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Sample records for modified boston brace

  1. The Boston Brace System philosophy, biomechanics, design & fit.

    PubMed

    Wynne, James H

    2008-01-01

    The Boston Brace System developed in the early 1970's by Dr John Hall and Bill Miller, CPO, is a logical, multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. The Brace itself is but one component of the Brace system. The clinical team consists of patient, family, orthopedist, orthotist, physical therapist and nurse. Each team member needs to have a working knowledge of each others discipline, and educate the patient on his/her roll of the treatment plan. If the patient is not educated and understands the process, the logic behind the process and the critical roll they play- then the whole system has been compromised. The Boston Brace itself is one of the most widely studied orthosis used in the conservative management of scoliosis. It has been shown that orthotist training and skill, as well as the ability to assess and modify the fit in 3D have a positive influence on patient outcome. This chapter will discuss the philosophy, biomechanics, design, fit and adjustments necessary for a successful outcome. By following the basic tenants of the system, and maintaining the patient focus, the goal of having a stable spine in adulthood can be obtained. It takes a team effort. This outline will take about how to construct and evaluate the orthosis to maximize fit and function.

  2. Interface corrective force measurements in Boston brace treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, J A A M; van Rhijn, L W; van den Munckhof, R J H; van Ooy, A

    2002-08-01

    Brace application has been reported to be effective in treating idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. The exact working mechanism of a thoracolumbo spinal orthosis is a result of different mechanisms and is not completely understood. One of the supposed working mechanisms is a direct compressive force working through the brace upon the body and thereby correcting the scoliotic deformity, achieving optimal fit of the individual orthosis. In this study we measured these direct forces exerted by the pads in a Boston brace in 16 patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis, using the electronic PEDAR measuring device (Novel, Munich, Germany). This is designed as an in-shoe measuring system consisting of two shoe insoles (size 8 1/2), wired to a computer, recording static and dynamic pressure distribution under the plantar surface of the foot. After positioning the inserts between the lumbar and thoracic pads and the body, we measured the forces acting upon the body in eight different postures. In all positions the mean corrective force through the lumbar brace pad was larger than the mean corrective force over the thoracic brace pad. Some changes in body posture resulted in statistically significant alterations in the exerted forces. There was no significant correlation between the magnitude of the compressive force over the lumbar and thoracic brace-pad and the degree of correction of the major curve. Comparing the corrective forces in a relatively new (<6 months) and old (>6 months) brace, there was no statistically relevant difference, although the corrective force was slightly larger in the new braces. We think that the use of this pressure measurement device is practicable and of value for studies of the working mechanism of brace treatment, and in the future it might be of help in achieving optimal fit of the individual orthosis.

  3. Results of Milwaukee and Boston braces with or without metal marker around pads in patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Ganjavian, Mohammad Saleh; Behtash, Hamid; Ameri, Ebrahim; Khakinahad, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Bracing is the non-operative treatment of choice for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and careful application of pads on apical segment of curve is very important for correction. Control of pads` appropriate site in brace is not easy by clinical evaluation. Therefore, we decided to compare results of braces which for better control of pads by radiographs, metal marker inserted around pads with those without metal marker. We evaluated 215 consecutive cases (182 female, 33 male) of AIS with 342 major curves from 1993 to 2003. Mean initial age was, 13.2 ± 1.8 years (9-16) and mean duration of follow-up was, 16.1 ± 16.4 months (0-114) that treated by 4 type of brace; 89 with type 1(Milwaukee with metal pads), 87 with type 2 (Milwaukee with simple pads), 17 with type 3 (Boston with metal pads) and 22 with type 4(Boston with simple pads). Cobb angle recorded at 5 stages (initial, best, wean, stop and final follow-up). Mean initial Cobb was 36.2°, at stop stage, 35.2° and reached 38° at final follow-up. Overall, 21.3% improved, 42.2% were the same and 36.5% failed. Failure for braces type 1 to 4 were, 40.5%, 34%, 38% and 24% at final follow-up. A total of 59 patients (27.4%) underwent spinal fusion that for brace type 1 to 4 , was, 33, 21, 2 and 3 patients respectively. From 16 cases with initial Cobb of 50°, at follow-up, 12 were ≥50° or had spinal fusion. Correction of lumbar (P=0.008) and main thoracic curves (P=0.002) was better by Boston than Milwaukee, however, In general difference between 4 types of braces was not significant and metal marker had no significant effect on results. Two important predictors of brace failure were, initial curve magnitude and brace type, but using metal marker around pads had no effect in results. It seems that bracing did not alter the natural history of scoliosis in early Risser stages with large magnitude of initial curves. Insertion of metal marker around pads is easy and cheap way that facilitate control of pad sites

  4. The effectiveness of the SpineCor brace for the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Comparison with the Boston brace.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Gabriel; Benoit, Mathieu; Joncas, Julie; Beauséjour, Marie; Barchi, Soraya; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2016-05-01

    The Boston brace (Bb) is the most widely used brace design to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The dynamic SpineCor (SC) brace is prescribed in several scoliosis clinics worldwide, but its effectiveness remains controversial. The study aimed to compare the treatment effectiveness of SC in patients with AIS treated by the developers of the brace with that of the Bb at a single institution. This is a retrospective comparison between a cohort of AIS patients treated using the SC brace and a cohort treated using the Bb. We assessed 243 patients treated with either Bb or SC brace to prevent the progression of AIS. The primary outcome was the progression in main Cobb angle when reaching one of the following end point criteria: (1) progression in Cobb angle of ≥6°, (2) main Cobb angle of ≥45°, (3) surgery undertaken, or (4) reaching skeletal maturity (Risser sign of 5 or growth of <1 cm in the previous 6 months). Patients were identified at a single institution between 2000 and 2012 following the Scoliosis Research Society criteria for brace treatment: (1) diagnosis of AIS, (2) Risser sign of ≤2, (3) curve magnitude between 25° and 40°, and (4) age ≥10 years. A total of 97 patients treated with SC by the developers of the brace and 146 patients treated with Bb were identified. Data collection and radiograph measurements were performed by a single experienced nurse not involved in the decision-making for brace treatment or in the data analysis. Age and Risser sign at onset of treatment, initialmain Cobb angle, curve type, and duration of follow-up were similar in both cohorts. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square and logistic regression models, with a level of significance of .05. The average progression was 14.7°±11.9° in the SC cohort compared with 9.6°±13.7° in the Bb cohort (p=.003). The average Cobb angle at the end point of the study reached 47°±13° in the SC cohort and 41.7°±14.2° in the Bb cohort (p=.005), whereas at

  5. Braces

    MedlinePlus

    ... that straightens your teeth faster and easier. The rubber bands that go along with braces come in ... kids just need regular braces with wires and rubber bands doing their jobs to keep pressure on ...

  6. A modified crash brace position for aircraft passengers.

    PubMed

    Brownson, P; Wallace, W A; Anton, D J

    1998-10-01

    In 1989, a Boeing 737-400 aircraft crashed at Kegworth, near Nottingham, England. The survivors suffered a large number of pelvic and lower limb injuries, and approximately one-third of the passengers died. Subsequent research has suggested that the "brace-for-impact" position that passengers are advised to adopt prior to a crash landing might be modified in order to reduce the incidence of such injuries. The aim of this research was to evaluate biomechanically such a modified crash brace position. A modified brace position would help to prevent injuries to some passengers in the event of an impact aircraft accident. Impact testing on forward-facing seats was performed at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough, England. Aircraft seats, mounted on a sled, were propelled down a track to impact at -16 Gx. A test dummy was used as the experimental model. Four dummy positions were investigated: a) upper torso braced forward and lower legs inclined slightly rearward of the vertical; b) upper torso braced forward and lower legs inclined forward; c) upper torso upright and lower legs inclined slightly rearward of the vertical; and d) upper torso upright and lower legs inclined forward. The impact pulses used were based on Federal Aviation Administration guidelines. Transducers located in the head, spine, and lower limbs of the dummy recorded the forces to which each body segment was exposed during the impact. These forces were compared for each brace position. Impact testing revealed that the risk of a head injury as defined by the head injury criterion was greater in the upright position than in the braced forward position. The risk of injury to the lower limbs was dependent in part on the flailing behavior of the limbs. Flailing did not occur when the dummy was placed in a braced, legs-back position. A modified brace position would involve passengers sitting with the upper torso inclined forward so that the passenger's head rested against the

  7. Braces

    MedlinePlus

    ... and they're made of a space-age material that straightens your teeth faster and easier. The rubber bands that go ... braces are removed and you can see your new and improved smile! Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: April ... Dentist Going to the Orthodontist Taking Care of Your Teeth Taking the Bite Out of Bruxism What's a ...

  8. Long-term results after Boston brace treatment in late-onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Lange, Johan Emil; Steen, Harald; Gunderson, Ragnhild; Brox, Jens Ivar

    2011-08-31

    It is recommended that research in patients with idiopathic scoliosis should focus on short- and long-term patient-centred outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate outcome in patients with late-onset juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis 16 years or more after Boston brace treatment. 272 (78%) of 360 patients, 251 (92%) women, responded to follow-up examination at a mean of 24.7 (range 16 - 32) years after Boston brace treatment. Fifty-eight (21%) patients had late-onset juvenile and 214 had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All patients had clinical and radiological examination and answered a standardised questionnaire including work status, demographics, General Function Score (GFS) (100 - worst possible) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (100 - worst possible), EuroQol (EQ-5D) (1 - best possible), EQ-VAS (100 - best possible), and Scoliosis Research Society - 22 (SRS - 22) (5 - best possible). The mean age at follow-up was 40.4 (31-48) years. The prebrace major curve was in average 33.2 (20 - 57)°. At weaning and at the last follow-up the corresponding values were 28.3 (1 - 58)° and 32.5 (7 - 80)°, respectively. Curve development was similar in patients with late-onset juvenile and adolescent start. The prebrace curve increased > 5° in 31% and decreased > 5° in 26%. Twenty-five patients had surgery. Those who did not attend follow-up (n = 88) had a lower mean curve at weaning: 25.4 (6-53)°. Work status was 76% full-time and 10% part-time. Eighty-seven percent had delivered a baby, 50% had pain in pregnancy. The mean (SD) GFS was 7.4 (10.8), ODI 9.3 (11.0), EQ-5D 0.82 (0.2), EQ-VAS 77.6 (17.8), SRS-22: pain 4.1 (0.8), mental health 4.1 (0.6), self-image 3.7 (0.7), function 4.0 (0.6), satisfaction with treatment 3.7 (1.0). Surgical patients had significantly reduced scores for SRS-physical function and self-image, and patients with curves ≥ 45° had reduced self-image. Long-term results were satisfactory in most braced patients and

  9. 12. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRACE ON SOUTH ELEVATION, MILEPOST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF BRACE ON SOUTH ELEVATION, MILEPOST SIGNBOARD TO LEFT OF BRACE - Meeting House Bridge, Spanning Boston & Maine Railroad 0.1 mile east of Biddleford Road, Arundel, York County, ME

  10. BRACE MAP, a proposal for a new classification of braces.

    PubMed

    Negrini, S; Zaina, F; Atanasio, S

    2008-01-01

    Braces today are named according to the author's name or town. The existing classification of braces considers only the anatomical spinal section involved (C: cervical; T: thoracic; L: lumbar; S: sacral; Orthosis). The absence of a more detailed classification do not allow to really distinguish between the different braces and to have a common language between the conservative treatment experts. Our aim was to propose and verify a new classification of braces. We developed the classification and applied it to 13 different braces (Boston, Charleston, Cheneau 2000, Lapadula, Lyonese, Maguelone, Milwaukee, PASB, Providence, Sforzesco, Sibilla, SpineCor, Triac). We considered the following items (acronym BRACE MAP): Building, Rigidity, Anatomical classification, Construction of the Envelope, Mechanism of Action, Plane of action. Each item is composed by 2 to 7 classificatory elements defined using one or maximum two letters, so that from the classification it is possible to come back to the brace characteristics. Out of the 13 braces considered, BRACE MAP did not allow to differentiate only two. This first proposal needs to be refined through Consensus and discussions that are already underway in the international Society On Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT); nevertheless, BRACE MAP appears to be useful in distinguishing between the existing braces.

  11. The carbon brace.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Claude; Lecante, Cyril; Deceuninck, Julie; Notin, Gregory; Journoud, Lydie; Barral, Frederic

    2013-02-14

    The CMCR brace (Corset MonocoqueCarbone respectant la Respiration -which means Monoshell Carbon Brace respecting Breathing) is an innovative brace, used in orthopaedic treatment for progressive thoracic, thoraco-lumbar or combined scoliosis, whatever their etiology. It can be used at the very young age without disrupting the chest growth, but should be kept for reducible scoliosis in older teenagers. BRACE DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLES: The CMCR brace is monoshell while retaining the corrective principle of the polyvalve Lyon brace with one or two supports (brace "pads") located on hump(s).In contrast to Lyon brace made of plexidur and structured by metal reinforcement with adjustable but fixed localized supports, the CMCR brace is made of polyethylene and carbon with adjustable and mobile supports. This mobility provides a permanent pressure, which varies depending on ribs and spine movements.The correction is obtained without spinal extension so that each respiratory movement takes part in a gradual return to dorsal kyphosis. Results were presented in two published analysis:• In the first retrospective study about 115 patients, French-published in the Annals of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (2005), the CMCR brace stabilized moderate scoliosis, decreased the vital capacity (VC) of 13% compared to the VC without brace, and did not have sufficient impact on the hump reduction. Treatment had better results when started at Risser 3 or 4 than Risser 0, 1, 2. The brace was then modified to increase the dorsal pad pressure and the location of correction forces was defined more precisely through the use of 3D analysis.• The second study published in Scoliosis (2011) mainly focused on the impact on VC at brace setting up and followed a cohort of 90 patients treated with CMCR. Girls as well as boys increased VC during treatment, and at brace definitive removal, VC had increased of 21% from the initial value, whereas the theoretical VC at the same time rose by 18

  12. The carbon brace

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The CMCR brace (Corset MonocoqueCarbone respectant la Respiration –which means Monoshell Carbon Brace respecting Breathing) is an innovative brace, used in orthopaedic treatment for progressive thoracic, thoraco-lumbar or combined scoliosis, whatever their etiology. It can be used at the very young age without disrupting the chest growth, but should be kept for reducible scoliosis in older teenagers. Brace description and principles The CMCR brace is monoshell while retaining the corrective principle of the polyvalve Lyon brace with one or two supports (brace “pads”) located on hump(s).In contrast to Lyon brace made of plexidur and structured by metal reinforcement with adjustable but fixed localized supports, the CMCR brace is made of polyethylene and carbon with adjustable and mobile supports. This mobility provides a permanent pressure, which varies depending on ribs and spine movements. The correction is obtained without spinal extension so that each respiratory movement takes part in a gradual return to dorsal kyphosis. Results Results were presented in two published analysis: • In the first retrospective study about 115 patients, French-published in the Annals of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (2005), the CMCR brace stabilized moderate scoliosis, decreased the vital capacity (VC) of 13% compared to the VC without brace, and did not have sufficient impact on the hump reduction. Treatment had better results when started at Risser 3 or 4 than Risser 0, 1, 2. The brace was then modified to increase the dorsal pad pressure and the location of correction forces was defined more precisely through the use of 3D analysis. • The second study published in Scoliosis (2011) mainly focused on the impact on VC at brace setting up and followed a cohort of 90 patients treated with CMCR. Girls as well as boys increased VC during treatment, and at brace definitive removal, VC had increased of 21% from the initial value, whereas the theoretical VC

  13. Detail, brace connector for subdeck riveted support girder. View west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, brace connector for subdeck riveted support girder. View west - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. Invisible Braces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ceradyne, Inc., and 3M Unitek were assisted in the development of Ceramic braces by NIAC/USC. The braces are marketed by Unitek/3M, and are made from translucent polycrystalline alumina (TPA). They are designed for each tooth, connected by a thin metal wire, are strong, aesthetically appealing and as effective clinically as plastic or metal appliances.

  15. Milwaukee brace.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Toru; Takesita, Katsushi; Kitagawa, Tomoaki; Nakao, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    The Milwaukee brace had been a standard of nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis since 1954. Milwaukee brace 23-hours wearing protocol was most effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. However, Milwaukee brace 23-hours wearing showed an impact on psychosocial functioning of the patients. Moreover, even with thoraco-lumbo-sacral orthosis, 23-hours wearing protocol affects patients' psychosocial function. To maintain the effectiveness of the Milwaukee brace and at the same time to reduce physical and psychological burden of the patients, we adopted part-time wearing of Milwaukee brace. Our part-time wearing treatment was effective and did not affect the quality of life of the patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

  16. Brace Management in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Jonathan R.; Thakur, Nikhil A.

    2009-01-01

    Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk for curve progression. Although numerous nonoperative methods have been attempted, including physical therapy, exercise, massage, manipulation, and electrical stimulation, only bracing is effective in preventing curve progression and the subsequent need for surgery. Brace treatment is initiated as either full-time (TLSO, Boston) or nighttime (Charleston, Providence) wear, although patient compliance with either mode of bracing has been a documented problem. We review the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, identify the risks for curve progression, describe the types of braces available for treatment, and review the indications for and efficacy of brace treatment. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19484317

  17. 15. Detail view of Boston Bridge Works builders plate, north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of Boston Bridge Works builders plate, north portal brace, looking southwest - India Point Railroad Bridge, Spanning Seekonk River between Providence & East Providence, Providence, Providence County, RI

  18. A new brace treatment similar for adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis based on restoration of thoracolumbar lordosis. Radiological and subjective clinical results after at least one year of treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Study design A prospective treatment study with a new brace was conducted Objective. To evaluate radiological and subjective clinical results after one year conservative brace treatment with pressure onto lordosis at the thoracolumbar joint in children with scoliosis and kyphosis. Summary of background data Conservative brace treatment of adolescent scoliosis is not proven to be effective in terms of lasting correction. Conservative treatment in kyphotic deformities may lead to satisfactory correction. None of the brace or casting techniques is based on sagittal forces only applied at the thoracolumbar spine (TLI= thoracolumbar lordotic intervention). Previously we showed in patients with scoliosis after forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine a radiological instantaneous reduction in both coronal curves of double major scoliosis. Methods A consecutive series of 91 children with adolescent scoliosis and kyphosis were treated with a modified symmetric 30 degrees Boston brace to ensure only forced lordosis at the thoracolumbar spine. Scoliosis was defined with a Cobb angle of at least one of the curves [greater than or equal to] 25 degrees and kyphosis with or without a curve <25 degrees in the coronal plane. Standing radiographs were made i) at start, ii) in brace at beginning and iii) after one year treatment without brace. Results Before treatment start ‘in brace’ radiographs showed a strong reduction of the Cobb angles in different curves in kyphosis and scoliosis groups (sagittal n = 5 all p < 0.001, pelvic obliquity p < 0.001). After one year of brace treatment in scoliosis and kyphosis group the measurements on radiographs made without brace revealed an improvement in 3 Cobb angles each. Conclusion Conservative treatment using thoracolumbar lordotic intervention in scoliotic and kyphotic deformities in adolescence demonstrates a marked improvement after one year also in clinical and postural criteria. An effect not obtained with current brace techniques

  19. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  20. Effects of Education on Differential Item Functioning on the 15-Item Modified Korean Version of the Boston Naming Test

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae-Nam; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Shinkyum; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Jee-Eun; Cho, Maeng Je

    2017-01-01

    Objective Education is expected to have an effect on differential item functioning (DIF) on the 15-item Modified Boston Naming Test in the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (BNT-KC). However, no study has examined DIF in the BNT-KC. Methods We used the item response theory to investigate the impact of education on the DIF in the BNT-KC among elderly individuals with or without dementia (n=720). A two-parameter item response model was used to determine the difficulty and discrimination parameters of each item. The Benjamini-Hochberg procedure was used to address the risk of Type I errors on multiple testing. Results Four items, “mermaid,” “acorn,” “compass,” and “pomegranate” continued to demonstrate DIF after controlling for multiple comparisons. Those with low education levels were more likely to error on “mermaid” and “compass,” while those with high education levels were more likely to error on “acorn” and “pomegranate.” “Hand” and “red pepper” were too easily identified to be used for detecting dementia patients. “Monk's hat” and “pomegranate” were less discriminating than other items, limiting their usefulness in clinical setting. Conclusion These findings may provide useful information for the development of a revised version of the BNT-KC to help clinicians make diagnostic decisions more accurately. PMID:28326109

  1. The outcome of a modified version of the Cheneau brace in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) based on SRS and SOSORT criteria: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Guido; Cecchi, Francesca; Bini, Christian; Molino-Lova, Raffaello; Vannetti, Federica; Castagnoli, Chiara; Paperini, Anita; Boni, Roberta; Macchi, Claudio; Crusco, Biase; Ceppatelli, Simone; Corigliano, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    Bracing therapy for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) continues to be a controversial issue. As a consequence, to achieve an adequate level of evidence, there is a strong need for specific studies conducted according to standard outcome and management criteria. To assess the outcomes of a modified version of the Cheneau brace, ("Cheneau-P") in patients with AIS, based on SRS and SOSORT criteria. Retrospective study. Scoliosis Unit of a Clinical Center. Sixty-seven patients, 56 females and 11 males. Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of AIS, age ≥10 years, Risser Score 0-2, Cobb degrees 20-40, no previous treatment, beginning of brace treatment within 1 year after menarche and minimum 2-year follow-up. According to SRS criteria, bracing outcomes were classified, as follows: "improved" (reduction of the curve ≥6°), "unchanged" (5° curve progression or reduction), "worsened" (≥6° curve progression), and "over 45°" (curve exceeding 45° or undergone surgery during the follow-up). The outcomes "improved" and "unchanged" were considered as successful outcomes. Groups and related subgroups were created according to curve type (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar, lumbar and double major) and magnitude (20°-30°; 30°-40°) and to skeletal age (Risser score 0, 1, 2). A separate analysis was also performed on the 37 patients, 30 females and 7 males, who completely fulfilled the SRS eligibility criteria, showing spinal curves between 25 and 40 Cobb degrees. In the whole group SRS outcome after bracing treatment was successful in 93% and in 81% of patients, at per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) analysis, respectively, the latter also including drop-outs as worst outcomes. Cobb angles significantly decreased in all subgroups except in patients showing double major curves, lower curve magnitude (20-30°) and Risser score 2. Rib humps and balance rate also significantly improved in the whole sample (12.78±4.54 at T0 vs. 6.83±4.33 at T1 P<0.001; 60

  2. Spinal Bracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Dr. Arthur Copes of the Copes Foundation, Baton Rouge, LA, says that 35 percent of the 50 technical reports he received from the NASA/Southern University Industrial Applications Center in Baton Rouge and the Central Industrial Applications Center, Durant, OK, were vital to the development of his Copes Scoliosis Braces, which are custom designed and feature a novel pneumatic bladder that exerts constant corrective pressure to the torso to slowly reduce or eliminate the spinal curve.

  3. Scoliosis brace (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment for scoliosis is the use of a brace. The brace works by exerting pressure on the back and ... push the spine in a straighter position. The brace usually fits snugly around the torso and can ...

  4. Development of CAD/CAM Based Brace Models for the Treatment of Patients with Scoliosis-Classification Based Approach versus Finite Element Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Kleban, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective controlled cohort study comparing the in-brace correction of two samples of scoliosis patients with braces of different computer aided design (CAD). Purpose In-brace correction and compliance correlate with outcome. The more standardized CAD braces that are available should enable improved in-brace correction and outcome. This study compared recent CAD brace developments with respect to in-brace corrections. Overview of Literature A 2013 randomized controlled trial demonstrated that 72% of a population complying to Scoliosis Research Society inclusion criteria on bracing did not progress using braces (mainly Boston braces) used in the United States and Canada with moderate corrective effect. Methods In-brace corrections achieved in a sample of patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria for studies on bracing using the classification based approach (CBA) were compared to the recent individual CAD/computer aided manufacturing bracing based on finite element modelling approach (FEMA). Results In-brace corrections using the different approaches differed widely. CBA in-brace corrections were 66% of the initial value. FEMA in-brace correction was 42% of the initial value. Conclusions Considering the fact that in-brace correction (and compliance) determines the end result of bracing in the treatment of scoliosis, scoliosis braces based on CBA are superior to the FEMA and the standard plaster based brace applications. PMID:26435781

  5. Development of CAD/CAM Based Brace Models for the Treatment of Patients with Scoliosis-Classification Based Approach versus Finite Element Modelling.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Kleban, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Retrospective controlled cohort study comparing the in-brace correction of two samples of scoliosis patients with braces of different computer aided design (CAD). In-brace correction and compliance correlate with outcome. The more standardized CAD braces that are available should enable improved in-brace correction and outcome. This study compared recent CAD brace developments with respect to in-brace corrections. A 2013 randomized controlled trial demonstrated that 72% of a population complying to Scoliosis Research Society inclusion criteria on bracing did not progress using braces (mainly Boston braces) used in the United States and Canada with moderate corrective effect. In-brace corrections achieved in a sample of patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria for studies on bracing using the classification based approach (CBA) were compared to the recent individual CAD/computer aided manufacturing bracing based on finite element modelling approach (FEMA). In-brace corrections using the different approaches differed widely. CBA in-brace corrections were 66% of the initial value. FEMA in-brace correction was 42% of the initial value. Considering the fact that in-brace correction (and compliance) determines the end result of bracing in the treatment of scoliosis, scoliosis braces based on CBA are superior to the FEMA and the standard plaster based brace applications.

  6. Lyon brace.

    PubMed

    de Mauroy, Jean Claude; Fender, Paule; Tato, Biagio; Lusenti, Piera; Ferracane, Gioacchino

    2008-01-01

    For the last 60 years, the impressive progress of the scoliosis surgery has hidden the development of the conservative orthopedic treatment. The stabilization of the scoliosis, which implies the safeguarding of a spine as mobile as possible, remains a valid objective. The Lyon Brace management combines 3 techniques. A reduction of the scoliosis using a plaster cast fixed on an EDF (Elongation Derotation Flexion) Cotrel's frame. It carries through a flow of the musculoligamentar structure of the concavity. A contention by Lyon Brace. Orthesis without any cervical superstructure is adjustable, symmetric, see through and active. The elongation between the two scapular and pelvic girdle leads to a disc decompression which makes easier the 3D correction of the curves. The individual moulding (custom made) is actually electronic using a "full 3D imaging" system by Orten. To every 14 types of Lenke's classification matches a specific blue print. A specific physiotherapy combining the consciousness of the deformity, suppling up of the retracted elements of the concavity, compensatory suppling up of the girdles, improvement of the vital capacity based on exhalation, reharmonisation of the static, static strengthening in order to facilitate the ability to be still in a corrected position, kyphotisation proprioceptive exercises to stimulate the maturation of the postural system. We advise the scoliotics to practice sport during the treatment period. The long term follow up confirms a global effectiveness indication of 0,89 with the rib hump declining by half. When we treat scoliotics with Cobb angle less than 45 degrees, surgical treatment can be prevented in 98% of the patients.In France 60% of the families agree with this stringent treatment which becomes easier thanks to its ambulatory realization and the excellent formation of the partners, the physiotherapists and the orthesist.

  7. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  8. 6. Detail, east side, view to northwest, showing timber bracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, east side, view to northwest, showing timber bracing configuration at inboard end of railway (Building 24 in background). - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. Effect of a modified dynamic accordion hinge Denis Browne brace on the success rate of the Ponseti method in idiopathic clubfoot: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Reza; Hajzargarbashi, Ramin; Baghdadi, Taghi; Shirazi, Mehdi R; Omidnia, Baya; Tajik, Hamidreza

    2017-03-01

    After the success of Dr Ponseti's method for the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot deformity, the number of patients who need soft tissue release has decreased, but the use of foot abduction orthosis is crucial for maintaining correction after this method. The lack of adherence to the orthosis regimen is reported to be a major factor for recurrence. Noncompliance with brace may be because of skin ulceration and blistering or irritability of children because of restrictiveness of the leg motion in the brace. The aim of this article is to introduce a new design of Denis Browne brace (accordion Hinge DB brace) and evaluate the results. We treated a total of 90 patients with idiopathic clubfoot (145 clubfeet) by Dr Ponseti's method and then prescribed a new design accordion to a hinge DB brace after correction of the deformity. We retrospectively reviewed the rate of complications, noncompliance, results, and effectiveness of this newly designed brace. The mean follow-up duration was 36 months (range 14-50 months). All 145 (100%) clubfeet showed complete correction after applying Dr Ponseti's method before brace prescription. Then, the accordion hinge DB brace was applied after removal of the last cast, 23 h a day for 3 months, followed by nightly use subsequently for up to 4 years. Noncompliance was encountered for 15 (10.3%) clubfeet and in 11 (7.5%) clubfeet, relapse was observed. The mean time to relapse was 14 months. Among 15 noncompliant patients, 13 were older than 2 years of age and only one relapse occurred in a patient younger than 2 years old. We did not encounter any case with skin ulceration. On the basis of the results, and compared with our previous study with a classic DB brace, a considerable reduction in noncompliance and relapse was observed. We did not encounter any case with skin ulceration. This accordion hinge DB brace reduces the rate of the complications of classic DB brace, and we strongly recommend the accordion hinge DB brace after the

  10. Milwaukee brace today.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Toru; Takeshita, Katsushi; Kitagawa, Tomoaki

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the efficacy of the Milwaukee brace and its psychological impact and to define whether its use is still acceptable today by a review of literature. A bibliographic search on PubMed and Medline database using keywords, 'scoliosis and brace' was performed. Milwaukee brace 23-hours wearing protocol was most effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. However, 23-hours wearing protocol has some drawbacks, and even the patients using thoraco-lumbo-sacral orthosis wore their brace only for around 60% of the time prescribed as their wearing protocol. Our Milwaukee brace part-time wearing treatment was effective, and by its use combined with physical therapy, better results than the natural history were obtained. With part-time wearing protocol, the Milwaukee brace can survive today as a treatment option for idiopathic scoliosis with thoracic curve or double curve.

  11. Pneumatic osteoarthritis knee brace.

    PubMed

    Stamenović, Dimitrije; Kojić, Milos; Stojanović, Boban; Hunter, David

    2009-04-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that necessitates long term therapeutic intervention. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated an improvement in the external adduction moment with application of a valgus knee brace. Despite being both efficacious and safe, due to their rigid frame and bulkiness, current designs of knee braces create discomfort and difficulties to patients during prolonged periods of application. Here we propose a novel design of a light osteoarthritis knee brace, which is made of soft conforming materials. Our design relies on a pneumatic leverage system, which, when pressurized, reduces the excessive loads predominantly affecting the medial compartment of the knee and eventually reverses the malalignment. Using a finite-element analysis, we show that with a moderate level of applied pressure, this pneumatic brace can, in theory, counterbalance a greater fraction of external adduction moment than the currently existing braces.

  12. 2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM EAST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ENVIRONMENT, FROM EAST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON STREET OVER HARRIS CREEK SEWER - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. 1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON STREET OVER HARRIS CREEK SEWER OUTLET AT NORTHWEST BRANCH OF PATAPSCO RIVER (BALTIMORE HARBOR) - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM WEST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM WEST, SHOWING BOSTON STREET BRIDGE CARRYING BOSTON STREET OVER HARRIS CREEK SEWER, WITH PORTION OF AMERICAN CAN COMPANY COMPLEX - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. Brace technology thematic series: the dynamic derotation brace

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The dynamic derotation brace (DDB) was designed in Greece in 1982, as a modification of the Boston brace. It is a custom-made, underarm spinal orthosis featuring aluminium blades set to produce derotating and anti-rotating effects on the thorax and trunk of patients with scoliosis. It is indicated for the non-operative correction of most curves, barring the very high thoracic ones, (when the apex vertebra is T5 or above). The purpose of this article is to familiarize physicians with the DDB, analyze the rationale behind its design, and present the published results of its application. Description & Principles The key feature of the DDB is the addition of the aluminium-made derotating blades posteriorly. These function as a force couple, which is added to the side forces exerted by the brace itself. Corrective forces are also directed through pads. One or more of previously proposed pathomechanical models of scoliosis may underline the corrective function of the DDB: it may act directly on the apical intervertebral disc, effecting correction through the Heuter-Volkman principle; the blades may produce an anti-rotatory element against the deforming "spiral composite muscle trunk rotator"; or it may alter the neuro-motor response by constantly providing new somatosensory input to the patient. Results Based on measurements of the Cobb and Perdriolle angles, up to 82% of patients remained stable or improved with the use of the DDB. Results have varied, though, depending on the type/location of the deformity. The overall results showed that 35% of the curves improved, 46% remained stable and 18% became worse, as assessed by measuring the Cobb angle. The DDB has also been shown to improve cosmesis (except for right thoracic curves) and leave several aspects of patient quality of life unaffected during use. Conclusion Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis using the DDB has shown favorable results. Thoracic curves appear more resistant to both angular

  16. Structure of ultrathin films of Fe on Cu l brace 111 r brace and Cu l brace 110 r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, D.; Jona, F. ); Marcus, P.M. )

    1992-05-15

    A study of the growth of Fe on Cu{l brace}111{r brace} and on Cu{l brace}110{r brace} has been carried out with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy. We find that on Cu{l brace}111{r brace}, Fe grows first pseudomorphically as {gamma}-Fe{l brace}111{r brace} to a thickness of about five layer equivalents (LE), and then forms six bcc Fe{l brace}110{r brace} domains rotationally related in the Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation. The pseudomorphic film has the same bulk interlayer spacing, within experimental error, as the Cu{l brace}111{r brace} substrate (2.08{plus minus}0.03 A) and a slightly contracted first interlayer spacing (2.03{plus minus}0.03 A). With increasing thickness more and more defects are introduced in the film, but a 13-LE film still produces a good LEED pattern. On Cu{l brace}110{r brace}, the Fe film grows also pseudomorphically, with the same bulk interlayer spacing as the substrate (1.27 A) and a contracted first interlayer spacing (1.17 A), but a precise structure analysis is not possible because the film has relatively large {l brace}111{r brace} facets. Defects and disorder increase with film thickness, so that the LEED pattern is practically obliterated when the thickness exceeds about 20 LE.

  17. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB).

    PubMed

    Aulisa, Angelo G; Mastantuoni, Giuseppe; Laineri, Marco; Falciglia, Francesco; Giordano, Marco; Marzetti, Emanuele; Guzzanti, Vincenzo

    2012-02-23

    The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB) is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO), devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy). The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLES: On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics can achieve the correction of a

  18. Brace technology thematic series: the progressive action short brace (PASB)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Progressive Action Short Brace (PASB) is a custom-made thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO), devised in 1976 by Dr. Lorenzo Aulisa (Institute of Orthopedics at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy). The PASB was designed to overcome the limits imposed by the trunk anatomy. Indeed, the particular geometry of the brace is able to generate internal forces that modify the elastic reaction of the spine. The PASB is indicated for the conservative treatment of lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis. The aim of this article is to explain the biomechanic principles of the PASB and the rationale underlying its design. Recently published studies reporting the results of PASB-based treatment of adolescent scoliotic patients are also discussed. Description and principles On the coronal plane, the upper margin of the PASB, at the side of the curve concavity, prevents the homolateral bending of the scoliotic curve. The opposite upper margin ends just beneath the apical vertebra. The principle underlying such configuration is that the deflection of the inferior tract of a curved elastic structure, fixed at the bottom end, causes straightening of its upper tract. Therefore, whenever the patient bends towards the convexity of the scoliotic curve, the spine is deflected. On the sagittal plane, the inferior margins of the PASB reach the pelvitrochanteric region, in order to stabilize the brace on the pelvis. The transverse section of the brace above the pelvic grip consists of asymmetrical ellipses. This allows the spine to rotate towards the concave side only, leading to the continuous generation of derotating moments. On the sagittal plane, the brace is contoured so as to reduce the lumbar lordosis. The PASB, by allowing only those movements counteracting the progression of the curve, is able to produce corrective forces that are not dissipated. Therefore, the brace is based on the principle that a constrained spine dynamics can achieve the

  19. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The ScoliOlogiC® Chêneau light™ brace in the treatment of scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE) and soft braces. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique for the construction of hard braces at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are available which allow brace adjustments without plaster. Another possibility is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the Certified Prosthetist and Orthotist (CPO) to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This Chêneau light™ brace, developed according to the Chêneau principles, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) [n = 15]), treated according to the principles of the Chêneau light™ brace have shown a satisfactory in-brace correction exceeding 50% of the initial Cobb angle. Brace description The ScoliOlogiC® off the shelf bracing system enables the CPO to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This brace, when finally adjusted is called Chêneau light™ brace. The advantage of this new bracing system is that the brace is available immediately, is easily adjustable and that it can also be easily modified. This avoids construction periods of sometimes more than 6 weeks, where the curve may drastically increase during periods of fast growth. The disadvantage of this bracing system is that there is a wide variability of possibilities to arrange the different shells during adjustment. Results The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were

  20. Automatic locking knee brace joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for controlling the pivotal movement of a knee brace comprising a tang-and-clevis joint that has been uniquely modified. Both the tang and the clevis have a set of teeth that, when engaged, can lock the tang and the clevis together. In addition, the tang is biased away from the clevis. Consequently, when there is no axial force (i.e., body weight) on the tang, the tang is free to pivot within the clevis. However, when an axial force is exerted on the tang, the tang is pushed into the clevis, both sets of teeth engage, and the tang and the clevis lock together.

  1. Knee braces - unloading

    MedlinePlus

    ... be because the inside of the knee often bears more of a person's weight than the outside ... fewer symptoms when they use them. Some medical studies have tested these braces. But this research has ...

  2. The role of bracing.

    PubMed

    Briem, Kristin; Ramsey, Daniel K

    2013-03-01

    Regular exercise and weight reduction are not only important for maintaining general health, they are also strongly recommended conservative modalities for managing knee osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this paper is to discuss the mechanics of knee joint loading and to review the most recent literature with respect to the functionality and efficacy of unloader braces for managing knee OA, specifically from the perspective of the middle-aged athlete. Evidence suggests valgus braces for medial compartment knee OA significantly reduce knee adduction angle measures and improve measures relating to medial knee joint loading, as well as gait symmetry and speed. Benefits were demonstrated during walking and during more demanding functional measures such as running and negotiating stairs. No studies have investigated the efficacy of bracing for relatively young athletic OA patients and, thus, the role of bracing for this population during sports remains unclear.

  3. The Basics of Braces

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guide to Getting Involved Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media The Basics of Braces KidsHealth > ... child's teeth by pressing a tray of gooey material into the top and bottom teeth. When the ...

  4. "Brace Technology" Thematic Series - The ScoliOlogiC® Chêneau light™ brace in the treatment of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Werkmann, Mario

    2010-09-06

    Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE) and soft braces. The plaster cast method worldwide seems to be the most practiced technique for the construction of hard braces at the moment. CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems are available which allow brace adjustments without plaster. Another possibility is the use of the ScoliOlogiC™ off the shelf system enabling the Certified Prosthetist and Orthotist (CPO) to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This Chêneau light™ brace, developed according to the Chêneau principles, promises a reduced impediment of quality of life in the brace. The correction effects of the first 81 patients (main diagnosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) [n = 64] or Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) [n = 15]), treated according to the principles of the Chêneau light™ brace have shown a satisfactory in-brace correction exceeding 50% of the initial Cobb angle. The ScoliOlogiC® off the shelf bracing system enables the CPO to construct a light brace for scoliosis correction from a variety of pattern specific shells to be connected to an anterior and a posterior upright. This brace, when finally adjusted is called Chêneau light™ brace. The advantage of this new bracing system is that the brace is available immediately, is easily adjustable and that it can also be easily modified. This avoids construction periods of sometimes more than 6 weeks, where the curve may drastically increase during periods of fast growth. The disadvantage of this bracing system is that there is a wide variability of possibilities to arrange the different shells during adjustment. The Cobb angle in the whole group was reduced by an average of 16,4°, which corresponds to a correction effect of 51%. The differences were highly significant in the T-test (T = 17

  5. Effect of Reduced Brace Section on Behavior of SCBF Bracings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Ahlehagh, Sanaz

    2008-07-01

    Energy dissipation in concentrically braced frames is achieved by successive cycles of inelastic buckling in compression and yielding in tension and force controlled elements, such as beams, columns and connections should remain elastic to ensure the gravity load resistance of the frame. Braces are usually designed for compression which results section areas that are more than required by tension, while due to tension action of brace the connections and other members should be designed for tensile strength of brace element. In chevron braced frames, the beams in bracing frame should possess adequate strength to resist the unbalanced vertical forces due to unequal axial capacity of braces in tension and compression. This result in very big size beams, much stronger than would be required for other brace configurations. In this paper effect of Reduced Brace Section on behavior of displacement control braces, which intend to decrease the difference between tensile and post-buckling strength of braces, is described. Decreasing area of the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will result in a reduction in tensile yielding capacity of the brace while it's buckling load and post buckling behavior is not affected significantly. Tensile yielding force is related to the reduced area of the brace while its post yielding tensile capacity is also related to the length of the reduced section. Minimum change in buckling and post buckling response was derived from the proposed arrangements of reduced sections. Linear and nonlinear response of the reduced section braces in tension and compression is studied by analytical methods under monotonic and cyclic loading. Braces with reduced section are considered as a type of balanced bracing which results smaller design forces for gusset plates and beams in chevron bracings.

  6. Effect of Reduced Brace Section on Behavior of SCBF Bracings

    SciTech Connect

    Mirghaderi, Rasoul; Ahlehagh, Sanaz

    2008-07-08

    Energy dissipation in concentrically braced frames is achieved by successive cycles of inelastic buckling in compression and yielding in tension and force controlled elements, such as beams, columns and connections should remain elastic to ensure the gravity load resistance of the frame. Braces are usually designed for compression which results section areas that are more than required by tension, while due to tension action of brace the connections and other members should be designed for tensile strength of brace element. In chevron braced frames, the beams in bracing frame should possess adequate strength to resist the unbalanced vertical forces due to unequal axial capacity of braces in tension and compression. This result in very big size beams, much stronger than would be required for other brace configurations. In this paper effect of Reduced Brace Section on behavior of displacement control braces, which intend to decrease the difference between tensile and post-buckling strength of braces, is described. Decreasing area of the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will result in a reduction in tensile yielding capacity of the brace while it's buckling load and post buckling behavior is not affected significantly. Tensile yielding force is related to the reduced area of the brace while its post yielding tensile capacity is also related to the length of the reduced section. Minimum change in buckling and post buckling response was derived from the proposed arrangements of reduced sections. Linear and nonlinear response of the reduced section braces in tension and compression is studied by analytical methods under monotonic and cyclic loading. Braces with reduced section are considered as a type of balanced bracing which results smaller design forces for gusset plates and beams in chevron bracings.

  7. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    I-Lechao, J.; Epps, C. H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A locking mechanism for orthopedic braces is described which automatically prevents or permits the relative pivotable movement between a lower brace member and an upper brace member. The upper and lower brace members are provided with drilled bores within which a slidable pin is disposed, and depending upon the inclination of the brace members with respect to a vertical plane, the slidable pin will be interposed between both brace members. The secondary or auxiliary latching device includes a spring biased, manually operable lever bar arrangement which is manually unlatched and automatically latched under the influence of the spring.

  8. 11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of sway braces, struts and top lateral braces' view to north-northwest - Milk River Bridge, Spanning Milk River approximately one mile north of Tampico on Tampico North Road, Tampico, Valley County, MT

  9. Comparison of three knee braces in the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dessery, Yoann; Belzile, Etienne L; Turmel, Sylvie; Corbeil, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Conservative orthotic treatments rely on different mechanisms, such as three-point bending systems or hinges forcing external rotation of the leg and knee stabilization, to alter the biomechanics of the lower limbs and thus reduce knee loading on the affected compartment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). No previous study had compared the effects of these mechanisms on external loading and leg kinematics in patients with KOA. Twenty-four patients with medial KOA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade II or III) wore three custom knee braces: a valgus brace with a three-point bending system (V3P-brace), an unloader brace with valgus and external rotation functions (VER-brace) and a functional knee brace used in ligament injuries (ACL-brace). Pain relief, comfort, lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during walking were compared with and without each knee brace. Knee pain was alleviated with all three braces (p<0.01). The VER- and ACL-braces allowed a significant reduction in peak knee adduction moment (KAM) during terminal stance from 0.313 to 0.280 Nm/Bw∗Ht (p<0.001) and 0.293 to 0.268 (p<0.05), respectively, while no significant reduction was observed with the V3P-brace (p=0.52). Reduced knee adduction and lower ankle and knee external rotation were observed with the V3P-brace but not with the VER-brace. The ACL-brace did not modify lower limb kinematics. No difference between the knee braces was found for pain reduction, discomfort or KAM. The VER-brace was slightly more comfortable, which could ensure better compliance with treatment over the long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  11. "Brace technology" thematic series - the Gensingen brace™ in the treatment of scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bracing concepts in use today for the treatment of scoliosis include symmetric and asymmetric hard braces usually made of polyethylene (PE) and soft braces. A new asymmetric Chêneau style CAD/CAM derivate has been designed to overcome problems the author experienced with other Chêneau CAD/CAM systems over the recent years. Brace description This CAD/CAM Chêneau derivate has been called Gensingen brace™, a brace available to address all possible curve patterns. Once the patients' trunk is scanned with the help of a whole trunk optical 3D-scan and the patients' data from the clinical measurements are recorded, a model of the brace can be created by (1) modifying the trunk model of the patient 'on screen' to achieve a very individual brace model using the CAD/CAM tools provided or by (2) choosing a brace model from our library and re-size it to the patients' properties 'on screen'. Results End-result studies have been published on the Chêneau brace as early as 1985. Cohort studies on the Chêneau brace are available as is a prospective controlled study respecting the SRS criteria for bracing studies, demonstrating beneficial outcomes, when compared to the controls using a soft brace. Sufficient in-brace correction effects have been demonstrated to be achievable when the Chêneau principles of correction are used appropriately. As there is a positive correlation between in-brace correction and the final outcome, the Chêneau concept of bracing with sufficient in-brace corrections as published can be regarded as being efficient when applied well. Case reports with high in-brace corrections, as shown within this paper using the Gensingen brace™ promise beneficial outcomes when a good compliance can be achieved. Conclusions The use of the Gensingen brace™ leads to sufficient in-brace corrections, when compared to the correction effects achieved with other braces, as described in literature. According to the patients' reports, the Gensingen brace™ is

  12. Spanish validation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ (brace).es) for adolescents with braces.

    PubMed

    D'Agata, Elisabetta; Testor, Carles Pérez; Rigo, Manuel

    2010-07-15

    As a result of scientific and medical professionals gaining interest in Stress and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL), the aim of our research is, thus, to validate into Spanish the German questionnaire Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ) (mit Korsett), for adolescents wearing braces. The methodology used adheres to literature on trans-cultural adaptation by doing a translation and a back translation; it involved 35 adolescents, ages ranging between 10 and 16, with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and wearing the same kind of brace (Rigo System Chêneau Brace). The materials used were a socio-demographics data questionnaire, the SRS-22 and the Spanish version of BSSQ(brace).es. The statistical analysis calculated the reliability (test-retest reliability and internal consistency) and the validity (convergent and construct validity) of the BSSQ (brace).es. BSSQ(brace).es is reliable because of its satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.809, p < 0.001) and temporal stability (test-retest method with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.902 (p < 0.01)).It demonstrated convergent validity with SRS-22 since the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.656 (p < 0.01). By undertaking an Exploratory Principal Components Analysis, a latent structure was found based on two Components which explicate the variance at 60.8%. BSSQ (brace).es is reliable and valid and can be used with Spanish adolescents to assess the stress level caused by the brace.

  13. Boston Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-17

    NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale delivers a keynote address during the NASA Future Forum event at the Museum of Science in Boston, MA, Thursday, September 18, 2008. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Smart brace versus standard rigid brace for the treatment of scoliosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lou, Edmond; Hill, Douglas; Raso, Jim; Donauer, Andreas; Moreau, Marc; Mahood, James; Hedden, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The outcomes of brace treatment for scoliosis depend on how the brace is used. Simply prescribing a brace does not mean it will be worn properly. A smart brace has been developed to control the brace wear tightness with the expectation that appropriately worn braces will improve outcomes. Twelve brace candidates (10F; 2M) agreed to participate into this study and were randomly divided into 2 groups. The smart brace group used the smart brace for the first year, and then wore the standard brace for the following year. The standard rigid brace group wore their TLSO for 2 years. Both groups were followed for 3 years after they finished the brace treatment. The smart brace group showed better quality of brace wear, wearing their brace at the prescribed tightness level a higher proportion of time than the standard brace group. All subjects in the smart brace group had successful outcomes, Cobb angle changed less than 5°, whereas 2/6 subjects in the standard brace group had unsuccessful bracing. One had 7° increment and 1 underwent surgery. The smart brace group also reported that the smart brace was more comfortable to wear than the standard rigid brace.

  15. Speaking Tongues Are Actively Braced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gick, Bryan; Allen, Blake; Roewer-Després, François; Stavness, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Bracing of the tongue against opposing vocal-tract surfaces such as the teeth or palate has long been discussed in the context of biomechanical, somatosensory, and aeroacoustic aspects of tongue movement. However, previous studies have tended to describe bracing only in terms of contact (rather than mechanical support), and only in…

  16. Selectively Lockable Knee Brace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Baker, Kevin J. (Inventor); Rice, Darron C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A knee brace for aiding in rehabilitation of damaged leg muscles includes upper and lower housings normally pivotable one relative to the other about the knee joint axis of a patient. The upper housing is attachable to the thigh of the patient above the knee joint while the lower housing is secured to a stirrup which extends downwardly along the patient's leg and is attached to the patient's shoe. An actuation rod is carried within the lower housing and is coupled to a cable. The upper and lower housings carry cooperative clutch/brake elements which normally are disengaged to permit relative movement between the upper and lower housings. When the cable is extended the clutch/brake elements engage and lock the housings together. A heel strike mechanism fastened to the stirrup and the heel of the shoe is connected to the cable to selectively extend the cable and lock the brace in substantially any position when the patient places weight on the heel.

  17. Selectively lockable knee brace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Mike (Inventor); Forbes, John (Inventor); Baker, Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A knee brace for aiding in rehabilitation of damaged leg muscles includes upper and lower housings, normally pivotable, one relative to the other about the knee joint axis of a patient. The upper housing is attachable to the thigh of the patient above the knee joint, while the lower housing is secured to a stirrup which extends downwardly along the patient's leg and is attached to the patient's shoe. An actuation rod is carried within the lower housing and is coupled to a cable. The upper and lower housings carry cooperative clutch/brake elements which normally are disengaged to permit relative movement between the upper and lower housings. When the cable is extended, the clutch/brake elements engage and lock the housings together. A heel strike mechanism fastened to the stirrup and the heel of the shoe is connected to the cable to selectively extend the cable and lock the brace in substantially any position when the patient places weight on the heel.

  18. Brace-Frame Interaction in Tension Braced MRFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfollahi, Mehrdad; Mofid, Massood; Alinia, Mohammad Mehdi

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates the possibility of sequential failure analysis of Tension Braced Moment Resisting Frames (TBMRFs) by examining its performance in the linear and nonlinear stages under idealized seismic loading conditions. The results obtained from rigorous analyses by means of numerical methods are utilized to set up and calibrate an analytical model which would appropriately differentiate the contribution shares of the frame and the bracing elements. The paper provides information on key response parameters, including interaction value between frame and brace elements, as well as tensile strength capacity and ductility capability of such systems.

  19. Steenbeek Brace: Patterns of Wear.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2016-02-01

    Steenbeek foot abduction brace (SFAB) is an essential orthotic for maintaining correction in congenital talipes equinovarus treated with Ponseti method. As the brace is used up to 3 to 4 years of age, we examined the brace wear pattern according to a child's development and age. We studied 100 SFABs that were rendered unusable or returned by parents due to advanced brace wear. SFABs returned due to other reasons such as foot outgrowing shoe size were excluded. Each part of the brace (outer sole, insole, upper leather, abduction bar, shoe laces) was carefully inspected to observe any pattern of damage. We grouped the pattern of brace wear as per the probable causative factors into 3 broad categories: due to general use in all age groups, sitters and crawlers, and walking children. Shredded tongue, elongated/torn shoelace hole, peeled paint of metal abduction bar, shredded outer sole, and frayed shoelace were due to general use. Due to sitting and crawling with the brace on, shoe wore on its anteromedial, anterolateral, and posterolateral parts at the junction of the upper leather and outer sole. The commonest area of shoe wear in walkers was the abduction bar, which either broke from the welded junction between bar and metal or was bent at midpoint. The SFAB wear pattern was related to the age of the child and his/her activities. The reusability of the brace can probably be extended with simple improvisations and instructing parents about the correct use of the brace. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Surface relaxation of Rh[l brace]001[r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, A.M.; Kim, S.K.; Jona, F. ); Marcus, P.M. )

    1993-10-15

    The relaxation of a clean Rh[l brace]001[r brace] surface is reexamined by means of analyses of three sets of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) intensities collected in earlier experiments. The averaged results show that the first interlayer spacing is slightly contracted by (1.2[plus minus]1.6 %) with respect to the bulk spacing (1.902 A) and that the second interlayer spacing is unrelaxed. These results are only a little different from those found by other authors in two previous LEED studies, and they lie in the range of the combined experimental errors of all the analyses. However, our results are in quite good agreement with a recent [ital ab] [ital initio] pseudopotential calculation of Morrison, Bylander, and Kleinman, who found ferromagnetism on the Rh[l brace]001[r brace] surface and a corresponding unusually small first-spacing relaxation.

  1. Boston Future Forum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-17

    Mayor of Cambridge, Massachusetts, E. Denise Simmons, left, holds a plaque presented to her by NASA Deputy Administrator Ms. Shana Dale during the NASA Future Forum event at the Museum of Science in Boston, MA, Thursday, September 18, 2008. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. DIOXIN 2003 BOSTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    DIOXON 2003 BOSTON
    SESSION SUMMARY REPORT

    Toxicology of BFRs

    This oral session is comprised of seven presentations dealing with the potential health effects of BFRs. Talks involve both in vivo and in vitro studies in mice, rats, and cultured cells, and are from...

  3. The North End Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connally, Nicole; And Others

    Goals and objectives, student activities, and evaluations are contained in this guide for a one-day scavenger hunt through the North End of Boston. The culmination of a unit involving urban planning and land-use problems, the field trip is intended to give students first-hand experience with city life and a better understanding of urban issues…

  4. DIOXIN 2003 BOSTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    DIOXON 2003 BOSTON
    SESSION SUMMARY REPORT

    Toxicology of BFRs

    This oral session is comprised of seven presentations dealing with the potential health effects of BFRs. Talks involve both in vivo and in vitro studies in mice, rats, and cultured cells, and are from...

  5. The Battle of Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillson, Jon

    This book concentrates on the experiences, personal insights, and big events that made up the battle to desegregate the public schools in Boston, Massachusetts. It also gives the historical background of the struggle. In 1965, Massachusetts passed the first state law against de facto segregation, the Racial Imbalance Act. It was not enforced. On…

  6. What's New in Boston?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Morton Z.; Lichter, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The Big Dig, the multi-decade urban highway project has led to several changes in the U.S. most vulnerable city, Boston. Various parts of the city are being renovated to change the old tired industrial wasteland to a business and convention-oriented area.

  7. What's New in Boston?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Morton Z.; Lichter, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The Big Dig, the multi-decade urban highway project has led to several changes in the U.S. most vulnerable city, Boston. Various parts of the city are being renovated to change the old tired industrial wasteland to a business and convention-oriented area.

  8. Predictive factors of Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Hiroshi; Inomata, Naoki; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Higa, Kiyoshi; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    Factors influencing clinical course of brace treatment apply to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients remain unclear. By making clear them, we may select suitable patients for brace treatment and alleviate overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore predictive factors of Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment for AIS patients in accordance with the modified standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) committee on bracing and non-operative management. From 1999 through 2010, 31 consecutive patients with AIS who were newly prescribed the OMC brace and met the modified SRS criteria were studied. The study included 2 boys and 29 girls with a mean age of 12 years and 0 month. We investigated the clinical course and evaluated the impacts of compliance, initial brace correction rate, curve flexibility, curve pattern, Cobb angle, chronological age, and Risser stage to clinical outcomes. The clinical course of the brace treatment was considered progression if ≥6° curvature increase occurred and improvement if ≥6° curvature decrease occurred according to SRS judgment criteria. The curve progressed in 10 cases, the curve improved in 6 cases, and the curve remained unchanged in 15 cases (success rate: 67.7%). The success rate was statistically higher in the patient group whose instruction adherence rate was greater than 50% as compared with in those 50% or less. Initial brace correction rate, curve flexibility, curve pattern, the magnitude of Cobb angle, chronological age, and Risser stage did not have any significant effect for clinical courses. However, success rate was insignificantly higher in the cases whose Cobb angle in brace was smaller than that in hanging position. OMC brace treatment could alter the natural history of AIS, however, that was significantly affected by compliance of brace wear.

  9. Informed Consent for Braces

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Rathore, Nidhi; Rathee, Pooja; Agarwal, Deepesh; Mathur, Nikunj

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influence of law on the orthodontic profession has greatly increased in the last few decades. Dental law has emerged today as a full-fedged specialty dealing with a variety of areas, like professional negligence, doctor-patient contracts, consumer protection laws, ethics, general and special health legislations and practice regulatory mechanisms. This article highlights the concept of informed consent which is based on the premise that each individual has a right to make decisions concerning his health, disease and treatment. How to cite this article: Jharwal V, Trehan M, Rathore N, Rathee P, Agarwal D, Mathur N. Informed Consent for Braces. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):105-108. PMID:25356009

  10. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  11. 76 FR 36311 - Special Local Regulation; Extreme Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Extreme Sailing Series Boston; Boston Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  12. Deployable M-Braced Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Rhodes, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Tension/compression and shear separated structurally in deployable beam. M-Braced Sections Packaged using combination of hinges and telescoping sections. When upper sections telescope into base, diagonals hinge, telescope, and rotate along batten. Components of M-braced truss fabricated from conventional metallic materials or nonmetallic materials such as graphite/epoxy. Applications include masts for antenna feed horns and ribs for solar array blankets.

  13. Efficacy of the Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis following Scoliosis Research Society brace studies criteria.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Hiroshi; Inomata, Naoki; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Higa, Kiyoshi; Chosa, Etsuo; Tajima, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brace treatment for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains controversial. To make comparisons among studies more valid and reliable, the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) has standardized criteria for brace studies in patients with AIS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace for AIS in accordance with the modified standardized criteria proposed by the SRS committee on bracing and non-operative management. From 1999 through 2010, 31 consecutive patients with AIS who were newly prescribed the OMC brace and met the modified SRS criteria were studied. The study included 2 boys and 29 girls with a mean age of 12 years and 0 month. Patients were instructed to wear the brace for a minimum of 20 hours per day at the beginning of brace treatment. The mean duration of brace treatment was 4 years and 8 months. We examined the initial brace correction rate and the clinical outcomes of main curves evaluated by curve progression and surgical rate, and the compliance evaluated by the instruction adherence rate for all cases. The clinical course of the brace treatment was considered progression if ≥6° curvature increase occurred and improvement if ≥6° curvature decrease occurred according to SRS judgment criteria. The average initial brace correction rate was 46.8%. In 10 cases the curve progressed, 6 cases the curve improved, and 15 cases the curve remained unchanged (success rate: 67.7%). The mean instruction adherence rate, that was defined the percentage of the visits that patients declared they mostly followed our instruction to total visits, was 53.7%. The success rate was statistically higher in the patient group whose instruction adherence rate was greater than 50% (88.2%) as compared with in those 50% or less (42.8%). OMC brace treatment for AIS patients could alter the natural history and significantly decreased the progression of curves to the threshold for surgical

  14. Measurement of Milwaukee Brace Pad Pressure in Adolescent Round Back Deformity Treatment.

    PubMed

    Babaee, Taher; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Amir; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Ganjavian, Mohammad Saleh

    2017-08-01

    In this prospective study, we measured the pad pressures of the Milwaukee brace in adolescent hyperkyphosis treatment. We evaluated the skin-brace interface forces exerted by the main pads of the Milwaukee brace. A fundamental factor associated with brace effectiveness in spinal deformity is pad force adjustment. However, few studies have evaluated the in-brace force magnitude and its effect on curve correction. Interface forces at four pads of the Milwaukee brace were measured in 73 patients withround back deformity (mean age, 14.04±1.97 years [range, 10-18]; mean initial Cobb angle,67.70°±9.23° [range, 50°-86°]). We used a modified aneroid sphygmomanometer to measure the shoulder and kyphosis pad pressures. Each patient underwent measurement in the standing and sitting positions during inhalation/exhalation. The mean pad pressures were significantly higher in the standing than in thesitting position, and significantly higher pressures were observed during inhalation compared toexhalation (p=0.001).There were no statistically significant differences between right and left shoulder pad pressures (p>0.05); however, the pressure differences between the right and left kyphosis pads were statistically significant (p<0.05). In a comparison of corrective forces with bracing for less or more than 6 months, corrective force was larger with bracing for less than 6 months (p=0.02). In the standing position, there were no statistically significant correlations between pad pressures and kyphosis curve correction. In the sitting position, there was a trend toward lower forces at the skin-brace interface; therefore, brace adjustment in the standing position may be useful and more effective. There was no significant correlation between the magnitude of the pad pressures and the degree of in-brace curve correction.

  15. Knee stability in orthotic knee braces.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A A; Wyatt, R W; Bourne, M H; Daniels, A U

    1984-01-01

    The ability of six commercially available orthotic knee braces to stabilize ligamentous injuries of the knee was evaluated using fresh cadaver specimens. Anterior, valgus, and rotational forces were applied to the intact knee, after the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments were cut, and after application of the knee braces. Bony displacement was measured using half pins and an external fixator applied to the tibia and femur. There was a significant difference in brace performance, most likely due to differences in brace design. Of the six braces tested, the 3D 3-Way Brace provided the greatest knee stability.

  16. Computer-aided optimal design of custom scoliosis braces considering clinical and patient evaluations.

    PubMed

    Visser, Daniel; Xue, Deyi; Ronsky, Janet L; Harder, James; Zernicke, Ronald F

    2012-09-01

    Scoliosis causes an abnormal three dimensional curvature of the spine that is often treated by an orthotic device called brace. The objective of this research was to develop a new approach to automatically identify the optimal design of custom-built brace, based on clinical and patient evaluations. In this approach, torso geometry of the scoliosis patient was achieved using a 3-D imaging system that generated a 3-D torso surface model, which was modified using a custom CAD system to design the 3-D brace surface model. Two design parameters, a translational correction factor and a rotational correction factor, were selected to design the brace geometry from the torso geometry. The 3-D digital brace was evaluated by three clinical evaluation measures (imbalance, rib hump and principal axis angle reduction) and one patient evaluation measure (discomfort). A multi-objective optimization method was employed to identify the optimal design parameters considering both clinical and patient evaluations.

  17. New Generation Lockable Knee Brace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A knee brace that uses Space Shuttle propulsion technology has moved a step closer to being available to help knee injury and stroke patients and may possibly benefit patients with birth defects, spinal cord injuries, and post-polio conditions. After years of hard work, inventors at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have turned over the final design and prototype to industry partners at Horton's Orthotic Lab in Little Rock, Arkansas for further clinical testing. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, may mean faster, less painful rehabilitation for patients by allowing the knee to move when weight is not on the heel. Devices currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight-leg position, or allow continuous free motion. Pictured here is a knee brace prototype being tested and fitted at Horton's Orthotic Lab. The knee brace is just one example of how space technology is being used to improve the lives of people on Earth. NASA's MSFC inventors Michael Shadoan and Neill Myers are space propulsion engineers who use the same mechanisms and materials to build systems for rockets that they used to design and develop the knee brace.

  18. New Generation Lockable Knee Brace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A knee brace that uses Space Shuttle propulsion technology has moved a step closer to being available to help knee injury and stroke patients and may possibly benefit patients with birth defects, spinal cord injuries, and post-polio conditions. After years of hard work, inventors at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have turned over the final design and prototype to industry partners at Horton's Orthotic Lab in Little Rock, Arkansas for further clinical testing. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, may mean faster, less painful rehabilitation for patients by allowing the knee to move when weight is not on the heel. Devices currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight-leg position, or allow continuous free motion. Pictured here is a knee brace prototype being tested and fitted at Horton's Orthotic Lab. The knee brace is just one example of how space technology is being used to improve the lives of people on Earth. NASA's MSFC inventors Michael Shadoan and Neill Myers are space propulsion engineers who use the same mechanisms and materials to build systems for rockets that they used to design and develop the knee brace.

  19. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  20. [Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Lo, Yi-Fang; Huang, Yu-Chu

    2017-04-01

    Scoliosis is a common medical problem, with an incidence of between 0.47% and 5.2% in the general population globally. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for nearly 80% of all scoliosis. Young people with AIS often experience negative social consequences in association with their condition. Without proper and timely treatment, the potential resulting disabilities range from trunk deformity, pain, and neurological complications to compromised cardiopulmonary function, all of which may cause lifelong suffering. Scoliosis may be treated either conservatively or surgically, based on the severity of the disease. Bracing is the most widely adopted method of conservative treatment. However, the main goal of bracing is to inhibit the progression of the spinal curvature rather than to cure scoliosis. The clinical effectiveness of bracing in Taiwan has often been underutilized as a result of financial or other factors such as the availability of the treatment. The purpose of the present review is to clarify the effectiveness of bracing for AIS by elucidating the pathophysiology of scoliosis and examining the recent clinical evidence. The importance of preventative care and the unique contribution of nursing care to treatment has to date been under-recognized. The positive support that nurses provide to the families of the patients during the early phases of treatment as well as to the patients themselves, including helping them exercise appropriately and wear the brace correctly, is an essential component of effective treatment. Learning how to work with and to adapt to the brace being part of the body is an important part of the treatment as well as a way to avoid pain. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate this learning process and, overall, to provide health education.

  1. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, J. I.; Epps, C. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An orthopedic brace locking mechanism is described which under standing or walking conditions cannot be unlocked, however under sitting conditions the mechanism can be simply unlocked so as to permit bending of the patient's knee. Other features of the device include: (1) the mechanism is rendered operable, and inoperable, dependent upon the relative inclination of the brace with respect to the ground; (2) the mechanism is automatically locked under standing or walking conditions and is manually unlocked under sitting conditions; and (3) the mechanism is light in weight and is relatively small in size.

  2. Impact of Rotation Correction after Brace Treatment on Prognosis in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Arataki, Shinya; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Level 4 retrospective review. Purpose Brace treatment is the standard nonoperative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Rotation correction is also important, because AIS involves a rotation deformity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of rotation correction after Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment on clinical outcomes in AIS. Overview of Literature Brace treatment has a significant effect on the progression of AIS. However, few reports have examined rotation correction after brace treatment. Methods A total of 46 patients who wore the OMC brace were retrospectively reviewed. The curve magnitude was determined according to the Cobb method, and the rotation angle of the apical vertebrae was measured by the modified Nash-Moe method. Based on the difference in the rotation angle before and after the initial brace treatment, patients were divided into two groups. Group A (n=33) was defined as no change or improvement of the rotation angle; group B (n=13) was defined as deterioration of the rotation angle. If the patients had curve or rotation progression of 5° or more at skeletal maturity, or had undergone surgery, the treatment was considered a failure. Results Differences of rotation angle between before and after the initial brace treatment were 2°±2° in group A and –3°±2° in group B (p<0.001). The rates of treatment failure were 42% in group A and 77% in group B (p<0.05). This study included 25 patients with Lenke type 1 (54%). Group A (24%) with Lenke type 1 also had a significantly better success rate of brace treatment than group B (75%) (p<0.05). Conclusions Insufficient rotation correction increased brace treatment failure. Better rotation correction resulted in a higher success rate of brace treatment in patients with Lenke type 1. PMID:27790317

  3. Boston Washer Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    2002-08-06

    To help understand the relative performance gains of conventional and high-efficiency washers and to increase awareness of energy/water savings, the U.S. Department of Energy under its Emerging Technologies Program and in cooperation with Maytag Appliances conducted a field-evaluation of horizontal axis washers in a Boston, Massachusetts condo complex. Baseline washer and dryer performance and customer habits were established using 50 participants and their existing, instrumented washers and dryers for a 2 1/2-month period. After the baseline was established, the machines were replaced with high efficiency tumble action washers and moisture sensing dryers, and tested for the next 2 1/2 months. By information gathered, energy and water savings delivered by the h-axis washers as well as impacts on participants' washing habits and perceptions of cleaning performance were determined. Overall, participants saved 41% of the water and 50% of the energy that they would have used without a changeover to the new h-axis washer. The changeover also produced significant dryer energy savings due primarily to the high-speed final spin of the new washer. The Boston Washer Study report details the experiment including instrumentation, data collection and analysis procedures and discusses the impacts on energy, water and detergent consumption as well as customer satisfaction with the technology.

  4. Reflections on Jonathan Boston's Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Nesta

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Nesta Devine responds to Jonathan Boston's article "Child Poverty in New Zealand: Why It Matters and How It Can Be Reduced" ("Educational Philosophy and Theory," v46 n9 p995-999, 2014). Devine wishes to consider Boston's position from two angles: one is to rehearse the point that these statistics are an…

  5. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  6. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  7. Reflections on Jonathan Boston's Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Nesta

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Nesta Devine responds to Jonathan Boston's article "Child Poverty in New Zealand: Why It Matters and How It Can Be Reduced" ("Educational Philosophy and Theory," v46 n9 p995-999, 2014). Devine wishes to consider Boston's position from two angles: one is to rehearse the point that these statistics are an…

  8. A historical perspective of PCL bracing.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Kyle S; Costello, Kerry E; O'Brien, Luke; Wijdicks, Coen A; Laprade, Robert F

    2013-05-01

    Currently there are many functional knee braces but very few designed to treat the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). No PCL braces have been biomechanically validated to demonstrate that they provide stability with proper force distribution to the PCL-deficient knee. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the history and current state of PCL bracing and to identify areas where further progress is required to improve patient outcomes and treatment options. A PubMed search was conducted with the terms "posterior cruciate ligament", "rehabilitation", "history", "knee", and "brace", and the relevant articles from 1967 to 2011 were analysed. A review of the current available PCL knee bracing options was performed. Little evidence exists from the eight relevant articles to support the biomechanical efficacy of nonoperative and postoperative PCL bracing protocols. Clinical outcomes reported improvements in reducing PCL laxity with anterior directed forces to the tibia during healing following PCL tears. Biomechanics research demonstrates that during knee flexion, the PCL experiences variable tensile forces. One knee brace has been specifically designed and clinically validated to improve stability in PCL-deficient knees during rehabilitation. While available PCL braces demonstrate beneficial patient outcomes, they lack evidence validating their biomechanical effectiveness. There is limited information evaluating the specific effectiveness of PCL knee braces. A properly designed PCL brace should apply correct anatomic joint forces that vary with the knee flexion angle and also provide adjustability to satisfy the demands of various activities. No braces are currently available with biomechanical evidence that satisfies these requirements. IV.

  9. New Generation Lockable Knee Brace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A knee brace that uses Space Shuttle propulsion technology has moved a step closer to being available to help knee injury and stroke patients and may possibly benefit patients with birth defects, spinal cord injuries, and post-polio conditions. After years of hard work, inventors at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have turned over the final design and prototype to industry partners at Horton's Orthotic Lab in Little Rock, Arkansas for further clinical testing. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, may mean faster, less painful rehabilitation for patients by allowing the knee to move when weight is not on the heel. Devices currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight-leg position, or allow continuous free motion. The knee brace is just one example of how space technology is being used to improve the lives of people on Earth. NASA's MSFC inventors Michael Shadoan and Neill Myers are space propulsion engineers who use the same mechanisms and materials to build systems for rockets that they used to design and develop the knee brace.

  10. New Generation Lockable Knee Brace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A knee brace that uses Space Shuttle propulsion technology has moved a step closer to being available to help knee injury and stroke patients and may possibly benefit patients with birth defects, spinal cord injuries, and post-polio conditions. After years of hard work, inventors at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have turned over the final design and prototype to industry partners at Horton's Orthotic Lab in Little Rock, Arkansas for further clinical testing. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, may mean faster, less painful rehabilitation for patients by allowing the knee to move when weight is not on the heel. Devices currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight-leg position, or allow continuous free motion. The knee brace is just one example of how space technology is being used to improve the lives of people on Earth. NASA's MSFC inventors Michael Shadoan and Neill Myers are space propulsion engineers who use the same mechanisms and materials to build systems for rockets that they used to design and develop the knee brace.

  11. Effectiveness of Providence nighttime bracing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Daniel D; Telles, Connor J; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Basques, Bryce A; DeLuca, Peter A; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-12-01

    Interest has increased in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braces that are worn only part time. One such brace, the Providence brace, is being used with increasing frequency despite limited literature evaluating its ability to alter the natural course of disease. The authors retrospectively identified 34 patients meeting modified Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) inclusion criteria who were treated with the Providence brace. In accordance with SRS criteria, patients were followed for progression more than 5°, progression to more than 45°, and recommendation for or performance of surgical fusion. Seventeen (50%) patients progressed more than 5°, and 9 (26%) progressed to more than 45° and had fusion surgery recommended or performed. Noncompliance was associated with progression to more than 45° (P=.045) and having fusion surgery recommended or performed (P=.045). Males had a higher rate of progression more than 5° than did females (100% vs 41%; P=.015). This is only the second study of the Providence brace to be guided by SRS criteria. The somewhat higher rates of progression more than 5° reported in these 2 studies compared with those reported in earlier studies likely result from this distinction. This study suggests a rate of progression that is similar to or lower than rates reported in natural history studies, possibly supporting the efficacy of the Providence brace. Additional studies using SRS criteria, including high-quality randomized, controlled trials, will be important to further understanding the relative effectiveness of this and other bracing protocols.

  12. 33 CFR 165.119 - Safety Zone; Captain of the Port Boston Fireworks display zones, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Boston Fireworks display zones, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA. 165.119 Section 165.119 Navigation and... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.119 Safety Zone; Captain of the Port Boston Fireworks display... radius of the fireworks barge in approximate position 42°22′12.7″ N 071°02′53″ W (NAD 1983), located...

  13. 76 FR 35013 - Minor Boundary Revision of Boston National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision of Boston National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park..., pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 460l- 9(c)(1), the boundary of Boston National Historical Park is modified to include.../80,800 prepared by the National Park Service in March 2008. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  14. Ultrathin films of Rh on Au l brace 001 r brace and Rh on Ag l brace 001 r brace : Growth mode and magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Wu, S.C.; Tian, D.; Li, Y.S.; Quinn, J.; Jona, F. )

    1991-07-15

    Deposition of minute amounts of Rh on a clean and reconstructed Au{l brace}001{r brace} surface destroys the reconstruction and yields a 1{times}1 structure. Prolonged deposition produces epitaxial but not pseudomorphic films of Rh with the bulk equilibrium fcc structure. Deposition of Rh on a clean Ag{l brace}001{r brace} surface produces overlayers which are partially covered by or intermixed with Ag, but which are pseudomorphic with the Ag{l brace}001{r brace} substrate. Photoemission experiments in the very early stages of overlayer growth reveals a 4.1{plus minus}0.3 eV splitting of the 4{ital s} levels of Rh, which is not observed in thick Rh films. The 4{ital s} splitting is explained by the presence of a magnetic moment on the Rh atoms and is related to recent theoretical predictions of ferromagnetism in a monolayer of Rh on either Ag{l brace}001{r brace} or Au{l brace}001{r brace}.

  15. Evaluation of Shoulder-Stabilizing Braces

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Hayden P.; Tjong, Vehniah K.; Dunne, Kevin F.; Lindley, Tory R.; Terry, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shoulder injuries remain one of the most common injuries among collegiate football athletes. Offensive linemen in particular are prone to posterior labral pathology. Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of shoulder bracing in collegiate offensive linemen with respect to injury prevention, severity, and lost playing time. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Offensive linemen at a single collegiate institution wore bilateral shoulder-stabilizing braces for every contact practice and game beginning in the spring of 2013. Between spring of 2007 and fall of 2012, offensive linemen did not wear any shoulder braces. Player injury data were collected for all contact practices and games throughout these time periods to highlight differences with brace use. Results: Forty-five offensive linemen (90 shoulders) participated in spring and fall college football seasons between 2007 and 2015. There were 145 complete offensive linemen seasons over the course of the study. Offensive linemen not wearing shoulder braces completed 87 seasons; offensive linemen wearing shoulder braces completed 58 seasons. Posterior labral tear injury rates were calculated for players who wore the shoulder braces (0.71 per 1000 athlete-exposures) compared with shoulders of players who did not wear the braces (1.90 per 1000 athlete-exposures). The risk ratio was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.16-1.30; P = .14). Mean time (contact practices and games) missed due to injury was significant, favoring less time missed by players who used braces (8.7 vs 36.60 contact practices and games missed due to injury; P = .0019). No significant difference in shoulder labral tears requiring surgery was found for brace use compared with no brace use. Conclusion: Shoulder-stabilizing braces were shown not to prevent posterior labral tears among collegiate offensive lineman, although they were associated with less time lost to injury. The results of this study have clinical significance, indicating that

  16. Parachute Ankle Brace Effectiveness Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    14 Selected outcomes stratified by PAB protocol .............. ... ... . .......... . .... 15 Ankle Injury Model...use of medical services: Rates/1 ,000 male trainees during 2 week risk period, by year of training and PAS protocol , n=68,418 ROC Curve for ankle ...knee injury during 2 week risk period LIST OF TABLES Parachute ankle brace protocol periods, 1998 - 2006 Descriptive characteristics of U.S. Army

  17. Bracing micro/macro manipulators control

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Book, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    This paper proposes a bracing strategy for micro/macro manipulators. The bracing micro/macro manipulator can provide advantages in accurate positioning, large work-space, and contact-task capability however, in exchange for improvement in performance one must accept the complex control problem along wit the complex dynamics. This research develops a control scheme for a bracing manipulator which makes multiple contacts with the environment. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed ideas for real world applications.

  18. Biomechanical effectiveness of a distraction-rotation knee brace in medial knee osteoarthritis: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Davy; Morisset, Claire; Fortunet, Clementine; Gremeaux, Vincent; Maillefert, Jean-Francis; Ornetti, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Non-pharmacological therapies are recommended for the care of knee osteoarthritis patients. Unloader knee braces provide an interesting functional approach, which aims to modulate mechanical stress on the symptomatic joint compartment. We aimed to confirm the biomechanical effects and evaluate functional benefits of a new knee brace that combines a valgus effect with knee and tibial external rotation during gait in medial osteoarthritis patients. Twenty patients with unilateral symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis were included and they performed two test sessions of 3D gait analysis with and without the brace at the initial evaluation (W0) and after 5weeks (W5) of wearing the brace. VAS-pain, satisfaction scores, WOMAC scores, spatio-temporal gait parameters (gait speed, stride length, stance and double stance phases, step width), and biomechanical data of the ipsilateral lower limb (hip, knee, ankle and foot progression angles) were recorded at each session. VAS-pain and WOMAC significantly decreased at W5. Walking speed was not significantly modified by knee bracing at W0, but increased significantly at W5. Knee adduction moments and foot progression angles significantly decreased in the terminal stance and push off, respectively, with bracing at W0 and W5. Lower-limb joint angles, moments and powers were significantly modified by wearing the brace at W0 and W5. This new knee brace with distraction-rotation effects significantly alters knee adduction moments and foot progression angles during gait, which might lead to significant functional gait improvements and have carry-over effects on pain at the short term in osteoarthritis patients (<2 months). level IV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Brace Success Is Related to Curve Type in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rachel M; Hubbard, Elizabeth W; Jo, Chan-Hee; Virostek, Donald; Karol, Lori A

    2017-06-07

    Curve magnitude and skeletal maturity are important factors in determining the efficacy of bracing for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, but curve morphology may also affect brace success. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of curve morphology on the response to bracing with a thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO). A retrospective review of patients managed with an orthosis for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who were prospectively enrolled at the initiation of brace wear and followed through completion of bracing or surgery was performed. Inclusion criteria were main curves of 25° to 45° and a Risser stage of 0, 1, or 2 at the time of brace prescription. Compliance with bracing was measured with Maxim Integrated Thermochrons. Radiographs made at brace initiation, brace cessation, and final follow-up were used to retrospectively categorize curves with use of the modified Lenke (mLenke) classification system and more broadly to categorize them as main thoracic or main lumbar. The effect of morphology on outcome was evaluated using chi-square and Fisher exact tests. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were included. There was no difference in curve magnitude at the time of brace initiation (p = 0.798) or in average hours of daily brace wear (p = 0.146) between groups. The rate of surgery or progression of the curve to ≥50° was 34.5% (29 of 84) in mLenke-I curves, 54.5% (6 of 11) in mLenke-II curves, 29.4% (10 of 34) in mLenke-III curves, 17.6% (3 of 17) in mLenke-V curves, and 13.6% (3 of 22) in mLenke-VI curves. There were no mLenke-IV curves at the time of brace initiation. The rate of surgery or progression to ≥50° was 34.1% (44 of 129) in the combined thoracic group and 15.4% (6 of 39) in the combined lumbar group (p = 0.0277). In brace-compliant patients (>12.9 hours/day), the rate of surgery or progression to ≥50° was 30.3% (20 of 66) in main thoracic curves and 5.3% (1 of 19) in main lumbar curves

  20. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  1. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  2. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. Unloader knee braces for osteoarthritis: do patients actually wear them?

    PubMed

    Squyer, Emily; Stamper, Daniel L; Hamilton, Deven T; Sabin, Janice A; Leopold, Seth S

    2013-06-01

    Unloader braces are a nonsurgical approach for predominantly unicompartmental knee arthritis. Although noninvasive, braces are expensive and it is unclear whether clinical factors, if any, will predict regular brace use. We asked: (1) Do patients continue to use the unloader brace more than 1 year after it is prescribed? (2) Do any clinical or radiographic factors predict continued use of the unloader brace after the first year? (3) What are the most common subjective reasons that patients give for discontinuing the brace? We administered 110 surveys to all patients who were fitted for unloader knee braces for predominantly unicompartmental osteoarthritis 12 to 40 months before administration of the survey. Standardized indications and fitting protocols were used. The following parameters were tested for association with ongoing brace use: alignment, arthritis severity, compartment involved, BMI, weight, age, gender, pain and function, number of refittings, and problems with the brace. The survey response rate was 81% (89 of 110). Of the 89 responders, 28% reported regular brace use (twice per week, an hour at a time, or more); at 2 years, 25% used the brace regularly. No clinical or radiographic factors considered were associated with ongoing brace use. Patients reported lack of symptomatic relief, brace discomfort, poor fit, and skin irritation as reasons for discontinuing the brace. Surgeons and patients need to balance the benefits and absence of complications of bracing against cost and the low likelihood of ongoing use 1 year or more after the prescription of the brace.

  4. Edith Kaplan and the Boston Process Approach.

    PubMed

    Libon, David J; Swenson, Rodney; Ashendorf, Lee; Bauer, Russell M; Bowers, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The history including some of the intellectual origins of the Boston Process Approach and some misconceptions about the Boston Process Approach are reviewed. The influence of Gestalt psychology and Edith Kaplan's principal collaborators regarding the development of the Boston Process Approach is discussed.

  5. Boston College Libraries: Systems, Services, Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channing, Rhoda K., Ed.; Stalker, John C., Ed.

    Prepared to inform and update Boston College faculty and administrative personnel on the impact of automation and resource sharing on the Boston College library system and the services it provides, this report contains sections on: OCLC and its interlibrary loan subsystem; the consortia in which the Boston College libraries participate; present…

  6. Dysphagia complications of the Minerva brace.

    PubMed

    Odderson, I R; Lietzow, D

    1997-12-01

    The effects of cervical bracing on swallowing function have not been evaluated in neurologically intact individuals. An 83-year-old woman fell, striking her head, and suffered C1, odontoid, and C3 fractures. She had no neurologic deficits and was placed in a Minerva brace. Subsequently, she developed coughing during her meals, a low-grade fever, and transient hoarseness, and complained of stiffness in the facial muscles. Aspiration pneumonia in the left lower lobe was diagnosed. In the absence of any neurologic condition, this was attributed to the Minerva brace. Less than 1 week later, the brace was replaced with a halo-vest, and the dysphagia resolved. This case shows that dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia may be caused by wearing a cervical brace and illustrates the importance of assessing swallowing in individuals who wear such braces. Particular attention should be paid to swallowing and cervical bracing in patients with additional risk factors for dysphagia such as advanced age or neurologic deficits.

  7. Prospective evaluation of the use of Mitchell shoes and dynamic abduction brace for idiopathic clubfeet.

    PubMed

    Chong, David Y; Finberg, Naomi S; Conklin, Michael J; Doyle, John Scott; Khoury, Joseph G; Gilbert, Shawn R

    2014-11-01

    Ponseti treatment for clubfoot has been successful, but recurrence continues to be an issue. After correction, patients are typically braced full time with a static abduction bar and shoes. Patient compliance with bracing is a modifiable risk factor for recurrence. We hypothesized that the use of Mitchell shoes and a dynamic abduction brace would increase compliance and thereby reduce the rate of recurrence. A prospective, randomized trial was carried out with consecutive patients treated for idiopathic clubfeet from 2008 to 2012. After casting and tenotomy, patients were randomized into either the dynamic or static abduction bar group. Both groups used Mitchell shoes. Patient demographics, satisfaction, and compliance were measured with self-reported questionnaires throughout follow-up. Thirty patients were followed up, with 15 in each group. Average follow-up was 18.7 months (range 3-40.7 months). Eight recurrences (26.7%) were found, with four in each group. Recurrences had a statistically significant higher number of casts and a longer follow-up time. Mean income, education level, patient-reported satisfaction and compliance, and age of caregiver tended to be lower in the recurrence group but were not statistically significant. No differences were found between the two brace types. Our study showed excellent patient satisfaction and reported compliance with Mitchell shoes and either the dynamic or static abduction bar. Close attention and careful education should be directed towards patients with known risk factors or difficult casting courses to maximize brace compliance, a modifiable risk factor for recurrence.

  8. Large strains in the epitaxy of Cu on Pt l brace 001 r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Quinn, J.; Li, H.; Tian, D.; Jona, F. ); Marcus, P.M. )

    1991-10-15

    Epitaxial pseudomorphic films of Cu have been grown on Pt{l brace}001{r brace} to thicknesses of 15--17 layers. A quantitative low-energy electron-diffraction intensity analysis of a ten-layer film reveals that the in-plane lattice constant is that of the Pt{l brace}001{r brace}1{times}1 net ({ital a}{sub 0}=3.93 A), and that the bulk interlayer spacing is 1.62{plus minus}0.04 A. Strain analysis shows that this structure is derived from the fcc structure of Cu with a plane strain of about 9%, similar to Cu films grown on Pd{l brace}001{r brace}.

  9. An innovative hand brace for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Manente, G; Torrieri, F; Di Blasio, F; Staniscia, T; Romano, F; Uncini, A

    2001-08-01

    We developed a hand brace and studied its efficacy and tolerability in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We randomized 83 subjects into a treated group, which wore the hand brace at night for 4 weeks, and a control group, which received no treatment. The primary efficacy measure was change in the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) score. Secondary measures were Subjects' Global Impression of Change Questionnaire (SGICQ), median distal motor latency, sensory conduction velocity and amplitude, and neurophysiological class of severity. The treated group showed a reduction in BCTQ symptomatic score (from 2.75 to 1.54 at 4 weeks; P < 0.001) and functional score (from 1.89 to 1.48; P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in the control subjects. SGICQ documented improvement in all treated subjects (P = 0.006). No significant difference was found in electrophysiological measurements, but overall neurophysiological classification shifted to less severe classes in the treated group (P < 0.05). Thus, the study demonstrates that this hand brace is highly efficient in relieving symptoms and functional loss in CTS.

  10. Deployable M-braced truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, M. M., Jr. (Inventor); Rhodes, M. D. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A deployable M-braced truss structure, efficiently packaged into a compact stowed position and expandable to an operative position at the use site is described. The M-braced configuration effectively separates tension compression and shear in the structure and permits efficient structural design. Both diagonals and longerons telescope from an M-braced base unit and deploy either pneumatically, mechanically by springs or cables, or by powered reciprocating mechanisms. Upon full deployment, the diagonals and longerons lock into place with a simple latch mechanism.

  11. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...) Zone for the drilling, blasting, and dredging operation on the navigable waters of Boston Inner Harbor... navigable waters during the drilling, blasting and dredging operations in support of the U.S. Army Corps of... vicinity of the drilling, dredging and blasting operations being conducted. For the safety concerns...

  12. Short-term effects of bracing on exercise performance in mild idiopathic thoracic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, K; Goti, P; Sanna, A; Misuri, G; Gigliotti, F; Duranti, R; Iandelli, I; Ceppatelli, S; Scano, G

    1997-01-01

    In adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis (ITS) working capacity may be reduced during exercise. Despite concern about its usefulness, bracing is still being used in ITS. Thus the effects of bracing on exercise performance need to be examined. We studied six females, ages 12-15 years who had mild ITS (Cobb angle range 20-35 degrees). Pulmonary volumes, maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), breathing pattern, the lowest (most negative in sign) pleural pressure during sniff maneuver (Pplsn), and pleural pressure swings (Pplsw) were measured first. Then, Pplsw, O2 uptake (VO2), CO2 output (VCO2), heart rate (HR) at rest and during progressive incremental exercise on a cycling ergometer (10 watts/min) were recorded. The exercise test was performed under control conditions without bracing (C) and after 7 days of bracing with the braced on (B). Dyspnea was measured by a modified Borg scale. At rest, bracing mildly affected total lung capacity and forced vital capacity (p < 0.03 for both) but not breathing pattern, Pplsn, or Pplsw (%Pplsn), a measure of respiratory effort. Furthermore, bracing did not consistently affect maximum work rate (WRmax). In both B and C VO2 was below (< 70%) the predicted value, VE was below (< 45%) MVV, and HR reserve was < 15 beats/min, indicating some cardiovascular deconditioning. On the other hand, respiratory frequency (Rf) increased more in B than in C (p < 0.03). In addition, Pplsw, Pplsw (%Pplsn), and Pplsw (%Pplsn)/VT, an index of neuroventilatory dissociation (NVD) of the respiratory pump, were greater in B (p < 0.03 for all). At a similar work rate, the Borg rating score was greater with bracing on than off, and the difference (delta Borg) tended to relate to concurrent changes in Pplsw (%Pplsn)/VT (r2 = 0.71; p < 0.07). We conclude that bracing affects respiratory effort, NVD, and dyspnea score during progressive exercise. These effects are consistent with increased lung elastance. Diminished exercise tolerance in patients with

  13. Effects of unloading bracing on knee and hip joints for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Toriyama, Minoru; Deie, Masataka; Shimada, Noboru; Otani, Takuya; Shidahara, Hiroe; Maejima, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Hideki; Shibuya, Hayatoshi; Okuhara, Atsushi; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2011-06-01

    Osteoarthritis affects the whole body, thus biomechanical effects on other joints should be considered. Unloading knee braces could be effective for knee osteoarthritis, but their effects on the contralateral knee and bilateral hip joints remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of bracing on the kinematics and kinetics of involved and contralateral joints during gait. Nineteen patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis were analysed. Kinematics and kinetics of the knee and hip joints in frontal and sagittal planes were measured during walking without and with bracing on the more symptomatic knee. The ipsilateral hip in the braced condition showed a lower adduction angle by an average of 2.58° (range, 1.05°-4.16°) during 1%-49% of the stance phase, and a lower abduction moment at the second peak during the stance phase than the hip in the unbraced condition (P<0.05 and P<0.005, respectively). With bracing, the contralateral hip showed a more marked peak extension moment and lower abduction moment at the first peak (P<0.05), and the contralateral knee adduction angle increased by an average of 0.32° (range, 0.21°-0.45°) during 46%-55% of the stance phase (P<0.05), compared to no bracing. Unloading bracing modified the contralateral knee adduction angle pattern at a specific time point during gait. It also affected the frontal plane on the ipsilateral hip and the frontal and sagittal planes on the contralateral hip joint. Consideration should be provided to other joints when treating knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knee Brace Would Lock And Unlock Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Neill; Forbes, John; Shadoan, Mike; Baker, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Proposed knee brace designed to aid rehabilitation of person who suffered some muscle damage in leg. Not limited to locking in straight-leg position and, instead, locks at any bend angle. Does not prevent knee from bearing weight. Instead, knee brace allows knee to bear weight and locks only when foot and lower leg bear weight. Thus, brace prevents flexion that wearer desired to prevent but could not prevent because of weakened muscles. Knee bends freely to exercise knee-related muscles. Knee brace strapped at upper end to leg above knee, and anchored at lower end by stirrup under foot. Joint mechanism (identical mechanisms used in left and right assemblies) allows knee joint to flex freely except when weight applied to heel.

  15. Knee Brace Would Lock And Unlock Automatically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Neill; Forbes, John; Shadoan, Mike; Baker, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Proposed knee brace designed to aid rehabilitation of person who suffered some muscle damage in leg. Not limited to locking in straight-leg position and, instead, locks at any bend angle. Does not prevent knee from bearing weight. Instead, knee brace allows knee to bear weight and locks only when foot and lower leg bear weight. Thus, brace prevents flexion that wearer desired to prevent but could not prevent because of weakened muscles. Knee bends freely to exercise knee-related muscles. Knee brace strapped at upper end to leg above knee, and anchored at lower end by stirrup under foot. Joint mechanism (identical mechanisms used in left and right assemblies) allows knee joint to flex freely except when weight applied to heel.

  16. Brace Compression for Treatment of Pectus Carinatum

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joonho; Chung, Sang Ho; Cho, Jin Kyoung; Park, Soo-Jin; Choi, Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgery has been the classical treatment of pectus carinatum (PC), though compressive orthotic braces have shown successful results in recent years. We propose a non-operative approach using a lightweight, patient-controlled dynamic chest-bracing device. Materials and Methods Eighteen patients with PC were treated between July 2008 and June 2009. The treatment involved fitting of the brace, which was worn for at least 20 hours per day for 6 months. Their degree of satisfaction (1, no correction; 4, remarkable correction) was measured at 12 months after the initiation of the treatment. Results Thirteen (72.2%) patients completed the treatment (mean time, 4.9±1.4 months). In patients who completed the treatment, the mean overall satisfaction score was 3.73±0.39. The mean satisfaction score was 4, and there was no recurrence of pectus carinatum in patients who underwent the treatment for at least 6 months. Minimal recurrence of pectus carinatum after removal of the compressive brace occurred in 5 (38.5%) patients who stopped wearing the compressive brace at 4 months. Conclusion Compressive bracing results in a significant improvement in PC appearance in patients with an immature skeleton. However, patient compliance and diligent follow-up appear to be paramount for the success of this method of treatment. We currently offer this approach as a first-line treatment for PC. PMID:23275922

  17. DSM renewable opportunities in Boston

    SciTech Connect

    Tennis, M.W.; Nogee, A.J.; Coakley, S.; Schoengold, D.

    1995-11-01

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), in conjunction with MSB Energy Associates, conducted a study for the Boston Edison Demand-Side Management (DSM) Settlement Board on the potential for DSM renewables in the Boston area. DSM renewables are resources that can be used in a distributed utility approach to avoid transmission and distribution (T and D) costs, as well as costs associated with operating and building power plants. The results show that avoided costs in areas with deferrable T and D investments can be nearly twice as high as system-wide average avoided costs. As a result, renewable technologies that might not be considered cost effective as DSM under system-wide average criteria, can produce large shavings for the utility and its customers. Adopting a deliberate program designed to provide sustained orderly development of these renewables is essential in order for renewable technologies to achieve the maximum level of cost-effectiveness and net savings.

  18. Boston bombings: response to disaster.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Maureen; Ferguson, Joanne

    2014-02-01

    Disasters disrupt everyone's lives, and they can disrupt the flow and function of an OR as well as affect personnel on a professional and personal level even though perioperative departments and their personnel are used to caring for trauma patients and coping with surprises. The Boston Marathon bombing was a new experience for personnel at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. This article discusses the incidents surrounding the bombing and how personnel at this hospital met the challenge of caring for patients and the changes we made after the experience to be better prepared in the event a response to a similar incident is needed. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brace Classification Study Group (BCSG): part one - definitions and atlas.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Theodoros B; de Mauroy, Jean Claude; Wood, Grant; Rigo, Manuel; Hresko, Michael Timothy; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in types of scoliosis braces defined by a surname or a town makes scientific classification essential. Currently, it is a challenge to compare braces and specify the indications of each brace. A precise definition of the characteristics of current braces is needed. As such, the International Society for Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) mandated the Brace Classification Study Group (BCSG) to address the pertinent terminology and brace classification. As such, the following study represents the first part of the SOSORT consensus in addressing the definitions and providing a visual atlas of bracing. After a short introduction on the braces, the aim of the BCSG is described and its policies/general consideration are outlined. The BSCG endeavor embraces the very important SOSORT - Scoliosis Research Society cooperation, the history of which is also briefly narrated. This report contains contributions from a multidisciplinary panel of 17 professionals who are part of the BCSG. The BCSG introduced several pertinent domains to characterize bracing systems. The domains are defined to allow for analysis of each brace system. A first approach to brace classification based on some of these proposed domains is presented. The BCSG has reached a consensus on 139 terms related to bracing and has provided over 120 figures to serve as an atlas for educational purposes. This is the first clinical terminology tool for bracing related to scoliosis based on the current scientific evidence and formal multidisciplinary consensus. A visual atlas of various brace types is also provided.

  20. Presidential Symposia and Events: Boston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-08-01

    In keeping with the theme “Biotechnology for Health and Wellness” for the National Meeting in Boston, ACS President Catherine T. (Katie) Hunt will host a keynote symposium, “Material Innovations: from Nanotech to Biotech and Beyond!” on Sunday, August 19. The symposium features five world-renowned scientists and leaders in innovation, covering a broad range of topics on interdisciplinary material from nanotechnology to biotechnology and beyond. A panel discussion follows, moderated by Hunt.

  1. Electronic and crystallographic properties of reconstructed and nonreconstructed Au[l brace]001[r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.C. Physics Department, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ); Li, H.; Quinn, J.; Tian, D.; Li, Y.S.; Begley, A.M.; Kim, S.K.; Jona, F.; Marcus, P.M. )

    1994-03-15

    Low-energy-electron-diffraction analyses of Fe-, Mn-, and Rh-stabilized Au[l brace]001[r brace]1[times]1 surfaces find the atomic structure to be a relaxed bulk termination. The first and the second interlayer spacings are contracted by about (2[plus minus]2.8)% and (2.8[plus minus]2.8)%, respectively, of the bulk spacing along [l angle]001[r angle]. Photoemission experiments with synchrotron radiation on reconstructed Au[l brace]001[r brace]5[times]20 find a surface-resonance band above the bulk [ital d] bands which exhibits dispersion with photon energies between 14 and 24 eV, in accordance with the buckled character of the hexagonal overlayer responsible for the surface reconstruction. All remaining features in the photoemission spectra from Au[l brace]001[r brace]5[times]20 can be explained on the basis of the self-consistent relativistic calculation of Eckardt, Fritsche, and Noffke to within 0.4 eV. Photoemission from Rh-stabilized Au[l brace]001[r brace]1[times]1 is similar to that from the reconstructed surface except for the surface resonance, which is markedly reduced on the 1[times]1 surface, and a shift of one band which points toward a transfer of [ital s]-like charge from the Rh to the Au atoms in the surface region.

  2. User Survey of 3 Ankle Braces in Soccer, Volleyball, and Running: Which Brace Fits Best?

    PubMed

    Janssen, Kasper; Van Den Berg, Anjulie; Van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-08-01

      Recurrence rates for ankle sprains are high. Therefore, preventive measures such as ankle bracing during sports are recommended.   To systematically evaluate the perceived ease of use, quality, comfort, stability, and hindrance of and the overall satisfaction with 3 contemporary brace types in 3 types of sports.   Randomized comparative user survey.   Recreational sports: soccer, volleyball, and running.   Young adult recreational athletes (29 soccer players, 26 volleyball players, and 31 runners).   Compression brace (CB), lace-up brace (LB), and semirigid brace (SB).   Rating of perceived ease of use, quality, comfort, stability, and hindrance of and overall satisfaction with the brace types during sports on a 5-point Likert scale. The secondary outcome measure was participants' willingness to buy the tested brace.   Overall, the 3 brace types received high mean scores for ease of use and quality. Soccer players preferred the CB over both alternatives, considering the higher scores for comfort (CB = 4.0, LB = 3.5, SB = 2.8), hindrance (CB = 3.7, LB = 2.9, SB = 2.8), overall satisfaction (CB = 3.6, LB = 3.0, SB = 2.5), and greatest willingness to buy this brace. Volleyball players preferred the LB over both alternatives, considering the higher scores for stability (LB = 4.2, CB = 3.2, SB = 3.3), overall satisfaction (LB = 3.8, CB = 3.0, SB = 3.0), and greatest willingness to buy this brace. Runners preferred the CB over both alternatives considering the better score for hindrance (CB = 3.6, LB = 2.8, SB = 2.9) and greatest willingness to buy this brace.   All 3 ankle-brace types scored high on perceived ease of use and quality. Regarding the brace types, soccer players, volleyball players, and runners differed in their assessments of subjective evaluation of comfort, stability, hindrance, overall satisfaction, and willingness to buy the brace. Soccer players and runners preferred the CB, whereas volleyball players preferred the LB.

  3. [Influence of Ankle Braces on the Prevalence of Ankle Inversion Injuries in the Swiss Volleyball National League A].

    PubMed

    Jaggi, J; Kneubühler, S; Rogan, S

    2016-06-01

    Ankle inversion is a common injury among volleyball players. The injury rate during a game is 2.1 times higher than during training. As a result, the preventive use of ankle braces is frequently observed in Swiss volleyball leagues. Studies have shown that ankle braces have a preventive effect on the prevalence of ankle inversion. In Switzerland there has been no investigation into the preventive use of braces and their influence on prevalence. For this reason, the goals of this study are 1) to determine when, why and by whom ankle braces are worn and 2) to evaluate the injury rate of users and non-users of ankle braces. A modified questionnaire was sent to 18 men's and women's teams of the Swiss National League A. The questionnaire included questions about injury rates and the circumstances of ankle inversion injuries. The data were statistically analysed with Microsoft Excel 2012 and SPSS Version 20. The overall response rate was 61 %, allowing data from 181 players to be analysed. 33 % (59 of 181) of the players used an ankle brace. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ankle inversion between users (12 injured) and non-users (8 injured) (p = 0.006). Wearing an ankle brace during training or during a game made no difference in the prevention of injuries (p = 0.356). More athletes were injured during training (n = 13) than during a game (n = 7). The results of the present study indicate that volleyball players preferably wear ankle braces to prevent injury. More than one third of the players in the study wore an ankle brace, 60 % for primary prevention and 40 % for secondary prevention due to a previous injury. The study shows that significantly more users than non-users of ankle braces were injured. This is contrary to literature. Furthermore it was shown that more injuries occur during training than during a game. This finding results from the fact that ankle braces were rarely worn during training. It is

  4. Atomic and electronic structure of Fe films grown on Pd l brace 001 r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, J.; Li, Y.S.; Li, H.; Tian, D.; Jona, F. ); Marcus, P.M. )

    1991-02-15

    The atomic and electronic structure of Fe films grown on Pd{l brace}001{r brace} is investigated by means of low-energy electron diffraction and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The films grow pseudomorphically, probably by way of nucleation and growth of flat islands, which ultimately coalesce to form continuous Fe{l brace}001{r brace} films. The structure of these continuous films, if grown at slow rates (of the order of 0.1 A/min), is body-centered tetragonal and is shown to be a distortion from the stable bcc structure of Fe: the in-plane lattice constant is 2.75 A, as dictated by the Pd{l brace}001{r brace} substrate, and the bulk interlayer spacing is 1.50--1.53 A. In 10--12-layer films the first interlayer spacing is expanded by 3.6% above bulk, but with increasing thickness that spacing contracts progressively to about 6.3% below the bulk value in 40--50-layer films. Films as thick as 60--70 layers can be grown pseudomorphically at slow rates despite the large misfit (4.2%) between bcc Fe{l brace}001{r brace} and fcc Pd{l brace}001{r brace}. ARPES data indicate that these films are electronically indistinguishable from bulk bcc Fe. Thick (about 200-layer) films grown at fast rates are essentially bcc, with in-plane lattice constants of 2.87 A, but with slightly expanded (3%) interlayer spacing, attributed to the presence of carbon impurities.

  5. How quantity and quality of brace wear affect the brace treatment outcomes for AIS.

    PubMed

    Lou, Edmond H M; Hill, Douglas L; Raso, Jim V; Moreau, Marc; Hedden, Douglas

    2016-02-01

    To determine the reliability of a prognostic curve progression model and the role of the quantity and quality of brace wear for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) brace treatment. To develop a curve progression model for full-time AIS brace treatment, 20 AIS subjects (Group 1) prescribed full-time thoracolumbar sacral orthosis (TLSO) were monitored and followed for 2 years beyond maturity. The developed curve progression model was: curve progression (in degrees) = 33 + 0.11 × Peterson risk (%) - 0.07 in-brace correction (%) - 0.45 × quality (%) - 0.48 × quantity (%) + 0.0062 × quantity × quality. To validate the model, 40 new (test) subjects (Group 2) who met the same inclusion criteria and used the same type of monitors, were monitored and followed for 2 years after bracing. For the 40 test subjects (Group 2), the average in-brace correction was 40 ± 22 %. The average quantity and quality of the brace wear were 56 ± 19 and 55 ± 17 %, respectively. Twelve subjects (30 %) progressed of which 10 subjects (25 %) required surgery and 28 subjects (70 %) showed no progression. The accuracy of the model to determine which patients would progress was 88 % (35/40) which was better than the Peterson's risk model (68 %; 26/40) alone. Patients who had the combined quantity times the quality over a threshold 43 % had a success treatment rate of 95 %. This study showed the prognostic model of brace treatment outcome on AIS patients treated with full-time TLSO was reliable. Both the quantity and quality of the brace wear were important factors in achieving successful brace treatment.

  6. Comparison of the biomechanical 3D efficiency of different brace designs for the treatment of scoliosis using a finite element model

    PubMed Central

    Clin, Julien; Parent, Stefan; Sangole, Archana; Labelle, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The biomechanical influence of thoraco-lumbo-sacral bracing, a commonly employed treatment in scoliosis, is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to compare the immediate corrections generated by different virtual braces using a patient-specific finite element model (FEM) and to analyze the most influential design factors. The 3D geometry of three patients presenting different types of curves was acquired with a multi-view X-ray technique and surface topography. A personalized FEM of the patients’ trunk and a parametric model of a virtual custom-fit brace were then created. The installation of the braces on the patients was simulated. The influence of 15 design factors on the 3D correction generated by the brace was evaluated following a design of experiments simulation protocol allowing computing the main and two-way interaction effects of the design factors. A total of 12,288 different braces were tested. Results showed a great variability of the braces effectiveness. Of the 15 design factors investigated, according to the 2 modalities chosen for each one, the 5 most influential design factors were the position of the brace opening (posterior vs. anterior), the strap tension, the trochanter extension side, the lordosis design and the rigid shell shape. The position of the brace opening modified the correction mechanism. The trochanter extension position influenced the efficiency of the thoracic and lumbar pads by modifying their lever arm. Increasing the strap tension improved corrections of coronal curves. The lordosis design had an influence in the sagittal plane but not in the coronal plane. This study could help to better understand the brace biomechanics and to rationalize and optimize their design. PMID:20094736

  7. Effect of Kınesıotapıng and Knee Brace on Functıonal Performance in Recreatıonal Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Burak; İldiz, Bülent; Tunay, Volga Bayrakçı

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Kinesiotaping is a popular taping method that is used for both therapeutic and performance enchancement purposes. Knee braces are widely used for prevention in sport injuries but their performance effectiveness is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether kinesiotape or brace was more effective on functional performance. Methods: A total twenty male recreational football players (Mean±Standart Deviation (SD) age: 22.5±0.68 years, height: 175.15±3.37 cm, body weight: 74.52±12.41 kg), voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were tested with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Tests were applied one day after patellar kinesiotaping (correction technique). Balance property measured with Modified Y balance Test (dynamic test), agility measured by T test, muscle strength and anaerobic power assessed by vertical jump and triple hop tests. Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed for determining the statistical significance of tests with kinesiotape, with brace and without kinesiotape and brace. Results: In analysis; There were statistically significant differences found in Triple hop test with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace, in T test with bracing and kinesiotaping, in vertical jump with kinesiotaping and without kinesiotaping and brace (p<0.001) (in the favour of kinesiotaping in all tests) No statistically significant difference was found in modified Y balance test all groups (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, kinesiotaping had positive effects on agility and muscle strength but had no effects on balance in football players. On the other hand, brace had no effects on functional performance tests.

  8. Change in electromyographic activity of wrist extensor by cylindrical brace.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Joong; Bae, Hasuk

    2013-01-01

    To verify the effect of a newly-developed cylindrical type forearm brace, which was designed to give focal counterforce perpendicularly on the muscle belly of the wrist extensor. The dominant hands of 24 (12 males, 12 females) healthy subjects were tested. Two types of forearm braces (focal cylindrical type and broad pneumatic type) were examined. The braces were applied at the extensor carpi radialis brevis, 5 to 7 cm distal to the lateral epicondyle. Two surface electrodes were attached to the proximal and distal parts of the brace. By quantitative electromyography, the mean amplitudes of voluntary extensor carpi radialis brevis contraction before and after applying each brace were recorded and analyzed. The mean amplitudes of the focal cylindrical brace and broad pneumatic brace were reduced significantly compared to no brace (p<0.05), with a larger reduction for the cylindrical brace than the pneumatic brace (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the proximal and distal mean amplitudes with each brace. A cylindrical type brace decreased electromyographic activity in the wrist extensor more effectively than did the pneumatic type brace.

  9. Change in Electromyographic Activity of Wrist Extensor by Cylindrical Brace

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung Joong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To verify the effect of a newly-developed cylindrical type forearm brace, which was designed to give focal counterforce perpendicularly on the muscle belly of the wrist extensor. Materials and Methods The dominant hands of 24 (12 males, 12 females) healthy subjects were tested. Two types of forearm braces (focal cylindrical type and broad pneumatic type) were examined. The braces were applied at the extensor carpi radialis brevis, 5 to 7 cm distal to the lateral epicondyle. Two surface electrodes were attached to the proximal and distal parts of the brace. By quantitative electromyography, the mean amplitudes of voluntary extensor carpi radialis brevis contraction before and after applying each brace were recorded and analyzed. Results The mean amplitudes of the focal cylindrical brace and broad pneumatic brace were reduced significantly compared to no brace (p<0.05), with a larger reduction for the cylindrical brace than the pneumatic brace (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the proximal and distal mean amplitudes with each brace. Conclusion A cylindrical type brace decreased electromyographic activity in the wrist extensor more effectively than did the pneumatic type brace. PMID:23225823

  10. Boston, Massachusetts: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Boston, MA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given. The City of Boston and its Solar America Cities program, Solar Boston, are helping to debunk the myth that solar energy is only feasible in the southern latitudes. Boston has some of the highest energy prices in the country and will likely be one of the first locations where solar power achieves grid parity with conventional energy technologies. Solar Boston is facilitating the rapid development of solar energy projects and infrastructure in the short-term, and is preparing for the rapid market growth that is expected with the imminent arrival of grid parity over the long-term. Solar Boston developed the strategy for achieving Mayor Menino's goal of installing 25 MW of solar energy throughout Boston by 2015. Through Solar Boston, the city has developed a strategy for the installation of solar technology throughout Boston, including mapping feasible locations, preparing a permitting guide, and planning the citywide bulk purchase, financing, and installation of solar technology. The city has also worked with local organizations to maximize Boston's participation in state incentive programs and innovative financing initiatives. The resulting accomplishments include the following: (1) Created an online map of current local renewable energy projects with a tool to allow building owners to calculate their rooftop solar potential. The map is currently live at http://gis.cityofboston.gov/solarboston/. (2) Supported the city's Green Affordable Housing Program (GAHP), in partnership with the Department of Neighborhood Development (DND). Under GAHP, the city is installing more than 150 kW of PV on 200 units of affordable housing. DND requires that all new city-funded affordable housing be LEED silver certified and

  11. Racial Segregation and Educational Outcomes in Metropolitan Boston. Metro Boston Equity Initiative. Issue Summary No.6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chungmei

    2004-01-01

    This report takes a look at the issues concerning racial segregation and educational outcomes in Metropolitan Boston. Despite the fact that metro Boston is overwhelmingly white, its public schools are highly segregated by race and language. Segregated minority schools in metro Boston are profoundly unequal, with high poverty levels, with lower…

  12. 14. View of swing truss apex with major sway bracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of swing truss apex with major sway bracing and bottom latticed strut members, with knee braces below. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  13. 7. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF MID TRUSS CONNECTION, TOP BRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF MID TRUSS CONNECTION, TOP BRACING, AND SWAY BRACING, NORTH TRUSS FROM BRIDGE - Jeffersonville Bridge, Spanning Lamoille River on Vermont Route 15, Cambridge, Lamoille County, VT

  14. 15. VIEW OF SOUTH END SPAN, SHOWING SWAY BRACING FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF SOUTH END SPAN, SHOWING SWAY BRACING FRAME AT PANEL POINTS 2 AND 4, TOP LATERAL BRACING - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  15. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  16. 14. Detail of riveted connections of top chord, away brace, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail of riveted connections of top chord, away brace, lateral bracing, vertical, and diagonals. Looking at north side, east span between fourth and fifth panels. - Tipp-Elizabeth Road Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River, Tipp City, Miami County, OH

  17. 20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH CROSSED BRACE BLOCK, GROUND WIRES AND GUIDE WIRE. - Hat Point Fire Lookout Tower, Forest Service Road #4340, 24 miles from Imnaha, Imnaha, Wallowa County, OR

  18. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24.

    PubMed

    Weigert, Karen Petra; Nygaard, Linda Marie; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bünger, Cody

    2006-07-01

    A retrospectively designed long-term follow-up study of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients who had completed treatment, of at least 2 years, by means of brace, surgery, or both brace and surgery. This study is to assess the outcome after treatment for AIS by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome Instrument 24 (SRS 24). One hundred and eighteen AIS patients (99 females and 19 males), treated at the Aarhus University Hospital from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 1997, were investigated with at least 2 years follow-up at the time of receiving a posted self-administered questionnaire. Forty-four patients were treated with Boston brace (B) only, 41 patients had surgery (S), and 33 patients were treated both with brace and surgery (BS). The Cobb angles of the three treatment groups did not differ significantly after completed treatment. The outcome in terms of the total SRS 24 score was not significantly different among the three groups. B patients had a significantly better general (not treatment related) self-image and higher general activity level than the total group of surgically treated patients, while surgically treated patients scored significantly better in post-treatment self-image and satisfaction. Comparing B with BS we found a significantly higher general activity level in B patients, while the BS group had significantly higher satisfaction. There were no significant differences between BS and S patients in any of the domain scores. All treatment groups scored "fair or better" in all domain scores of the SRS 24 questionnaire, except in post-treatment function, where all groups scored worse than "fair". Improvement of appearance by means of surgical correction increases mean scores for post-treatment self-image and post-treatment satisfaction. Double-treatment by brace and surgery does not appear to jeopardize a good final outcome.

  19. The use of knee braces during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K A

    1990-10-01

    This article has profiled the use of knee braces as an augmentation to the overall rehabilitation program following knee injury. It has also outlined other aspects of rehabilitation, the use of continuous passive motion devices, and other forms of exercises and training that, together with bracing, may enhance patient recovery. Continuous passive motion devices have been used for many different orthopedic problems with good success. Understanding the mechanics of how these devices move the knee and the forces that can be applied to the knee is helpful in deciding on their use after ligamentous reconstructions. Rehabilitation of the knee following surgery requires a good understanding of the effects that each exercise has on the knee and the reconstruction. Gradual progression of exercises to the knee following knee ligament reconstruction will not overstress healing tissues. Many different types of knee braces exist, and careful evaluation of them may enhance patient recovery.

  20. Stress-induced formation of structural defects on the [l brace]311[r brace] planes of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Weng-Sieh, Z. ); Krulevitch, P. ); Gronsky, R. ); Johnson, G.C. )

    1994-08-01

    Structural defects occurring on the [l brace]311[r brace] planes of single crystal silicon have been observed near the bottom oxide corner in silicon-on-insulator structures formed by selective epitaxial growth. These [l brace]311[r brace] defects exhibit a preferential orientation and are clustered near the silicon/silicon dioxide interface. This new observation provides an opportunity to study the mechanism of [l brace]311[r brace] defect generation in a system with discernible microstructure and stress state. High resolution electron microscopy combined with analytical and numerical three-dimensional stress modeling are used to show the dependence of these [l brace]311[r brace] defects on the local stress field, and to establish their origin in terms of the homogeneous dislocation nucleation model.

  1. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  2. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  3. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  4. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  5. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  6. Functional bracing of ACL injuries: current state and future directions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean D; Laprade, Robert F; Jansson, Kyle S; Arøen, Asbjørn; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2014-05-01

    Functional braces are commonly prescribed to treat anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The results of the existing literature on functional brace use are mixed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the history and current state of functional ACL bracing and to identify design criteria that could improve upon current bracing technologies. A literature search was performed through the PubMed MEDLINE database in April 2013 for the keywords "anterior cruciate ligament" and "brace". Articles published between January 1, 1980, and April 4, 2013, were retrieved and reviewed. Current functional braces used to treat ACL injury were identified. The function of the native ACL was carefully studied to identify design requirements that could improve upon current bracing technologies. Biomechanical evaluations of functional brace effects at time zero have been mixed. Functional brace use reportedly does not improve long-term patient outcomes following ACL reconstruction, but has been shown to reduce subsequent injury rates while skiing in both ACL-deficient and reconstructed skiers. In situ force in the ACL varies with flexion angle and activity. Currently, no brace has been designed and validated to replicate the force-flexion behavior of the native ACL. Biomechanical and clinical evidence suggests current functional bracing technologies do not sufficiently restore normal biomechanics to the ACL-deficient knee, protect the reconstructed ACL, and improve long-term patient outcomes. Further research into a functional brace designed to apply forces to the knee joint similar in magnitude to the native ACL should be pursued. III.

  7. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  8. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  9. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  10. 49 CFR 195.208 - Welding of supports and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Welding of supports and braces. 195.208 Section 195.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.208 Welding of supports and braces. Supports or braces...

  11. I Have Braces: How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shyness I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? KidsHealth > For Teens > I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? A A A I have braces, ... weight. I read about eating 5 servings of fruits and veggies a day. But I can't ...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  13. Effect of brace design on patients with ACL-ruptures.

    PubMed

    Strutzenberger, G; Braig, M; Sell, S; Boes, K; Schwameder, H

    2012-11-01

    Different designs of functional knee braces for ACL-injury rehabilitation exist. In addition to the mechanical stabilization provided by rigid shell braces, sleeve braces also address proprioceptive mechanisms, but little is known if this leads to benefits for ACL-deficient subjects. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 different functional brace designs (shell and sleeve brace) on functional achievements in ACL-deficient patients. 28 subjects with ACL-ruptured knees performed tests for knee joint laxity, joint position sense, static and dynamic balance and isometric and dynamic lower limb extension strength in non-braced, sleeve braced and shell braced condition. The results showed a significant decrease in knee joint laxity for sleeve (33%; p<0.001) and rigid shell bracing (14%, p=0.039). The sleeve brace revealed a significant increase in dynamic balance after perturbation (20%; p=0.024) and a significant increase in dynamic lower limb peak rate of force development (17%; p=0.015) compared to the non-braced condition. The effects might be caused by the flexible area of support and the incorporated mechanisms to address proprioceptive aspects. Braces might not be needed in simple daily life tasks, but could provide beneficial support in more dynamic settings when patients return to sporting activities after an ACL-injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Unloader Braces for Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Dan K.; Russell, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: For persons with unicompartment knee osteoarthritis (OA), off-unloader braces are a mechanical intervention designed to reduce pain, improve physical function, and possibly slow disease progression. Pain relief is thought to be mediated by distracting the involved compartment via external varus or valgus forces applied to the knee. In so doing, tibiofemoral alignment is improved, and load is shifted off the degenerative compartment, where exposure to potentially damaging and provocative mechanical stresses are reduced. Objectives: To provide a synopsis of the evidence documented in the scientific literature concerning the efficacy of off-loader knee braces for improving symptomatology associated with painful disabling medial compartment knee OA. Search Strategy: Relevant peer-reviewed publications were retrieved from a MEDLINE search using the terms with the reference terms osteoarthritis, knee, and braces (per Medical Subject Headings), plus a manual search of bibliographies from original and review articles and appropriate Internet resources. Results: For persons with combined unicompartment knee OA and mild to moderate instability, the strength of recommendation reported by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International in the ability of off-loader knee braces to reduce pain, improve stability, and diminish the risk of falling was 76% (95% confidence interval, 69%-83%). The more evidence the treatment is effective, the higher the percentage. Conclusions: Given the encouraging evidence that off-loader braces are effective in mediating pain relief in conjunction with knee OA and malalignment, bracing should be fully used before joint realignment or replacement surgery is considered. With the number of patients with varus deformities and knee pain predicted to increase as the population ages, a reduction of patient morbidity for this widespread chronic condition in combination with this treatment modality could have a positive impact on health care

  15. FUNCTIONAL BRACING OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY

    PubMed Central

    Schottstaedt, Edwin R.; Magee, Margaret; Parrish, Elizabeth; Robinson, George B.

    1962-01-01

    Arm bracing problems, because of their complexity, need careful evaluation by a team of interested specialists in the field of medicine, physical therapy, occupational therapy, orthotics or prosthetics. The patient must always be a working member of this team. If the basic principles of evaluation, fabrication and training are followed and the motivation is good, success with specific goals may be expected. A few arm brace situations as they reflect special problems are discussed in the hope of stimulating more interest in this fascinating field. PMID:13909200

  16. Boston Workplace Education Collaborative. Final External Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Mark L.; Pansar, Eleanor

    An evaluation of the Boston Workplace Education Collaborative (BWEC) was conducted during 1989. The BWEC is a partnership among Roxbury Community College, the Boston Private Industry Council, and the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) of Massachusetts to provide workplace literacy educational opportunities…

  17. Braces for idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Negrini, Stefano; Minozzi, Silvia; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Maruyama, Toru; Romano, Michele; Zaina, Fabio

    2015-06-18

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine. The most common form is diagnosed in adolescence. While adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) can progress during growth and cause a surface deformity, it is usually not symptomatic. However, in adulthood, if the final spinal curvature surpasses a certain critical threshold, the risk of health problems and curve progression is increased. To evaluate the efficacy of bracing for adolescents with AIS versus no treatment or other treatments, on quality of life, disability, pulmonary disorders, progression of the curve, and psychological and cosmetic issues. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, five other databases, and two trials registers up to February 2015 for relevant clinical trials. We also checked the reference lists of relevant articles and conducted an extensive handsearch of grey literature. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective controlled cohort studies comparing braces with no treatment, other treatment, surgery, and different types of braces for adolescent with AIS. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included seven studies (662 participants). Five were planned as RCTs and two as prospective controlled trials. One RCT failed completely, another was continued as an observational study, reporting also the results of the participants that had been randomized.There was very low quality evidence from one small RCT (111 participants) that quality of life (QoL) during treatment did not differ significantly between rigid bracing and observation (mean difference (MD) -2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) -7.69 to 3.49). There was very low quality evidence from a subgroup of 77 adolescents from one prospective cohort study showing that QoL, back pain, psychological, and cosmetic issues did not differ significantly between rigid bracing and observation in the long term (16 years).Results of the secondary outcomes showed that there was low

  18. Atomic and electronic structure of thin films of Mn on Pd l brace 111 r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, D.; Li, H.; Wu, S.C.; Jona, F. ); Marcus, P.M. )

    1992-02-15

    Epitaxial films of Mn can be grown on Pd{l brace}111{r brace} to thicknesses of the order of 15--20 layers. Vacuum deposition on a room-temperature substrate produces a threefold-symmetric 1{times}1 phase with in-plane lattice constant {ital a}=2.75 A (pseudomorphic to Pd{l brace}111{r brace}) and bulk interlayer spacing {ital d}{sub bulk}=2.16 A. This structure probably corresponds to strained magnetic {gamma}-Mn. Vacuum deposition on a 150 {degree}C substrate produces a sixfold-symmetric {radical}3 {times} {radical}3 -30 {degree} structure, which is probably a bulk phase with in-plane lattice constant {ital a}=4.76 A. The atomic structure of this phase is unknown, but may be related to {alpha}-Mn.

  19. The effect of ankle bracing on athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Bot, S D; van Mechelen, W

    1999-03-01

    Ankle braces in sports are used for prevention of ankle sprains. Besides restricting inversion and eversion, it is possible that an ankle brace also reduces the functional range of motion of the ankle joint. Consequently, their use could also impair athletic performance. It is unlikely that prophylactic ankle bracing will gain wide acceptance if bracing hinders athletic performance. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the effect of ankle bracing on vertical jump height, running speed, agility and broad jump performance. In 2 studies, 2 ankle braces negatively affected vertical jump height. Other studies did not find a significant effect on vertical jump performance when wearing an ankle brace. One study found a negative effect on running speed and broad jump performance when wearing a lace-on brace. In other studies, no effects on running speed and broad jump were found. In 1 study, agility was negatively affected when wearing an ankle brace, although agility was not significantly affected in other studies. The effect of prolonged use of an ankle brace is un-known, but could possibly influence ankle musculature and ligament function. Further research is necessary to study the effect of prolonged ankle bracing on performance.

  20. Biomechanical effects of functional knee bracing. Practical implications.

    PubMed

    Vailas, J C; Pink, M

    1993-03-01

    Bracing of the anterior cruciate-deficient knee remains controversial. Close review of published data has revealed enough common observations about braces that strong suggestive information can be utilised for clinical purposes until more concrete data are provided. Brace function can vary with design. The primary differences noted are between the shell-type and strap-type braces. Shell braces tend to provide more stability to the knee than do the strap braces. Proper hinge placement, rather than type, affects pistoning and overall performance of the brace. Custom braces provide a better fit than off-the-shelf devices, but they can feel more restrictive, especially the shell braces. Static bench-testing data have shown that these braces provide little stability against anterior tibial translation at forces comparable to athletic play. Yet kinematic and force plate data suggest that they may produce some mechanical constraining effect to the entire lower extremity instead of just the knee joint. The literature still supports the philosophy that functional bracing should be considered as part of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme for an anterior cruciate-deficient athlete with significant functional deficits.

  1. Prophylactic Knee Braces: Where Do They Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of knee braces in preventing knee injuries in football is inconclusive. This article reviews research from epidemiologic, cadaver, and surrogate studies; discusses reasons for conflicting study results, including research design problems; and describes alternative approaches that have been suggested. (IAH)

  2. Prophylactic Knee Braces: Where Do They Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of knee braces in preventing knee injuries in football is inconclusive. This article reviews research from epidemiologic, cadaver, and surrogate studies; discusses reasons for conflicting study results, including research design problems; and describes alternative approaches that have been suggested. (IAH)

  3. European braces widely used for conservative scoliosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

    2010-01-01

    A systematic examination of the braces commonly used in Europe lacks in literature. Therefore the objective of this report is the description of the European braces widely used. The history, design rationale, indications, biomechanics, outcomes and comparison between some braces are reported. Chêneau Brace is used in France and other European Countries. There are two Cheneau derivatives, namely the Rigo System Cheneau Brace used in Spain and the ScoliOlogiC "Chêneau light" used in Germany. The Lyonnaise Brace is used in France and Italy. The Dynamic Derotating Brace DDB is used in Greece. The TriaC brace is applied in the Netherlands. The Sforzesco brace based on the SPoRT concept and the Progressive Action Short Brace PASB are used in Italy. Correction of spinal deformities is achieved in conservative treatment with passive and active brace mechanisms. The mode of operation of modern braces is in accordance with various principles of correction, namely active or passive extension with the aid of a neck ring and correction by lateral pads, lateral pressure according to 3 - point principle, compression, bending the trunk towards the opposite side, active bracing and correction by means of pressure exerted by bands during movement and by means of metallic blades. Recently there has been an effort to expand our insight on the biomechanics, the treatment management principles and the outcome description of the above mentioned braces. The peer review publications on these studies mandate the use of the SOSORT and SRS inclusion and assessment criteria for conservative scoliosis treatment.

  4. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concentrically Braced Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Po-Chien

    Concentrically braced frames (CBFs) are broadly used as lateral-load resisting systems in buildings throughout the US. In high seismic regions, special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) where ductility under seismic loading is necessary. Their large elastic stiffness and strength efficiently sustains the seismic demands during smaller, more frequent earthquakes. During large, infrequent earthquakes, SCBFs exhibit highly nonlinear behavior due to brace buckling and yielding and the inelastic behavior induced by secondary deformation of the framing system. These response modes reduce the system demands relative to an elastic system without supplemental damping. In design the re reduced demands are estimated using a response modification coefficient, commonly termed the R factor. The R factor values are important to the seismic performance of a building. Procedures put forth in FEMAP695 developed to R factors through a formalized procedure with the objective of consistent level of collapse potential for all building types. The primary objective of the research was to evaluate the seismic performance of SCBFs. To achieve this goal, an improved model including a proposed gusset plate connection model for SCBFs that permits accurate simulation of inelastic deformations of the brace, gusset plate connections, beams and columns and brace fracture was developed and validated using a large number of experiments. Response history analyses were conducted using the validated model. A series of different story-height SCBF buildings were designed and evaluated. The FEMAP695 method and an alternate procedure were applied to SCBFs and NCBFs. NCBFs are designed without ductile detailing. The evaluation using P695 method shows contrary results to the alternate evaluation procedure and the current knowledge in which short-story SCBF structures are more venerable than taller counterparts and NCBFs are more vulnerable than SCBFs.

  5. Correlation between immediate in-brace correction and biomechanical effectiveness of brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Clin, Julien; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Sangole, Archana; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan

    2010-08-15

    Multiple brace designs were simulated using a finite element model and their biomechanical effect was evaluated. To study correlations between immediate in-brace correction of coronal curves and bending moments acting on the apical vertebrae. Immediate in-brace correction has often been deemed as fundamental to long-term brace effect but the biomechanical explanation is unclear. Three-dimensional geometry of 3 patients was acquired using multiview radiographs and surface topography techniques. A finite element model of the patients' trunk including gravitational forces and a parametric brace model were created. Two sets of mechanical properties of the spine (stiff and flexible) were tested. Installation of the brace on the patients was simulated. Using an experimental design framework including fourteen design factors, 1024 different virtual braces were tested for each patient. For each brace, immediate in-brace correction of the coronal Cobb angles and the bending moment acting on the apical vertebrae were computed and their correlation was studied. Immediate correction of coronal curves and corresponding impact on the apical vertebrae bending moments were linearly correlated (mean R = 0.88). The amount of immediate correction necessary to nullify the bending moment ranged between 19% and 61% with average 48% (flexible spine model) and 27% (stiff spine model). The braces corrected the apical vertebrae bending moment more in the flexible spine model. In the framework of the Hueter-Volkmann principle, the correlation between coronal immediate in-brace correction and corresponding apical bending moment can be interpreted as a correlation between immediate in-brace correction and long-term treatment outcome. The amount of immediate correction necessary to invert the bending moments, and in theory counteract the progression of the scoliotic deformity, depends on spine stiffness and spine segment. This study confirms the importance of immediate in-brace correction to

  6. 78 FR 9730 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... National Park Service Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service... Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes a presentation by Sally Snowman, 70th keeper of Boston Light... Jacobson, DFO, Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, 408 Atlantic Avenue, Suite 228, Boston, MA...

  7. Soft braces in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) – Review of the literature and description of a new approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of soft braces to treat scoliosis has been described by Fischer as early as 1876. With the help of elastic straps, as the authors suggested, a corrective movement for individual curve patterns should be maintained in order to inhibit curve progression. Today this concept has been revived besides soft 3 point pressure systems. Some shortcomings have been revealed in literature in comparison with hard braces, however the concept of improving quality of life of a patient while under brace treatment should furtherly be considered as valuable. Purpose of this review is to gather the body of evidence existent for the use of soft braces and to present recent developments. Method A review of literature as available on Pub Med was performed using the key words ‘scoliosis’ and ‘soft brace’ at first. The search was expanded using ‘scoliosis’ and the known trademarks (1) ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’, (2) ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’, (3) ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’, (4) ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’. The papers considered for inclusion were new technical descriptions, preliminary results, cohort studies and controlled studies. Results When searching for the terms ‘scoliosis’ and ‘SpineCor’: 20 papers have been found, most of them investigating a soft brace, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘TriaC’: 7 papers displayed, for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘St. Etienne brace’: one paper displayed but not meeting the topic and for ‘scoliosis’ and ‘Olympe’: No paper displayed. Four papers found on the SpineCor™ were of prospective controlled or prospective randomized design. These papers partly presented contradictory results. Two papers were on soft Boston braces used in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Discussion There is a small but consistent body of evidence for the use of soft braces in the treatment of scoliosis. Contradictory results have been published for samples treated during the pubertal growth spurt

  8. The Effectiveness of Prophylactic Knee Bracing in American Football

    PubMed Central

    Salata, Michael J.; Gibbs, Aimee E.; Sekiya, Jon K.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Knee injuries, particularly of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), are the most common injury sustained in American football. In 1979, Anderson et al described a knee brace that could protect uninjured knees from MCL injuries resulting from lateral impact. Since then, a number of light and free-moving bracing devices have been developed. However, the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracing remains in question. Objective: A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic knee bracing in preventing MCL injuries in football players. Data Sources: Based on MedSearch and PubMed, articles from 1985 to November 2009 were identified with the following keywords and their combinations: prophylactic, prevent injury, knee brace, prevention, medial collateral ligament, MCL, football, and bracing. Study Selection: One randomized controlled trial (level 1 study) and 5 prospective cohort studies (level 2 studies) were selected. Results: The results of the studies were inconsistent; only 1 study showed that prophylactic knee bracing significantly reduced MCL injuries (P < .05). In contrast, 2 studies found that knee bracing was associated with an increase in knee injuries. Conclusions: Prophylactic bracing in American football has not consistently reduced MCL injuries. There remains a lack of evidence to support the routine use of prophylactic knee bracing in uninjured knees. There is limited high-level evidence, bias in the available literature, and confounding variables that limit the current literature. PMID:23015962

  9. Effect of bracing on dynamic patellofemoral contact mechanics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicole A; Mazahery, B Tom; Koh, Jason L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in patellofemoral pain have been demonstrated with bracing; however, the mechanisms of pain reduction remain unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the hypothesis that patellofemoral bracing decreases peak pressure on the retropatellar surface through an increase in patellofemoral contact area. Nine cadaveric knees were tested during simulated free-speed walking with no brace, a knee sleeve, two different patellar stabilization sleeves, and a wrap-style patellar stabilization brace. Contact area and pressure were measured using a dynamic pressure sensor located in the patellofemoral joint. For the unbraced knee, contact area and peak pressure varied with knee flexion angle, ranging from 0.30 ± 0.3 cm(2) and 1.80 ± 1.7 MPa at full extension to 2.28 ± 0.5 cm(2) and 4.19 ± 1.7 MPa at peak knee flexion. All braces increased contact area, while the wrap-style brace decreased peak pressure (p < 0.001). Sleeve braces compress the quadriceps tendon causing the patella to engage the trochlear groove earlier during knee flexion. The wrap-style brace reduced peak pressure by shifting the location of highest pressure to a region with increased articular cartilage thickness. Sleeve braces may be useful for treatment of patellar subluxation disorders, while wrap-style braces may be effective for treatment of disorders associated with degenerative cartilage changes.

  10. The effects of a semi-rigid brace or taping on talocrural and subtalar kinematics in chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Saka, Masayuki; Suzuki, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Naohito; Suzukawa, Makoto; Akaike, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kuniaki; Gamada, Kazuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    A semi-rigid brace or taping is often used to prevent giving-ways in the joint with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, it remains unknown whether the application of a semi-rigid brace or taping modifies abnormal kinematics in CAI joints. The objective of this study was to determine if the application of a semi-rigid brace or taping of the ankle normalizes abnormal weight-bearing kinematics in CAI joints during ankle internal rotation in plantar flexion. A total of 14 male patients with unilateral CAI (mean age 21.1 ± 2.5 years) were enrolled. Three-dimensional bone models created from the computed tomography images were matched to the fluoroscopic images to compute the 6 degrees-of-freedom talocrural, subtalar, and ankle joint complex (AJC) kinematics for the healthy and contralateral CAI joints, as well as for CAI joints with a brace or taping. Selected outcome measures were talocrural anterior translation, talocrural internal rotation, and subtalar internal rotation. There was no significant difference in talocrural anterior translation and internal rotation induced by applying either a semi-rigid brace or taping (P > .05). For subtalar internal rotation, there was a tendency toward restoration of normal kinematics in CAI joints after applying a semi-rigid brace or taping. However, the difference was not significant (P > .05). Application of a semi-rigid brace or taping had limited effects on the CAI joint during weight-bearing ankle internal rotation in plantar flexion. Further studies using a variety of testing conditions should be conducted in the future. Therapeutic, Level IV: Cross-Sectional Case Series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  11. Effects of Bracing in Adult With Scoliosis: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Clémence; Montigny, Jean-Paul; Barbot, Frédéric; Bussel, Bernard; Vaugier, Isabelle; Fort, Didier; Courtois, Isabelle; Marty-Poumarat, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of bracing in adult with scoliosis. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatients followed in 2 tertiary care hospitals. Adults (N=38) with nonoperated progressive idiopathic or degenerative scoliosis treated by custom-molded lumbar-sacral orthoses, with a minimum follow-up time of 10 years before bracing and 5 years after bracing. Progression was defined as a variation in Cobb angle ≥10° between the first and the last radiograph before bracing. The brace was prescribed to be worn for a minimum of 6h/d. Not applicable. Rate of progression of the Cobb angle before and after bracing measured on upright 3-ft full-spine radiographs. At the moment of bracing, the mean age was 61.3±8.2 years, and the mean Cobb angle was 49.6°±17.7°. The mean follow-up time was 22.0±11.1 years before bracing and 8.7±3.3 years after bracing. For both types of scoliosis, the rate of progression decreased from 1.28°±.79°/y before to .21°±.43°/y after bracing (P<.0001). For degenerative and idiopathic scoliosis, it dropped from 1.47°±.83°/y before to .24°±.43°/y after bracing (P<.0001) and .70°±.06°/y before to .24°±.43°/y after bracing (P=.03), respectively. For the first time, to our knowledge, this study suggests that underarm bracing may be effective in slowing down the rate of progression in adult scoliosis. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Boston Harbor sewage stack (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Boston Harbor Sewage Stack is interactive educational computer program about how municipalities deal with sewage, how sewage systems work, non point pollution, and what citizens can do to help - focusing on Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Cleanup. The program is written at a level accessible to middle-school students, but with enough depth for adults. Schools and environmental organizations, especially in coastal areas, will find this program a useful addition to their environmental education offerings. The program shows what happens to sewage - from the moment of flush to its passage through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's sewage system and into Boston Harbor - now and as the cleanup proceeds. Users encounter topics for exploration, including storm sewers and combined sewer overflows (CSOs); non point pollution from pets, spilled waste oil, lawn and garden chemicals, and other sources; what not to flush and why; how officials can tell if water is polluted; and why it all matters.

  13. Braces Optimized With Computer-Assisted Design and Simulations Are Lighter, More Comfortable, and More Efficient Than Plaster-Cast Braces for the Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Cobetto, Nikita; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Clin, Julien; Le May, Sylvie; Desbiens-Blais, Frederique; Labelle, Hubert; Parent, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Feasibility study to compare the effectiveness of 2 brace design and fabrication methods for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a standard plaster-cast method and a computational method combining computer-aided design and fabrication and finite element simulation. To improve brace design using a new brace design method. Initial in-brace correction and patient's compliance to treatment are important factors for brace efficiency. Negative cosmetic appearance and functional discomfort resulting from pressure points, humidity, and restriction of movement can cause poor compliance with the prescribed wearing schedule. A total of 15 consecutive patients with brace prescription were recruited. Two braces were designed and fabricated for each patient: a standard thoracolumbo-sacral orthosis brace fabricated using plaster-cast method and an improved brace for comfort (NewBrace) fabricated using a computational method combining computer-aided design and fabrication software (Rodin4D) and a simulation platform. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the torso and the trunk skeleton were used to create a personalized finite element model, which was used for brace design and predict correction. Simulated pressures on the torso and distance between the brace and patient's skin were used to remove ineffective brace material situated at more than 6 mm from the patient's skin. Biplanar radiographs of the patient wearing each brace were taken to compare their effectiveness. Patients filled out a questionnaire to compare their comfort. NewBraces were 61% thinner and had 32% less material than standard braces with equivalent correction. NewBraces were more comfortable (11 of 15 patients) or equivalent to (4 of 15 cases) standard braces. Simulated correction was simulated within 5° compared with in-brace results. This study demonstrates the feasibility of designing lighter and more comfortable braces with correction equivalent to standard braces. This design platform has the

  14. Noise characteristics of short drilled and deep drilled braced monuments in the PBO continuous GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Meertens, C.; Jackson, M.

    2008-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS network consists of 1,100 continuously operating stations, 880 of which were built between 2003 and 2008 to a standard set of specifications. With a few exceptions, all built stations incorporate a Trimble NetRS receiver (firmware v.1.1) and a Trimble TRM29659.00 choke ring antenna, so differences in station performance due to GPS equipment should be negligible. Station monuments are split almost exclusively between slightly modified versions of the Wyatt- Agnew deep drilled braced and the SCIGN short drilled braced types, both of which are considered to be the state-of-the-art in stable GPS monumentation. Deep drilled braced monuments are designed to anchor the GPS antenna to a depth of more than 3 m in order to isolate the antenna from expansion/contraction of the near subsurface from temperature or moisture variability, but installation costs are substantially higher than for shallow monuments. Determining the gain in stability due to deeper anchoring would benefit design decisions for future networks. We test the assumption that deep drilled braced monuments offer superior stability over short drilled braced by examining the noise characteristics of a large subset of the PBO GPS network. We apply analytical techniques widely used to study GPS noise, examining the amplitudes of seasonal and sub-seasonal cycles and various stochastic noise processes in detrended vertical and horizontal time series. Seasonal forcing of the near subsurface is correlated with seasonal variations in site-specific effects such as multipath and regional effects such as groundwater recharge, complicating the analysis. Restricting the analysis to these two monument types allows us to isolate shallow subsurface effects to the greatest extent possible, not only to assess the relative performance of deep versus shallow monumentation, but also to weigh the absolute magnitude of shallow effects against that of other noise sources.

  15. Braces and the Yang-Baxter Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedó, Ferran; Jespers, Eric; Okniński, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Several aspects of relations between braces and non-degenerate involutive set-theoretic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation are discussed and many consequences are derived. In particular, for each positive integer n a finite square-free multipermutation solution of the Yang-Baxter equation with multipermutation level n and an abelian involutive Yang-Baxter group is constructed. This answers a problem of Gateva-Ivanova and Cameron. It is proved that finite non-degenerate involutive set-theoretic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation whose associated involutive Yang-Baxter group is abelian are multipermutation solutions. Earlier the authors proved this with the additional square-free hypothesis on the solutions. It is also proved that finite square-free non-degenerate involutive set-theoretic solutions associated to a left brace are multipermutation solutions.

  16. Knee braces: current evidence and clinical recommendations for their use.

    PubMed

    Paluska, S A; McKeag, D B

    2000-01-15

    Methods of preventing and treating knee injuries have changed with the rapid development and refinement of knee braces. Prophylactic knee braces are designed to protect uninjured knees from valgus stresses that could damage the medial collateral ligaments. However, no conclusive evidence supports their effectiveness, and they are not recommended for regular use. Functional knee braces are intended to stabilize knees during rotational and anteroposterior forces. They offer a useful adjunct to the treatment and rehabilitation of ligamentous knee injuries. Patellofemoral knee braces have been used to treat anterior knee disorders and offer moderate subjective improvement without significant disadvantages. Additional well-designed studies are needed to demonstrate objectively the benefits of all knee braces. Knee braces should be used in conjunction with a rehabilitation program that incorporates strength training, flexibility, activity modification and technique refinement.

  17. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    Many applications of robotic manipulator arms require operation in contact and noncontact regimes. Control of impact between the arm's tip and the environment has been largely ignored in prior research. The impact phenomena was investigated through simulation and experiment for the realization of the bracing strategy, and the key factors of the behavior were understood well. The approaching velocity is dominant parameter for the magnitude of the impact force. The impact is also affected by the compliance of the environmental surface.

  18. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    Many applications of robotic manipulator arms require operation in contact and noncontact regimes. Control of impact between the arm's tip and the environment has been largely ignored in prior research. The impact phenomena was investigated through simulation and experiment for the realization of the bracing strategy, and the key factors of the behavior were understood well. The approaching velocity is dominant parameter for the magnitude of the impact force. The impact is also affected by the compliance of the environmental surface.

  19. 54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY BRIDGE, January 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  1. Interior view of second floor brace shop partition walls and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor brace shop partition walls and cobbler's bench, facing west. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. 6. VIEW OF SOUTH TRUSS, SHOWING BRACED POSTS, DOUBLE EYEBAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SOUTH TRUSS, SHOWING BRACED POSTS, DOUBLE EYEBAR, LOWER CHORD - Washingtonville Bridge, Pennsylvania Legislative Route 47036, spanning Chillisquaque Creek (Derry Township), Washingtonville, Montour County, PA

  3. 76 FR 37005 - Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... procedures; and related management systems practices) that are developed or adopted by voluntary consensus... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  4. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) in Boston Harbor, Reserved Channel, the Boston Marine Industrial... entry into the Reserved Channel and control the speed of all vessels transiting within the RNA. The RNA... without establishing an RNA, because this would unnecessarily jeopardize public safety during the...

  5. 77 FR 19573 - Safety Zone; Wedding Fireworks Display, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Wedding Fireworks Display, Boston Inner... in the vicinity of Anthony's Pier 4, Boston, MA for a wedding fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with...

  6. Boston Public Schools: Class of 1982. A Follow-Up Study. A Boston Compact Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargroves, Jeannette S.

    In an effort to improve conditions for young Boston residents, a compact has been made between the Boston Public Schools and the city's businesses, universities, and cultural organizations. The cooperative project aims to upgrade the city's high schools and to increase annually the number of graduates placed in jobs and enrolled in postsecondary…

  7. Epitaxy of MnO on Cu l brace 001 r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, D.; Li, H.; Wu, S.C.; Quinn, J.; Li, Y.S.; Jona, F. ); Marcus, P.M. )

    1992-09-15

    Deposition of 2--3 layer equivalents of Mn on a clean Cu{l brace}001{r brace} surface followed by exposure to oxygen and brief anneals at 450 {degree}C--475 {degree}C leads to the growth of MnO islands which are epitaxial to, but incommensurate with, the Cu substrate. The proof is provided by a quantitative analysis of low-energy electron-diffraction intensities and is confirmed by angle-integrated and angle-resolved valence-band photoemission experiments.

  8. Brace treatment for patients with Scheuermann's disease - a review of the literature and first experiences with a new brace design

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Turnbull, Deborah; Bohr, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Background In contemporary literature few have written in detail on the in-brace correction effects of braces used for the treatment of hyperkyphosis. Bradford et al. found their attempts effective, treating Scheuermann's kyphosis with Milwaukee braces, but their report did not specifically focus on in-brace corrections. White and Panjabi's research attempted to correct a curvature of > 50° with the help of distraction forces, but consequently led to a reduction in patient comfort in the application of the Milwaukee brace. In Germany they avoid this by utitlising braces to treat hyperkyphosis that use transverse correction forces instead of distraction forces. Further efforts to reduce brace material have resulted in a special bracing design called kyphologic™ brace. The aim of this review is to present appropriate research to collect and evaluate possible in-brace corrections which have been achieved with brace treatment for hyperkyphosis. This paper introduces new methods of bracing and compares the results of these with other successful bracing concepts. Materials and methods 56 adolescents with the diagnosis of thoracic Scheuermann's hyperkyphosis or a thoracic idiopathic hyperkyphosis (22 girls and 34 boys) with an average age of 14 years (12-17 yrs.) were treated with the kyphologic™ brace between May 2007 and December 2008. The average Stagnara angle was 55,6° (43-80). In-brace correction was recorded and compared to the initial angle using the t-test. Results The average Stagnara angle in the brace was 39°. The average in-brace correction was 16.5° (1-40°). The verage percentage of in-brace correction compared to the initial value was 36%. The differences were significant in the t-test (t = 5.31, p < 0,001). To make these results comparable to other studies, the kyphosis angle of 25° was set to 0 for our sample in order to achieve a norm value adapted (NVA) percentage of in-brace correction. By doing this a correction of 54.1% was achieved. There

  9. Investigation of the photochemistry of the poly{l_brace}p-phenylenevinylene{r_brace} precursor system: Implications for nanolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, D. V.; Fell, C. J.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2007-05-07

    The photochemistry of poly{l_brace}p-phenylene[1-(tetrahydrothiophen-1-io)ethylene chloride]{r_brace} (PPTEC), a water soluble precursor of the semiconducting polymer, poly{l_brace}p-phenylenevinylene{r_brace} (PPV), has been studied both under atmospheric conditions and in environments devoid of oxygen. UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence data has been used to provide a picture of the mechanistic pathways involved in UV irradiation of the PPTEC material. A new quantitative model for the effect of UV irradiation upon film morphology is presented, which leads to insights for the improved control of the characteristics of PPV nanostructures produced via near-field scanning optical lithography.

  10. Rigid-body translation and bonding across l brace 110 r brace antiphase boundaries in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, D.R.; McKernan, S.; Carter, C.B. )

    1991-05-20

    A transmission-electron-microscope strong-beam technique is used to investigate the rigid-body translation across {l brace}110{r brace} antiphase boundaries in GaAs. The results show a translation in the {l angle}001{r angle} direction parallel to the plane of the boundary. The magnitude of the translation is determined, and the antisite bond lengths are discussed in terms of the tetrahedral radii of Ga and As. Given this knowledge of the rigid-body translation, the absolute polarity of a GaAs grain can be determined immediately from a bright-field image of the {l brace}110{r brace} antiphase boundary.

  11. Nighttime Bracing Versus Observation for Early Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Suken A.; Price, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spinal bracing is widely utilized in patients with moderate severity adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with the goal of preventing curve progression and therefore preventing the need for surgical correction. Bracing is typically initiated in patients with a primary curve angle between 25 and 40 degrees, who are Risser sign 0 to 2 and <1-year postmenarchal. The purpose of this study is to determine whether nighttime bracing using a Charleston bending brace is effective in preventing progression of smaller curves (15 to 25 degrees) in skeletally immature, premenarchal female patients relative to current standard of care (observation for curves <25 degrees). Methods: Premenarchal, Risser 0 female patients presenting to 2 pediatric orthopaedic specialty practices for evaluation of idiopathic scoliosis with Cobb angle measurements between 15 and 25 degrees were selected. They were randomized by location to receive nighttime bending brace treatment or observation. Patients in the observation group were converted to fulltime TLSO wear if they progressed to >25 degrees primary curve Cobb angle. Curve progression was monitored with minimum 2-year follow-up. Results: Sixteen patients in the observation group and 21 patients in the bracing group completed 2-year follow-up. All patients in the observation group progressed to fulltime bracing threshold. In the nighttime bracing group, 29% of the patients did not progress to 25 degrees primary curve magnitude. Rate of progression to surgical magnitude was similar in the 2 groups. Conclusions: Risser 0 patients presenting with mild idiopathic scoliosis are at high risk for progression to >25 degrees primary curve magnitude. Treatment with the Charleston nighttime bending brace may reduce progression to full-time bracing threshold. No difference in progression to surgical intervention was shown between nighttime bracing and observation for small curves. Level of Evidence: Level II—therapeutic study (prospective

  12. Growth of ultrathin films of Fe on Au[l brace]001[r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, A.M.; Kim, S.K.; Quinn, J.; Jona, F. ); Over, H. ); Marcus, P.M. )

    1993-07-15

    The crystallographic aspects of the growth of ultrathin films of Fe on Au[l brace]001[r brace] are studied by means of quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The first monolayer of Fe is found to be pseudomorphic to the Au[l brace]001[r brace] substrate with an interlayer spacing of 1.825 A, and to be covered by a monolayer of Au at an interlayer distance of 1.85 A, which acts as a surfactant. Thicker films of Fe [up to 45 layer equivalents (LE)] may be pseudomorphic and hence slightly strained (the lattice misfit is 0.6%) or equilibrium bcc with surface relaxation (the present analysis cannot distinguish between the two possibilities), but contain defects and disordered steps. Gold atoms are found to be segregated in the surface region of 45-LE Fe films, but mostly in a disordered arrangement. A comparison between the results obtained with two different computer programs for the calculation of LEED intensities finds that differences of 0.025 A in the values of structural parameters may occur.

  13. Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail; Chord Joining Block & Spacer Block Detail; Cross Bracing Joint Detail; Chord Panel Post Diagonal & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail - Jackson Covered Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek, CR 775N (Changed from Spanning Sugar Creek), Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN

  14. 19. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING POINT OF CONNECTION OF SWAY BRACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING POINT OF CONNECTION OF SWAY BRACING TO UPSTREAM ARCH RIB AT SPRING POINT FROM SOUTH ABUTMENT, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. NOTE CRACK VISIBLE NEAR TOP OF SWAY BRACING AT LEFT CENTER, PROBABLY DUE TO RUST JACKING OF REINFORCING STEEL - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

  15. 7. View from oiler's platform showing diagonal top bracing rods, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View from oiler's platform showing diagonal top bracing rods, tension members of eye-bars, sway bracing, upper struts, bottom (roadway) chord, decorative railing, and drum girder below. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  16. I Have Braces: How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Shyness I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? KidsHealth > For Teens > I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? Print A A A I ... and veggies a day. But I can't eat apples and things like that. What do I ...

  17. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace's effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products.

  18. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  19. 8. Detail, skewed portal bracing at west portal, also showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail, skewed portal bracing at west portal, also showing boxed endposts, latticed upper transverse and diagonal sway bracing, laced vertical members, view to northeast, 210mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 301.85, Milepost 301.85, Pollard Flat, Shasta County, CA

  20. Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Tie Bar, & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Medora Bridge, Spanning East Fork of White River at State Route 235, Medora, Jackson County, IN

  1. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  2. Current state of unloading braces for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Steadman, J Richard; Briggs, Karen K; Pomeroy, Shannon M; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2016-01-01

    Unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis (OA) is often treated with the prescription of an unloading knee brace to decrease pain and stiffness. Braces have been shown to improve the quality of life by applying an external moment to offset increased compressive tibiofemoral contact loads, but evidence regarding mechanical efficacy at the joint is controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to review the current state of unloading braces on knee mechanics, clinical impact, and long-term disease progression. A literature search was performed through the PubMed MEDLINE database for the search terms "osteoarthritis," "knee," "brace," and derivatives of the keyword "unload." Articles published since January 1, 1980 were reviewed for their relevance. Evidence for the effectiveness of unloading braces for disease management both biomechanically and clinically was considered. While significant research has been done to show improvement in OA symptoms with the use of an unloading brace, current literature suggests a debate regarding the effectiveness of these braces for biomechanical change. Clinical findings reveal overall improvements in parameters such as pain, instability, and quality of life. Although clinical evidence supports brace use to improve pain and functional ability, current biomechanical evidence suggests that unloading of the affected knee compartment does not significantly hinder disease progression. III.

  3. Space Radar Image of Boston, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding Boston, Mass., shows how a spaceborne radar system distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. The bright white area at the right center of the image is downtown Boston. The wide river below and to the left of the city is the Charles River in Boston's Back Bay neighborhood. The dark green patch to the right of the Back Bay is Boston Common. A bridge across the north end of Back Bay connects the cities of Boston and Cambridge. The light green areas that dominate most of the image are the suburban communities surrounding Boston. The many ponds that dot the region appear as dark irregular spots. Many densely populated urban areas show up as red in the image due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. North is toward the upper left. The image was acquired on October 9, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This area is centered at 42.4 degrees north latitude, 71.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 37 km by 18 km (23 miles by 11 miles). Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a cooperative mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  4. Space Radar Image of Boston, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding Boston, Mass., shows how a spaceborne radar system distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. The bright white area at the right center of the image is downtown Boston. The wide river below and to the left of the city is the Charles River in Boston's Back Bay neighborhood. The dark green patch to the right of the Back Bay is Boston Common. A bridge across the north end of Back Bay connects the cities of Boston and Cambridge. The light green areas that dominate most of the image are the suburban communities surrounding Boston. The many ponds that dot the region appear as dark irregular spots. Many densely populated urban areas show up as red in the image due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. North is toward the upper left. The image was acquired on October 9, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This area is centered at 42.4 degrees north latitude, 71.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 37 km by 18 km (23 miles by 11 miles). Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a cooperative mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  5. Immobilizing performances, comfort, and user-friendliness of the shoulder abduction-external rotation braces.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Taku; Sano, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Itoi, Eiji

    2013-05-01

    Shoulder external rotation braces used for patients with a first-time shoulder dislocation are designed with a variety of arm positions in abduction as well as external rotation. However, few studies have focused on their immobilizing performance, comfort, or user-friendliness. Especially, there have been no robust data of shoulder abduction-external rotation (A-ER) braces in comparison to those of external rotation (ER) braces. Four types of commercially available shoulder braces (two ER and two A-ER braces) were tested in 30 healthy participants. The angles of external rotation and abduction were measured for each brace at initial application, after simulated daily activities, and after reapplication. Then, subjects were asked to assess the discomfort of bracing and difficulty of reapplication using a visual analogue scale. Data were compared between the two ER braces and two A-ER braces as well as among the four braces. For both external rotation angle and subjective assessment, there were no significant differences between the ER and A-ER braces. Among the four braces, the measurement of arm position demonstrated no significant differences, except the external rotation angles between the two ER braces. The A-ER braces were assessed to be significantly less comfortable than the ER braces in the subjective assessment. Immobilization using the A-ER braces could maintain the arm position in abduction-external rotation with comparable user-friendliness, although they tended to be less comfortable during daily activities compared to the ER braces.

  6. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Maha M; Ramadan, Hazem M; Abdel-Mooty, Mohammed N; Mourad, Sherif A

    2014-03-01

    Concrete filled tubes (CFTs) composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution.

  7. Behavior of concentrically loaded CFT braces connections

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Maha M.; Ramadan, Hazem M.; Abdel-Mooty, Mohammed N.; Mourad, Sherif A.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete filled tubes (CFTs) composite columns have many economical and esthetic advantages, but the behavior of their connections is complicated. Through this study, it is aimed to investigate the performance and behavior of different connection configurations between concrete filled steel tube columns and bracing diagonals through an experimental program. The study included 12 connection subassemblies consisting of a fixed length steel tube and gusset plate connected to the tube end with different details tested under half cyclic loading. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution. PMID:25685491

  8. A Survey of Parachute Ankle Brace Breakages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-10

    reduced since it was subject to abrasion from the concrete in the harness shed, asphalt on the loading ramp, and dirt on the drop zone. b. DJ...strap was also directly under the heel and subject to abrasion from concrete in the harness shed, asphalt on the loading ramp, and dirt on the drop...airborne injuries), airborne students who did not wear the brace were 1.90 times more likely to experience an ankle sprain, 1.47 times more likely to

  9. 20. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BOSTON, SHOWING RAILING, PEDESTRIAN STAIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BOSTON, SHOWING RAILING, PEDESTRIAN STAIR, AND '10 SMOOT' MARKER (see data pages) - Harvard Bridge, Spanning Charles River at Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Looking N up corridor from Chick Interlocking Tower. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 227.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Impact biomechanics of lateral knee bracing. The anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Paulos, L E; Cawley, P W; France, E P

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of six different prophylactic braces on ACL ligament strain under dynamic valgus loads using a mechanical surrogate limb validated against human cadaveric specimens. Medical collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament peak forces, medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament tension initiation times, and impact safety factors were calculated for both braced and unbraced conditions. These tests were conducted to determine whether or not application of a prophylactic brace might provide protection to the anterior cruciate ligament under valgus loading conditions. The results of this study indicate that those braces that increased impact duration appear to differentially protect the anterior cruciate ligament more than the medial collateral ligament, and that most of the braces tested appear to provide some degree of protection to the anterior cruciate ligament under direct lateral impacts. These findings should be confirmed clinically.

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of a novel dynamic posterior cruciate ligament brace.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Christian H; Schmoelz, Werner; Mayr, Raul; Keiler, Alexander; Schöttle, Philip B; Attal, René

    2016-03-01

    Use of a rigid brace or cast immobilization is recommended in conservative treatment or postoperative rehabilitation after a posterior cruciate ligament injury. To prevent the loss of knee joint function and muscle activity often associated with this, a flexible knee brace has been developed that allows an adjustable anteriorly directed force to be applied to the calf in order to prevent posterior tibial translation. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the impact of this novel dynamic brace on posterior tibial translation after posterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction. A Telos stress device was used to provoke posterior tibial translation in seven human lower limb specimens, and stress radiographs were taken at 90° of knee flexion. Posterior tibial translation was measured in the native knees with an intact posterior cruciate ligament; after arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament dissection with and without a brace; and after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with and without a brace. The force applied with the brace was measured using a pressure sensor. Posterior tibial translation was significantly reduced (P=0.032) after application of the brace with an anteriorly directed force of 50N to the knees with the dissected posterior cruciate ligament. The brace also significantly reduced posterior tibial translation after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in comparison with reconstructed knees without a brace (P=0.005). Posterior tibial translation was reduced to physiological values using this dynamic brace system that allows an anteriorly directed force to be applied to the calf. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Angular distribution of Rh atoms desorbed from ion-bombarded Rh l brace 100 r brace : Effect of local environment

    SciTech Connect

    Maboudian, R.; Postawa, Z.; El-Maazawi, M.; Garrison, B.J.; Winograd, N. )

    1990-10-15

    Energy-resolved angular distributions of Rh atoms desorbed by 5 keV Ar-ion bombardment of the Rh{l brace}100{r brace} surface are measured with use of a multiphoton resonance ionization technique. The results are shown to be in good agreement with molecular-dynamics simulations of the ion-impact event using the same interaction potential optimized previously to describe desorption from Rh{l brace}111{r brace}. In addition, by analyzing contour plots of the surface potential energy, the trend in the experimental results for Rh{l brace}100{r brace} and those previously published for Rh{l brace}111{r brace} are well explained. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the peak in the polar-angle distribution of neutral particles desorbed from ion-bombarded single crystals is mainly determined by the relative positions of surface atoms which influence the trajectory of an exiting particle via channeling and blocking. Moreover, the anisotropy of the momentum imparted to the surface atoms in the last collision leads to an enhancement of ejection along certain crystallographic directions.

  14. 78 FR 52783 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... National Park Service Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service... Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes discussion of 2016 celebration planning for the 300th Anniversary of Boston Light, 20th Anniversary of Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (NRA), and...

  15. Efficacy of an ankle brace with a subtalar locking system in inversion control in dynamic movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songning; Wortley, Michael; Chen, Qingjian; Freedman, Julia

    2009-12-01

    Controlled laboratory study. To examine effectiveness of an ankle brace with a subtalar locking system in restricting ankle inversion during passive and dynamic movements. Semirigid ankle braces are considered more effective in restricting ankle inversion than other types of brace, but a semirigid brace with a subtalar locking system may be even more effective. Nineteen healthy subjects with no history of major lower extremity injuries were included in the study. Participants performed 5 trials of an ankle inversion drop test and a lateral-cutting movement without wearing a brace and while wearing either the Element (with the subtalar locking system), a Functional ankle brace, or an ASO ankle brace. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess brace differences (P?.05). All 3 braces significantly reduced total passive ankle frontal plane range of motion (ROM), with the Element ankle brace being the most effective. For the inversion drop the results showed significant reductions in peak ankle inversion angle and inversion ROM for all 3 braces compared to the no brace condition; and the peak inversion velocity was also reduced for the Element brace and the Functional brace. In the lateral-cutting movement, a small but significant reduction of the peak inversion angle in early foot contact and the peak eversion velocity at push-off were seen when wearing the Element and the Functional ankle braces compared to the no brace condition. Peak vertical ground reaction force was reduced for the Element brace compared to the ASO brace and the no brace conditions. These results suggest that the tested ankle braces, especially the Element brace, provided effective restriction of ankle inversion during both passive and dynamic movements.

  16. Boston College: College and University Computing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The premise of using technology as a means for enhancing learning, research, and managerial decision making has guided Boston College's technological ventures and will continue to shape its strategies for the future. Information technology policy, direction and organization, user computing support, and library services are discussed. (MLW)

  17. Boston University: College and University Systems Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Two major Boston University computer installations--the Academic Computing Center and the office of University Information Systems--are described. Policies and priorities for information systems within the university are established by a committee and proposals for the development of new systems are approved through this committee. (MLW)

  18. Route 128: Boston's Road to Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Patricia A.; And Others

    This report reviews housing, land use, employment, and transportation practices in the Boston metropolitan area as they impinge upon the opportunities of minority group persons in the inner city. It focuses upon the newer suburbs, particularly those where housing and industrial parks have been developed since the construction of Route 128. The…

  19. Students in Boston's "Pilot" Schools Outpacing Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    This article reports how the 10 "pilot" schools conceived by the Boston district in 1994 are seeing more students through graduation than regular high schools in the area. Conceived a decade ago as the district's response to charter schools, pilot schools have won praise from educators, business leaders, and community groups for…

  20. The Other Boston Tea Party. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo; And Others

    A teachers' guide is presented that accompanies the video production of "The Other Boston Tea Party," a play used to teach about the U.S. Constitution and American legal and political systems. The play combines a comedy of manners with an historical approach to the issues surrounding the Federalist/Anti-Federalist debate over…

  1. Schools Chief Search off Schedule in Boston

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The closely watched search for a new superintendent in Boston has taken such a rocky turn that the search committee's revised timeline now envisions January as the starting time for the new schools chief. The district's search committee had planned to select a group of finalists who would then go through public interviews before the school…

  2. The Other Boston Tea Party. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo; And Others

    A teachers' guide is presented that accompanies the video production of "The Other Boston Tea Party," a play used to teach about the U.S. Constitution and American legal and political systems. The play combines a comedy of manners with an historical approach to the issues surrounding the Federalist/Anti-Federalist debate over…

  3. Boston Water & Sewer Commission (BWSC) | Stormwater ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    The Boston Water and Sewer Commission (BWSC) was issued National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit MAS010001, which became effective on October 29, 1999, authorizing stormwater and allowable non-stormwater discharges from its municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4).

  4. Boston's Lewenberg Middle School Delivers Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mark D.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a neglected Boston middle school transformed itself into an inviting, tree-lined campus with comfortable reading and study areas and an exemplary physical education program. Project Adventure is an intense six-week physical training course that teaches advanced rock-climbing skills. With classmates' encouragement, participants…

  5. Students in Boston's "Pilot" Schools Outpacing Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    This article reports how the 10 "pilot" schools conceived by the Boston district in 1994 are seeing more students through graduation than regular high schools in the area. Conceived a decade ago as the district's response to charter schools, pilot schools have won praise from educators, business leaders, and community groups for…

  6. The effect of functional knee brace design and hinge misalignment on lower limb joint mechanics.

    PubMed

    Singer, Jonathan C; Lamontagne, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Knee bracing has been shown to alter lower limb joint mechanics, which may protect the anterior cruciate ligament. The effect of brace alignment and brace type, however, remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether the use of a functional knee brace, the type of brace used or its alignment relative to the knee causes biomechanical alterations to gait. Ten healthy participants took part in two walking conditions (aligned brace and misaligned brace) for two different types of brace (sleeve brace with bilateral hinges and hinge-post-shell). A non-braced condition was included as a baseline measure. Three-dimensional kinematics and force platform data were used to calculate the joint intersegmental forces and net joint moments of the ankle, knee and hip. In comparison to non-braced walking, the shell brace in its aligned position significantly reduced the peak ankle plantarflexor moment. There was a decreased peak knee flexion angle with both the aligned shell and sleeve braces. The shell brace in its aligned position significantly increased peak knee adduction and reduced peak knee internal rotation. In this sample of healthy participants, functional knee bracing failed to alter lower limb mechanics in such a way that would reduce the force transmitted to the anterior cruciate ligament. In addition, although there were brace induced changes in lower limb kinematics with 2cm of distal hinge misalignment, it is unlikely that hinge misalignment of this magnitude is detrimental to an uninjured knee joint during walking.

  7. Biomechanical Analysis of the Effects of Bilateral Hinged Knee Bracing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hangil; Ha, Dokyeong; Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the effect of bilateral hinged knee braces on a healthy knee from a biomechanical frame in vivo. This was accomplished by fitting a knee brace with two customized wireless force/torque (F/T) sensors that could readily record force and torque during live motion, while the kinetics at the knee were computed using the inverse dynamics of the motion capture and force plate data. Four tasks to test the brace’s effects were drop vertical jumping, pivoting, stop vertical jumping, and cutting. The results showed that the hinges in the knee brace can absorb up to 18% of the force and 2.7% of the torque at the knee during various athletic motions. Thus, the hinges demonstrated minimal effect in reducing the mechanical load on the knee. There were limitations concerning the consistency of the motions performed by the subjects during the trials and the influence of the other portions of the brace to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the brace as a whole. Future works may incorporate a fatigue protocol and injured subjects to better determine the effects of the brace. There is still a need for more research on the biomechanical influence of knee braces to develop safer and more effective products. PMID:27379233

  8. The Chêneau concept of bracing--biomechanical aspects.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Manuel; Weiss, Hans-Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Current concept of bracing must take in consideration both the three-dimensional (3D) nature of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) and its pathomechanism of progression. A modern brace should be able to correct in 3D in order to break the so called 'vicious cycle' model. Generally speaking, it is necessary to create detorsional forces to derotate in the transversal plane, to correct the lateral deviation in the frontal plane and to normalize the sagittal profile of the spine. Breathing mechanics can be used to fight against the thoracic structural flat back. The original Chêneau brace was introduced at the end of the 70's and its principles were based more in anatomical observations rather than in biomechanics. A further evolution , enunciating new principles, has allowed a higher standard, improving in brace corrections and trunk modelling. This biomechanical principles have been developed under the name of Rigo-Chêneau-System (RSC) and used later in latest brace models like the Chêneau light with reduced material, and similar in brace corrections. Experience is also important to improve the end results. The blueprints to built the brace according to the anatomorradiological pattern are very helpful.

  9. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  10. Boston: An Urban Community. Images of Boston: Writers' Views of the City. Painting in Boston, 1670-1970. Law, Justice, and Equality: Case Studies from the Boston Experience. Shaping the Boston Landscape: Drumlins and Puddingstone. The Way We Really Live: Social Change in Metropolitan Boston, Since 1920. Annotated Reading Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Robert M.; And Others

    These five annotated reading guides conclude the series developed for courses at the Boston Public Library under the National Endowment for the Humanities Learning Library Program. Images of Boston offers 44 novels and other popular literature to show (1) how Boston is represented in creative writing, (2) how authors depict its physical experience…

  11. Study of the pressures applied by a Chêneau brace for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pham, V M; Houilliez, A; Schill, A; Carpentier, A; Herbaux, B; Thevenon, A

    2008-09-01

    We performed a study on 32 idiopathic scoliotic patients (30 females, 2 males) treated with a Chêneau brace. Eighteen patients had a single right thoracic curve and 14 had a single right thoracolumbar curve. We used the TekScan system (ClinSeat Type 5315 Sensor, TekScan, Boston MA, USA) to measure pressures at the skin-brace interface, assess the effect of strap tension and analyze the variation of these pressures with position and activity. The TekScan device enabled identification of the pressure areas corresponding to the brace's three loading points. The pressure under the main pad had a greater mean value than the pressure under the two counter-pads. Tightening the straps led to a significant increase in the pressures, whatever the position studied or the curve pattern. Compared with the standing (reference) position, we observed significantly higher pressures during maximal inspiration (p < 0.001) and lower pressures during maximal expiration, in the prone position and after having risen from a lying position, for both thoracic curves (p < 0.001) and thoracolumbar curves (p < 0.01). The pressures for thoracolumbar curves were lower than those for thoracic curves, whatever the position studied and both before and after strap adjustment. For lying positions, lying on the right side produced the greatest increase pressure. Even though the TekScan system does not provide direct information on the correction of spinal curvature, it appears to be a useful tool in the treatment of scoliotic patients. Strap adjustment clearly influences the applied pressures - particularly those on the rib cage. During activity, there is a natural tendency to decrease the pressure; this justifies efforts to maintain strap tensions in general and during day wear in particular.

  12. Objective roentgenologic measurements of the influence of ankle braces on pathologic joint mobility. A comparison of 9 braces.

    PubMed

    Vaes, P; Duquet, W; Handelberg, F; Casteleyn, P P; Van Tiggelen, R; Opdecam, P

    1998-06-01

    The stabilizing effect of external support (taping and nine different ankle braces) was tested in a total of 220 functionally unstable ankles. A standard surface EMG controlled stress Roentgen test protocol was used, measuring talar tilt (TT) without support and with tape bandage or brace. Different levels of TT restraining by external support could be identified. Tape bandage and two braces had a highly significant influence on the talar tilt. The mean TT without support was decreased by using from 13.4 degrees to 4.9 degrees, by using one brace to 4.8 degrees and by using another brace to 5.9 degrees. These two braces are effective for protection during functional treatment. A classification into three grades of effectiveness is proposed. It is concluded that the stabilizing influence offered by bandages and braces should be measured before using the external support as a treatment device for acute ankle sprain and as a reliable protection against sprain injuries in daily living and sports.

  13. Brace or no-brace after ACL graft? Four-year results of a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Hermann O; Stüeken, Paul; Münch, Ernst-Otto; Wolter, Morris; Bernstein, Anke; Suedkamp, Norbert P; Stoehr, Amelie

    2014-05-01

    A controversial discussion is held on using stabilizing knee braces after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. The current study investigated the influence of a stabilizing knee brace on results after ACL reconstruction using patellar tendon autografts. A prospective randomized study was started including 64 patients divided into two equal groups and treated with or without a stabilizing knee brace for 6 weeks post-operatively. A follow-up examination 4 years after operation comprised IKDC 2000, KT1000 measurement, a visual analogue pain scale (VAS; scores 0-10) and radiographic evaluation. The t test for independent and paired samples and the Pearson's Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). The primary endpoint was the difference in IKDC classification. Eighty-one per cent of the patients were examined 4 years post-operatively. IKDC 2000 subjective (brace group 90.5 ± 8.9, braceless group 93.2 ± 6.1) and objective results (brace A 30%, B 56%, C 16%; braceless A 32%, B 48%, C 20%) and instrumental measurement of anteroposterior laxity with KT1000 (brace 0.6 ± 2.4 mm, braceless 1.8 ± 3.4 mm) showed no significant differences. VAS pain results were significantly better in the braceless group at 1.0 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.4 under sports activity or heavy physical work (p = 0.015). There were no radiographic differences concerning osteoarthritic findings and tunnel widening between the groups. Post-operative treatment with a stabilizing knee brace after ACL replacement showed no advantage over treatment without a brace at 4-year follow-up. The use of a knee-stabilizing brace after isolated ACL reconstruction with autologous patellar tendon graft is not recommended. II.

  14. Results of ultrasound-assisted brace casting for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Edmond H; Hill, Doug L; Donauer, Andreas; Tilburn, Melissa; Hedden, Douglas; Moreau, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Four factors have been reported to affect brace treatment outcome: (1) growth or curve based risk, (2) the in-brace correction, (3) the brace wear quantity, and (4) the brace wear quality. The quality of brace design affects the in-brace correction and comfort which indirectly affects the brace wear quantity and quality. This paper reported the immediate benefits and results on using ultrasound (US) to aid orthotists to design braces for the treatment of scoliosis. Thirty-four AIS subjects participated in this study with 17 (2 males, 15 females) in the control group and 17 (2 males, 15 females) in the intervention (US) group. All participants were prescribed full time TLSO, constructed by either of the 2 orthotists in fabrication of spinal braces. For the control group, the Providence brace design system was adopted to design full time braces. For the intervention group, the custom standing Providence brace design system, plus a medical ultrasound system, a custom pressure measurement system and an in-house software were used to assist brace casting. In the control group, 8 of 17 (47%) subjects needed a total of 11 brace adjustments after initial fabrication requiring a total of 28 in-brace radiographs. Three subjects (18%) required a second adjustment. For the US group, only 1 subject (6%) required adjustment. The total number of in-brace radiographs was 18. The p value of the chi-square for requiring brace adjustment was 0.006 which was a statistically significant difference between the two groups. In the intervention group, the immediate in-brace correction as measured from radiographs was 48 ± 17%, and in the control group the first and second in-brace correction was 33 ± 19% and 40 ± 20%, respectively. The unpaired 2 sided Student's t test of the in-brace correction was significantly different between the US and the first follow-up of the control group (p = 0.02), but was not significant after the second brace adjustment (p = 0.22). The

  15. 2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BOLTED KNEE BRACES ON AFRAME OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING BOLTED KNEE BRACES ON A-FRAME OF WALKING BEAM ENGINE. Photocopy of photograph. Susan Kardas, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  16. DETAIL OF FRONT ENTRY. SHOWING KNEE BRACES AND DECORATIVE CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF FRONT ENTRY. SHOWING KNEE BRACES AND DECORATIVE CUT RAFTERS. PILASTERS, AND LAVA ROCK CHEEK CHEEK WALLS. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Y, 27 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. DETAIL OF FRONT ENTRY. SHOWING THE KNEE BRACES AND DECORATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF FRONT ENTRY. SHOWING THE KNEE BRACES AND DECORATIVE CUT RAFTER TAILS. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 8. Detail of interior roof showing truss bracing and roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of interior roof showing truss bracing and roof plank decking; view to east from approximately the center of the shelter. - Warm River Shelter, Warm River Campground, Ashton, Fremont County, ID

  19. 20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. WEB / DECK / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSSES. VIEW TO WEST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  20. Nail changes in casted and braced clubfoot: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Kumar, Anubrat; Khanna, Deepshikha; Shaharyar, Abbas; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed at finding whether there are any nail changes specific to treatment in clubfoot. Sixty new, 26 undergoing serial corrective casting, and 247 clubfoot patients using foot abduction braces were prospectively studied. The casted and braced group formed the basis of the study to observe nail changes, if any. The new patients and opposite normal foot (in unilateral casted cases) were taken as controls. Acute paronychia, ingrown toe nail, onychoshizia, onychorrhexis, nail plate concavity, latent onychomadesis, and distal onycholysis were observed in feet undergoing corrective casting and bracing. Micronychia, malalignment and thinning of nail plate were the observed congenital nail anomalies. Nail changes in clubfeet are not infrequent. Certain nail changes might be etiologically linked to casting and bracing. Some of nail changes might require urgent medical care. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 13. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, TOP CHORD, SWAY BRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, TOP CHORD, SWAY BRACING, TOP STRUTS, CENTER OF SOUTH TRUSS - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  2. 12. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ENDPOST, PORTAL BRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ENDPOST, PORTAL BRACING, TOP CHORD, SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SOUTH TRUSS (RIVETED CONNECTION) - Marathon City Bridge, Spanning Big Rib River, on state Trunk Highway 107, Marathon, Marathon County, WI

  3. 22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Top Lateral Bracing & Top Chord, Vertical Tension Member 6, end Vertical Compression Members 5 & 4; South Swing Span; looking N. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  4. 11. View from the east of bent #10 with bracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View from the east of bent #10 with bracing of underside of deck and track of metro north railroad - Bridge No. 00761, Spanning Housatonic River at State Route No. 15, Milford, New Haven County, CT

  5. 16. Photocopy of blueprint. VIEW SHOWING ELEVATON AND LATERAL BRACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of blueprint. VIEW SHOWING ELEVATON AND LATERAL BRACING (Original blueprint in the possession of Franklin Consultants, Inc., Columbus, Ohio) - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River at Main Street, Painesville, Lake County, OH

  6. 28. DETAIL OF DOUBLE DOORS SHOWING CROSS BRACING AND DIAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. DETAIL OF DOUBLE DOORS SHOWING CROSS BRACING AND DIAGONAL TONGUE AND GROOVE SHEATHING; NOTE PILOT DOOR AT LOWER RIGHTHAND CORNER - Fort Lewis, Locomotive Shelter, South side of South Drive, DuPont, Pierce County, WA

  7. Detail, southwest arch rib, hangers, and portion of portal braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, southwest arch rib, hangers, and portion of portal braces, from southeast, showing simple ornamentation, including molded treatment of concrete and recessed panels - Horner Street Bridge, Horner Street over Stonycreek River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  8. 14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING WITH STRINGERS AND FLOOR BEAMS, NORTHWEST SPAN, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Linden Avenue Bridge, Spanning Purgatoire River on Linden Avenue, Trinidad, Las Animas County, CO

  9. 13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HULL BRACING IN FORWARD PORT SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HULL BRACING IN FORWARD PORT SIDE OF HULL, APPARENTLY ADDED TO PREVENT HOGGING. - Schooner Yacht Coronet, International Yacht Restoration School, Thames Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  11. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF LATERAL BRACING POST, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF LATERAL BRACING POST, LOOKING WEST - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  12. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF OUTRIGGER USED FOR LATERAL BRACING, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF OUTRIGGER USED FOR LATERAL BRACING, LOOKING SOUTH - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  13. 8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING FOR TRUSSES AND BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTIONS. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  14. Detail of brace assembly connections (two Ls made into cruciform ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of brace assembly connections (two Ls made into cruciform member), looking at southeast tower leg. Note electrical ground wires. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. Detail of brace connection nut and stamped locknut, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of brace connection nut and stamped locknut, looking at southwest tower leg. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. 29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ARM OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  17. 16. Detail of various connections including sway brace with top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of various connections including sway brace with top chord, and verticals. Looking at north side between sixth and seventh panels, east span. - Tipp-Elizabeth Road Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River, Tipp City, Miami County, OH

  18. 115. DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT: TYPICAL CROSSSECTION, LONGITUDINAL BRACE OF CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT: TYPICAL CROSS-SECTION, LONGITUDINAL BRACE OF CENTER PILES, OUTSIDE LONGITUDINAL GIRDER Sheet 6 of 9 (#3257) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 14. DETAIL OF ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS BRACED AGAINST HEXAGONAL WOODEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF ROOF SUPPORT BEAMS BRACED AGAINST HEXAGONAL WOODEN COMPRESSION RING AT TOP OF CENTRAL ROOF TRUSS. - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, NY

  20. 8. PIER, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACE, LATERAL GUSSET PLATE, FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PIER, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACE, LATERAL GUSSET PLATE, FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER - CAMELBACK TRUSS - Parker Bridge, Spanning Verdigris River 1.5 miles Southeast of Coffeyville, Coffeyville, Montgomery County, KS

  1. 7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ENCLOSED PORCH SCREENED WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  2. Boston, MA and New England Coastline

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-381 (22 June 1973) --- Boston, MA and the New England Coastline (43.5N, 84.0W) can be seen in this view. The typical rugged rocky coast of Maine is the result of heavy glacial action producing the rocky cliffs, jagged spurs of land and islands that characterize Main's Atlantic Coast. During the last Ice Age, extensive sediments were laid down producing a landscape of rolling hills with rocky outcrops. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to thiourea in a neoprene knee brace.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Cahill, Jennifer; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY An elderly woman developed an itchy, weeping, erythematous, papular eruption, confined to the skin under her neoprene knee brace. Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea and to her neoprene knee brace were diagnosed by positive patch test reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis from thioureas may be underdiagnosed, as they are not tested as part of the standard patch test series. Clinicians are encouraged to consider this diagnosis in patients with reactions to synthetic rubber, especially neoprene.

  4. Change of bone mineral density with valgus knee bracing.

    PubMed

    Katsuragawa, Y; Fukui, N; Nakamura, K

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the clinical knee score and bone mineral density of the proximal tibia in an attempt to evaluate the efficacy of valgus knee bracing. The knee score improved after 3 months, and increases in bone mineral density were seen more in the lateral tibial condyle than in the medial. These results suggest that the brace acts by transferring the forces across the knee joint from the medial to the lateral side.

  5. Assessment of Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients' Satisfaction with Thoracolumbar Brace Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Michał; Mnich, Krystian; Karpiński, Michał; Domański, Krzysztof; Milewski, Robert; Popko, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Bracing is the most efficient non-surgical method of treatment for idiopathic scoliosis patients with 25-45° curvature according to Cobb. The aim of the present study was to assess compliance of idiopathic scoliosis patients with medical instructions concerning the time patients should spend wearing orthopedic braces, patients' self-perceived health status and problems occurring in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 51 patients aged between 9 to 18 years (84% females) treated for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with a thoracolumbar brace were asked to complete a survey titled ''The profile of quality of life with spine deformity". Survey data were subjected to statistical analysis. Mean brace-wearing compliance among the patients was about 70% of the required time of 23 h/day. The vast majority of patients - 48 (94%) -were satisfied with the treatment method and the results. Pain of about 4 pts (VAS scale) was reported by 18 patients. Excoriations occurred in 70% of the patients. We did not find a significant correlation between the time of brace-wearing per day vs. pain (p=0.18) and excoriations (p=0.36). 1. Increasing the number of brace-wearing hours per day does not interfere with the socioeconomic relations and does not affect the child's sleep quality. 2. High awareness of the faulty posture is an important factor improving patients' assessment of the progress and methods of treatment. 3. The number of brace-wearing hours per day does not correlate with pain and epidermal injury; appropriate fitting of the brace to a given patient is of key importance here.

  6. Evaluating the displacement amplification factors of concentrically braced steel frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, Mussa; Zaree, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    According to seismic design codes, nonlinear performance of structures is considered during strong earthquakes. Seismic design provisions estimate the maximum roof and story drifts occurring during major earthquakes by amplifying the drifts computed from elastic analysis at the prescribed seismic force level with a displacement amplification factor. The present study tries to evaluate the displacement amplification factors of conventional concentric braced frames (CBFs) and buckling restrained braced frames (BRBFs). As such, static nonlinear (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic time history analysis have been performed on the model buildings with single and double bracing bays, and different stories and brace configurations (chevron V, invert V, and X bracing). It is observed that the displacement amplification factors for BRBFs are higher than that of CBFs. Also, the number of bracing bays and height of buildings have a profound effect on the displacement amplification factors. The evaluated ratios between displacement amplification factors and response modification factors are from 1 to 1.12 for CBFs and from 1 to 1.4 for BRBFs.

  7. Nature of slip during Knoop indentation on {l_brace}100{r_brace} surface of NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Gomez, A.; Hicks, T.G.

    1996-01-15

    The intermetallic NiAl, because of its excellent thermal conductivity, high temperature oxidation resistance, and low density, is a candidate material for high temperature application in jet engines. Stoichiometric NiAl single crystal is a semibrittle material, in which plasticity always precedes fracture. Contrary to tensile testing, during hardness indentation on a {l_brace}100{r_brace}<001> slip systems may not be zero everywhere. For a given indentation plane, the variation in hardness with indentation direction has been shown to reflect the anisotropy in slip and the nature of dislocation interactions. One method to study slip is by analysis of slip lines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of slip and the anisotropy of plastic deformation during Knoop microhardness indentation of a {l_brace}100{r_brace} face in NiAl single crystals using slip trace analysis.

  8. ORTHODONTIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE PATIENT WEARING A MILWAUKEE BRACE

    PubMed Central

    Olin, William; Ponseti, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    The Milwaukee Brace was developed by Dr Walter Blount of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the mid 1940's as a removable postoperative immobilization device for the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis patients. This was quickly adopted as a nonoperative treatment device for idiopathic scoliosis. The first report of its use for this purpose came in 1958 (JBJS 40A:511-525, 1958). The principle of the brace (cervicothoracic-lumbosacral orthosis, CTLSO) was to apply longitudinal correction between the pelvic girdle ( originally made of leather and later thermoplastics) and the neck ring and lateral corrective forces applied to the curve apex via pads attached to a metal superstructure that connected the pelvic girdle to the neck ring. The brace was constructed to flatten the lumbar lordosis and in theory increase the effectiveness of the appropriately place pads. Correction was thought to occur by passive pad pressure on the apex (in the thoracic spine via pressure on the apical ribs) of the curves and actively by the muscles pulling away from the pads. The orthotic was used 23 hours a day and often combined with an exercise program. The main problem with the brace was adherence to treatment. Gradually the Milwaukee brace gave way to underarm braces (TLSO's) which were thought to have better patient acceptance. The question of brace efficacy is currently being addressed by the University of Iowa Department of Orthopaedic Surgery led NIH Trial (Braist http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00448448Pterm=braist&rank=1). The initial design of the Milwaukee brace used a mandibular occipital ring. In the 1960's and early 1970's Dr Ignacio Ponseti (Professor Emeritus of Orthopaedics at the University of Iowa) and Dr William Olin (Professor Emeritus of Orthodontics at the University of Iowa) studied the adverse oral and mandibular consequences of the Milwaukee Brace in scoliosis patients at the University of Iowa. This study was never published but provided critical information

  9. Variable criteria for patellofemoral bracing among sports medicine professionals.

    PubMed

    Solinsky, Ryan; Beaupre, Gary S; Fredericson, Michael

    2014-06-01

    To examine whether the frequency of bracing, geographic region, clinical specialty, or percentage of practice devoted to knee pain influences the criteria used by sports medicine professionals to determine whether a brace should be prescribed for treating patients with nontraumatic patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cross-sectional study. Sports medicine practices in the United States. A total of 1307 athletic trainers, physical therapists, and sports medicine physicians recruited from the e-mail listings of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, the American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine, the American Physical Therapy Association Sports Physical Therapy Section, the International Patellofemoral Study Group, the International Patellofemoral Retreat list, and National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 athletic team registries. Not applicable. Thirty-seven potential patellofemoral bracing criteria encompassing history and function, alignment, physical examination, previous treatments, and radiographic evidence. A total of 1307 of 7999 providers replied (response rate, 16.3%). Mean bracing frequencies were 19.8% for athletic trainers, 13.4% for physical therapists, and 25.1% for physicians. The mean number of total bracing criteria used was 10.5. The 10 most commonly cited criteria for prescribing a patellofemoral brace in descending order of frequency were: (1) hypermobile patella on physical examination; (2) positive J sign on physical examination; (3) failure of previous rehabilitation; (4) pain when performing squats or going up/down stairs on history; (5) success with previous taping; (6) pain with running activities on history; (7) pain with jumping activities on history; (8) increased dynamic Q angle; (9) vastus medialis oblique deficiency in timing or strength; and (10) positive apprehension sign on physical examination. No statistically significant trends were noted with regard to experience or percentage of practice devoted to knee

  10. FUNCTIONAL TESTING TO DETERMINE READINESS TO DISCONTINUE BRACE USE, ONE YEAR AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Hunter‐Giordano, Airelle; Axe, Michael J.; Snyder‐Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background: While the use of functional knee braces for return to sports or high level physical activity after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is controversial, brace use is still prevalent.1,2,3,4,5 All active patients in the practice are braced after ACLR and must pass a battery of sports tests before they return to play in their brace. Criteria include a 90% score on 4 one‐legged hop tests9 burst superimposition strength test,10 Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale,8 and a global rating of knee function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the use of criterion‐based guidelines to determine if athletes who had undergone an ACLR function better with or without their functional brace, one year after surgery. Study Design: Cross‐Sectional Study Methods: Sixty‐four patients post ACLR performed 4 one‐legged hop tests,9 burst superimposition strength test,10 and completed the Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale,8 and a global rating of knee function one year after surgery with and without their brace. Results: Participants included 35 men and 29 women with a mean age of 25 years. The Mean Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living score was 98%, and the global rating was 97%. Of the subjects, one patient failed hop testing by at least one criterion with and without the brace. Three additional patients failed the test while braced but passed un‐braced, and one patient passed with the brace, but failed without the brace. Subjects performed significantly better un‐braced than braced in all hop tests: single leg hop braced = 101%; un‐braced = 107% (p<0.001); cross‐over hop braced = 100%; un‐braced = 105% (p<0.001); triple hop braced = 99%; un‐braced = 101% (p=0.003); timed hop braced = 98%; un‐braced = 103% (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Sixty‐two of 64 patients continued to score above return to play criteria one year after ACLR. All but two subjects in the cohort performed better un‐braced than braced

  11. Prevalence of early childhood caries among very young urban Boston children compared with US children.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Martha E; Dietrich, Thomas; Singh, Harpreet K; Henshaw, Michelle M; Kressin, Nancy R

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in 1- to 3-year-old children seeing primary-care pediatricians at two urban medical centers in Boston to the prevalence of ECC in similarly aged US children surveyed as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and to assess risk factors for ECC among this cohort of children compared with risk factors among similarly aged US children. Characteristics of 787 1- to 3-year-old children from two urban Boston medical centers were compared with those of 3,644 similarly aged US children surveyed as part of NHANES III. Demographic and social characteristics and ECC prevalence by putative risk factors were compared. A multiple logistic regression model was fit to assess putative risk factors and difference between groups simultaneously. Race, age, previous dental visit, parents' education, and household income were significantly associated with ECC prevalence. Parents' place of birth was a significant effect modifier with lower ECC among Boston children of immigrants than among US children of immigrants. Lower ECC prevalence among urban Boston children of immigrant parents compared with US children of immigrant parents may reflect changing immigrant composition in the United States since NHANES III or a different immigrant composition in the Boston area compared with the United States. This finding reinforces the need for further research of immigrants in order to understand cultural practices that may affect oral health. Finally, low ECC prevalence among very young children reinforces the importance of early intervention in reducing ECC.

  12. The Internal Brace for Midsubstance Achilles Ruptures.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, James R; Mackay, Gordon

    2016-07-01

    The efficient and effective function of the Achilles tendon is essential for normal gait and sporting performance. The optimal technique for the operative repair of the Achilles midsubstance rupture remains controversial. Suboptimal outcomes are common even after successful Achilles repair. Factors contributing to poor outcomes include a tenuous soft tissue envelope (leading to wound complications, peritendinous adhesions, and poor tendon healing,) as well as failure to maintain appropriate musculotendinous length, even after successful repair.We present a new technique using the InternalBrace (IB) and a modification of the Percutaneous Achilles Repair System (PARS; Arthrex Inc, Naples, FL), the Achilles Mid-Substance Speed Bridge Repair. This IB approach is knotless, respects the soft tissue envelope, and allows the appropriate musculotendinous length to be set intraoperatively. The IB principle enables direct fixation to bone allowing early mobilization while minimizing the risk of knot slippage, accelerating recovery, and allowing for restoration of normal function. Level V, expert opinion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Seismic response of eccentrically braced tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Spectral analysis and system identification techniques are used to analyze a set of acceleration reponse records obtained during the Loma Prieta earthquake from the 47-story, moment-resisting framed and eccentrically braced Embarcadero Building (EMB). The EMB was constructed in 1979 based on the 1976 Uniform Building Code requirements and a design response spectra defined by two levels of earthquake performances. The EMB is in the lower market area of San Francisco, which is of great interest to the engineering community because of the area's soft soil characteristics that amplify ground motions originating at long distances, and because the Embarcadero freeway suffered extensive damage during the earthquake and was razed in 1991. The first modal frequencies of the building at approximately 0.19 Hz (north-south) and 0.16 Hz (east-west) are identified. The torsional response and rocking motions of the building are insignificant. Discontinuity of stiffness and mass at the 40th floor level causes significant response issues above that floor such as excessive drift ratios.

  14. Quadriceps Function After Exercise in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament–Reconstructed Knees Wearing Knee Braces

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Alexis G.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Pugh, Kelli; Hart, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Knee braces and neoprene sleeves are commonly worn by people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs) during athletic activity. How knee braces and sleeves affect muscle activation in people with ACLRs is unclear. Purpose: To determine the effects of knee braces and neoprene knee sleeves on the quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) before and after aerobic exercise in people with ACLRs. Design: Crossover study. Patients or Other Participants: Fourteen people with a history of ACLR (9 women, 5 men: age = 23.61 ± 4.44 years, height = 174.09 ± 9.82 cm, mass = 75.35 ± 17.48 kg, months since ACLR = 40.62 ± 20.41). Intervention(s): During each of 3 sessions, participants performed a standardized aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill. The independent variables were condition (brace, sleeve, or control) and time (baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, postexercise without brace). Main Outcome Measure(s): Normalized torque measured during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (TMVIC) and CAR were measured by a blinded assessor using the superimposed burst technique. The CAR was expressed as a percentage of full muscle activation. The quadriceps CAR and TMVIC were measured 4 times during each session: baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, and postexercise without brace. Results: Immediately after the application of the knee brace, TMVIC decreased (P = .01), but no differences between bracing conditions were observed. We noted reduced TMVIC and CAR (P < .001) after exercise, both with and without the brace. No differences were seen between bracing conditions after aerobic exercise. Conclusions: The decrease in TMVIC immediately after brace application was not accompanied by differences between bracing conditions. Wearing a knee brace or neoprene sleeve did not seem to affect the deterioration of quadriceps function after aerobic exercise. PMID:22488186

  15. Quadriceps function after exercise in patients with anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knees wearing knee braces.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alexis G; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Pugh, Kelli; Hart, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    Knee braces and neoprene sleeves are commonly worn by people with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs) during athletic activity. How knee braces and sleeves affect muscle activation in people with ACLRs is unclear. To determine the effects of knee braces and neoprene knee sleeves on the quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) before and after aerobic exercise in people with ACLRs. Crossover study. Fourteen people with a history of ACLR (9 women, 5 men: age = 23.61 ± 4.44 years, height = 174.09 ± 9.82 cm, mass = 75.35 ± 17.48 kg, months since ACLR = 40.62 ± 20.41). During each of 3 sessions, participants performed a standardized aerobic exercise protocol on a treadmill. The independent variables were condition (brace, sleeve, or control) and time (baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, postexercise without brace). Normalized torque measured during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (T(MVIC)) and CAR were measured by a blinded assessor using the superimposed burst technique. The CAR was expressed as a percentage of full muscle activation. The quadriceps CAR and T(MVIC) were measured 4 times during each session: baseline, pre-exercise with brace, postexercise with brace, and postexercise without brace. Immediately after the application of the knee brace, T(MVIC) decreased (P = .01), but no differences between bracing conditions were observed. We noted reduced T(MVIC) and CAR (P < .001) after exercise, both with and without the brace. No differences were seen between bracing conditions after aerobic exercise. The decrease in T(MVIC) immediately after brace application was not accompanied by differences between bracing conditions. Wearing a knee brace or neoprene sleeve did not seem to affect the deterioration of quadriceps function after aerobic exercise.

  16. Immobilizing performances, comfort, and user-friendliness of the shoulder abduction-external rotation braces

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Taku; Sano, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background Shoulder external rotation braces used for patients with a first-time shoulder dislocation are designed with a variety of arm positions in abduction as well as external rotation. However, few studies have focused on their immobilizing performance, comfort, or user-friendliness. Especially, there have been no robust data of shoulder abduction-external rotation (A-ER) braces in comparison to those of external rotation (ER) braces. Methods Four types of commercially available shoulder braces (two ER and two A-ER braces) were tested in 30 healthy participants. The angles of external rotation and abduction were measured for each brace at initial application, after simulated daily activities, and after reapplication. Then, subjects were asked to assess the discomfort of bracing and difficulty of reapplication using a visual analogue scale. Data were compared between the two ER braces and two A-ER braces as well as among the four braces. Results For both external rotation angle and subjective assessment, there were no significant differences between the ER and A-ER braces. Among the four braces, the measurement of arm position demonstrated no significant differences, except the external rotation angles between the two ER braces. The A-ER braces were assessed to be significantly less comfortable than the ER braces in the subjective assessment. Conclusions Immobilization using the A-ER braces could maintain the arm position in abduction-external rotation with comparable user-friendliness, although they tended to be less comfortable during daily activities compared to the ER braces. PMID:23153370

  17. 78 FR 6782 - Safety Zone-Chelsea River, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... existing regulation. Any proposed amendments should reflect the recent changes to the Chelsea Street Bridge..., from 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. B. Background The original Chelsea Street Bridge was a bascule-type bridge owned by the City of Boston and constructed in 1939. It spanned the Chelsea River providing...

  18. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water runoff into the

  19. Williams runs the Boston Marathon from orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-16

    ISS014-E-19450 (16 April 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 14 flight engineer, circled Earth almost three times as she participated in the Boston Marathon from space. She is seen here with her feet off the station treadmill on which she ultimately ran about six miles per hour while flying more than five miles each second. The treadmill is called TVIS, for Treadmill Vibration Isolation System, by the crewmembers and their ground support team. Williams' official completion time was four hours, 23 minutes and 10 seconds as she completed the race at 2:24 p.m. (EDT).

  20. Williams runs the Boston Marathon from orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-16

    ISS014-E-19466 (16 April 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 14 flight engineer, circled Earth almost three times as she participated in the Boston Marathon from space. She is seen here with her feet off the station treadmill on which she ultimately ran about six miles per hour while flying more than five miles each second. The treadmill is called TVIS, for Treadmill Vibration Isolation System, by the crewmembers and their ground support team. Williams' official completion time was four hours, 23 minutes and 10 seconds as she completed the race at 2:24 p.m. (EDT).

  1. Abduction bracing for residual acetabular dysplasia in infantile DDH.

    PubMed

    Gans, Itai; Flynn, John M; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2013-01-01

    Abduction bracing is often used to treat residual acetabular dysplasia in infants whose acetabular indices (AI) exceed 30 degrees after 6 months of age. However, little data exist to support this practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of part-time abduction bracing in treating residual acetabular dysplasia by comparing a cohort of braced infants with a cohort of unbraced infants. We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) treated at our institution over 4 years. Children with stable, treated DDH but residual acetabular dysplasia at 6 months of age were identified; those with available anteroposterior pelvic radiographs at 6 months and 1 year of age were included. Patients who required open surgical reduction and those with syndromic or neuromuscular diagnoses were excluded. On the basis of practice variations at our institution, some orthopaedists start bracing when the 6-month radiograph demonstrates an AI≥30 degrees, whereas others do not; we compared these 2 cohorts. Braced patients were instructed to wear an abduction orthosis during nights and naps until follow-up at 1 year of age. The AI at 6 months and 1 year of age for both cohorts were then measured by a single observer and the differences compared. Seventy-six hips in 52 patients were identified with residual dysplasia on the 6-month radiograph. Thirty-nine hips (27 patients) were unbraced, 31 hips (21 patients) were braced, and 6 hips (4 patients) were excluded for cross-over. Over a 6-month period, the braced cohort had significantly better improvement in the AI of 5.3 degrees (95% confidence interval, 4.3 to 6.3 degrees) compared to the unbraced cohort which had an improvement in the AI of only 1.1 degrees (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 1.6 degrees) (P<0.001). In this comparative analysis of infants with residual acetabular dysplasia treated with abduction bracing or observation, part-time bracing

  2. Effect of a Realigning Brace on Tibiofemoral Contact Stress.

    PubMed

    Segal, Neil A; Stockman, Tyler J; Findlay, Christian M; Kern, Andrew M; Ohashi, Kenjirou; Anderson, Donald D

    2015-08-01

    To determine the degree to which focally elevated tibiofemoral joint contact stress is reduced by using a frontal plane realigning brace. Fifteen volunteers (9 women) with unicompartmental tibiofemoral osteoarthritis underwent weight-bearing radiographic imaging at 15-20° and 5-10° of knee flexion with and without an UnloaderOne knee brace. Discrete element analysis was used to estimate compartment-specific contact stress distributions. Paired t-tests were used to assess the differences in mean contact stress and contact stress distributions, comparing the braced and unbraced conditions. The mean ± SD age was 56.1 ± 6.4 years and body mass index was 28.4 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). Twelve of 15 participants were fit with braces set to unload the medial compartment. For the 15-20° condition, the mean contact stress in the compartment of interest did not significantly change (0.08 ± 0.35 MPa; P = 0.410). Also at 5-10° flexion, the mean contact stress in the compartment of interest did not significantly change with use of the brace (0.24 ± 0.45 MPa; P = 0.175). This is the first study of the effects of a frontal plane realignment brace on in vivo articular contact stress in native human knees. Using the off-the-shelf brace tested, there were no changes in compartmental tibiofemoral contact stress distributions at either 15-20° or 5-10° of knee flexion, revealing no redistribution of contact stress away from the compartment of interest. These findings indicate that the brace that was studied was ineffective for redistributing tibiofemoral contact stress. Further research is necessary to determine whether double-upright or customized frontal plane braces are effective in redistributing compartmental articular contact stress. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Orthotic treatment of idiopathic hyperkyphosis with Milwaukee brace.

    PubMed

    Mehdikhani, Mahboobeh; Behtash, Hamid; Ganjavian, Mohammad S; Khalaj, Nafiseh

    2016-08-10

    Hyperkyphosis with unknown reason is common in teenagers and can be corrected by orthotic management. Investigation of orthotic outcomes by Milwaukee brace. Sixty-one patients with idiopathic hyperkyphosis (> 45 degrees) were given Milwaukee brace before skeletal maturity. Hyperkyphosis was measured during the first visit without brace, in-brace, at the end of full-time and part time duration of treatment. After treatment completion, participants were categorized in two groups: with hyperkyphosis of 45 degrees and less (Group I) and more than 45 degrees (Group II). These groups were compared to interpret the treatment outcomes. The mean kyphotic curve was 60.1 (SD ± 7.7) and 71 (SD = 10.1) degrees in Group I and II, respectively. The mean kyphotic curve at the time of full time and part time duration of treatment showed no significant difference in patients successfully completed the treatment (P = 0.10) while there was a significant difference between mean kyphotic curve in full time and part time treatment duration for patients with hyperkyphosis of more than 45 degrees (P < 0.05). Hyperkyphosis of less than 70 degrees can be treated if the in-brace correction is saved in part-time duration.

  4. A biomechanical analysis of two functional knee braces.

    PubMed

    Knutzen, K M; Bates, B T; Schot, P; Hamill, J

    1987-06-01

    The influence of knee bracing was evaluated during the activity of running by examining ground reaction forces and knee joint movement parameters assessed electrogoniometrically. Twenty-one subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 groups based on medical records provided by a physician: normal or non-injury group; anterior cruciate ligament lesion/laxity group; and anterior cruciate ligament repair group. Four test conditions were investigated: healthy or control limb; injured or experimental limb; Generation II knee brace; and Marquette Knee Stabilizer knee brace. Ten running trials were performed for each condition at a photoelectrically controlled running pace (3.33 +/- 0.11 m X s-1). There were no significant differences as a result of group membership for both electrogoniometer and force platform analyses (P less than 0.05). There was a significant difference across the four test conditions. Both knee brace applications were shown to significantly reduce knee flexion during swing and support, total rotation, and total varus/valgus movement parameters of the experimental knee joint. Both brace applications were also shown to alter the experimental limb by increasing the relative time to the achievement of the initial collision force, creating a greater collision force and thereby creating larger impulses in both the vertical and foreaft directions during the initial contact phase.

  5. Mechanical compression release device in steel bracing system for retrofitting RC frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffarzadeh, H.; Maheri, M. R.

    2006-06-01

    The development of an innovative structural system with satisfactory seismic performance of braced systems is an important and challenging area of interest in structural engineering. In this paper, a device that can release the compressive force in the bracing members is developed, and its performance is evaluated. For comparison, four steel braced RC frames were constructed and tested under reverse cyclic loads. Two of them had different amounts of bracing and the other two had the same amount of bracing but incorporated different type of device, called compression release device, which is developed and described in this paper. It can be concluded from the test results that the newly developed device can effectively be used in steel braced systems to prevent buckling failure of the bracing members. Therefore, the device enhances the ductility of brace-framed systems by allowing an adequate capacity for energy dissipation.

  6. Team physician #7. A comparative study of functional bracing in the anterior cruciate deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Rink, P C; Scott, R A; Lupo, R L; Guest, S J

    1989-06-01

    We evaluated the ability of three functional knee braces, (CTI, OTI, and TS7) to control anterolateral rotary instability of the knee. Fourteen subjects, none of elite athletic status, with arthroscopically proven anterior cruciate deficient knees were selected. The subjects evaluated each brace after one-month periods, and then underwent testing with physical examinations, KT-1000 arthrometry, and timed running events. All braces reduced subjective symptoms of knee instability. Different subjects preferred different braces. KT-1000 testing showed a reduction in anterior tibial displacement for all braces; however, this reduction did not increase as forces increased. A timed figure-of-eight running event did not show any functional advantage of bracing. Five subluxation events occurred in four subjects while braced. Functional braces appear to have a role in the anterior cruciate deficient knee, but only in conjunction with activity modification.

  7. Wind-induced vibration of a brace on a 530 foot high chimney

    SciTech Connect

    Hubalik, T.M.

    1997-09-01

    A double-angle diagonal brace was used to support an exterior trolley beam on the Unit 3 chimney at Fayette Power Project (FPP). The brace was located approximately 460 feet above grade. Shortly after installation, severe wind-induced vibration of the brace was observed. The member developed cracks that led to failure of the brace. This paper describes the assessment of the phenomenon and presents the innovative repair details that were evaluated. Also, guidelines are presented to avoid this phenomenon.

  8. "Custom-fit" versus "off-the-shelf" ACL functional braces.

    PubMed

    Wojtys, E M; Huston, L J

    2001-01-01

    Many sports medicine practitioners believe "custom-fit" functional braces are superior in performance to "off-the-shelf" braces for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees. However, this is not well substantiated. This study compares a Donjoy custom-fit ACL brace (CE 2000), Donjoy off-the-shelf brace (Goldpoint), and an athletic taping technique to determine their role in our clinical practice. Five patients (3 men and 2 women) with isolated, unilateral, chronic ACL tears with an average age of 27 years (range: 19-35 years) were used to evaluate these three restraint systems. Anterior tibial laxity, quadriceps and hamstrings strength, endurance, standing long jump, brace migration with exercise, and pattern of muscle response to forced anterior tibial displacement were studied. Each patient was tested without a brace and then in each of the three test conditions (custom brace, off-the-shelf brace, and tape), with the order of testing randomized. The Donjoy custom-fit ACL functional brace did not reduce anterior laxity or improve standing long jump, muscle strength, endurance, or muscle response times significantly more than the off-the-shelf ACL brace. Both braces improved anterior stability over knee taping when the knee muscles were contracted under the low forces used in this study. After 1 hour of exercise, brace migration was significantly greater (P=.03) for the CE-2000 custom brace (18.6 mm) than for the Goldpoint off-the-shelf brace (4.5 mm). There appears to be no advantage to the more expensive custom-fit knee brace over the off-the-shelf brace.

  9. Biomechanical comparison of 3 ankle braces with and without free rotation in the sagittal plane.

    PubMed

    Alfuth, Martin; Klein, Dieter; Koch, Raphael; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Various designs of braces including hinged and nonhinged models are used to provide external support of the ankle. Hinged ankle braces supposedly allow almost free dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the foot in the sagittal plane. It is unclear, however, whether this additional degree of freedom affects the stabilizing effect of the brace in the other planes of motion. To investigate the dynamic and passive stabilizing effects of 3 ankle braces, 2 hinged models that provide free plantar flexion-dorsiflexion in the sagittal plane and 1 ankle brace without a hinge. Crossover study. University Movement Analysis Laboratory. Seventeen healthy volunteers (5 women, 12 men; age = 25.4 ± 4.8 years; height = 180.3 ± 6.5 cm; body mass = 75.5 ± 10.4 kg). We dynamically induced foot inversion on a tilting platform and passively induced foot movements in 6 directions via a custom-built apparatus in 3 brace conditions and a control condition (no brace). Maximum inversion was determined dynamically using an in-shoe electrogoniometer. Passively induced maximal joint angles were measured using a torque and angle sensor. We analyzed differences among the 4 ankle-brace conditions (3 braces, 1 control) for each of the dependent variables with Friedman and post hoc tests (P < .05). Each ankle brace restricted dynamic foot-inversion movements on the tilting platform as compared with the control condition, whereas only the 2 hinged ankle braces differed from each other, with greater movement restriction caused by the Ankle X model. Passive foot inversion was reduced with all ankle braces. Passive plantar flexion was greater in the hinged models as compared with the nonhinged brace. All ankle braces showed stabilizing effects against dynamic and passive foot inversion. Differences between the hinged braces and the nonhinged brace did not appear to be clinically relevant.

  10. Biomechanical Comparison of 3 Ankle Braces With and Without Free Rotation in the Sagittal Plane

    PubMed Central

    Alfuth, Martin; Klein, Dieter; Koch, Raphael; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Context: Various designs of braces including hinged and nonhinged models are used to provide external support of the ankle. Hinged ankle braces supposedly allow almost free dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the foot in the sagittal plane. It is unclear, however, whether this additional degree of freedom affects the stabilizing effect of the brace in the other planes of motion. Objective: To investigate the dynamic and passive stabilizing effects of 3 ankle braces, 2 hinged models that provide free plantar flexion–dorsiflexion in the sagittal plane and 1 ankle brace without a hinge. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University Movement Analysis Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Seventeen healthy volunteers (5 women, 12 men; age = 25.4 ± 4.8 years; height = 180.3 ± 6.5 cm; body mass = 75.5 ± 10.4 kg). Intervention(s): We dynamically induced foot inversion on a tilting platform and passively induced foot movements in 6 directions via a custom-built apparatus in 3 brace conditions and a control condition (no brace). Main Outcome Measure(s): Maximum inversion was determined dynamically using an in-shoe electrogoniometer. Passively induced maximal joint angles were measured using a torque and angle sensor. We analyzed differences among the 4 ankle-brace conditions (3 braces, 1 control) for each of the dependent variables with Friedman and post hoc tests (P < .05). Results: Each ankle brace restricted dynamic foot-inversion movements on the tilting platform as compared with the control condition, whereas only the 2 hinged ankle braces differed from each other, with greater movement restriction caused by the Ankle X model. Passive foot inversion was reduced with all ankle braces. Passive plantar flexion was greater in the hinged models as compared with the nonhinged brace. Conclusions: All ankle braces showed stabilizing effects against dynamic and passive foot inversion. Differences between the hinged braces and the nonhinged brace did not appear to be

  11. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  12. Will Boston Be the Proof of the Choice Pudding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Since March 1989, Boston has attempted to implement three elements deemed successful for successful school choice programs: fair assignment procedures, an effective parent information system, and interventions to help certain schools become more competitive. The Boston experience shows the difficulties involved in reforming a monopoly governed by…

  13. Boston Community Energy Study - Zonal Analysis for Urban Microgrids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-05

    Lincoln Laboratory generated maps and designs for over 30 different potential microgrid systems within the City of Boston. Each of these microgrid...Lincoln Laboratory MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LEXINGTON, MASSACHUSETTS Technical Report 1201 Boston Community Energy Study...release; distribution is unlimited. This report is the result of studies performed at Lincoln Laboratory , a federally funded research and

  14. Thinking through Art at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhenry, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Can going to an art museum make elementary school students better learners? It can if they are participating in Thinking Through Art, an innovative partnership uniting the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA), Boston Public Schools (BPS), and Visual Understanding in Education (VUE), a nonprofit educational research group committed to improving…

  15. Changing Demographics, Challenges, & New Opportunities for Boston. A Dream Deferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Paul; Jennings, James; Melendez, Edwin; Liu, Michael; Remy, Gemima; Gomez, Christina; Williams, Russell

    Many minorities in Boston (Massachusetts) do not feel part of the entire community because the city does not work for people in minority groups in fundamental ways. This report analyzes the content and consequences of Boston's many contradictions and the challenges these contradictions pose for the city's three major communities of color: Blacks,…

  16. 27. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, CA. 1895 Photocopy of photograph (Massachusetts State Archives, Environmental Affairs, MDC, Construction, 313 V 193 1-5 Box 8, Deer Island Pumping Station) - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. Thinking through Art at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhenry, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Can going to an art museum make elementary school students better learners? It can if they are participating in Thinking Through Art, an innovative partnership uniting the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA), Boston Public Schools (BPS), and Visual Understanding in Education (VUE), a nonprofit educational research group committed to improving…

  18. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  19. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  20. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  1. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  2. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of Pleasant...

  3. 78 FR 28619 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes a presentation by author John Galluzzo, ``Peddocks Island, As Seen from Pemberton Point...

  4. Winsor, Dewey, and Putnam: The Boston Experience. Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Donald G., Jr.; Carpenter, Kenneth E.; Wiegand, Wayne A.; Aikin, Jane

    This volume contains three papers about early library leaders with Boston (Massachusetts) connections. Donald G. Davis, Jr. provides an introduction to the papers. "Justin Winsor, Librarian and Scholar" (Kenneth E. Carpenter) discusses the life of Justin Winsor, who was director of the Boston Public Library (1868-76), president of the…

  5. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  6. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  7. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  8. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  9. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  10. 7. BOSTON & PROVIDENCE RAILROAD: CANTON VIADUCT. CANTON, NORFOLK CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BOSTON & PROVIDENCE RAILROAD: CANTON VIADUCT. CANTON, NORFOLK CO., MA. (Not on NEC). (See HAER No. MA-27 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. "No Good Deed . . .": Looking Back at Boston University's Chelsea Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    The most important date in the Boston University Chelsea Partnership was not the day in 1989 when the initial partnership agreement was signed. Nor was it the date in 1997 when the School Committee voted unanimously to renew the partnership for five additional years. If an objective history of the Boston University-Chelsea Partnership were…

  12. 33 CFR 110.138 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island Anchorage. Beginning at a point bearing 93°, 1,400 yards, from the aerial beacon on top of the Boston Custom House tower; thence to a point bearing 81°, 1,600 yards, from the aerial beacon on top of the Boston Custom House tower; thence to a point bearing 102°, 3,100 yards, from the aerial beacon on...

  13. 33 CFR 110.138 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island Anchorage. Beginning at a point bearing 93°, 1,400 yards, from the aerial beacon on top of the Boston Custom House tower; thence to a point bearing 81°, 1,600 yards, from the aerial beacon on top of the Boston Custom House tower; thence to a point bearing 102°, 3,100 yards, from the aerial beacon on...

  14. 77 FR 39249 - Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Boston Area Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Boston Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their applications for membership, to the...-223-3008. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security...

  15. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boston Harbor entrance. 80.130 Section 80.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.130 Boston Harbor entrance. A line drawn...

  16. Analysis of Brace Stiffness Influence on Stability of the Truss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, M.; Iwicki, P.

    2015-02-01

    The paper is devoted to the numerical and experimental research of stability of a truss with side elastic supports at the top chord. The structure is a model of a real roof truss scaled by factor 1/4. The linear buckling analysis and non-linear static analysis were carried out. The buckling length factor for the compressed top chord was calculated and the limit load for the imperfect truss shell model with respect to brace stiffness was obtained. The relation between brace normal force and loading of the truss is presented. The threshold stiffness of braces necessary to obtain the maximum buckling load was found. The truss load bearing capacity obtained from numerical analysis was compared with Eurocode 3 requirements.

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  18. "Will My Child Benefit from Using Braces?": Insights on a Challenging Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buethorn, Don

    2008-01-01

    When a child first receives a diagnosis and a treatment plan that includes recommendations for bracing, the prospect of intensive orthotic intervention can be daunting for the parent. Braces traditionally represent a prominent visual cue that the child has trouble walking. The classic brace seems awkward and hard to get into and out of. It is…

  19. Adjustable bracing technique for the prevention of knee flexion contracture during tibial lengthening.

    PubMed

    Segev, Eitan; Hayek, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a simple thigh-knee brace that prevents flexion contracture during tibial lengthening. The brace is strapped to the thigh and connected to the Ilizarov frame via two simple hinges. While in the brace the knee can be mobilized for physiotherapy and locked in extension during rest.

  20. Dynamics of {sup 1}S{sub 0} diproton formation in the pd{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n and pN{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}{pi} reactions in the GeV region

    SciTech Connect

    Uzikov, Yu. N.; Haidenbauer, J.; Wilkin, C.

    2007-01-15

    Mechanisms for the production of {sup 1}S{sub 0} diproton pairs, {l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}, in the pd{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n reaction are studied at proton beam energies 0.5-2 GeV in kinematics similar to those of backward elastic pd scattering. This reaction provides valuable information on the short-range NN and pd interactions that is complementary to that investigated in the well-known pd{yields}dp and dp{yields}p(0{sup degree})X processes. The pd{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n reaction is related to the subprocesses {pi}{sup 0}d{yields}pn and pN{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}{pi} using two different one-pion-exchange (OPE) diagrams. Within both these models a reasonable agreement could be obtained with the data below 1 GeV. The similar energy dependence of the pd{yields}{l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s}n and pd{yields}dp cross sections and the small ratio of about 1.5% in the production of {l_brace}pp{r_brace}{sub s} to deuteron final states follow naturally within the OPE models.

  1. "Will My Child Benefit from Using Braces?": Insights on a Challenging Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buethorn, Don

    2008-01-01

    When a child first receives a diagnosis and a treatment plan that includes recommendations for bracing, the prospect of intensive orthotic intervention can be daunting for the parent. Braces traditionally represent a prominent visual cue that the child has trouble walking. The classic brace seems awkward and hard to get into and out of. It is…

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  3. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  5. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  6. Biomechanical effect of unloader braces for medial osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review (CRD 42015026136).

    PubMed

    Petersen, Wolf; Ellermann, Andree; Zantop, Thore; Rembitzki, Ingo Volker; Semsch, Hartmut; Liebau, Christian; Best, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    There is a lack of consensus regarding biomechanical effects of unloader braces for the treatment of medial osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of studies examining the biomechanical effect of unloader braces. A systematic search for articles about the biomechanical effect of unloader braces was performed. Primary outcome measure was the influence of the brace on the knee adduction moment. Data sources were Pubmed central and google scholar. Twenty-four articles were included. Twenty articles showed that valgus unloader braces significantly decrease the knee adduction moment. Seven of those studies reported a decrease of pain in braced patients (secondary outcome measure). Positive effects on the knee adduction moment could be found for custom made braces for conventional knee braces and for a foot ankle orthosis. Four studies could not show any effect of knee unloader braces on the knee adduction moment although one of these studies found decreased pain in braced patients. One of these studies examined healthy patients with a neutral axis. This systematic review could demonstrate evidence that unloader braces reduce the adduction moment of the knee. Foresighted, a systematic review about the clinical effect of unloader braces is required.

  7. Effectiveness of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Effectiveness of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was demonstrated by the BrAIST study in 2013. Objectives of this study were to confirm its effectiveness by analyzing our results and to clarify the factors affecting the results of the treatment. Materials and methods According to the Scoliosis Research Society AIS brace studies standardization criteria, patients with age 10 years or older, Risser 0 to II, less than 1 year post-menarche, curve magnitude 25 to 40 degrees before brace treatment and who received no prior treatment were included in the study. At skeletal maturity, the rate of the patients whose curve was stabilized, exceeded 45 degrees, and who were recommended or underwent surgery were investigated. Additionally, initial correction rate by the brace and factors affecting the results were investigated. Results A total of 33 patients (27 females and 6 males) could be followed-up until their skeletal maturity and included in the analysis. An average age was 11.9 years, average Cobb angle was 30.8°, and Risser sign was 0 in 13 patients, I in 5, and II in 15 patients before treatment. There were 13 thoracic curves, 14 thoracolumbar or lumbar curves, and 6 double curves. Initial correction rate by the brace was 53.8% for the total curves. In terms of curve pattern, 34.4% for thoracic curve, 73.9% for thoracolumbar or lumbar curve, and 48.8% for double curve. After an average follow-up period of 33 months, 8 patients improved in more than 6 degrees, change of 17 patients were within 6 degrees, and 8 progressed in more than 6 degrees. Therefore, totally, 76% (25/33) of the curves were stabilized by the treatment. Four curves (12%) exceeded 45 degrees and one patient (3%) underwent surgery. Our results were better than the reported natural history. Factors that affected the results were hump degree before treatment and initial correction rate by the brace. Conclusions 76% of the curve with AIS could be stabilized by brace

  8. Dynamic response of a frame with SMA bracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuangshuang; Rajapakse, R. K. N. D.

    2003-08-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic response of a frame structure with pre-strained SMA bracing elements. The constitutive model proposed by Brinson is used to simulate the axial response of SMA bracing elements. A non-linear transient finite element model incorporated with Newmark's time integration scheme is used to analyze the dynamic response of a structure. The time histories of displacements and hysteresis loops of SMA tendons are computed under harmonic loading. The effect of forcing amplitude and initial pre-strains of SMA tendons on transient dynamic response of a structure is discussed. The suitability of pseudoelastic SMA for energy dissipation is briefly discussed.

  9. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) concept

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced), Sibilla and Lapadula. Methods The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction. Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine), horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern. Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction). SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis) exercises are a key factor to achieve success. Results The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control), equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls), more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort), and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort). Conclusions The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in a down-up direction

  10. Brace technology thematic series - The Sforzesco and Sibilla braces, and the SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) concept.

    PubMed

    Negrini, Stefano; Marchini, Gianfranco; Tessadri, Fabrizio

    2011-05-09

    Bracing is an effective strategy for scoliosis treatment, but there is no consensus on the best type of brace, nor on the way in which it should act on the spine to achieve good correction. The aim of this paper is to present the family of SPoRT (Symmetric, Patient-oriented, Rigid, Three-dimensional, active) braces: Sforzesco (the first introduced), Sibilla and Lapadula. The Sforzesco brace was developed following specific principles of correction. Due to its overall symmetry, the brace provides space over pathological depressions and pushes over elevations. Correction is reached through construction of the envelope, pushes, escapes, stops, and drivers. The real novelty is the drivers, introduced for the first time with the Sforzesco brace; they allow to achieve the main action of the brace: a three-dimensional elongation pushing the spine in a down-up direction.Brace prescription is made plane by plane: frontal (on the "slopes", another novelty of this concept, i.e. the laterally flexed sections of the spine), horizontal, and sagittal. The brace is built modelling the trunk shape obtained either by a plaster cast mould or by CAD-CAM construction. Brace checking is essential, since SPoRT braces are adjustable and customisable according to each individual curve pattern.Treatment time and duration is individually tailored (18-23 hours per day until Risser 3, then gradual reduction). SEAS (Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis) exercises are a key factor to achieve success. The Sforzesco brace has shown to be more effective than the Lyon brace (matched case/control), equally effective as the Risser plaster cast (prospective cohort with retrospective controls), more effective than the Risser cast + Lyon brace in treating curves over 45 degrees Cobb (prospective cohort), and is able to improve aesthetic appearance (prospective cohort). The SPoRT concept of bracing (three-dimensional elongation pushing in a down-up direction) is different from the other corrective

  11. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS.

    PubMed

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung; Howard, Andrew; Zeller, Reinhard

    2013-11-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research question was the 3D effect of brace on the spine and in particularly the apical vertebra rotation (AVR). This was a retrospective comparative analysis of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had orthogonal AP and lateral X-rays with and without brace. A 3D image of the spine was reconstructed. Coronal, sagittal and axial spine parameters were measured before bracing and then on the first post-brace X-ray. Brace efficacy in controlling coronal, sagittal and axial parameters was evaluated. Eighteen patients treated with the C brace and ten patients treated with the T brace were included. No difference was found regarding patients' age, gender, magnitude of Cobb angle, sagittal parameters or AVR at inclusion. Following bracing, AVR was significantly reduced by the C brace compared to the T brace [average correction of 8.2° vs. 4.9° (P = 0.02)]. Coronal and sagittal correction did not differ significantly between the two groups. By utilizing a novel 3D reconstruction technology, we were able to demonstrate that braces differ in their immediate effects on the spine. Although clinical relevance should be evaluated in a future trial we feel that the ability to measure treatment effects in 3D, and especially the transverse plane, is an important tool when evaluating different treatments.

  12. Brace treatment in infantile/juvenile patients with progressive scoliosis is worthwhile.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Little information exists about successful brace treatment of progressive early onset scoliosis. Even less information is available about the early treatment of scoliosis patients with Marfan's syndrome at age < 6 years. Purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the possibility of successful brace treatment in a patient with early onset scoliosis due to Marfan's syndrome. A two year old girl diagnosed with Marfan's syndrome presented with a double major scoliosis of 20°. After a follow-up of 6 months she showed a rapid progression to 46° (November 2008) and was braced immediately. In-brace correction in the first Chêneau brace (RSC TM) was moderate due to the stiffness mainly of the lumbar curve. A new brace was made after significant growth (Gensingen braceTM in October 2009). An in-brace correction to 12° thoracic and 12° lumbar has been achieved. In October 2010 she also has outgrown her second brace to some extent. Due to clinical overcorrection (ATR lumbar -5°) brace wearing time has been reduced to 12 hrs. / day at first. In January 2011 at the age of 4 and a half she presented again with an ATR lumbar of -6° still overcorrected clinically, so we decided to leave off the brace for 3 months time. The deformity returned and we had to make a new brace in April 2011. For brace construction a new x-ray has been made showing the curve meanwhile has been reduced to 24° Cobb, however still with significant wedging of the apical vertebra. (1) Successful brace treatment in infantile / juvenile patients with scoliosis is possible. (2) When treated during periods of rapid growth corrections can be achieved with high correction braces. (3) Before early surgery is performed high quality conservative management seems indicated.

  13. Quantitative low-energy electron-diffraction study of the epitaxy of Fe on Ag l brace 001 r brace : Questions about the growth mode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Li, Y.S.; Quinn, J.; Tian, D. ); Sokolov, J. ); Jona, F. ); Marcus, P.M. )

    1990-11-15

    We point out contradictions among several reports relating to the mode of growth of Fe on Ag{l brace}001{r brace}, particularly between the studies done by reflection-high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and those done by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). We describe qualitative LEED observations that agree with those of other workers. These observations, as well as quantitative analyses reported herein, indicate that on the samples used in all LEED experiments reported to date, the growth of Fe on Ag{l brace}001{r brace} was neither layer by layer nor of Stranski-Krastanov type. These results are inconsistent with the conclusions drawn by others from RHEED intensity oscillations. We also establish quantitatively that the structure of thicker (10--30 layers) films of Fe on Ag{l brace}001{r brace} is either the stable bcc structure of {alpha}-Fe or a slight body-centered-tetragonal distortion thereof.

  14. Lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces after prophylactic lace-up ankle bracing.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Lindsay J; Padua, Darin A; Brown, Cathleen N; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2008-01-01

    Long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics are unknown. Ankle motion restriction may negatively affect the body's ability to attenuate ground reaction forces (GRFs). To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and GRFs during a jump landing. Experimental mixed model (2 [group] x 2 [brace] x 2 [time]) with repeated measures. Sports medicine research laboratory. A total of 37 healthy subjects were assigned randomly to either the intervention (n = 11 men, 8 women; age = 19.63 +/- 0.72 years, height = 176.05 +/- 10.58 cm, mass = 71.50 +/- 13.15 kg) or control group (n = 11 men, 7 women; age = 19.94 +/- 1.44 years, height = 179.15 +/- 8.81 cm, mass = 74.10 +/- 10.33 kg). The intervention group wore braces on both ankles and the control group did not wear braces during all recreational activities for an 8-week period. Initial ground contact angles, maximum joint angles, time to reach maximum joint angles, and joint range of motion for sagittal-plane knee and ankle motion were measured during a jump-landing task. Peak vertical GRF and the time to reach peak vertical GRF were assessed also. While participants were wearing the brace, ankle plantar flexion at initial ground contact (brace = 35 degrees +/- 13 degrees , no brace = 38 degrees +/- 15 degrees , P = .024), maximum dorsiflexion (brace = 21 degrees +/- 7 degrees , no brace = 22 degrees +/- 6 degrees , P = .04), dorsiflexion range of motion (brace = 56 degrees +/- 14 degrees , no brace = 59 degrees +/- 16 degrees , P = .001), and knee flexion range of motion (brace = 79 degrees +/- 16 degrees , no brace = 82 degrees +/- 16 degrees , P = .036) decreased, whereas knee flexion at initial ground contact increased (brace = 12 degrees +/- 9 degrees , no brace = 9 degrees +/- 9 degrees , P = .0001). Wearing the brace for 8 weeks did not affect any of the outcome measures, and the brace caused no changes in vertical GRFs (P > .05). Although

  15. Boston ACS Meeting, Chemical Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeman, Thomas R.; Torre, Frank; Smist, Julianne

    1998-11-01

    For those of us who had not been to Boston since the last ACS meeting it was surprising to see how vibrant the city was. The shops, restaurants, parks, and other attractions throughout the large inner city area made the meeting most enjoyable. Again, our banquet cruise of the harbor was blessed with excellent weather. The ship went out far enough so that we landlocked people could feel the waves. The entire program had a celebratory tone-two sessions marking the 70th birthday of Glenn Crosby, a memorial symposium celebrating the teaching innovations of Hubert Alyea, and the 75th anniversary of the Journal of Chemical Education (>p 1360). Content issues in upper division chemistry courses as well as general chemistry took up a large portion of the program. Some of the symposia are discussed in this article.

  16. Freeman Allen: Boston's pioneering physician anesthetist.

    PubMed

    Morris, Samuel D; Morris, Alina J; Rockoff, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    On October 16, 1846 dentist William T. G. Morton successfully demonstrated at the Massachusetts General Hospital that ether could prevent the pain of surgery. For decades afterwards, the administration of anesthesia in the United States was generally relegated to dentists, medical students, junior surgical trainees, or even nonmedical personnel. It was not until the end of the 19th century that a few pioneering physicians began devoting their careers to administering anesthesia to patients, studying ways to make it safer and more effective, and teaching others about its use. One of these individuals was Freeman Allen, who was appointed the first physician anesthetist to the medical staff at the Massachusetts General Hospital and several other major hospitals in Boston. We describe this remarkable man, his contributions to the early development of anesthesiology as a medical specialty, and the true cause of his untimely death.

  17. Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis for failed keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hager, Jonathan L; Phillips, David L; Goins, Kenneth M; Kitzmann, Anna S; Greiner, Mark A; Cohen, Alex W; Welder, Jeffrey D; Wagoner, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (Kpro-1) in eyes with failed keratoplasty. A retrospective review was performed of every patient treated with a Kpro-1 at a tertiary eye care center between January 1, 2008 and July 1, 2013. Eyes with a failed keratoplasty originally performed for corneal edema, trauma, or keratoconus were included in the statistical analysis. The main outcome measures were visual outcome, prosthesis retention, and postoperative complications. Twenty-four eyes met the inclusion criteria, including 13 eyes with corneal edema, 8 eyes with trauma, and 3 eyes with keratoconus. After a mean follow-up period of 28.9 months (range 7-63 months), the median best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/125. The BCVA was ≥ 20/40 in 4 (16.7 %) eyes, ≥ 20/70 in 9 (37.5 %) eyes, and ≥ 20/200 in 14 (58.3 %) eyes. Overall, the postoperative BCVA improved in 17 (70.9 %) eyes, was unchanged in 3 (12.5 %) eyes, and was worse in 4 (16.7 %) eyes. The initial Kpro-1 was retained in 22 (91.7 %) eyes, and was successfully repeated in the other 2 eyes. One or more serious prosthesis- or sight-threatening complications occurred in 8 (33.3 %) eyes. These included 1 case of wound dehiscence leading to prosthesis extrusion, 1 case of fungal keratitis leading to prosthesis extrusion, 4 cases of endophthalmitis, and 5 retinal detachments. The Boston Kpro-1 is associated with an excellent prognosis for prosthesis retention and satisfactory visual improvement in eyes with previous failed keratoplasty.

  18. Prophylactic ankle brace use in high school volleyball players: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Frey, Carol; Feder, Keith S; Sleight, Jill

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of prophylactic ankle bracing on the incidence of ankle injuries in a high school population of interscholastic volleyball players followed prospectively for one season. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of different types of ankle braces on the incidence of ankle sprains in high school volleyball players. There were 957 players in the group that wore braces and 42 in the control group who did not wear a brace. Information was collected on age, sex, previous injury, incidence of injury, and time off from play. Only the dominant ankle was studied. Overall, the use of a prophylactic ankle brace did not significantly alter the incidence of ankle sprains in high school volleyball players. However, in players without a previous ankle sprain, the use of an ankle brace did make a significant difference in two of the braced groups. The Active Ankle Trainer II and the Aircast Sports Stirrup protected volleyball players from a sprain only if they had not had a previous sprain. If the player had a history of a previous ankle sprain, these two brace groups did not protect the ankle from another ankle sprain (p < 0.05). In addition, there were significantly more injuries in the female group of players who wore a non-rigid brace versus those who wore a more rigid brace. This information may be helpful in deciding whether to recommend prophylactic ankle braces in volleyball players.

  19. BRACING IN THE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH CLUBFOOT: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Lajja; Oprescu, Florin; DiMeo, Andrew; Morcuende, Jose A

    2010-01-01

    Bracing is a critical component of the current standard of treatment for clubfoot. Adherence to the bracing protocol is the main factor for the long-term success of the treatment The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of clubfoot braces, best practices in brace design and recommendations for bracing in order to improve adherence with the bracing phase of the clubfoot treatment. There are a number of designs and offerings of braces available in various regions of the world. Although many new brace designs are being proposed and developed, evidence in the literature regarding biomechanical effects, clinical outcomes, functionality and patient adherence is limited. The current research that is available regarding brace design focuses on increasing patient comfort and satisfaction to improve adherence. Although the currently available braces are widely distributed in developed countries, access is limited to many parts of the world. When considering the future of the clubfoot treatment and prevention of relapses, since 80% of the cases are in developing countries with limited resources, brace cost and availability needs to be assessed. PMID:21045966

  20. Bracing Regular Polygons as We Race into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Greg N.

    2012-01-01

    How many rods does it take to brace a square in the plane? Once Martin Gardner's network of readers got their hands on it, it turned out to be fewer than Raphael Robinson, who originally posed the problem, thought. And who could have predicted the stunning solutions found subsequently for various generalizations of the problem?

  1. 17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of drawing, Erection Plan of Top Lateral Bracing of Bridge at South Norwalk for the N.Y., N.H. and H.R.R., dated June 12, 1895. Original on file with Metro North Commuter Railroad. - South Norwalk Railroad Bridge, South Main & Washington Streets, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  2. Bracing Regular Polygons as We Race into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederickson, Greg N.

    2012-01-01

    How many rods does it take to brace a square in the plane? Once Martin Gardner's network of readers got their hands on it, it turned out to be fewer than Raphael Robinson, who originally posed the problem, thought. And who could have predicted the stunning solutions found subsequently for various generalizations of the problem?

  3. An inverse dynamic tracking control for bracing a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this research is to produce a braced manipulator that is flexible. In order to brace the manipulator against a surface, a tip position tracking control becomes essential to avoid large impacts on contact, and to control the force after contact. If we consider the characteristics of the flexible manipulator, the control task may be characterized as a tracking control of a nonlinear, noncolocated, nonminimum-phase system with uncertainties. First, the author introduces the staged positioning concept and provides a conceptual background for the bracing strategy. Second, a single link flexible manipulator is modeled by the assumed-modes method, and the validity of the model is verified with experimental results. Third, a time domain inverse dynamic method is proposed to cancel out the nonminimum-phase positive zeros which cannot be cancelled by feedback controls. Fourth, a tracking controller is designed to control the end point of a flexible manipulator without any overshoot or residual vibrations. Its perfect tracking or asymptotic tracking performance is analyzed and discussed for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, impact phenomena are investigated, and contact force control of a flexible bracing manipulator is presented to set up a control scenerio for such a manipulator. The proposed control scheme is implemented on a single link flexible manipulator, and analyzed and evaluated with simulations and experiments.

  4. Functional knee braces and dynamic performance: a review.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J F; Dubowitz, T; Fowler, P; Schachter, C; Birmingham, T

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to examine current experimental research on the effectiveness of functional knee braces (FKBs) used by patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury during dynamic performance tests. Twelve studies published in peer-reviewed journals and listed in the Excerpta Medica system were reviewed. All studies compared braced and unbraced tests performed by the same subjects, using tests characterized by weight bearing/axial loading. Studies were reviewed independently by three investigators. Tests included one-leg hop, figure-of-eight run, stair climbing, walking, cutting, agility runs, straight running, and bicycle ergometry. Experimental situations were classified as follows: (a) maximal effort tests, which compared overall measures of performance such as the distance hopped and the time to run a specific distance; and (b) matched submaximal effort tests, which compared specific variables such as electromyography, range of motion, ground reaction forces, and energy costs. Bracing was found to be advantageous in three of the 16 maximal effort situations, disadvantageous in two, and of no measurable effect in 11. Six of the 10 matched effort situations reported differences in the criterion measurements when braced, while four reported no differences. If FKB prescription is to be based solely on empirical evidence of efficacy from performance tests, then further investigation is required to provide this evidence. Future research needs to examine the subjective and psychological aspects of FKB usage along with the results of objective performance tests.

  5. View, from south showing verticals, diagonals, and overhead bracing of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View, from south showing verticals, diagonals, and overhead bracing of south span Pratt through trusses, south portal of north span, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  6. 17. DETAIL OF LOWER CHORDS AND BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF LOWER CHORDS AND BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING OF WEST DECK TRUSS AND PIER NO. 2, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO EAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF THE BRACED IBEAM COLUMNS AT THE END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE BRACED I-BEAM COLUMNS AT THE END OF THE CENTER FLAT TRUSS OF THE ROOF. NOTE THE ORIGINAL LIGHT FIXTURE WITH BENT CONDUIT TUBING. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Seaplane Hangar, Lexington Boulevard, south of Enterprise Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 6. SOUTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ENCLOSED PORCH SCREENED WINDOWS. ON BASIC FLOOR-PLAN FOR THE SIX-ROOM HOUSE THIS END WAS THE FRONT ENTRANCE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  9. Brace modifications that can result in improved curve correction in idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim The purpose of this paper is to share with scoliosis professionals the X-rays of different pad placement levels associated with improved curve correction in a case of idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Scoliosis braces of all types and brands utilize common principles of construction that ensure good fit and function. Equally important to the end result is good patient follow-up care and brace quality control by the orthotist. Design and methods This report reviewed the case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed with IS, focusing on the in and out-of-brace x-rays, as well as the fit and function of the braces. The first brace was a TLSO-type, the second a Cheneau-type brace using a B1 model following the Rigo classification of scoliosis. Results The first TLSO-type brace presented an in-brace X-ray that showed a curve increase. The Cheneau-type scoliosis brace reduced the Cobb angles over 50%. Conclusions The biomechanical changes consequent to modifications in brace design and pad placements appeared to have improved the scoliosis and reduced the Cobb angles in this case. An orthotist must provide optimal fit and function of the brace which was prescribed by the referring physician. Adherence to certain basic design principles, and close follow up by the orthotist-especially during growth spurts - are critical to its effectiveness. Specifically, a skilled orthotist must be experienced with the particular brace-type, apply these principles, maintain a good working relationship with both physician and patient to ensure timely brace adjustments essential to continued brace comfort and efficacy. PMID:24593984

  10. Prophylactic bracing decreases ankle injuries in collegiate female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Pedowitz, David I; Reddy, Sudheer; Parekh, Selene G; Huffman, G Russell; Sennett, Brian J

    2008-02-01

    Ankle injuries account for the highest percentage of injuries among female collegiate volleyball players. Since 1998, all female volleyball players at the authors' institution have worn bilateral double-upright padded ankle braces at all times. To review the authors' experience with this brace in preventing ankle injuries that result in a loss of play. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Injury data, preparticipation medical histories, and total exposure data were collected prospectively on all female volleyball players at the authors' institution from 1998 to 2005. Injuries and exposures were defined based on established National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System criteria. Injury rate was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 exposures. The National Collegiate Athletic Association female volleyball injury data from 1998 to 2005 were used for comparison. During the study period, there were a total of 13,500 exposures and 1 injury in our group yielding an injury rate of 0.07 per 1000 exposures. Nearly half of our athletes had a preparticipation history of ankle sprains, yet only 1 ankle injury occurred during all of our braced exposures. There were 811 710 exposures and 797 injuries in the National Collegiate Athletic Association comparison group with an increased injury rate of 0.98 per 1000 exposures (P = .001). Prophylactic use of a double-upright ankle brace significantly reduced the ankle injury rate compared with that reported by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. From these data, it appears that the use of such a brace is an effective way to decrease the incidence of ankle injuries in this active but vulnerable group of athletes.

  11. Corporations and Urban School Reform: Lessons from Boston. Supporting Leaders for Tomorrow, Occasional Paper #12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    A historical overview of the relationship between the business community and the Boston public schools is provided in this paper, with a focus on outcomes of the Boston Compact--a commitment by the corporate community to provide Boston public school graduates with access to jobs if the Boston schools improved attendance, achievement, and…

  12. RadNet Air Data From Boston, MA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Boston, MA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  13. 34. Boston switch interlocking tower. Central Falls, Providence Co., RI. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Boston switch interlocking tower. Central Falls, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 190.40. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  14. 72. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF THE BOSTON POST ROAD, WESTPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF THE BOSTON POST ROAD, WESTPORT, 1928. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  15. Glaucoma Associated with Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kamyar, Roheena; Weizer, Jennifer S.; de Paula, Fernando Heitor; Stein, Joshua D.; Moroi, Sayoko E.; John, Denise; Musch, David C.; Mian, Shahzad I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate outcomes of the Boston Type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro) and associated incidence of glaucoma. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants All patients who underwent KPro surgery at one institution from 2003-2009 with at least 3 months follow-up. Methods Preoperative visual acuity, diagnosis, history of glaucoma, intraoperative and postoperative parameters were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to identify factors that may influence increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma development or progression after surgery. Main Outcome Measures Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), IOP, postoperative medical and surgical treatments for glaucoma, and KPro retention and complications. Results Thirty-six KPro procedures were performed in 30 eyes of 29 patients with mean (± SD) follow-up of 17±19 months (range 3-67 months). The main indication for KPro implantation was corneal graft failure (77%). Primary KPros were performed in 23% of eyes for limbal stem cell deficiency secondary to chemical burns and aniridia, and for herpetic disease. Median preoperative BCVA was hand motions with an overall improvement to 20/330 (range 20/20 to hand motions) at nine months postoperatively; mean BCVA was 20/600 (range 20/40 to NLP) at last follow-up. Twenty eyes (67%) had a preoperative history of glaucoma with eight of those eyes (40%) having undergone prior glaucoma surgery. Twenty-one eyes (70%) underwent concomitant glaucoma surgery. Postoperative increased IOP (22 mmHg or higher) was noted in 15 eyes (50%) while definite glaucoma development or progression was noted in 7 of those 15 eyes (23% of total eyes). Mean BCVA at last follow-up in eyes with glaucoma development or progression was 3/200 compared to 20/563 in the remaining 23 eyes. Six patients (20%) required repeat KPro implantation, and retroprosthetic membranes developed in 23 eyes (77%). No patient developed vitritis or infectious endophthalmitis. Conclusions The Boston Type 1 KPro

  16. Terrorist bombings: foreign bodies from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    PubMed

    Brunner, John; Singh, Ajay K; Rocha, Tatiana; Havens, Joaquim; Goralnick, Eric; Sodickson, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    On April 15, 2013, 2 improvised explosive devices detonated at the 117th Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others. In this article, the foreign bodies and injuries that presented at 2 of the responding level 1 trauma hospitals in Boston-Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital--are reviewed with a broader discussion of blast injuries and imaging strategies.

  17. 29. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM BOSTON HARBOR, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, CA. 1909. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: COAL WHARF, 1895 PUMPING STATION, 1909 ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, INTAKE AND DISCHARGE PIPES ON WOODEN TRESTLE, RESIDENCE, AND UNKNOWN STRUCTURE Photocopy of photograph (Massachusetts State Archives, Environmental Affairs, MDC, Construction, 313 V 193 1-5 Box 8, Deer Island Pumping Station - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. Precambrian age of the Boston Basin: New evidence from microfossils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenk, C.; Strother, P.K.; Kaye, C.A.; Barghoorn, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    A Vendian (Late Proterozoic Z) age has been determined for the Boston Basin by comparison of a microflora from the Cambridge Argillite with other late Precambrian assemblages. The microfossils, which include Bavlinella cf. faveolata, are preserved as petrifactions in pyrite. This age designation for the sedimentary rocks of the Boston Basin should allow for the reinterpretation of the structure of the basin and its regional correlations. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  19. Vision Restoration with a Collagen Crosslinked Boston Keratoprosthesis Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Ciolino, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Boston, MA 02114 REPORT DATE: September 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary 243 Charles Street Boston...are in progress. Major Goal 1: The initial application was submitted to the Mass Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI) IRB and it was determined that the

  20. Effects of prophylactic ankle and knee braces on leg stiffness during hopping

    PubMed Central

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    During human movement, the leg can be represented as a mechanical spring, with its stiffness potentially contributing to sports performance and injury prevention. Although many individuals perform athletic activities with joint stabilizers, little is known about the effects of prophylactic lower extremity braces on leg stiffness. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle and/or knee braces on leg stiffness measured during one-legged hopping at a range of frequencies. Thirteen male participants performed one-legged hopping with their dominant leg at frequencies of 2.2, 2.6, and 3.0 Hz. All participants were randomly tested under the following four brace conditions: 1) no brace (control), 2) prophylactic ankle brace, 3) prophylactic knee brace, and 4) prophylactic ankle and knee braces. Based on a spring–mass model, leg stiffness was calculated using data from an accelerometer. It was found that leg stiffness increased with increasing hopping frequency for each brace condition. However, there were no significant differences in leg stiffness among the four brace conditions at the three hopping frequencies. Since some level of leg stiffness is needed for optimal athletic performance and training, these results suggest that ankle and knee braces do not significantly interfere with dynamic hopping activities. PMID:28490908

  1. Effects of a knee extension constraint brace on lower extremity movements after ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Christopher J; Creighton, R Alexander; Gross, Michael T; Garrett, William E; Yu, Bing

    2011-06-01

    Patients have high reinjury rates after ACL reconstruction. Small knee flexion angles and large peak posterior ground reaction forces in landing tasks increase ACL loading. We determined the effects of a knee extension constraint brace on knee flexion angle, peak posterior ground reaction force, and movement speed in functional activities of patients after ACL reconstruction. Six male and six female patients 3.5 to 6.5 months after ACL reconstruction participated in the study. Three-dimensional videographic and force plate data were collected while patients performed level walking, jogging, and stair descent wearing a knee extension constraint brace, wearing a nonconstraint brace, and not wearing a knee brace. Knee flexion angle at initial foot contact with the ground, peak posterior ground reaction force, and movement speed were compared across brace conditions and between genders. Wearing the knee extension constraint brace increased the knee flexion angle at initial foot contact for each activity when compared with the other two brace conditions. Wearing the knee extension constraint brace also decreased peak posterior ground reaction force during walking but not during jogging and stair descent. Although the knee extension constraint brace did not consistently reduce the peak posterior ground reaction force in all functional activities, it consistently increased knee flexion angle and should reduce ACL loading as suggested by previous studies. These results suggest the knee extension constraint brace has potential as a rehabilitation tool to alter lower extremity movement patterns of patients after ACL reconstruction to address high reinjury rates.

  2. Development of a pressure control system for brace treatment of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Eric; Lou, Edmond; Hill, Doug; Zhao, Vicky H; Wong, Man-Sang

    2012-07-01

    Bracing is a common nonsurgical treatment for scoliosis, but its effectiveness has been debated. Some clinical studies have shown efficacy of brace treatment is correlated to how the brace has been worn. The more often the patients wear their braces to the prescribed tightness as well as the prescribed length of wear each day, the better the treatment outcome. A system of four wireless pressure control devices was developed to understand brace wear-time and regulate a target pressure range at the brace-body interface. Each pressure control device could function independently and be embedded in the brace at key pressure areas. Such a system could improve the quality of brace wear-making the treatment more effective and refining our understanding of the three-pressure-point brace treatment concept during daily activities. This paper reports the system development and validation. The system was tested on four healthy subjects for 2 h without pressure regulation and 2 h with regulation. The results show that the pressure regulation doubled the time spent in a desired pressure range on average (from 31% to 62%). Brace-wear time was logged correctly. The system was also validated through a seven-day continuous test, and a fully charged battery could run for 30 days without requiring recharge.

  3. The Boston marathon bombings: the early plastic surgery experience of one Boston hospital.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter S; Malin, Edward; Kirkham, John C; Helliwell, Lydia A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Tobias, Adam M; Upton, Joseph; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2013-11-01

    On April 15, 2013, at approximately 2:49 p.m. EDT, two improvised explosive devices detonated near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon. Patients were transported from the scene to several trauma centers, including the authors' institution. Plastic surgical assessment of patients began in the Emergency Department and then rapidly expanded as the scope of the incident became clear. Daily interdisciplinary meetings involving the acute care surgery, orthopedic surgery, plastic surgery, and nursing services were convened in order to coordinate operating room schedules and treatment plans. An interdisciplinary weekly clinic continued until all patient goals had been reached. Twenty-four patients were treated at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center within the first 24 hours of the Boston Marathon bombing. Seven were triaged directly to the operating room from the Emergency Department. The Division of Plastic Surgery was directly involved with the care of 11 patients, all of whom were treated surgically within 24 hours of the bombing. Patients were aged 23 to 50 years old. All 11 patients sustained lower extremity injuries with gross contamination. Four patients also sustained significant upper extremity trauma. Injuries included extremity amputations and fractures, soft-tissue loss, impaction of nails and other debris, burns, ocular injury, and ruptured tympanic membranes. Twenty-four patients received acute care at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center following the Boston Marathon bombing. Institution of dedicated interdisciplinary daily rounds, protected operating room block time, and joint follow-up clinic allowed for efficient early diagnosis and treatment of patients' injuries.

  4. Identification of good candidates for valgus bracing as a treatment for medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Clouthier, Allison L; Hassan, Elizabeth A; Brandon, Scott C E; Campbell, Aaron; Rainbow, Michael J; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-07-29

    Valgus unloader braces are a conservative treatment option for medial compartment knee osteoarthritis that aim to unload the damaged medial compartment through application of an external abduction moment. Patient response to bracing is highly variable, however. While some experience improvements in pain, function, and joint loading, others receive little to no benefit. The objective of this work was to analyze clinical measures and biomechanical characteristics of unbraced walking to identify variables that are associated with the mechanical effectiveness of valgus unloader bracing. Seventeen patients with medial knee osteoarthritis walked overground with and without a valgus unloader brace. A musculoskeletal model was used to estimate the contact forces in the medial compartment of the tibiofemoral joint and brace effectiveness was defined as the decrease in peak medial contact force between unbraced and braced conditions. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify clinical and biomechanical measures that predicted brace effectiveness. The final regression model explained 77% of the variance in brace effectiveness using two variables. Bracing was more effective for those with greater peak external hip adduction moments and for those with higher Kellgren-Lawrence grades, indicating more severe radiographic osteoarthritis. The hip adduction moment was the best predictor of brace effectiveness and was well correlated with several other measures indicating that it may be functioning as a "biomarker" for good bracing candidates. The ability to predict good candidates for valgus bracing may improve issues of patient compliance and could enable the ability to train patients to respond better to bracing. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of ankle braces on lower extremity joint energetics in single-leg landings.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jacob K; McCaw, Steven T; Laudner, Kevin G; Smith, Peter J; Stafford, Lindsay N

    2012-06-01

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries in competitive and recreational athletics. Studies have shown that the use of prophylactic ankle braces effectively reduces the frequency of ankle sprains in athletes. However, although it is generally accepted that the ankle braces are effective at reducing frontal plane motion, some researchers report that the design of the brace may also reduce ankle sagittal plane motion. The purpose of this study was to quantify lower extremity joint contributions to energy absorption during single-legged drop landings in three ankle brace conditions (no brace, boot brace, and hinged brace). Eleven physically active females experienced in landing and free of lower extremity injury (age = 22.3 ± 1.7 yr, height = 1.66 ± 0.04 m, mass = 58.43 ± 5.83 kg) performed 10 single-leg drop landings in three conditions (one unbraced, two braced) from a 0.33-m height. Measurements taken were hip, knee, and ankle joint impulse; hip, knee, ankle, and total work; and hip, knee, and ankle joint relative work. Total energy absorption remained consistent across the braced conditions (P = 0.057). Wearing the boot brace reduced relative ankle work (P = 0.04, Cohen d = 0.43) but did not change relative knee (P = 0.08, Cohen d = 0.32) or hip (P = 0.14, Cohen d = 0.20) work compared with the no-brace condition. In an ankle-braced condition, ankle, knee, and hip energetics may be altered depending on the design of the brace.

  6. Occupational injuries among Boston bicycle messengers.

    PubMed

    Dennerlein, Jack Tigh; Meeker, John D

    2002-12-01

    Urban bicycle couriers may have a high incidence of injuries. Most messengers work as contractors and hence their injuries are not well documented. To quantify injury rates and severity among urban bicycle couriers a convenience sample of 113 couriers in the city of Boston completed a two-page self-administered survey. Most working couriers have suffered at least one injury resulting either in days lost from work (70%) and in visits to a health-care professional or hospital (55%). The annual incidence rate for injuries resulting in days away from work was 47/100-bike couriers. Bone fractures accounted for the most days lost from work, followed by dislocations, sprains, and strains. Collisions and avoiding collisions with motor vehicles, including being "doored," and collisions with pedestrians accounted for the majority (66%) of events leading to injury. Twenty-four percent of messengers reported wearing a helmet on a regular basis, and 32% have health insurance. Urban bicycle messengers are a poorly documented, largely unstudied workforce who suffer a very high rate of occupational injury. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Participatory management at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, M T; Avakian, L

    1992-05-01

    In the mid-1980s, the senior management of Boston's Beth Israel Hospital became concerned that continuous cost-cutting efforts could lower the quality of the hospital's services and the morale of its staff. This led them to investigate organizational approaches to "participatory management" to determine whether any of these might be of value to the hospital. They decided that an approach developed in the 1930s called the "Scanlon Plan" would be compatible with the workplace culture of Beth Israel, could help the hospital meet the ongoing problems of change, and could help the staff at all levels develop a sense that they owned the problems of quality, productivity, and efficiency, which would motivate them to address these problems constructively in the face of necessary budget constraints. This plan has two mechanisms to foster employees' positive participation: (1) a process to ensure that all members of the organization have the opportunity to improve productivity, primarily through an open suggestion system and a responsive committee structure, and (2) a means of providing equitable rewards for all members of the organization as productivity and quality improve. This essay describes in some detail the plan and why it was selected, explains how it was adapted, prepared for, and finally implemented in 1989, and reports its success, lessons learned, and future plans as of early 1992. The authors believe Beth Israel's experience with the Scanlon Plan is noteworthy as an example of a leading teaching hospital's taking a quality improvement program seriously and making it work.

  8. The Ponseti Method of Treatment for Clubfoot in Brazil: Barriers to Bracing Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Monica Paschoal; Fox, Mark; Miller, Kathleen; Morcuende, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Background Clubfoot is the most common extremity birth defect. It causes the feet of affected individuals to point inward and downward, preventing them from walking normally. Neglected clubfoot causes disabilities that result in a lack of social integration, creating a psychological and financial burden for the family and community. Clubfoot has been effectively treated through the Ponseti method, a treatment utilizing serial casts to correct the deformity followed by use of an abduction brace for approximately 2-4 years. sustained use of the brace is necessary to prevent relapse and ensure a successful outcome. Brace compliance in the setting of limited resources in the developing world can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to bracing compliance in southeastern Brazil. In addition to socioeconomic and cultural barriers, this study also looked at improper prescribing practices by physicians as a potential cause of noncompliance. The study sought to identify the role of physician education in the use of the Ponseti method and physicians’ knowledge of the bracing process. Purpose of the study Identify the barriers to bracing adherence that could negatively impact the treatment of children with clubfoot. Methods Forty-five orthopedists from several centers in southeastern Brazil were interviewed. Physicians were asked about their training in the Ponseti method, their protocol when prescribing the brace, their evaluation of its importance, and a series of open-ended questions designed to identify the positive and negative qualities of local braces. They were also asked what they perceived to be the biggest challenges to sustained brace use. Results sixteen of the physicians interviewed were orthopedic residents, and 29 had completed their residencies. Of these two groups, only 25% and 65%, respectively, appropriately prescribe the abduction brace for patients, with the majority recommending use of the brace for an inadequate

  9. Preparation of {l_brace}0 1 0{r_brace}-faceted anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids from peroxotitanium complex solution

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yigao; Gao, Jiacheng

    2012-12-15

    {l_brace}0 1 0{r_brace}-faceted anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids have been fabricated by hydrothermal route using peroxotitanium complex solution as precursor. The effects of reaction time, the amount of urea and temperature on the formation of {l_brace}0 1 0{r_brace}-faceted anatase TiO{sub 2} were characterized by XRD, FESEM and TEM. The growth mechanism of nanocuboids was proposed that the nanocuboids were formed by the transition from H{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O phase to anatase TiO{sub 2} in the basic condition. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared samples was tested in the degradation of Rhodamine B and the anatase nanocuboids exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the standard P25 powders. - Graphical abstract: Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocuboids with exposed {l_brace}0 1 0{r_brace} facets prepared by a hydrothermal method exhibit superior photocatalytic activity for degradation Rhodamine B to P25. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One-step route to prepare {l_brace}0 1 0{r_brace}-faceted anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Control synthesis of {l_brace}0 1 0{r_brace}-faceted anatase nanocuboids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism on formation of anatase nanocuboids under hydrothermal condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhanced photocatalytic reactivity of nanocuboids is attributed to reactive facets.

  10. Dynamic behavior of braced thin-walled beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokić, A.; Lukić, D.

    2007-11-01

    The present paper considers the dynamic behavior of beams with open thin-walled cross-sections along their length with bracings (connecting beams and truss). The effect of the constrained torsion warping, rotary inertia, and flexural-torsion coupling due to nonsymmetric cross-sections is included. In the case of simply supported beams, closed-form solutions for determining coupled natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are newly derived. The frequency equation, given in a determinantal form, is expanded in an explicit analytical form and then solved using the Mathcad 2001 Professional symbolic computing package. Some illustrative examples on the application of the present theory are given for coupled bending-torsion vibrations of braced thin-walled beams. As compared with FEM, numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method

  11. Energy-resolved intramultiplet mixing in the electron-volt range for Ne[sup **][l brace](2[ital p])[sup 5](3[ital p])[r brace]+He

    SciTech Connect

    Boom, W.; Op de Beek, S.S.; van Galen, R.A.M.L.; Huijsmans, F.J.J.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Verhaar, B.J. )

    1994-06-01

    We present time-of-flight measurements on fine-structure-changing Ne[sup **][l brace](2[ital p])[sup 5](3[ital p])[r brace]+He collisions in the energy range 200[le][ital E][le]1200 meV. Absolute values of polarized-atom cross sections are given for six collision energies in this range for various transitions from the [l brace][alpha][sub 5][r brace] and [l brace][alpha][sub 7][r brace] initial fine-structure states with electronic angular momentum [ital J][sub [ital k

  12. Comparison of functional knee braces for control of anterior tibial displacement.

    PubMed

    Liu, S H; Lunsford, T; Gude, S; Vangsness, C T

    1994-06-01

    Using a surrogate knee model, the ten custom functional knee braces that previous studies had shown to be most effective were tested for restraint to anterior tibial displacement. Testing was performed at 20 degrees knee flexion with applied forces ranging from 50 to 400 N. All braces reduced anterior tibial displacement. Resistance to anterior tibial displacement depends directly on the brace design and is inversely related to the applied force. Post-bilateral hinge shell braces exhibited the most resistance to anterior tibial displacement. Few braces were effective in controlling anterior tibial displacement comparable with a normal knee at low forces. Most of the braces were less effective at controlling anterior tibial displacement at high forces.

  13. Nonoperative treatment of unicompartmental arthritis: from bracing to injection.

    PubMed

    Bert, Jack M; Bert, Timothy M

    2014-01-01

    The published recommendations for the nonoperative treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee include weight loss, physical therapy to strengthen lower-extremity musculature, nonsteroidal antiinflammatories, nutritional supplements, topical treatments, and steroid injections. Evidenced-based results have been mixed using these treatment modalities. The results using unloader braces and viscosupplementation have also been variable. This article reviews the use of conservative treatment of OA of the knee.

  14. Thermal Behavior of Cylindrical Buckling Restrained Braces at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Elnaz; Tahir, Mahmood Md.; Yasreen, Airil

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB) elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core's surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system. PMID:24526915

  15. Footwear alterations and bracing as treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Kelly

    2005-09-01

    The biomechanical aspects of gait and the impact of alignment have been recognized as important in the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Improving malalignment and altering the dynamic forces on the involved compartment of the knee during gait have the potential to improve the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. This review examines the use of foot orthoses and knee braces to change the biomechanical forces on the knee joint and to reduce pain and improve function in patients with existing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Malalignment has been shown to have an impact on the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis who have a visible varus thrust will also progress at a more rapid rate than patients without a varus thrust. Lateral wedge foot orthoses have been shown in biomechanical studies and clinical studies to reduce the load on the medial compartment and improve the symptoms of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Knee braces that stabilize the knee joint and provide a valgus stress have been shown to improve pain and function in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. The development of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and the progression of joint space loss is in part a biomechanical process. To improve patients' function and possibly reduce disease progression, a biomechanical approach should be included in the treatment plan for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Foot orthoses and knee braces have been shown in selected patients to have a role in the management of unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis.

  16. Treatment of the idiopathic scoliosis with brace and physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hundozi-Hysenaj, Hajrije; Dallku, Iliriana Boshnjaku; Murtezani, Ardiana; Rrecaj, Shkurte

    2009-01-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformation of the spine with a lateral curvature or deviation greater than 10 degrees and associated with vertebral rotation. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, but the evidence for their effectiveness is still questioned. The objective of this study was to define the effectiveness of braces and individual physiotherapy for the comprehensive treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. A retrospective study of 57 children with idiopathic thoracic dextroscoliosis with the magnitude of the thoracic curve between 20 degrees-35 degrees, treated in Orthopedic and Physiatrist Clinic as well as National Ortho-prosthetic Center within University Clinical Center of Kosova in Prishtina, during the period of 2003-2006. Inclusion of kinesitherapy in the comprehensive management of idiopathic scoliosis varied in the improvement of the muscle strength (satisfied and moderate) in almost 80% of the children while the correction of the curve was small in approximately 42.1% of cases. For children with idiopathic scoliosis, who require braces, an exercise program helps chest mobility, muscle strength, proper breathing flexibility in the spine, correct posture and keeps muscles in tone so that the transition period after brace removal is easier.

  17. Effect of knee brace type on braking response time during automobile driving.

    PubMed

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Giesinger, Johannes M; Biedermann, Rainer; Haid, Christian; Krismer, Martin; Liebensteiner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To assess driving ability (brake response time [BRT]) with commonly used knee braces. Sixty-four healthy participants (32 women and 32 men) participated in our study. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. We assessed BRT for 5 different commonly used knee braces (right leg) used in 9 different settings: without a knee brace (control group); with a typical postoperative knee brace with adjustable range of motion (ROM) and the settings of 0° to 30°, 0° to 60°, 0° to 90°, and 20° to 90° (extension and flexion); and with an unloading knee brace for moderate to severe unicompartmental osteoarthritis, an orthosis for ligament instabilities, a knee brace for patellofemoral disorders, and an elastic knee bandage. The 64 participants (mean age, 33.5 years) showed significantly impaired BRT with the typical postoperative brace set at an ROM of 0° to 30° (673 milliseconds, P < .001), ROM of 0° to 60° (629 milliseconds, P < .001), ROM of 0° to 90° (607 milliseconds, P = .001), and ROM of 20° to 90° (602 milliseconds, P = .005) compared with the control group. However, no such impaired BRT was found for any other investigated knee brace. Right-sided ROM-restricting knee braces involve significant impairment of BRT in healthy participants. No such prolonged BRT was found for a patellofemoral realignment brace, a ligament brace, a valgus/osteoarthritis brace, or an elastic knee bandage. However, our findings should be viewed in light of the limitations of the study, which are (1) the lack of a defined decrease in BRT that could lead to an accident and (2) uncertainty of whether the statistical differences are also clinically important. Level II, lesser-quality randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Titanium Coating of the Boston Keratoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Culla, Borja; Jeong, Kyung Jae; Kolovou, Paraskevi Evi; Chiang, Homer H; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H; Kohane, Daniel S

    2016-04-01

    We tested the feasibility of using titanium to enhance adhesion of the Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro), ultimately to decrease the risk of implant-associated complications. Cylindrical rods were made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), PMMA coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) over a layer of polydopamine (PMMATiO2), smooth (Ti) and sandblasted (TiSB) titanium, and titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox and TiSBox). Topography and surface chemistry were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adhesion force between rods and porcine corneas was measured ex vivo. Titanium sleeves, smooth and sandblasted, were inserted around the stem of the B-KPro and implanted in rabbits. Tissue adhesion to the stem was assessed and compared to an unmodified B-Kpro after 1 month. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated successful deposition of TiO2 on polydopamine-coated PMMA. Oxygen plasma treatment did not change the XPS spectra of titanium rods (Ti and TiSB), although it increased their hydrophilicity. The materials did not show cell toxicity. After 14 days of incubation, PMMATiO2, smooth titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox), and sandblasted titanium rods (TiSB, TiSBox) showed significantly higher adhesion forces than PMMA ex vivo. In vivo, the use of a TiSB sleeve around the stem of the B-KPro induced a significant increase in tissue adhesion compared to a Ti sleeve or bare PMMA. Sandblasted titanium sleeves greatly enhanced adherence of the B-KPro to the rabbit cornea. This approach may improve adhesion with the donor cornea in humans as well. This approach may improve adhesion with donor corneas in humans.

  19. Titanium Coating of the Boston Keratoprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Culla, Borja; Jeong, Kyung Jae; Kolovou, Paraskevi Evi; Chiang, Homer H.; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the feasibility of using titanium to enhance adhesion of the Boston Keratoprosthesis (B-KPro), ultimately to decrease the risk of implant-associated complications. Methods Cylindrical rods were made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), PMMA coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) over a layer of polydopamine (PMMATiO2), smooth (Ti) and sandblasted (TiSB) titanium, and titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox and TiSBox). Topography and surface chemistry were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adhesion force between rods and porcine corneas was measured ex vivo. Titanium sleeves, smooth and sandblasted, were inserted around the stem of the B-KPro and implanted in rabbits. Tissue adhesion to the stem was assessed and compared to an unmodified B-Kpro after 1 month. Results X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated successful deposition of TiO2 on polydopamine-coated PMMA. Oxygen plasma treatment did not change the XPS spectra of titanium rods (Ti and TiSB), although it increased their hydrophilicity. The materials did not show cell toxicity. After 14 days of incubation, PMMATiO2, smooth titanium treated with oxygen plasma (Tiox), and sandblasted titanium rods (TiSB, TiSBox) showed significantly higher adhesion forces than PMMA ex vivo. In vivo, the use of a TiSB sleeve around the stem of the B-KPro induced a significant increase in tissue adhesion compared to a Ti sleeve or bare PMMA. Conclusions Sandblasted titanium sleeves greatly enhanced adherence of the B-KPro to the rabbit cornea. This approach may improve adhesion with the donor cornea in humans as well. Translational Relevance This approach may improve adhesion with donor corneas in humans. PMID:27152247

  20. Modern sedimentary environments in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Rendigs, R. R.; Bothner, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of sidescan-sonar records supplemented by available bathymetric, sedimentary, subbottom, and bottom-current data reveal the distributions of the following three categories of sedimentary environments within the glaciated, topographically complex Boston Harbor estuary in Massachusetts. 1) Environments of erosion appear on the sonographs either as patterns with isolated strong reflections or as uniform patterns of strong reflectivity. These patterns define outcrops of bedrock or till and coarse lag deposits that are being scoured and winnowed by tidal- and wave-induced currents. Erosional areas are located primarily along mainland and insular shores, within large channels that have strong tidal currents, atop submerged ridges and knolls, and across much of the harbor entrance. 2) Environments of deposition are depicted on the sidescan-sonar records as smooth, featureless surfaces that have low to moderate reflectivity. Depositional environments are found predominantly over shallow subtidal flats and in broad bathymetric lows where tidal currents are weak. Sediments within depositional areas are organic-rich sandy and clayey silts that are accumulating at rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.11 g/cm 2 /yr or 4000 to 46,100 metric tons/yr. The cumulative mass of modern mud in harbor depocenters is 24.3 million metric tons. 3) Environments of sediment reworking constitute areas affected by a combination of erosional and depositional processes. They are characterized on the sonographs by mosaics of light and dark patches produced by relatively subtle and gradational changes in reflectivity. Reworked sediments have diverse grain sizes that overlap and are transitional between those of the other two sedimentary environments, and they are indicative of highly variable bottom currents.

  1. Thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of variations in shapes of ridges formed on l brace 100 r brace lithium fluoride surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, J.W.; Glaeser, A.M.; Searcy, A.W.

    1991-12-01

    channels with widths in the range form 5 {mu}m were formed in {l brace}100{r brace} surfaces of LiF single crystals by a photolithographic technique. Specimens annealed at or above 0.90 T{mu}m, where T{mu} is the melting point, and then quenched showed the channels and the ridges between them develop rounded profiles. Evolution of these profiles was evaluated for the various channel widths and for interchannel ridge spacings of 5 to 100 {mu}m in terms of: (a) an accepted theoretical model for a surface diffusion controlled process, and (b) a model which assumes that shape changes depend only on the relative energies of attachment of atoms in surface sites with various surface curvatures. Either model is consistent with the experimental observations to within the reproducibility in measurements.

  2. Low-energy electron diffraction and photoemission study of epitaxial films of Cu on Ag l brace 001 r brace

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Tian, D.; Quinn, J.; Li, Y.S.; Jona, F. ); Marcus, P.M. )

    1991-03-15

    The epitaxy of Cu on Ag{l brace}001{r brace} is studied by qualitative and quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and by angle-resolved photoemission. LEED indicates that ultrathin (two- to three-atomic-layer) films have a limited amount of long-range order, and the ordered component has interlayer spacings of 1.45{plus minus}0.06 A, which compares well with the theoretically determined cubic lattice constant 2.87{plus minus}0.06 A of a metastable body-centered-cubic (bcc) modification of Cu. Thicker (10- to 12-layer) films have almost no long-range order, and photoemission indicates that regions of bcc and fcc Cu coexist amid large amounts of defects.

  3. ACTION FOR BOSTON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, INC. AND FIVE JESUIT SCHOLASTICS. DEMONSTRATION SUMMER PROGRAM JULY-AUGUST, 1964 BOSTON COLLEGE HIGH SCHOOL, SOUTH BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS. ATTACHMENT A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILLIAMSON, JOHN J.; AND OTHERS

    YOUTHS FROM "UNDER-PRIVILEGED" AREAS IN BOSTON HAVE DEFICIENCIES IN THE BASIC ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES WHICH PREVENT SCHOLASTIC PROGRESS AND MAY RESULT IN SCHOOL DROUPOUTS. THIS PROGRAM IS ADMINISTERED BY FIVE JESUIT SCHOLASTICS TO FIFTY BOYS ENTERING NINTH GRADE, AND WILL LAST FOUR WEEKS. GROUPING WILL BE ACCORDING TO THE CALIFORNIA BATTERY…

  4. Reforming the Belgian market for orthotic braces: what can we learn from the international experience?

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; De Coster, Sandra; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Guillaume, Paul; Depoorter, Antony; Van den Steen, Dirk; Van de Sande, Stefaan; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk; Lona, Murielle

    2008-05-01

    This article aims to review regulation governing outpatient orthotic braces (neck, wrist and knee braces) in France, the Netherlands and Sweden with a view to reforming the Belgian market. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from an analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Sweden, maximum prices in France, and exclusion of expensive braces from reimbursement in the Netherlands. Reimbursement is linked to a medical indication or a chronic condition in France, the Netherlands and Sweden. To gain reimbursement, the cost-effectiveness of orthotic braces needs to be demonstrated in France and the Netherlands. Orthotic braces tend to be initially prescribed by a specialist physician and distributed by orthotists, medical equipment shops and/or community pharmacies. Extensive government intervention exists in the outpatient orthotic brace market in the countries studied. Our recommendations to reform the Belgian market for prefabricated orthotic braces are to separate reimbursement for service provision from reimbursement for braces; to set prices by means of a tendering process or an international price comparison; and to make reimbursement conditional on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of braces.

  5. Medial collateral ligament knee sprains in college football. Brace wear preferences and injury risk.

    PubMed

    Albright, J P; Powell, J W; Smith, W; Martindale, A; Crowley, E; Monroe, J; Miller, R; Connolly, J; Hill, B A; Miller, D

    1994-01-01

    In this prospective, multiinstitutional analysis of medial collateral ligament sprains in college football players, we categorized 987 previously uninjured study subjects according to frequency of wearing preventive knee braces, studied the patterns by which 47 of 100 injuries occurred to unbraced knees, and identified several extrinsic, sport-specific risk factors shared for both braced and unbraced knees. The attendance, brace wear choice, position, string, and session of each participant were recorded daily; medial collateral ligament sprains were reported whenever tissue damage was confirmed. Both the likelihood of wearing braces and risk of injury without them was highly dependent on session (games/practices), position group (line, linebacker/tight end, skill), and string group (players/nonplayers). Subjects wearing braces often faced a high injury risk to their unbraced knees, a finding compatible with the opinion that braces were a necessary evil, best worn when concern over danger of injury outweighed desire for speed and agility. It is concluded that to avoid misinterpretations due to the confounding influence of brace wear selection bias, accurate investigation of daily brace wear patterns is required. Then, before considing the impact of preventive knee braces, a repartitioning of the data base is essential to assure that only similar groups will be compared.

  6. Review of Research and Application of Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Braces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jing; Zhu, Zezhong; Zeng, Cong

    2017-06-01

    Many of RC frame structures are urgently needed to be strengthened and maintained due to the increase of service life, the change of use function, and the impact of natural disasters. This paper reviews the research status of strengthening RC structures with braces; introduces the features and connection forms of joints connecting with braces; summarizes the engineering application of buckling-restrained braces, pointing out that buckling-restrained brace is an effective means to strengthen the RC frame structures with more reliable performance and broad application prospect.

  7. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  8. A new dual bracing system for improving the seismic behavior of steel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kari, A.; Ghassemieh, M.; Abolmaali, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Shape memory alloy braces and buckling restrained braces have been shown to exhibit favorable energy dissipating characteristics in steel structures. However, buckling restrained braces are unable to recover their original shape after unloading and consequently experience large residual inter-story drifts after the earthquake, which leads to large permanent deformations in the structure. On the other hand, shape memory braces possess the recentering feature which enables them to recover their original shape. Nevertheless, compared to buckling restrained braced frames, the shape memory bracing frame usually experiences larger maximum inter-story drifts during the earthquake. This paper presents the results of a numerical study conducted to investigate the benefit of using the combination of buckling restrained braces and shape memory braces (dual bracing) in one structure, for the new design as well as retrofitting purposes. The superelastic model of shape memory alloy and plasticity model of steel are incorporated into the nonlinear finite element program particularly developed for this research. Results revealed that, with the proper configuration, both aims, namely minimizing both residual and maximum inter-story drifts, can be attained.

  9. Optimization of the place of the plastic hinges by steel braces at RC buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Farzad; Ragheb, Mohammad; Namazi, Meysam

    2012-12-01

    Usage of steel braces has become a solution not only for retrofitting of RC structures but as a method in designing of concrete frames in recent years. Although X-braced RC frames have been number of successful studies, but eccentric braced RC frames have not been studied seriously. Maybe it's because of the non ductile behaviour of concrete beams. In this article, a numerical study was conducted to evaluate performance of concrete frames, braced with eccentric steel brace with a vertical steel shear link. Vertical steel shear link eliminated shortcomings of non ductile concrete beam. Therefore 4, 8 and 12 storey concrete frames were designed and subjected to a push over analysis. Life safety level was chose to evaluate the frames and hinges performance. Results were compared with the same frames designed with X braces and moment resisting frame. Results indicated that steel braces shift the place of plastic hinges to be formed on the bracing members instead of columns and beams. Furthermore steel braces delayed the process of formation of first plastic hinge and column failure mechanism.

  10. Scoliosis brace design: influence of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance.

    PubMed

    Law, Derry; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yip, Joanne; Yick, Kit-Lun; Wong, Christina

    2016-09-06

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a common condition found in adolescents. A rigid brace is often prescribed as the treatment for this spinal deformity, which negatively affects user compliance due to the discomfort caused by the brace, and the psychological distress resulting from its appearance. However, the latter, which is the impact of visual aesthetics, has not been thoroughly studied for scoliosis braces. Therefore, a qualitative study with in-depth interviews has been carried out with 10 participants who have a Cobb angle of 20°-30° to determine the impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards the brace. It is found that co-designing with patients on the aesthetic aspects of the surface design of the brace increases the level of user compliance and induces positive user perception. Therefore, aesthetic preferences need to be taken into consideration in the design process of braces. Practitioner Summary: The impact of visual aesthetics on user acceptance and compliance towards a rigid brace for scoliosis is investigated. The findings indicate that an aesthetically pleasing brace and the involvement of patients in the design process of the brace are important for increasing user compliance and addressing psychological issues during treatment.

  11. Analysis of the dynamic response of eccentric, disposable, and arch-shaped bracing systems to earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Shiah, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    This research investigates the dynamic response of the split K braced frame (SKBF), disposable knee braced frame (DKBF), and arch shape braced frame (ASBF) subjected to earthquake loads and the influence of shear, rotatory inertia, and axial force on the frequencies and mode shapes of the vibrating built-in beams. An asymmetric braced model is introduced to study the elastic stability of the arch shaped braced frame. The influence of the axial force on the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the higher modes of the vibrating built-in beam are also studied. The earthquake loads are simulated by the random process using several built-up computer models. In these generated artificial earthquake models, the Autoregressive/Moving-Average (ARMA) models are used to analyze the San Fernando 1971 and El Centro 1941 earthquake loads. The energy-dissipating plates are used as the devices in the arch-shaped bracing frame in this study for the absorption of the earthquake energy. It is shown that the arch-shaped frame has a uniform story drift variation compared to split-K braced frame. The disposable knee braced frame has small story drift, and the arch-braced frame has no floor damages during earthquakes.

  12. Effect of bracing on patellofemoral joint stress while ascending and descending stairs.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher M; Ward, Samuel R; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chan, Li-Der; Terk, Michael R

    2004-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that individuals who respond favorably to bracing will exhibit decreased patellofemoral joint stress during stair ambulation. A repeated-measures, cross-sectional study. Ascending and descending stairs is one of the most painful activities of daily living for persons with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Although patellar bracing has been shown to reduce symptoms during such tasks, the underlying mechanism has not been identified. Fifteen subjects with a diagnosis of PFP completed 2 phases of data collection: (1) magnetic resonance imaging to determine patellofemoral joint contact area, and (2) gait analysis during stair ascent and descent. Data were obtained under braced and non-braced conditions. Variables obtained from both data collection sessions were used as input variables into a biomechanical model to quantify patellofemoral joint stress. Although subjects reported an average decrease in pain of 56%, bracing did not reduce peak stress during stair ascent and descent. This finding can be explained by the fact that despite improvements in contact area, bracing resulted in greater knee extensor muscle moments and joint reaction forces. Our results do not support the hypothesis that individuals with PFP would demonstrate reduced patellofemoral stress during stair ambulation following the application of a patellar brace. Although bracing did not decrease patellofemoral joint stress during stair ascent and descent, the decrease in pain, increase in quadriceps utilization, and tolerance of joint reaction forces would appear to be beneficial consequences of bracing.

  13. How accurate are lockable orthotic knee braces? An objective gait analysis study.

    PubMed

    Khan, W S; Jones, R K; Nokes, L; Johnson, D S

    2007-12-01

    There has been an increasing use of orthotic knee braces in the management of knee injuries but, to our knowledge, there is no gait analysis study assessing the accuracy of these braces. Eight healthy male subjects were studied to determine the accuracy of immobilisation or splintage provided by a lockable orthotic knee brace using gait analysis. Six types of immobilisation were studied: locked at 0, 10, 20, 30 degrees and unlocked in an orthotic knee brace, and without a brace. The knee flexion angles measured using the kinematic instruments at 0 and 10 degrees were significantly greater than those set at the knee brace. The knee flexion angle measured using the unlocked knee brace was significantly greater than that measured in the absence of a brace. This study highlights inaccuracies in a knee brace at low knee flexion angles. The higher actual angles alter the biomechanics of the knee joint and result in greater forces across the knee joint and especially the extensor mechanism.

  14. A biomechanical study of the static stabilizing effect of knee braces on medial stability.

    PubMed

    Baker, B E; VanHanswyk, E; Bogosian, S; Werner, F W; Murphy, D

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if commercially available braces could be shown to produce objective evidence of medial stabilization of the knee. Commercially available athletic braces were evaluated for their effect on abduction forces applied to a cadaver knee with no instability and with experimentally created medial instability. Under computer control, abduction forces were applied while simultaneous data were obtained from an electrogoniometer and transducers applied to the anterior cruciate ligament and the superficial medial collateral ligament at 0 degrees, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees of flexion. Our results showed a reduction in abduction angle using functional braces, whereas prophylactic braces demonstrated little or no protective effect.

  15. The effect of bracing on patellofemoral joint stress during free and fast walking.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher M; Ward, Samuel R; Chen, Yu-jen; Chan, Li-der; Terk, Michael R

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated decreases in patellofemoral pain (PFP) with the application of bracing, the mechanism by which bracing reduces symptoms has not been elucidated. Individuals who responded favorably to bracing will exhibit decreased patellofemoral stress during level walking. Repeated measures, cross-sectional. Fifteen subjects with a diagnosis of PFP completed two phases of data collection: 1) MRI assessment of patellofemoral contact area and 2) gait analysis. Data were obtained under braced and nonbraced conditions. Variables obtained from both data collection sessions were used as input variables into a mathematical model to quantify patellofemoral stress. Subjects reported a 56% reduction in pain following bracing. Bracing significantly reduced peak stress during free and fast walking (17% and 27%, respectively). The decrease in stress was the result of increased contact area as patellofemoral joint reaction forces were increased following bracing. Bracing resulted in a larger increase in patellofemoral contact area than the increase in joint reaction force, resulting in a decrease in joint stress. The results of this study suggest a possible mechanism by which bracing may be effective in reducing PFP and provides experimental support for the use of this treatment method.

  16. Controlling anterior tibial displacement under static load: a comparison of two braces.

    PubMed

    Branch, T; Hunter, R; Reynolds, P

    1988-09-01

    This article presents data comparing the restraining effect of the Lenox Hill and the CTi brace to static loading using the KT-1000 Knee Ligament Arthrometer. Testing was performed at 25 degrees and 90 degrees in 15 patients with documented single ligament injuries involving the anterior cruciate. The opposite knee was determined to be normal by subjective and objective testing and was used as the control. Results showed that the anterior drawer tests, both the Lenox Hill and the CTi brace improved the ACL deficient knee significantly. With 15 lb of passive loading, both the Lenox Hill and the CTi brace improved the drawer to within normal limits. However, only the CTi brace was able to return the drawer to within the normal range at the 20 lb force level. Neither brace improved the drawer to normal when subjected to the higher loads created by an active drawer test. At 90 degrees, 15 lb of passive loading could not discriminate between the braced and the unbraced knee or between the normal and ACL deficient knee. When 20 lb of force was applied, only the CTi brace improved the drawer significantly, which placed the drawer into the normal range. Under static testing condition, the CTi brace proved to be better than the Lenox Hill in controlling the anterior drawer in flexion and at 20 lb of passive loads; however, when higher loading forces were used in the active anterior drawer test, neither brace was effective in controlling anterior tibial translation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Knee braces can decrease tibial rotation during pivoting that occurs in high demanding activities.

    PubMed

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Tsiaras, Vasilios; Ristanis, Stavros; Zampeli, Franceska; Mitsionis, Grigoris; Stergiou, Nicholas; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether knee braces could effectively decrease tibial rotation during high demanding activities. Using an in vivo three-dimensional kinematic analysis, 21 physically active, healthy, male subjects were evaluated. Each subject performed two tasks that were used extensively in the literature because they combine increased rotational and translational loads on the knee, (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting under three conditions: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced), (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved), and (C) unbraced condition. In the first task, tibial rotation during the pivoting phase was significantly decreased in the braced condition as compared to the sleeved condition (P = 0.019) and the non-braced condition (P = 0.002). In the second task, the same variable was significantly decreased in the braced condition as compared to the sleeved (P = 0.001) and the unbraced condition (P < 0.001). The sleeved condition also produced significantly decreased tibial rotation with respect to the unbraced condition (P = 0.021). Bracing decreased tibial rotation in activities where increased translational and rotational forces were applied. Because knee braces decreased tibial rotation, they can possibly be used with ACL-reconstructed and ACL-deficient patients to prevent such problems. Case-control study, Level III.

  18. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease) and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published. PMID:20205874

  19. Very short-term effect of brace wearing on gait in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis girls.

    PubMed

    Mahaudens, Philippe; Banse, Xavier; Mousny, Maryline; Raison, Maxime; Detrembleur, Christine

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliotic (AIS) deformity induces excessive oxygen consumption correlated to a bilateral increase of lumbo-pelvic muscles timing activity (EMG) during gait. Wearing a brace, the usual treatment for AIS, by supporting the spine and the pelvis, would generate lumbo-pelvic muscular relaxation and consequently reduce excessive oxygen consumption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of bracing on gait biomechanics in scoliotic spine when compared with normal braced spine. Thirteen healthy volunteers were compared to 13 AIS girls. In both samples, gait analysis was assessed using a three-dimensional motion analysis, including synchronous kinematic, electromyographic, mechanical and energy measurements, first without brace, then wearing a brace. For scoliotic patients, comparison of in-brace and out-brace situations revealed a significant decrease of frontal pelvis (p < 0.001), hip (p < 0.001) and shoulder (p = 0.004) motion in brace associated with a significant reduction of pelvis rotation (p = 0.003). However, the brace did not change significantly the lumbo-pelvic muscle activity duration (EMG) or the mechanical and energetic parameters. Transversal pelvis motion was reduced by 39% (p = 0.04), frontal hip and shoulder motions by 23% (p = 0.004) and 30% (p = 0.01) respectively, and energy cost of walking remained increased by 37% in braced AIS girls relatively to braced healthy subjects. Mechanical and electromyographic variables were not significantly different between the two braced populations during gait except for the gluteus medius muscle that showed bilaterally an increase of duration of electrical activity in healthy subjects and contrarily a decrease in AIS patients (healthy: -3.5 ± 9.6% of gait cycle vs. scoliotic: 3.7 ± 7.7% of gait cycle; p = 0.04). Bracing changed neither the oxygen consumption nor the timing of the lumbo-pelvic muscles activity in both groups during gait. However, in brace the timing

  20. Satellite Monitoring of Boston Harbor Water Quality: Initial Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, P.; Chen, R. F.; Schaaf, C.; Pahlevan, N.; Lee, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The transformation of Boston Harbor from the "dirtiest in America" to a National Park Area is one of the most remarkable estuarine recoveries in the world. A long-term water quality dataset from 1991 to present exists in Boston Harbor due to a $3. 8 billion lawsuit requiring the harbor clean-up. This project uses discrete water sampling and underway transects with a towed vehicle coordinated with Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 to create surface maps of chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolved organic matter (CDOM and DOC), total suspended solids (TSS), diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd_490), and photic depth in Boston Harbor. In addition, 3 buoys have been designed, constructed, and deployed in Boston Harbor that measure Chl a and CDOM fluorescence, optical backscatter, salinity, temperature, and meteorological parameters. We are initially using summer and fall of 2015 to develop atmospheric corrections for conditions in Boston Harbor and develop algorithms for Landsat 8 data to estimate in water photic depth, TSS, Chl a, Kd_490, and CDOM. We will report on initial buoy and cruise data and show 2015 Landsat-derived distributions of water quality parameters. It is our hope that once algorithms for present Landsat imagery can be developed, historical maps of water quality can be constructed using in water data back to 1991.

  1. The Boston Marathon versus the World Marathon Majors.

    PubMed

    Maffetone, Philip B; Malcata, Rita; Rivera, Ivan; Laursen, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To compare finish times across WMM races for Boston, London, Berlin, Chicago and New York Marathons. Race times of the top 10 male and 10 female finishers were analyzed from 2005 to 2014 using the high-performance mixed linear model procedure in the Statistical Analysis System. Venue-to-venue comparisons, as well as comparisons between Boston and other WMM races, with and without factors of temperature, humidity and altitude change were examined. Performance from 2005 to 2014 in the WMM races was found to improve at a rate of ~1% each 7 years. Despite its higher variability, comparison between Boston's estimated mean finishing time and all other venues revealed moderate positive differences, indicating the Boston event to be typically slower than other venues. Across the 10-year study period, performance times improved ~1% each 7 years for both genders for the WMM, with the Boston Marathon being slower on average than other WMM venues. Weather rather than course metrics appeared to impact performance times most.

  2. Comparative study of the treatment outcomes of osteoporotic compression fractures without neurologic injury using a rigid brace, a soft brace, and no brace: a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Yi, Je-Min; Cho, Hyeon-Guk; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Kim, Jee Hyoung; Yeom, Jin S

    2014-12-03

    The efficacy of brace application for the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes in patients with osteoporotic compression fractures with regard to whether the patients had no braces, rigid braces, or soft braces. We randomly assigned sixty patients with acute one-level osteoporotic compression fractures within three days of injury to the no-brace, soft-brace, and rigid-brace groups through 1:1:1 allocation. The primary outcome was the baseline adjusted Oswestry Disability Index score at twelve weeks after compression fracture. The non-inferior margin of the Oswestry Disability Index was set at an average of 10 points. The baseline adjusted Oswestry Disability Index score at twelve weeks after compression fracture in the no-brace group was not inferior to that in the soft-brace or rigid-brace groups. The mean adjusted Oswestry Disability Index score was 35.95 points (95% confidence interval, 25.42 to 46.47 points) in the no-brace group and 37.83 points (95% confidence interval, 26.77 to 48.90 points) in the soft-brace group, with a difference of -1.88 points (95% confidence interval, -7.02 to 9.38 points) between the groups. Similarly, the mean adjusted Oswestry Disability Index score was 35.95 points (95% confidence interval, 25.42 to 46.47 points) in the no-brace group and 33.54 points (95% confidence interval, 23.79 to 43.29 points) in the rigid-brace group, with a difference of 2.41 points (95% confidence interval, -7.86 to 9.27 points) between the groups. During the follow-up assessment period, there was no significant difference among the groups for the overall Oswestry Disability Index scores (p = 0.260), visual analog scale for pain scores for back pain (p = 0.292), and anterior body compression ratios (p = 0.237). However, the Oswestry Disability Index scores and the visual analog scale scores for back pain significantly improved with time after the fractures (p < 0

  3. Correction of camptocormia using a cruciform anterior spinal hyperextension brace and back extensor strengthening exercise in a patient with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byung Kook; Kim, Hyoung-Seop; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by cardinal motor features including bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, postural instability, freezing gait, and fatigue. Of these, postural instability in the form of hyperflexion of the thoracolumbar spine upon standing and walking that disappears on recumbent positioning is called camptocormia. Many different trials have been conducted on the treatment of camptocormia, including physiotherapy, corsets, medications, and deep brain stimulation. However, there is insufficient evidence as to which treatment modality is the most valid in terms of effectiveness, cost, safety, and patient satisfaction. In this study, we present a patient whose symptom of camptocormia was effectively resolved using a cruciform anterior spinal hyperextension (CASH) brace and back extensor strengthening exercise which was modified through follow-ups based on a short-term outpatient setting for proper application with minimal discomfort. The patient was satisfied with the amount of correction provided by the brace and exercise.

  4. Effects of knee bracing on postural control after anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Palm, Hans-Georg; Brattinger, Florian; Stegmueller, Bernd; Achatz, Gerhard; Riesner, Hans-Joachim; Friemert, Benedikt

    2012-10-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the effects of functional knee braces on postural control in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. ACL rupture leads to both mechanical knee instability and deficits in proprioception. Although elastic knee braces do not increase mechanical stability, patients report improved stability when wearing a brace. Elastic braces were found to reduce the loss of proprioception. It is, however, still unclear whether they also improve postural control, which involves the processing of proprioceptive input at a higher level. We studied 58 patients with isolated unilateral ACL rupture using computerized dynamic posturography and compared overall stability index (OSI) scores for injured and uninjured legs with and without a knee brace. In addition, patients were classified as copers and non-copers depending on knee function. Within subjects, OSI scores were 3.0 ± 1.1° for uninjured legs when unbraced, 2.8±1.3° for uninjured legs when braced (p=0.17), 3.7 ± 1.5° for unbraced injured legs, and 2.9 ± 1.3° for braced injured legs (p<0.001). For the injured legs of copers and non-copers, OSI scores were 3.4° ± 1.2° for copers and 4.0° ± 1.6° for non-copers in the unbraced condition (p=0.11) and 2.7 ± 1.0° for copers and 3.1 ± 1.4° for non-copers in the braced condition (p=0.26). Elastic knee braces increase postural stability by approximately 22% in patients with ACL rupture. There was no difference in postural stability between uninjured and injured legs in the braced condition. One possible explanation is that bracing improves both proprioception and postural control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bracing in Ponseti Clubfoot Treatment: Improving Parental Adherence Through an Innovative Health Education Intervention.

    PubMed

    Seegmiller, Laura; Burmeister, Rebecca; Paulsen-Miller, Maria; Morcuende, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Clubfoot is the most common musculoskeletal birth defect, characterized by abnormal tendon and muscle development, leading to abnormal bone alignment of the feet. The Ponseti method is considered the gold standard in clubfoot treatment, and consists of a series of plaster castings, followed by 4 years of brace use. The most common cause of clubfoot relapse is nonadherence with the bracing protocol by the child's caretakers. The purpose of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate an educational bracing program for parents of children with clubfoot in an effort to improve bracing adherence. The educational bracing program for parents of children with clubfoot was designed with incorporation of findings from previous research, adult teaching methodology, and parental feedback. An educational brochure and a practice doll were created for use in educational sessions with parents during routine treatment visits. Two educational sessions were conducted with a health educator, employing identical questionnaires to assess changes in parental knowledge and skills upon completion of the program. Thirty parents completed the educational bracing program, and the majority reported increased knowledge and self-efficacy regarding the bracing protocol of the Ponseti method. In addition, the health practitioners who conducted the educational sessions witnessed an improved ability of all parents to apply the brace as directed, and to recognize and correct improper fit. Completion of the educational program by the parents resulted in immediate improvements in knowledge and skills related to clubfoot bracing. Given that noncompliance to the bracing protocol is the most common cause of clubfoot relapse, these immediate effects of the educational program are promising not only because they encourage proper brace use, but because these immediate improvements have the potential to reduce future rates of clubfoot relapse.

  6. Braces and orthoses for treating osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Duivenvoorden, Tijs; Brouwer, Reinoud W; van Raaij, Tom M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2015-03-16

    Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee can be treated with a knee brace or a foot/ankle orthosis. The main purpose of these aids is to reduce pain, improve physical function and, possibly, slow disease progression. This is the second update of the original review published in Issue 1, 2005, and first updated in 2007. To assess the benefits and harms of braces and foot/ankle orthoses in the treatment of patients with OA of the knee. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE (current contents, HealthSTAR) up to March 2014. We screened reference lists of identified trials and clinical trial registers for ongoing studies. Randomised and controlled clinical trials investigating all types of braces and foot/ankle orthoses for OA of the knee compared with an active control or no treatment. Two review authors independently selected trials and extracted data. We assessed risk of bias using the 'Risk of bias' tool of The Cochrane Collaboration. We analysed the quality of the results by performing an overall grading of evidence by outcome using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. As a result of heterogeneity of studies, pooling of outcome data was possible for only three insole studies. We included 13 studies (n = 1356): four studies in the first version, three studies in the first update and six additional studies (n = 529 participants) in the second update. We included studies that reported results when study participants with early to severe knee OA (Kellgren & Lawrence grade I-IV) were treated with a knee brace (valgus knee brace, neutral brace or neoprene sleeve) or an orthosis (laterally or medially wedged insole, neutral insole, variable or constant stiffness shoe) or were given no treatment. The main comparisons included (1) brace versus no treatment; (2) foot/ankle orthosis versus no treatment or other treatment; and (3) brace versus foot/ankle orthosis

  7. The Boston Area NEXRAD (Next Generation Weather Radar) Demonstration (BAND).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-08

    R164 426 THE BOSTON ARES NEXRAD (NEXT NERTION WEATHER RAA) 1/K DENONSTRATION (BRND)(U) AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS LR HANSCOM RFB MA D E FORSYTH ET AL. 08...8217 ""’""’"-’ -:"-"."ŕ"൓’ - - .6 AD-A164 426 AFGL-TR-85-0098 ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PAPERS, NO. 912 The Boston Area NEXRAD Demonstration (BAND) DOUGLAS E. FORSYTH...CO - NEXRAD JOINT SYSTEM PROGRAM OFFICE SILVER SPRING, MD 20900 LNEDJ. 86 221 015’ .... . - .-... -- .. "..".... "This technical report has been

  8. 77 FR 13147 - Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ....m. to 8 p.m. at Northeastern University, Forsyth Street, Shillman Hall, Room 220, Boston, MA. The..., Forsyth Street, Shillman Hall, Room 220, Boston, MA. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Superintendent...

  9. 78 FR 717 - ENE (Environment Northeast); Greater Boston Real Estate Board; National Consumer Law Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ENE (Environment Northeast); Greater Boston Real Estate Board; National..., ENE (Environment Northeast), Greater Boston Real Estate Board, National Consumer Law Center, and...

  10. 76 FR 7236 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Boston Stock Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Boston Stock Exchange... is hereby given that on January 19, 2011, Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia, Inc. (``SCCP'') and Boston Stock Exchange Clearing Corporation (``BSECC'') filed with the Securities and...

  11. 77 FR 43094 - Public Comment Period Extension for the Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Risk Assessment for the Boston University (BU) National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories... University (BU) National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories (NEIDL) was published in the Federal... Electronic Access: Copies of the Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston University National...

  12. Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #143.06, Spanning Snyder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boston & Maine Railroad, Berlin Branch Bridge #143.06, Spanning Snyder Brook at former Boston & Maine Railroad (now Presidential Range Rail Trail), just south of U.S. Route 2, Randolph, Coos County, NH

  13. 78 FR 41497 - Boston and Maine Corporation and Springfield Terminal Railroad Company-Petition for Declaratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation and Springfield Terminal Railroad Company--Petition for Declaratory Order The Boston and Maine Corporation and Springfield Terminal Railway...

  14. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  15. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  16. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  17. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  18. 49 CFR 230.25 - Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. 230... Boilers and Appurtenances Allowable Stress § 230.25 Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 223—Weedless TED Brace Bar Description ER21FE03.003 ...

  20. [The effects of functional knee bracing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Dubljanin-Raspopović, Emilija; Bumbasirević, Marko; Devecerski, Gordana; Matanović, Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Limited surgical technology in treating injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the past led to the development of a huge number of functional braces. Today, with the advance of the surgical techniques and a more aggressive rehabilitation approach in the postoperative course the use of functional braces after the ACL reconstruction is seriously questioned. The aim of this study was to review the basic functions of functional braces. Mechanical, and biomechanical functions of functional braces have been described, the psychological aspect of wearing them, their impact on thigh circumference, functional performance, muscle activity and postural control and propriocepation have also been addressed. Functional braces definitely increase the knee stability under low clinical loads. However, biomechanical investigations show that functional knee braces do not restore the normal knee stability under high forces related to certain activities. Furthermore, functional braces do not significantly influence proprioceptive abilities, nor functional performance, but have a negative impact on thigh atrophy, and inhibit joint muscle stabilizing activity. Given the generally high surgical success rates, there has been no scientific evidence so far to support the routine use of a functional knee brace following a successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the controlled rehabilitative postoperative course.

  1. A biomechanical analysis of a medial unloading brace for osteoarthritis in the knee.

    PubMed

    Self, B P; Greenwald, R M; Pflaster, D S

    2000-08-01

    The goals of the study were to measure the force applied to the lateral side of the knee by a valgus loading brace designed for patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) and to compare the varus moment at the knee during level gait with and without the brace. Five subjects diagnosed with medial compartment OA were fitted with a custom Monarch valgus loading knee brace. A 3-dimensional videobased motion analysis system and force plate information were used to calculate forces and moments at the knee. An instrumented condylar bladder was used to determine the force applied to the knee by the brace. The varus moments for the braced and unbraced trials were compared during gait at 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% of stance. The Monarch brace significantly reduced the varus moment at 20% and 25% of stance. The valgus force measured with the custom condylar bladder remained fairly constant throughout the first 80% of the stance phase. The reduced various moment observed for the braced condition demonstrates the biomechanical function of the brace in 5 subjects and may contribute to a reduction of pain for patients with medial compartment OA.

  2. The effect of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball-specific tasks.

    PubMed

    West, T; Ng, L; Campbell, A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle bracing on knee kinetics and kinematics during volleyball tasks. Fifteen healthy, elite, female volleyball players performed a series of straight-line and lateral volleyball tasks with no brace and when wearing an ankle brace. A 14-camera Vicon motion analysis system and AMTI force plate were used to capture the kinetic and kinematic data. Knee range of motion, peak knee anterior-posterior and medial-lateral shear forces, and peak ground reaction forces that occurred between initial contact with the force plate and toe off were compared using paired sample t-tests between the braced and non-braced conditions (P < 0.05). The results revealed no significant effect of bracing on knee kinematics or ground reaction forces during any task or on knee kinetics during the straight-line movement volleyball tasks. However, ankle bracing was demonstrated to reduce knee lateral shear forces during all of the lateral movement volleyball tasks. Wearing the Active Ankle T2 brace will not impact knee joint range of motion and may in fact reduce shear loading to the knee joint in volleyball players.

  3. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 223—Weedless TED Brace Bar Description ER21FE03.003 ...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 223—Weedless TED Brace Bar Description ER21FE03.003 ...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 223—Weedless TED Brace Bar Description ER21FE03.003 ...

  6. Low-cost alternative external rotation shoulder brace and review of treatment in acute shoulder dislocations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Schupbach, Justin; Vaidya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs). Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions) are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation.

  7. 50 CFR Figure 15 to Part 223 - Weedless TED Brace Bar Description

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weedless TED Brace Bar Description 15 Figure 15 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND.... 223, Fig. 15 Figure 15 to Part 223—Weedless TED Brace Bar Description ER21FE03.003 ...

  8. The effect of ankle brace type on braking response time-A randomised study.

    PubMed

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Haid, Christian; Thaler, Martin; Krismer, Martin; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    The question whether or not a patient with an ankle brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because brake response time (BRT) is considered one of the most important factors for driving safety. Applying a crossover study design, 70 healthy participants (35 women, 35 men) participated in our study. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. We assessed BRT under six conditions: without a brace (control) (1), with a typical postoperative ankle brace with adjustable ROM and the settings: unrestricted (2), fixed at 15° (3) plantar flexion, restricted with 15°/50° (4) (dorsal/plantar flexion), a brace for ligament instabilities (5) and an elastic ankle bandage (6). Participants were instructed to apply the brake pedal exclusively with the right foot as quickly as possible on receipt of a visual stimulus. The 70 participants showed significantly impaired BRT with the ankle brace for ROM restriction in the settings: unrestricted (p<0.001), fixed at 15° plantar flexion (p<0.001) and 15°/50° dorsal/plantar flexion (p<0.001) as compared to the control group. BRT was not impaired with the brace for ankle instabilities or the elastic ankle bandage. In conclusion, right-sided ROM restricting ankle braces involve significant impairment of BRT in healthy participants. No such prolonged BRT was found for an elastic ankle bandage or the ligament brace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How do ankle braces affect braking performance? An experimental driving simulation study with healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Ulf Krister; Thumm, Stefan; Jordan, Maurice; Mittag, Falk; Rondak, Ina-Christine; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-11-01

    Fitness to drive a car has been investigated increasingly over recent years. However, most research has focussed on perioperative driving performance, and few data are available on how orthoses influence the ability to perform an emergency stop. This study investigated the effect of 4 common ankle braces (Kallassy, CaligaLoc, Air-Stirrup, ASO) on reaction time, foot transfer time (together: brake response time) and brake force. The hypothesis was that wearing these braces on the right ankle impairs braking performance, specifically by increasing foot transfer time, but also by altering brake force. A car cabin was set up with measurement equipment to register reaction time, foot transfer time, brake response time and brake force under realistic spatial constraints. A crossover repeated measures design was used to test 30 healthy volunteers with and without each of the braces. All 4 braces resulted in statistically significantly increased foot transfer time (p < 0.001), compared with measurements without a brace. Reaction time with a brace was significantly prolonged, with the exception of the Kallasy. Brake force was not statistically significantly impaired. This study demonstrates that ankle braces lead to impaired braking performance. Depending on the type of brace, a stopping distance increase of more than 1 m at 100 km/h can be expected.

  10. Functional fracture bracing in metacarpal fractures: the Galveston metacarpal brace versus a plaster-of-Paris bandage in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J S; Freund, K G; Kejlå, G

    1993-01-01

    A total of 133 patients with fractures of the second through the fifth metacarpal bones were randomized to receive either a functional brace (the Galveston metacarpal brace) or a dorsal/ulnar plaster cast. Only 42% of the patients in the metacarpal-brace group completed the treatment, in contrast to 81% of the patients in the plaster-cast group. Complications with the brace were due to 60% of the exclusion. No difference according to gender, age, fracture type, hand affected (right/left), or mechanism of injury was observed between the patients who completed the treatment and those who were excluded. Reduction of fractures could not be demonstrated. Reduction of mobility was more frequent in the plaster-cast group, but three months postinjury no reduction of mobility was observed in either group.

  11. {l_brace}311{r_brace} Defects in ion-implanted silicon: The cause of transient diffusion, and a mechanism for dislocation formation

    SciTech Connect

    Eaglesham, D.J.; Stolk, P.A.; Cheng, J.Y.; Gossmann, H.J.; Poate, J.M.; Haynes, T.E.

    1995-04-01

    Ion implantation is used at several critical stages of Si integrated circuit manufacturing. The authors show how {l_brace}311{r_brace} defects arising after implantation are responsible for both enhanced dopant diffusion during annealing, and stable dislocations post-anneal. They observe {l_brace}311{r_brace} defects in the earliest stages of an anneal. They subsequently undergo rapid Ostwald ripening and evaporation. At low implant doses evaporation dominates, and they can quantitatively relate the interstitials emitted from these defects to the transient enhancement in diffusivity of dopants such as B and P. At higher doses Ostwald ripening is significant, and they observe the defects to undergo a series of unfaulting reactions to form both Frank loops and perfect dislocations. They demonstrate the ability to control both diffusion and dislocations by the addition of small amounts of carbon impurities.

  12. Yield stress anomaly for {1/2}[{l{underscore}angle}112]{l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} slip in {gamma}-titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, S.; Bird, N.; Hirsch, P.B.; Taylor, G.

    1999-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of dislocation structures in single crystals of TiAl containing 54.5 or 54.7 at% Al deformed at different temperatures revealed the occurrence of slip on {1/2}[{l{underscore}angle}112]{l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} at room temperature and near the peak of the yield stress anomaly (YSA). Measurements of the corresponding yield stresses revealed the existence of a YSA for this type of slip. Weak-beam TEM showed the presence of locks at room temperature for 30{degree} dislocations and at high temperatures for edge dislocations. Both types of locks involve dissociation on two intersecting {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace} type planes, driven by reduction in elastic strain energy. The edge dislocation dissociation at high temperatures involves both climb and glide.

  13. Loma Prieta response of an eccentrically braced tall building

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Acceleration response records obtained during the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake [Ms = 7.1] from the 47-story, eccentrically braced Embarcadero Building (No. 4) [EMB], located in San Francisco, California, are studied. The predominant response modes of the building and the associated dynamic characteristics are determined by spectral analyses and system identification techniques. The first modal frequencies are at approximately 0.19 Hz (NS) and 0.16 Hz (EW). Discontinuity of stiffness and mass at the 40th floor causes excessive drift ratios for the floors above.

  14. Evaluation of the Impact of Towing DC-9 Transport Airplanes at Boston-Logan Airport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    47 6. BOLT-SHOULDER-DRAG BRACE. .. ..... ..... ...... 47 7. HOUSING . .. ... ..... .... ..... ......... 52 8. PISTON-AXLE...DC-9 SERIES 30 PART NO. 3920626 BOLT, SHOULDER-DRAG BRACE . . . 53 31 DC-9 SERIES 50 PART NO. 3920626 BOLT, SHOULDER-DRAG BRACE . . . 54 32 HOUSING ...55 33 DC-9 SERIES 10 PART NO. 5927071 AND PART NO. 5928678, HOUSING . . 57 33 DC-9 SERIES 30 PART NO. 5927079

  15. Effect of Compliance Counseling on Brace Use and Success in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Karol, Lori A; Virostek, Donald; Felton, Kevin; Wheeler, Lesley

    2016-01-06

    Outcomes of orthotic management of idiopathic scoliosis depend on patient compliance with brace wear. The purpose of this study was to determine if counseling based on objective compliance data increases brace wear and therefore reduces the likelihood of surgery. Two hundred and twenty-two patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were prospectively enrolled in a study to determine if physician counseling based on data obtained from compliance monitors (sensors embedded in the brace) improves brace use and decreases curve progression. Patients were placed into two groups. In the counseled group, patients were aware of the compliance monitor in the brace and were counseled at each visit regarding downloaded brace-usage data. The patients in the noncounseled group were not told the purpose of the monitor in their brace, and the compliance data were not made available to the physician, orthotist, or patient. Ninety-three patients who were counseled with use of the compliance data and seventy-eight patients who were not so counseled completed bracing or underwent surgery; twenty-five patients were lost to follow-up before completing brace treatment, and twelve were still undergoing brace treatment at the time of the study review. The average curve magnitude at the initiation of bracing was 33.2° in the counseled group and 33.9° in the noncounseled group (p = 0.21 [not significant]). Patients in the counseled group wore their orthosis an average of 13.8 hours per day throughout their management, while noncounseled patients wore their brace an average of 10.8 hours per day (p = 0.002). Of the counseled patients who finished brace treatment, 59% did not have curve progression of ≥6°, whereas 25% had progression to ≥50° or to surgery. In the noncounseled group, 46% did not have curve progression of ≥6°, whereas 36% had progression to ≥50° or to surgery. Noncounseled patients who had curve progression to a magnitude requiring surgery wore their brace an

  16. A Validated Finite Element Procedure for Buckling Simulation of Diagonally Braced Moment Resisting Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfollahi, Mehrdad; Mehdi Alinia, Mohammad; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a validated, high fidelity finite element modeling procedure for Diagonally Braced Moment-Resisting Frames (DBMRFs). The model can accurately capture the DBMRF response prior to and through the brace-buckling regime. The model was calibrated through parametric sensitivity studies, which were performed to ascertain the effects of mesh refinement, initial brace imperfection shapes and amplitudes, and the effects of beam-column connection types on the developed analytical model. The validated analytical model can be used for further investigations on the buckling characteristics of the gusset brace system, and for predicting the yield mechanisms, failure modes, and deformation capacities of multistory DBMRFs. The model can also be used for determining frame ductilities, as well as regions of concentration of plastic strains within the frame members and the gusset brace system.

  17. Biomechanical evaluation of the ability of casts and braces to immobilize the ankle and hindfoot.

    PubMed

    Raikin, S M; Parks, B G; Noll, K H; Schon, L C

    2001-03-01

    We evaluated the ability of seven devices to immobilize a prosthetic ankle-foot complex against plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion forces: two casts (plaster of Paris and Fiberglas) and five removable braces (molded ankle/foot orthosis, composite boot brace, pneumatic boot walker, nonarticulating fracture boot, and ankle stirrup). Each device was applied to a prosthetic ankle-foot complex and evaluated on a test frame for resistance to sagittal motion and coronal torque. Results showed that casts offered significantly (P < or = 0.05) more resistance to motion in all directions tested than did the braces. The resistance offered by the devices tested depends on the conformity of the device to the shape of the foot in that plane and the material properties of the device. Braces offer the advantage of being easily removed and reapplied. Different braces offer specific advantages and disadvantages in different planes tested, and immobilization selection should be individualized based on this information.

  18. Effect of Brace to Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Brace is one of the most commonly used interventions to manage osteoporotic vertebral fracture. However, its authentic effectiveness remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of brace in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis following the guideline and handbook of the Cochrane collaboration. Ten published articles were included in this study and data from 4 randomized controlled trials were analyzed. Low quality evidence proved using Spinomed brace could bring large and significant beneficial effect to patients with sub-acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Very low quality evidence proved no significant difference between Spinomed orthosis, rigid brace and soft brace when they were used in patients with acute fractures. Therefore, it might be applicable to recommend middle term use of Spinomed orthosis to patients with subacute fracture. In addition, this study emphasized the need for high quality randomized controlled trials. PMID:27550495

  19. Lower Extremity Kinematics and Ground Reaction Forces After Prophylactic Lace-Up Ankle Bracing

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Lindsay J; Padua, Darin A; Brown, Cathleen N; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2008-01-01

    Context: Long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and kinetics are unknown. Ankle motion restriction may negatively affect the body's ability to attenuate ground reaction forces (GRFs). Objective: To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of ankle bracing on lower extremity kinematics and GRFs during a jump landing. Design: Experimental mixed model (2 [group] × 2 [brace] × 2 [time]) with repeated measures. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 37 healthy subjects were assigned randomly to either the intervention (n  =  11 men, 8 women; age  =  19.63 ± 0.72 years, height  =  176.05 ± 10.58 cm, mass  =  71.50 ± 13.15 kg) or control group (n  =  11 men, 7 women; age  =  19.94 ± 1.44 years, height  =  179.15 ± 8.81 cm, mass  =  74.10 ± 10.33 kg). Intervention(s): The intervention group wore braces on both ankles and the control group did not wear braces during all recreational activities for an 8-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Initial ground contact angles, maximum joint angles, time to reach maximum joint angles, and joint range of motion for sagittal-plane knee and ankle motion were measured during a jump-landing task. Peak vertical GRF and the time to reach peak vertical GRF were assessed also. Results: While participants were wearing the brace, ankle plantar flexion at initial ground contact (brace  =  35° ± 13°, no brace  =  38° ± 15°, P  =  .024), maximum dorsiflexion (brace  =  21° ± 7°, no brace  =  22° ± 6°, P  =  .04), dorsiflexion range of motion (brace  =  56° ± 14°, no brace  =  59° ± 16°, P  =  .001), and knee flexion range of motion (brace  =  79° ± 16°, no brace  =  82° ± 16°, P  =  .036) decreased, whereas knee flexion at initial ground contact increased (brace  =  12° ± 9°, no brace  =  9° ± 9°, P  =  .0001). Wearing the brace for 8

  20. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  1. Effect of Brace to Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuan Zhe; Lee, Jae Hyup

    2016-10-01

    Brace is one of the most commonly used interventions to manage osteoporotic vertebral fracture. However, its authentic effectiveness remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of brace in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis following the guideline and handbook of the Cochrane collaboration. Ten published articles were included in this study and data from 4 randomized controlled trials were analyzed. Low quality evidence proved using Spinomed brace could bring large and significant beneficial effect to patients with sub-acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Very low quality evidence proved no significant difference between Spinomed orthosis, rigid brace and soft brace when they were used in patients with acute fractures. Therefore, it might be applicable to recommend middle term use of Spinomed orthosis to patients with subacute fracture. In addition, this study emphasized the need for high quality randomized controlled trials.

  2. Evaluation of the mechanical efficiency of knee braces based on computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Molimard, Jérôme; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane; Calmels, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are commonly prescribed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic purposes on account of their claimed effect: joint stabilisation and proprioceptive input. However, the force transfer mechanisms of these devices and their level of action remain controversial. The objectives of this work are to characterise the mechanical performance of conventional knee braces regarding their anti-drawer effect using a finite element model of a braced lower limb. A design of experiment approach was used to quantify meaningful mechanical parameters related to the efficiency and discomfort tolerance of braces. Results show that the best tradeoff between efficiency and discomfort tolerance is obtained by adjusting the brace length or the strap tightening. Thanks to this computational analysis, novel brace designs can be evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency and a better compliance of the patient with the treatment.

  3. Julius Eichberg: String and Vocal Instruction in Nineteenth-Century Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sondra Wieland

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the career and contributions of Julius Eichberg (1824-93), a pioneer in string and vocal instruction in Boston (Massachusetts). Eichberg founded the Boston Conservatory, supervised music education for the Boston public school system, and taught teacher-training courses. In addition, he composed choral works and operas, and edited several…

  4. How Are Boston Pilot School Students Faring? "Student Demographics, Engagement, and Performance," 1998-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Rosann; Ouimette, Monique; Feldman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    This report examines the efficacy of the Boston Pilot Schools, a model of urban schools created in 1994 to promote innovation and increased choice options within the Boston Public Schools (BPS). Unlike most urban public schools, the Boston Pilot Schools have control over budget, staffing, curriculum, governance, and time, all critical conditions…

  5. 77 FR 70183 - Notice of Meeting for Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... National Park Service Notice of Meeting for Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council... notice that the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Advisory Council will hold a meeting. This..., Superintendent, Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, at (617) 223-8669 or Bruce_Jacobson@nps.gov...

  6. Improving Educational Outcomes of English Language Learners in Schools and Programs in Boston Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uriarte, Miren; Karp, Faye; Gagnon, Laurie; Tung, Rosann; Rustan, Sarah; Chen, Jie; Berardino, Michael; Stazesky, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    "Identifying Success in Schools and Programs for English Language Learners in Boston Public Schools," of which this report is one part, is a project commissioned by the Boston Public Schools as part of this process of change set in motion by the intervention of the state and the federal governments on behalf of Boston's English language…

  7. Julius Eichberg: String and Vocal Instruction in Nineteenth-Century Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Sondra Wieland

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the career and contributions of Julius Eichberg (1824-93), a pioneer in string and vocal instruction in Boston (Massachusetts). Eichberg founded the Boston Conservatory, supervised music education for the Boston public school system, and taught teacher-training courses. In addition, he composed choral works and operas, and edited several…

  8. Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and thermal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fomina, Irina; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Aleksandrov, Grygory; Emelina, Anna; Bykov, Mikhail; Bogomyakov, Artem; Puntus, Lada; Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor

    2012-01-15

    The new 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} (1), where Piv=OOCBu{sup t-}, was synthesized in high yield (>95%) by the reaction of thulium acetate with pivalic acid in air at 100 Degree-Sign S. According to the X-ray diffraction data, the metal atoms in compound 1 are in an octahedral ligand environment unusual for lanthanides. The magnetic and luminescence properties of polymer 1, it's the solid-phase thermal decomposition in air and under argon, and the thermal behavior in the temperature range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S were investigated. The vaporization process of complex 1 was studied by the Knudsen effusion method combined with mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas-phase composition in the temperature range of 570-680 K. - Graphical Abstract: Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic, luminescence properties, the thermal behavior and the volatility for the compound {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} were investigated. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized the coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tm atoms in polymer have the coordination number 6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer exhibits blue-color emission at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer shows high thermal stability and volatility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer has no phase transitions in the range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S.

  9. Trunk Muscle Activities During Abdominal Bracing: Comparison Among Muscles and Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank) and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench) exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax). The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60%) than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%). The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Key Points Trunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing was examined with regard to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Abdominal bracing preferentially activates internal oblique muscles even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Abdominal bracing should be

  10. The halo-Milwaukee brace. Case series of a revived technique.

    PubMed

    Godfried, D H; Amory, D W; Lubicky, J P

    1999-11-01

    A case series in which the halo-Milwaukee brace was used for postoperative immobilization in children with complex congenital and developmental spinal deformities. To describe the use of halo-Milwaukee orthosis in a pediatric population for stabilization of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. Postoperative immobilization of the neck and upper thorax can be achieved with cervical orthoses, cervicothoracic lumbar orthosis, halo cast, Minerva jacket, or halo vest. In the young child or in individuals with severe deformities, prefabricated braces often do not provide adequate stability or predictable fit. The halo-Milwaukee brace has proven to be an effective and versatile technique in the management of complex pediatric spinal deformities. Halo-Milwaukee brace immobilization was used in 12 patients after surgical stabilization of the upper thoracic or cervical spine. Technique and indications are discussed in this report. Surgical outcomes and complications were reviewed retrospectively in all cases. Application of the halo-Milwaukee brace was a clinically effective and safe means of controlling the upper thoracic and cervical spine. The orthosis was well tolerated and allowed access to the posterior incision. The brace is easily converted to a standard Milwaukee brace with neck ring. The pelvic segment of the brace is molded before surgery, and in most instances did not require postoperative modification. The halo-Milwaukee brace is a simple and convenient method of intraoperative and postoperative immobilization. The technique is applicable in patients who cannot be treated with more conventional off-the-shelf orthoses. The brace was well tolerated and allowed for early patient mobilization.

  11. Student Assignment Information, 1984-1985. Boston Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Public Schools, MA. Dept. of Implementation.

    This booklet provides parents and students with information about individual schools and programs within the Boston Public School system. The first section answers common questions about enrollment procedures, school assignments, bilingual education programs, kindergarten, transportation eligibility, family changes of address, and parent…

  12. Achieve Boston: A Citywide Innovation in Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbosa, Moacir; Gannett, Ellen S.; Goldman, Jude; Wechsler, Samantha; Noam, Gil G.

    2004-01-01

    Several years ago intermediaries in Boston were challenged to build a continuum of training around a shared set of competencies for those who work with young people ages five to twenty-two during the out-of-school-time hours. After receiving a few small planning grants, local intermediaries teamed up with large youth-serving organizations to…

  13. Community Involvement in Planning New Schools in Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, William D.

    This dissertation is based on the author's role as "community consultant" to the Educational Planning Center, Boston Public Schools for three school planning projects: a 5,000 pupil city-wide campus high school in Madison Park, Roxbury; dispersed-site schools for the South End; an elementary school integrated with a new school for the…

  14. The Emerald Necklace: Boston's Green Connection. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Lisa; Snow, Pamela

    In 1870, Boston, Massachusetts, was an overcrowded, noisy, and dirty city. Concerned with the health and happiness of Bostonians restricted to these unhealthy surroundings, the city hired Frederick Law Olmsted to design a park system. The series of parks he designed over the next several years is known as the Emerald Necklace. From lovely…

  15. Deadly Serious: The Boston Marathon Tragedy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2013-01-01

    Two bombs exploded at the Boston Marathon on Monday, April 15, killing three and injuring more than 260. The pressure-cooker bombs sent shrapnel at leg-level, leading to amputations for 15 victims. An immediate concern was how to deal with the feelings of school children whose sense of safety was shattered by the blasts. As the city healed, Boston…

  16. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the easternmost tower at Nahant, charted in approximate position latitude 42°25.4′ N., longitude 70°54.6′ W., to Boston Lighted Horn Buoy “B”; thence to the esternmost radio tower at Hull, charted...

  17. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the easternmost tower at Nahant, charted in approximate position latitude 42°25.4′ N., longitude 70°54.6′ W., to Boston Lighted Horn Buoy “B”; thence to the esternmost radio tower at Hull, charted...

  18. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the easternmost tower at Nahant, charted in approximate position latitude 42°25.4′ N., longitude 70°54.6′ W., to Boston Lighted Horn Buoy “B”; thence to the esternmost radio tower at Hull, charted...

  19. The Edison Project Scores--and Stumbles--in Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Peggy

    1998-01-01

    Evidence from the Boston Renaissance Charter School suggests that the Edison Project is struggling fitfully to learn school management. Reliance on suspension and physical restraints demonstrates Edison Project's lack of experience with inner-city children. Test scores are up, but faculty are warring over school mission, teachers are struggling to…

  20. Boston College Case Shows Weakness of Researchers' Confidentiality Pledges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The author reports on a legal battle over oral-history records housed at Boston College that casts light on how little legal weight pledges of confidentiality to research subjects actually have. As a federal court weighs whether to let the federal government seize, and hand over to British authorities, the college's records of confidential…

  1. Charter, Private, and Public Schools Work Together in Boston

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Diana

    2014-01-01

    A public, Catholic, and charter school in Boston all work together to share their strengths and learn from each other in an effort to deliver the best education for all of their students. The arrangement is called the School Performance Partnership, and it is a grantee of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  2. 13. Photocopy of drawing (original in AMTRAK Engineering Department), Boston ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of drawing (original in AMTRAK Engineering Department), Boston Bridge Works, Inc., March 8, 1912 N. Y. N. H. & H. R. R. BRIDGE #214 SHORE LINE DIV. DETAILS OF SIDEWALK BKTS, SHOES, ROLLERS, ETC. - Ferry Street Railroad Bridge, Ferry Street over New Haven Railroad, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. The Boston Connects Program: Promoting Learning and Healthy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mary E.; Kenny, Maureen E.; Wieneke, Kristin M.; Harrington, Kara R.

    2008-01-01

    The Boston Connects Program is a school-community-university partnership in which school counselors play a pivotal role in coordinating a comprehensive system of preventive services and student supports. The program is designed to promote healthy academic, social-emotional, and physical development for all children; reduce barriers to academic…

  4. Busing in Boston: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    Unit two to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course focuses on a specific controversial political issue: court-ordered busing in Boston. A documentary approach represents the core of instruction in this 12th-grade unit. This approach avoids lengthy narratives of a theoretical approach and yet is more in-depth than…

  5. 5 Boston Colleges Join Forces to Seek Economies of Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1996-01-01

    Five Boston (Massachusetts) institutions (Emmanuel College, Simmons College, Wheelock College, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, and Wentworth Institute of Technology) have formed a partnership to coordinate planning for and share academics, buildings, and student services. Officials see the arrangement as a way to save…

  6. Women Students at the Boston Architectural Center 1975-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Martha

    The Boston Architectural Center (BAC) offers a positive educational environment and contributes to opening the architectural profession to women. Results of a survey indicate that the percentage of female undergraduates and female faculty is higher than at other architectural schools. Also, 292 women who have attended or are attending the BAC were…

  7. The Boston Connects Program: Promoting Learning and Healthy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mary E.; Kenny, Maureen E.; Wieneke, Kristin M.; Harrington, Kara R.

    2008-01-01

    The Boston Connects Program is a school-community-university partnership in which school counselors play a pivotal role in coordinating a comprehensive system of preventive services and student supports. The program is designed to promote healthy academic, social-emotional, and physical development for all children; reduce barriers to academic…

  8. The College Work-Study Program at Boston College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Joseph M.; And Others

    During the calendar year 1968, Boston College provided jobs for 783 students under the Federal College Work-Study Program. The jobs ranged from simple clerical to complex community service and computer operation positions, and every attempt was made to place students in positions related to the individual's educational experience and career goals.…

  9. Racial Equity and Opportunity in Metro Boston Job Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    People of color make up a vital and growing part of Metro Boston's workforce, yet they face substantial challenges in obtaining employment (especially in faster-growing and higher-paying sectors), in reaching locations of rapid job growth, and in earning a livable income. Latinos and blacks face the greatest hurdles, yet certain Asian populations…

  10. A Report on the Schools of Boston - 1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Redevelopment Authority, MA.

    As part of its plan for urban renewal in Boston, the Redevelopment Authority initiated this study of the school buildings of the city. The study is based upon an intensive analysis of enrollment projections, the conditions of existing schools, the grade organization, and the impact of urban renewal on individual areas and on the city as a whole.…

  11. Building a Family-School Partnership at a Boston School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinchy, Evans

    1994-01-01

    Profiles the development and operation of a parent center in a Boston (Massachusetts) elementary school, the Paul A. Dever School. The school, with a high percentage of minority and low-income students, finds the parent center an important step in moving toward its goals of success for each child. (SLD)

  12. Grover Cleveland School, Boston, Massachusetts. Refurbishment and Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Electric Co., Philadelphia, PA.

    The solar heating system is a retrofit installation on the roof of the Grover Cleveland Middle School in Boston. The system includes 4,600 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 2,000 gallon solar energy storage tank, plus the required structural steel, piping, insulation, pumps, heat exchangers, and controls to heat the air supplied by two…

  13. Grover Cleveland School, Boston, Massachusetts. Refurbishment and Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Electric Co., Philadelphia, PA.

    The solar heating system is a retrofit installation on the roof of the Grover Cleveland Middle School in Boston. The system includes 4,600 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 2,000 gallon solar energy storage tank, plus the required structural steel, piping, insulation, pumps, heat exchangers, and controls to heat the air supplied by two…

  14. Deadly Serious: The Boston Marathon Tragedy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2013-01-01

    Two bombs exploded at the Boston Marathon on Monday, April 15, killing three and injuring more than 260. The pressure-cooker bombs sent shrapnel at leg-level, leading to amputations for 15 victims. An immediate concern was how to deal with the feelings of school children whose sense of safety was shattered by the blasts. As the city healed, Boston…

  15. Charter, Private, and Public Schools Work Together in Boston

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Diana

    2014-01-01

    A public, Catholic, and charter school in Boston all work together to share their strengths and learn from each other in an effort to deliver the best education for all of their students. The arrangement is called the School Performance Partnership, and it is a grantee of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  16. Boston College Case Shows Weakness of Researchers' Confidentiality Pledges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The author reports on a legal battle over oral-history records housed at Boston College that casts light on how little legal weight pledges of confidentiality to research subjects actually have. As a federal court weighs whether to let the federal government seize, and hand over to British authorities, the college's records of confidential…

  17. Boston Public Schools Promotion Policy, Grades 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Public Schools, MA.

    In November 1983, the Boston School Committee approved the establishment of a promotion policy for students in grades 1 through 12. This document first introduces that policy and explores implementation plans. Second, a rationale is presented that cites six major reasons for the policy's creation: attaining equity, holding students to grade level…

  18. Shoot growth and leaf dimorphism in Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata)

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1970-01-01

    Boston ivy, a common ornamental vine in the grape family, successively produces two kinds of leaves during the growing season. The two "early leaves" at the base of each shoot are preformed in the winter bud, and their expansion in the spring is accompanied by little stem elongation. At maturity they have large three-lobed blades and long petioles. Most short...

  19. Boston Naming Test Discontinuation Rule: "Rigorous" versus "Lenient" Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferman, Tanis J.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Lucas, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Two interpretations of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) (E. Kaplan, H. Goodglass, and S. Weintraub, 1983) discontinuation rule of six consecutive failures were found in BNT use with 655 normal older adults and 140 people with Alzheimer's disease. Differences between lenient and rigorous interpretations of responses could have impact on…

  20. The Boston Naming Test in Swedish: Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallberg, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to introduce a Swedish version of the Boston Naming Test and to offer normative data based on a sample of native Swedish-speaking healthy adults stratified concerning age, gender, and length of education. The subjects were assessed with other lexical tests and half of the group also performed tests of global…

  1. Women Students at the Boston Architectural Center 1975-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Martha

    The Boston Architectural Center (BAC) offers a positive educational environment and contributes to opening the architectural profession to women. Results of a survey indicate that the percentage of female undergraduates and female faculty is higher than at other architectural schools. Also, 292 women who have attended or are attending the BAC were…

  2. Soil amplification with a strong impedance contrast: Boston, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baise, Laurie G.; Kaklamanos, James; Berry, Bradford M; Thompson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the effect of strong sediment/bedrock impedance contrasts on soil amplification in Boston, Massachusetts, for typical sites along the Charles and Mystic Rivers. These sites can be characterized by artificial fill overlying marine sediments overlying glacial till and bedrock, where the depth to bedrock ranges from 20 to 80 m. The marine sediments generally consist of organic silts, sand, and Boston Blue Clay. We chose these sites because they represent typical foundation conditions in the city of Boston, and the soil conditions are similar to other high impedance contrast environments. The sediment/bedrock interface in this region results in an impedance ratio on the order of ten, which in turn results in a significant amplification of the ground motion. Using stratigraphic information derived from numerous boreholes across the region paired with geologic and geomorphologic constraints, we develop a depth-to-bedrock model for the greater Boston region. Using shear-wave velocity profiles from 30 locations, we develop average velocity profiles for sites mapped as artificial fill, glaciofluvial deposits, and bedrock. By pairing the depth-to-bedrock model with the surficial geology and the average shear-wave velocity profiles, we can predict soil amplification in Boston. We compare linear and equivalent-linear site response predictions for a soil layer of varying thickness over bedrock, and assess the effects of varying the bedrock shear-wave velocity (VSb) and quality factor (Q). In a moderate seismicity region like Boston, many earthquakes will result in ground motions that can be modeled with linear site response methods. We also assess the effect of bedrock depth on soil amplification for a generic soil profile in artificial fill, using both linear and equivalent-linear site response models. Finally, we assess the accuracy of the model results by comparing the predicted (linear site response) and observed site response at the Northeastern

  3. Patellar bracing affects sEMG activity of leg and thigh muscles during stance phase in patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salarie Sker, Fatemeh; Anbarian, Mehrdad; Yazdani, Amir H; Hesari, Pouria; Babaei-Ghazani, Arash

    2017-06-29

    Decreases in patellofemoral pain symptoms with bracing treatment have been established; but, the mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long-term effects of the patellar bracing on electromyography (EMG) activity of the Vastus Medialis (VM) and Lateralis (VL), Rectus Femoris, lateral Gastrocnemius, Biceps Femoris and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles during level walking. 12 eligible women aged 20-30 years with diagnosis of patellofemoral pain participated in the before and after study. Intervention consisted of 8 weeks of patellar bracing. First, patients were tested without brace, then with a brace, and finally eight weeks later without a brace. Surface EMG activation of the selected muscles during level walking was recorded. After eight weeks of patellar bracing, EMG activity of VM muscle was significantly higher when compared to first session without brace (p=0.011) at mid-stance sub-phase. Additionally, EMG activity of ST muscle during first session with brace was significantly lower when compared to first session without brace at mid-stance sub-phase (without brace) (p=0.012). EMG activity of VM muscle after eight weeks of patellar bracing was significantly higher than the first session without brace at late stance and preswing sub-phase (p=0.013). Long-term wearing of patellar bracing increases EMG activity of VM during mid-stance and late stance and preswing sub-phases of gait and immediate effect of patellar brace is decrease of EMG activity of ST muscle during mid-stance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prospective evaluation of physical activity in patients with idiopathic scoliosis or kyphosis receiving brace treatment.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carsten; Fuchs, Katharina; Winter, Corinna; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Schmidt, Carolin; Bullmann, Viola; Schulte, Tobias L

    2011-07-01

    Bracing is an established method of conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and kyphosis. Compliance among adolescents is frequently inadequate due to the discomfort of wearing a brace, cosmetic issues, and fear on the part of patients and parents that bracing may reduce everyday physical activities. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to objectify the impact of spinal bracing on daily step activity in patients receiving conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) or adolescent kyphosis (AK). Forty-eight consecutive patients (mean age 13.4 ± 2.3 years), consisting of 38 AIS patients (33 girls, 5 boys) and 10 AK patients (6 girls, 4 boys) were included. Once the decision to carry out bracing had been taken and while the patients were waiting for the individual brace to be built, step activity was assessed without braces by means of step activity monitoring (SAM) for seven consecutive days. After 8 weeks of brace wearing, step activity was assessed during regular brace treatment, again for seven consecutive days. In addition, brace-wearing times were simultaneously recorded using temperature probes implanted in the braces to measure compliance. Before and during brace treatment, patients completed the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) questionnaire. The SAM was worn for an average of 12.7 ± 1.5 h/day during the first measurement and 12.3 ± 1.9 h on average during the second measurement. The mean gait cycles (GCs) per day and per hour before treatment were 5,036 ± 1,465 and 395 ± 105, respectively. No significant reduction in step activity was found at the follow-up measurement during bracing, at 4,880 ± 1,529 GCs/day and 403 ± 144 GCs/h. Taking the 23-h recommended time for brace wearing as a basis (100%), patients wore the brace for 72.7 ± 27.6% of the prescribed time, indicating an acceptable level of compliance. Girls showed a higher compliance level (75.6 ± 25.6%) in comparison with boys (56.7 ± 31

  5. Seismic response control of frame structure braced with SMA tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shi; Song, Gangbing; Huo, Linsheng; Gu, Haichang

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents studies of seismic response control of a frame structure braced with SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) tendons through both numerical and experimental approaches. Based on the Brinson one-dimensional constitutive law for SMAs, a two-story frame structure braced diagonally with SMA tendons is used as an example to simulate numerically the vibration control process. By considering the temperature, different initial states and thermal properties of the SMA tendon, and the variable intensity and frequency of earthquake input, the parameters of the system were analyzed during the numerically simulation. The time histories of the displacement and hysteretic loops of the SMA tendons were simulated under earthquake ground motion by using finite element method (FEM). To validate the efficiency of the simulation, a shaking table test for the frame structure was conducted. Both numerical simulation and experimental results show that the actively controlled martensite SMA tendons can effectively suppress the vibration of the multi-story frame structure during an earthquake.

  6. Full scale tests of all-steel buckling restrained braces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Wu, Bin; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping; Yang, Weibiao

    2009-03-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) are widely used seismic response-controlling members with excellent energy dissipation capacity without buckling at design deformation. However, the property of all-steel BRBs with cruciform cross section encased in a square steel tube remains insufficiently studied. In this paper, the properties of this kind of BRBs, which were used in two office buildings in Beijing, were examined by full-scale test. First, initial design was done according to the client's requirement. Then, two full-scale specimens were tested under uniaxial quasi-static cyclic loading. The test results indicate that there should be no welding in yielding portion of the core. Finally, the full-scale subassemblage test was done with an improved BRB and gusset plates installed in a frame. The result shows that the brace exhibited high energy dissipation capacity and stable hysteretic characteristic. According to the results from above tests, some important issues are summarized to provide advices for practical applications.

  7. Spring tube braces for seismic isolation of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karayel, V.; Yuksel, Ercan; Gokce, T.; Sahin, F.

    2017-01-01

    A new low-cost seismic isolation system based on spring tube bracings has been proposed and studied at the Structural and Earthquake Engineering Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. Multiple compression-type springs are positioned in a special cylindrical tube to obtain a symmetrical response in tension and compression-type axial loading. An isolation floor, which consists of pin-ended steel columns and spring tube bracings, is constructed at the foundation level or any intermediate level of the building. An experimental campaign with three stages was completed to evaluate the capability of the system. First, the behavior of the spring tubes subjected to axial displacement reversals with varying frequencies was determined. In the second phase, the isolation floor was assessed in the quasi-static tests. Finally, a ¼ scaled 3D steel frame was tested on the shake table using actual acceleration records. The transmitted acceleration to the floor levels is greatly diminished because of the isolation story, which effects longer period and higher damping. There are no stability and self-centering problems in the isolation floor.

  8. Cruise Speed Sensitivity Study for Transonic Truss Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's investment and research in aviation has led to new technologies and concepts that make aircraft more efficient and environmentally friendly. One aircraft design operational concept is the reduction of cruise speed to reduce fuel burned during a mission. Although this is not a new idea, it was used by all of the contractors involved in a 2008 NASA sponsored study that solicited concept and technology ideas to reduce environmental impacts for future subsonic passenger transports. NASA is currently improving and building new analysis capabilities to analyze advanced concepts. To test some of these new capabilities, a transonic truss braced wing configuration was used as a test case. This paper examines the effects due to changes in the design cruise speed and other tradeoffs in the design space. The analysis was baselined to the Boeing SUGAR High truss braced wing concept. An optimization was run at five different design cruise Mach numbers. These designs are compared to provide an initial assessment space and the parameters that should be considered when selecting a design cruise speed. A discussion of the design drivers is also included. The results show that the wing weight in the current analysis has more influence on the takeoff gross weight than expected. This effect caused lower than expected wing sweep angle values for higher cruise speed designs.

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 88-236-2090, Boston Globe, Boston, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, T.A.

    1990-12-01

    In response to a request from a joint management/union committee at the Boston Globe (SIC-2711), a health hazard evaluation was conducted at both printing facilities of the company located in Dorchester and Billerica, Massachusetts concerning exposures to solvents and inks, and the occurrence of hematuria, bladder cancer, and respiratory, skin and neuropsychological complaints. Worker exposures to particulate material were quite low for pressmen and other press room employees working on the first deck. The areas by the folder where paper was cut had the highest particulate concentrations. Particulate samples appeared to consist primarily of paper dust, rather than ink mist. Concentrations of total naphthas were higher in air samples obtained during the make ready shift. The lack of glove use by some workers as well as the use of improper glove materials were deemed important factors in dermal exposures. The author concludes that there was a potential for significant dermal exposure to organic solvents, particularly glycol ethers. The author recommends the use of proper gloves, better techniques for cleaning equipment, institution of a formal respiratory protection program, better attention to personal hygiene and eating habits at the work site, vacuuming to remove dust from the cutters, improvements in the ceiling mounted exhaust system, repairing of some of the available safety equipment, and installation of local exhaust ventilation.

  10. Prophylactic Ankle Braces and Knee Varus-Valgus and Internal-External Rotation Torque

    PubMed Central

    Venesky, Kandy; Docherty, Carrie L; Dapena, Jesus; Schrader, John

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although prophylactic ankle bracing has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of ankle sprains, how these ankle braces might affect the other joints of the lower extremity is not clearly understood. Objective: To determine the effects of a prophylactic ankle brace on knee joint varus-valgus and internal-external rotation torque during a drop landing onto a slanted surface. Design: A repeated-measures design. Setting: Biomechanics research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four physically active college students. Intervention(s): Participants were tested in a brace and no-brace condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured 3 dependent variables: (1) peak ankle inversion-eversion torque, (2) peak knee varus-valgus torque, and (3) peak knee internal-external rotation torque. A forceplate was used to collect ground reaction force data, and 6 motion analysis cameras collected kinematic data during the unilateral drop landing. An adjustable bar was hung from the ceiling, and a slant board was positioned over the center of the forceplate, so that the ankle of the participant's dominant leg would invert upon landing. Peak torque was measured in both the brace and no-brace conditions. The average of the peak values in 3 trials for both conditions was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Ankle eversion torque was significantly greater in the brace condition (F1,23 = 19.75, P < .01). Knee external rotation torque was significantly greater in the brace condition (F1,23 = 4.33,P < .05). Valgus knee torque was smaller in the brace condition, but the difference was not statistically significant (F1,23 = 3.45,P = .08). Conclusions: This study provides an important first step in understanding the effects of prophylactic ankle bracing on other joints of the lower extremity. We found that prophylactic ankle bracing did have an effect on knee torque when the subject was landing on a slanted surface. Specifically, knee external rotation

  11. Does an unloader brace reduce knee loading in normally aligned knees?

    PubMed

    Ebert, Jay R; Hambly, Karen; Joss, Brendan; Ackland, Timothy R; Donnelly, Cyril J

    2014-03-01

    Unloading knee braces often are used after tibiofemoral articular cartilage repair. However, the experimental basis for their use in patients with normal tibiofemoral alignment such as those undergoing cartilage repair is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of varus and valgus adjustments to one commercially available unloader knee brace on tibiofemoral joint loading and knee muscle activation in populations with normal knee alignment. The gait of 20 healthy participants (mean age 28.3 years; body mass index 22.9 kg/m(2)) was analyzed with varus and valgus knee brace conditions and without a brace. Spatiotemporal variables were calculated as were knee adduction moments and muscle activation during stance. A directed cocontraction ratio was also calculated to investigate the relative change in the activation of muscles with medial (versus lateral) moment arms about the knee. Group differences were investigated using analysis of variance. The numbers available would have provided 85% power to detect a 0.05 increase or decrease in the knee adduction moment (Nm/kg*m) in the braced condition compared with the no brace condition. With the numbers available, there were no differences between the braced and nonbraced conditions in kinetic or muscle activity parameters. Both varus (directed cocontraction ratio 0.29, SD 0.21, effect size 0.95, p = 0.315) and valgus (directed cocontraction ratio 0.28, SD 0.24, effect size 0.93, p = 0.315) bracing conditions increased the relative activation of muscles with lateral moment arms compared with no brace (directed cocontraction ratio 0.49, SD 0.21). Results revealed inconsistencies in knee kinetics and muscle activation strategies after varus and valgus bracing conditions. Although in this pilot study the results were not statistically significant, the magnitudes of the observed effect sizes were moderate to large and represent suitable pilot data for future work. Varus bracing increased knee

  12. Tegner and Lysholm scores in brace-free rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Husham A

    2004-12-01

    To compare results of aggressive method of rehabilitation after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament against results of standard braced method of rehabilitation, and to determine prognostic factors. This is a retrospective comparative study with statistical analysis. In this study, 85 patients were operated in the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 1998 and December 2001, and underwent rehabilitation with a minimum follow up of 2 years. The patients were split into 2 groups. Group A consist of 32 patients and they underwent the standard rehabilitation program according to established braced programs. Group B is the subsequent 53 consecutive patients who were subjected to aggressive brace-free rehabilitation program. All knees were measured for Tegner and Lysholm scores as the main indicator of assessment in the preinjury hindsight appraisal, and compared with scores obtained 4 months and 2 years post reconstruction. Linking the preinjury Tegner and Lysholm scores to the 4 months follow up scores for group A, there was a mean loss of 1.9 and 14 constituting 26% and 22.2% (p=0.015), range 1.07-3.5 and 9.8-23.5. Linking the preinjury Tegner and Lysholm scores to the 4 months follow up scores for group B, there was a mean loss of 1.1 and 9.0 constituting 15.4% and 13.6% (p=0.012), range 0.67-3.5 and 6.8-13.5. When comparing the preinjury Tegner and Lysholm scores to the 2 years follow up scores for group A, there was a mean loss of 1.0 and 8.0 constituting 13.6% and 11.6% (p=0.024), range 0.67-3.5 and 6.8-13.5. When comparing the preinjury Tegner and Lysholm scores to 2 years follow up scores for group B, there was a mean loss of 0.4 and 1.0 constituting 5.5% and 1.5% (p=0.015), range 0.1-1.5 and 6.8-13.5. Appraisal of the aggregate data of 2 groups has shown that the loss from preinjury Tegner and Lysholm scores was 20.7% versus 16.9% lower at 4 months (p=0.013), but only 12.6% versus 3.55% lower at 2 years (p=0

  13. The Path Forward: School Autonomy and Its Implications for the Future of Boston's Public Schools. Understanding Boston

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Dan; Hawley Miles, Karen; Nathan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Boston Public Schools is at a crossroads. Nearly one-third of the system's schools operate under one of several "autonomy" structures, where school leaders have increased flexibility regarding staffing and other resources, and choice data indicate parents are far more likely to prefer these schools over so-called "traditional"…

  14. Presidential address. John Jeffries. Tory surgeon during the flowering of Boston medicine, 1750 to 1800.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J R

    1980-04-01

    Boston medicine in the period 1750 to 1800 is described, along with the life and contributions to Boston medicine and surgery of John Jeffries, a Tory surgeon. Jeffries received his medical degree in Scotland and then practiced in Boston until 1775, when he departed with the English. He eventually returned to Boston to complete an illustrious practice from 1789 to 1819. Among his other accomplishments, he and a Frenchman were the first to fly a hot air balloon across the English channel. His contributions to the development of Boston surgery and its medical societies were significant.

  15. Therapeutic effects of tibial support braces on posterior stability after posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Shen, P; Wang, J-S; Wang, G -B; He, M; Bai, L -H

    2015-04-01

    In the patients who have to be in supine position for most of the time after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction, the tibia tends to shift backwards due to the gravity of the lower leg and the tensed hamstring muscle. To observe the effects of tibial support braces on rehabilitation after PCL reconstruction. Retrospective study. Inpatients. Thirty-nine patients were divided into regular brace (N.=18) and tibial support brace (N.=21) groups according to using different types of braces after PCL reconstruction. The follow-up time was more than 2 years in all patients. The function of the affected knee joint was evaluated with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity rating, range of motion (ROM) and kneelax arthrometer before and after PCL reconstruction, respectively. The function of the affected knee joint was significantly improved in both groups after PCL reconstruction. Compared with regular brace group, postoperative Lysholm and IKDC scores were significantly increased in tibial support brace group (P<0.05). However, there were no statistical differences in Tegner activity rating and ROM between regular brace group and tibial support brace group (P<0.05). Tibial support brace can obtain better therapeutic effects for PCL reconstruction. This study suggests that compared with regular brace, tibial support brace can significantly improve the mechanical stability and functional outcomes of the affected knee after PCL reconstruction.

  16. Conceptual study of X-braced frames with different steel grades using cyclic half-scale tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Parviz; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, an experimental and analytical study of two half-scale steel X-braced frames with equal nominal shear strength under cyclic loading is described. In these tests, all members except the braces are similar. The braces are made of various steel grades to monitor the effects of seismic excitation. Internal stiffeners are employed to limit the local buckling and increase the fracture life of the steel bracing. A heavy central core is introduced at the intersection of the braces to decrease their effective length. Recent seismic specifications are considered in the design of the X-braced frame members to verify their efficiency. The failure modes of the X-braced frames are also illustrated. It is observed that the energy dissipation capacity, ultimate load capacity and ductility of the system increase considerably by using lower grade steel and proposed detailing. Analytical modeling of the specimens using nonlinear finite element software supports the experimental findings.

  17. A comparison of knee braces during walking for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee.

    PubMed

    Richards, J D; Sanchez-Ballester, J; Jones, R K; Darke, N; Livingstone, B N

    2005-07-01

    In this cross-over study, we evaluated two types of knee brace commonly used in the conservative treatment of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment. Twelve patients confirmed radiologically as having unilateral osteoarthritis of the medial compartment (Larsen grade 2 to grade 4) were studied. Treatment with a simple hinged brace was compared with that using a valgus corrective brace. Knee kinematics, ground reaction forces, pain and function were assessed during walking and the Hospital for Special Surgery scores were also determined. Significant improvements in pain, function, and loading and propulsive forces were seen with the valgus brace. Treatment with a simple brace showed only significant improvements in loading forces. Our findings suggest that although both braces improved confidence and function during gait, the valgus brace showed greater benefit.

  18. Epitaxy of Co on FeAl[l brace]001[r brace]. I. 1[times]1 films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.P. ); Wu, S.C. Physics Department, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ); Jona, F.; Marcus, P.M. )

    1994-06-15

    Ultrathin films of Co have been grown by slow vapor deposition on an FeAl[l brace]001[r brace] substrate (lattice constant [ital a][sub 0]=2.904 A). Up to a thickness of about 13 A the films are found to be pseudomorphic with the substrate, but contain 5--10 at. % Al. Quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) finds the best-fit model for the films to be pure Co with body-centered-tetragonal structure, bulk interlayer spacing 1.40[plus minus]0.03 A, and first interlayer spacing 1.25[plus minus]0.03 A, suggesting that the Al impurities were disordered and contributed only to the background of the LEED pattern. Strain analysis gives ambiguous results with regard to the equilibrium phase, as both fcc and bcc Co (metastable phases) have strain ratios within acceptable limits. The strains themselves are unusually large for fcc Co and fairly small for bcc Co, but the Poisson ratio has normal values for fcc Co and unusually small values for bcc Co. The contraction of the first interlayer spacing is abnormally large ([similar to]11%) for magnetic materials.

  19. The biomechanics of lateral knee bracing. Part I: Response of the valgus restraints to loading.

    PubMed

    Paulos, L E; France, E P; Rosenberg, T D; Jayaraman, G; Abbott, P J; Jaen, J

    1987-01-01

    To better understand the role of preventive knee braces in injury prevention, a biomechanical study using fresh frozen cadaveric knees (N = 18) was conducted. Ligament tensions and joint displacements were measured at static, nondestructive valgus forces as well as low-rate destructive forces. After quantifying and establishing individual ligament contributions to valgus restraining function, knees were then braced with two different laterally applied preventive braces, the McDavid Knee Guard and the Omni Anderson Knee Stabler. The effects of lateral bracing were analyzed according to valgus force, joint line opening, and ligament tensions. Valgus applied forces, with or without braces, consistently produced medial collateral ligament (MCL) disruptions at ligament tensions surprisingly higher than the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and higher than or equal to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Although large joint displacements were necessary for complete ligament failure, bundle disruption in the MCL, ACL, and PCL was noted at much smaller joint openings. In Part I of this study, no significant protection could be documented with the two preventive braces used. Also, four potentially adverse effects were noted: MCL preload, center axis shift, premature joint line contact, and brace slippage.

  20. Technology and task parameters relating to the effectiveness of the bracing strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.; Wang, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The bracing strategy has been proposed in various forms as a way to improve robot performance. One version of the strategy employs independent stages of motion. The first stage, referred to as the large or bracing arm, carries the second stage of motion. After the first stage has completed its motion it is braced to provide a more rigid base of motion with a more accurate relationship to the parts to be manipulated. The hypothesis is that more rapid completion of certain tasks is possible with lighter arms using the bracing strategy. While it is easy to make conceptual arguments why this should be so, it is less easy to specify even approximately when this will be true for some reasonably generic situation. There is no relevant experience base with bracing arms to be compared to non-bracing arms. Furthermore, if one were interested in obtaining such practical experience, there would be no methodical guidance on the selection of an interesting case, one in which the unproven approach, bracing, can show its superiority. If one such case exists, only the extent of applicability of the new approach is in question. One set of interesting cases is likely to be applications in which a large workspace must be covered, but where a series of small accurate moves will remain within a smaller region of the total workspace. A prototype application with these characteristics is set up and a skeleton design of arms using the competing strategies are compared.