of quintessence, as well as of phantom types. Also it is demonstrated that all the four known types of finite-time future singularities may occur in the power-law Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity. Finally, a covariant proposal for (renormalizable) F(R) gravity within the Horava-Lifshitz spirit is presented.

  18. Experimental Sensing and Density Functional Theory Study of H2S and SOF2 Adsorption on Au‐Modified Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Wu, Xiaoqing; Hu, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor is used to detect SF6 decomposed gases, which are related to insulation faults, to accurately assess the insulated status of electrical equipment. Graphene films (GrF) modified with Au nanoparticles are used as an adsorbent for the detection of H2S and SOF2, which are two characteristic products of SF6 decomposed gases. Sensing experiments are conducted at room temperature. Results demonstrate that Au‐modified GrF yields opposite responses to the tested gases and is thus considered a promising material for developing H2S‐ and SOF2‐selective sensors. The first‐principles approach is applied to simulate the interaction between the gases and Au‐modified GrF systems and to interpret experimental data. The observed opposite resistance responses can be attributed to the charge‐transfer differences related to the interfacial interaction between the gases and systems. The density of states and Mulliken population analysis results confirm the apparent charge transfer in Au‐modified GrF chemisorption, whereas the van der Waals effect dominates the pristine graphene adsorption systems. Calculation results can also explicate the significant SOF2 responses on Au‐modified GrF. This work is important in graphene modulation and device design for selective detection. PMID:27722075

  19. BCS-BEC crossover on the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Erhai; Paramekanti, Arun

    2006-12-08

    The attractive Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice exhibits, at half filling, a quantum critical point between a semimetal with massless Dirac fermions and an s-wave superconductor (SC). We study the BCS-BEC crossover in this model away from half filling at zero temperature and show that the appropriately defined crossover line (in the interaction-density plane) passes through the quantum critical point at half filling. For a range of densities around half filling, the "underlying Fermi surface" of the SC, defined as the momentum space locus of minimum energy quasiparticle excitations, encloses an area which changes nonmonotonically with interaction. We also study fluctuations in the SC and the semimetal, and show the emergence of an undamped Leggett mode deep in the SC. Finally, we consider possible implications for ultracold atoms in optical lattices and the high temperature SCs.

  20. History of Soil Survey and Evolution of the Brazilian Soil Classification System - SiBCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha dos Anjos, Lúcia Helena; Csekö Nolasco de Carvalho, Claudia; Homem Antunes, Mauro Antonio; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    national soil classification was presented by Marcelo Camargo (Embrapa Soils) and Jacob Bennema (FAO adviser). When Soil Taxonomy was first published in 1975, a field workshop was held in Brazil, and the system was not accepted by the country scientists; one main reason was the usage of climate as a main attribute for suborders. In 1978, the first national soil field correlation meeting was held with the goal of developing the national system, giving origin to the Brazilian Soil Classification System (SiBCS). In 1980, a working group was created by Embrapa Soils and other institutes resulting in four approximations of the system. In 1999, the first edition of the SiBCS was released, followed by a second edition in 2006 and the third in 2013. The SiBCS is a hierarchic system, based on morphogenetic soil attributes, with six categorical levels: order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. It has 13 soil orders, and it is structured as a key down to subgroup level. Many soil attributes are based on concepts adopted by the Soil Taxonomy (United States) and by the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB - FAO). The development of the SiBCS is supervised by a national executive committee, and information is available at http://www.cnps.embrapa.br/sibcs (in Portuguese).

  1. Drug carrier systems for solubility enhancement of BCS class II drugs: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Bhargava, Deepak; Thakkar, Arti; Arora, Saahil

    2013-01-01

    Poor aqueous solubility impedes a drug's bioavailability and challenges its pharmaceutical development. Pharmaceutical development of drugs with poor water solubility requires the establishment of a suitable formulation layout among various techniques. Various approaches have been investigated extensively to improve the aqueous solubility and poor dissolution rate of BCS class II and IV drugs. In this literature review, novel formulation options, particularly for class II drugs designed for applications such as micronization, self-emulsification, cyclodextrin complexation, co-crystallisation, super critical fluid technology, solubilisation by change in pH, salt formation, co-solvents, melt granulation, and solid dispersion, liposomal/niosomal formulations, are discussed in detail to introduce biopharmaceutical challenges and recent approaches to facilitate more efficient drug formulation and development.

  2. Purely in silico BCS classification: science based quality standards for the world's drugs.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Kim, Young Hoon; Ramachandran, Chandrasekharan; Crippen, Gordon M; Takagi, Toshihide; Bermejo, Marival; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-11-04

    BCS classification is a vital tool in the development of both generic and innovative drug products. The purpose of this work was to provisionally classify the world's top selling oral drugs according to the BCS, using in silico methods. Three different in silico methods were examined: the well-established group contribution (CLogP) and atom contribution (ALogP) methods, and a new method based solely on the molecular formula and element contribution (KLogP). Metoprolol was used as the benchmark for the low/high permeability class boundary. Solubility was estimated in silico using a thermodynamic equation that relies on the partition coefficient and melting point. The validity of each method was affirmed by comparison to reference data and literature. We then used each method to provisionally classify the orally administered, IR drug products found in the WHO Model list of Essential Medicines, and the top-selling oral drug products in the United States (US), Great Britain (GB), Spain (ES), Israel (IL), Japan (JP), and South Korea (KR). A combined list of 363 drugs was compiled from the various lists, and 257 drugs were classified using the different in silico permeability methods and literature solubility data, as well as BDDCS classification. Lastly, we calculated the solubility values for 185 drugs from the combined set using in silico approach. Permeability classification with the different in silico methods was correct for 69-72.4% of the 29 reference drugs with known human jejunal permeability, and for 84.6-92.9% of the 14 FDA reference drugs in the set. The correlations (r(2)) between experimental log P values of 154 drugs and their CLogP, ALogP and KLogP were 0.97, 0.82 and 0.71, respectively. The different in silico permeability methods produced comparable results: 30-34% of the US, GB, ES and IL top selling drugs were class 1, 27-36.4% were class 2, 22-25.5% were class 3, and 5.46-14% were class 4 drugs, while ∼8% could not be classified. The WHO list

  3. Two-band superfluidity from the BCS to the BEC limit

    SciTech Connect

    Iskin, M.; Sa de Melo, C. A. R.

    2006-10-01

    We analyze the evolution of two-band superfluidity from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) limit. When the interband interaction is tuned from negative to positive values, a quantum phase transition occurs from a 0-phase to a {pi}-phase state, depending on the relative phase of the two order parameters. Furthermore, population imbalances between the two bands can be created by tuning the intraband or interband interactions. We also find two undamped low-energy collective excitations corresponding to in-phase and out-of-phase modes. Lastly, we derive the coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations, and show that they reduce to coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for two types of bosons in the BEC limit.

  4. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Cary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  5. Provisional in-silico biopharmaceutics classification (BCS) to guide oral drug product development

    PubMed Central

    Wolk, Omri; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate in-silico predictions of physicochemical properties, in order to guide oral drug development by provisional biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). Four in-silico methods were used to estimate LogP: group contribution (CLogP) using two different software programs, atom contribution (ALogP), and element contribution (KLogP). The correlations (r2) of CLogP, ALogP and KLogP versus measured LogP data were 0.97, 0.82, and 0.71, respectively. The classification of drugs with reported intestinal permeability in humans was correct for 64.3%–72.4% of the 29 drugs on the dataset, and for 81.82%–90.91% of the 22 drugs that are passively absorbed using the different in-silico algorithms. Similar permeability classification was obtained with the various in-silico methods. The in-silico calculations, along with experimental melting points, were then incorporated into a thermodynamic equation for solubility estimations that largely matched the reference solubility values. It was revealed that the effect of melting point on the solubility is minor compared to the partition coefficient, and an average melting point (162.7°C) could replace the experimental values, with similar results. The in-silico methods classified 20.76% (±3.07%) as Class 1, 41.51% (±3.32%) as Class 2, 30.49% (±4.47%) as Class 3, and 6.27% (±4.39%) as Class 4. In conclusion, in-silico methods can be used for BCS classification of drugs in early development, from merely their molecular formula and without foreknowledge of their chemical structure, which will allow for the improved selection, engineering, and developability of candidates. These in-silico methods could enhance success rates, reduce costs, and accelerate oral drug products development. PMID:25284986

  6. Novel insights into excipient effects on the biopharmaceutics of APIs from different BCS classes: Lactose in solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Kubbinga, Marlies; Moghani, Laura; Langguth, Peter

    2014-09-30

    Excipients encompass a wide range of properties that are of importance for the resulting drug product. Regulatory guidelines on biowaivers for immediate release formulations require an in depth understanding of the biopharmaceutic effects of excipients in order to establish bioequivalence between two different products carrying the same API based on dissolution tests alone. This paper describes a new approach in evaluating biopharmaceutic excipient effects. Actually used quantities of a model excipient, lactose, formulated in combination with APIs from different BCS classes were evaluated. The results suggest that companies use different (relative) amounts depending on the characteristics of the API. The probability of bioinequivalence due to a difference in lactose content between test and reference products was classified as low for BCS class I APIs and medium for BCS class II and III APIs, whereas a high probability was assigned to the combination of lactose and BCS class IV APIs. If repeated for other excipients, this retrospective, top-down approach may lead to a new database and more widespread applications of the biowaiver approach.

  7. Free vibration and biaxial buckling analysis of magneto-electro-elastic microplate resting on visco-Pasternak substrate via modified strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalpoor, A.; Ahmadi-Savadkoohi, A.; Hosseini-Hashemi, Sh

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of free vibration and biaxial buckling of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) microplate resting on Kelvin-Voigt visco-Pasternak foundation and subjected to initial external electric and magnetic potentials, using modified strain gradient theory (MSGT). Kirchhoff plate model and Hamilton’s principle are employed to extract the governing equations of motion. Governing equations were analytically solved to obtain clear closed-form expression for complex natural frequencies and buckling loads using Navier’s approach. Numerical results are presented to reveal variations of natural frequency and buckling load ratio of MEE microplate against different amounts of the length scale parameter, initial external electric and magnetic potentials, aspect ratio, damping and transverse and shear stiffness parameters of the visco-Pasternak foundation, length to thickness ratio, microplate thickness and higher modes. Numerical results of this study illustrate that by increasing thickness-to-material length scale parameter ratio, both natural frequency and buckling load ratio predicted by MSGT and modified couple stress theory are reduced because the non-dimensional length scale parameter tends to decrease the stiffness of structures and make them more flexible. In addition, results show that initial external electric and initial external magnetic potentials have no considerable influence on the buckling load ratio and frequency of MEE microplate as the microplate thickness increases.

  8. The low/high BCS permeability class boundary: physicochemical comparison of metoprolol and labetalol.

    PubMed

    Zur, Moran; Gasparini, Marisa; Wolk, Omri; Amidon, Gordon L; Dahan, Arik

    2014-05-05

    Although recognized as overly conservative, metoprolol is currently the common low/high BCS permeability class boundary reference compound, while labetalol was suggested as a potential alternative. The purpose of this study was to identify the various characteristics that the optimal marker should exhibit, and to investigate the suitability of labetalol as the permeability class reference drug. Labetalol's BCS solubility class was determined, and its physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability were thoroughly investigated, both in vitro and in vivo in rats, considering the complexity of the whole of the small intestine. Labetalol was found to be unequivocally a high-solubility compound. In the pH range throughout the small intestine (6.5-7.5), labetalol exhibited pH-dependent permeability, with higher permeability at higher pH values. While in vitro octanol-buffer partitioning (Log D) values of labetalol were significantly higher than those of metoprolol, the opposite was evident in the in vitro PAMPA permeability assay. The results of the in vivo perfusion studies in rats lay between the two contradictory in vitro studies; metoprolol was shown to have moderately higher rat intestinal permeability than labetalol. Theoretical distribution of the ionic species of the drugs was in corroboration with the experimental in vitro and the in vivo data. We propose three characteristics that the optimal permeability class reference drug should exhibit: (1) fraction dose absorbed in the range of 90%; (2) the optimal marker drug should be absorbed largely via passive transcellular permeability, with no/negligible carrier-mediated active intestinal transport (influx or efflux); and (3) the optimal marker drug should preferably be nonionizable. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that neither metoprolol nor labetalol can be regarded as optimal low/high-permeability class boundary standard. While metoprolol is too conservative due to its complete absorption

  9. Applying Bayesian Compressed Sensing (BCS) for sensitivity analysis ofclimate model outputs that depend on a high-dimensional input space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, K.; Guo, Z.; Wang, M.; Lucas, D. D.; Debusschere, B.

    2014-12-01

    High-dimensional parametric uncertainty exists in many parts of atmospheric climatemodels. It is computationally intractable to fully understand their impact on the climatewithout a significant reduction in the number of dimensions. We employ Bayesian CompressedSensing (BCS) to perform adaptive sensitivity analysis in order to determine whichparameters affect the Quantity of Interest (QoI) the most and the least. In short, BCSfits a polynomial to the QoI via a Bayesian framework with an L1 (Laplace) prior. Thus,BCS tries to find the sparsest polynomial representation of the QoI, i.e., the fewestterms, while still trying to retain high accuracy. This procedure is adaptive in the sensethat higher order polynomial terms can be added to the polynomial model when it is likely thatparticular parameters have a significant effect on the QoI. This helps avoid overfitting and is much more computationally efficient. We apply the BCS algorithm to two sets of single column CAM (Community Atmosphere Model)simulations. In the first application, we analyze liquid cloud fraction as modeled byCLUBB (Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals), an atmospheric cloud and turbulence model.This liquid cloud fraction QoI depends on 29 different input parameters. We compare mainSobol sensitivity indices obtained with the BCS algorithm for the liquid cloud fraction in6 cases, with a previous approach to sensitivity analysis using deviance. We show BCS canprovide almost identical sensitivity analysis results. Additionally, BCS can provide animproved, lower-dimensional, higher order model for prediction. In the secondapplication, we study the time averaged ozone concentration, at varying altitudes, as afunction of 95 photochemical parameters, in order to study the sensitivity to theseparameters. To further improve model prediction, we also explore k-fold cross validationto obtain a better model for both liquid cloud fraction in CLUBB and ozone concentrationin CAM. This material is based upon work

  10. Excitation dynamics in Phycoerythrin 545: modeling of steady-state spectra and transient absorption with modified Redfield theory.

    PubMed

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Doust, Alexander B; Curutchet, Carles; Scholes, Gregory D; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2010-07-21

    We model the spectra and excitation dynamics in the phycobiliprotein antenna complex PE545 isolated from the unicellular photosynthetic cryptophyte algae Rhodomonas CS24. The excitonic couplings between the eight bilins are calculated using the CIS/6-31G method. The site energies are extracted from a simultaneous fit of the absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and excitation anisotropy spectra together with the transient absorption kinetics using the modified Redfield approach. Quantitative fit of the data enables us to assign the eight exciton components of the spectra and build up the energy transfer picture including pathways and timescales of energy relaxation, thus allowing a visualization of excitation dynamics within the complex.

  11. Gaussian fluctuations in the two-dimensional BCS-BEC crossover: finite temperature properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bighin, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2016-02-01

    The role of fluctuations is enhanced in lower dimensionality systems: in a two dimensions off- diagonal long-range order is destroyed by the fluctuations at any finite temperature, drastically modifying the critical properties with respect to the three-dimensional counterpart. Recently two-dimensional systems of interacting fermions have been the subject of Montecarlo studies and experimental investigations, in particular an ultracold gas of attractive fermions with a widely tunable interaction due to a Feshbach resonance has been realized and the Berezinskii- Kosterlitz-Thouless transition has been observed. The present work deals with the theoretical description of an ultracold Fermi gas: we discuss the role of Gaussian fluctuations of the order parameter in the equation of state, in particular we take into account the first sound velocity, showing that the inclusion of order parameter fluctuations is needed in order to get the correct composite-boson limit in the strong-coupling regime. The theory is also compared with experimental data. Finally we focus on the superfluid density in the weak-coupling, intermediate and strong-coupling regimes at finite temperature, through which the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless critical temperature is obtained.

  12. A Density Functional Theory Examination of the Local Conformational Energetics of Normal and Epigenetically Modified Duplex DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir; Olson, Wilma

    2013-03-01

    We report density functional theory calculations of various local regions of duplex DNA, including hydrogen bonded base pairs, stacked nearest-neighbor bases, and sugar-phosphate backbones. Special attention is given to the methylation of 5-cytosine, an epigenetic modification believed to play a key role in eukaryotic gene regulation. Energetically stable molecular conformations are identified and their elastic properties analyzed. Our results are compared with previous ab initio studies and high-resolution crystalline structural data.

  13. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms based on biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) literature data: verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol.

    PubMed

    Vogelpoel, H; Welink, J; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Möller, H; Olling, M; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2004-08-01

    Literature data related to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) are presented on verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol in the form of BCS-monographs. Data on the qualitative composition of immediate release (IR) tablets containing these active substances with a Marketing Authorization (MA) in the Netherlands (NL) are also provided; in view of these MA's the assumption was made that these tablets were bioequivalent to the innovator product. The development of a database with BCS-related data is announced by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP).

  14. Effective Hamiltonian based Monte Carlo for the BCS to BEC crossover in the attractive Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasrija, Kanika; Chakraborty, Prabuddha B.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-10-01

    We present an effective Hamiltonian based real-space approach for studying the weak-coupling BCS to the strong-coupling Bose-Einstein condensate crossover in the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model at finite temperatures. We introduce and justify an effective classical Hamiltonian to describe the thermal fluctuations of the relevant auxiliary fields. Our results for Tc and phase diagrams compare very well with those obtained from more sophisticated and CPU-intensive numerical methods. We demonstrate that the method works in the presence of disorder and can be a powerful tool for a real-space description of the effect of disorder on superconductivity. From a combined analysis of the superconducting order parameter, the distribution of auxiliary fields, and the quasiparticle density of states, we identify the regions of metallic, insulating, superconducting, and pseudogapped behavior. Our finding of the importance of phase fluctuations for the pseudogap behavior is consistent with the conclusions drawn from recent experiments on NbN superconductors. The method can be generalized to study superconductors with nontrivial order-parameter symmetries by identifying the relevant auxiliary variables.

  15. Pairing in the BCS and LN approximations using continuum single particle level density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Id Betan, R. M.; Repetto, C. E.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the properties of drip line nuclei requires to take into account the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy of the system. This paper has the purpose to show that the continuum single particle level density is a convenient way to consider the pairing correlation in the continuum. Isospin mean-field and isospin pairing strength are used to find the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and Lipkin-Nogami (LN) approximate solutions of the pairing Hamiltonian. Several physical properties of the whole chain of the Tin isotope, as gap parameter, Fermi level, binding energy, and one- and two-neutron separation energies, were calculated and compared with other methods and with experimental data when they exist. It is shown that the use of the continuum single particle level density is an economical way to include explicitly the correlations with the continuum spectrum of energy in large scale mass calculation. It is also shown that the computed properties are in good agreement with experimental data and with more sophisticated treatment of the pairing interaction.

  16. Composite bosons in the two-dimensional BCS-BEC crossover from Gaussian fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salasnich, L.; Toigo, F.

    2015-01-01

    We study Gaussian fluctuations of the zero-temperature attractive Fermi gas in the two-dimensional (2D) BCS-BEC crossover showing that they are crucial to get a reliable equation of state in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regime of composite bosons, bound states of fermionic pairs. A low-momentum expansion up to the fourth order of the quadratic action of the fluctuating pairing field gives an ultraviolent divergent contribution of the Gaussian fluctuations to the grand potential. Performing dimensional regularization we evaluate the effective coupling constant in the beyond-mean-field grand potential. Remarkably, in the BEC regime our grand potential gives exactly the Popov's equation of state of 2D interacting bosons, and allows us to identify the scattering length aB of the interaction between composite bosons as aB=aF/(21 /2e1 /4) =0.551 ...aF , with aF is the scattering length of fermions. Remarkably, the value from our analytical relationship between the two scattering lengths is in full agreement with that obtained by recent Monte Carlo calculations.

  17. Antiferromagnetic Ising spin glass competing with BCS pairing interaction in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, S. G.; Zimmer, F. M.; Kipper, C. J.; Calegari, E. J.

    2006-07-01

    The competition among spin glass (SG), antiferromagnetism (AF) and local pairing superconductivity (PAIR) is studied in a two-sublattice fermionic Ising spin glass model with a local BCS pairing interaction in the presence of an applied magnetic transverse field Γ. In the present approach, spins in different sublattices interact with a Gaussian random coupling with an antiferromagnetic mean J0 and standard deviation J. The problem is formulated in the path integral formalism in which spin operators are represented by bilinear combinations of Grassmann variables. The saddle-point Grand Canonical potential is obtained within the static approximation and the replica symmetric ansatz. The results are analysed in phase diagrams in which the AF and the SG phases can occur for small g (g is the strength of the local superconductor coupling written in units of J), while the PAIR phase appears as unique solution for large g. However, there is a complex line transition separating the PAIR phase from the others. It is second order at high temperature that ends in a tricritical point. The quantum fluctuations affect deeply the transition lines and the tricritical point due to the presence of Γ.

  18. Trends in Energy Management Technology: BCS Integration Technologies - Open Communications Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2002-09-18

    Our overall purpose in writing this series of articles is to provide Federal energy managers some basic informational tools to assist their decision making process relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential. Since Federal buildings rely on energy management systems more than their commercial counterparts, it is important for energy practitioners to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex systems. This is the second article in a series and will focus on building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and an assessment of current approaches to open communications protocols. This is important because networking is a complex subject and the networks form the basic infrastructure for energy management functions and for integrating a wide variety of OEM equipment into a complete EMCIS. The first article [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. Future topics will concentrate on more practical aspects including applications software, product offerings, networking strategies, and case studies of actual installations. Please refer to the first article for a more complete overview of the purpose and background for this series.

  19. Characterization of a Thermostable d-Stereospecific Alanine Amidase from Brevibacillus borstelensis BCS-1

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Dae Heoun; Kwon, Seok-Joon; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Kwak, Mi-Sun; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Song, Jae Jun; Lee, Seung-Goo; Yoon, Ki-Hong; Sung, Moon-Hee

    2003-01-01

    A gene encoding a new thermostable d-stereospecific alanine amidase from the thermophile Brevibacillus borstelensis BCS-1 was cloned and sequenced. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 199 kDa after gel filtration chromatography and about 30 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme could be composed of a hexamer with identical subunits. The purified enzyme exhibited strong amidase activity towards d-amino acid-containing aromatic, aliphatic, and branched amino acid amides yet exhibited no enzyme activity towards l-amino acid amides, d-amino acid-containing peptides, and NH2-terminally protected amino acid amides. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 85°C and 9.0, respectively. The enzyme remained stable within a broad pH range from 7.0 to 10.0. The enzyme was inhibited by dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol, and EDTA yet was strongly activated by Co2+ and Mn2+. The kcat/Km for d-alaninamide was measured as 544.4 ± 5.5 mM−1 min−1 at 50°C with 1 mM Co2+. PMID:12571020

  20. Static structures of the BCS-like holographic superfluid in AdS4 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shanquan; Liu, Wenbiao; Tian, Yu

    2017-03-01

    We investigate in detail the m2=0 Abelian Higgs model in AdS4 , which is considered as the holographic dual of the most BCS-like superfluid. In homogeneous and isotropic superfluid solutions, we calculate the fourth-sound speeds, the square of which approaches 1 /2 with increasing chemical potential (lowering temperature). Then we present the single dark soliton solutions, which becomes thinner with increasing chemical potential. For the first time, we also find the interesting double and triple dark soliton solutions, which is unexpected and shows the possibility of more complicated static configurations. Finally, we investigate vortex solutions. For winding number n =1 , the vortex becomes thinner with increasing chemical potential. At a given chemical potential, with increasing winding number, first the vortex becomes bigger and the charge density depletion becomes larger, and then the charge density depletion settles down at a certain value and the growth of the vortex size is found to obey a scaling symmetry.

  1. Revisiting the BCS, a measurement system for characterizing the optics of solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, J. W.

    The Beam Characterization System is being employed at the Sandia's National Solar Thermal Test Facility to characterize the optical performance of heliostats, point-focus solar collectors, and their optical sub-elements as part of the on-going task to develop solar thermal technologies. With this measurement system, images of concentrated solar flux are acquired using digital imaging and processed to obtain such measures of the collector's optical performance as beam power, flux distribution, and beam diameter. Key system elements are a diffusely reflective target for imaging collector beams, meteorological instrumentation including a flux gauge to measure flux at one point in the beam, and a calibration technique to establish a pixel-intensity to flux-density conversion factor for the image. The system is employed in a variety of collector tests such as beam quality, tracking error, and wind effects. The paper describes the Beam Characterization System and its components and presents, for illustration, sample test results. An analysis of the Beam Characterization System's sources of measurement error is presented. Lastly, measurement techniques that employ the BCS to align heliostats and to measure or estimate collector surface slope errors are described.

  2. Evolution of the Universe within the framework of the modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory: The role of the cosmological scalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubaryan, Edvard; Avagyan, Roland; Harutunyan, Gohar; Kotanjyan, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Early and late stages of the cosmological expansion are considered on the base of the modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) theory, under the assumption φ(y)=αH ^{n} (H is the Hubble constant, n is a parameter equal to four in the inflationary stage and one or two at late stages of the Universe evolution). At late stages, dynamical pattern is obtained with uniformly accelerated expansion for different values of σ (σ is the coupling constant between the gravitational and scalar fields). It is remarkable that for the limiting allowed value of α=9/(2σ) and for large σ, this variant of the theory is equivalent to the de Sitter model in the framework of the Einstein theory in the presence of a scalar field φ(y)=αH ^{2}. Therefore, the quasi exponential growth of the scale factor in the limiting case becomes purely exponential. Note that in the previously considered models the behavior of α was a power law. We also consider the inflationary regime with φ(y)=αH ^{4}. It is shown that in this case a model with slow rolling can be constructed.

  3. Correlation between the transition temperature and the superfluid density in BCS superconductor NbB2+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, R.; Shengelaya, A.; Maisuradze, A.; di Castro, D.; Escamilla, R.; Keller, H.

    2008-02-01

    The results of the muon-spin rotation experiments on BCS superconductors NbB2+x ( x=0.2 and 0.34) are reported. Both samples, studied in the present work, exhibit rather broad transitions to the superconducting state, suggesting a distribution of the volume fractions with different transition temperatures (Tc's) . By taking these distributions into account, the dependence of the inverse squared zero-temperature magnetic penetration depth (λ0-2) on Tc was reconstructed for temperatures in the range 1.5K≲Tc≲8.0K . λ0-2 was found to obey the power law dependence λ0-2∝Tc3.1(1) which appears to be common for some families of BCS superconductors as, e.g., Al doped MgB2 and high-temperature cuprate superconductors as underdoped YBa2Cu3O7-δ .

  4. Control of expression by the cellulose synthase (bcsA) promoter region from Acetobacter xylinum BPR 2001.

    PubMed

    Nakai, T; Moriya, A; Tonouchi, N; Tsuchida, T; Yoshinaga, F; Horinouchi, S; Sone, Y; Mori, H; Sakai, F; Hayashi, T

    1998-06-15

    The 5' upstream region (about 3.1kb) of the cellulose synthase operon (bcs operon) has been isolated by cloning from Acetobacter xylinum strain BPR 2001. The expression level of the upstream region was determined using sucrose synthase cDNA as a reporter gene in the shuttle vector pSA19. The expression occurred with the 1.1-kb upstream sequence from the ATG start codon of the bcs operon but not with the 241-bp upstream sequence in A. xylinum, although neither the 1.1-kb nor the 241-bp upstream sequence caused any expression as a promoter in Escherichia coli. The level of expression with the 1. 1-kb upstream sequence in A. aceti was 75% of that in A. xylinum. These results suggest that the upstream region functions as a specific promoter for the Acetobacter genus. The expression was reduced by the introduction of the 241-bp upstream region between the lac promoter and the reporter gene in E. coli and was not detected in A. xylinum. This suggests that the short upstream region composed of 241bp contains the site(s) which causes a negative regulation on the transcription for bcs operon. The production of recombinant protein with the ribosome-binding site (RBS) of A. xylinum obtained from the bcs operon, was reduced to about half in E. coli, and that with the site of the lac promoter was also reduced to about half in A. xylinum. This shows that a species-specific predominance occurs during interaction between mRNA and 16S rRNA in the RBS between A. xylinum and E. coli.

  5. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2012-10-01

    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations.

  6. Modified Iterated perturbation theory in the strong coupling regime and its application to the 3d FCC lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-François; Sémon, Patrick; Shastry, B. Sriram; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2012-02-01

    The Dynamical Mean-Field theory(DMFT) approach to the Hubbard model requires a method to solve the problem of a quantum impurity in a bath of non-interacting electrons. Iterated Perturbation Theory(IPT)[1] has proven its effectiveness as a solver in many cases of interest. Based on general principles and on comparisons with an essentially exact Continuous-Time Quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC)[2], here we show that the standard implementation of IPT fails when the interaction is much larger than the bandwidth. We propose a slight modification to the IPT algorithm by requiring that double occupancy calculated with IPT gives the correct value. We call this method IPT-D. We show how this approximate impurity solver compares with respect to CTQMC. We consider a face centered cubic lattice(FCC) in 3d for different physical properties. We also use IPT-D to study the thermopower using two recently proposed approximations[3]S^* and SKelvin that do not require analytical continuation and show how thermopower is essentially the entropy per particle in the incoherent regime but not in the coherent one.[1]H.Kajueter et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 131(1996)[2]P. Werner, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 076405(2006)[3]B.S. Sriram Shastry Rep. Prog. Phys. 72 016501(2009)

  7. Vortex lattices in a rotating Fermi superfluid in the BCS-BEC crossover with many Landau levels

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Tie-ling; Ma, C.R.; Ma, Yong-li

    2012-08-15

    We present an explicit analytical analysis of the ground state of vortex lattice structure, based on a minimization of the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional in a trapped rotating Fermi superfluid gas. By a Bogoliubov-like transformation we find that the coarse-grained average of the atomic density varies as inverted parabola in three dimensional cases; the Fermi superfluid in the BEC regime enters into the lowest Landau level at fast rotation, in which the vortices form an almost regular triangular lattice over a central region and the vortex lattice is expanded along the radial direction in the outer region; the fluid in the unitarity and BCS regimes occupies many low-lying Landau levels, in which a trapped gas with a triangular vortex lattice has a superfluid core surrounded by a normal gas. The calculation is qualitatively consistent with recent numerical and experimental data both in the vortex lattice structure and vortex numbers and in the density profiles versus the stirring frequency in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present an analysis of vortex lattice in an interacting trapped rotating Fermi superfluid gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposing the vortex from the condensate, we can explain the vortex lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculation is consistent with numerical and experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can characterize experimentally properties in different regimes of the BCS-BEC crossover.

  8. Zero-Temperature Properties of a Strongly Interacting Superfluid Fermi Gas in the BCS-BEC Crossover Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, H.; van Wyk, P.; Hanai, R.; Kagamihara, D.; Inotani, D.; Horikoshi, M.; Ohashi, Y.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate thermodynamic properties and effects of quantum fluctuations in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover region of a superfluid Fermi gas in the low-temperature limit. Including strong-coupling corrections within the framework of an extended T-matrix approximation, we numerically compute the isothermal compressibility χ _n . While quantum fluctuation effects on χ _n in the strong-coupling BEC regime are explained by the quantum depletion due to a repulsive interaction between tightly bound molecules, effects of self-energy shift on the Fermi chemical potential are found to enhance χ _n in the weak-coupling BCS region. We also show that the calculated χ _n agrees well with the recent experiment on a ^6 Li Fermi gas done from the weak-coupling region to the unitarity limit. Our result would be useful for the study of many-body quantum corrections in the BCS-BEC crossover region of a strongly interacting Fermi superfluid.

  9. Modified corrections for London forces in solid-state density functional theory calculations of structure and lattice dynamics of molecular crystals.

    PubMed

    King, Matthew D; Korter, Timothy M

    2012-06-28

    Dispersion forces are critical for defining the crystal structures and vibrational potentials of molecular crystals. It is, therefore, important to include corrections for these forces in periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations of lattice vibrational frequencies. In this study, DFT was augmented with a correction term for London-type dispersion forces in the simulations of the structures and terahertz (THz) vibrational spectra of the dispersion-bound solids naphthalene and durene. The parameters of the correction term were modified to best reproduce the experimental crystal structures and THz spectra. It was found that the accurate reproduction of the lattice dimensions by adjusting the magnitude of the applied dispersion forces resulted in the highest-quality fit of the calculated vibrational modes with the observed THz absorptions. The method presented for the modification of the dispersion corrections provides a practical approach to accurately simulating the THz spectra of molecular crystals, accounting for inherent systematic errors imposed by computational and experimental factors.

  10. Modelling and modifying young heterosexuals' HIV-preventive behaviour; a review of theories, findings and educational implications.

    PubMed

    Abraham, C; Sheeran, P

    1994-07-01

    Studies applying social cognitive frameworks such as the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action to HIV-prevention are reviewed. These models suggest that appropriate beliefs, attitudes, social norms, intentions and perceived self-efficacy are sufficient psychological conditions for safer sexual behaviour. Limitations inherent in these accounts are identified and additional factors which need to be incorporated in psychological models and health education programmes are highlighted. These include, the motivational complexity of sexual behaviour, the emotional and arousal states in which it is enacted, the difficulties of planning what is regarded as spontaneous interaction and contextual factors which can undermine HIV-preventive intentions. Health education interventions aimed at individual, group and community levels are examined in light of this theoretical review and action-focused, empowering interventions grounded in youth culture are recommended.

  11. Modal theory of modified spontaneous emission of a quantum emitter in a hybrid plasmonic photonic-crystal cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamandar Dezfouli, Mohsen; Gordon, Reuven; Hughes, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present an intuitive and accurate modal description of the rich optical physics involved for quantum dipole emitters coupled to hybrid plasmonic photonic-cavity structures. A significant frequency dependence for the spontaneous emission decay rate of a quantum dipole emitter coupled to these hybrid structures is found. In particular, it is shown that a Fano-type resonance reported experimentally in hybrid plasmonic systems arises from a large interference between two dominant quasinormal modes of the systems in the frequency range of interest. The presented modal theory forms an efficient basis for modeling quantum light-matter interactions in these complex hybrid systems and also enables the quantitative prediction and understanding of both radiative and nonradiative coupling for a wide range of dipole positions.

  12. Research in the theory of condensed matter and elementary particles. (Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The proposed research is concerned with problems occupying the common ground between quantum field theory and statistical mechanics. The topics under investigation include: superconformal field theory in two dimensions, its relationship to two dimensional critical phenomena and its applications in string theory; the covariant formulation of the superstring theory; formation of large-scale structures and spatial chaos in dynamical systems; fermion-boson mass relations in BCS type theories; and properties of quantum field theories defined over galois fields. 37 refs.

  13. In Silico Prediction of Drug Dissolution and Absorption with variation in Intestinal pH for BCS Class II Weak Acid Drugs: Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen§

    PubMed Central

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS Class III and BCS class II have been proposed, particularly, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo- BE results and in vitro- dissolution results for a BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH=6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in the low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol L-1/pH) was dramatically reduced compared to the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol L -1/pH). Thus these predictions for oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns largely depend on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be carefully considered for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. PMID:22815122

  14. In silico prediction of drug dissolution and absorption with variation in intestinal pH for BCS class II weak acid drugs: ibuprofen and ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-10-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS class III and BCS class II have been proposed, in particular, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo BE results and in vitro dissolution results for BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH of 6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in a low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol l (-1) /pH) was dramatically reduced compared with the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol l (-1) /pH). Thus these predictions for the oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns depend largely on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be considered carefully for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be a very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard.

  15. Applying Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Criteria to Predict Oral Absorption of Drugs in Dogs: Challenges and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Papich, Mark G; Martinez, Marilyn N

    2015-07-01

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) has been a prognostic tool for assessing the potential effects of formulation on the human drug oral bioavailability. When used in conjunction with in vitro dissolution tests, the BCS can support the prediction of in vivo product performance and the development of mechanistic models that support formulation assessments through the generation of "what if" scenarios. To date, the applicability of existing human BCS criteria has not been evaluated in dogs, thereby limiting its use in canine drug development. Therefore, we examined 50 drugs for which absolute bioavailability (F) was available both in dogs and humans. The drugs were also evaluated for any potential association between solubility (calculated from the dose number, Do) or lipophilicity (LogP) and F in dogs. In humans, solubility is determined in 250 mL of fluid. However, the appropriate volume for classifying drug solubility in dogs has not been established. In this analysis, the estimated volume of a water flush administered to fasted dogs (6 mL) and a volume of 250 mL scaled to a Beagle dog (35 mL) were examined. In addition, in humans, a Do value greater than 1.0 is used to define a compound as highly soluble and a LogP value greater than 1.72 as high permeability. These same criteria were applied for defining highly soluble and highly permeable in dogs. Whether using 35 or 6 mL to determine Do, the canine solubility classification remained unchanged for all but seven compounds. There were no clear associations between a drug's F in dogs and humans or between the canine value of F and either its human BCS classification, its LogP value, or the canine Do estimate. There was a tendency for those drugs with canine values of F equal to or greater than 80% to have LogP values equal to or greater than 1.0. Exceptions to this observation tended to be those compounds known to be absorbed via mechanisms other than passive diffusion (e.g., via transporters or

  16. Fumaric acid microenvironment tablet formulation and process development for crystalline cenicriviroc mesylate, a BCS IV compound.

    PubMed

    Menning, Mark M; Dalziel, Sean M

    2013-11-04

    Cenicriviroc mesylate (CVC) is a potent dual antagonist of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) in phase 2b development as an entry inhibitor for HIV-1 infection treatment.1,2 CVC is a weak base exhibiting BCS IV characteristics with a highly pH dependent solubility profile (>100 mg/mL for pH < 2 and <0.2 μg/mL for pH > 4) and low Caco-2 cell line permeability. Previous tablet formulations of CVC, including spray-dried dispersion and a wet granulation with citric acid, had been found unacceptable for commercial use due to chemical and physical instability or unacceptably high excipient loading precluding fixed-dose combinability. A high drug loading, 26% (w/w), acidic microenvironment tablet formulation with fumaric acid solubilizer (1:1 CVC/fumaric acid) and a dry granulation process was developed iteratively through a sequence of prototypes characterized by beagle dog absorption studies, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and accelerated stability testing. The fumaric acid based dry granulated product demonstrated a mean bioavailability comparable to an oral solution dose in a dog model. Stability and moisture sensitivity of the formulation were improved via the dry granulation process technique and the use of fumaric acid. It is hypothesized that the observed slow dissolution kinetics of fumaric acid prolongs an acidic microenvironment around the agglomerated CVC crystals and excipients leading to increased CVC dissolution and thereby absorption. The fumaric acid formulation also demonstrated absorption resilience to gastric pH extremes in a dog model. This optimized formulation and process enables CVC to be a viable candidate for current HIV treatment paradigms of single once daily fixed-dose combination products.

  17. Solution-state polymer assemblies influence BCS class II drug dissolution and supersaturation maintenance.

    PubMed

    Dalsin, Molly C; Tale, Swapnil; Reineke, Theresa M

    2014-02-10

    Spray dried dispersions (SDDs), solid dispersions of polymer excipients and active pharmaceuticals, are important to the field of oral drug delivery for improving active stability, bioavailability, and efficacy. Herein, we examine the influence of solution-state polymer assemblies on amorphous spray-dried dispersion (SDD) performance with two BCS II model drugs, phenytoin and probucol. These drugs were spray dried with 4 model polymer excipients consisting of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP), N,N,-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), or 2-methacrylamido glucopyranose (MAG): amphiphilic diblock ter- and copolymers, PEP-P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PEP-PDMA, and their respective hydrophilic analogues, P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PDMA. Selective and nonselective solvents for the hydrophilic block of the diblock ter- and copolymers were used to induce or repress solution-state assemblies prior to spray drying. Prespray dried solution-state assemblies of these four polymers were probed with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and showed differences in solution assembly size and structure (free polymer versus aggregates versus micelles). Solid-state structures of spray dried dispersions (SDDs) showed a single glass transition event implying a homogeneous mixture of drug/polymer. Crystallization temperatures and enthalpies indicated that the drugs interact mostly with the DMA-containing portions of the polymers. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine SDD particle size and morphology for the various polymer-drug pairings. In vitro dissolution tests showed excellent performance for one system, spray-dried PEP-PDMA micelles with probucol. Dissolution structures were investigated through DLS to determine drug-polymer aggregates that lead to enhanced SDD performance. Forced aggregation of the polymer into regular micelle structures was found to be a critical factor to increase the dissolution rate and supersaturation maintenance of SDDs, and may be an attractive platform to exploit in excipient

  18. Study on phosphor sedimentation effect in white light-emitting diode packages by modeling multi-layer phosphors with the modified Kubelka-Munk theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Run; Wang, Yiman; Zou, Yong; Chen, Xing; Liu, Sheng; Luo, Xiaobing

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we studied the phosphor sedimentation effect in white phosphor-converted light-emitting diode packages by modeling the multi-layer phosphors with gradient concentrations. The essence of phosphor sedimentation can attribute to the variation of phosphor concentrations. By modifying the Kubelka-Munk theory, we built a multi-layer phosphor model with considering the light scattering, light absorption, and light conversion process simultaneously. With a brief review of Kubelka-Munk theory, multi-layer phosphors were modeled on the basis of single-layer phosphor model. The phosphor sedimentation effect was characterized by modeling multi-layer phosphors with gradient concentrations, whereas keeping the total amount of phosphors at the same level. It is found from the five calculation cases that phosphor sedimentation will cause the drop of light extraction efficiency (LEE) by 13.04%. Furthermore, the phosphor layer with inverse-gradient concentrations will enhance the LEE 16.56%. To figure out the reasons, the light losses were calculated, and it is proved that the light loss is enhanced when phosphor sedimentation happens.

  19. Nonadiabatic couplings from time-dependent density functional theory: formulation in the Casida formalism and practical scheme within modified linear response.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunping; Hirai, Hirotoshi; Sugino, Osamu

    2007-08-14

    We present an efficient method to compute nonadiabatic couplings (NACs) between the electronically ground and excited states of molecules, within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in frequency domain. Based on the comparison of dynamic polarizability formulated both in the many-body wave function form and the Casida formalism, a rigorous expression is established for NACs, which is similar to the calculation of oscillator strength in the Casida formalism. The adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) gives results in reasonable accuracy as long as the conical intersection (ci) is not approached too closely, while its performance quickly degrades near the ci point. This behavior is consistent with the real-time TDDFT calculation. Through the use of modified linear response theory together with the ground-state-component separation scheme, the performance of ALDA can be greatly improved, not only in the vicinity of ci but also for Rydberg transitions and charge-transfer excitations. Several calculation examples, including the quantization of NACs from the Jahn-Teller effect in the H3 system, have been given to show that TDDFT can efficiently give NACs with an accuracy comparable to that of wave-function-based methods.

  20. A modified blade element theory for estimation of forces generated by a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system.

    PubMed

    Truong, Q T; Nguyen, Q V; Truong, V T; Park, H C; Byun, D Y; Goo, N S

    2011-09-01

    We present an unsteady blade element theory (BET) model to estimate the aerodynamic forces produced by a freely flying beetle and a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system. Added mass and rotational forces are included to accommodate the unsteady force. In addition to the aerodynamic forces needed to accurately estimate the time history of the forces, the inertial forces of the wings are also calculated. All of the force components are considered based on the full three-dimensional (3D) motion of the wing. The result obtained by the present BET model is validated with the data which were presented in a reference paper. The difference between the averages of the estimated forces (lift and drag) and the measured forces in the reference is about 5.7%. The BET model is also used to estimate the force produced by a freely flying beetle and a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system. The wing kinematics used in the BET calculation of a real beetle and the flapping wing system are captured using high-speed cameras. The results show that the average estimated vertical force of the beetle is reasonably close to the weight of the beetle, and the average estimated thrust of the beetle-mimicking flapping wing system is in good agreement with the measured value. Our results show that the unsteady lift and drag coefficients measured by Dickinson et al are still useful for relatively higher Reynolds number cases, and the proposed BET can be a good way to estimate the force produced by a flapping wing system.

  1. Modified Linear Theory Aircraft Design Tools and Sonic Boom Minimization Strategy Applied to Signature Freezing via F-function Lobe Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Timothy Paul

    Commercial supersonic travel has strong business potential; however, in order for the Federal Aviation Administration to lift its ban on supersonic flight overland, designers must reduce aircraft sonic boom strength to an acceptable level. An efficient methodology and associated tools for designing aircraft for minimized sonic booms are presented. The computer-based preliminary design tool, RapidF, based on modified linear theory, enables quick assessment of an aircraft's sonic boom with run times less than 30 seconds on a desktop computer. A unique feature of RapidF is that it tracks where on the aircraft each segment of the of the sonic boom came from, enabling precise modifications, speeding the design process. Sonic booms from RapidF are compared to flight test data, showing that it is capability of predicting a sonic boom duration, overpressure, and interior shock locations. After the preliminary design is complete, scaled flight tests should be conducted to validate the low boom design. When conducting such tests, it is insufficient to just scale the length; thus, equations to scale the weight and propagation distance are derived. Using RapidF, a conceptual supersonic business jet design is presented that uses F-function lobe balancing to create a frozen sonic boom using lifting surfaces. The leading shock is reduced from 1.4 to 0.83 psf, and the trailing shock from 1.2 to 0.87 psf, 41% and 28% reductions respectfully. By changing the incidence angle of the surfaces, different sonic boom shapes can be created, and allowing the lobes to be re-balanced for new flight conditions. Computational fluid dynamics is conducted to validate the sonic boom predictions. Off-design analysis is presented that varies weight, altitude, Mach number, and propagation angle, demonstrating that lobe-balance is robust. Finally, the Perceived Level of Loudness metric is analyzed, resulting in a modified design that incorporates other boom minimization techniques to further reduce

  2. A reference-modified density functional theory: An application to solvation free-energy calculations for a Lennard-Jones solution.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Tomonari; Maruyama, Yutaka; Mitsutake, Ayori; Koga, Kenichiro

    2016-06-14

    In the conventional classical density functional theory (DFT) for simple fluids, an ideal gas is usually chosen as the reference system because there is a one-to-one correspondence between the external field and the density distribution function, and the exact intrinsic free-energy functional is available for the ideal gas. In this case, the second-order density functional Taylor series expansion of the excess intrinsic free-energy functional provides the hypernetted-chain (HNC) approximation. Recently, it has been shown that the HNC approximation significantly overestimates the solvation free energy (SFE) for an infinitely dilute Lennard-Jones (LJ) solution, especially when the solute particles are several times larger than the solvent particles [T. Miyata and J. Thapa, Chem. Phys. Lett. 604, 122 (2014)]. In the present study, we propose a reference-modified density functional theory as a systematic approach to improve the SFE functional as well as the pair distribution functions. The second-order density functional Taylor series expansion for the excess part of the intrinsic free-energy functional in which a hard-sphere fluid is introduced as the reference system instead of an ideal gas is applied to the LJ pure and infinitely dilute solution systems and is proved to remarkably improve the drawbacks of the HNC approximation. Furthermore, the third-order density functional expansion approximation in which a factorization approximation is applied to the triplet direct correlation function is examined for the LJ systems. We also show that the third-order contribution can yield further refinements for both the pair distribution function and the excess chemical potential for the pure LJ liquids.

  3. Cellulose production, activated by cyclic di-GMP through BcsA and BcsZ, is a virulence factor and an essential determinant of the three-dimensional architectures of biofilms formed by Erwinia amylovora Ea1189.

    PubMed

    Castiblanco, Luisa F; Sundin, George W

    2016-10-18

    Bacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), protein and nucleic acids, which determines the architecture of the biofilm. Erwinia amylovora Ea1189 forms a biofilm inside the xylem of its host, which results in vessel plugging and water transport impairment. The production of the EPSs amylovoran and levan is critical for the formation of a mature biofilm. In addition, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has been reported to positively regulate amylovoran biosynthesis and biofilm formation in E. amylovora Ea1189. In this study, we demonstrate that cellulose is synthesized by E. amylovora Ea1189 and is a major modulator of the three-dimensional characteristics of biofilms formed by this bacterium, and also contributes to virulence during systemic host invasion. In addition, we demonstrate that the activation of cellulose biosynthesis in E. amylovora is a c-di-GMP-dependent process, through allosteric binding to the cellulose catalytic subunit BcsA. We also report that the endoglucanase BcsZ is a key player in c-di-GMP activation of cellulose biosynthesis. Our results provide evidence of the complex composition of the extracellular matrix produced by E. amylovora and the implications of cellulose biosynthesis in shaping the architecture of the biofilm and in the expression of one of the main virulence phenotypes of this pathogen.

  4. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.

  5. Comparison of modeling a conical nanotube resting on the Winkler elastic foundation based on the modified couple stress theory and molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Kianoosh; Mahinzare, Mohammad; Rajabpour, Ali; Ghadiri, Majid

    2017-03-01

    In this article, the free vibration analysis of a thin conical nanotube resting on an elastic foundation is investigated for the first time by means of the modified couple stress theory (MCST) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The proposed model in the MCST framework, its equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived by Hamilton's principle based on the thin shell model of Love. The differential quadrature method (DQM) is applied to discretize the equations of motion. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed via the AIREBO potential function, which is recommended in vibrational studies. The accuracy of the presented model is verified for previous studies with both methods. The novelty of the current study is reporting a specified length scale parameter of MCST which has a good conformity with MD results. This value is exclusively related to the proposed model of the present study. The effect of the elastic foundation stiffness is investigated with molecular dynamics for the first time as well. The results can have many applications, such as in modeling of scanning probe microscopy and biomedical microsystems.

  6. First principles phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure calculations for cadmium telluride under induced pressure: density functional theory, LDA, GGA and modified Becke-Johnson potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabita, Kh; Maibam, Jameson; Indrajit Sharma, B.; Brojen Singh, R. K.; Thapa, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report first principles phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure for cadmium telluride (CdTe) under induced pressure in the light of density functional theory using the local density approximation (LDA), generalised gradient approximation (GGA) and modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential. The structural phase transition of CdTe from a zinc blende (ZB) to a rock salt (RS) structure within the LDA calculation is 2.2 GPa while that within GGA is found to be at 4 GPa pressure with a volume collapse of 20.9%. The elastic constants and parameters (Zener anisotropy factor, Shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus, Kleinmann parameter and Debye’s temperature) of CdTe at different pressures of both the phases have been calculated. The band diagram of the CdTe ZB structure shows a direct band gap of 1.46 eV as predicted by mBJ calculation which gives better results in close agreement with experimental results as compared to LDA and GGA. An increase in the band gap of the CdTe ZB phase is predicted under induced pressure while the metallic nature is retained in the CdTe RS phase.

  7. Effects of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles on the oral absorption of one BCS II drug: a mechanistic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guijiang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    Lipid nanocarriers are becoming a versatile platform for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. In this article, we aimed to explore the gastrointestinal behaviors of lipid nanoparticles and the effect of PEGylation on oral absorption of fenofibrate (FN), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II model drug. FN-loaded PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (FN-PLNs) were prepared by the solvent-diffusion method and characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and drug release. Lipolytic experiments were performed to assess the resistance of lipid nanoparticles against pancreatic lipase. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats after oral administration of FN preparations. The obtained FN-PLNs were 186.7 nm in size with an entrapment efficiency of >95%. Compared to conventional lipid nanoparticles, PLNs exhibited slower drug release in the lipase-containing medium, strikingly reduced mucin binding, and suppressed lipolysis in vitro. Further, oral absorption of FN was significantly enhanced using PLNs with relative bioavailability of 123.9% and 157.0% to conventional lipid nanoparticles and a commercial formulation (Lipanthyl®), respectively. It was demonstrated that reduced mucin trapping, suppressed lipolysis, and/or improved mucosal permeability were responsible for increased oral absorption. These results facilitated a better understanding of the in vivo fate of lipid nanoparticles, and suggested the potential of PLNs as oral carriers of BCS II drugs. PMID:25473287

  8. Nanosuspension development of scutellarein as an active and rapid orally absorbed precursor of its BCS class IV glycoside scutellarin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Miao, Xiaoqing; Cao, Fangrui; Li, Shang; Ai, Nana; Chang, Qi; Lee, Simon M Y; Zheng, Ying

    2014-11-01

    This work addressed solubility and membrane permeability problems of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class IV glycoside scutellarin (SG) by developing a nanosuspension of its aglycone scutellarein (S) as a precursor. An S nanosuspension containing poloxamer 188 was prepared using antisolvent precipitation where hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was utilized as a lyophilizing protectant. Particle size and polydispersity index after redispersion were 342.6 ± 18.2 and 0.32 ± 0.06 nm, respectively. The dissolution rate of the S nanosuspension was superior compared with the physical mixture. No free S, but SG and SG's isomer were detected in plasma following oral delivery of SG or S, S nanosuspension or physical mixture of S. The Cmax values of SG after dosing with the S nanosuspension were 12.0, 8.0, and 4.5-fold higher than the SG, S, or physical mixture, respectively. The Tmax and mean residence time (MRTlast ) of SG after dosing with the S nanosuspension were significantly shorter than S and SG. Treatments with SG, S, or S nanosuspensions reduced the hemorrhage rate in a zebrafish model, but the S nanosuspension exhibited the strongest rescue effect. This study highlights a new strategy to circumvent BCS Class IV flavonoid glycosides using a formulation of their aglycone as a precursor to accelerate oral absorption and improve bioactivity.

  9. Gastrointestinal Behavior of Weakly Acidic BCS Class II Drugs in Man--Case Study of Diclofenac Potassium.

    PubMed

    Van Den Abeele, Jens; Brouwers, Joachim; Mattheus, Ruben; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gastrointestinal supersaturation and precipitation behavior of a weakly acidic Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class II drug in healthy volunteers. For this purpose, a tablet containing 50 mg diclofenac potassium (Cataflam(®)) was predissolved in 240 mL of water and this solution was subsequently orally administered to five healthy volunteers under fasted and fed state conditions with or without concomitant use of a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) (40 mg esomeprazole, Nexiam(®)). Subsequently, total diclofenac content and dissolved intraluminal drug concentrations as well as drug thermodynamic solubility were determined in gastrointestinal aspirates. In all volunteers, gastric supersaturation resulted in precipitation of diclofenac in the stomach. The extent of precipitation correlated well with gastric pH (r = - 0.78). pH dependency of precipitation was corroborated by the absence of precipitate in the stomach after coadministration of a meal and/or a PPI. Diclofenac was found to be fully dissolved in the duodenum in all test conditions. It can be concluded that substantial pH-dependent gastric precipitation of a weakly acidic BCS Class II drug administered as a solution occurs in humans. With regard to its implications for intestinal absorption, results suggest the instantaneous redissolution of gastric drug precipitate upon transfer to the duodenum.

  10. Investigation of Biowaivers for Immediate Release Formulations Containing BCS III Drugs, Acyclovir, Atenolol, and Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride, Using Dissolution Testing.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Kanfer, Isadore

    2017-02-01

    The dissolution of several products containing Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class III drugs, acyclovir, atenolol, and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, listed in the WHO essential drug list (EDL), was tested and compared with their respective comparator pharmaceutical products (CPPs) marketed in South Africa and India. US Pharmacopeia (USP) buffers of pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8 were used as dissolution media and tested using USP apparatus 2 at 75 rpm and 900 ml. Nine acyclovir products were tested, and only three dissolved very rapidly in all media; i.e., they showed a release of >85% in 15 min. Eight atenolol products tested were all very rapidly dissolving in all three pH media. Ten ciprofloxacin hydrochloride products were tested, and the results showed that only five products met the WHO biowaiver criteria. This study indicates that not all marketed products containing the same BCS III active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent as per the WHO biowaiver criteria. Furthermore, selection and availability of an innovator product as CPP are important considerations that can affect the outcomes of such studies.

  11. Field-induced superconducting phase of FeSe in the BCS-BEC cross-over.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Shigeru; Watashige, Tatsuya; Hanaguri, Tetsuo; Kohsaka, Yuhki; Yamashita, Takuya; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Mizukami, Yuta; Endo, Ryota; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Kazushi; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya; Wolf, Thomas; von Löhneysen, Hilbert; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji

    2014-11-18

    Fermi systems in the cross-over regime between weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strongly coupled Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits are among the most fascinating objects to study the behavior of an assembly of strongly interacting particles. The physics of this cross-over has been of considerable interest both in the fields of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. One of the most challenging issues in this regime is the effect of large spin imbalance on a Fermi system under magnetic fields. Although several exotic physical properties have been predicted theoretically, the experimental realization of such an unusual superconducting state has not been achieved so far. Here we show that pure single crystals of superconducting FeSe offer the possibility to enter the previously unexplored realm where the three energies, Fermi energy εF, superconducting gap Δ, and Zeeman energy, become comparable. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that εF of FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio Δ/εF ~ 1(~0.3) in the electron (hole) band. Moreover, thermal-conductivity measurements give evidence of a distinct phase line below the upper critical field, where the Zeeman energy becomes comparable to εF and Δ. The observation of this field-induced phase provides insights into previously poorly understood aspects of the highly spin-polarized Fermi liquid in the BCS-BEC cross-over regime.

  12. Bioadhesive Drug Delivery System for Enhancing the Permeability of a BCS Class III Drug via Hot-Melt Extrusion Technology.

    PubMed

    Mendonsa, Nicole S; Thipsay, Priyanka; Kim, Dong Wuk; Martin, Scott T; Repka, Michael A

    2017-02-28

    As the buccal route of administration has the ability to avoid the GI tract and first-pass effect by directing the absorption toward the cheek area, the bioavailability of BCS class III drugs can be increased through this route. Only a handful of studies have been conducted using oleic acid as a permeation enhancer in any transbuccal drug delivery system. Therefore, the objectives of this novel study were to develop a buccal tablet using two concentrations of oleic acid for a model BCS class III drug via hot-melt extrusion technology and to investigate the effects of oleic acid on the physicochemical properties of the tablet. The model drug selected was ondansetron hydrochloride. Formulations consisting of polymers (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyethylene oxide) and two concentrations of oleic acid were prepared by hot-melt extrusion techniques. A melting point depression of the drug was obtained in the extruded granules as seen by the DSC thermograms. The ex vivo permeation studies showed a greater permeation of the drug in the formulation containing 10% oleic acid (F2) as compared to the formulation containing 20% oleic acid (F1), although not statistically significant. The in vitro bioadhesion studies, swelling studies, and surface pH measurements of the tablets were also conducted. In conclusion, permeation studies exhibited the potential of oleic acid as a buccal permeation enhancer as a significant permeation of the drug was obtained in the formulations. Hot-melt extrusion technology was successfully employed to formulate buccal tablets of ondansetron hydrochloride.

  13. Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the biocorrosion of copper by Gum Arabic, BCS and Pseudomonas atlantica exopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, J.G.; Geesey, G.G.; Hankins, M.R.; Wright, R.B.; Wichlacz, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thin films (3.4 nm) of copper on germanium substrates were exposed to 10% Gum Arabic aqueous solution, 1% BCS (aqueous and simulated sea water solutions) and 0.5% Pseudomonas atlantica exopolymer (aqueous and simulated sea water solutions). Pre- and post-exposure characterization were done by Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ancillary graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the removal process of the copper thin film from the germanium substrate. Results indicate that the copper was oxidized by the Gum Arabic and BCS, and some was removed from the Cu/Ge interface by all three polymers and incorporated into the polymer matrix. Thus biocorrosion of copper was exhibited by the Gum Arabic, BCS and Pseudomonas atlantica exopolymer. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Induced interactions in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhee; Kim, Dong-Hee

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the Gorkov-Melik-Barkhudarov (GM) correction to superfluid transition temperature in two-dimensional Fermi gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) across the SOC-driven BCS-BEC crossover. In the calculation of the induced interaction, we find that the spin-component mixing due to SOC can induce both of the conventional screening and additional antiscreening contributions that interplay significantly in the strong SOC regime. While the GM correction generally lowers the estimate of transition temperature, it turns out that at a fixed weak interaction, the correction effect exhibits a crossover behavior where the ratio between the estimates without and with the correction first decreases with SOC and then becomes insensitive to SOC when it goes into the strong SOC regime. We demonstrate the applicability of the GM correction by comparing the zero-temperature condensate fraction with the recent quantum Monte Carlo results.

  15. A BCS-like gap in the superconductor SmFeAsO0.85F0.15.

    PubMed

    Chen, T Y; Tesanovic, Z; Liu, R H; Chen, X H; Chien, C L

    2008-06-26

    Since the discovery of superconductivity in the high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) copper oxides two decades ago, it has been firmly established that the CuO(2) plane is essential for superconductivity and gives rise to a host of other very unusual properties. A new family of superconductors with the general composition of LaFeAsO(1-x)F(x) has recently been discovered and the conspicuous lack of the CuO(2) planes raises the tantalizing question of a different pairing mechanism in these oxypnictides. The superconducting gap (its magnitude, structure, and temperature dependence) is intimately related to pairing. Here we report the observation of a single gap in the superconductor SmFeAsO(0.85)F(0.15) with T(c) = 42 K as measured by Andreev spectroscopy. The gap value of 2Delta = 13.34 +/- 0.3 meV gives 2Delta/k(B)T(c) = 3.68 (where k(B) is the Boltzmann constant), close to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) prediction of 3.53. The gap decreases with temperature and vanishes at T(c) in a manner consistent with the BCS prediction, but dramatically different from that of the pseudogap behaviour in the copper oxide superconductors. Our results clearly indicate a nodeless gap order parameter, which is nearly isotropic in size across different sections of the Fermi surface, and are not compatible with models involving antiferromagnetic fluctuations, strong correlations, the t-J model, and the like, originally designed for the high-T(c) copper oxides.

  16. The suitability of an in situ perfusion model for permeability determinations: utility for BCS class I biowaiver requests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Seung; Mitchell, Stefanie; Kijek, Paul; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Amidon, Gordon L

    2006-01-01

    The FDA has published recommendations for sponsors who wish to request a waiver of in vivo bioavailability (BA) or bioequivalence (BE) studies for immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Biowaivers can be requested for IR formulations in which the active ingredient is shown to be a BCS class I drug: that is, a drug showing high permeability and high solubility over a pH range of 1-7.5. For permeability determinations, a variety of experimental methods can be used, such as the rat in situ single pass perfusion or Caco-2 cell culture models, once the suitability of the particular method is established. Following the recommended procedure for assessing the suitability of permeability determinations, we determined the permeability of 20 test drugs using the in situ single pass perfusion model in rats. The test compounds were coperfused through jejunal intestinal segments with an internal permeability reference standard (metoprolol) over a 90 min time period. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC, and the ratio of the effective permeability, Peff (cm/s), of test compound to that of metoprolol was determined. To address the question of test drug permeabilities that approach that of the internal standard, we propose that a statistical analysis such as the "0.8-1.25 rule" used for in vivo or in vitro bioequivalence studies provide guidance for permeability classification using the in situ single pass perfusion model. We developed a method using the 90% confidence interval of the permeability ratio of the test to internal reference standard in order to differentiate between high and low permeability compounds. This analysis allowed for the proper permeability classification of all of the test compounds and suggests a robust means for assessing drug permeability classification.

  17. Biowaiver extension potential and IVIVC for BCS Class II drugs by formulation design: Case study for cyclosporine self-microemulsifying formulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Geun

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this work was to suggest the biowaiver potential of biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) Class II drugs in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) which are known to increase the solubility, dissolution and oral absorption of water-insoluble drugs. Cyclosporine was selected as a representative BCS Class II drug. New generic candidate of cyclosporine SMEDDS (test) was applied for the study with brand SMEDDS (reference I) and cyclosporine self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS, reference II). Solubility and dissolution of cyclosporine from SMEDDS were critically enhanced, which were the similar behaviors with BCS class I drug. The test showed the identical dissolution rate and the equivalent bioavailability (0.34, 0.42 and 0.68 of p values for AUC₀(→)₂₄(h), C(max) and T(max), respectively) with the reference I. Based on the results, level A in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was established from these two SMEDDS formulations. This study serves as a good example for speculating the biowaiver extension potential of BCS Class II drugs specifically in solubilizing formulation such as SMEDDS.

  18. ZNF469 frequently mutated in the brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is a single exon gene possibly regulating the expression of several extracellular matrix components

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbach, Marianne; Spencer, Helen L.; Porter, Louise F.; Burkitt-Wright, Emma M.M.; Bürer, Céline; Janecke, Andreas; Bakshi, Madhura; Sillence, David; Al-Hussain, Hailah; Baumgartner, Matthias; Steinmann, Beat; Black, Graeme C.M.; Manson, Forbes D.C.; Giunta, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Brittle cornea syndrome (BCS; MIM 229200) is an autosomal recessive generalized connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in ZNF469 and PRDM5. It is characterized by extreme thinning and fragility of the cornea that may rupture in the absence of significant trauma leading to blindness. Keratoconus or keratoglobus, high myopia, blue sclerae, hyperelasticity of the skin without excessive fragility, and hypermobility of the small joints are additional features of BCS. Transcriptional regulation of extracellular matrix components, particularly of fibrillar collagens, by PRDM5 and ZNF469 suggests that they might be part of the same pathway, the disruption of which is likely to cause the features of BCS. In the present study, we have performed molecular analysis of a cohort of 23 BCS affected patients on both ZNF469 and PRDM5, including those who were clinically reported previously [1]; the clinical description of three additional patients is reported in detail. We identified either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in ZNF469 in 18 patients while, 4 were found to be homozygous for PRDM5 mutations. In one single patient a mutation in neither ZNF469 nor PRDM5 was identified. Furthermore, we report the 12 novel ZNF469 variants identified in our patient cohort, and show evidence that ZNF469 is a single exon rather than a two exon gene. PMID:23680354

  19. ZNF469 frequently mutated in the brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is a single exon gene possibly regulating the expression of several extracellular matrix components.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Marianne; Spencer, Helen L; Porter, Louise F; Burkitt-Wright, Emma M M; Bürer, Céline; Janecke, Andreas; Bakshi, Madhura; Sillence, David; Al-Hussain, Hailah; Baumgartner, Matthias; Steinmann, Beat; Black, Graeme C M; Manson, Forbes D C; Giunta, Cecilia

    2013-07-01

    Brittle cornea syndrome (BCS; MIM 229200) is an autosomal recessive generalized connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in ZNF469 and PRDM5. It is characterized by extreme thinning and fragility of the cornea that may rupture in the absence of significant trauma leading to blindness. Keratoconus or keratoglobus, high myopia, blue sclerae, hyperelasticity of the skin without excessive fragility, and hypermobility of the small joints are additional features of BCS. Transcriptional regulation of extracellular matrix components, particularly of fibrillar collagens, by PRDM5 and ZNF469 suggests that they might be part of the same pathway, the disruption of which is likely to cause the features of BCS. In the present study, we have performed molecular analysis of a cohort of 23 BCS affected patients on both ZNF469 and PRDM5, including those who were clinically reported previously [1]; the clinical description of three additional patients is reported in detail. We identified either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in ZNF469 in 18 patients while, 4 were found to be homozygous for PRDM5 mutations. In one single patient a mutation in neither ZNF469 nor PRDM5 was identified. Furthermore, we report the 12 novel ZNF469 variants identified in our patient cohort, and show evidence that ZNF469 is a single exon rather than a two exon gene.

  20. Equation of State of Ultracold Fermions in the 2D BEC-BCS Crossover Region.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, I; Bayha, L; Kedar, D; Murthy, P A; Neidig, M; Ries, M G; Wenz, A N; Zürn, G; Jochim, S; Enss, T

    2016-01-29

    We report the experimental measurement of the equation of state of a two-dimensional Fermi gas with attractive s-wave interactions throughout the crossover from a weakly coupled Fermi gas to a Bose gas of tightly bound dimers as the interaction strength is varied. We demonstrate that interactions lead to a renormalization of the density of the Fermi gas by several orders of magnitude. We compare our data near the ground state and at finite temperature with predictions for both fermions and bosons from quantum Monte Carlo simulations and Luttinger-Ward theory. Our results serve as input for investigations of close-to-equilibrium dynamics and transport in the two-dimensional system.

  1. Modified cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  2. Unified description of neutron superfluidity in the neutron-star crust with analogy to anisotropic multiband BCS superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chamel, N.; Goriely, S.; Pearson, J. M.; Onsi, M.

    2010-04-15

    The neutron superfluidity in the inner crust of a neutron star has traditionally been studied considering either homogeneous neutron matter or a small number of nucleons confined inside the spherical Wigner-Seitz cell. Drawing analogies with the recently discovered multiband superconductors, we have solved the anisotropic multiband BCS gap equations with Bloch boundary conditions, thus providing a unified description taking consistently into account both the free neutrons and the nuclear clusters. Calculations have been carried out using the effective interaction underlying our recent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov nuclear mass model HFB-16. We have found that even though the presence of inhomogeneities lowers the neutron pairing gaps, the reduction is much less than that predicted by previous calculations using the Wigner-Seitz approximation. We have studied the disappearance of superfluidity with increasing temperature. As an application we have calculated the neutron specific heat, which is an important ingredient for modeling the thermal evolution of newly born neutron stars. This work provides a new scheme for realistic calculations of superfluidity in neutron-star crusts.

  3. Polymer strip films as a robust, surfactant-free platform for delivery of BCS Class II drug nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Krull, Scott M; Susarla, Ramana; Afolabi, Afolawemi; Li, Meng; Ying, Ye; Iqbal, Zafar; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh N

    2015-07-15

    The robustness of the polymer strip film platform to successfully deliver a variety of BCS Class II drug nanoparticles without the need for surfactant while retaining positive characteristics such as nanoparticle redispersibility and fast dissolution is demonstrated. Fenofibrate (FNB), griseofulvin (GF), naproxen (NPX), phenylbutazone (PB), and azodicarbonamide (AZD) were considered as model poorly water-soluble drugs. Their aqueous nanosuspensions, produced via wet stirred media milling, were mixed with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution containing glycerin as plasticizer, followed by casting and drying to form films. For the purpose of comparison, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as surfactant, but was found to be unnecessary for achieving fast dissolution (t80 between 18 and 28 min) for all five drugs. Interestingly, SDS was required for the full recovery of nanoparticles for PB, yet lack of it did not impact the dissolution. Interactions between drug and polymer were investigated with FTIR spectroscopy whereas drug crystallinity within the film was investigated via Raman spectroscopy. Films for all drugs, even for very small samples, exhibited excellent content uniformity (RSD <4%) regardless of use of surfactant. Overall, these results demonstrate the novelty and robustness of the polymer strip film platform for fast release of poorly water-soluble drugs without requiring any surfactants.

  4. From BCS to Vortices: A 40 Year Personal Journey through Superconductivity from Basic Research to Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Paul M.

    2011-03-01

    A century has passed since the discovery of superconductivity in Leiden followed 75 years later by the Great Leap Forward in Zuerich. This talk will chronicle the author's trajectory through the science and technology of superconductivity first taking off with his IBM career in fundamental research on organic and layered copper oxide perovskite superconductors to a final landing at EPRI to explore applications of the latter to the electric power industry. Although many fundamental mysteries remain with respect to the copper and iron compounds, especially regarding the BCS pairing mechanism, nonetheless a significant number of successful demonstrations of cables, rotating machinery, storage and power conditioning equipment employing both low-and high- T superconducting materials have been undertaken worldwide since the decade of the 1960s to the present. However, massive application to the power industry has yet to take place or be inserted into utility long-range planning. Although there will certainly be a relatively small number of opportunistic deployments in those situations where superconductivity has a compelling advantage over conventional technology, its time will more likely await a future revolution in energy and electricity infrastructure such as a symbiosis of nuclear and hydrogen with superconductivity. Perhaps the distant future will even deliver the dream of a room temperature superconductor. ``20th Anniversary of the Woodstock of Physics,'' APS March Meeting 2007, Denver, CO.

  5. Solubility enhancement of BCS Class II drug by solid phospholipid dispersions: Spray drying versus freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Ibisogly, Asiye; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2015-12-30

    The poor aqueous solubility of BCS Class II drugs represents a major challenge for oral dosage form development. Using celecoxib (CXB) as model drug, the current study adopted a novel solid phospholipid nanoparticle (SPLN) approach and compared the effect of two commonly used industrial manufacturing methods, spray- and freeze-drying, on the solubility and dissolution enhancement of CXB. CXB was formulated with Phospholipoid E80 (PL) and trehalose at different CXB:PL:trehalose ratios, of which 1:10:16 was the optimal formulation. Spherical amorphous SPLNs with average diameters <1μm were produced by spray-drying; while amorphous 'matrix'-like structures of solid PL dispersion with larger particle sizes were prepared by freeze-drying. Formulations from both methods significantly enhanced the dissolution rates, apparent solubility, and molecularly dissolved concentration of CXB in phosphate buffer (PBS, pH 6.5) and in biorelevant fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF, pH 6.5) (p<0.05). While similar dissolution rates were found, the spray-dried SPLNs had a larger enhancement in apparent solubility (29- to 132-fold) as well as molecular solubility (18-fold) of CXB at equilibrium (p<0.05). The strong capability of the spray-dried SPLNs to attain 'true' supersaturation state makes them a promising approach for bioavailability enhancement of poorly soluble drugs.

  6. Weak lensing calibration of mass bias in the REFLEX+BCS X-ray galaxy cluster catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simet, Melanie; Battaglia, Nicholas; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uroš

    2017-04-01

    The use of large, X-ray-selected Galaxy cluster catalogues for cosmological analyses requires a thorough understanding of the X-ray mass estimates. Weak gravitational lensing is an ideal method to shed light on such issues, due to its insensitivity to the cluster dynamical state. We perform a weak lensing calibration of 166 galaxy clusters from the REFLEX and BCS cluster catalogue and compare our results to the X-ray masses based on scaled luminosities from that catalogue. To interpret the weak lensing signal in terms of cluster masses, we compare the lensing signal to simple theoretical Navarro-Frenk-White models and to simulated cluster lensing profiles, including complications such as cluster substructure, projected large-scale structure and Eddington bias. We find evidence of underestimation in the X-ray masses, as expected, with = 0.75 ± 0.07 stat. ±0.05 sys. for our best-fitting model. The biases in cosmological parameters in a typical cluster abundance measurement that ignores this mass bias will typically exceed the statistical errors.

  7. Part i: Numerical Investigation of the Rkky Interaction in a BCS Superconductor; Part II: Dynamical Analysis of Leed from the (110) Surfaces of Substitutionally Disordered GALLIUM(X)ALUMINUM(1-X)ARSENIDE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Steven Leslie

    In Part I the spatial spin susceptibility (chi)(r) of a BCS superconductor is calculated using finite temperature Green's functions. A numerical study of the results reveals that the RKKY interaction is only modified by about 2 - 3% from its normal value for distances less than 10 p(,o)(' -1) where p(,o) is the Fermi momentum, and that the change in the RKKY interaction is exponentially damped out at further distances. In Part II we discuss how low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), which has been successful in determining the surface atomic geometries of compound semiconductors, can be extended to surface structure studies of substitutionally disordered ternary semiconductor interfaces. We use an average T-matrix approximation (ATA) to compute the intensities of 30 - 240 eV low-energy electrons diffracted from the (110) surfaces of Ga(,x)Al(,1-x)As(110), for values of x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.32, 0.50, 1.00. We find that our computed diffracted intensities correctly mimic the trends in the experimental data and attempt a structure search for Ga(,0.50)Al(,0.50)As.

  8. Structure and functioning of a multidisciplinary 'Heart Team' for patients with coronary artery disease: rationale and recommendations from a joint BCS/BCIS/SCTS working group.

    PubMed

    Luckraz, Heyman; Norell, Michael; Buch, Mamta; James, Rachael; Cooper, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The decision-making process in the management of patients with ischaemic heart disease has historically been the responsibility of the cardiologist and encompasses medical management, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Currently, there is significant geographical variability in the PCI:CABG ratio. There are now emerging recommendations that this decision-making process should be carried out through a multidisciplinary approach, namely the Heart Team. This work was carried out on behalf of The British Cardiovascular Society (BCS), Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery in Great Britain and Ireland (SCTS) and British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS). This manuscript sets out the principles for the functioning of the Heart Team. This work has been approved by the Executive Committees of BCS/BCIS/SCTS.

  9. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms based on biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) literature data: chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine sulfate, and chloroquine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Verbeeck, R K; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2005-07-01

    Literature data on the properties of chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine sulfate, and chloroquine hydrochloride related to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) are reviewed. The available information indicates that these chloroquine salts can be classified as highly soluble and highly permeable, i.e., BCS class I. The qualitative composition of immediate release (IR) tablets containing these Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) with a Marketing Authorization (MA) in Belgium (BE), Germany (DE), Finland (FI), and The Netherlands (NL) is provided. In view of these MA's and the critical therapeutic indication of chloroquine, it is assumed that the registration authorities had evidence that these formulations are bioequivalent to the innovator. It is concluded that IR tablets formulated with these excipients are candidates for a biowaiver.

  10. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elifritz, Thomas Lee

    1995-01-01

    The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence with the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity.

  11. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

    SciTech Connect

    Elifritz, T.L.

    1994-12-31

    The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition, is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence within the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity.

  12. Sugars as solid dispersion carrier to improve solubility and dissolution of the BCS class II drug: clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Madgulkar, Ashwini; Bandivadekar, Mithun; Shid, Tanaji; Rao, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Solid dispersion of poorly soluble BCS class II drug, clotrimazole, was prepared with the aim of enhancing its dissolution profile. Solid dispersions were prepared using various sugars as carriers at different weight ratio to drug-like d-mannitol, d-fructose, d-dextrose and d-maltose by fusion method. The solubility of plain clotrimazole in different percent of sugar solutions was measured. Also, its solubility in solid dispersion and their physical mixture were assessed. The dissolution of all the prepared SD tablets, direct compressed clotrimazole tablet and plain drug were tested using the U.S. Pharmacopeia convention (USP) apparatus II. The dissolution profiles were characterized by parameters like area under curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT), mean dissolution time (MDT) and percent dissolution efficiency (% DE). The release kinetics study was performed using DD Solver TM software. The selected solid dispersions (SDs) were evaluated for antifungal activity. A 100% solution of mannitol showed 806-fold increases in solubility as compared with plain clotrimazole in water. It was observed that the dissolution profile of clotrimazole was improved by mannitol SD at drug to sugar ration of 1:3. The percent DE value for mannitol SD tablet was found to be 77.3516% as against plain drug and directly compressed tablet of clotrimazole at 50.9439% and 31.33%, respectively. Also the antifungal activity indicated by inhibition zone was found to be 54 mm indicating enhance activity against Candida albicans as compared with plain CTZ at 6.6 mm. Thus, it can be concluded that the sugar alcohol, that is, mannitol is a more promising hydrophilic carrier for solid dispersion preparation to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

  13. A Robust Algorithm for Optimisation and Customisation of Fractal Dimensions of Time Series Modified by Nonlinearly Scaling Their Time Derivatives: Mathematical Theory and Practical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Standard methods for computing the fractal dimensions of time series are usually tested with continuous nowhere differentiable functions, but not benchmarked with actual signals. Therefore they can produce opposite results in extreme signals. These methods also use different scaling methods, that is, different amplitude multipliers, which makes it difficult to compare fractal dimensions obtained from different methods. The purpose of this research was to develop an optimisation method that computes the fractal dimension of a normalised (dimensionless) and modified time series signal with a robust algorithm and a running average method, and that maximises the difference between two fractal dimensions, for example, a minimum and a maximum one. The signal is modified by transforming its amplitude by a multiplier, which has a non-linear effect on the signal's time derivative. The optimisation method identifies the optimal multiplier of the normalised amplitude for targeted decision making based on fractal dimensions. The optimisation method provides an additional filter effect and makes the fractal dimensions less noisy. The method is exemplified by, and explained with, different signals, such as human movement, EEG, and acoustic signals. PMID:24151522

  14. A robust algorithm for optimisation and customisation of fractal dimensions of time series modified by nonlinearly scaling their time derivatives: mathematical theory and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Standard methods for computing the fractal dimensions of time series are usually tested with continuous nowhere differentiable functions, but not benchmarked with actual signals. Therefore they can produce opposite results in extreme signals. These methods also use different scaling methods, that is, different amplitude multipliers, which makes it difficult to compare fractal dimensions obtained from different methods. The purpose of this research was to develop an optimisation method that computes the fractal dimension of a normalised (dimensionless) and modified time series signal with a robust algorithm and a running average method, and that maximises the difference between two fractal dimensions, for example, a minimum and a maximum one. The signal is modified by transforming its amplitude by a multiplier, which has a non-linear effect on the signal's time derivative. The optimisation method identifies the optimal multiplier of the normalised amplitude for targeted decision making based on fractal dimensions. The optimisation method provides an additional filter effect and makes the fractal dimensions less noisy. The method is exemplified by, and explained with, different signals, such as human movement, EEG, and acoustic signals.

  15. CO2 Flux from a Subtropical Mangrove Ecosystem in Magdalena Bay BCS, Mexico Josediego Uribe, Walter C. Oechel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, J.; Oechel, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove forests are among the most productive ecosystems within the tropical and subtropical coastlines of the world. There is currently limited research on mangrove carbon sequestration potentials but with ongoing climate change and rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, an understanding of carbon exchange in mangroves forests and the environmental controls influencing fluxes is extremely important for understanding their role in the global carbon cycle and their potential as stores of CO2. In this study, CO2 flux was evaluated for a subtropical mangrove ecosystem in the arid region of Magdalena Bay BCS, Mexico. Measurements were taken using an eddy covariance system above the canopy during January 8 to the 30, and currently from June 21 to August 28, in 2012. The mangrove forest is located (N25° 15'75", W112° 04'79") near the town of Puerto Lopez Mateos, Mexico. During this time period environmental variables such as Net Radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature, humidity, ground heat flux, soil temperature and tidal height were measured together with the CO2 flux in order to determine the environmental influence on the fluxes. Preliminary results showed a clear diurnal pattern in CO2 flux that showed high sinks when light availability was high. During January, the winter dry season environmental conditions remained relatively cool with an average air temperature of 17 oC and consistently cloudless days. During this period CO2 flux was -1.3 μmol C m-2s-1, which means that for the month of January, there was a net uptake of carbon by the mangrove ecosystem. For the summer period the development of the data collection for a longer term as well as further correlation analysis with environmental data is currently underway, however expectations are that seasonal variations of CO2 flux can be seen due to longer and more intense periods of solar irradiance as well as the effect of high temperature (+30° C) days. Indirect effects

  16. Isolation of a solventogenic Clostridium sp. strain: fermentation of glycerol to n-butanol, analysis of the bcs operon region and its potential regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Panitz, J C; Zverlov, V V; Pham, V T T; Stürzl, S; Schieder, D; Schwarz, W H

    2014-02-01

    A new solventogenic bacterium, strain GT6, was isolated from standing water sediment. 16S-rRNA gene analysis revealed that GT6 belongs to the heterogeneous Clostridium tetanomorphum group of bacteria exhibiting 99% sequence identity with C. tetanomorphum 4474(T). GT6 can utilize a wide range of carbohydrate substrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, xylose and glycerol to produce mainly n-butanol without any acetone. Additional products of GT6 metabolism were ethanol, butyric acid, acetic acid, and trace amounts of 1,3-propanediol. Medium and substrate composition, and culture conditions such as pH and temperature influenced product formation. The major fermentation product from glycerol was n-butanol with a final concentration of up to 11.5 g/L. 3% (v/v) glycerol lead to a total solvent concentration of 14 g/L within 72 h. Growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations as high as 15% (v/v). The solventogenesis genes crt, bcd, etfA/B and hbd composing the bcs (butyryl-CoA synthesis) operon of C. tetanomorphum GT6 were sequenced. They occur in a genomic arrangement identical to those in other solventogenic clostridia. Furthermore, the sequence of a potential regulator gene highly similar to that of the NADH-sensing Rex family of regulatory genes was found upstream of the bcs operon. Potential binding sites for Rex have been identified in the promoter region of the bcs operon of solvent producing clostridia as well as upstream of other genes involved in NADH oxidation. This indicates a fundamental role of Rex in the regulation of fermentation products in anaerobic, and especially in solventogenic bacteria.

  17. Magnetic-modulation spectroscopy of an atomic Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover: Dissociation spectra in the Bose-Einstein condensate regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, J.

    2006-07-01

    The effect of magnetic-field modulation on a Fermi gas of atoms in the BCS-BEC crossover is studied analytically. Recent experimental findings on the system response to a sinusoidal variation of the field are explained. Specifically, the dissociation processes induced by the modulation in the Bose-Einstein condensate regime are described. The role played by the frequency, amplitude, and application time of the perturbation in the emergence of the observed behavior is clarified. The results uncover also the relevance of the detuning from the Feshbach resonance to the appearance of particular spectral features. The applicability of the field modulation as a spectroscopic tool for probing the crossover is discussed.

  18. The impact of supersaturation level for oral absorption of BCS class IIb drugs, dipyridamole and ketoconazole, using in vivo predictive dissolution system: Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS).

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Kazuki; Searls, Amanda L; Takeuchi, Susumu; Amidon, Gregory E; Sun, Duxin; Amidon, Gordon L

    2017-03-03

    The development of formulations and the assessment of oral drug absorption for Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class IIb drugs is often a difficult issue due to the potential for supersaturation and precipitation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The physiological environment in the GI tract largely influences in vivo drug dissolution rates of those drugs. Thus, those physiological factors should be incorporated into the in vitro system to better assess in vivo performance of BCS class IIb drugs. In order to predict oral bioperformance, an in vitro dissolution system with multiple compartments incorporating physiologically relevant factors would be expected to more accurately predict in vivo phenomena than a one-compartment dissolution system like USP Apparatus 2 because, for example, the pH change occurring in the human GI tract can be better replicated in a multi-compartmental platform. The Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS) consists of three compartments, the gastric, duodenal and jejunal chambers, and is a practical in vitro dissolution apparatus to predict in vivo dissolution for oral dosage forms. This system can demonstrate supersaturation and precipitation and, therefore, has the potential to predict in vivo bioperformance of oral dosage forms where this phenomenon may occur. In this report, in vitro studies were performed with dipyridamole and ketoconazole to evaluate the precipitation rates and the relationship between the supersaturation levels and oral absorption of BCS class II weak base drugs. To evaluate the impact of observed supersaturation levels on oral absorption, a study utilizing the GIS in combination with mouse intestinal infusion was conducted. Supersaturation levels observed in the GIS enhanced dipyridamole and ketoconazole absorption in mouse, and a good correlation between their supersaturation levels and their concentration in plasma was observed. The GIS, therefore, appears to represent in vivo dissolution phenomena and

  19. Modified two-fluid model of conductivity for superconducting surface resistance calculation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, D.S.

    1993-05-01

    The traditional two-fluid model of superconducting conductivity was modified to make it accurate, while remaining fast, for designing and simulating microwave devices. The modification reflects the BCS coherence effects in the conductivity of a superconductor, and is incorporated through the ratio of normal to superconducting electrons. This modified ratio is a simple analytical expression which depends on frequency, temperature and material parameters. This modified two-fluid model allows accurate and rapid calculation of the microwave surface impedance of a superconductor in the clean and dirty limits and in the weak- and strong-coupled regimes. The model compares well with surface resistance data for Nb and provides insight into Nb3Sn and Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta). Numerical calculations with the modified two-fluid model are an order of magnitude faster than the quasi-classical program by Zimmermann (1), and two to five orders of magnitude faster than Halbritter's BCS program (2) for surface resistance.

  20. Gain of a New Exon by a Lineage-Specific Alu Element-Integration Event in the BCS1L Gene during Primate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Rae; Choe, Se-Hee; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Ji-Su; Sim, Bo-Woong; Song, Bong-Seok; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Lee, Youngjeon; Park, Young-Ho; Park, Young Il; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2015-01-01

    BCS1L gene encodes mitochondrial protein and is a member of conserved AAA protein family. This gene is involved in the incorporation of Rieske FeS and Qcr10p into complex III of respiratory chain. In our previous study, AluYRa2-derived alternative transcript in rhesus monkey genome was identified. However, this transcript has not been reported in human genome. In present study, we conducted evolutionary analysis of AluYRa2-exonized transcript with various primate genomic DNAs and cDNAs from humans, rhesus monkeys, and crab-eating monkeys. Remarkably, our results show that AluYRa2 element has only been integrated into genomes of Macaca species. This Macaca lineage-specific integration of AluYRa2 element led to exonization event in the first intron region of BCS1L gene by producing a conserved 3′ splice site. Intriguingly, in rhesus and crab-eating monkeys, more diverse transcript variants by alternative splicing (AS) events, including exon skipping and different 5′ splice sites from humans, were identified. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that AluYRa2-exonized transcript has short N-terminal peptides. Therefore, AS events play a major role in the generation of various transcripts and proteins during primate evolution. In particular, lineage-specific integration of Alu elements and species-specific Alu-derived exonization events could be important sources of gene diversification in primates. PMID:26537194

  1. Effect of Gastric Fluid Volume on the In Vitro Dissolution and In Vivo Absorption of BCS Class II Drugs: a Case Study with Nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Nader, Ahmed M; Quinney, Sara K; Fadda, Hala M; Foster, David R

    2016-07-01

    Nifedipine is a BCS Class II drug used for treatment of hypertension and preterm labor. Large inter-patient variability in nifedipine absorption results in variable exposure among different patients. We conducted in vitro dissolution studies to compare nifedipine dissolution from immediate release (IR) capsules with different volumes of dissolution media. Results from dissolution studies were used to design a crossover study in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effect of coadministered water volume with nifedipine 10 mg IR capsules on nifedipine pharmacokinetics, especially absorption (C max, t max, and AUC0-6). Dissolution studies demonstrated that larger gastric fluid volumes result in enhanced nifedipine dissolution from 10 mg IR cosolvent capsules (73 vs. 17% in 200 and 100 mL simulated gastric fluid, respectively, at 30 min). The pharmacokinetic crossover study in healthy volunteers (N = 6) did not show a significant effect of the water volume administered with the capsule (50 vs. 250 mL) on C max, t max, or AUC0-6 of orally administered nifedipine IR capsules (10 mg). However, administration of large water volumes resulted in lower variability in nifedipine C max (47 vs. 70% for 250 and 50 mL, respectively). Administration of large water volumes with nifedipine 10 mg IR cosolvent capsules may reduce inter-individual variability in plasma exposure. Evaluation of similar effects in other BCS Class II drugs is recommended.

  2. Insight into the Development of Dissolution Media for BCS Class II Drugs: A Review from Quality Control and Prediction of In Vivo Performance Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunnuan; Liu, Yan; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2016-01-01

    To assess in vivo behavior through in vitro method, the dissolution test is mostly used, both for quality control (QC) and for development purpose. In view of the fact that a dissolution test can hardly achieve two goals at the same time, the design of dissolution testing generally varies along with the development stage of drug products and therefore the selection of dissolution media may change with the goals of the dissolution test. To serve the QC purpose, a dissolution medium is designed to provide a sink condition; for development purpose, the dissolution medium is required to simulate the physiological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract as far as possible. In this review, we intended to provide an initial introduction to the various dissolution media applied for QC and formulation development purposes for poorly water soluble drugs. We focused on these methods like addition of cosolvents, surfactants and utilization of biphasic media, applied to provide sink conditions which are difficult to be achieved by simple aqueous buffers for lipophilic drugs, and introduced the development of physiologically relevant media for human and animals like dog and rat with respect to the choice of buffers, bile salts, lipids and so on. In addition, we further discussed the influence of biorelevant dissolution media on the modification of drug Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) classification, especially for BCS class II drugs with low solubility and high permeability, the solubility of which is relatively sensitive to the presence of bile salts and lipids.

  3. The impact of the EMA change in definition of "dose" on the BCS dose-solubility ratio: a review of the biowaiver monographs.

    PubMed

    Sediq, Ahmad; Kubbinga, Marlies; Langguth, Peter; Dressman, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) defines the solubility characteristics of an active pharmaceutical substance based on its dose-solubility ratio: for highly soluble drugs this ratio is less than 250 mL over a defined pH range. Prior to the revision of the European Medicines Agency (EMA, formerly EMEA) guideline in 2010, the "dose" in this ratio was consistently defined by the US FDA, the EMA, and the WHO biowaiver guidelines as the highest dosage strength. However, in the revised EMA guideline, the dose is defined as the highest single dose administered according to the Summary of Product Characteristics. The new EMA criterion for highly soluble may be closer to the actual conditions of use, but it is not in line with the dose that would be used in the in vivo bioequivalence study. This paper evaluates the impact on the BCS classification of the active pharmaceutical ingredients of the published biowaiver monographs and discusses the consequences of the possible change in classification on biowaiver recommendations. Using the current definition of dose by the EMA, the biowaiver recommendations for metoclopramide hydrochloride and verapamil hydrochloride are no longer valid according to EMA criteria. For prednisolone and prednisone, a reevaluation of the biowaiver recommendation, taking into account the usual dosing levels, seems appropriate.

  4. Probing of exopolysaccharides with green fluorescence protein-labeled carbohydrate-binding module in Escherichia coli biofilms and flocs induced by bcsB overexpression.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Hong; Ojima, Yoshihiro; Sakka, Makiko; Sakka, Kazuo; Taya, Masahito

    2014-10-01

    Polysaccharides are major structural constituents to develop the three-dimensional architecture of Escherichia coli biofilms. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy was applied in combination with a fluorescent probe to analyze the location and arrangement of exopolysaccharide (EPSh) in microcolonies of E. coli K-12 derived strains, formed as biofilms on solid surfaces and flocs in the liquid phase. For this purpose, a novel fluorescent probe was constructed by conjugating a carbohydrate-binding module 3, from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus, with the green fluorescence protein (GFP-CBM3). The GFP-CBM3 fused protein exhibited strong affinity to microcrystalline cellulose. Moreover, GFP-CBM3 specifically bound to cell-dense microcolonies in the E. coli biofilms, and to their flocs induced by bcsB overexpression. Therefore, the fused protein presents as a novel marker for EPSh produced by E. coli cells. Overexpression of bcsB was associated with abundant EPSh production and enhanced E. coli biofilm formation, which was similarly detectable by GFP-CBM3 probing.

  5. CHALLENGES OF MODERN CONTROL THEORY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The fundamental objective of the new scientific discipline called ’ control theory ’ is that of modifying the behavior of a system subject to various...possible contributions of modern control theory to the biomedical domain are briefly indicated.

  6. Collective Inertia and Fission Barriers Within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, A.; Staszczak, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous fission barriers, quadrupole inertia tensor, and zero-point quadrupole correlation energy are calculated for 252,256,258Fm in the framework of the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS theory. Two ways of computing collective inertia are employed: the Gaussian Overlap Approximation to the Generator Coordinate Method and cranking ansatz. The Skyrme results are compared with those of the Gogny-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model.

  7. The XMM-BCS galaxy cluster survey: I. The X-ray selected cluster catalog from the initial 6 deg$^2$

    SciTech Connect

    Suhada, R.; Song, J.; Bohringer, H.; Mohr, J.J.; Chon, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Fassbender, R.; Desai, S.; Armstrong, R.; Zenteno, A.; Barkhouse, W.A.; /North Dakota U. /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.

    2011-11-01

    The XMM-Newton - Blanco Cosmology Survey project (XMM-BCS) is a coordinated X-ray, optical and mid-infrared cluster survey in a field also covered by Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect (SZE) surveys by the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The aim of the project is to study the cluster population in a 14 deg{sup 2} field (center: {alpha} {approx} 23:29:18.4, {delta} {approx} -54:40:33.6). The uniform multi-wavelength coverage will also allow us for the first time to comprehensively compare the selection function of the different cluster detection approaches in a single test field and perform a cross-calibration of cluster scaling relations. In this work, we present a catalog of 46 X-ray selected clusters from the initial 6 deg{sup 2} survey core.We describe the XMM-BCS source detection pipeline and derive physical properties of the clusters. We provide photometric redshift estimates derived from the BCS imaging data and spectroscopic redshift measurements for a low redshift subset of the clusters. The photometric redshift estimates are found to be unbiased and in good agreement with the spectroscopic values. Our multi-wavelength approach gives us a comprehensive look at the cluster and group population up to redshifts z {approx} 1. The median redshift of the sample is 0.47 and the median mass M{sub 500} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 14} M{sub {circle_dot}} ({approx} 2 keV). From the sample, we derive the cluster log N - log S using an approximation to the survey selection function and find it in good agreement with previous studies. We compare optical mass estimates from the Southern Cosmology Survey available for part of our cluster sample with our estimates derived from the X-ray luminosity. Weak lensing masses available for a subset of the cluster sample are in agreement with our estimates. Optical masses based on cluster richness and total optical luminosity are found to be significantly higher than the X-ray values. The present results illustrate the

  8. Dielectric saturation of the ion hydration shell and interaction between two double helices of DNA in mono- and multivalent electrolyte solutions: foundations of the epsilon-modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory.

    PubMed

    Gavryushov, Sergei

    2007-05-17

    Potentials of mean force between single Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations and a highly charged spherical macroion in SPC/E water have been determined using molecular dynamics simulations. Results are compared to the electrostatic energy calculations for the primitive polarization model (PPM) of hydrated cations describing the ion hydration shell as a dielectric sphere of low permittivity (Gavryushov, S.; Linse, P. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 7135). Parameters of the ion dielectric sphere and radius of the macroion/water dielectric boundary were extracted by means of this comparison to approximate the short-range repulsion of ions near the interface. To explore the counterion distributions around a simplified model of DNA, the obtained PPM parameters for Na+ and Ca2+ have been substituted into the modified Poisson-Boltzmann (MPB) equations derived for the PPM and named the epsilon-MPB (epsilon-MPB) theory. epsilon-MPB results for DNA suggest that such polarization effects are important in the case of 2:1 electrolyte and highly charged macromolecules. The three-dimensional implementation of the epsilon-MPB theory was also applied to calculation of the energies of interaction between two parallel macromolecules of DNA in solutions of NaCl and CaCl2. Being compared to results of MPB calculations without the ion polarization effects, it suggests that the ion hydration shell polarization and inhomogeneous solvent permittivity might be essential factors in the experimentally known hydration forces acting between charged macromolecules and bilayers at separations of less than 20 A between their surfaces.

  9. Scientific considerations concerning the EMA change in the definition of "dose" of the BCS-based biowaiver guideline and implications for bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Daousani, Chrysa; Macheras, Panos

    2015-01-30

    This work discusses the scientific aspects of the definition of dose as the 'highest single oral IR dose' recommended for administration in the SmPC (summary of product characteristics) in the current European Medicines Agency (EMA) 2010 Guideline, for the purpose of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS)-based biowaiver decision making. Analysis of theoretical and experimental data dealing with drug dissolution and biopharmaceutic drug classification reveals that the drug dose is an important parameter for both drug dissolution and biopharmaceutic classification. The relevant implications for the dose considerations in bioequivalence studies are also discussed briefly. It is suggested that the concept of "the highest single dose oral IR dose recommended for administration in the SmPC" of the EMA 2010 Guideline be abolished. It is advisable, each dose strength be considered separately i.e., whether or not it meets the solubility-dissolution regulatory criteria.

  10. Equation for the superfluid gap obtained by coarse graining the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations throughout the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonucci, S.; Strinati, G. C.

    2014-02-01

    We derive a nonlinear differential equation for the gap parameter of a superfluid Fermi system by performing a suitable coarse graining of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations throughout the BCS-BEC crossover, with the aim of replacing the time-consuming solution of the original BdG equations by the simpler solution of this novel equation. We perform a favorable numerical test on the validity of this new equation over most of the temperature-coupling phase diagram, by an explicit comparison with the full solution of the original BdG equations for an isolated vortex. We also show that the new equation reduces both to the Ginzburg-Landau equation for Cooper pairs in weak coupling close to the critical temperature and to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for composite bosons in strong coupling at low temperature.

  11. Stellar oscillations in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-12-01

    Starting from the equations of modified gravity hydrodynamics, we derive the equations of motion governing linear, adiabatic, radial perturbations of stars in scalar-tensor theories. There are two new features: first, the eigenvalue equation for the period of stellar oscillations is modified such that the eigenfrequencies are always larger than predicted by general relativity. Second, the general relativity condition for stellar instability is altered so that the adiabatic index can fall below 4/3 before unstable modes appear. Stars are more stable in modified gravity theories. Specializing to the case of chameleonlike theories, we investigate these effects numerically using both polytropic Lane-Emden stars and models coming from modified gravity stellar structure simulations. We find that the change in the oscillation period of Cepheid star models can be as large as 30% for order-one matter couplings and the change in the inferred distance using the period-luminosity relation can be up to three times larger than if one had only considered the modified equilibrium structure. We discuss the implications of these results for recent and upcoming astrophysical tests and estimate that previous methods can produce new constraints such that the modifications are screened in regions of Newtonian potential of O(10-8).

  12. Modified entropic force

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun

    2010-04-15

    The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

  13. Band-gap engineering of La1-x Nd x AlO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) perovskite using density functional theory: A modified Becke Johnson potential study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep; D, P. Rai; A, Shankar; M, P. Ghimire; Anup Pradhan, Sakhya; T, P. Sinha; R, Khenata; S, Bin Omran; R, K. Thapa

    2016-06-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the Nd-doped Rare earth aluminate, La1-x Nd x AlO3 (x = 0% to 100%) alloys are studied using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory. The effects of the Nd substitution in LaAlO3 are studied using the supercell calculations. The computed electronic structure with the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential based approximation indicates that the La1-x Nd x AlO3 alloys may possess half-metallic (HM) behaviors when doped with Nd of a finite density of states at the Fermi level (E F). The direct and indirect band gaps are studied each as a function of x which is the concentration of Nd-doped LaAlO3. The calculated magnetic moments in the La1-x Nd x AlO3 alloys are found to arise mainly from the Nd-4f state. A probable half-metallic nature is suggested for each of these systems with supportive integral magnetic moments and highly spin-polarized electronic structures in these doped systems at E F. The observed decrease of the band gap with the increase in the concentration of Nd doping in LaAlO3 is a suitable technique for harnessing useful spintronic and magnetic devices. Project supported by the DST-SERB, Dy (Grant No. SERB/3586/2013-14), the UGCBSR, FRPS (Grant No. F.30-52/2014), the UGC (New Delhi, India) Inspire Fellowship DST (India), and the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University (Grant No. RPG-VPP-088). M P Ghimire thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany for the financial support.

  14. Translation of Ligand-Centered Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Activity and Mechanism of a Rhenium-Thiolate from Solution to Modified Electrodes: A Combined Experimental and Density Functional Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wuyu; Haddad, Andrew Z; Garabato, Brady D; Kozlowski, Pawel M; Buchanan, Robert M; Grapperhaus, Craig A

    2017-02-20

    The homogeneous, nonaqueous catalytic activity of the rhenium-thiolate complex ReL3 (L = diphenylphosphinobenzenethiolate) for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) has been transferred from nonaqueous homogeneous to aqueous heterogeneous conditions by immobilization on a glassy carbon electrode surface. A series of modified electrodes based on ReL3 and its oxidized precursor [ReL3][PF6] were fabricated by drop-cast methods, yielding catalytically active species with HER overpotentials for a current density of 10 mA/cm(2), ranging from 357 to 919 mV. The overpotential correlates with film resistance as measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and film morphology as determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The lowest overpotential was for films based on the ionic [ReL3][PF6] precursor with the inclusion of carbon black. Stability measurements indicate a 2 to 3 h conditioning period in which the overpotential increases, after which no change in activity is observed within 24 h or upon reimmersion in fresh aqueous, acidic solution. Electronic spectroscopy results are consistent with ReL3 as the active species on the electrode surface; however, the presence of an undetected quantity of catalytically active degradation species cannot be excluded. The HER mechanism was evaluated by Tafel slope analysis, which is consistent with a novel Volmer-Heyrovsky-Tafel-like mechanism that parallels the proposed homogeneous HER pathway. Proposed mechanisms involving traditional metal-hydride processes vs ligand-centered reactivity were examined by density functional theory, including identification and characterization of relevant transition states. The ligand-centered path is energetically favored with protonation of cis-sulfur sites culminating in homolytic S-H bond cleavage with H2 evolution via H atom coupling.

  15. Variation of photoluminescence features in Pr{sup 3+} doped lithium-fluoro-borate glass by changing different modifier oxides (MgO, CaO, CdO and PbO)-Judd-Ofelt theory application

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.; Rajesh, D.; Babu, S.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2015-06-24

    Pr{sup 3+} (1.0 mol%) doped different modifier oxide based six lithium-fluoro-borate glasses with chemical composition of 49Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}-20BaF{sub 2}-10NaF-20MO (where M= Mg, Ca, Cd and Pb), 49Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}-20BaF{sub 2}-10NaF-10MgO-10CaO and 49Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}-20BaF{sub 2}-10NaF-10CdO-10PbO were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. Judd-Ofelt theory has been applied for evaluating the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters for Pr{sup 3+} ion in these glass compositions and are in turn to used to predict radiative properties such as radiative transition probabilities (A{sub T}), branching ratios (β) and stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub P}). Stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub p}) of prominent emission transitions, {sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} and {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} of Pr{sup 3+} ion in all lithium-fluoro-borate glasses were calculated. Among all the emission transitions, {sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} posseses higher branching ratio and stimulated emission cross-section in Mg-Ca glass, which leads to the best laser excitation at 487 nm wavelength.

  16. Quasiparticle Excitations in the Superconducting State of FeSe Probed by Thermal Hall Conductivity in the Vicinity of the BCS-BEC Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watashige, Tatsuya; Arsenijević, Stevan; Yamashita, Takuya; Terazawa, Daiki; Onishi, Takafumi; Opherden, Lars; Kasahara, Shigeru; Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Kasahara, Yuichi; Shibauchi, Takasada; von Löhneysen, Hilbert; Wosnitza, Jochen; Matsuda, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the superconducting semimetal FeSe (Tc ˜ 8 K) is in the crossover regime between weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strong-coupling Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits. We report on longitudinal and transverse thermal conductivities, κxx and κxy, respectively, in magnetic fields up to 20 T. The field dependences of κxx and κxy imply that a highly anisotropic small superconducting gap forms at the electron Fermi-surface pocket whereas a more isotropic and larger gap forms at the hole pocket. Below ˜1.0 K, both κxx and κxy exhibit distinct anomalies (kinks) at the upper critical field Hc2 and at a field H* slightly below Hc2. The analysis of the thermal Hall angle (κxy/κxx) indicates a change of the quasiparticle scattering rate at H*. These results provide strong support to the previous suggestion that above H* a distinct field-induced superconducting phase emerges with an unprecedented large spin imbalance.

  17. Contact Stress of Modified Curvilinear Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Gu, Ming-Lune

    2010-10-01

    The contact characteristics of a modified curvilinear gear set were investigated based on finite element analysis in this study. Firstly, the mathematical model of the modified curvilinear gears was developed based on the theory of gearing. Then a solid model of a modified curvilinear gear set was built by utilizing computer-aided design software. Finite element analysis enabled us to investigate the contact stress of a contact teeth pair. The variation and distribution of the contact stresses and bending stresses are also studied under different gear design parameters. Finally, illustrative examples were presented to demonstrate the contact characteristics of the modified curvilinear gears.

  18. Modified gravity inside astrophysical bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Ryo; Langlois, David; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Gleyzes, Jérôme E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr

    2015-06-01

    Many theories of modified gravity, including the well studied Horndeski models, are characterized by a screening mechanism that ensures that standard gravity is recovered near astrophysical bodies. In a recently introduced class of gravitational theories that goes beyond Horndeski, it has been found that new derivative interactions lead to a partial breaking of the Vainshtein screening mechanism inside any gravitational source, although not outside. We study the impact of this new type of deviation from standard gravity on the density profile of a spherically symmetric matter distribution, in the nonrelativistic limit. For simplicity, we consider a polytropic equation of state and derive the modifications to the standard Lane-Emden equations. We also show the existence of a universal upper bound on the amplitude of this type of modified gravity, independently of the details of the equation of state.

  19. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-04-18

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  20. An improved prediction of the human in vivo intestinal permeability and BCS class of drugs using the in vitro permeability ratio obtained for rat intestine using an Ussing chamber system.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Shim, Won-Sik; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2013-10-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was developed to facilitate estimation of the in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drugs from human intestinal permeability and solubility. However, the measurement of human in vivo intestinal permeability, unlike that of solubility, is problematic and inefficient. Thus, rat in vitro intestinal permeability results obtained via the Ussing chamber technique are often used instead. However, these data could be unreliable due to difficulty in maintaining the viability of the dissected intestinal membrane in the Ussing chamber. Therefore, a more efficient method to obtain a reliable in vitro permeability is mandatory. Here, we propose a new approach by introducing a novel factor called the permeability ratio (PR). Basically, PR is a rat in vitro intestinal permeability obtained from the Ussing chamber, which is then corrected by the permeability of lucifer yellow, a paracellular permeability marker. To prove the validity of the method, 12 model drugs representing different BCS classes were tested, and the correlation with human in vivo intestinal permeability was high. More importantly, the new method perfectly classified all 12 model drugs. The results indicate that PR is a reliable factor with high correlation to human in vivo intestinal permeability, which can further be used to accurately predict the BCS classification.

  1. (Research in the theory of condensed matter and elementary particles. ) Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Progress is summarized in these areas: a new formulation of two dimensional critical phenomena and string theory, supersymmetric critical phenomena and string compactification, conformal field theory on orbifolds, Gaussian models with twisted boundary conditions, modular invariance and supersymmetric critical phenomena, critical indices, conformal invariance, and current algebra, renormalization group fixed points and the string equation of motion, fermionic string field theory, N = 2 super Riemann surfaces, the spinor field in covariant superstring theory, covariant quantization of superstrings, models of aggregation, and quasi-supersymmetry in the BCS mechanism. Further work is proposed in the areas of two dimensional critical phenomena, two dimensional conformal field theory and string theory, the physics of computation, models of aggregation, and the many vortex Aharonov-Bohm problem. 57 refs. (LEW)

  2. Comparison of the Permeability of Metoprolol and Labetalol in Rat, Mouse and Caco-2 Cells: Use as a Reference Standard for BCS Classification

    PubMed Central

    Incecayir, Tuba; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate labetalol as a potential high permeability reference standard for the application of Biopharmaceutics Classification Systems (BCS). Permeabilities of labetalol and metoprolol were investigated in animal intestinal perfusion models and Caco-2 cell monolayers. After isolating specific intestinal segments, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusions (SPIP) were performed in rats and mice. The effective permeabilities (Peff) of labetalol and metoprolol, an FDA standard for the low/high Peff class boundary, were investigated in two different segments of rat intestine (proximal jejunum and distal ileum), and in the proximal jejunum of mouse. No significant difference was found between Peff of metoprolol and labetalol in the jejunum and ileum of rat (0.33±0.11 ×10−4 vs. 0.38±0.06 ×10−4 and 0.57±0.17 ×10−4 vs. 0.64±0.30 ×10−4 cm/s, respectively) and in the jejunum of mouse (0.55±0.05 ×10−4 vs. 0.59±0.13 ×10−4 cm/s). However, Peff of metoprolol and labetalol were 1.7 and 1.6 times higher in the jejunum of mouse, compared to the jejunum of rat, respectively. Metoprolol and labetalol showed segmental dependent permeability through the rat intestine, with increased Peff in the distal ileum in comparison to the proximal jejunum. Most significantly, Peff of labetalol was found to be concentration dependent. Decreasing concentrations of labetalol in the perfusate resulted in decreased Peff compared to Peff of metoprolol. The intestinal epithelial permeability of labetalol was lower than that of metoprolol in Caco-2 cells at both apical pH 6.5 and 7.5 (5.96±1.96 ×10−6 vs. 9.44±3.44 ×10−6 and 15.9±2.2 ×10−6 vs. 23.2±7.1 ×10−6 cm/s, respectively). Labetalol exhibited higher permeability in basolateral to apical (BL-AP) compared to AP-BL direction in Caco-2 cells at 0.1 times the highest dose strength (HDS) (46.7±6.5 ×10−6 vs. 14.2±1.5 ×10−6 cm/s). The P-gp inhibitor, verapamil significantly

  3. Population-imbalanced lattice fermions near the BCS-BEC crossover: Thermal physics of the breached pair and Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Madhuparna; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2016-05-01

    We study s -wave superconductivity in the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model in an applied magnetic field, assume the extreme Pauli limit, and examine the role of spatial fluctuations in the coupling regime corresponding to BCS-BEC crossover. We use a decomposition of the interaction in terms of an auxiliary pairing field, retain the static mode, and sample the pairing field via a Monte Carlo approach. The method requires iterative solution of the Bogoliubov-de-Gennes equations for amplitude- and phase-fluctuating configurations of the pairing field. We establish the full thermal phase diagram of this strong-coupling problem. At low field we observe the magnetized but homogeneous "breached pair" superfluid phase. It reveals that Tc scales an order of magnitude below the mean-field estimate, spontaneous inhomogeneity in the field-induced magnetization, and a strong nonmonotonicity in the temperature dependence of the low-energy density of states. We compare our results to the experimental phase diagram of the imbalanced Fermi gas at unitarity. At higher field we obtain the modulated Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phases. The thermal transition from the FFLO phases to the normal state is strongly first order. We track the fermionic momentum distribution, the density of states, and the pairing structure factor deep into the normal state. The pairing structure factor retains weak signature of finite momentum pairing to a high temperature despite the low Tc itself, while the spin-resolved density of states changes from the "pseudogapped" FFLO character to gapless and pseudogapped again with increasing temperature.

  4. pH-Dependent Solubility and Dissolution Behavior of Carvedilol--Case Example of a Weakly Basic BCS Class II Drug.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Rania; Awadallah, Areeg; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Tarawneh, Ola; Nazzal, Sami; AlBaraghthi, Tamadur; Al Sayyad, Jihan; Abbas, Aiman

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the pH-dependent solubility and dissolution of weakly basic Biopharmaceutical Classification Systems (BCS) class II drugs, characterized by low solubility and high permeability, using carvedilol, a weak base with a pK a value of 7.8, as a model drug. A series of solubility and in vitro dissolution studies was carried out using media that simulate the gastric and intestinal fluids and cover the physiological pH range of the GI from 1.2 to 7.8. The effect of ionic strength, buffer capacity, and buffer species of the dissolution media on the solubility and dissolution behavior of carvedilol was also investigated. The study revealed that carvedilol exhibited a typical weak base pH-dependent solubility profile with a high solubility at low pH (545.1-2591.4 μg/mL within the pH range 1.2-5.0) and low solubility at high pH (5.8-51.9 μg/mL within the pH range 6.5-7.8). The dissolution behavior of carvedilol was consistent with the solubility results, where carvedilol release was complete (95.8-98.2% released within 60 min) in media simulating the gastric fluid (pH 1.2-5.0) and relatively low (15.9-86.2% released within 240 min) in media simulating the intestinal fluid (pH 6.5-7.8). It was found that the buffer species of the dissolution media may influence the solubility and consequently the percentage of carvedilol released by forming carvedilol salts of varying solubilities. Carvedilol solubility and dissolution decreased with increasing ionic strength, while lowering the buffer capacity resulted in a decrease in carvedilol solubility and dissolution rate.

  5. Chern-Simons Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiou, P.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation will be based on my, undergraduate, thesis at Aristotle University of Thessoliniki with the same subject, supervised by Professor Demetrios Papadopoulos. I will first present the general mathematical formulation of the Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, which is split in a dynamical and a non-dynamical context, and the different physical theories which suggest this modification. Then proceed by examing the possibility that the CS theory shares solutions with General Relativity in both contexts. In the non-dynamical context I will present a new, undocumented solution as well as all the other possible solutions found to date. I will conclude by arguing that General Relativity and CS Theory share any solutions in the dynamical context.

  6. Cosmological tests of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  7. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  8. Emergent cosmic space in Rastall theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fang-Fang; Huang, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Padmanabhan’s emergent cosmic space proposal is exploited to study the Rastall theory which involves modifying the covariant conservation law of energy-momentum tensor. As necessary elements for this approach, we firstly find the Komar energy and the general entropy of apparent horizon in this theory. After that, a modified expansion law is invoked to re-obtain the Friedmann equations.

  9. Quantum field theory for condensation of bosons and fermions

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, Adriano N.; Filho, Victo S.

    2013-03-25

    In this brief review, we describe the formalism of the quantum field theory for the analysis of the condensation phenomenon in bosonic systems, by considering the cases widely verified in laboratory of trapped gases as condensate states, either with attractive or with repulsive two-body interactions. We review the mathematical formulation of the quantum field theory for many particles in the mean-field approximation, by adopting contact interaction potential. We also describe the phenomenon of condensation in the case of fermions or the degenerate Fermi gas, also verified in laboratory in the crossover BEC-BCS limit. We explain that such a phenomenon, equivalent to the bosonic condensation, can only occur if we consider the coupling of particles in pairs behaving like bosons, as occurs in the case of Cooper's pairs in superconductivity.

  10. Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p53 Binding Protein 1 (TP53BP1) Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Irradiation (BCS + RT)

    SciTech Connect

    Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad; Kulkarni, Diptee; Green, Camille; Vazquez, Alexi; Schiff, Devora; Moran, Meena S.; Yang Qifeng; Ganesan, Shridar; Hirsfield, Kim M.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: TP53BP1 is a key component of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of a known common single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene (rs560191) in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation (BCS + RT). Methods and Materials: The population consisted of 176 premenopausal women treated with BCS + RT (median follow-up, 12 years). Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was processed by use of TaqMan assays. Each allele for rs560191 was either C or G, so each patient was therefore classified as CC, CG, or GG. Patients were grouped as GG if they were homozygous for the variant G allele or CC-CG if they carried at least one copy of the common C allele (CC or CG). Results: Of the 176 women, 124 (71%) were CC-CG and 52 (29%) were GG. The mean age was 44 years for GG vs. 38 years for CC-CG (p < 0.001). GG was more common in African-American women than white women (69% vs. 13%, p < 0.001) and more commonly estrogen receptor negative (70% vs. 49%, p = 0.02). There were no significant correlations of rs560191 with other critical variables. Despite the fact that GG patients were older, the 10-year rate of local relapses was higher (22% for GG vs. 12% for CC-CG, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This novel avenue of investigation of polymorphisms in radiation repair/response genes in patients treated with BCS + RT suggests a correlation to local relapse. Additional evaluation is needed to assess the biological and functional significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, and larger confirmatory validation studies will be required to determine the clinical implications.

  11. String Theory and Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Maldacena, Juan

    2009-02-20

    We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.

  12. Geographical Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golledge, Reginald G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the origin of theories in geography and particularly the development of location theories. Considers the influence of economic theory on agricultural land use, industrial location, and geographic location theories. Explores a set of interrelated activities that show how the marketing process illustrates process theory. (MJP)

  13. Black hole thermodynamics in MOdified Gravity (MOG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureika, Jonas R.; Moffat, John W.; Faizal, Mir

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the thermodynamical properties of black holes in a modified theory of gravity, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without dark matter. The thermodynamics of non-rotating and rotating black hole solutions resembles similar solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with the electric charge being replaced by a new mass dependent gravitational charge Q =√{ αGN } M. This new mass dependent charge modifies the effective Newtonian constant from GN to G =GN (1 + α), and this in turn critically affects the thermodynamics of the black holes. We also investigate the thermodynamics of regular solutions, and explore the limiting case when no horizons forms. So, it is possible that the modified gravity can lead to the absence of black hole horizons in our universe. Finally, we analyze corrections to the thermodynamics of a non-rotating black hole and obtain the usual logarithmic correction term.

  14. Scientific perspectives on extending the provision for waivers of in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for drug products containing high solubility-low permeability drugs (BCS-Class 3).

    PubMed

    Stavchansky, Salomon

    2008-06-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in extending the provision for waivers of in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence (BA-BE) studies that appeared in the guidance published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1) to pharmaceutical products containing Class 3 drugs (High solubility-Low Permeability). The extension of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) to Class 3 drugs is meritorious because of its impact on public health policy considerations. The rate limiting step in the absorption of Class 3 drugs is the permeability through the intestinal membrane. This commentary will focus its attention on the scientific considerations which need to be examined to assess the risk and the benefit prior to granting a waiver of in vivo bioavailability and/or bioequivalence studies for Class 3 drugs. It will examine the forces affecting the interconnectivity of the neuronal, immunological and hormonal systems in the gastrointestinal tract that may affect its permeability and functionality. It will also challenge the assumption that in vitro dissolution and in vitro permeability studies in tissue cultures in the presence and absence of excipients are good predictors for in vivo dissolution and in vivo permeability which are at the heart of the BCS.

  15. Anisotropic singularities in chiral modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-12-01

    In four spacetime dimensions, there exists a special infinite-parameter family of chiral modified gravity theories. All these theories describe just two propagating polarisations of the graviton. General relativity (GR) with an arbitrary cosmological constant is the only parity-invariant member of this family. We review how these modified gravity theories arise within the framework of pure-connection formulation. We introduce a new convenient parametrisation of this family of theories by using a certain set of auxiliary fields. Modifications of GR can be arranged so as to become important in regions with large Weyl curvature, while the behaviour is indistinguishable from GR where Weyl curvature is small. We show how the Kasner singularity of GR is resolved in a particular class of modified gravity theories of this type, leading to solutions in which the fundamental connection field is regular all through the spacetime. There arises a new asymptotically De Sitter region ‘behind’ the would-be singularity, the complete solution thus being of a bounce type.

  16. Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Leo

    1973-01-01

    Briefly describes two antagonistic learning theories: the Association Theory proposed by Skinner and the Field or Cognitive Theory supported by Piaget. Suggests the need for consistency in theoretical approach in the teaching of science at the college level. (JR)

  17. Toward a Cultural Advancement of Tinto's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the broad appeal of Tinto's (1993) theory, it is not well supported by empirical research, especially when applied to minority students. While prior critiques of the theory indicate the need to modify Tinto's concept of "breaking away" when applying the theory to diverse students, research suggests a need for additional refinements. In…

  18. Modeling void abundance in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Lima, Marcos; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2017-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f (R ) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surveys, the combination of void and halo statistics including their abundances, profiles and correlations should be effective in distinguishing modified gravity models that display different screening mechanisms.

  19. Structural optimization using Newton Modified Barrier Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, N. S.; Polyak, R.; Schneur, R.

    1992-09-01

    The Newton Modified Barrier Method (NMBM) was applied to a structural optimization problem with large numbers of design variables and constraints. This mathematical optimization algorithm was based on Modified Barrier Function (MBF) theory and the global converging step version of the Newton Method for smooth unconstrained optimization. For illustrating the convergence characteristics of this method to structural optimization, a truss structure with 721 design variables with constraints on displacements and minimum size requirements was solved. The convergence to the optimum was found to be monotonic. The rate of convergence was compared with solving the same problem with ASTROS and optimality criteria approach.

  20. Current-voltage measurements of thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.9} films compared with a modified Ambegaokar-Halperin theory

    SciTech Connect

    Liebenberg, D.H.; Soulen, R.J. Jr.; Francavilla, T.L.; Fuller-Mora, W.W.; McIntyre, P.C.; Cima, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    We have measured and interpreted the current-voltage characteristics of several thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.9} films. They were prepared by metal-organic deposition and microscopy revealed that they had numerous stacking faults. The measurements were taken at temperatures of 77 and 4.2 K in applied magnetic fields varying from 0 to 6 T. Values of {ital J}{sub {ital c}} as large as 2 MA/cm{sup 2} were found at 77 K for films with {ital T}{sub {ital c}}=92 K, whereas values of {ital J}{sub {ital c}} as large as 80 MA/cm{sup 2} were found at 4.2 K for the same films. The data were compared with the predictions of a modified Ambegaokar-Halperin model, a conventional power-law model, and a vortex-glass model. The data were generally fit best by the Ambegaokar-Halperin model from which were obtained the resistance of the film, the critical current density, and the pinning potential as functions of the magnetic field and temperature. These parameters varied widely but systematically among the films and were interpreted in terms of differences in their imperfections. The critical current density and pinning potential obtained from this analysis were compared to the same quantities inferred from a more traditional method. The dependencies on the magnetic field were very similar, although the magnitudes were different. The advantage of defining the critical current density in terms of a physical model is emphasized.

  1. In vitro - in vivo correlation: from theory to applications.

    PubMed

    Emami, Jaber

    2006-01-01

    A key goal in pharmaceutical development of dosage forms is a good understanding of the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage forms. One of the challenges of biopharmaceutics research is correlating in vitro drug release information of various drug formulations to the in vivo drug profiles (IVIVC). Thus the need for a tool to reliably correlate in vitro and in vivo drug release data has exceedingly increased. Such a tool shortens the drug development period, economizes the resources and leads to improved product quality. Increased activity in developing IVIVCs indicates the value of IVIVCs to the pharmaceutical industry. IVIVC can be used in the development of new pharmaceuticals to reduce the number of human studies during the formulation development as the main objective of an IVIVC is to serve as a surrogate for in vivo bioavailability and to support biowaivers. It supports and/or validates the use of dissolution methods and specification settings. This is because the IVIVC includes in vivo relevance to in vitro dissolution specifications. It can also assist in quality control for certain scale-up and post-approval changes (SUPAC). With the proliferation of modified-release products, it becomes necessary to examine the concept of IVIVC in greater depth. Investigations of IVIVC are increasingly becoming an integral part of extended release drug development. There must be some in vitro means of assuring that each batch of the same product will perform identically in vivo. This review article represents the FDA guidance, development, evaluation, and validation of an IVIVC to grant biowaivers, and to set dissolution specifications for oral dosage forms, biopharmaceutics classification systems (BCS), BCS biowaivers, application of BCS in IVIVC development and concept of mapping. The importance of dissolution media and methodology and pharmacokinetic studies in the context of IVIVC has been highlighted. The review also covers the literature examples of IVIVCs

  2. Advantageous Solubility-Permeability Interplay When Using Amorphous Solid Dispersion (ASD) Formulation for the BCS Class IV P-gp Substrate Rifaximin: Simultaneous Increase of Both the Solubility and the Permeability.

    PubMed

    Beig, Avital; Fine-Shamir, Noa; Lindley, David; Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik

    2017-02-15

    Rifaximin is a BCS class IV (low-solubility, low-permeability) drug and also a P-gp substrate. The aims of this work were to assess the efficiency of different rifaximin amorphous solid dispersion (ASDs) formulations in achieving and maintaining supersaturation and to investigate the consequent solubility-permeability interplay. Spray-dried rifaximin ASDs were prepared with different hydrophilic polymers and their ability to achieve and maintain supersaturation was assessed. Then, rifaximin's apparent intestinal permeability was investigated as a function of increasing supersaturation both in vitro using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and in vivo using the single-pass rat intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model. The efficiency of the different ASDs to achieve and maintain supersaturation of rifaximin was found to be highly polymer dependent, and the copovidone/HPC-SL formulation was found to be superior to the other two, allowing supersaturation of 200× that of the crystalline solubility for 20 h. In vitro, rifaximin flux was increased and the apparent permeability was constant as a function of increasing supersaturation level. In vivo, on the other hand, absorption rate coefficient (k a) was first constant as a function of increasing supersaturation, but at 250×, the crystalline solubility k a was doubled, similar to the k a in the presence of the strong P-gp inhibitor GF120918. In conclusion, a new and favorable nature of solubility-permeability interplay was revealed in this work: delivering high supersaturation level of the BCS class IV drug rifaximin via ASD, thereby saturating the drugs' P-gp-mediated efflux transport, led to the favorable unique win-win situation, where both the solubility and the permeability increased simultaneously.

  3. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product.

  4. Modifying toxicokinetics with antidotes.

    PubMed

    Baud, F J; Borron, S W; Bismuth, C

    1995-12-01

    Five approaches may be described through which antidotes can modify toxicokinetics: (1) Decreased bioavailability of the toxins; (2) Cellular redistribution of the toxin in the organism; (3) Promotion of elimination in an unchanged form; (4) Slowing of metabolic activation pathways; (5) Acceleration of metabolic deactivation pathways. However, the ability to modify toxicokinetics with a new treatment, while demonstrating an understanding of the mechanism of action, must never be construed to be, in and of itself, the goal of therapy. The ultimate evaluation of an antidote modifying toxicokinetics is strictly clinical.

  5. Modified Mason number for charged paramagnetic colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Di; Hilou, Elaa; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of magnetorheological fluids have typically been described by the Mason number, a governing parameter defined as the ratio between viscous and magnetic forces in the fluid. For most experimental suspensions of magnetic particles, surface forces, such as steric and electrostatic interactions, can significantly influence the dynamics. Here we propose a theory of a modified Mason number that accounts for surface forces and show that this modified Mason number is a function of interparticle distance. We demonstrate that this modified Mason number is accurate in describing the dynamics of a rotating pair of paramagnetic colloids of identical or mismatched sizes in either high or low salt solutions. The modified Mason number is confirmed to be pseudoconstant for particle pairs and particle chains undergoing a stable-metastable transition during rotation. The interparticle distance term can be calculated using theory or can be measured experimentally. This modified Mason number is more applicable to magnetorheological systems where surface forces are not negligible.

  6. Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…

  7. Motion in Kaluza-Klein type theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kahil, M.E.

    2006-05-15

    Path and path deviation equations for charged, spinning and spinning charged objects in different versions of Kaluza-Klein (KK) theory using a modified Bazanski Lagrangian have been derived. The significance of motion in five dimensions, especially for a charged spinning object, has been examined. We have also extended the modified Bazanski approach to derive the path and path deviation equations of a test particle in a version of non-symmetric KK theory.

  8. Packaging Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Considers the recent flood of anthologies of literary criticism and theory as exemplifications of the confluence of pedagogical concerns, economics of publishing, and other historical factors. Looks specifically at how these anthologies present theory. Cites problems with their formatting theory and proposes alternative ways of organizing theory…

  9. Cystic fibrosis modifier genes.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jane; Alton, Eric; Griesenbach, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Since the recognition that CFTR genotype was not a good predictor of pulmonary disease severity in CF, several candidate modifier genes have been identified. It is unlikely that a single modifier gene will be found, but more probable that several haplotypes in combination may contribute, which in itself presents a major methodological challenge. The aims of such studies are to increase our understanding of disease pathogenesis, to aid prognosis and ultimately to lead to the development of novel treatments. PMID:16025767

  10. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  11. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  12. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  13. Theoretical priors on modified growth parametrisations

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yong-Seon; Hollenstein, Lukas; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: Lukas.Hollenstein@unige.ch E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2010-04-01

    Next generation surveys will observe the large-scale structure of the Universe with unprecedented accuracy. This will enable us to test the relationships between matter over-densities, the curvature perturbation and the Newtonian potential. Any large-distance modification of gravity or exotic nature of dark energy modifies these relationships as compared to those predicted in the standard smooth dark energy model based on General Relativity. In linear theory of structure growth such modifications are often parameterised by virtue of two functions of space and time that enter the relation of the curvature perturbation to, first, the matter over- density, and second, the Newtonian potential. We investigate the predictions for these functions in Brans-Dicke theory, clustering dark energy models and interacting dark energy models. We find that each theory has a distinct path in the parameter space of modified growth. Understanding these theoretical priors on the parameterisations of modified growth is essential to reveal the nature of cosmic acceleration with the help of upcoming observations of structure formation.

  14. Probability Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, E. T.; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2003-04-01

    Foreword; Preface; Part I. Principles and Elementary Applications: 1. Plausible reasoning; 2. The quantitative rules; 3. Elementary sampling theory; 4. Elementary hypothesis testing; 5. Queer uses for probability theory; 6. Elementary parameter estimation; 7. The central, Gaussian or normal distribution; 8. Sufficiency, ancillarity, and all that; 9. Repetitive experiments, probability and frequency; 10. Physics of 'random experiments'; Part II. Advanced Applications: 11. Discrete prior probabilities, the entropy principle; 12. Ignorance priors and transformation groups; 13. Decision theory: historical background; 14. Simple applications of decision theory; 15. Paradoxes of probability theory; 16. Orthodox methods: historical background; 17. Principles and pathology of orthodox statistics; 18. The Ap distribution and rule of succession; 19. Physical measurements; 20. Model comparison; 21. Outliers and robustness; 22. Introduction to communication theory; References; Appendix A. Other approaches to probability theory; Appendix B. Mathematical formalities and style; Appendix C. Convolutions and cumulants.

  15. Nonderivative modified gravity: a classification

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@irb.hr

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the theories of gravity modified by a generic nonderivative potential built from the metric, under the minimal requirement of unbroken spatial rotations. Using the canonical analysis, we classify the potentials V according to the number of degrees of freedom (DoF) that propagate at the nonperturbative level. We then compare the nonperturbative results with the perturbative DoF propagating around Minkowski and FRW backgrounds. A generic V implies 6 propagating DoF at the non-perturbative level, with a ghost on Minkowski background. There exist potentials which propagate 5 DoF, as already studied in previous works. Here, no V with unbroken rotational invariance admitting 4 DoF is found. Theories with 3 DoF turn out to be strongly coupled on Minkowski background. Finally, potentials with only the 2 DoF of a massive graviton exist. Their effect on cosmology is simply equivalent to a cosmological constant. Potentials with 2 or 5 DoF and explicit time dependence appear to be a further viable possibility.

  16. Aerodynamic design via control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Antony

    1988-01-01

    The question of how to modify aerodynamic design in order to improve performance is addressed. Representative examples are given to demonstrate the computational feasibility of using control theory for such a purpose. An introduction and historical survey of the subject is included.

  17. Equivalence theorem in effective theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicherin, D.; Gorbenko, V.; Vereshagin, V.

    2011-11-01

    The famous equivalence theorem is reexamined in order to make it applicable to the case of effective theories. We slightly modify the formulation of this theorem and prove it based on the notion of the generating functional for Green functions. This allows one to trace (directly in terms of graphs) the mutual cancellation of different groups of contributions.

  18. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  19. Generalized teleparallel theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, Ednaldo L. B.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.

    2016-07-01

    We construct a theory in which the gravitational interaction is described only by torsion, but that generalizes the teleparallel theory still keeping the invariance of local Lorentz transformations in one particular case. We show that our theory falls, in a certain limit of a real parameter, under f(bar{R}) gravity or, in another limit of the same real parameter, under modified f( T) gravity; on interpolating between these two theories it still can fall under several other theories. We explicitly show the equivalence with f(bar{R}) gravity for the cases of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker flat metric for diagonal tetrads, and a metric with spherical symmetry for diagonal and non-diagonal tetrads. We study four applications, one in the reconstruction of the de Sitter universe cosmological model, for obtaining a static spherically symmetric solution of de Sitter type for a perfect fluid, for evolution of the state parameter ω _{DE}, and for the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon.

  20. Theory of RF superconductivity for resonant cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, Alex

    2017-03-01

    An overview of a theory of electromagnetic response of superconductors in strong radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields is given with the emphasis on applications to superconducting resonant cavities for particle accelerators. The paper addresses fundamentals of the BCS surface resistance, the effect of subgap states and trapped vortices on the residual surface resistance at low RF fields, and a nonlinear surface resistance at strong fields, particularly the effect of the RF field suppression of the surface resistance. These issues are essential for the understanding of the field dependence of high quality factors Q({B}a)∼ {10}10{--}{10}11 achieved on the Nb cavities at 1.3–2 K in strong RF fields B a close to the depairing limit, and the extended Q({B}a) rise which has been observed on Ti and N-treated Nb cavities. Possible ways of further increase of Q({B}a) and the breakdown field by optimizing impurity concentration at the surface and by multilayer nanostructuring with materials other than Nb are discussed.

  1. Theory on Superconducting Transition from Pseudogap State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, Youichi; Jujo, Takanobu; Yamada, Kosaku

    2000-11-01

    The anomalous properties of High-T c cuprates are investigated both in the normal state and in the superconducting state. In particular, we pay attention to the pseudogap in the normal state and the phase transition from the pseudogap state to the superconducting state. The pseudogap phenomena observed in cuprates are naturally understood as a precursor of the strong coupling superconductivity. We have previously shown by using the self-consistent T-matrix calculation that the pseudogap is a result of the strong superconducting fluctuations which are accompanied by the strong coupling superconductivity in quasi-two dimensional systems [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 68 (1999) 2999]. We extend the scenario to the superconducting state. The close relation between the pseudogap state and the superconducting state is pointed out. Once the superconducting phase transition occurs, the superconducting order parameter rapidly grows rather than the result of BCS theory. With the rapid growth of the order parameter, the gap structure becomes sharp, while it is remarkably broad in the pseudogap state. The characteristic energy scale of the gap does not change. These results well explain the phase transition observed in the spectroscopic measurements. Further, we calculate the magnetic and transport properties which show the pseudogap phenomena. The comprehensive understanding of the NMR, the neutron scattering, the optical conductivity and the London penetration depth is obtained both in the pseudogap state and in the superconducting state.

  2. Predictions from String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuflik, Eric

    String theory is the leading candidate for an underlying theory of nature, as it provides a framework through which to address critical questions left unanswered by the Standard Model and Supersymmetry. A number of predictions of string constructions can be empirically tested at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and dark matter experiments. In this work I aim to make generic predictions of string theory, while combining bottom-up approaches to fill in the gaps in our understanding of string theory to make predictions for current and upcoming experiments. First I study moduli masses and claim that moduli dominated the energy density of the universe prior to big bang nucleosynthesis. We argue that in any string theory with stabilized moduli there will be at least one modulus field whose mass is of order the gravitino mass. Cosmology then generically requires the gravitino mass to be greater than 30 TeV and the early cosmological history of the Universe be non-thermal. We are then led to believe that the best-motivated channel for early LHC discovery is gluino pair-production events decaying into a high multiplicity of third generation quarks. We analyze signals and background at the LHC for 7 TeV center of mass energy for 1 fb -1 integrated luminosity, suggesting a reach for gluinos for masses about 650 GeV. Second, I seek to construct a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) within different branches of string theory. One promising GUT, developed outside of string theory, is Flipped-SU(5), which I show has serious phenomenological difficulties. I demonstrate both that Flipped-SU(5) requires an R-symmetry to solve the mu-problem, and that no R-symmetries exist in F-theory. Thus Flipped-SU(5) cannot serve as a GUT within F-theory. Similarly, I seek to construct a GUT within M-theory. My study is based upon the discrete symmetry proposed by Witten that forbids the mu-term and solves the doublet-triplet splitting problem, but does not address how the symmetry might be broken. I find

  3. Graph Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2005-12-27

    Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.

  4. Game theory.

    PubMed

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  5. Confabulation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, Soren; Smith, Andrew; Minnett, Rupert; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Confabulation Theory [Hecht-Nielsen R. Confabulation theory. Springer-Verlag; 2007] is the first comprehensive theory of human and animal cognition. Here, we briefly describe Confabulation Theory and discuss experimental results that suggest the theory is correct. Simply put, Confabulation Theory proposes that thinking is like moving. In humans, the theory postulates that there are roughly 4000 thalamocortical modules, the “muscles of thought”. Each module performs an internal competition ( confabulation) between its symbols, influenced by inputs delivered via learned axonal associations with symbols in other modules. In each module, this competition is controlled, as in an individual muscle, by a single graded (i.e., analog) thought control signal. The final result of this confabulation process is a single active symbol, the expression of which also results in launching of action commands that trigger and control subsequent movements and/or thought processes. Modules are manipulated in groups under coordinated, event-contingent control, in a similar manner to our 700 muscles. Confabulation Theory hypothesizes that the control of thinking is a direct evolutionary outgrowth of the control of movement. Establishing a complete understanding of Confabulation Theory will require launching and sustaining a massive new phalanx of confabulation neuroscience research.

  6. Modifying Cookbook Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert, L.; Clough, Michael P.; Berg, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Modifies an extended lab activity from a cookbook approach for determining the percent mass of water in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals to one which incorporates students' prior knowledge, engenders active mental struggling with prior knowledge and new experiences, and encourages metacognition. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  7. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R. E.

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  8. Whole Trait Theory

    PubMed Central

    Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2014-01-01

    Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268

  9. Areal Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtright, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    New features are described for models with multi-particle area-dependent potentials, in any number of dimensions. The corresponding many-body field theories are investigated for classical configurations. Some explicit solutions are given, and some conjectures are made about chaos in such field theories.

  10. On the asymptotic distribution of block-modified random matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Arizmendi, Octavio; Nechita, Ion; Vargas, Carlos

    2016-01-15

    We study random matrices acting on tensor product spaces which have been transformed by a linear block operation. Using operator-valued free probability theory, under some mild assumptions on the linear map acting on the blocks, we compute the asymptotic eigenvalue distribution of the modified matrices in terms of the initial asymptotic distribution. Moreover, using recent results on operator-valued subordination, we present an algorithm that computes, numerically but in full generality, the limiting eigenvalue distribution of the modified matrices. Our analytical results cover many cases of interest in quantum information theory: we unify some known results and we obtain new distributions and various generalizations.

  11. Shear Strength Prediction By Modified Plasticity Theory For SFRC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Colajanni, Piero; Recupero, Antonino; Spinella, Nino

    2008-07-08

    the plastic Crack Sliding Model (CSM) is extended for derivation of a physical model for the prediction of ultimate shear strength of SFRC beams, by assuming that the critical cracks is modeled by a yield lines. To this aim, the CSM is improved in order to take into account the strength increases due to the arch effect for deep beam. Then, the effectiveness factors for the concrete under biaxial stress are calibrated for fibrous concrete. The proposed model, able to provide the shear strength and the position of the critical cracks, is validate by a large set of test results collected in literature.

  12. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  13. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  14. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  15. Effect of gastric pH on the pharmacokinetics of a BCS class II compound in dogs: utilization of an artificial stomach and duodenum dissolution model and GastroPlus,™ simulations to predict absorption.

    PubMed

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Perkins, Everett J; Tan, Jeffrey S; Burns, Lee J

    2011-11-01

    Dogs are one of the most commonly used non-rodent species in toxicology studies and are known to have basal stomach pH ranging from 2 to 7 in the fasted state. Thus absorption and resulting plasma exposure of weakly basic compounds administered as crystalline suspensions to dogs are often variable. LY2157299 is a potent and selective transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor type 1 kinase (TGF-βRI) inhibitor that displayed variable absorption in early dog studies. This molecule is a weakly basic Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)Class II compound, and depends on the rate and extent of dissolution to drive oral absorption. An artificial stomach and duodenum (ASD) dissolution model was utilized to evaluate potential effect of gastric pH on the absorption of suspension and buffered solution formulations. GastroPlus™ was also employed to predict the magnitude of gastric pH changes on LY2157299 absorption. The ASD experiments demonstrated that administration of a buffered acidic solution could improve the potential for absorption by normalizing gastric pH and enabling supersaturation in the duodenum. GastroPlus™ modeling suggested that direct modulation of gastric pH could lead to marked changes in bioavailability. Pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in dogs to evaluate the effect of gastric pH modification on plasma exposure. The data were qualitatively consistent with the predictions.

  16. Activity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  17. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy.

  18. Modified Biserial Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura

    1981-01-01

    Asymptotic distribution theory of Brogden's form of biserial correlation coefficient is derived and large sample estimates of its standard error obtained. Its relative efficiency to the biserial correlation coefficient is examined. Recommendations for choice of estimator of biserial correlation are presented. (Author/JKS)

  19. A Nonvolume Preserving Plasticity Theory with Applications to Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassenti, B. N.

    1983-01-01

    A plasticity theory has been developed to predict the mechanical response of powder metals during hot isostatic pressing. The theory parameters were obtained through an experimental program consisting of hydrostatic pressure tests, uniaxial compression and uniaxial tension tests. A nonlinear finite element code was modified to include the theory and the results of themodified code compared favorably to the results from a verification experiment.

  20. Generalized Brans-Dicke theories

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2010-07-01

    In Brans-Dicke theory a non-linear self interaction of a scalar field φ allows a possibility of realizing the late-time cosmic acceleration, while recovering the General Relativistic behavior at early cosmological epochs. We extend this to more general modified gravitational theories in which a de Sitter solution for dark energy exists without using a field potential. We derive a condition for the stability of the de Sitter point and study the background cosmological dynamics of such theories. We also restrict the allowed region of model parameters from the demand for the avoidance of ghosts and instabilities. A peculiar evolution of the field propagation speed allows us to distinguish those theories from the ΛCDM model.

  1. Nonisentropic unsteady three dimensional small disturbance potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, M. D.; Williams, M. H.; Whitlow, W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Nonisentropic modifications to the three-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) theory, which allows for more accurate modeling of transonic flow fields, are described. The modified flux equation and entropy corrections are presented; the Engquist-Osher differencing (1980) is added to the solution algorithm in order to eliminate the velocity overshoots upstream of shocks. The modified theory is tested in the XTRAN3S finite difference computer code. Steady flows over a rectangular NACA 0012 wing with an aspect ratio of 12 are calculated and compared to Euler equation solutions; good correlation is observed between the data and the modified TSD theory provides more accurate data, particularly for the lift curve slope. The nonisentropic theory is evaluated on an RAE tailplane model for steady and unsteady flows and the modified theory results agree well with the experimental data.

  2. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  3. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications.

  4. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  5. Effective theories of universal theories

    DOE PAGES

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-20

    It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. The oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis in the effective field theory (EFT) framework, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. Here, we work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16more » parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h3, hff, hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order yf2. Furthermore, all these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.« less

  6. Effective theories of universal theories

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-20

    It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. The oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis in the effective field theory (EFT) framework, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. Here, we work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16 parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h3, hff, hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order yf2. Furthermore, all these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.

  7. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  8. Holst actions for supergravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, Romesh K.

    2008-02-01

    The Holst action containing the Immirzi parameter for pure gravity is generalized to supergravity theories. Supergravity equations of motion are not modified by such generalizations, thus preserving supersymmetry. Dependence on the Immirzi parameter does not emerge in the classical equations of motion. This is in contrast with the recent observation of Perez and Rovelli for gravity action containing the original Holst term and a minimally coupled Dirac fermion, where the classical equations of motion do develop a dependence on the Immirzi parameter.

  9. Conference on Operator Theory, Wavelet Theory and Control Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    Bourbaki 662 (1985-1986). [9] Meyer, Y., Ondelettes et operateurs I, Hermann editeurs des sciences et des arts, 1990. [10] Natanson, I. P., Theory of...OPERATOR THEORY , WAVELET THEORY & CONTROL THEORY (U)F 6. AUTHOR(S) 2304/ES Professor Xingde Dai F49620-93-1-0180 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...1STRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED UTL 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The conference on Interaction Between Operator Theory , Wavelet Theory and Control Theory

  10. Determining the polymer threshold amount for achieving robust drug release from HPMC and HPC matrix tablets containing a high-dose BCS class I model drug: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Klančar, Uroš; Baumgartner, Saša; Legen, Igor; Smrdel, Polona; Kampuš, Nataša Jeraj; Krajcar, Dejan; Markun, Boštjan; Kočevar, Klemen

    2015-04-01

    It is challenging to achieve mechanically robust drug-release profiles from hydrophilic matrices containing a high dose of a drug with good solubility. However, a mechanically robust drug release over prolonged period of time can be achieved, especially if the viscosity and amount of the polymer is sufficiently high, above the "threshold values." The goal of this research was to determine the hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer threshold amount that would enable robust drug release from matrix tablets containing a high dose of levetiracetam as a class I model drug according to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). For this purpose, formulations containing HPC or HPMC of similar viscosity range, but in different amounts, were prepared. Based on the dissolution results, two final formulations were selected for additional in vitro and in vivo evaluation to confirm the robustness and to show bioequivalence. Tablets were exposed to various stress conditions in vitro with the use of different mechanically stress-inducing dissolution methods. The in vitro results were compared with in vivo results obtained from fasted and fed bioequivalence studies. Under both conditions, the formulations were bioequivalent and food had a negligible influence on the pharmacokinetic parameters C max and area under the curve (AUC). It was concluded that the drug release from both selected formulations is mechanically robust and that HPC and HPMC polymers with intrinsic viscosities above 9 dL/g and in quantities above 30% enable good mechanical resistance, which ensures bioequivalence. In addition, HPC matrices were found to be more mechanically robust compared to HPMC.

  11. Leadership Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sferra, Bobbie A.; Paddock, Susan C.

    This booklet describes various theoretical aspects of leadership, including the proper exercise of authority, effective delegation, goal setting, exercise of control, assignment of responsibility, performance evaluation, and group process facilitation. It begins by describing the evolution of general theories of leadership from historic concepts…

  12. Lattice calculation of thermal properties of low-density neutron matter with pionless NN effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, T.; Seki, R.

    2009-05-15

    Thermal properties of low-density neutron matter are investigated by determinantal quantum Monte Carlo lattice calculations on 3+1 dimensional cubic lattices. Nuclear effective field theory (EFT) is applied using the pionless single- and two-parameter neutron-neutron interactions, determined from the {sup 1}S{sub 0} scattering length and effective range. The determination of the interactions and the calculations of neutron matter are carried out consistently by applying EFT power counting rules. The thermodynamic limit is taken by the method of finite-size scaling, and the continuum limit is examined in the vanishing lattice filling limit. The {sup 1}S{sub 0} pairing gap at T{approx_equal}0 is computed directly from the off-diagonal long-range order of the spin pair-pair correlation function and is found to be approximately 30% smaller than BCS calculations with the conventional nucleon-nucleon potentials. The critical temperature T{sub c} of the normal-to-superfluid phase transition and the pairing temperature scale T* are determined, and the temperature-density phase diagram is constructed. The physics of low-density neutron matter is clearly identified as being a BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover.

  13. Modified Composite Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

  14. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term.

  15. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  16. Notes on the Modified Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzo, N. E.; Melville, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we present the derivation of a modified Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (MNLSE) based on variational calculus. Using weakly nonlinear theory we derive an averaged Lagrangian, which in turn yields a slightly modified version of the MNLSE that conserves wave action. We also explore ramifications of the MNLSE with respect to the coupling between mean currents and non-uniform radiation stresses. We present this in the context of breaking waves and the free long waves they generate (Kristian Dysthe, personal communication). It has been noted in laboratory experiments (Meza et al, 1999) that breaking waves transfer some energy to modes far below the peak frequency of the spectrum. The transfer mechanism is widely believed to be the result of nonlinear four wave resonant interactions; however, the coupling between breaking-induced non-uniform radiation stresses and long wave radiation suggests a potential alternative explanation. Through direct numerical simulations, along with the theory, we test the feasibility of this mechanism by comparing it to data from wave tank experiments (Drazen et al., 2008).

  17. Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no

    2013-04-01

    In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}, since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.

  18. Modified effective dielectric function for metallic granular composites with high percolation threshold.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiong-Rui; Zhang, Zong-Suo; Liu, Shao-Ding; Hao, Zhong-Hua

    2010-03-01

    We propose the effective dielectric function theory of metal granular composites modified with the metal particle size. The modified theory is used to explain the electrical conductivity, resonant plasmon absorption, and large nonlinear absorption of Au-TiO2 granular composite films with high-density metallic particles and a high electric percolation threshold. It is revealed that the decreasing metal particle size leads to an increasing percolation threshold and large enhancement of optical nonlinearity of the composites.

  19. Theory Survey or Survey Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Moore's survey of political theorists in U.S. American colleges and universities is an impressive contribution to political science (Moore 2010). It is the first such survey of political theory as a subfield, the response rate is very high, and the answers to the survey questions provide new information about how political theorists look…

  20. Spontaneous breaking of the BRST symmetry in the ABJM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir; Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the ghost condensation in the ABJM theory. We will perform our analysis in N=1 superspace. We show that in the Delbourgo-Jarvis-Baulieu-Thierry-Mieg gauge the spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry can occur in the ABJM theory. This spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry is caused by ghost-anti-ghost condensation. We will also show that in the ABJM theory, the ghost-anti-ghost condensates remain present in the modified abelian gauge. Thus, the spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry in ABJM theory can even occur in the modified abelian gauge.

  1. BCS-18A command decoder-selector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laping, H.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes an 18-channel command decoder-selector which operates in conjunction with an HF command receiver to allow secure and reliable radio control of high altitude balloon payloads. A detailed technical description and test results are also included.

  2. [Biotechnology using modified microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Deshayes, A F

    1992-11-01

    Few microorganisms, as compare to their high diversity, are used for human needs. They can produce molecules of interest, process fermentation, protect crops, treat wastes or clean environment. Molecular technics and genetic engineering are new tools offer to geneticists which breed microorganisms for years. Using them, it is now possible, theoretically, to introduce any gene in any organism. Some examples are given concerning genetic modifications in yeasts and lactic acid bacteria to optimize agrofood processes and to improve nutritive and flavour characteristics of fermented products like bread, beer, wine, cheese, meat, vegetable juices... In spite of scientific and industrial interest of the new technologies, limiting factors can explain that genetically modified microorganisms are not routinely used in agrofood yet. First, risks assessment on human health and environment are still in debate, but their is a consensus, within the scientific community, to consider that new characteristics of improved microorganisms are more important than the technics used for their construction. Second, regulations turn out to impose constraints susceptible to discourage technological innovations. At least, the public perception about the new technologies appears, actually, as the major factor to limit their development.

  3. Distinguishing modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.

  4. On a modified electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Reiss, H R

    2012-09-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.

  5. Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.

  6. Decompression Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-25

    new experiments at 30 m ( 4 ATA) is appropriate for comparing N2 and He with respect to half times and surfacing ratios. Table 4 demonstrates the...THEORY C4 i t44 4 ’I9 41-*1 ai4 p80 7 10 009 UM"tUBNC*nm N4MDOf 29WS (DT) 6-25-80 The Seventeenth Undersea Medical Society Workshop DECOMPRESSION...Hamilton, Jr., Ph.D. Edward L Beckman, M.D. Hamilton Research Ltd. University of Hawaii 80 Grove Street School of Medicine Tarrytown, New York 10591

  7. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  8. Nonisentropic unsteady three dimensional small disturbance potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, M. D.; Whitlow, W., Jr.; Williams, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications that allow for more accurate modeling of flow fields when strong shocks are present were made into three dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) potential theory. The Engquist-Osher type-dependent differencing was incorporated into the solution algorithm. The modified theory was implemented in the XTRAN3S computer code. Steady flows over a rectangular wing with a constant NACA 0012 airfoil section and an aspect ratio of 12 were calculated for freestream Mach numbers (M) of 0.82, 0.84, and 0.86. The obtained results are compared using the modified and unmodified TSD theories and the results from a three dimensional Euler code are presented. Nonunique solutions in three dimensions are shown to appear for the rectangular wing as aspect ratio increases. Steady and unsteady results are shown for the RAE tailplane model at M = 0.90. Calculations using unmodified theory, modified theory and experimental data are compared.

  9. Structural Optimization Using the Newton Modified Barrier Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khot, N. S.; Polyak, R. A.; Schneur, R.; Berke, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Newton Modified Barrier Method (NMBM) is applied to structural optimization problems with large a number of design variables and constraints. This nonlinear mathematical programming algorithm was based on the Modified Barrier Function (MBF) theory and the Newton method for unconstrained optimization. The distinctive feature of the NMBM method is the rate of convergence that is due to the fact that the design remains in the Newton area after each Lagrange multiplier update. This convergence characteristic is illustrated by application to structural problems with a varying number of design variables and constraints. The results are compared with those obtained by optimality criteria (OC) methods and by the ASTROS program.

  10. Cosmological constant Λ in f(R,T) modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gyan Prakash; Bishi, Binaya Kumar; Sahoo, Pradyumn Kumar

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we have studied the Bianchi type-III cosmological model in the presence of cosmological constant in the context of f(R,T) modified theory of gravity. Here, we have discussed two classes of f(R,T) gravity, i.e. f(R,T) = R + f(T) and f(R,T) = f1(R) + f2(T). In both classes, the modified field equations are solved by the relation expansion scalar θ that is proportional to shear scalar σ which gives A = Cn, where A and C are metric potentials. Also we have discussed some physical and kinematical properties of the models.

  11. A Nonlinear Theory for Smart Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: (1) Development of a completely coupled thermo-piezoelectric-mechanical theory for the analysis of composite shells with segmented and distributed piezoelectric sensor/actuators and shape memory alloys. The higher order displacement theory will be used to capture the transverse shear effects in anisotropic composites. The original theory will be modified to satisfy the stress continuity at ply interfaces. (2) Development of a finite element technique to implement the mathematical model. (3) Investigation of the coupled structures/controls interaction problem to study the complex trade-offs associated with the coupled problem.

  12. Improvement of acoustic theory of ultrasonic waves in dilute bubbly liquids

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Keita; Colonius, Tim; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    The theory of the acoustics of dilute bubbly liquids is reviewed, and the dispersion relation is modified by including the effect of liquid compressibility on the natural frequency of the bubbles. The modified theory is shown to more accurately predict the trend in measured attenuation of ultrasonic waves. The model limitations associated with such high-frequency waves are discussed. PMID:19739700

  13. Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector

    SciTech Connect

    Zuntz, J.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G; Bourliot, F.; Starkman, G. D.

    2010-05-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory's kinetic index parameter n{sub ae} can differ significantly from its {Lambda}CDM value.

  14. Mesonic states in the generalised Nambu-Jona-Lasinio theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefediev, A. V.; Ribeiro, J. E. F. T.

    2005-04-01

    For any Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of QCD with arbitrary nonlocal, instantaneous, quark current-current confining kernels, we use a generalised Bogoliubov technique to go beyond BCS level (in the large-NC limit) so as to explicitly build quark-antiquark compound operators for creating/annihilating mesons. In the Hamiltonian approach, the mesonic bound-state equations appear (from the generalised Bogoliubov transformation) as mass-gap-like equations which, in turn, ensure the absence, in the Hamiltonian, of mesonic Bogoliubov anomalous terms. We go further to demonstrate the one-to-one correspondence between Hamiltonian and Bethe-Salpeter approaches to non-local NJL-type models for QCD and give the corresponding "dictionary" necessary to "translate" the amplitudes built using the graphical Feynman rules to the terms of the Hamiltonian, and vice versa. We comment on the problem of multiple vacua existence in such type of models and argue that mesonic states in the theory should be prescribed to have an extra index — the index of the replica in which they are created. Then the completely diagonalised Hamiltonian should contain a sum over this new index. The method is proved to be general and valid for any instantaneous quark kernel.

  15. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  16. Modifying of gas adsorption on phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmankurt, Bahadır; Gürel, Hikmet Hakan

    2017-02-01

    After the discovery of Graphene, new two dimensional (2D) materials has been found out. Among them, Phosphorene, has a significant advantage over the semimetallic graphene and other typical 2D semiconductors. 2D materials are also usually good candidates for gas sensors thanks to their large surface-to-volume ratio and the associated charge transfer between gas molecules and the substrates. Theoretical efforts have been devoted to study the interactions of this 2D material with different molecules(CO, H2O, CH4 and NH3). But interactions of such molecules with blue phosphorene are lack. Thus, theoretical study based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the molecules adsorption on phosphorene with Vander walls effect. It is also shown that how modify structural of the molecules on phosphorene by applied charging.

  17. Effective theory and emergent SU(2 ) symmetry in the flat bands of attractive Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovmasyan, Murad; Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi; Huber, Sebastian D.

    2016-12-01

    In a partially filled flat Bloch band electrons do not have a well defined Fermi surface and hence the low-energy theory is not a Fermi liquid. Nevertheless, under the influence of an attractive interaction, a superconductor well described by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) wave function can arise. Here we study the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of a generic Hubbard model with a flat band. We obtain an effective Hamiltonian for the flat band physics by eliminating higher-lying bands via the perturbative Schrieffer-Wolff transformation. At first order in the interaction energy we recover the usual procedure of projecting the interaction term onto the flat band Wannier functions. We show that the BCS wave function is the exact ground state of the projected interaction Hamiltonian, if a simple uniform pairing condition on the single-particle states is satisfied, and that the compressibility is diverging as a consequence of an emergent SU(2 ) symmetry. This symmetry is broken by second-order interband transitions resulting in a finite compressibility, which we illustrate for a one-dimensional ladder with two perfectly flat bands. These results motivate a further approximation leading to an effective ferromagnetic Heisenberg model. The gauge-invariant result for the superfluid weight of a flat band can be obtained from the ferromagnetic Heisenberg model only if the maximally localized Wannier functions in the Marzari-Vanderbilt sense are used. Finally, we prove an important inequality D ≥W2 between the Drude weight D and the winding number W , which guarantees ballistic transport for topologically nontrivial flat bands in one dimension.

  18. Feurstein Cognitive Education Theory and American Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Larry W.

    The Feuerstein Mediated Learning Experience and Cognitive Modifiability theories show promise for American Indian people who, despite much innovation, still search for learning theories which can provide native people with necessary tools for making efficient qualitative and quantitative adaptations to an ever-changing technological, cultural,…

  19. Cultural Differences in Equity Theory Predictions of Relational Maintenance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Young-ok; Canary, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the theoretic role of equity in predicting relational maintenance strategies is modified by participant country and culture. Research on equity theory in relationships has been conducted primarily in the United States and Western Europe. We argue that equity theory predictions regarding relational communication probably…

  20. An evolutionary theory of human motivation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R Patricia

    2005-05-01

    The authors review psychology's historical, competing perspectives on human motivation and propose a new comprehensive theory. The new theory is based on evolutionary principles as proposed by C. Darwin (1859) and modified by W. D. Hamilton (1964, 1996), R. L. Trivers (1971, 1972), and R. Dawkins (1989). The theory unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive approaches to motivation. The theory is neuropsychological and addresses conscious and nonconscious processes that underlie motivation, emotion, and self-control. The theory predicts a hierarchical structure of motives that are measurable as individual differences in human behavior. These motives are related to social problem domains (D. B. Bugental, 2000; D. T. Kenrick, N. P. Li, & J. Butner, 2003), and each is hypothesized to solve a particular problem of human inclusive fitness.

  1. Loop quantum f(R) theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Ma, Yongge

    2011-09-01

    As modified gravity theories, the four-dimensional metric f(R) theories are cast into connection-dynamical formalism with real su(2) connections as configuration variables. This formalism enables us to extend the nonperturbative loop quantization scheme of general relativity to any metric f(R) theories. The quantum kinematical framework of f(R) gravity is rigorously constructed, where the quantum dynamics can be launched. Both Hamiltonian constraint operator and master constraint operator for f(R) theories are well defined. Our results show that the nonperturbative quantization procedure of loop quantum gravity are valid not only for general relativity but also for a rather general class of four-dimensional metric theories of gravity.

  2. Modified polymers for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Christensen, W.; Mayer, L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric materials are modified to serve as stationary phase in chromatographic columns used for separation of atmospheric gases. Materials simplify and improve separation of atmospheric gases in terms of time, quantity of material needed, and sharpness of separation.

  3. Testing modified gravity with cosmic shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnois-Déraps, J.; Munshi, D.; Valageas, P.; van Waerbeke, L.; Brax, P.; Coles, P.; Rizzo, L.

    2015-12-01

    We use the cosmic shear data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey to place constraints on f(R) and Generalized Dilaton models of modified gravity. This is highly complementary to other probes since the constraints mainly come from the non-linear scales: maximal deviations with respects to the General Relativity (GR) + Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario occurs at k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1. At these scales, it becomes necessary to account for known degeneracies with baryon feedback and massive neutrinos, hence we place constraints jointly on these three physical effects. To achieve this, we formulate these modified gravity theories within a common tomographic parametrization, we compute their impact on the clustering properties relative to a GR universe, and propagate the observed modifications into the weak lensing ξ± quantity. Confronted against the cosmic shear data, we reject the f(R) \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 1\\rbrace model with more than 99.9 per cent confidence interval (CI) when assuming a ΛCDM dark matter only model. In the presence of baryonic feedback processes and massive neutrinos with total mass up to 0.2 eV, the model is disfavoured with at least 94 per cent CI in all different combinations studied. Constraints on the \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 2\\rbrace model are weaker, but nevertheless disfavoured with at least 89 per cent CI. We identify several specific combinations of neutrino mass, baryon feedback and f(R) or Dilaton gravity models that are excluded by the current cosmic shear data. Notably, universes with three massless neutrinos and no baryon feedback are strongly disfavoured in all modified gravity scenarios studied. These results indicate that competitive constraints may be achieved with future cosmic shear data.

  4. Massive and modified gravity as self-gravitating media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Comelli, Denis; Pilo, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    We study the effective field theory that describes the low-energy physics of self-gravitating media. The field content consists of four derivatively coupled scalar fields that can be identified with the internal comoving coordinates of the medium. Imposing SO(3) internal spatial invariance, the theory describes supersolids. Stronger symmetry requirements lead to superfluids, solids and perfect fluids, at lowest order in derivatives. In the unitary gauge, massive gravity emerges, being thus the result of a continuous medium propagating in spacetime. Our results can be used to explore systematically the effects and signatures of modifying gravity consistently at large distances. The dark sector is then described as a self-gravitating medium with dynamical and thermodynamic properties dictated by internal symmetries. These results indicate that the divide between dark energy and modified gravity, at large distance scales, is simply a gauge choice.

  5. Modifying gravity: you cannot always get what you want.

    PubMed

    Starkman, Glenn D

    2011-12-28

    The combination of general relativity (GR) and the Standard Model of particle physics disagrees with numerous observations on scales from our Solar System up. In the canonical concordance model of Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology, many of these contradictions between theory and data are removed or alleviated by the introduction of three completely independent new components of stress energy--the inflaton, dark matter and dark energy. Each of these in its turn is meant to have dominated (or to currently dominate) the dynamics of the Universe. There is, until now, no non-gravitational evidence for any of these dark sectors, nor is there evidence (though there may be motivation) for the required extension of the Standard Model. An alternative is to imagine that it is GR that must be modified to account for some or all of these disagreements. Certain coincidences of scale even suggest that one might expect not to make independent modifications of the theory to replace each of the three dark sectors. Because they must address the most different types of data, attempts to replace dark matter with modified gravity are the most controversial. A phenomenological model (or family of models), modified Newtonian dynamics, has, over the last few years, seen several covariant realizations. We discuss a number of challenges that any model that seeks to replace dark matter with modified gravity must face: the loss of Birkhoff's theorem, and the calculational simplifications it implies; the failure to explain clusters, whether static or interacting, and the consequent need to introduce dark matter of some form, whether hot dark matter neutrinos or dark fields that arise in new sectors of the modified gravity theory; the intrusion of cosmological expansion into the modified force law, which arises precisely because of the coincidence in scale between the centripetal acceleration at which Newtonian gravity fails in galaxies and the cosmic acceleration. We conclude with the

  6. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  7. Variable modified Chaplygin gas in the holographic dark energy scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Debnath, Ujjal

    2012-07-01

    The holographic principle emerged in the context of black-holes, where it was noted that a local quantum field theory can not fully describe the black holes [1]. Some long standing debates regarding the time evolution of a system, where a black hole forms and then evaporates, played the key role in the development of the holographic principle [2,3,4]. The Chaplygin gas is characterized by an exotic equation of state p=-B/ρ. where B is a positive constant. Role of Chaplygin gas in the accelerated universe has been studied by several authors. The above mentioned equation of state has been modified to p=-B/ρ^{α}, where α lies between 0 and 1. This equation has been further modified to p=-A+B/ρ^{α}. This is called the modified Chaplygin gas. Debnath [5] introduced a variable modified Chaplygin gas by considering B as a function of scale factor a. In this work, we have considered that the universe is filled with normal matter and variable modified Chaplygin gas. Also we have considered the interaction between normal matter and variable modified Chaplygin gas in FRW universe. Then we have considered a correspondence between the holographic dark energy density and interacting variable modified Chaplygin gas energy density. Then we have reconstructed the potential of the scalar field which describes the variable modified Chaplygin cosmology References: [1] K. Enqvist, S. Hannested and M. S. Sloth, JCAP 2, 004 (2005). [2] L. Thorlocius, hep-th/0404098. [3] G. T. Hooft, gr-qc/9310026. [4] L. Susskind, J. Math. Phys. 36, 6377 (1995). [5] U. Debnath, Astrophys. Space Sci. 312, 295 (2007).

  8. A modified diffusion equation for room-acoustic predication.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Xiang, Ning

    2007-06-01

    This letter presents a modified diffusion model using an Eyring absorption coefficient to predict the reverberation time and sound pressure distributions in enclosures. While the original diffusion model [Ollendorff, Acustica 21, 236-245 (1969); J. Picaut et al., Acustica 83, 614-621 (1997); Valeau et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 1504-1513 (2006)] usually has good performance for low absorption, the modified diffusion model yields more satisfactory results for both low and high absorption. Comparisons among the modified model, the original model, a geometrical-acoustics model, and several well-established theories in terms of reverberation times and sound pressure level distributions, indicate significantly improved prediction accuracy by the modification.

  9. Massive gravitational waves in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon E-mail: tymoon@inje.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    We consider the nondynamical Chern-Simons (nCS) modified gravity, which is regarded as a parity-odd theory of massive gravity in four dimensions. We first find polarization modes of gravitational waves for θ=x/μ in nCS modified gravity by using the Newman-Penrose formalism where the null complex tetrad is necessary to specify gravitational waves. We show that in the Newman–Penrose formalism, the number of polarization modes is one in addition to an unspecified Ψ{sub 4}, implying three degrees of freedom for θ=x/μ. This compares with two for a canonical embedding of θ=t/μ. Also, if one introduces the Ricci tensor formalism to describe a massive graviton arising from the nCS modified gravity, one finds one massive mode after making second-order wave equations, which is compared to five found from the parity-even Einstein–Weyl gravity.

  10. Cosmological constraints on the modified entropic force model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hao

    2010-08-01

    Very recently, Verlinde considered a theory in which space is emergent through a holographic scenario, and proposed that gravity can be explained as an entropic force caused by changes in the information associated with the positions of material bodies. Then, motivated by the Debye model in thermodynamics which is very successful in very low temperatures, Gao modified the entropic force scenario. The modified entropic force (MEF) model is in fact a modified gravity model, and the universe can be accelerated without dark energy. In the present work, we consider the cosmological constraints on the MEF model, and successfully constrain the model parameters to a narrow range. We also discuss many other issues of the MEF model. In particular, we clearly reveal the implicit root to accelerate the universe in the MEF model.

  11. Viscoelastic Properties of Silica Fibre Reinforced Epoxides and a Theory of Fracture of Fibre Reinforced Viscoelastic Materials,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the rate at which elastic energy, released by fiber breakage, can be absorbed, is calculated. Analogies of fiber reinforcement theory and chain fracture theories in polymers are discussed. (Author Modified Abstract)

  12. HyperFlow Theory Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, F F

    2004-02-23

    This document presents the underlying theory for an unsteady computational model of the transient aerothermodynamics of a deformable vehicle entering an atmosphere at hypersonic speeds. Many unique features of the problem require unusual computational capabilities. The large accelerations associated with the vehicle's flight dynamics results in the body-fixed reference frame being non-inertial, and the governing equations must be modified to include this effect. The vehicle's structural deformations and ablation requires the inclusion of the effects of a moving solid boundary, with a nonuniform mass flux across that boundary. A computational chemistry capability must be included to treat the thermochemical nonequilibrium of the high-temperature gas dynamics, and the reactions between the ablation products and the dissociated air. The theory required to treat these phenomena are described in this report.

  13. Constrained field theories on spherically symmetric spacetimes with horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Karan; Lahiri, Amitabha; Ghosh, Suman

    2017-02-01

    We apply the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm for the analysis of constraints to gauge theories defined on spherically symmetric black hole backgrounds. We find that the constraints for a given theory are modified on such spacetimes through the presence of additional contributions from the horizon. As a concrete example, we consider the Maxwell field on a black hole background, and determine the role of the horizon contributions on the dynamics of the theory.

  14. Compact stars in vector-tensor-Horndeski theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Davood; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze a theory of modified gravity, in which the field content of general relativity will be increased to include a vector field. We will use the Horndeski formalism to non-minimally couple this vector field to the metric. As we will be using the Horndeski formalism, this theory will not contain Ostrogradsky ghost degree of freedom. We will analyze compact stars using this vector-tensor-Horndeski theory.

  15. A parametrisation of modified gravity on nonlinear cosmological scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombriser, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    Viable modifications of gravity on cosmological scales predominantly rely on screening mechanisms to recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in the Solar System, where it has been well tested. A parametrisation of the effects of such modifications in the spherical collapse model is presented here for the use of modelling the modified nonlinear cosmological structure. The formalism allows an embedding of the different screening mechanisms operating in scalar-tensor theories through large values of the gravitational potential or its first or second derivatives as well as of linear suppression effects or more general transitions between modified and Einstein gravity limits. Each screening or suppression mechanism is parametrised by a time, mass, and environment dependent screening scale, an effective modified gravitational coupling in the fully unscreened limit that can be matched to linear theory, the exponent of a power-law radial profile of the screened coupling, determined by derivatives, symmetries, and potentials in the scalar field equation, and an interpolation rate between the screened and unscreened limits. Along with generalised perturbative methods, the parametrisation may be used to formulate a nonlinear extension to the linear parametrised post-Friedmannian framework to enable generalised tests of gravity with the wealth of observations from the nonlinear cosmological regime.

  16. Modified Fresnel Laws for Optical Microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, D.; Painchaud-April, G.; Poirier, J.; Dubé, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    The scattering of waves at a planar interface between two dielectric media is governed by Fresnel laws. The associated Fresnel coefficients exhibit a discontinuity at the critical angle of incidence, χc, resulting in total internal reflection for χ>=χc. However modern microresonators are often so small that corrections to the planar approximation become necessary. For instance, a plane wave incident on a curved interface can escape the optically denser medium even for angles larger than χc. In the spirit of Snyder and Love [1], we have derived smooth reflection and transmission coefficients. Interface curvature is accounted for by only modifying the wavefunction describing propagation in the less optically dense medium. The theory is applied to dielectric cavities and our results compared to those of an independent calculation obtained from a sequential-reflection model [2]. The advantages and limitations of our alternative approach will be discussed at the conference.[4pt] [1] A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 23, 134--141, 1975.[0pt] [2] M. Hentschel and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. E., 65, 045603(R), 2002.

  17. Testing modified gravity with dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghi, Hosein; Amiri, Vahid

    2016-12-01

    The observed velocity dispersion of the classical dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) requires the Newtonian stellar mass-to-light (M*/L) ratios in the range of about 10 to more than 100 solar units that are well outside the acceptable limit predicted by stellar population synthesis models. Using Jeans analysis, we calculate the line-of-sight velocity dispersion (σlos) of stars in eight MW dSphs in the context of the modified gravity (MOG) theory of Moffat, assuming a constant M*/L ratio without invoking the exotic cold dark matter. First, we use the weak field approximation of MOG and assume the two parameters α and μ of the theory to be constant as has already been inferred from fitting to the observed rotational data of The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey catalogue of galaxies. We find that the derived M*/L ratios for almost all dSphs are too large to be explained by the stellar population values. In order to fit the line-of-sight velocity dispersions of the dSph with reasonable M*/L values, we must vary α and μ on a case by case basis. A common pair of values cannot be found for all dSphs. Comparing with the values found from rotation curve fitting, it appears that μ correlates strongly with galaxy luminosity, shedding doubt on it as a universal constant.

  18. STELLAR STRUCTURE AND TESTS OF MODIFIED GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Philip; Hui, Lam E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu

    2011-05-01

    Theories that attempt to explain cosmic acceleration by modifying gravity typically introduces a long-range scalar force that needs to be screened on small scales. One common screening mechanism is the chameleon, where the scalar force is screened in environments with a sufficiently deep gravitational potential, but acts unimpeded in regions with a shallow gravitational potential. This leads to a variation in the overall gravitational G with environment. We show that such a variation can occur within a star itself, significantly affecting its evolution and structure, provided that the host galaxy is unscreened. The effect is most pronounced for red giants, which would be smaller by a factor of tens of percent and thus hotter by hundreds of Kelvin, depending on the parameters of the underlying scalar-tensor theory. Careful measurements of these stars in suitable environments (nearby dwarf galaxies not associated with groups or clusters) would provide constraints on the chameleon mechanism that are four orders of magnitude better than current large-scale structure limits and two orders of magnitude better than present solar system tests.

  19. Magnetron theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyopoulos, Spilios

    1996-03-01

    A guiding center fluid theory is applied to model steady-state, single mode, high-power magnetron operation. A hub of uniform, prescribed density, feeds the current spokes. The spoke charge follows from the continuity equation and the incompressibility of the guiding center flow. Included are the spoke self-fields (DC and AC), obtained by an expansion around the unperturbed (zero-spoke charge) flow in powers of ν/V1, ν, and V1 being the effective charge density and AC amplitude. The spoke current is obtained as a nonlinear function of the detuning from the synchronous (Buneman-Hartree, BH) voltage Vs; the spoke charge is included in the self-consistent definition of Vs. It is shown that there is a DC voltage region of width ‖V-Vs‖˜V1, where the spoke width is constant and the spoke current is simply proportional to the AC voltage. The magnetron characteristic curves are ``flat'' in that range, and are approximated by a linear expansion around Vs. The derived formulas differ from earlier results [J. F. Hull, in Cross Field Microwave Devices, edited by E. Okress (Academic, New York, 1961), pp. 496-527] in (a) there is no current cutoff at synchronism; the tube operates well below as well above the BH voltage; (b) the characteristics are single valued within the synchronous voltage range; (c) the hub top is not treated as virtual cathode; and (d) the hub density is not equal to the Brillouin density; comparisons with tube measurements show the best agreement for hub density near half the Brillouin density. It is also shown that at low space charge and low power the gain curve is symmetric relative to the voltage (frequency) detuning. While symmetry is broken at high-power/high space charge magnetron operation, the BH voltage remains between the current cutoff voltages.

  20. Stability of differentially rotating disks in f( T) theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shoulong; Wei, Hao

    2016-11-01

    To explain the accelerated expansion of our universe, many dark energy models and modified gravity theories have been proposed so far. It is argued in the literature that they are difficult to be distinguished on the cosmological scales. Therefore, it is well motivated to consider the relevant astrophysical phenomena on (or below) the galactic scales. In this work, we study the stability of self-gravitating differentially rotating galactic disks in f( T) theory, and obtain the local stability criteria in f( T) theory, which are valid for all f( T) theories satisfying f(T=0)=0 and f_T (T=0)not =0, if the adiabatic approximation and the weak field limit are considered. The information of the function f( T) is mainly encoded in the parameter α ≡ 1/f_T(T=0). We find that the local stability criteria in f( T) theory are quite different from the ones in Newtonian gravity, general relativity, and other modified gravity theories such as f( R) theory. We consider that this might be a possible hint to distinguish f( T) theory from general relativity and other modified gravity theories on (or below) the galactic scales.

  1. Testing gravity theories using tensor perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weikang; Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha B.

    2017-01-01

    Primordial gravitational waves constitute a promising probe of the very early universe physics and the laws of gravity. We study the changes to tensor-mode perturbations that can arise in various modified gravity theories. These include a modified friction and a nonstandard dispersion relation. We introduce a physically motivated parametrization of these effects and use current data to obtain excluded parameter spaces. Taking into account the foreground subtraction, we then perform a forecast analysis focusing on the tensor-mode modified-gravity parameters as constrained by future experiments COrE, Stage-IV and PIXIE. For the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.01, we find the minimum detectible modified-gravity effects. In particular, the minimum detectable graviton mass is about 7.8˜9.7×10-33 eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as the graviton mass that allows massive gravity to produce late-time cosmic acceleration. Finally, we study the tensor-mode perturbations in modified gravity during inflation. We find that, the tensor spectral index would be additionally related to the friction parameter ν0 by nT=-3ν0-r/8. In some cases, the future experiments will be able to distinguish this relation from the standard one. In sum, primordial gravitational waves provide a complementary avenue to test gravity theories.

  2. Model selection for modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N

    2011-12-28

    In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity.

  3. Generalized perturbation theory using two-dimensional, discrete ordinates transport theory

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    Perturbation theory for changes in linear and bilinear functionals of the forward and adjoint fluxes in a critical reactor has been implemented using two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport theory. The computer program DOT IV was modified to calculate the generalized functions GAMMA and GAMMA*. Demonstration calculations were performed for changes in a reaction-rate ratio and a reactivity worth caused by system perturbations. The perturbation theory predictions agreed with direct calculations to within about 2%. A method has been developed for calculating higher lambda eigenvalues and eigenfunctions using techniques similar to those developed for generalized functions. Demonstration calculations have been performed to obtain these eigenfunctions.

  4. Kinetic mean-field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkheck, John; Stell, George

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic mean-field theory for the evolution of the one-particle distribution function is derived from maximizing the entropy. For a potential with a hard-sphere core plus tail, the resulting theory treats the hard-core part as in the revised Enskog theory. The tail, weighted by the hard-sphere pair distribution function, appears linearly in a mean-field term. The kinetic equation is accompanied by an entropy functional for which an H theorem was proven earlier. The revised Enskog theory is obtained by setting the potential tail to zero, the Vlasov equation is obtained by setting the hard-sphere diameter to zero, and an equation of the Enskog-Vlasov type is obtained by effecting the Kac limit on the potential tail. At equilibrium, the theory yields a radial distribution function that is given by the hard-sphere reference system and thus furnishes through the internal energy a thermodynamic description which is exact to first order in inverse temperature. A second natural route to thermodynamics (from the momentum flux which yields an approximate equation of state) gives somewhat different results; both routes coincide and become exact in the Kac limit. Our theory furnishes a conceptual basis for the association in the heuristically based modified Enskog theory (MET) of the contact value of the radial distribution function with the ''thermal pressure'' since this association follows from our theory (using either route to thermodynamics) and moreover becomes exact in the Kac limit. Our transport theory is readily extended to the general case of a soft repulsive core, e.g., as exhibited by the Lennard-Jones potential, via by-now-standard statistical-mechanical methods involving an effective hard-core potential, thus providing a self-contained statistical-mechanical basis for application to such potentials that is lacking in the standard versions of the MET. We obtain very good agreement with experiment for the thermal conductivity and shear viscosity of several

  5. Diagnostic of Horndeski theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perenon, Louis; Marinoni, Christian; Piazza, Federico

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of Horndeski models of dark energy on the observables of the large-scale structure in the late time universe. A novel classification into Late dark energy, Early dark energy and Early modified gravity scenarios is proposed, according to whether such models predict deviations from the standard paradigm persistent at early time in the matter domination epoch. We discuss the physical imprints left by each specific class of models on the effective Newton constant μ, the gravitational slip parameter η, the light deflection parameter Σ and the growth function fσ8 and demonstrate that a convenient way to dress a complete portrait of the viability of the Horndeski accelerating mechanism is via two, redshift-dependent, diagnostics: the μ(z) ‑ Σ(z) and the fσ8(z) ‑ Σ(z) planes. If future, model-independent, measurements point to either Σ ‑ 1 < 0 at redshift zero or μ ‑ 1 < 0 with Σ ‑ 1 > 0 at high redshifts or μ ‑ 1 > 0 with Σ ‑ 1 < 0 at high redshifts, Horndeski theories are effectively ruled out. If fσ8 is measured to be larger than expected in a ΛCDM model at z > 1.5 then Early dark energy models are definitely ruled out. On the opposite case, Late dark energy models are rejected by data if Σ < 1, while, if Σ > 1, only Early modifications of gravity provide a viable framework to interpret data.

  6. CTF Theory Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Avramova, Maria N.; Salko, Robert K.

    2016-05-25

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays|Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a thermal/ hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for light water reactor (LWR) vessel analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of 9 conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and had been used and modified by several institutions over the last few decades. COBRA-TF also found use at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) and has been improved, updated, and subsequently re-branded as CTF. As part of the improvement process, it was necessary to generate sufficient documentation for the open-source code which had lacked such material upon being adopted by RDFMG. This document serves mainly as a theory manual for CTF, detailing the many two-phase heat transfer, drag, and important accident scenario models contained in the code as well as the numerical solution process utilized. Coding of the models is also discussed, all with consideration for updates that have been made when transitioning from COBRA-TF to CTF. Further documentation outside of this manual is also available at RDFMG which focus on code input deck generation and source code global variable and module listings.

  7. Decidability of formal theories and hyperincursivity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grappone, Arturo G.

    2000-05-01

    This paper shows the limits of the Proof Standard Theory (briefly, PST) and gives some ideas of how to build a proof anticipatory theory (briefly, PAT) that has no such limits. Also, this paper considers that Gödel's proof of the undecidability of Principia Mathematica formal theory is not valid for axiomatic theories that use a PAT to build their proofs because the (hyper)incursive functions are self-representable.

  8. Autoimmunity and oxidatively modified autoantigens

    PubMed Central

    Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative damage mediated by reactive oxygen species results in the generation of deleterious by-products. The oxidation process itself and the proteins modified by these molecules are important mediators of cell toxicity and disease pathogenesis. Aldehydic products, mainly the 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, form adducts with proteins and make them highly immunogenic. Proteins modified in this manner have been shown to induce pathogenic antibodies in a variety of diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), alcoholic liver disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 8-oxodeoxyguanine (oxidatively modified DNA) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) occur in SLE, a disease in which premature atherosclerosis is a serious problem. In addition, immunization with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) modified 60 kD Ro autoantigen induces an accelerated epitope spreading in an animal model of SLE. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and AGE modified IgG have been shown to correlate with RA disease activity. Oxidatively modified glutamic acid decarboxylase is important in type 1 DM, while autoantibodies against oxidized LDL are prevalent in Behcet’s disease. The fragmentation of scleroderma specific autoantigens occurs as a result of oxidative modification and is thought to be responsible for the production of autoantibodies through the release of cryptic epitopes. The administration of antioxidants is a viable untried alternative for preventing or ameliorating autoimmune disease, particularly on account of the overwhelming evidence for the involvement of oxidative damage in autoimmunity. However, this should be viewed in the light of disappointing results obtained with the use of antioxidants in cardiovascular disease. PMID:18625446

  9. THE OUTSKIRTS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AS MODIFIED GRAVITY PROBES

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, X.; Jimenez, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the context of theories of gravity modified to account for the observed dynamics of galactic systems without the need to invoke the existence of dark matter, a prediction often appears regarding low-acceleration systems: wherever a falls below a{sub 0}, one should expect a transition from the classical to the modified gravity regime. This modified gravity regime will be characterized by equilibrium velocities that become independent of distance and that scale with the fourth root of the total baryonic mass, V{sup 4}{proportional_to}M. The two conditions above are the well-known flat rotation curves and Tully-Fisher relations of the galactic regime. Recently, however, a similar phenomenology has been hinted at, at the outskirts of Galactic globular clusters, precisely in the region where a < a{sub 0}. Radial profiles of the projected velocity dispersion have been observed to stop decreasing along Keplerian expectations and to level off at constant values beyond the radii where a < a{sub 0}. We have constructed gravitational equilibrium dynamical models for a number of globular clusters for which the above gravitational anomaly has been reported, using a modified Newtonian force law that yields equilibrium velocities equivalent to modified Newtonian dynamics. We find models having an inner Newtonian region and an outer modified gravity regime, which reproduce all observational constraints, surface brightness profiles, total masses, and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles, can be easily constructed. Through the use of detailed single stellar population models tuned individually to each of the globular clusters in question, we derive estimates of the total masses for these systems. Interestingly, we find that the asymptotic values of the velocity dispersion profiles are consistent with scaling with the fourth root of the total masses, as expected under modified gravity scenarios.

  10. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  11. A note on vacuum Friedmann cosmological models in Dunn's scalar-tensor theory of gravitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beesham, A.

    1992-07-01

    It is pointed out that the vacuum Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker solutions in Dunn's scalar-tensor theory of gravitation are also solutions of the modified Brans-Dicke theory. Further, it is shown explicitly how these solutions may be obtained from the original formulation of the Brans-Dicke theory by means of a conformal transformation.

  12. A cosmological study in massive gravity theory

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Supriya Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2015-09-15

    A detailed study of the various cosmological aspects in massive gravity theory has been presented in the present work. For the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW model, the deceleration parameter has been evaluated, and, it has been examined whether there is any transition from deceleration to acceleration in recent past, or not. With the proper choice of the free parameters, it has been shown that the massive gravity theory is equivalent to Einstein gravity with a modified Newtonian gravitational constant together with a negative cosmological constant. Also, in this context, it has been examined whether the emergent scenario is possible, or not, in massive gravity theory. Finally, we have done a cosmographic analysis in massive gravity theory.

  13. Cosmology of a Lorentz violating Galileon theory

    SciTech Connect

    Haghani, Zahra; Shahidi, Shahab; Harko, Tiberiu; Sepangi, Hamid Reza E-mail: t.harko@ucl.ac.uk E-mail: s.shahidi@du.ac.ir

    2015-05-01

    We modify the scalar Einstein-aether theory by breaking the Lorentz invariance of a gravitational theory coupled to a Galileon type scalar field. This is done by introducing a Lagrange multiplier term into the action, thus ensuring that the gradient of the scalar field is time-like, with unit norm. The theory can also be considered as an extension to the mimetic dark matter theory, by adding some derivative self interactions to the action, which keeps the equation of motion at most second order in time derivatives. The cosmological implications of the model are discussed in detail. In particular, for pressure-less baryonic matter, we show that the universe experiences a late time acceleration. The cosmological implications of a special coupling between the scalar field and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor are also explored.

  14. Stellar pulsations in beyond Horndeski gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Kenna-Allison, Michael; Koyama, Kazuya

    2017-03-01

    Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class recover the predictions of general relativity in the solar system whilst admitting novel cosmologies, including late-time de Sitter solutions in the absence of a cosmological constant. Deviations from Newton's law are predicted inside astrophysical bodies, which allow for falsifiable, smoking-gun tests of the theory. In this work we study the pulsations of stars by deriving and solving the wave equation governing linear adiabatic oscillations to find the modified period of pulsation. Using both semi-analytic and numerical models, we perform a preliminary survey of the stellar zoo in an attempt to identify the best candidate objects for testing the theory. Brown dwarfs and Cepheid stars are found to be particularly sensitive objects and we discuss the possibility of using both to test the theory.

  15. Cognitive Modifiability of Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Multicentre Study Using Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment-Basic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozulin, A.; Lebeer, J.; Madella-Noja, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Jeffrey, I.; Rosenthal, N.; Koslowsky, M.

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of cognitive intervention with the new "Instrumental Enrichment Basic" program (IE-basic), based on Feuerstein's theory of structural cognitive modifiability that contends that a child's cognitive functioning can be significantly modified through mediated learning intervention. The IE-basic…

  16. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  17. Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.

  18. Second-order radio frequency kinetic theory revisited: Resolving inconsistency with conventional fluid theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiale; Gao, Zhe

    2013-08-15

    The second-order velocity distribution function was calculated from the second-order rf kinetic theory [Jaeger et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 641 (2000)]. However, the nonresonant ponderomotive force in the radial direction derived from the theory is inconsistent with that from the fluid theory. The inconsistency arises from that the multiple-timescale-separation assumption fails when the second-order Vlasov equation is directly integrated along unperturbed particle orbits. A slowly ramped wave field including an adiabatic turn-on process is applied in the modified kinetic theory in this paper. Since this modification leads only to additional reactive/nonresonant response relevant with the secular resonant response from the previous kinetic theory, the correct nonresonant ponderomotive force can be obtained while all the resonant moments remain unchanged.

  19. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA.

  20. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  1. Modifying Students' Tastes in Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, John Edward

    To test whether student tastes in poetry could be modified by a particular method of teaching it, the poetic preferences of 751 eighth grade students were pretested and compared with the poetic choices made by a panel of English educators, 35 student teachers in English, and the students' own English teachers. Consistently, poems selected by any…

  2. A modified direct method for the calculation of elastic moduli of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.A.; Lubliner, J.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The modified direct method is a scheme for the estimation of elastic moduli of composite materials and is based on micromechanical theory and classical elasticity. Using the statistical homogeneous assumption and the two-phase composite approach, one takes the average field of the composite. Due to the complexity of composite materials, the modeling parameters for the exact analytical theory are not always available and then the effective bounds are usually too wide for practical application. For engineering purposes a more practical and general model is desired. The modified direct method was developed to approach the above requirements. In this work the modified direct method is compared with different available experiment data and methods, for example, Kuster-Toksoez, Christensen-Lo. The comparison results show that the modified direct method provides a very good estimation of the elastic moduli in different kinds of problems, such as the soft and hard inclusion cases, porous materials, at various concentrations and/or various porosities.

  3. Issues in Optical Diffraction Theory.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, Klaus D

    2009-01-01

    to the usual ones specified by Fresnel's theory. In the specific case of a diffracting half plane the numerical results obtained were practically the same as those given by Sommerfeld's rigorous theory. The modified theory developed in this paper is based on the explicit assumption that the scalar theory of light cannot explain plolarization effects. This premise is justified in Sec. 4, where it is shown that previous attempts to do so have produced dubious results.

  4. Alpha particles in effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Caniu, C.

    2014-11-11

    Using an effective field theory for alpha (α) particles at non-relativistic energies, we calculate the strong scattering amplitude modified by Coulomb corrections for a system of two αs. For the strong interaction, we consider a momentum-dependent interaction which, in contrast to an energy dependent interaction alone [1], could be more useful in extending the theory to systems with more than two α particles. We will present preliminary results of our EFT calculations for systems with two alpha particles.

  5. Eddington's theory of gravity and its progeny.

    PubMed

    Bañados, Máximo; Ferreira, Pedro G

    2010-07-02

    We resurrect Eddington's proposal for the gravitational action in the presence of a cosmological constant and extend it to include matter fields. We show that the Newton-Poisson equation is modified in the presence of sources and that charged black holes show great similarities with those arising in Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to gravity. When we consider homogeneous and isotropic space-times, we find that there is a minimum length (and maximum density) at early times, clearly pointing to an alternative theory of the big bang. We thus argue that the modern formulation of Eddington's theory, Born-Infeld gravity, presents us with a novel, nonsingular description of the Universe.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of Modified Low-Density Lipoproteins in the Serum of Healthy and Obese Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Tsuchida, Naoto; Hatano, Yutaka; Habara, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shingo; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play an important role in the inflammatory response associated with human obesity. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine oxidized LDL concentrations in healthy dogs and cats, and to evaluate whether obesity affects oxidized LDL concentration, using 39 cats and 19 dogs that had visited two different veterinary clinics in Japan. We hypothesized that oxidized LDL concentrations measured against body condition score (BCS) may have a potential value in evaluating the qualities of accumulated or circulating lipids in obese dogs and cats that do not show signs of metabolic diseases. The mean oxidized LDL value in BCS3 dogs (2.4 ± 0.9 μg/dl) was very similar to that of BCS5 dogs (2.2 ± 0.3 μg/dl). The mean oxidized LDL value of BCS4 dogs was 7.2 ± 10.3 μg/dl and the highest among three groups. BCS4 dogs included two dogs whose oxidized LDL values were higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of healthy humans (11.2 ± 0.3 μg/dl). On the other hand, the mean oxidized LDL value of BCS3 cats was 2.5 ± 0.9 μg/dl, and those of BCS4 and 5 cats were higher than that of BCS3, but there was no significant difference. The BCS4 cat group included one cat with a higher oxidized LDL value, and the BCS5 group also included two cats with oxidized LDL values higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of healthy humans. Interestingly, the oxidized LDL values in two obese dogs and three obese cats were indeed higher than the mean oxidized LDL value of humans with coronary artery disease (20.1 ± 1.1 μg/dl). In conclusion, this preliminary study showed reference ranges of oxidized dogs and cats against BCS. Obesity alone does not appear to have any direct effect on serum oxidized LDL values in healthy dogs and cats. PMID:26664963

  7. Theoretical electronic structure of structurally modified graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Marc David

    Graphene has emerged as a promising replacement for silicon in next-generation electronics and optoelectronic devices. If graphene is to be used in semiconductor devices, however, it must acquire an electronic band gap. Numerous approaches have been proposed to control the band gap of graphene, including the periodic patterning of defects. However, the mechanism for band gap opening and the associated physics in graphene patterned with defects remain unclear. Using both analytic theory and first-principles calculations, we show that periodic patterning of defects on graphene can open a large and tunable band gap, induce strong absorption peaks at optical wavelengths, and host a giant band gap quantum spin Hall phase. First, a geometric rule is analytically derived for the arrangements of defects that open a band gap in graphene, with one ninth of all possible patterns opening a band gap. Next, we perform ab-initio density functional calculations to compare the effects of structural vacancies, hexagonal BN dopants, and passivants on the electronic structure of graphene. Qualitatively, these three types of structural defects behave the same, with only slight differences in their resulting band structures. By adjusting the shape of structural defects, we show how to move the Dirac cones in reciprocal space in accordance with the tight-binding model for the anisotropic honeycomb lattice, while the fundamental mechanism for band gap opening remains the same. To quantitatively predict the band gap and optical properties of these materials, we employ many-body perturbation theory with Green's functions (GW/Bethe-Salpeter equation) to directly include electron-electron and electron-hole interactions. Structurally modified graphene shows a strong renormalization of the fundamental band gap over single particle descriptions, and a strong electron-hole interaction as indicated by strong exciton binding energies (> 0.5 eV). Finally, we show that structurally modified graphene

  8. An analysis of the Belinfante-Swihart theory of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    The Belinfante-Swihart (BS) theory is reformulated in a representation in which uncharged matter responds to gravity in the same way as in metric theories. The BS gravitationally modified Maxwell equations are also put into metric form to first order in the deviations of the physical metric from flat space, but not to second order; consequently the theory is nonmetric except in first order. Also shown is that the theory violates the high precision Eotvos-Dicke experiment, but cannot be ruled out by the gravitational precession of gyroscopes.

  9. Formulation of Complex Action Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2011-12-01

    We formulate a complex action theory which includes operators of coordinate and momentum hat{q} and hat{p} being replaced with non-hermitian operators hat{q}_{new} and hat{p}_{new}, and their eigenstates | q >_{new} and | p >_{new} with complex eigenvalues q and p. Introducing a philosophy of keeping the analyticity in path integration variables, we define a modified set of complex conjugate, real and imaginary parts, hermitian conjugates and bras, and explicitly construct hat{q}_{new}, hat{p}_{new}, |q >_{new} and |p >_{new} by formally squeezing coherent states. We also pose a theorem on the relation between functions on the phase space and the corresponding operators. Only in our formalism can we describe a complex action theory or a real action theory with complex saddle points in the tunneling effect etc. in terms of bras and kets in the functional integral. Furthermore, in a system with a non-hermitian diagonalizable bounded Hamiltonian, we show that the mechanism to obtain a hermitian Hamiltonian after a long time development proposed in our paper [Prog. Theor. Phys. 125 (2011), 633] works also in the complex coordinate formalism. If the hermitian Hamiltonian is given in a local form, a conserved probability current density can be constructed with two kinds of wave functions.

  10. Surface-active agents from the group of polyoxyethylated glycerol esters of fatty acids. Part III. Surface activity and solubilizing properties of the products of oxyethylation of lard (Adeps suillus, F.P. VIII) in the equilibrium system in relation to lipophilic therapeutic agents (class II and III of BCS).

    PubMed

    Nachajski, Michał J; Piotrowska, Jowita B; Kołodziejczyk, Michał K; Lukosek, Marek; Zgoda, Marian M

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted into the solubilization processes of diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen in equilibrium conditions in the environment of aqueous solutions of oxyethylated lard's fractions (Adeps suillus, Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII). The determined thermodynamic (cmc, deltaGm(0)) and hydrodynamic (R0, R(obs), omega, M(eta)) parameters characterizing the micelle of the solubilizer and the adduct demonstrate that lipophilic therapeutic agents are adsorbed in a palisade structure of the micelle due to a topologically created so-called "lipophilic adsorption pocket". This shows that the hydrophilicity of the micelle and the adsorption layer decreases at the phase boundary, which is confirmed by the calculated values of coefficients A(m) and r x (a). The results obtained indicate the possibility of making use of the class of non-ionic surfactants which are not ksenobiotics for the modification of the profile of solid oral dosage forms with lipophilic therapeutic agents from the II class of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS).

  11. Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2009-11-15

    Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in

  12. Modern Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Tom

    2008-09-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Quantum theory of free scalar fields; 3. Interacting field theory; 4. Particles of spin one, and gauge invariance; 5. Spin 1/2 particles and Fermi statistics; 6. Massive quantum electrodynamics; 7. Symmetries, Ward identities and Nambu Goldstone bosons; 8. Non-abelian gauge theory; 9. Renormalization and effective field theory; 10. Instantons and solitons; 11. Concluding remarks; Appendices; References; Index.

  13. Theories and Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  14. Tests of General Theory of Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, Ari

    2002-04-01

    Einstein’s theory of general relativity and experiments proving it are all in the domain of classical physics. These include experiments by Pound, Rebka, and Snider of the gravitational redshift of 14.4 keV photons; the rocket experiments by Vessot et al.; the Galileo redshift experiments by Krisher et al.; the gravitational deflection of light experiments by Riveros and Vucetich; and delay of echoes of radar signals passing close to Sun as observed by Shapiro et al. Bohr’s correspondence principle assures that the quantum mechanical theory of general relativity agrees with Einstein’s classical theory when frequency and gravitational field gradient approach zero, or when photons cannot interact with the gravitational field. Quantum theory invalidates some of the assumption made by Einstein. His argument that equally many crests of waves must arrive on Earth as leave Sun is correct in classical physics, but impermissible in quantum mechanics. We will show that solar redshift experiments contradict the classical theory and support a quantum mechanically modified theory of general relativity. This changes drastically the entire theory, including the equivalence principle.

  15. Nonrelativistic superstring theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2007-12-15

    We construct a supersymmetric version of the critical nonrelativistic bosonic string theory [B. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. D 76, 106007 (2007).] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc conformal field theory (CFT) which is the super partner of the {beta}{gamma} CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are nonchiral. We further consider noncritical generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical nonrelativistic string theory and the lightlike linear dilaton theory.

  16. Polite Theories Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Dejan; Barrett, Clark

    The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.

  17. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2016-12-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  18. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2017-04-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  19. The Toolbox for Modified Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Sergey A; Chudinov, Alexander V; Timofeev, Edward N

    2016-02-01

    Aptamers are nucleic acid-based scaffolds that can bind with high affinity to a variety of biological targets. Aptamers are identified from large DNA or RNA libraries through a process of directed molecular evolution (SELEX). Chemical modification of nucleic acids considerably increases the functional and structural diversity of aptamer libraries and substantially increases the affinity of the aptamers. Additionally, modified aptamers exhibit much greater resistance to biodegradation. The evolutionary selection of modified aptamers is conditioned by the possibility of the enzymatic synthesis and replication of non-natural nucleic acids. Wild-type or mutant polymerases and their non-natural nucleotide substrates that can support SELEX are highlighted in the present review. A focus is made on the efforts to find the most suitable type of nucleotide modifications and the engineering of new polymerases. Post-SELEX modification as a complementary method will be briefly considered as well.

  20. Quantum Theory is an Information Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo M.; Perinotti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories (OPT), along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.

  1. Feasibility of combining linear theory and impact theory methods for the analysis and design of high speed configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooke, D.; Vondrasek, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic influence coefficients calculated using an existing linear theory program were used to modify the pressures calculated using impact theory. Application of the combined approach to several wing-alone configurations shows that the combined approach gives improved predictions of the local pressure and loadings over either linear theory alone or impact theory alone. The approach not only removes most of the short-comings of the individual methods, as applied in the Mach 4 to 8 range, but also provides the basis for an inverse design procedure applicable to high speed configurations.

  2. Imide Modified Epoxy Matrix Resin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    the bisimide amine cured epoxies (IME’s) were considerably lower than the state-of-the-art epoxies . The strain-to-failure of the control resin system ...nine epoxy resin systems which were prepared from tetraglycidyl methylenedianiline (MY 720) cured with a stoichiometric quantity of bisimide-amine and...graphite imide modified cured epoxy resin composites. The designation for each material is also listed in Table 1. The composition of each resin system

  3. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The third-difference approach to modified Allan variance (MVAR) leads to a tractable formula for a measure of MVAR estimator confidence, the equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), in the presence of power-law phase noise. The effect of estimation stride on edf is tabulated. A simple approximation for edf is given, and its errors are tabulated. A theorem allowing conservative estimates of edf in the presence of compound noise processes is given.

  4. Political Subculture: A Resilience Modifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    A RESILIENCE MODIFIER by Gordon S. Hunter September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr. Second Reader...Approved by: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr., DPA Thesis Advisor Lauren S. Fernandez, DSc Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chair...addition, I must acknowledge the continued support, guidance, and encouragement of Dr. Sam Clovis and Dr. Lauren Fernandez who have led me on the path to

  5. Evaluation of Asphalt Binder Modifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    level of two different high -molecular-weight polymers. Since the two- component polymer modified materials did not perform as favorably as the other two... high - and low- temperature performance is suggested from these laboratory test results. Field test results indicate that improved resistance to...AVAILABILITY OF REPORT . Approved for public release; distribution 2b. DECLASSIFICATION I DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE unlimited. 4. PERFORMiNG ORGANIZATION REPORT

  6. Chemically Modified Electrodes for Electrocatalysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-08

    TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 18 CHEMICALLY MODIFIED ELECTRODES FOR ELECTROCATALYSIS BY Royce W. Murray Prepared for Publication in the Philosophical Transactions of...Report) 0~. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTF.3 13. KEY WORDS (Continue, on favors. side 11 neceasey sad Idenifi by block nsumber) electrocatalysis , redox polymer...electrocataWlytic behavior of monomolecular and multimolecular layers are discussed; electrocatalysi * in the latter circumstance can include reaction rate elements

  7. Comment on Modified Stokes Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D.M.; Utku, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is common practice in passive microwave remote sensing (microwave radiometry) to express observables as temperatures and in the case of polarimetric radiometry to use what are called "Modified Stokes Parameters in Brightness Temperature" to describe the scene. However, definitions with slightly different normalization (with and without division by bandwidth) have appeared in the literature. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an analysis to clarify the meaning of terms in the definition and resolve the question of the proper normalization.

  8. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers was initiated in an effort to identify common genetic variants that modify... GWAS of 1250 BRCA1 mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer and 1250 unaffected BRCA1 carriers using Human660W-Quad arrays. The 1250 unaffected...cancer on H uman660W-Quad arrays. In addition we acquired GWAS genotype data for 120 additional BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with ovarian

  9. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer...cancer and 1,000 age-matched unaffected BRCA1 carriers. As outlined in detail in our previous annual report, we recently conducted a GWAS of BRCA1...between ovarian cancer risk and SNPs implicated in Aim 1 by genotyping 1,500 BRCA1 ovarian cancer cases and 1,500 unaffected BRCA1 carriers. GWAS

  10. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  11. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  12. Decomposition pathways of C2 oxygenates on Rh-modified tungsten carbide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Thomas G.; Ren, Hui; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol decomposition on tungsten monocarbide (WC) and Rh-modified WC was investigated using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations indicated that the binding energies of ethanol and its decomposition intermediates on WC(0001) were modified by Rh, with Rh/WC(0001) showing similar values to those on Rh(111). Through temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on polycrystalline WC and Rh-modified WC, it was shown that the selectivity for ethanol decomposition was different on these surfaces. On WC, the C-O bond of ethanol was preferentially broken to produce ethylene; on Rh-modified WC, the C-C bond was broken to produce carbon monoxide and methane. Furthermore, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to determine likely surface intermediates. On Rh-modified WC, ethanol first formed ethoxy through O-H scission, then reacted through an aldehyde intermediate to form the C1 products.

  13. The modified equation approach to the stability and accuracy analysis of finite-difference methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warming, R. F.; Hyett, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    The stability and accuracy of finite-difference approximations to simple linear partial differential equations are analyzed by studying the modified partial differential equation. Aside from round-off error, the modified equation represents the actual partial differential equation solved when a numerical solution is computed using a finite-difference equation. The modified equation is derived by first expanding each term of a difference scheme in a Taylor series and then eliminating time derivatives higher than first order by certain algebraic manipulations. The connection between 'heuristic' stability theory based on the modified equation approach and the von Neumann (Fourier) method is established. In addition to the determination of necessary and sufficient conditions for computational stability, a truncated version of the modified equation can be used to gain insight into the nature of both dissipative and dispersive errors.

  14. What is modified gravity and how to differentiate it from particle dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Kuntz, Iberê

    2017-02-01

    An obvious criterion to classify theories of modified gravity is to identify their gravitational degrees of freedom and their coupling to the metric and the matter sector. Using this simple idea, we show that any theory which depends on the curvature invariants is equivalent to general relativity in the presence of new fields that are gravitationally coupled to the energy-momentum tensor. We show that they can be shifted into a new energy-momentum tensor. There is no a priori reason to identify these new fields as gravitational degrees of freedom or matter fields. This leads to an equivalence between dark matter particles gravitationally coupled to the standard model fields and modified gravity theories designed to account for the dark matter phenomenon. Due to this ambiguity, it is impossible to differentiate experimentally between these theories and any attempt of doing so should be classified as a mere interpretation of the same phenomenon.

  15. Weak lensing by voids in modified lensing potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, Alexandre; Cautun, Marius; Li, Baojiu; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: m.c.cautun@durham.ac.uk E-mail: c.m.baugh@durham.ac.uk

    2015-08-01

    We study lensing by voids in Cubic Galileon and Nonlocal gravity cosmologies, which are examples of theories of gravity that modify the lensing potential. We find voids in the dark matter and halo density fields of N-body simulations and compute their lensing signal analytically from the void density profiles, which we show are well fit by a simple analytical formula. In the Cubic Galileon model, the modifications to gravity inside voids are not screened and they approximately double the size of the lensing effects compared to GR. The difference is largely determined by the direct effects of the fifth force on lensing and less so by the modified density profiles. For this model, we also discuss the subtle impact on the force and lensing calculations caused by the screening effects of haloes that exist in and around voids. In the Nonlocal model, the impact of the modified density profiles and the direct modifications to lensing are comparable, but they boost the lensing signal by only ≈ 10%, compared with that of GR. Overall, our results suggest that lensing by voids is a promising tool to test models of gravity that modify lensing.

  16. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance.

  17. Dynamical behaviours and exact travelling wave solutions of modified generalized Vakhnenko equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junjun; Feng, Dahe; Meng, Xia; Cheng, Yuanquan

    2017-01-01

    By using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems and the qualitative theory of differential equations, we studied the dynamical behaviours and exact travelling wave solutions of the modified generalized Vakhnenko equation (mGVE). As a result, we obtained all possible bifurcation parametric sets and many explicit formulas of smooth and non-smooth travelling waves such as cusped solitons, loop solitons, periodic cusp waves, pseudopeakon solitons, smooth periodic waves and smooth solitons. Moreover, we provided some numerical simulations of these solutions.

  18. Resonant wave-particle interactions modified by intrinsic Alfvenic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Lee, K. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wu, D. J.

    2012-08-15

    The concept of wave-particle interactions via resonance is well discussed in plasma physics. This paper shows that intrinsic Alfven waves can qualitatively modify the physics discussed in conventional linear plasma kinetic theories. It turns out that preexisting Alfven waves can affect particle motion along the ambient magnetic field and, moreover, the ensuing force field is periodic in time. As a result, the meaning of the usual Landau and cyclotron resonance conditions becomes questionable. It turns out that this effect leads us to find a new electromagnetic instability. In such a process intrinsic Alfven waves not only modify the unperturbed distribution function but also result in a different type of cyclotron resonance which is affected by the level of turbulence. This instability might enable us to better our understanding of the observed radio emission processes in the solar atmosphere.

  19. Modified function projective combination synchronization of hyperchaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, K. Sebastian; Sabir, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a novel combination synchronization scheme in which synchronization of a new combination hyperchaotic drive system formed by combining state variables of the original drive system with appropriate scaling factors with a response hyperchaotic system is considered. A self-combination system is constructed from hyperchaotic Lorenz system by combining state variables of the Lorenz system with appropriate scaling factors. Modified function projective synchronization between the newly constructed combination hyperchaotic Lorenz system and hyperchaotic Lu system is investigated using adaptive method. By Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control law and the parameter update law are derived to make the state of two systems as modified function projective synchronized. Numerical simulations are done to show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  20. Novel test of modified Newtonian dynamics with gas rich galaxies.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Stacy S

    2011-03-25

    The current cosmological paradigm, the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, requires that the mass-energy of the Universe be dominated by invisible components: dark matter and dark energy. An alternative to these dark components is that the law of gravity be modified on the relevant scales. A test of these ideas is provided by the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR), an empirical relation between the observed mass of a galaxy and its rotation velocity. Here, I report a test using gas rich galaxies for which both axes of the BTFR can be measured independently of the theories being tested and without the systematic uncertainty in stellar mass that affects the same test with star dominated spirals. The data fall precisely where predicted a priori by the modified Newtonian dynamics. The scatter in the BTFR is attributable entirely to observational uncertainty, consistent with a single effective force law.

  1. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  2. Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…

  3. Causal quantum theory and the collapse locality loophole

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Adrian

    2005-07-15

    Causal quantum theory is an umbrella term for ordinary quantum theory modified by two hypotheses: state vector reduction is a well-defined process, and strict local causality applies. The first of these holds in some versions of Copenhagen quantum theory and need not necessarily imply practically testable deviations from ordinary quantum theory. The second implies that measurement events which are spacelike separated have no nonlocal correlations. To test this prediction, which sharply differs from standard quantum theory, requires a precise definition of state vector reduction. Formally speaking, any precise version of causal quantum theory defines a local hidden variable theory. However, causal quantum theory is most naturally seen as a variant of standard quantum theory. For that reason it seems a more serious rival to standard quantum theory than local hidden variable models relying on the locality or detector efficiency loopholes. Some plausible versions of causal quantum theory are not refuted by any Bell experiments to date, nor is it evident that they are inconsistent with other experiments. They evade refutation via a neglected loophole in Bell experiments--the collapse locality loophole--which exists because of the possible time lag between a particle entering a measurement device and a collapse taking place. Fairly definitive tests of causal versus standard quantum theory could be made by observing entangled particles separated by {approx_equal}0.1 light seconds.

  4. Disengagement theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Markson, E W

    1975-01-01

    Cumming and Henry erected the basic frame for a socio-cultural theory of normal aging in their 1961 book, Growing Old. The basic postulates of this theory are reviewed, and the overall structure of the theory briefly examined. Critical data necessary either to accept or reject disengagement theory are not yet available, although useful information has been gathered since the theory first appeared. Part of the difficulty in amassing "proof" or "disproof" is inherent in the intricate and complex nature of the aging process itself. This orienting paper introduced a set of contributtions by other commentators on disengagement theory.

  5. Accurate Critical Parameters for the Modified Lennard-Jones Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Fuchizaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    The critical parameters of the modified Lennard-Jones system were examined. The isothermal-isochoric ensemble was generated by conducting a molecular dynamics simulation for the system consisting of 6912, 8788, 10976, and 13500 particles. The equilibrium between the liquid and vapor phases was judged from the chemical potential of both phases upon establishing the coexistence envelope, from which the critical temperature and density were obtained invoking the renormalization group theory. The finite-size scaling enabled us to finally determine the critical temperature, pressure, and density as Tc = 1.0762(2), pc = 0.09394(17), and ρc = 0.331(3), respectively.

  6. Adsorption of ions on surfaces modified with brushes of polyampholytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borówko, M.; Sokołowski, S.; Staszewski, T.; Sokołowska, Z.; Ilnytskyi, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    We apply density functional theory to study adsorption of ions, treated in the framework of the restricted primitive model (RPM), on surfaces modified by tethered polyampholytes. The residual electrostatic contribution to the free energy functional is approximated by using the approach proposed by Wang et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 175002 (2011)], 10.1088/0953-8984/23/17/175002 for simple nonuniform RPMs systems. Our research concentrates on the problems how the distribution of the charges within chains of polyampholytes changes the selectivity of adsorption of ions species, the structure of the surface layer, and its electric properties.

  7. Cluster modified projective synchronization between networks with distinct topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahedi, Shahed; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md

    2016-02-01

    Cluster modified projective synchronization (CMPS) between two topologically distinct community networks is studied in this paper. Each cluster here has a unique dynamics at least with respect to the parameter sets. Using an adaptive feedback control gain and a matrix scaling factor, we show that CMPS between two community networks can be realized with considering minimum assumptions and imposing just few restrictions on the configuration set. We use Lyapunov stability theory for the proof and employ computer simulation to confirm our result on randomly generated community networks. Simulations also show the possibility of having hybrid synchronization between the two networks.

  8. Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Miyasaki, Eriksen Koji; Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; Stroppa, Valter Luís Zuliani; de Oliveira, Glazieli Marangoni; Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter

    2015-07-01

    Crystallization of fats is a determinant physical event affecting the structure and properties of fat-based products. The stability of these processed foods is regulated by changes in the physical state of fats and alterations in their crystallization behavior. Problems like polymorphic transitions, oil migration, fat bloom development, slow crystallization and formation of crystalline aggregates stand out. The change of the crystallization behavior of lipid systems has been a strategic issue for the processing of foods, aiming at taylor made products, reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing the applicability and stability of different industrial fats. In this connection, advances in understanding the complex mechanisms that govern fat crystallization led to the development of strategies in order to modulate the conventional processes of fat structuration, based on the use of crystallization modifiers. Different components have been evaluated, such as specific triacyglycerols, partial glycerides (monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols), free fatty acids, phospholipids and emulsifiers. The knowledge and expertise on the influence of these specific additives or minor lipids on the crystallization behavior of fat systems represents a focus of current interest for the industrial processing of oils and fats. This article presents a comprehensive review on the use of crystallization modifiers in lipid systems, especially for palm oil, cocoa butter and general purpose fats, highlighting: i) the removal, addition or fractionation of minor lipids in fat bases; ii) the use of nucleating agents to modify the crystallization process; iii) control of crystallization in lipid bases by using emulsifiers. The addition of these components into lipid systems is discussed in relation to the phenomena of nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, thermal behavior and polymorphism, with the intention of providing the reader with a complete panorama of the associated mechanisms

  9. On the general theory of neural circuitry.

    PubMed

    Kingham, D J

    1994-05-01

    A general theory of neural circuitry is proposed wherein neural impulses travel in a continuous circuit from the brain to the extremities and back to the brain. At the extremities the impulse may be modified by the environment there. At the spinal column the return signal is compared with the outgoing signal and the appropriate motoneuronal 'reflex' signal is generated if the difference is sufficiently large. In the thalamus the return signal is again compared with the outgoing signal and the difference between the two generates a sensory impulse which is sent to the cortical regions of the brain for comparison with stored patterns from similar signals of past experience. This theory allows for an explanation of feelings of pain and pleasure, pain remote from an area of trauma, phantom limb pain and the relationship between sensory impulses and motor impulses. New approaches to reducing pain are suggested by this theory.

  10. Theory of orbital magnetization in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guobao; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Fang, Cheng; Liu, W. M.; Yao, Yugui

    2012-12-01

    We present a general formula of the orbital magnetization of disordered systems based on the Keldysh Green's function theory in the gauge-covariant Wigner space. In our approach, the gauge invariance of physical quantities is ensured from the very beginning, and the vertex corrections are easily included. Our formula applies not only for insulators but also for metallic systems where the quasiparticle behavior is usually strongly modified by the disorder scattering. In the absence of disorders, our formula recovers the previous results obtained from the semiclassical theory and the perturbation theory. As an application, we calculate the orbital magnetization of a weakly disordered two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that for the short-range disorder scattering, its major effect is to the shifting of the distribution of orbital magnetization corresponding to the quasiparticle energy renormalization.

  11. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  12. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  13. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    A paper at the 1992 FCS showed how to express the modified Allan variance (mvar) in terms of the third difference of the cumulative sum of time residuals. Although this reformulated definition was presented merely as a computational trick for simplifying the calculation of mvar estimates, it has since turned out to be a powerful theoretical tool for deriving the statistical quality of those estimates in terms of their equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), defined for an estimator V by edf V = 2(EV)2/(var V). Confidence intervals for mvar can then be constructed from levels of the appropriate 2 distribution.

  14. Dark matter in modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuragawa, Taishi; Matsuzaki, Shinya

    2017-02-01

    We explore a new horizon of modified gravity from the viewpoint of particle physics. As a concrete example, we take the F (R ) gravity to raise a question: can a scalar particle ("scalaron") derived from the F (R ) gravity be a dark matter candidate? We place the limit on the parameter in a class of F (R ) gravity model from the constraint on the scalaron as a dark matter. The role of the screening mechanism and compatibility with the dark energy problem are addressed.

  15. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  16. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  17. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Modified Norway Post Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement... existing bilateral agreement for inbound competitive services with Posten Norge AS (Modified Norway...

  18. The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Passanisi, Alessia; Jonsson, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However…

  19. On Kraichnan's 'direct interaction approximation' and Kolmogoroff's theory in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Sudan, R.N.

    1981-04-01

    The nonlinear damping in a strongly turbulent convecting plasma computed by Kraichnan's modified direct inteaction approximation and the power spectrum are rederived in a physically transparent form using Kolmogoroff's theory of turbulence.

  20. Binary compact object mergers in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Eric; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steve; Palenzuela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We present work on the dynamics and gravitational wae emission of binary black holes in a modified theory of gravity. Our particular model is inspired by low energy string theory and includes additional matter fields, such as a dilaton, not necessarily present in vacuum general relativity. We consider deviations from standard predictions for gravitational wave signatures and examine alternative scalar and electromagnetic channels for emission.

  1. Einstein's Theory Fights off Challengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    Two new and independent studies have put Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to the test like never before. These results, made using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town. Each team of scientists took advantage of extensive Chandra observations of galaxy clusters, the largest objects in the Universe bound together by gravity. One result undercuts a rival gravity model to General Relativity, while the other shows that Einstein's theory works over a vast range of times and distances across the cosmos. The first finding significantly weakens a competitor to General Relativity known as "f(R) gravity". "If General Relativity were the heavyweight boxing champion, this other theory was hoping to be the upstart contender," said Fabian Schmidt of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who led the study. "Our work shows that the chances of its upsetting the champ are very slim." In recent years, physicists have turned their attention to competing theories to General Relativity as a possible explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Currently, the most popular explanation for the acceleration is the so-called cosmological constant, which can be understood as energy that exists in empty space. This energy is referred to as dark energy to emphasize that it cannot be directly detected. In the f(R) theory, the cosmic acceleration comes not from an exotic form of energy but from a modification of the gravitational force. The modified force also affects the rate at which small enhancements of matter can grow over the eons to become massive clusters of galaxies, opening up the possibility of a sensitive test of the theory. Schmidt and colleagues used mass estimates of 49 galaxy clusters in the local universe from Chandra observations, and compared them with theoretical model predictions and studies of supernovas, the cosmic microwave background, and the large-scale distribution of galaxies. They

  2. Dissipative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kheirandish, F.; Amooshahi, M.

    2008-11-18

    Quantum field theory of a damped vibrating string as the simplest dissipative scalar field theory is investigated by introducing a minimal coupling method. The rate of energy flowing between the system and its environment is obtained.

  3. Interpolation and Approximation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaijser, Sten

    1991-01-01

    Introduced are the basic ideas of interpolation and approximation theory through a combination of theory and exercises written for extramural education at the university level. Topics treated are spline methods, Lagrange interpolation, trigonometric approximation, Fourier series, and polynomial approximation. (MDH)

  4. Stabilizing bottomless action theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greensite, J.; Halpern, M. B.

    1984-08-01

    We show how to construct the euclidean quantum theory corresponding to classical actions which are unbounded from below. Our method preserves the classical limit, the large- N limit, and the perturbative expansion of the unstabilized theories.

  5. Theory of Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollmien, W.

    1949-01-01

    The theory of characteristics will be presented generally for quasilinear differential equations of the second order in two variables. This is necessary because of the manifold requirements to be demanded from the theory of characteristics.

  6. Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-07-02

    The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.

  7. Modified Synthesis of Erlotinib Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Barghi, Leila; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Valizadeh, Hadi; Barar, Jaleh; Asgari, Davoud

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An improved and economical method has been described for the synthesis of erlotinib hydrochloride, as a useful drug in treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Method: Erlotinib hydrochloride was synthesized in seven steps starting from 3, 4-dihydroxy benzoic acid. In this study, we were able to modify one of the key steps which involved the reduction of the 6-nitrobenzoic acid derivative to 6-aminobenzoic acid derivative. An inexpensive reagent such as ammonium formate was used as an in situ hydrogen donor in the presence of palladium/charcoal (Pd/C) instead of hydrogen gas at high pressure. Result: This proposed method proceeded with 92% yield at room temperature. Synthesis of erlotinib was completed in 7 steps with overall yield of 44%. Conclusion: From the results obtained it can be concluded that the modified method eliminated the potential danger associated with the use of hydrogen gas in the presence of flammable catalysts. It should be mentioned that the catalyst was recovered after the reaction and could be used again. PMID:24312780

  8. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  9. Investigation of modified asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimich, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Currently the problem of improving the asphalt quality is very urgent. It is used primarily as topcoats exposed to the greatest relative to the other layers of the road, dynamic load - impact and shear. The number of cars on the road, the speed of their movement, as well as the traffic intensity increase day by day. We have to upgrade motor roads, which entails a huge cost. World experience shows that the issue is urgent not only in Russia, but also in many countries in Europe, USA and Asia. Thus, the subject of research is the resistance of asphalt concrete to water and its influence on the strength of the material at different temperatures, and resistance of pavement to deformation. It is appropriate to search for new modifiers for asphaltic binder and mineral additives for asphalt mix to form in complex the skeleton of the future asphalt concrete, resistant to atmospheric condensation, soil characteristics of the road construction area, as well as the growing road transport load. The important task of the work is searching special modifying additives for bitumen binder and asphalt mixture as a whole, which will improve the quality of highways, increasing the period between repairs. The methods described in the normative-technical documentation were used for the research. The conducted research allowed reducing the frequency of road maintenance for 7 years, increasing it from 17 to 25 years.

  10. Cosmological models of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon Keith

    The recent discovery of dark energy has prompted an investigation of ways in which the accelerated expansion of the universe can be realized. In this dissertation, we present two separate projects related to dark energy. The first project analyzes a class of braneworld models in which multiple branes float in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk, while the second investigates a class of dark energy models from an effective field theory perspective. Investigations of models including extra dimensions have led to modifications of gravity involving a number of interesting features. In particular, the Randall-Sundrum model is well-known for achieving an amelioration of the hierarchy problem. However, the basic model relies on Minkowski branes and is subject to solar system constraints in the absence of a radion stabilization mechanism. We present a method by which a four-dimensional low-energy description can be obtained for braneworld scenarios, allowing for a number of generalizations to the original models. This method is applied to orbifolded and uncompactified N-brane models, deriving an effective four-dimensional action. The parameter space of this theory is constrained using observational evidence, and it is found that the generalizations do not weaken solar system constraints on the original model. Furthermore, we find that general N-brane systems are qualitatively similar to the two-brane case, and do not naturally lead to a viable dark energy model. We next investigate dark energy models using effective field theory techniques. We describe dark energy through a quintessence field, employing a derivative expansion. To the accuracy of the model, we find transformations to write the description in a form involving no higher-order derivatives in the equations of motion. We use a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson construction to motivate the theory, and find the regime of validity and scaling of the operators using this. The regime of validity is restricted to a

  11. Placing Students in Writing Classes: One University's Experience with a Modified Version of Directed Self Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balay, Anne; Nelson, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses our university's attempt to analyze whether our system of First Year Writing placement serves the needs of our diverse student body. The theory behind Directed Self Placement (DSP) is appealing, so our program adopted a modified version of it, and after several years, decided to evaluate it quantitatively. The authors, a…

  12. How Students' Everyday Situations Modify Classroom Mathematical Activity: The Case of Water Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaz, Vanessa Sena; David, Maria Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to discuss how school mathematical activity is modified when students' everyday situations are brought into the classroom. One illustrative sequence--7th grade classes solving problems that required proportional reasoning--is characterized as a system of interconnected activities within the theoretical perspective of activity theory. We…

  13. Constructor theory of probability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles. PMID:27616914

  14. Activity Theory and Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  15. Whither Social Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from psychology and mathematics as the main…

  16. Cognitive Theories of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Mitchell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article considers three theories of autism: The Theory of Mind Deficit, Executive Dysfunction and the Weak Central Coherence accounts. It outlines each along with studies relevant to their emergence, their expansion, their limitations and their possible integration. Furthermore, consideration is given to any implication from the theories in…

  17. Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-03-30

    The Standard Model of particle physics is composed of several theories that are added together. The most precise component theory is the theory of quantum electrodynamics or QED. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains how theoretical QED calculations can be done. This video links to other videos, giving the viewer a deep understanding of the process.

  18. Measurement Decision Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of decision theory as a tool for classifying examinees based on their item response patterns. Decision theory, developed by A. Wald (1947) and now widely used in engineering, agriculture, and computing, provides a simple model for the analysis of categorical data. Measurement decision theory requires only…

  19. Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Standard Model of particle physics is composed of several theories that are added together. The most precise component theory is the theory of quantum electrodynamics or QED. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains how theoretical QED calculations can be done. This video links to other videos, giving the viewer a deep understanding of the process.

  20. Constructor theory of probability.

    PubMed

    Marletto, Chiara

    2016-08-01

    Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called 'decision-theoretic approach', I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information-where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch-Wallace-type argument-thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles.