NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, K. C.; Borja, R. I.
2015-12-01
A finite strain ductile damage formulation of Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) plasticity has been developed in order to model the observed elastoplastic behavior of shale at nano- to micro-scales. Nano-indentation combined with both 2D and 3D imaging was performed on a sample of Woodford shale. Significant plastic deformation was observed in the nano-indentation testing, and nano-scale resolution FIB-SEM imaging of the post-indented regions has revealed that the plastic deformation is accompanied by extensive micro-fracture of the shale's highly heterogeneous micro-structure. A spatial tensor that is similar to Eshelby's energy momentum tensor is shown to be energy conjugate to the plastic velocity gradient under large inelastic volume strain. These results are cast in MCC framework drawing on the concept of continuum damage. The resulting formulation provides a connection between density (porosity), elastic (and plastic) moduli, and micro damage/healing. Nonlinear finite element modeling is used for implementation of the constitutive model in simulation of both laboratory-scale and nano- to micro-scale experiments. The results show that the model is able to predict the inception and propagation of micro-fractures around inhomogeneities, as well as capture the resulting behavior observed at the much larger laboratory scale.
SHEARING AND WATER RETENTION BEHAVIOR OF UNSATURATED LOAM WITH MODELING
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiyohara, Yukoh; Kazama, Motoki
Unsaturated triaxial tests were carried out to study deformation behavior, effective stress path and water retention property of consolidated loam during consolidation and shearing processes. Initial matric suction was set as 0, 50, and 90 kPa, and confining pressures (net normal stresses) were set as 100 kPa. Then shearing processes were done under undrained and drained conditions. We clarified the relation between void ratio and Van Genuchten model parameter by using water retention curve. To predict the unsaturated shearing behavior, a modified Cam Clay model considering void ratio dependent Van Genuchten parameter was proposed. Those numerical test results were agreed well with laboratory tests results.
Distinguishing modified gravity models
Brax, Philippe
2015-10-01
Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.
Sivakumar Babu, G L; Reddy, Krishna R; Chouksey, Sandeep K
2010-01-01
A constitutive model is proposed to describe the stress-strain behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) under loading using the critical state soil mechanics framework. The modified cam clay model is extended to incorporate the effects of mechanical creep and time dependent biodegradation to calculate total compression under loading. Model parameters are evaluated based on one-dimensional compression and triaxial consolidated undrained test series conducted on three types of MSW: (a) fresh MSW obtained from working phase of a landfill, (b) landfilled waste retrieved from a landfill after 1.5 years of degradation, and (c) synthetic MSW with controlled composition. The model captures the stress-strain and pore water pressure response of these three types of MSW adequately. The model is useful for assessing the deformation and stability of landfills and any post-closure development structures located on landfills.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hickey, J. S.
1981-01-01
Existing Jacchia were converted from the UNIVAC 1108 to the SSL REEDA computer system and the overall program capabilities were enhanced. The Jacchia Models and the associated data bases reside on a REEDA System dedicated "JACCHIA" disc pack. The Jacchia programs, their operation, and the outputs generated outputs are described.
Model selection for modified gravity.
Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N
2011-12-28
In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity.
Modeling covalent-modifier drugs.
Awoonor-Williams, Ernest; Walsh, Andrew G; Rowley, Christopher N
2017-05-18
In this review, we present a summary of how computer modeling has been used in the development of covalent-modifier drugs. Covalent-modifier drugs bind by forming a chemical bond with their target. This covalent binding can improve the selectivity of the drug for a target with complementary reactivity and result in increased binding affinities due to the strength of the covalent bond formed. In some cases, this results in irreversible inhibition of the target, but some targeted covalent inhibitor (TCI) drugs bind covalently but reversibly. Computer modeling is widely used in drug discovery, but different computational methods must be used to model covalent modifiers because of the chemical bonds formed. Structural and bioinformatic analysis has identified sites of modification that could yield selectivity for a chosen target. Docking methods, which are used to rank binding poses of large sets of inhibitors, have been augmented to support the formation of protein-ligand bonds and are now capable of predicting the binding pose of covalent modifiers accurately. The pKa's of amino acids can be calculated in order to assess their reactivity towards electrophiles. QM/MM methods have been used to model the reaction mechanisms of covalent modification. The continued development of these tools will allow computation to aid in the development of new covalent-modifier drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Constitutive Model for Vegetated Soils: Validation and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Switala, Barbara Maria; Veenhof, Rick; Wu, Wei; Askarinejad, Amin
2016-04-01
It is well known, that presence of vegetation influences stability of the slope. However, the quantitative assessment of this contribution remains challenging. It is essential to develop a numerical model, which combines mechanical root reinforcement and root water uptake, and allows modelling rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes. Therefore a novel constitutive formulation is proposed, which is based on the modified Cam-clay model for unsaturated soils. Mechanical root reinforcement is modelled introducing a new constitutive parameter, which governs the evolution of the Cam-clay failure surface with the degree of root reinforcement. Evapotranspiration is modelled in terms of the root water uptake, defined as a sink term in the water flow continuity equation. The original concept is extended for different shapes of the root architecture in three dimensions, and combined with the mechanical model. The model is implemented in the research finite element code Comes-Geo, and in the commercial software Abaqus. The formulation is tested, performing a series of numerical examples, which allow validation of the concept. The direct shear test and the triaxial test are modelled in order to test the performance of the mechanical part of the model. In order to validate the hydrological part of the constitutive formulation, evapotranspiration from the vegetated box is simulated and compared with the experimental results. Obtained numerical results exhibit a good agreement with the experimental data. The implemented model is capable of reproducing results of basic geotechnical laboratory tests. Moreover, the constitutive formulation can be used to model rainfall induced landslides of vegetated slopes, taking into account the most important factors influencing the slope stability (root reinforcement and evapotranspiration).
Modeling RASopathies with Genetically Modified Mouse Models.
Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Guerra, Carmen
2017-01-01
The RAS/MAPK signaling pathway plays key roles in development, cell survival and proliferation, as well as in cancer pathogenesis. Molecular genetic studies have identified a group of developmental syndromes, the RASopathies, caused by germ line mutations in this pathway. The syndromes included within this classification are neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly known as LEOPARD syndrome), Costello syndrome (CS), cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Legius syndrome (LS, NF1-like syndrome), capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM), and hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) type 1. Although these syndromes present specific molecular alterations, they are characterized by a large spectrum of functional and morphological abnormalities, which include heart defects, short stature, neurocognitive impairment, craniofacial malformations, and, in some cases, cancer predisposition. The development of genetically modified animals, such as mice (Mus musculus), flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and zebrafish (Danio rerio), has been instrumental in elucidating the molecular and cellular bases of these syndromes. Moreover, these models can also be used to determine tumor predisposition, the impact of different genetic backgrounds on the variable phenotypes found among the patients and to evaluate preventative and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review a wide range of genetically modified mouse models used in the study of RASopathies and the potential application of novel technologies, which hopefully will help us resolve open questions in the field.
Genetically modified pig models for human diseases.
Fan, Nana; Lai, Liangxue
2013-02-20
Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies. Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases, some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology. Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy, physiology, and genome. Thus, pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases. This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological, cardiovascular, and diabetic disorders. We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.
Cosmological models of modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloomfield, Jolyon Keith
The recent discovery of dark energy has prompted an investigation of ways in which the accelerated expansion of the universe can be realized. In this dissertation, we present two separate projects related to dark energy. The first project analyzes a class of braneworld models in which multiple branes float in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk, while the second investigates a class of dark energy models from an effective field theory perspective. Investigations of models including extra dimensions have led to modifications of gravity involving a number of interesting features. In particular, the Randall-Sundrum model is well-known for achieving an amelioration of the hierarchy problem. However, the basic model relies on Minkowski branes and is subject to solar system constraints in the absence of a radion stabilization mechanism. We present a method by which a four-dimensional low-energy description can be obtained for braneworld scenarios, allowing for a number of generalizations to the original models. This method is applied to orbifolded and uncompactified N-brane models, deriving an effective four-dimensional action. The parameter space of this theory is constrained using observational evidence, and it is found that the generalizations do not weaken solar system constraints on the original model. Furthermore, we find that general N-brane systems are qualitatively similar to the two-brane case, and do not naturally lead to a viable dark energy model. We next investigate dark energy models using effective field theory techniques. We describe dark energy through a quintessence field, employing a derivative expansion. To the accuracy of the model, we find transformations to write the description in a form involving no higher-order derivatives in the equations of motion. We use a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson construction to motivate the theory, and find the regime of validity and scaling of the operators using this. The regime of validity is restricted to a
Goldstone models of modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick
2017-02-01
We investigate scalar-tensor theories where matter couples to the scalar field via a kinetically dependent conformal coupling. These models can be seen as the low-energy description of invariant field theories under a global Abelian symmetry. The scalar field is then identified with the Goldstone mode of the broken symmetry. It turns out that the properties of these models are very similar to the ones of ultralocal theories where the scalar-field value is directly determined by the local matter density. This leads to a complete screening of the fifth force in the Solar System and between compact objects, through the ultralocal screening mechanism. On the other hand, the fifth force can have large effects in extended structures with large-scale density gradients, such as galactic halos. Interestingly, it can either amplify or damp Newtonian gravity, depending on the model parameters. We also study the background cosmology and the linear cosmological perturbations. The background cosmology is hardly different from its Λ -CDM counterpart while cosmological perturbations crucially depend on whether the coupling function is convex or concave. For concave functions, growth is hindered by the repulsiveness of the fifth force while it is enhanced in the convex case. In both cases, the departures from the Λ -CDM cosmology increase on smaller scales and peak for galactic structures. For concave functions, the formation of structure is largely altered below some characteristic mass, as smaller structures are delayed and would form later through fragmentation, as in some warm dark matter scenarios. For convex models, small structures form more easily than in the Λ -CDM scenario. This could lead to an over-abundance of small clumps. We use a thermodynamic analysis and show that although convex models have a phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous phases, on cosmological scales the system does not enter the inhomogeneous phase. On the other hand, for galactic
Modeling void abundance in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voivodic, Rodrigo; Lima, Marcos; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.
2017-01-01
We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f (R ) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surveys, the combination of void and halo statistics including their abundances, profiles and correlations should be effective in distinguishing modified gravity models that display different screening mechanisms.
Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.
Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun
2016-01-01
Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Genetically modified pigs to model human diseases.
Flisikowska, Tatiana; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika
2014-02-01
Genetically modified mice are powerful tools to investigate the molecular basis of many human diseases. Mice are, however, of limited value for preclinical studies, because they differ significantly from humans in size, general physiology, anatomy and lifespan. Considerable efforts are, thus, being made to develop alternative animal models for a range of human diseases. These promise powerful new resources that will aid the development of new diagnostics, medicines and medical procedures. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of genetically modified porcine models described in the scientific literature: various cancers, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, autosomal polycystic kidney disease, Huntington’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy, haemophilia A, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, Alzheimer’s disease, various forms of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.
Degeneracies in parametrized modified gravity models
Hojjati, Alireza
2013-01-01
We study degeneracies between parameters in some of the widely used parametrized modified gravity models. We investigate how different observables from a future photometric weak lensing survey such as LSST, correlate the effects of these parameters and to what extent the degeneracies are broken. We also study the impact of other degenerate effects, namely massive neutrinos and some of the weak lensing systematics, on the correlations.
Solid waste forecasting using modified ANFIS modeling.
Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; K N A, Maulud
2015-10-01
Solid waste prediction is crucial for sustainable solid waste management. Usually, accurate waste generation record is challenge in developing countries which complicates the modelling process. Solid waste generation is related to demographic, economic, and social factors. However, these factors are highly varied due to population and economy growths. The objective of this research is to determine the most influencing demographic and economic factors that affect solid waste generation using systematic approach, and then develop a model to forecast solid waste generation using a modified Adaptive Neural Inference System (MANFIS). The model evaluation was performed using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and the coefficient of determination (R²). The results show that the best input variables are people age groups 0-14, 15-64, and people above 65 years, and the best model structure is 3 triangular fuzzy membership functions and 27 fuzzy rules. The model has been validated using testing data and the resulted training RMSE, MAE and R² were 0.2678, 0.045 and 0.99, respectively, while for testing phase RMSE =3.986, MAE = 0.673 and R² = 0.98. To date, a few attempts have been made to predict the annual solid waste generation in developing countries. This paper presents modeling of annual solid waste generation using Modified ANFIS, it is a systematic approach to search for the most influencing factors and then modify the ANFIS structure to simplify the model. The proposed method can be used to forecast the waste generation in such developing countries where accurate reliable data is not always available. Moreover, annual solid waste prediction is essential for sustainable planning.
Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models
Brax, Philippe; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no
2013-04-01
In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}, since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.
[Research of modified rat laryngeal transplantation model].
Li, Hao; Peng, Han-wei; Zeng, Zong-yuan; Guo, Zhu-ming
2006-07-01
To study modified rat laryngeal transplantation model. Eighty isogeneic histocompatible F344 rats were randomized into control and experimental groups. Strome model of laryngeal transplantation was established in the the control group, and in the experimental group, the ascending pharyngeal artery was preserved and the base of the tongue, larynx and pharyngolarynx were harvested as a complex allograft followed by end-to-end anastomosis of the both allograft common carotid arteries with the recipient common carotid artery and the anterior jugular vein, respectively. The arterial and nenous patency rate and allograft viability rate were compared between the two groups. The artery and vein patency rates and graft survival rate were 30%, 15%, and 30% in the control group, and 75%, 65%, and 80% in the experimental group, respectively, showing significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). In modified rat laryngeal transplantation model, the allograft viability rate and vessel patency rate are improved, which provides a good model for immunological study of larynx transplantation.
Modified Raman confinement model for Si nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraci, Giuseppe; Gibilisco, Santo; Russo, Paola; Pennisi, Agata R.; La Rosa, Salvo
2006-01-01
A modified one-phonon confinement model is developed for the calculation of micro-Raman spectra in Si nanocrystals, permitting the simultaneous determination of the Raman frequency, intensity, and linewidth. Using a specific spatial correlation function and the Si phonon dispersion relations, the Raman spectra are calculated under the limitations imposed on the wave vector by the spatial confinement. Results are obtained as a function of the Si nanocrystal size in the range 1.2 100 nm . The frequency shift and line broadening of the Raman spectra are compared with experimental results reported in the literature.
Some Aspects of Generalized Modified Gravity Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myrzakulov, R.; Sebastiani, L.; Zerbini, S.
2013-07-01
In this paper, we review some general aspects of modified gravity theories, investigating mathematical and physical properties and, more specifically, the feature of viable and realistic models able to reproduce the dark energy (DE) epoch and the early-time inflation. We will discuss the black hole (BH) solutions in generalized theories of gravity: it is of fundamental interest to understand how properties and laws of BHs in General Relativity (GR) can be addressed in the framework of modified theories. In particular, we will discuss the energy issue and the possibility to derive the First Law of thermodynamics from the field equations. Then, in the analysis of cosmological solutions, we will pay particular attention to the occurrence of finite-time future singularities and to the possibility to avoid them in F(R,G)-gravity. Furthermore, realistic models of F(R)-gravity will be analyzed in detail. A general feature occurring in matter era will be shown, namely, the high derivatives of Hubble parameter may be influenced by the high frequency oscillation of the DE and some correction term may be required in order to stabilize the theory at high redshift. The inflationary scenario is also carefully analyzed and a unified description of the universe is evolved. In the final part of the work, we will look at the last developments in modified gravity, namely, we will investigate cosmological and BH solutions in a covariant field theory of gravity and we will introduce the extended "teleparallel" F(T)-gravity theories. A nice application to the dark matter (DM) problem will be presented.
Anisotropic singularities in modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueiró, Michele Ferraz; Saa, Alberto
2009-09-01
We show that the common singularities present in generic modified gravity models governed by actions of the type S=∫d4x-gf(R,ϕ,X), with X=-(1)/(2)gab∂aϕ∂bϕ, are essentially the same anisotropic instabilities associated to the hypersurface F(ϕ)=0 in the case of a nonminimal coupling of the type F(ϕ)R, enlightening the physical origin of such singularities that typically arise in rather complex and cumbersome inhomogeneous perturbation analyses. We show, moreover, that such anisotropic instabilities typically give rise to dynamically unavoidable singularities, precluding completely the possibility of having physically viable models for which the hypersurface (∂f)/(∂R)=0 is attained. Some examples are explicitly discussed.
Modified Nonlinear Model of Arcsin-Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2016-07-01
A new modified model of nonlinear arcsin-electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed and analyzed. We obtain the corrections to the Coulomb law. The effect of vacuum birefringence takes place when the external constant magnetic field is present. We calculate indices of refraction for two perpendicular polarizations of electromagnetic waves and estimate bounds on the parameter γ from the BMV and PVLAS experiments. It is shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is finite at the origin. We calculate the finite static electric energy of point-like particles and demonstrate that the electron mass can have the pure electromagnetic nature. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. We show that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the model suggested. We have investigated the gauge covariant quantization of the nonlinear electrodynamics fields as well as the gauge fixing approach based on Dirac's brackets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S.; Al-Muntasheri, G.; Abousleiman, Y. N.
2014-12-01
The critical state concept based bounding surface model is one of the most widely used elastoplastic constitutive models for geomaterials, attributed mainly to its essential feature of allowing plastic deformation to occur for stress points within the bounding surface and thus the capability to represent the realistic non-recoverable behaviour of soils and rocks observed under the cyclic loading. This paper develops an implicit integration algorithm for the bounding surface model, using the standard return mapping approach (elastic predictor-plastic corrector), to obtain the updated stresses for the given strain increments. The formulation of the constitutive integration requires the derivation of a supplementary differential equation to describe the evolution of a key variable, i.e., the ratio between the image stress and the current stress quantities. It is essentially an extension of the integration scheme presented in an earlier work used for the simple bounding surface version of modified Cam Clay associated with a substantially simplified hardening rule. The integration algorithm for the bounding surface model is implemented into the finite element analysis commercial program, ABAQUS, through the material interface of UMAT (user defined material subroutine), and then used for the analysis of wellbore stability problem. The predictions from the ABAQUS simulations are generally in excellent agreement with the available analytical solutions, thus demonstrating the accuracy and robustness of the proposed integration scheme.
Some general remarks on hyperplasticity modelling and its extension to partially saturated soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Xiaoqin; Wong, Henry; Fabbri, Antonin; Bui, Tuan Anh; Limam, Ali
2016-06-01
The essential ideas and equations of classic plasticity and hyperplasticity are successively recalled and compared, in order to highlight their differences and complementarities. The former is based on the mathematical framework proposed by Hill (The mathematical theory of plasticity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1950), whereas the latter is founded on the orthogonality hypothesis of Ziegler (An introduction to thermomechanics. Elsevier, North-Holland, 1983). The main drawback of classic plasticity is the possibility of violating the second principle of thermodynamics, while the relative ease to conjecture the yield function in order to approach experimental results is its main advantage. By opposition, the a priori satisfaction of thermodynamic principles constitutes the chief advantage of hyperplasticity theory. Noteworthy is also the fact that this latter approach allows a finer energy partition; in particular, the existence of frozen energy emerges as a natural consequence from its theoretical formulation. On the other hand, the relative difficulty to conjecture an efficient dissipation function to produce accurate predictions is its main drawback. The two theories are thus better viewed as two complementary approaches. Following this comparative study, a methodology to extend the hyperplasticity approach initially developed for dry or saturated materials to the case of partially saturated materials, accounting for interface energies and suction effects, is developed. A particular example based on the yield function of modified Cam-Clay model is then presented. It is shown that the approach developed leads to a model consistent with other existing works.
Genetically modified mouse models addressing gonadotropin function.
Ratner, Laura D; Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T
2014-03-01
The development of genetically modified animals has been useful to understand the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the gonadotropin function. It is well known that alterations in the secretion of a single hormone is capable of producing profound reproductive abnormalities. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone normally secreted by the human placenta, and structurally and functionally it is related to pituitary LH. LH and hCG bind to the same LH/hCG receptor, and hCG is often used as an analog of LH to boost gonadotropin action. There are many physiological and pathological conditions where LH/hCG levels and actions are elevated. In order to understand how elevated LH/hCG levels may impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis we have developed a transgenic mouse model with chronic hCG hypersecretion. Female mice develop many gonadal and extragonadal phenotypes including obesity, infertility, hyperprolactinemia, and pituitary and mammary gland tumors. This article summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms involved in pituitary gland tumorigenesis and hyperprolactinemia in the female mice hypersecreting hCG, in particular the relationship of progesterone with the hyperprolactinemic condition of the model. In addition, we describe the role of hyperprolactinemia as the main cause of infertility and the phenotypic abnormalities in these mice, and the use of dopamine agonists bromocriptine and cabergoline to normalize these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xin; Tang, Li; Lin, Hai-Nan
2017-05-01
We compare six models (including the baryonic model, two dark matter models, two modified Newtonian dynamics models and one modified gravity model) in accounting for galaxy rotation curves. For the dark matter models, we assume NFW profile and core-modified profile for the dark halo, respectively. For the modified Newtonian dynamics models, we discuss Milgrom’s MOND theory with two different interpolation functions, the standard and the simple interpolation functions. For the modified gravity, we focus on Moffat’s MSTG theory. We fit these models to the observed rotation curves of 9 high-surface brightness and 9 low-surface brightness galaxies. We apply the Bayesian Information Criterion and the Akaike Information Criterion to test the goodness-of-fit of each model. It is found that none of the six models can fit all the galaxy rotation curves well. Two galaxies can be best fitted by the baryonic model without involving nonluminous dark matter. MOND can fit the largest number of galaxies, and only one galaxy can be best fitted by the MSTG model. Core-modified model fits about half the LSB galaxies well, but no HSB galaxies, while the NFW model fits only a small fraction of HSB galaxies but no LSB galaxies. This may imply that the oversimplified NFW and core-modified profiles cannot model the postulated dark matter haloes well. Supported by Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (106112016CDJCR301206), National Natural Science Fund of China (11305181, 11547305 and 11603005), and Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Y5KF181CJ1)
Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models
Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.
2009-11-15
Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in
Modified Numerical Simulation Model of Blood Flow in Bend
Liu, X; Zhou, X; Hao, X; Sang, X
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT The numerical simulation model of blood flow in bend is studied in this paper. The curvature modification is conducted for the blood flow model in bend to obtain the modified blood flow model in bend. The modified model is verified by U tube. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results obtained by measuring the flow data in U tube, it was found that the modified blood flow model in bend can effectively improve the prediction accuracy of blood flow data affected by the curvature effect. PMID:27398727
Cosmological constraints on the modified entropic force model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Hao
2010-08-01
Very recently, Verlinde considered a theory in which space is emergent through a holographic scenario, and proposed that gravity can be explained as an entropic force caused by changes in the information associated with the positions of material bodies. Then, motivated by the Debye model in thermodynamics which is very successful in very low temperatures, Gao modified the entropic force scenario. The modified entropic force (MEF) model is in fact a modified gravity model, and the universe can be accelerated without dark energy. In the present work, we consider the cosmological constraints on the MEF model, and successfully constrain the model parameters to a narrow range. We also discuss many other issues of the MEF model. In particular, we clearly reveal the implicit root to accelerate the universe in the MEF model.
Modeling hygroelastic properties of genetically modified aspen
Laszlo Horvath; Perry Peralta; Ilona Peszlen; Levente Csoka; Balazs Horvath; Joseph Jakes
2012-01-01
Numerical and three-dimensional finite element models were developed to improve understanding of major factors affecting hygroelastic wood properties. Effects of chemical composition, microfibril angle, crystallinity, structure of microfibrils, moisture content, and hydrophilicity of the cell wall were included in the model. Wood from wild-type and decreased-lignin...
A Modified Dark Energy Model and Quintessence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zare Dehnavi, Naser; Fathi, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Farhad
2013-11-01
The observational data indicate that about 70 % of the total energy density of the current state universe has been occupied by Dark Energy. This is said to be the cause of the accelerated expansion of universe. In this letter we shall use a curvature constant as a scalar field in the quintessence Dark Energy model, for an isotropic universe. Connected to the so-called model, we will specify a definite dynamical field equation from the initial action of the theory.
Modified brain death model for rats.
Zhang, Shuijun; Cao, Shengli; Wang, Tao; Yan, Bing; Lu, Yantao; Zhao, Yongfu
2014-10-01
Experimental animal models of brain death that mimic human conditions may be useful for investigating novel strategies that increase quality and quantity of organs for transplant. Brain death was induced by increasing intracranial pressure by inflating an intracranial placed balloon catheter. Brain death was confirmed by flatline electroencephalogram, physical signs of apnea, and absence of brain stem reflexes. Donor management was done after brain death. Intracranial pressure and physiologic variables were continually monitored during 9 hours' follow-up. Ninety percent of brain dead animals showed typical signs of brain death such as diabetes insipidus, hypertensive, and hypotensive periods. Donor care was performed for 9 hours after brain death, and the mean arterial pressure was maintained above 60 mm Hg. We conclude that the rat model of brain death can be performed in a standardized, reproducible, and successful way.
Modified Invasion Percolation Models for Multiphase Processes
Karpyn, Zuleima
2015-01-31
This project extends current understanding and modeling capabilities of pore-scale multiphase flow physics in porous media. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography imaging experiments are used to investigate structural and surface properties of the medium that influence immiscible displacement. Using experimental and computational tools, we investigate the impact of wetting characteristics, as well as radial and axial loading conditions, on the development of percolation pathways, residual phase trapping and fluid-fluid interfacial areas.
Theoretical modelling of epigenetically modified DNA sequences
Carvalho, Alexandra Teresa Pires; Gouveia, Maria Leonor; Raju Kanna, Charan; Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.; Platts, Jamie; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn
2015-01-01
We report herein a set of calculations designed to examine the effects of epigenetic modifications on the structure of DNA. The incorporation of methyl, hydroxymethyl, formyl and carboxy substituents at the 5-position of cytosine is shown to hardly affect the geometry of CG base pairs, but to result in rather larger changes to hydrogen-bond and stacking binding energies, as predicted by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) methods. The same modifications within double-stranded GCG and ACA trimers exhibit rather larger structural effects, when including the sugar-phosphate backbone as well as sodium counterions and implicit aqueous solvation. In particular, changes are observed in the buckle and propeller angles within base pairs and the slide and roll values of base pair steps, but these leave the overall helical shape of DNA essentially intact. The structures so obtained are useful as a benchmark of faster methods, including molecular mechanics (MM) and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. We show that previously developed MM parameters satisfactorily reproduce the trimer structures, as do QM/MM calculations which treat bases with dispersion-corrected DFT and the sugar-phosphate backbone with AMBER. The latter are improved by inclusion of all six bases in the QM region, since a truncated model including only the central CG base pair in the QM region is considerably further from the DFT structure. This QM/MM method is then applied to a set of double-stranded DNA heptamers derived from a recent X-ray crystallographic study, whose size puts a DFT study beyond our current computational resources. These data show that still larger structural changes are observed than in base pairs or trimers, leading us to conclude that it is important to model epigenetic modifications within realistic molecular contexts. PMID:26448859
ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.
van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G
2010-01-01
The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.
A simplified model of the modified Hadley circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, Edwin K.
1987-01-01
In this paper, a simplified model of modified Hadley circulation that is amenable to analysis is developed to find the low-latitude upper-tropospheric circulation which would exist in the absence of transient eddies. The model is developed as a perturbation of the ideal Hadley circulation solution due to zonally assymmetric thermal forcing and is solved semianalytically. The modified Hadley circulation, found using forcing derived from observed outgoing long-wave radiation, exhibits some similarities to observed features of the tropical and subtropical time-mean upper-tropospheric flow, particularly with regard to the velocity potential.
A modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii modeling method for hysteresis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Ruili; Tan, Yonghong
2009-05-01
A modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii modeling method for rate-independent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators is proposed in this paper. In this method, a generalized backlash operator (GBO) regarded as the elementary operator is introduced into the model so as to be more flexible for modeling of complex hysteresis. Moreover, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the model. Thus, all the parameters of the modified PI model can be determined automatically. From this way, it avoids the tedious procedure for the selection of the operator parameters by trial and error. Then, a group of proper Clarke subgradients of the GBO outputs with respect to their parameters at a non-smooth point is obtained based on the bundle method. Finally, the experimental results of applying the proposed method to the modeling of hysteresis in a piezoelectric actuator and an ultrasonic motor (USM) are illustrated, respectively.
Structure formation in a nonlocally modified gravity model
Park, Sohyun; Dodelson, Scott
2013-01-01
We study a nonlocally modified gravity model proposed by Deser and Woodard which gives an explanation for current cosmic acceleration. By deriving and solving the equations governing the evolution of the structure in the Universe, we show that this model predicts a pattern of growth that differs from standard general relativity (+dark energy) at the 10-30% level. These differences will be easily probed by the next generation of galaxy surveys, so the model should be tested shortly.
Modified fractal model and rheological properties of colloidal networks.
Tang, Dongming; Marangoni, Alejandro G
2008-02-15
The scaling relationship between the storage modulus (G(')) and the volume fraction of solids (Phi) in fat crystal networks has been explained by the fractal model developed by our group. However, many experimental results and simulation studies suggest that the stress distribution within a colloidal network is dramatically heterogeneous, which means that a small part of the network carries most of the stress, while the other part of the network does not contribute much to the elastic properties of the system. This concept was introduced into a modified fractal model. The volume fraction of solids term (Phi) in the original fractal model was replaced by Phi(e), the effective volume fraction of solids, in the modified fractal model, which represents the volume fraction of stress-carrying solids. A proposed expression for Phi(e) is given and a modified expression for the scaling relationship between G(') and Phi is obtained. The modified fractal model fits the experiment data well and successfully explains the sometimes observed nonlinear log-log behavior between the storage modulus of colloidal networks and their volume fraction of solids.
Introduction of modified cervical cardiac transplant model in mice.
Gong, Weihua; Thornley, Thomas; Whitcher, Gregory H; Ge, Fangmin; Yuan, Shunzong; Liu, Derek J; Balasubramanian, Savithri
2012-04-01
The murine cervical heterotopic heart transplant model was initially designed to test the immune response to third-party allografts, modified by cuff techniques. While cuff techniques simplify the execution of this procedure, cutting of the carotid artery and the external jugular vein alters the blood supply to central nervous system and makes it difficult to achieve long-term graft survival. In the present study, we describe modified techniques that preserve the continuity and function of blood vessels and improve transplant integrity. The modified techniques in this study comprise the following aspects: (1) Preservation of the sternal head of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle, (2) use of the donor's intrathoracic inferior vena cava for anastomosis and (3) preservation of the function of the recipient's carotid artery and external jugular vein and thus, continuity of blood flow to the central nervous system. Stable, long-term, disease-free allograft survival has been achieved with syngeneic transplants (> 200 days), whereas allografts from fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched donors were acutely rejected in a time similar to the traditional abdominal heterotopic heart transplant model (8.2 ± 1.3 vs 8.4 ± 1.4 days; P = .73 in the Mantel Cox test, and P = .61 in the Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon test). Similar alloresponses could be induced in these 2 models. It is possible and feasible to achieve long-term graft survival in the mouse cervical heart transplant model using the modified procedures described in the present study.
Anterior EEG Asymmetry and the Modifier Model of Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burnette, Courtney P.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne Pradella; Zahka, Nicole E.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.
2011-01-01
Individual differences in the expression of autism complicate research on the nature and treatment of this disorder. In the Modifier Model of Autism (Mundy et al. 2007), we proposed that individual differences in autism may result not only from syndrome specific causal processes, but also from variability in generic, non-syndrome specific…
Anterior EEG Asymmetry and the Modifier Model of Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burnette, Courtney P.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne Pradella; Zahka, Nicole E.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.
2011-01-01
Individual differences in the expression of autism complicate research on the nature and treatment of this disorder. In the Modifier Model of Autism (Mundy et al. 2007), we proposed that individual differences in autism may result not only from syndrome specific causal processes, but also from variability in generic, non-syndrome specific…
A Modified Theoretical Model of Intrinsic Hardness of Crystalline Solids
Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun
2016-01-01
Super-hard materials have been extensively investigated due to their practical importance in numerous industrial applications. To stimulate the design and exploration of new super-hard materials, microscopic models that elucidate the fundamental factors controlling hardness are desirable. The present work modified the theoretical model of intrinsic hardness proposed by Gao. In the modification, we emphasize the critical role of appropriately decomposing a crystal to pseudo-binary crystals, which should be carried out based on the valence electron population of each bond. After modification, the model becomes self-consistent and predicts well the hardness values of many crystals, including crystals composed of complex chemical bonds. The modified model provides fundamental insights into the nature of hardness, which can facilitate the quest for intrinsic super-hard materials. PMID:27604165
Modified Regression Correlation Coefficient for Poisson Regression Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaengthong, Nattacha; Domthong, Uthumporn
2017-09-01
This study gives attention to indicators in predictive power of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which are widely used; however, often having some restrictions. We are interested in regression correlation coefficient for a Poisson regression model. This is a measure of predictive power, and defined by the relationship between the dependent variable (Y) and the expected value of the dependent variable given the independent variables [E(Y|X)] for the Poisson regression model. The dependent variable is distributed as Poisson. The purpose of this research was modifying regression correlation coefficient for Poisson regression model. We also compare the proposed modified regression correlation coefficient with the traditional regression correlation coefficient in the case of two or more independent variables, and having multicollinearity in independent variables. The result shows that the proposed regression correlation coefficient is better than the traditional regression correlation coefficient based on Bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
A Modified Theoretical Model of Intrinsic Hardness of Crystalline Solids.
Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun
2016-09-08
Super-hard materials have been extensively investigated due to their practical importance in numerous industrial applications. To stimulate the design and exploration of new super-hard materials, microscopic models that elucidate the fundamental factors controlling hardness are desirable. The present work modified the theoretical model of intrinsic hardness proposed by Gao. In the modification, we emphasize the critical role of appropriately decomposing a crystal to pseudo-binary crystals, which should be carried out based on the valence electron population of each bond. After modification, the model becomes self-consistent and predicts well the hardness values of many crystals, including crystals composed of complex chemical bonds. The modified model provides fundamental insights into the nature of hardness, which can facilitate the quest for intrinsic super-hard materials.
GENERAL: A modified weighted probabilistic cellular automaton traffic flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuang, Qian; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang
2009-08-01
This paper modifies the weighted probabilistic cellular automaton model (Li X L, Kuang H, Song T, et al 2008 Chin. Phys. B 17 2366) which considered a diversity of traffic behaviors under real traffic situations induced by various driving characters and habits. In the new model, the effects of the velocity at the last time step and drivers' desire for acceleration are taken into account. The fundamental diagram, spatial-temporal diagram, and the time series of one-minute data are analyzed. The results show that this model reproduces synchronized flow. Finally, it simulates the on-ramp system with the proposed model. Some characteristics including the phase diagram are studied.
Speech enhancement using the modified phase-opponency model.
Deshmukh, Om D; Espy-Wilson, Carol Y; Carney, Laurel H
2007-06-01
In this paper we present a model called the Modified Phase-Opponency (MPO) model for single-channel speech enhancement when the speech is corrupted by additive noise. The MPO model is based on the auditory PO model, proposed for detection of tones in noise. The PO model includes a physiologically realistic mechanism for processing the information in neural discharge times and exploits the frequency-dependent phase properties of the tuned filters in the auditory periphery by using a cross-auditory-nerve-fiber coincidence detection for extracting temporal cues. The MPO model alters the components of the PO model such that the basic functionality of the PO model is maintained but the properties of the model can be analyzed and modified independently. The MPO-based speech enhancement scheme does not need to estimate the noise characteristics nor does it assume that the noise satisfies any statistical model. The MPO technique leads to the lowest value of the LPC-based objective measures and the highest value of the perceptual evaluation of speech quality measure compared to other methods when the speech signals are corrupted by fluctuating noise. Combining the MPO speech enhancement technique with our aperiodicity, periodicity, and pitch detector further improves its performance.
Test of a modified habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep
Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Singer, F.J.; Gudorf, M.A.
2000-01-01
Translocation of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is time, labor, and cost intensive and, therefore, high levels of success are desirable. We tested a widely used habitat suitability model against translocation success and then modified it to include additional factors which improved its usefulness in predicting appropriate translocation sites. The modified Smith habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep was 64% accurate in predicting success or failure of 32 translocations of bighorn sheep into the Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau desert, and prairie-badlands of six states. We had sheep location data for 13 populations, and the modified habitat model predicted the areas used by bighorn sheep with greater than 905 accuracy in eight populations, greater than 55% accuracy in four populations, and less than 55% accuracy in one population. Translocations were more successful when sheep were placed into discrete habitat patches containing a high proportion of lambing period habitat (>10% of suitable habitat, p = 0.05), where animals had a migratory tendency (p = 0.02), no contact with domestic sheep (p = 0.02), or greater distance to domestic sheep (>23 km, p = 0.02). Rate of population growth was best predicted by area of lambing period habitat, potential area of winter range, and distance to domestic sheep. We retested the model using these refined criteria and the refined model then predicted success or failure of these 32 translocated populations with 82% accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puchwein, Ewald; Baldi, Marco; Springel, Volker
2013-11-01
We present a new massively parallel code for N-body and cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of modified gravity models. The code employs a multigrid-accelerated Newton-Gauss-Seidel relaxation solver on an adaptive mesh to efficiently solve for perturbations in the scalar degree of freedom of the modified gravity model. As this new algorithm is implemented as a module for the P-GADGET3 code, it can at the same time follow the baryonic physics included in P-GADGET3, such as hydrodynamics, radiative cooling and star formation. We demonstrate that the code works reliably by applying it to simple test problems that can be solved analytically, as well as by comparing cosmological simulations to results from the literature. Using the new code, we perform the first non-radiative and radiative cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of an f (R)-gravity model. We also discuss the impact of active galactic nucleus feedback on the matter power spectrum, as well as degeneracies between the influence of baryonic processes and modifications of gravity.
Limiting case of modified electroweak model for contracted gauge group
Gromov, N. A.
2011-06-15
The modification of the Electroweak Model with 3-dimensional spherical geometry in the matter fields space is suggested. The Lagrangian of this model is given by the sum of the free (without any potential term) matter fields Lagrangian and the standard gauge fields Lagrangian. The vector boson masses are generated by transformation of this Lagrangian from Cartesian coordinates to coordinates on the sphere S{sup 3}. The limiting case of the bosonic part of the modified model, which corresponds to the contracted gauge group SU(2; j) x U(1) is discussed. Within framework of the limit model Z boson and electromagnetic fields can be regarded as external ones with respect to W-boson fields in the sence that W-boson fields do not effect on these external fields. The masses of all particles of the Electroweak Model remain the same, but field interactions in contracted model are more simple as compared with the standard Electroweak Model.
Modeling Outcomes: Modified Aortic Arch Advancement for Neonatal Hypoplastic Arch.
Nellis, Joseph R; Chung, Timothy K; Agarwal, Nandita; Torres, Jose E; Holgren, Sarah E; Raghavan, Madhavan L; Turek, Joseph W
Numerous surgical approaches regarding aortic arch advancement for neonatal arch hypoplasia have been described. These repairs can be classified into two categories: those that incorporate a patch and those that do not. The decision between repairs remains largely experiential, rather than empirical, because of the limited number of reported outcomes. We report early outcomes from neonates undergoing modified aortic arch advancement with an anterior patch and our experience using computational fluid dynamic modeling to better understand the hemodynamic consequences associated with this repair. A retrospective review of neonates undergoing aortic arch advancement with anterior patch in 2014 at a single institution was performed. Anatomical, perioperative, and follow-up data were collected. Three-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance images were used to generate computational fluid dynamic models of the modified anterior patch and direct end-to-side repairs. Cardiac waveform inputs were simulated and hemodynamic analyzed. Ten neonates underwent modified aortic arch advancement. No hemodynamically significant gradients were observed at a median follow-up of 0.77 (0.30-1.2) years. Asymmetrical flow was observed in the end-to-side repair, whereas more concentric laminar flow was observed throughout the modified model. Spatial variations in velocities immediately distal to the anastomosis were greater in the end-to-side model (0.35 vs 0.17 m/s, P < 0.001). Time-averaged variations in wall shear stress during systole were greater in the end-to-side model at the same location (3.44 vs 1.98 dynes/cm, P < 0.001). Early outcomes after the use of an anterior patch for neonatal hypoplastic aortic arch repair show favorable hemodynamic outcomes.
The Modified Semidirect Onlay Technique With Articulated Elastic Model.
Papazoglou, Efstratios; Diamantopoulou, Sofia
2015-12-01
The modified semidirect onlay technique with articulated elastic model involves the fabrication of a stone model that is quickly mounted on an articulator and it includes an elastic part that enables the fabrication of a restoration with proper occlusal anatomy. The technique overcomes the disadvantages of the direct technique such as polymerization shrinkage stress and difficulty in achieving proper contours and, compared to the indirect technique, treatment is completed in a single appointment, without laboratory cost. The novelty of the technique is that, since the restoration is fabricated on an articulated model it eliminates time for occlusal adjustments.
Hydrodynamic modeling of granular flows in a modified Couette cell.
Jop, Pierre
2008-03-01
We present simulations of granular flows in a modified Couette cell, using a continuum model recently proposed for dense granular flows. Based on a friction coefficient, which depends on an inertial number, the model captures the positions of the wide shear bands. We show that a smooth transition in velocity-profile shape occurs when the height of the granular material is increased, leading to a differential rotation of the central part close to the surface. The numerical predictions are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental results. The model provides predictions for the increase of the shear band width when the rotation rate is increased.
Classifying linearly shielded modified gravity models in effective field theory.
Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy
2015-01-23
We study the model space generated by the time-dependent operator coefficients in the effective field theory of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations of modified gravity and dark energy models. We identify three classes of modified gravity models that reduce to Newtonian gravity on the small scales of linear theory. These general classes contain enough freedom to simultaneously admit a matching of the concordance model background expansion history. In particular, there exists a large model space that mimics the concordance model on all linear quasistatic subhorizon scales as well as in the background evolution. Such models also exist when restricting the theory space to operators introduced in Horndeski scalar-tensor gravity. We emphasize that whereas the partially shielded scenarios might be of interest to study in connection with tensions between large and small scale data, with conventional cosmological probes, the ability to distinguish the fully shielded scenarios from the concordance model on near-horizon scales will remain limited by cosmic variance. Novel tests of the large-scale structure remedying this deficiency and accounting for the full covariant nature of the alternative gravitational theories, however, might yield further insights on gravity in this regime.
A solidification model for unmodified, Na-modified and Sr-modified Al-Si alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiedje, N. S.; Hattel, J.; Taylor, J. A.; Easton, M. A.
2012-01-01
An addition of small amounts of Na and Sr is commonly used in the industry to modify the eutectic in Al-Si alloys. Both Na and Sr suppress nucleation of the eutectic forcing nucleation and growth to take place at higher undercooling than in the unmodified material. Thus the scale of the eutectic and the shape of the Si crystals are modified to a fine fibrous form so that the ductility of the material is increased. In the present work a one-dimensional numerical model is proposed that describes nucleation and growth of both primary dendrites and eutectic grains as a function of cooling conditions and modification. The model assumes that dendrites nucleate easily when the liquidus temperature is reached and that they grow as heat is extracted by the mould. Nucleation of the eutectic grains depends on local undercooling and growth is governed by a balance between growth of the eutectic grains and the rate at which heat is extracted by the mould. Experimental data is used to determine constants in the nucleation function. It is shown how cooling conditions and mode of modification influence nucleation and growth conditions.
Suppression of Spiral Wave in Modified Orengonator Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Jun; Jin, Wu-Yin; Yi, Ming; Wang, Chun-Ni
2008-08-01
In this paper, a spatial perturbation scheme is proposed to suppress the spiral wave in the modified Orengonator model, which is used to describe the chemical reaction in the light-sensitive media. The controllable external illumination Φ is perturbed with a spatial linear function. In our numerical simulation, the scheme is investigated by imposing the external controllable illumination on the space continuously and/or intermittently. The numerical simulation results confirm that the stable rotating spiral wave still can be removed with the scheme proposed in this paper even if the controllable Φ changed vs. time and space synchronously. Then the scheme is also used to control the spiral wave and turbulence in the modified Fitzhugh Nagumo model. It is found that the scheme is effective to remove the sable rotating and meandering spiral wave but it costs long transient period and intensity of the gradient parameter to eliminate the spiral turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, K. F.; Wang, B. L.; Kitamura, T.
2016-02-01
Analysis of the mechanical behavior of nanostructures has been very challenging. Surface energy and nonlocal elasticity of materials have been incorporated into the traditional continuum analysis to create modified continuum mechanics models. This paper reviews recent advancements in the applications of such modified continuum models in nanostructures such as nanotubes, nanowires, nanobeams, graphenes, and nanoplates. A variety of models for these nanostructures under static and dynamic loadings are mentioned and reviewed. Applications of surface energy and nonlocal elasticity in analysis of piezoelectric nanomaterials are also mentioned. This paper provides a comprehensive introduction of the development of this area and inspires further applications of modified continuum models in modeling nanomaterials and nanostructures.
Guided crowd dynamics via modified social force model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Hairong; Wang, Qianling; Chen, Yao; Hu, Xiaoming
2014-10-01
Pedestrian dynamics is of great theoretical significance for strategy design of emergency evacuation. Modification of pedestrian dynamics based on the social force model is presented to better reflect pedestrians' behavioral characteristics in emergency. Specifically, the modified model can be used for guided crowd dynamics in large-scale public places such as subway stations and stadiums. This guided crowd model is validated by explicitly comparing its density-speed and density-flow diagrams with fundamental diagrams. Some social phenomena such as gathering, balance and conflicts are clearly observed in simulation, which further illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method. Also, time delay for pedestrians with time-dependent desired velocities is observed and explained using the established model in this paper. Furthermore, this guided crowd model is applied to the simulation system of Beijing South Railway Station for predictive evacuation experiments.
Rutqvist, J.; Ijiri, Y.; Yamamoto, H.
2010-06-01
This paper presents the implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) into the TOUGH-FLAC simulator analyzing the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils. We implemented the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC by (1) extending an existing FLAC{sup 3D} module for the Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) model in FLAC{sup 3D} and (2) adding computational routines for suction-dependent strain and net stress (i.e., total stress minus gas pressure) for unsaturated soils. We implemented a thermo-elasto-plastic version of the BBM, wherein the soil strength depends on both suction and temperature. The implementation of the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC was verified and tested against several published numerical model simulations and laboratory experiments involving the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior of unsaturated soils. The simulation tests included modeling the mechanical behavior of bentonite-sand mixtures, which are being considered as back-fill and buffer materials for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. We also tested and demonstrated the use of the BBM and TOUGH-FLAC for a problem involving the coupled THM processes within a bentonite-backfilled nuclear waste emplacement tunnel. The simulation results indicated complex geomechanical behavior of the bentonite backfill, including a nonuniform distribution of buffer porosity and density that could not be captured in an alternative, simplified, linear-elastic swelling model. As a result of the work presented in this paper, TOUGH-FLAC with BBM is now fully operational and ready to be applied to problems associated with nuclear waste disposal in bentonite-backfilled tunnels, as well as other scientific and engineering problems related to the mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils.
A discrete model of a modified Burgers' partial differential equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mickens, R. E.; Shoosmith, J. N.
1990-01-01
A new finite-difference scheme is constructed for a modified Burger's equation. Three special cases of the equation are considered, and the 'exact' difference schemes for the space- and time-independent forms of the equation are presented, along with the diffusion-free case of Burger's equation modeled by a difference equation. The desired difference scheme is then obtained by imposing on any difference model of the initial equation the requirement that, in the appropriate limits, its difference scheme must reduce the results of the obtained equations.
Attractive Casimir effect in an infrared modified gluon bag model
Oxman, L.E.; Amaral, R.L.P.G.
2005-12-15
In this work, we are motivated by previous attempts to derive the vacuum contribution to the bag energy in terms of familiar Casimir energy calculations for spherical geometries. A simple infrared modified model is introduced which allows studying the effects of the analytic structure as well as the geometry in a clear manner. In this context, we show that if a class of infrared vanishing effective gluon propagators is considered, then the renormalized vacuum energy for a spherical bag is attractive, as required by the bag model to adjust hadron spectroscopy.
Zebrafish as a Model System to Screen Radiation Modifiers
Hwang, Misun; Yong, Cha; Moretti, Luigi; Lu, Bo
2007-01-01
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a bona fide vertebrate model system for understanding human diseases. It allows the transparent visualization of the effects of ionizing radiation and the convenient testing of potential radioprotectors with morpholino-modified oligonucleotides (MO) knockdown. Furthermore, various reverse and forward genetic methods are feasible to decipher novel genetic modifiers of radioprotection. Examined in the review are the radioprotective effects of the proposed radiomodifiers Nanoparticle DF-1 (C-Sixty, Inc., Houston, TX) and Amifostine (WR-2721, Ethyol), the DNA repair proteins Ku80 and ATM, as well as the transplanted hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated zebrafish. The presence of any of these sufficiently rescued the radiation-induced damages in zebrafish, while its absence resulted in mutagenic phenotypes as well as an elevation of time- and dose-dependent radiation-induced apoptosis. Radiosensitizers Flavopiridol and AG1478, both of which block progression into the radioresistant S phase of the cell cycle, have also been examined in zebrafish. Zebrafish has indeed become a favorite model system to test for radiation modifiers that can potentially be used for radiotherapeutic purposes in humans. PMID:19412436
Erosion Modeling Analysis For Modified DWPF SME Tank
LEE, SI
2004-05-03
In support of an erosion evaluation for the modified cooling coil guide and its supporting structure in the DWPF SME vessel, a computational model was developed to identify potential sites of high erosion using the same methodology established by previous work. The erosion mechanism identified in the previous work was applied to the evaluation of high erosion locations representative of the actual flow process in the modified coil guide of the SME vessel, abrasive erosion which occurs by high wall shear of viscous liquid. The results show that primary locations of the highest erosion due to the abrasive wall erosion are at the leading edge of the guide, external surface of the insert plate, the tank floor next to the insert plate of the coil guide support, and the upstream lead-in plate. The present modeling results show a good comparison between the original and the modified cases in terms of high erosion sites, as well as the degree of erosion and the calculated shear stress. Wall she ar of the tank floor is reduced by about 30 per cent because of the new coil support plate. Calculations for the impeller speed lower than 103 rpm in the SME showed similar erosion patterns but significantly reduced wall shear stresses and reduced overall erosion. Comparisons of the 103 rpm results with SME measurements indicated that no significant erosion of the tank floor in the SME is to be expected. Thus, it is recommended that the agitator speed of SME does not exceed 103 rpm.
Muscle contraction history: modified Hill versus an exponential decay model.
Ettema, G J; Meijer, K
2000-12-01
In recent years, it has been recognised that improvements to classic models of muscle mechanical behaviour are often necessary for properly modelling coordinated multi-joint actions. In this respect, the purpose of the present study was to improve on modelling stretch-induced force enhancement and shortening-induced force depression of muscle contraction. For this purpose, two models were used: a modified Hill model and a model based loosely on mechano-chemistry of the cross-bridge cycle (exponential decay model). The models were compared with a classic Hill modeland experimental data. Parameter values were based, as much as possible, on experimental findings in the literature, and tested with new experiments on the gastrocnemius of the rat. Both models describe many features of slow-ramp movements well during short contractions (300-500 ms), but long-duration behaviour is described only partly. The exponential decay model does not incorporate a force-velocity curve. Therefore, its good performance indicates that the status ofthe classic force-velocity characteristic may have to be reconsidered. Like movement-induced force depression and enhancement, it seems a particular manifestation of time-dependent force behaviour of muscle, rather than a fundamental property of muscle (like the length-tension curve). It is argued that a combination of the exponential decay model (or other models based on the mechano-chemistry of contraction) and structurally based models may be fruitful in explaining this time-dependent contraction behaviour. Furthermore, not in the least because of its relative simplicity, the exponential decay model may prove more suitable for modelling multi-joint movements than the Hill model.
Ghost dark energy models in specific modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jawad, Abdul; Salako, Ines G.; Sohail, Ayesha
2016-09-01
The paper is devoted to the study of the cosmic acceleration through ghost dark energy models (its simple and generalized form) in the dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity. In order to check the reliability of this scenario, we explore different cosmological parameters, such as deceleration, equation of state parameters and squared speed of sound. The cosmological planes ωD - 'D and r- s are also investigated in this framework. The obtained results are consistent with observational data of various schemes (WMAP+eCAMB+BAO+H0).
Conceptual model for assessment of inhalation exposure: defining modifying factors.
Tielemans, Erik; Schneider, Thomas; Goede, Henk; Tischer, Martin; Warren, Nick; Kromhout, Hans; Van Tongeren, Martie; Van Hemmen, Joop; Cherrie, John W
2008-10-01
The present paper proposes a source-receptor model to schematically describe inhalation exposure to help understand the complex processes leading to inhalation of hazardous substances. The model considers a stepwise transfer of a contaminant from the source to the receptor. The conceptual model is constructed using three components, i.e. (i) the source, (ii) various transmission compartments and (iii) the receptor, and describes the contaminant's emission and its pattern of transport. Based on this conceptual model, a list of nine mutually independent principal modifying factors (MFs) is proposed: activity emission potential, substance emission potential, localized control, separation, segregation, dilution, worker behavior, surface contamination and respiratory protection. These MFs describe the exposure process at a high level of abstraction so that the model can be generically applicable. A list of exposure determinants underlying each of these principal MFs is proposed to describe the exposure process at a more detailed level. The presented conceptual model is developed in conjunction with an activity taxonomy as described in a separate paper. The proposed conceptual model and MFs should be seen as 'building blocks' for development of higher tier exposure models.
Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai
2015-05-01
Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.
Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai
2015-09-01
Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.
Temperature-dependent bursting pattern analysis by modified Plant model
2014-01-01
Many electrophysiological properties of neuron including firing rates and rhythmical oscillation change in response to a temperature variation, but the mechanism underlying these correlations remains unverified. In this study, we analyzed various action potential (AP) parameters of bursting pacemaker neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia juliana to examine whether or not bursting patterns are altered in response to temperature change. Here we found that the inter-burst interval, burst duration, and number of spike during burst decreased as temperature increased. On the other hand, the numbers of bursts per minute and numbers of spikes per minute increased and then decreased, but interspike interval during burst firstly decreased and then increased. We also tested the reproducibility of temperature-dependent changes in bursting patterns and AP parameters. Finally we performed computational simulations of these phenomena by using a modified Plant model composed of equations with temperature-dependent scaling factors to mathematically clarify the temperature-dependent changes of bursting patterns in burst-firing neurons. Taken together, we found that the modified Plant model could trace the ionic mechanism underlying the temperature-dependent change in bursting pattern from experiments with bursting pacemaker neurons in the abdominal ganglia of Aplysia juliana. PMID:25051923
A user-friendly modified pore-solid fractal model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Dian-Yuan; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Hao; Si, Bing-Cheng; Hill, Robert Lee
2016-12-01
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate a range of calculation points on water retention curves (WRC) instead of the singularity point at air-entry suction in the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model, which additionally considered the hysteresis effect based on the PSF theory. The modified pore-solid fractal (M-PSF) model was tested using 26 soil samples from Yangling on the Loess Plateau in China and 54 soil samples from the Unsaturated Soil Hydraulic Database. The derivation results showed that the M-PSF model is user-friendly and flexible for a wide range of calculation point options. This model theoretically describes the primary differences between the soil moisture desorption and the adsorption processes by the fractal dimensions. The M-PSF model demonstrated good performance particularly at the calculation points corresponding to the suctions from 100 cm to 1000 cm. Furthermore, the M-PSF model, used the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution, exhibited an accepted performance of WRC predictions for different textured soils when the suction values were ≥100 cm. To fully understand the function of hysteresis in the PSF theory, the role of allowable and accessible pores must be examined.
A modified two-lane traffic model considering drivers' personality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.; Wu, W. J.
2015-06-01
Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a modified traffic model (R-STCA model, for short) is presented, in which the new symmetric lane changing rules are introduced by considering driving behavioral difference and dynamic headway. After the numerical simulation, a broad scattering of simulated points is exhibited in the moderate density region on the flow-density plane. The synchronized flow phase accompanied with the wide moving jam phase is reproduced. The spatial-temporal profiles indicate that the vehicles move according to the R-STCA model can change lane more easily and more realistically. Then vehicles are convenient to get rid of the slow vehicles that turn into plugs ahead, and hence the capacity increases. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is discovered by using the R-STCA model, which has been already observed in the traffic measured data. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.
A user-friendly modified pore-solid fractal model
Ding, Dian-yuan; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Hao; Si, Bing-cheng; Hill, Robert Lee
2016-01-01
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate a range of calculation points on water retention curves (WRC) instead of the singularity point at air-entry suction in the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model, which additionally considered the hysteresis effect based on the PSF theory. The modified pore-solid fractal (M-PSF) model was tested using 26 soil samples from Yangling on the Loess Plateau in China and 54 soil samples from the Unsaturated Soil Hydraulic Database. The derivation results showed that the M-PSF model is user-friendly and flexible for a wide range of calculation point options. This model theoretically describes the primary differences between the soil moisture desorption and the adsorption processes by the fractal dimensions. The M-PSF model demonstrated good performance particularly at the calculation points corresponding to the suctions from 100 cm to 1000 cm. Furthermore, the M-PSF model, used the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution, exhibited an accepted performance of WRC predictions for different textured soils when the suction values were ≥100 cm. To fully understand the function of hysteresis in the PSF theory, the role of allowable and accessible pores must be examined. PMID:27996013
A user-friendly modified pore-solid fractal model.
Ding, Dian-Yuan; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Hao; Si, Bing-Cheng; Hill, Robert Lee
2016-12-20
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate a range of calculation points on water retention curves (WRC) instead of the singularity point at air-entry suction in the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model, which additionally considered the hysteresis effect based on the PSF theory. The modified pore-solid fractal (M-PSF) model was tested using 26 soil samples from Yangling on the Loess Plateau in China and 54 soil samples from the Unsaturated Soil Hydraulic Database. The derivation results showed that the M-PSF model is user-friendly and flexible for a wide range of calculation point options. This model theoretically describes the primary differences between the soil moisture desorption and the adsorption processes by the fractal dimensions. The M-PSF model demonstrated good performance particularly at the calculation points corresponding to the suctions from 100 cm to 1000 cm. Furthermore, the M-PSF model, used the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution, exhibited an accepted performance of WRC predictions for different textured soils when the suction values were ≥100 cm. To fully understand the function of hysteresis in the PSF theory, the role of allowable and accessible pores must be examined.
Modified pendulum model for mean step length estimation.
González, Rafael C; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio M; Alvarez, Juan C
2007-01-01
Step length estimation is an important issue in areas such as gait analysis, sport training or pedestrian localization. It has been shown that the mean step length can be computed by means of a triaxial accelerometer placed near the center of gravity of the human body. Estimations based on the inverted pendulum model are prone to underestimate the step length, and must be corrected by calibration. In this paper we present a modified pendulum model in which all the parameters correspond to anthropometric data of the individual. The method has been tested with a set of volunteers, both males and females. Experimental results show that this method provides an unbiased estimation of the actual displacement with a standard deviation lower than 2.1%.
Modified Chaplygin gas inspired inflationary model in braneworld scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Mohsaneen, Sidra
2016-05-01
We investigate the modified Chaplygin gas inspired inflationary regime in the brane-world framework in the presence of standard and tachyon scalar fields. We consider the intermediate inflationary scenario and construct the slow-roll parameters, e-folding numbers, spectral index, scalar and tensor power spectra, tensor to scalar ratio for both scalar field models. We develop the ns - N and r - N planes and concluded that ns˜eq96^{+0.5}_{-0.5} and r≤0.0016 for N˜eq60^{+5}_{-5} in both cases of scalar field models as well as for all values of m. These constraints are consistent with observational data such as WMAP7, WMAP9 and Planck data.
A modified social force model for crowd dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, Ummi Nurmasyitah; Zainuddin, Zarita; Abu-Sulyman, Ibtesam M.
2017-08-01
The Social Force Model (SFM) is one of the most successful models in microscopic pedestrian studies that is used to study the movement of pedestrians. Many modifications have been done to improvise the SFM by earlier researchers such as the incorporation of a constant respect factor into the self-stopping mechanism. Before the new mechanism is introduced, the researchers found out that a pedestrian will immediately come to a halt if other pedestrians are near to him, which seems to be an unrealistic behavior. Therefore, researchers introduce a self-slowing mechanism to gradually stop a pedestrian when he is approaching other pedestrians. Subsequently, the dynamic respect factor is introduced into the self-slowing mechanism based on the density of the pedestrians to make the model even more realistic. In real life situations, the respect factor of the pedestrians should be dynamic values instead of a constant value. However, when we reproduce the simulation of the dynamic respect factor, we found that the movement of the pedestrians are unrealistic because the pedestrians are lacking perception of the pedestrians in front of him. In this paper, we adopted both dynamic respect factor and dynamic angular parameter, called modified dynamic respect factor, which is dependent on the density of the pedestrians. Simulations are performed in a normal unidirectional walkway to compare the simulated pedestrians' movements produced by both models. The results obtained showed that the modified dynamic respect factor produces more realistic movement of the pedestrians which conform to the real situation. Moreover, we also found that the simulations endow the pedestrian with a self-slowing mechanism and a perception of other pedestrians in front of him.
Ultralocal models of modified gravity without kinetic term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brax, Philippe; Rizzo, Luca Alberto; Valageas, Patrick
2016-08-01
We present a class of modified-gravity theories which we call ultralocal models. We add a scalar field, with negligible kinetic terms, to the Einstein-Hilbert action. We also introduce a conformal coupling to matter. This gives rise to a new screening mechanism which is not entirely due to the nonlinearity of the scalar-field potential or the coupling function but to the absence of the kinetic term. As a result this removes any fifth force between isolated objects in vacuum. It turns out that these models are similar to chameleon-type theories with a large mass when considered outside the Compton wavelength but differ on shorter scales. The predictions of these models only depend on a single free function, as the potential and the coupling function are degenerate, with an amplitude given by a parameter α ≲10-6 , whose magnitude springs from requiring a small modification of Newton's potential astrophysically and cosmologically. This singles out a redshift zα˜α-1 /3≳100 where the fifth force is the greatest. The cosmological background follows the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) history within a 10-6 accuracy, while cosmological perturbations are significantly enhanced (or damped) on small scales, k ≳2 h Mpc-1 at z =0 . The spherical collapse and the halo mass function are modified in the same manner. We find that the modifications of gravity are greater for galactic or subgalactic structures. We also present a thermodynamic analysis of the nonlinear and inhomogeneous fifth-force regime where we find that the Universe is not made more inhomogeneous before zα when the fifth force dominates, and does not lead to the existence of clumped matter on extra small scales inside halos for large masses while this possibility exists for masses M ≲1 011M⊙ where the phenomenology of ultralocal models would be most different from Λ CDM .
A modified symplectic PRK scheme for seismic wave modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shaolin; Yang, Dinghui; Ma, Jian
2017-02-01
A new scheme for the temporal discretization of the seismic wave equation is constructed based on symplectic geometric theory and a modified strategy. The ordinary differential equation in terms of time, which is obtained after spatial discretization via the spectral-element method, is transformed into a Hamiltonian system. A symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) scheme is used to solve the Hamiltonian system. A term related to the multiplication of the spatial discretization operator with the seismic wave velocity vector is added into the symplectic PRK scheme to create a modified symplectic PRK scheme. The symplectic coefficients of the new scheme are determined via Taylor series expansion. The positive coefficients of the scheme indicate that its long-term computational capability is more powerful than that of conventional symplectic schemes. An exhaustive theoretical analysis reveals that the new scheme is highly stable and has low numerical dispersion. The results of three numerical experiments demonstrate the high efficiency of this method for seismic wave modeling.
Entropy corrected holographic dark energy models in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jawad, Abdul; Azhar, Nadeem; Rani, Shamaila
We consider the power law and the entropy corrected holographic dark energy (HDE) models with Hubble horizon in the dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity. We explore various cosmological parameters and planes in this framework. The Hubble parameter lies within the consistent range at the present and later epoch for both entropy corrected models. The deceleration parameter explains the accelerated expansion of the universe. The equation of state (EoS) parameter corresponds to quintessence and cold dark matter (ΛCDM) limit. The ωΛ‑ωΛ‧ approaches to ΛCDM limit and freezing region in both entropy corrected models. The statefinder parameters are consistent with ΛCDM limit and dark energy (DE) models. The generalized second law of thermodynamics remain valid in all cases of interacting parameter. It is interesting to mention here that our results of Hubble, EoS parameter and ωΛ‑ωΛ‧ plane show consistency with the present observations like Planck, WP, BAO, H0, SNLS and nine-year WMAP.
Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escofet, Anna; Elizalde, Emilio
2016-06-01
The following issue is addressed: How the addition of a Gauss-Bonnet term (generically coming from most fundamental theories, as string and M theories), to a viable model, can change the specific properties, and even the physical nature, of the corresponding cosmological solutions? Specifically, brand new original dark energy models are obtained in this way with quite interesting properties, which exhibit, in a unified fashion, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state (EoS) parameter, w, is a function of time, is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with w = -1. Moreover, new Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are obtained and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a remarkably natural, unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and accelerated expansion at present.
A marked correlation function for constraining modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Martin
2016-11-01
Future large scale structure surveys will provide increasingly tight constraints on our cosmological model. These surveys will report results on the distance scale and growth rate of perturbations through measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and Redshift-Space Distortions. It is interesting to ask: what further analyses should become routine, so as to test as-yet-unknown models of cosmic acceleration? Models which aim to explain the accelerated expansion rate of the Universe by modifications to General Relativity often invoke screening mechanisms which can imprint a non-standard density dependence on their predictions. This suggests density-dependent clustering as a `generic' constraint. This paper argues that a density-marked correlation function provides a density-dependent statistic which is easy to compute and report and requires minimal additional infrastructure beyond what is routinely available to such survey analyses. We give one realization of this idea and study it using low order perturbation theory. We encourage groups developing modified gravity theories to see whether such statistics provide discriminatory power for their models.
The Effect of Random Voids in the Modified Gurson Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fei, Huiyang; Yazzie, Kyle; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Jiang, Hanqing
2012-02-01
The porous plasticity model (usually referred to as the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model or modified Gurson model) has been widely used in the study of microvoid-induced ductile fracture. In this paper, we studied the effects of random voids on the porous plasticity model. Finite-element simulations were conducted to study a copper/tin/copper joint bar under uniaxial tension using the commercial finite-element package ABAQUS. A randomly distributed initial void volume fraction with different types of distribution was introduced, and the effects of this randomness on the crack path and macroscopic stress-strain behavior were studied. It was found that consideration of the random voids is able to capture more detailed and localized deformation features, such as different crack paths and different ultimate tensile strengths, and meanwhile does not change the macroscopic stress-strain behavior. It seems that the random voids are able to qualitatively explain the scattered observations in experiments while keeping the macroscopic measurements consistent.
Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector
Zuntz, J.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G; Bourliot, F.; Starkman, G. D.
2010-05-15
We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory's kinetic index parameter n{sub ae} can differ significantly from its {Lambda}CDM value.
Anterior EEG asymmetry and the Modifier Model of Autism.
Burnette, Courtney P; Henderson, Heather A; Inge, Anne Pradella; Zahka, Nicole E; Schwartz, Caley B; Mundy, Peter C
2011-08-01
Individual differences in the expression of autism complicate research on the nature and treatment of this disorder. In the Modifier Model of Autism (Mundy et al. 2007), we proposed that individual differences in autism may result not only from syndrome specific causal processes, but also from variability in generic, non-syndrome specific modifier processes that affect the social and emotional development of all people. One study supporting this model found that measures of resting anterior EEG asymmetry, a measure reflecting complex brain processes associated with generic individual differences in approach and avoidance motivation, may help explain differences in the expression of autism in children without intellectual disabilities (Sutton et al. 2005). In the current study, we partially replicated the observation that children with autism who exhibited a pattern of left frontal EEG asymmetry tended to display milder levels of social symptoms, although in the current sample this pattern applied only to HFA children with relatively lower verbal IQs. New observations indicated that left frontal EEG asymmetry was also associated with retrospective parent reports of significantly later age of onset of symptoms, but also higher levels of self-reported outward expressions of anger as well as symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder in school-age higher functioning children with ASD. Therefore, the results of this study provide a new and fully independent set of observations, which indicate that individual differences in anterior EEG asymmetry may significantly moderate the expression and developmental course of autism. This observation may have clinical implications for identifying meaningful diagnostic sub-groups among children with autism.
Geographically Isolated Wetlands and Catchment Hydrology: A Modified Model Analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evenson, G.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.
2014-12-01
Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), typically defined as depressional wetlands surrounded by uplands, support an array of hydrological and ecological processes. However, key research questions concerning the hydrological connectivity of GIWs and their impacts on downgradient surface waters remain unanswered. This is particularly important for regulation and management of these systems. For example, in the past decade United States Supreme Court decisions suggest that GIWs can be afforded protection if significant connectivity exists between these waters and traditional navigable waters. Here we developed a simulation procedure to quantify the effects of various spatial distributions of GIWs across the landscape on the downgradient hydrograph using a refined version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a catchment-scale hydrological simulation model. We modified the SWAT FORTRAN source code and employed an alternative hydrologic response unit (HRU) definition to facilitate an improved representation of GIW hydrologic processes and connectivity relationships to other surface waters, and to quantify their downgradient hydrological effects. We applied the modified SWAT model to an ~ 202 km2 catchment in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA, exhibiting a substantial population of mapped GIWs. Results from our series of GIW distribution scenarios suggest that: (1) Our representation of GIWs within SWAT conforms to field-based characterizations of regional GIWs in most respects; (2) GIWs exhibit substantial seasonally-dependent effects upon downgradient base flow; (3) GIWs mitigate peak flows, particularly following high rainfall events; and (4) The presence of GIWs on the landscape impacts the catchment water balance (e.g., by increasing groundwater outflows). Our outcomes support the hypothesis that GIWs have an important catchment-scale effect on downgradient streamflow.
Modified Petri net model sensitivity to workload manipulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, S. A.; Mackinnon, D. P.; Lyman, J.
1986-01-01
Modified Petri Nets (MPNs) are investigated as a workload modeling tool. The results of an exploratory study of the sensitivity of MPNs to work load manipulations in a dual task are described. Petri nets have been used to represent systems with asynchronous, concurrent and parallel activities (Peterson, 1981). These characteristics led some researchers to suggest the use of Petri nets in workload modeling where concurrent and parallel activities are common. Petri nets are represented by places and transitions. In the workload application, places represent operator activities and transitions represent events. MPNs have been used to formally represent task events and activities of a human operator in a man-machine system. Some descriptive applications demonstrate the usefulness of MPNs in the formal representation of systems. It is the general hypothesis herein that in addition to descriptive applications, MPNs may be useful for workload estimation and prediction. The results are reported of the first of a series of experiments designed to develop and test a MPN system of workload estimation and prediction. This first experiment is a screening test of MPN model general sensitivity to changes in workload. Positive results from this experiment will justify the more complicated analyses and techniques necessary for developing a workload prediction system.
Modified Navier-Stokes model for nonequilibrium stationary states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Colin, L. S.; Velasco, R. M.
1982-10-01
A hydrodynamic model is developed in order to study the features of the behavior of a fluid which is brought to a stationary state by the action of an external gradient in the cases of the action of a thermal gradient and of a constant shear rate. An examination of the sound absorption of the fluid shows that the Stokes-Kirchhoff formula is modified by the presence of the gradients, which suggests an experimental verification of the model which is independent of the magnitude of the real wave vector. In addition, the light scattering of the fluid is examined by computing the Brillouin-Rayleigh spectra which yields in both cases the same shift in the Brillouin peaks previously predicted. However, a small change in the intensity of the peaks due to the modification of the sound-absorption coefficient is predicted by this model. Calculations show a shift of the Rayleigh peak arising from the entropy flow in the case of the thermal gradient and an entropy-production term in the case of the constant rate of shear, while in both cases the order of magnitude of this correction in terms of the wave vector is the same as the terms responsible for the shift in the Brillouin peaks.
Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modelling of modified hydrosystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nalbantis, I.; Efstratiadis, A.; Rozos, E.; Kopsiafti, M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.
2010-10-01
The modelling of modified basins that are inadequately measured constitutes a challenge for hydrological science. Often, models for such systems are detailed and hydraulics-based for only one part of the system while for other parts oversimplified models or rough assumptions are used. This is typically a bottom-up approach, which seeks to exploit knowledge of hydrological processes at the micro-scale at some components of the system. Also, it is a monomeric approach in two ways: first, essential interactions among system components may be poorly represented or even omitted; second, differences in the level of detail of process representation can lead to uncontrolled errors. Additionally, the calibration procedure merely accounts for the reproduction of the observed responses using typical fitting criteria. The paper aims to raise some critical issues, regarding the entire modelling approach for such hydrosystems. For this, two alternative modelling strategies are examined that reflect two modelling approaches or philosophies: a dominant bottom-up approach, which is also monomeric and very often, based on output information and a top-down and holistic approach based on generalized information. Critical options are examined, which codify the differences between the two strategies: the representation of surface, groundwater and water management processes, the schematization and parameterization concepts and the parameter estimation methodology. The first strategy is based on stand-alone models for surface and groundwater processes and for water management, which are employed sequentially. For each model, a different (detailed or coarse) parameterization is used, which is dictated by the hydrosystem schematization. The second strategy involves model integration for all processes, parsimonious parameterization and hybrid manual-automatic parameter optimization based on multiple objectives. A test case is examined in a hydrosystem in Greece with high complexities, such
Onset of simple liquid behaviour in modified water models
Prasad, Saurav; Chakravarty, Charusita
2014-04-28
The transition to simple liquid behaviour is studied in a set of modified hybrid water models where the potential energy contribution of the Lennard-Jones dispersion-repulsion contribution is progressively enhanced relative to the electrostatic contribution. Characteristics of simple liquid behaviour that indicate the extent to which a given system can be mapped onto an inverse power law fluid are examined, including configurational energy-virial correlations, functional form of temperature dependence of the excess entropy along isochores, and thermodynamic and excess entropy scaling of diffusivities. As the Lennard-Jones contribution to the potential energy function increases, the strength of the configurational energy-virial correlations increases. The Rosenfeld-Tarazona temperature dependence of the excess entropy is found to hold for the range of state points studied here for all the hybrid models, regardless of the degree of correlating character. Thermodynamic scaling is found to hold for weakly polar fluids with a moderate degree of energy-virial correlations. Rosenfeld-scaling of transport properties is found not to be necessarily linked with the strength of energy-virial correlations but may hold for systems with poor thermodynamic scaling if diffusivities and excess entropies show correlated departures from the isomorph-invariant behaviour characteristic of approximate inverse power law fluids. The state-point dependence of the configurational energy-virial correlation coefficient and the implications for thermodynamic and excess entropy scalings are considered.
Automated optic disk boundary detection by modified active contour model.
Xu, Juan; Chutatape, Opas; Chew, Paul
2007-03-01
This paper presents a novel deformable-model-based algorithm for fully automated detection of optic disk boundary in fundus images. The proposed method improves and extends the original snake (deforming-only technique) in two aspects: clustering and smoothing update. The contour points are first self-separated into edge-point group or uncertain-point group by clustering after each deformation, and these contour points are then updated by different criteria based on different groups. The updating process combines both the local and global information of the contour to achieve the balance of contour stability and accuracy. The modifications make the proposed algorithm more accurate and robust to blood vessel occlusions, noises, ill-defined edges and fuzzy contour shapes. The comparative results show that the proposed method can estimate the disk boundaries of 100 test images closer to the groundtruth, as measured by mean distance to closest point (MDCP) <3 pixels, with the better success rate when compared to those obtained by gradient vector flow snake (GVF-snake) and modified active shape models (ASM).
Onset of simple liquid behaviour in modified water models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, Saurav; Chakravarty, Charusita
2014-04-01
The transition to simple liquid behaviour is studied in a set of modified hybrid water models where the potential energy contribution of the Lennard-Jones dispersion-repulsion contribution is progressively enhanced relative to the electrostatic contribution. Characteristics of simple liquid behaviour that indicate the extent to which a given system can be mapped onto an inverse power law fluid are examined, including configurational energy-virial correlations, functional form of temperature dependence of the excess entropy along isochores, and thermodynamic and excess entropy scaling of diffusivities. As the Lennard-Jones contribution to the potential energy function increases, the strength of the configurational energy-virial correlations increases. The Rosenfeld-Tarazona temperature dependence of the excess entropy is found to hold for the range of state points studied here for all the hybrid models, regardless of the degree of correlating character. Thermodynamic scaling is found to hold for weakly polar fluids with a moderate degree of energy-virial correlations. Rosenfeld-scaling of transport properties is found not to be necessarily linked with the strength of energy-virial correlations but may hold for systems with poor thermodynamic scaling if diffusivities and excess entropies show correlated departures from the isomorph-invariant behaviour characteristic of approximate inverse power law fluids. The state-point dependence of the configurational energy-virial correlation coefficient and the implications for thermodynamic and excess entropy scalings are considered.
Modified Uterine Allotransplantation and Immunosuppression Procedure in the Sheep Model
Yang, Hong; Zhao, Guang-Yue; Zhang, Geng; Lu, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Yan-Hong; Ma, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Hai-Xia; Liang, Sheng-Ru; Yang, Fang; Chen, Bi-Liang
2013-01-01
Objective To develop an orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation technique and an effective immunosuppressive protocol in the sheep model. Methods In this pilot study, 10 sexually mature ewes were subjected to laparotomy and total abdominal hysterectomy with oophorectomy to procure uterus allografts. The cold ischemic time was 60 min. End-to-end vascular anastomosis was performed using continuous, non-interlocking sutures. Complete tissue reperfusion was achieved in all animals within 30 s after the vascular re-anastomosis, without any evidence of arterial or venous thrombosis. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone tablets. Graft viability was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Results Viable uterine tissue and vascular patency were observed on transrectal ultrasonography and second-look laparotomy. Histological analysis of the graft tissue (performed in one ewe) revealed normal tissue architecture with a very subtle inflammatory reaction but no edema or stasis. Conclusion We have developed a modified procedure that allowed us to successfully perform orthotopic, allogeneic, uterine transplantation in sheep, whose uterine and vascular anatomy (apart from the bicornuate uterus) is similar to the human anatomy, making the ovine model excellent for human uterine transplant research. PMID:24278415
Modeling flow for modified concentric cylinder rheometer geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekeruche, Karen; Connelly, Kelly; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz
2016-11-01
Rheology experiments on biological fluids can be difficult when samples are limited in volume, sensitive to degradation, and delicate to extract from tissues. A probe-like geometry has been developed to perform shear creep experiments on biological fluids and to use the creep response to characterize fluid material properties. This probe geometry is a modified concentric cylinder setup, where the gap is large and we assume the inner cylinder rotates in an infinite fluid. To validate this assumption we perform shear creep tests with the designed probe on Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids and vary the outer cylinder container diameter. We have also created a numerical model based on the probe geometry setup to compare with experimental results at different outer cylinder diameters. A creep test is modeled by applying rotation to the inner cylinder and solving for the deformation of the fluid throughout the gap. Steady state viscosity values are calculated from creep compliance curves and compared between experimental and numerical results.
Constraints on modified gravity models from white dwarfs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Srimanta; Shankar, Swapnil; Singh, Tejinder P.
2017-10-01
Modified gravity theories can introduce modifications to the Poisson equation in the Newtonian limit. As a result, we expect to see interesting features of these modifications inside stellar objects. White dwarf stars are one of the most well studied stars in stellar astrophysics. We explore the effect of modified gravity theories inside white dwarfs. We derive the modified stellar structure equations and solve them to study the mass-radius relationships for various modified gravity theories. We also constrain the parameter space of these theories from observations.
Pattern formation through spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alberti, Tommaso; Primavera, Leonardo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo
2015-04-01
The Daisyworld model is based on a hypothetical planet, like the Earth, which receives the radiant energy coming from a Sun-like star, and populated by two kinds of identical plants differing by their colour: white daisies reflecting light and black daisies absorbing light. The interactions and feedbacks between the collective biota of the planet and the incoming radiation form a self-regulating system where the conditions for life are maintained. We investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model where a spatial dependency on latitude is introduced, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitude and a simple greenhouse model are included. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can generate some equilibrium patterns which can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate new equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions. The extension to spatial Daisyworld gives room to the possibility of inhomogeneous solar forcing in a curved planet, with explicit differences between poles and equator and the direct use of the heat diffusion equation. As a first approach, to describe a spherical planet, we consider the temperature T(θ,t) and the surface coverage as depending only on time and on latitude θ (-90° ≤ θ ≤ 90°). A second step is the introduction of the greenhouse effect in the model, the process by which outgoing infrared radiation is partly screened by greenhouse gases. This effect can be described by relaxing the black-body radiation hypothesis and by introducing a grayness function g(T) in the heat equation. As a third step, we consider a latitude dependence of the Earth's conductivity, χ = χ(θ). Considering these terms, using spherical coordinates and symmetry with respect to θ, the modified Daisyworld equations reduce to the
Medvedeva, N N; Zhukov, E L; Inzhevatkin, E V; Bezzabotnov, V E
2016-01-01
We studied antitumor properties of modified detonation nanodiamonds loaded with doxorubicin on in vivo model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The type of tumor development and morphological characteristics of the liver, kidneys, and spleen were evaluated in experimental animals. Modified nanodiamonds injected intraperitoneally produced no antitumor effect on Ehrlich carcinoma. However, doxorubicin did not lose antitumor activity after sorption on modified nanodiamonds.
Hyperon stars in a modified quark meson coupling model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, R. N.; Sahoo, H. S.; Panda, P. K.; Barik, N.; Frederico, T.
2016-09-01
We determine the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter with the inclusion of hyperons in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a baryon is represented by a phenomenological average potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The hadron-hadron interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ ,ω , and ρ mesons through mean-field approximations. The effect of a nonlinear ω -ρ term on the EOS is studied. The hyperon couplings are fixed from the optical potential values and the mass-radius curve is determined satisfying the maximum mass constraint of 2 M⊙ for neutron stars, as determined in recent measurements of the pulsar PSR J0348+0432. We also observe that there is no significant advantage of introducing the nonlinear ω -ρ term in the context of obtaining the star mass constraint in the present set of parametrizations.
Validation of a modified Medical Resource Model for mass gatherings.
Smith, Wayne P; Tuffin, Heather; Stratton, Samuel J; Wallis, Lee A
2013-02-01
A modified Medical Resource Model to predict the medical resources required at mass gatherings based on the risk profile of events has been developed. This study was undertaken to validate this tool using data from events held in both a developed and a developing country. A retrospective study was conducted utilizing prospectively gathered data from individual events at Old Trafford Stadium in Manchester, United Kingdom, and Ellis Park Stadium, Johannesburg, South Africa. Both stadia are similar in design and spectator capacity. Data for Professional Football as well as Rugby League and Rugby Union (respectively) matches were used for the study. The medical resources predicted for the events were determined by entering the risk profile of each of the events into the Medical Resource Model. A recently developed South African tool was used to predetermine medical staffing for mass gatherings. For the study, the medical resources actually required to deal with the patient load for events within the control sample from the two stadia were compared with the number of needed resources predicted by the Medical Resource Model when that tool was applied retrospectively to the study events. The comparison was used to determine if the newly developed tool was either over- or under-predicting the resource requirements. In the case of Ellis Park, the model under-predicted the basic life support (BLS) requirement for 1.5% of the events in the data set. Mean over-prediction was 209.1 minutes for BLS availability. Old Trafford displayed no events for which the Medical Resource Model would have under-predicted. The mean over-prediction of BLS availability for Old Trafford was 671.6 minutes. The intermediate life support (ILS) requirement for Ellis Park was under-predicted for seven of the total 66 events (10.6% of the events), all of which had one factor in common, that being relatively low spectator attendance numbers. Modelling for ILS at Old Trafford did not under-predict for
Prospects for genetically modified non-human primate models, including the common marmoset.
Sasaki, Erika
2015-04-01
Genetically modified mice have contributed much to studies in the life sciences. In some research fields, however, mouse models are insufficient for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of pathology or as disease models. Often, genetically modified non-human primate (NHP) models are desired, as they are more similar to human physiology, morphology, and anatomy. Recent progress in studies of the reproductive biology in NHPs has enabled the introduction of exogenous genes into NHP genomes or the alteration of endogenous NHP genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the production of genetically modified NHPs, including the common marmoset, and future perspectives for realizing genetically modified NHP models for use in life sciences research.
Aftershocks and Omori's law in a modified Carlson-Langer model with nonlinear viscoelasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Okamura, Kazuki
2015-05-01
A modified Carlson-Langer model for earthquakes is proposed, which includes nonlinear viscoelasticity. Several aftershocks are generated after the main shock owing to the damping of the additional viscoelastic force. Both the Gutenberg-Richter law and Omori's law are reproduced in a numerical simulation of the modified Carlson-Langer model on a critical percolation cluster of a square lattice.
Multi-Valued Neural Network Modified Model and Its Optical Realization,
1995-03-07
This paper presents a modified optical neural networK model, and the optical system, constructed with spatial light modulator PROM, can materialize...modified model improves cognitive ability of an optical neural network and also improves the storage capacity to a certain extent.
Modeling Particle Rolling Behavior by the Modified Eccentric Circle Model of DEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yi-Long; Chen, Tsung-Hsien; Weng, Meng-Chia
2012-09-01
This study proposes a modified eccentric circle model to simulate the rolling resistance of circle particles through the distinct element method (DEM) simulation. The proposed model contains two major concepts: eccentric circle and local rotational damping. The mass center of a circular particle is first adjusted slightly for eccentricity to provide rotational stiffness. Local rotational damping is adopted to dissipate energy in the rotational direction. These associated material parameters can be obtained easily from the rolling behavior of one rod. This study verifies the proposed model with the repose angle tests of chalk rod assemblies, and the simulated results were satisfactory. Simulations using other existing models were also conducted for comparison, showing that the proposed model achieved better results. A landslide model test was further simulated, and this simulation agreed with both the failure pattern and the sliding process. In conclusion, particle rolling simulation using the proposed model appears to approach the actual particle trajectory, making it useful for various applications.
Reduced-order model based feedback control of the modified Hasegawa-Wakatani model
Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.
2013-04-15
In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in flow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then, a model-based feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators. Finally, a linear quadratic Gaussian controller which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.
Employing a Modified Diffuser Momentum Model to Simulate Ventilation of the Orion CEV (DRAFT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straus, John; Ball, Tyler; OHara, William; Barido, Richard
2011-01-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to model the flow field in the Orion CEV cabin. The CFD model employs a momentum model used to account for the effect of supply grilles on the supply flow. The momentum model is modified to account for non-uniform velocity profiles at the approach of the supply grille. The modified momentum model is validated against a detailed vane-resolved model before inclusion into the Orion CEV cabin model. Results for this comparison, as well as that of a single ventilation configuration are presented.
Accurate Critical Parameters for the Modified Lennard-Jones Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamoto, Kazuma; Fuchizaki, Kazuhiro
2017-03-01
The critical parameters of the modified Lennard-Jones system were examined. The isothermal-isochoric ensemble was generated by conducting a molecular dynamics simulation for the system consisting of 6912, 8788, 10976, and 13500 particles. The equilibrium between the liquid and vapor phases was judged from the chemical potential of both phases upon establishing the coexistence envelope, from which the critical temperature and density were obtained invoking the renormalization group theory. The finite-size scaling enabled us to finally determine the critical temperature, pressure, and density as Tc = 1.0762(2), pc = 0.09394(17), and ρc = 0.331(3), respectively.
A Modified Theta Projection Model for Creep Behavior of Metals and Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Manish; Singh, I. V.; Mishra, B. K.; Ahmad, S.; Venugopal Rao, A.; Kumar, Vikas
2016-09-01
In this work, a modified theta projection model is proposed for the constitutive modeling of creep behavior of metals and alloys. In the conventional theta projection model, strain hardening exponent is a function of time and theta, whereas in the modified theta projection model, the exponent is taken as a function of time, theta, and applied stress. The results obtained by the modified theta projection model for Al 2124 T851 alloy at constant uniaxial tensile stress are compared with the experimental results and with the predictions of the conventional theta projection method. The creep behavior of Al 7075 T651 alloy is also predicted using modified and conventional theta projection model and compared with the available experimental data. It is observed that the modified theta projection model captures the creep behavior more accurately as compared to the conventional theta projection model. The modified theta projection model can be used to predict the creep strain of pure metals and class M alloys (similar creep behavior to pure metals) for intermediate range of stress and temperature.
A modified coupled map car following model and its traffic congestion analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Hong-Xia; Liu, Yu-Xia; Cheng, Rong-Jun; Lo, Siu-Ming
2012-11-01
Based on the coupled map car following model which was presented by Konishi et al. [Konishi KJ, Kokame H, Hirate K. Phys Rev E 1999;60:4000-7.] (for short, KKH), a modified coupled map car following model is proposed. In this model two successive vehicles' headway distances in front of the considered one are incorporated in the optimal velocity (for short, OV) function. The stability condition is given for the change of the speed of the preceding vehicle on the base of the control theory. The control scheme in KKH model is applied to the modified model and the feedback gains are determined. Comparison between the modified model and KKH model is carried out. And the corresponding numerical simulation results show that the temporal behavior obtained by our model is better than that by KKH model. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.
Principle and validation of modified hysteretic models for magnetorheological dampers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Xian-Xu; Chen, Peng; Qian, Li-Jun
2015-08-01
Magnetorheological (MR) dampers, semi-active actuators for vibration and shock control systems, have attracted increasing attention during the past two decades. However, it is difficult to establish a precise mathematical model for the MR dampers and their control systems due to their intrinsic strong nonlinear hysteretic behavior. A phenomenological model based on the Bouc-Wen model can be used to effectively describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the MR dampers, but the structure of the phenomenological model is complex and the Bouc-Wen model is functionally redundant. In this paper, based on the phenomenological model, (1) a normalized phenomenological model is derived through incorporating a ‘normalization’ concept, and (2) a restructured model, also incorporating the ‘normalization’ concept, is proposed and realized. In order to demonstrate this, a multi-islands genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to identify the parameters of the restructured model, the normalized phenomenological model, and the phenomenological model. The performance of the three models for describing and predicting the damping force characteristics of the MR dampers are compared and analyzed using the identified parameters. The research results indicate that, as compared with the phenomenological model and the normalized phenomenological model, (1) the restructured model can not only effectively decrease the number of the model parameters and reduce the complexity of the model, but can also describe the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of MR dampers more accurately, and (2) the meanings of several model parameters of the restructured model are clearer and the initial ranges of the model parameters are more explicit, which is of significance for parameter identification.
Arunachalam, Viswanathan; Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Raha; Lopez, Cristina
2013-01-01
The classical models of single neuron like Hodgkin-Huxley point neuron or leaky integrate and fire neuron assume the influence of postsynaptic potentials to last till the neuron fires. Vidybida (2008) in a refreshing departure has proposed models for binding neurons in which the trace of an input is remembered only for a finite fixed period of time after which it is forgotten. The binding neurons conform to the behaviour of real neurons and are applicable in constructing fast recurrent networks for computer modeling. This paper develops explicitly several useful results for a binding neuron like the firing time distribution and other statistical characteristics. We also discuss the applicability of the developed results in constructing a modified hourglass network model in which there are interconnected neurons with excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs. Limited simulation results of the hourglass network are presented.
Modelling size structured food webs using a modified niche model with two predator traits.
Klecka, Jan
2014-01-01
The structure of food webs is frequently described using phenomenological stochastic models. A prominent example, the niche model, was found to produce artificial food webs resembling real food webs according to a range of summary statistics. However, the size structure of food webs generated by the niche model and real food webs has not yet been rigorously compared. To fill this void, I use a body mass based version of the niche model and compare prey-predator body mass allometry and predator-prey body mass ratios predicted by the model to empirical data. The results show that the model predicts weaker size structure than observed in many real food webs. I introduce a modified version of the niche model which allows to control the strength of size-dependence of predator-prey links. In this model, optimal prey body mass depends allometrically on predator body mass and on a second trait, such as foraging mode. These empirically motivated extensions of the model allow to represent size structure of real food webs realistically and can be used to generate artificial food webs varying in several aspects of size structure in a controlled way. Hence, by explicitly including the role of species traits, this model provides new opportunities for simulating the consequences of size structure for food web dynamics and stability.
Modelling Size Structured Food Webs Using a Modified Niche Model with Two Predator Traits
Klecka, Jan
2014-01-01
The structure of food webs is frequently described using phenomenological stochastic models. A prominent example, the niche model, was found to produce artificial food webs resembling real food webs according to a range of summary statistics. However, the size structure of food webs generated by the niche model and real food webs has not yet been rigorously compared. To fill this void, I use a body mass based version of the niche model and compare prey-predator body mass allometry and predator-prey body mass ratios predicted by the model to empirical data. The results show that the model predicts weaker size structure than observed in many real food webs. I introduce a modified version of the niche model which allows to control the strength of size-dependence of predator-prey links. In this model, optimal prey body mass depends allometrically on predator body mass and on a second trait, such as foraging mode. These empirically motivated extensions of the model allow to represent size structure of real food webs realistically and can be used to generate artificial food webs varying in several aspects of size structure in a controlled way. Hence, by explicitly including the role of species traits, this model provides new opportunities for simulating the consequences of size structure for food web dynamics and stability. PMID:25119999
Modeling Intertidal Species Body Temperatures Using A Modified land Surface Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wethey, D.; Chintalapati, S.; Lakshmi, V.
2008-12-01
The species in the coastal intertidal zone are exposed to both marine conditions (high tide) and terrestrial conditions (low tide). Modeling the body temperature of the species is critical to understand its physiologic response to climate variability along the coastline. We model the species body temperature and skin temperature using a modified biophysical model. The temperatures are predicted using a 1-D model of heat transport through three1-cm think layers representing the mussel bed, overlaying 20 1-cm think layers of bedrock. The biophysics of mass and heat transport is based on the NOAH land surface model. During high tide immersions, the outer layers of the mussel bed and the rock were fixed at satellite based MODIS observed sea surface temperature (SST). During low tide emersions, the temperatures are predicted using the heat transport from NOAH model. For each study location modeled, we use the North American Regional Reanalysis data to force the model. Compared to multiple years of field observations across various locations along the US west coast, the model was found to reproduce the monthly average temperatures within one percent accuracy. 75% of the model predicted daily maximum body temperatures fall within one standard deviation of observations made by replicate temperature loggers.
Modified 2CLJDQP model and the second virial coefficients for linear molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ying; Wang, Sheng; He, Mao-Gang
2014-12-01
A modified form of 2CLJDQP potential model is proposed to calculate the second virial coefficients of two-center Lennard-Jones molecules. In the presented potential model, the potential parameters σ and ɛ are considered as the temperature-dependent parameters in the form of hyperbolical temperature function based on the theory of temperature-dependent potential parameters. With this modified model, the second virial coefficients of some homonuclear molecules (such as O2, Cl2, CH3CH3, and CF3CF3) and heteronuclear molecules (such as CO, NO, CH3F, CH3Cl, CH3CF3, CH3CHF2, and CF3CH2F) are calculated. Then the Lorentz—Berthelot mixing rule is modified with a temperature-dependent expression, and the second virial coefficients of the heteronuclear molecules (such as CH3F, CH3Cl, and CH3CF3) are calculated. Moreover, CO2 and N2O are also studied with the modified 3CLJDQP model. The calculated results from the modified 2CLJDQP model accord better with the experimental data than those from the original model. It is shown that the presented model improves the positive deviation in low temperature range and negative deviation in high temperature range. So the modified 2CLJDQP potential model with the temperature-dependent parameters can be employed satisfactorily in large temperature range.
The modified Black-Scholes model via constant elasticity of variance for stock options valuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edeki, S. O.; Owoloko, E. A.; Ugbebor, O. O.
2016-02-01
In this paper, the classical Black-Scholes option pricing model is visited. We present a modified version of the Black-Scholes model via the application of the constant elasticity of variance model (CEVM); in this case, the volatility of the stock price is shown to be a non-constant function unlike the assumption of the classical Black-Scholes model.
A Modified Pressure-Impulse Blast Damage Model
1977-01-01
rndldontffy by b!ock number) ComputerSimulation Iso -DamageModeling StructuralDamageModeling Overpressure Blast Damage ZO.ABSTRACT(==@nJ*UMr-W- ti+~f~ -fd.tuf...11 2. Pressure-Impulse Iso -Damage Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3. Representation of Youngdahl’s Model...and REPSIL Computer Codes . , . . 29 II. Single Degree-of-Freedom Iso -Damage Data . . . . . . . . 32 III. Five Degree-of-FreedomIso-Damage Data
Anisotropic stress and stability in modified gravity models
Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin
2011-03-15
The existence of anisotropic stress of a purely geometrical origin seems to be a characteristic of higher order gravity models, and has been suggested as a probe to test these models observationally, for example, in weak lensing experiments. In this paper, we seek to find a class of higher order gravity models of f(R,G) type that would give us a zero anisotropic stress and study the consequences for the viability of the actual model. For the special case of a de Sitter background, we identify a subclass of models with the desired property. We also find a direct link between anisotropic stress and the stability of the model as well as the presence of extra degrees of freedom, which seems to be a general feature of higher order gravity models. Particularly, setting the anisotropic stress equal to zero for a de Sitter background leads to a singularity that makes it impossible to reach the de Sitter evolution.
Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...
Model development is of interest to ecologists, regulators and developers, since it may assist theoretical understanding, decision making in experimental design, product development and risk assessment. In order to predict the potential impacts of genetically modified (GM) plants...
Ahnert, M; Günther, N; Kuehn, V; Krebs, P; Svardal, K; Spatzierer, G
2008-01-01
An alternative approach for combined water treatment as opposed to its CSO discharge into receiving water is its bypass to the inlet of secondary clarifiers (SC). To analyse the processes and to evaluate the performance of this approach, experiments and numerical modelling were carried out. In batch and pilot scale experiments major effects were identified and quantified. The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) was modified to simulate the batch and pilot scale experiments for implementation of the bypass-specific processes and thus to set up an overall balance of the relevant compounds. With some modifications of ASM3, good agreement of the modelling results with measurements of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus were achieved. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.
A Modified Mechanical Threshold Stress Constitutive Model for Austenitic Stainless Steels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, K. Sajun; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Singh, Yashjeet; Singh, Swadesh Kumar
2016-12-01
This paper presents a modified mechanical threshold stress (m-MTS) constitutive model. The m-MTS model incorporates variable athermal and dynamic strain aging (DSA) Components to accurately predict the flow stress behavior of austenitic stainless steels (ASS)-316 and 304. Under strain rate variations between 0.01-0.0001 s-1, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 50-650 °C to evaluate the material constants of constitutive models. The test results revealed the high dependence of flow stress on strain, strain rate and temperature. In addition, it was observed that DSA occurred at elevated temperatures and very low strain rates, causing an increase in flow stress. While the original MTS model is capable of predicting the flow stress behavior for ASS, statistical parameters point out the inefficiency of the model when compared to other models such as Johnson Cook model, modified Zerilli-Armstrong (m-ZA) model, and modified Arrhenius-type equations (m-Arr). Therefore, in order to accurately model both the DSA and non-DSA regimes, the original MTS model was modified by incorporating variable athermal and DSA components. The suitability of the m-MTS model was assessed by comparing the statistical parameters. It was observed that the m-MTS model was highly accurate for the DSA regime when compared to the existing models. However, models like m-ZA and m-Arr showed better results for the non-DSA regime.
Emergence of Influential Spreaders in Modified Rumor Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Meloni, Sandro; Gonçalves, Bruno; Moreno, Yamir
2013-04-01
The burst in the use of online social networks over the last decade has provided evidence that current rumor spreading models miss some fundamental ingredients in order to reproduce how information is disseminated. In particular, recent literature has revealed that these models fail to reproduce the fact that some nodes in a network have an influential role when it comes to spread a piece of information. In this work, we introduce two mechanisms with the aim of filling the gap between theoretical and experimental results. The first model introduces the assumption that spreaders are not always active whereas the second model considers the possibility that an ignorant is not interested in spreading the rumor. In both cases, results from numerical simulations show a higher adhesion to real data than classical rumor spreading models. Our results shed some light on the mechanisms underlying the spreading of information and ideas in large social systems and pave the way for more realistic diffusion models.
A-Priori Tuning of Modified Magnussen Combustion Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norris, A. T.
2016-01-01
In the application of CFD to turbulent reacting flows, one of the main limitations to predictive accuracy is the chemistry model. Using a full or skeletal kinetics model may provide good predictive ability, however, at considerable computational cost. Adding the ability to account for the interaction between turbulence and chemistry improves the overall fidelity of a simulation but adds to this cost. An alternative is the use of simple models, such as the Magnussen model, which has negligible computational overhead, but lacks general predictive ability except for cases that can be tuned to the flow being solved. In this paper, a technique will be described that allows the tuning of the Magnussen model for an arbitrary fuel and flow geometry without the need to have experimental data for that particular case. The tuning is based on comparing the results of the Magnussen model and full finite-rate chemistry when applied to perfectly and partially stirred reactor simulations. In addition, a modification to the Magnussen model is proposed that allows the upper kinetic limit for the reaction rate to be set, giving better physical agreement with full kinetic mechanisms. This procedure allows a simple reacting model to be used in a predictive manner, and affords significant savings in computational costs for simulations.
[Genetically modified animals as model systems of psoriasis].
Soboleva, A G; Mezentsev, A V; Bruskin, S A
2014-01-01
Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune skin disorder. Experimental models of psoriasis can be used to study the disease in controlled conditions. Moreover, the experimental models allow to study a certain aspect of the pathological process. Although none of the multiple mouse models reproduces the human disease precisely, lab animals as model systems can be very helpful because of two reasons. First, introduction of new mutations into animal genome allows to reveal the new genes that may play a certain role in pathogenesis of the disease. Second, the experiments that are carried on the lab animals can be used for testing the new drugs and selection of the most efficient chemical agents from a variety of the proposed experimental preparations. The aim of this paper was to summarize the data on the lab animals that serve as experimental models of psoriasis.
A modified elastic foundation contact model for application in 3D models of the prosthetic knee.
Pérez-González, Antonio; Fenollosa-Esteve, Carlos; Sancho-Bru, Joaquín L; Sánchez-Marín, Francisco T; Vergara, Margarita; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Pablo J
2008-04-01
Different models have been used in the literature for the simulation of surface contact in biomechanical knee models. However, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of these models applied to the simulation of a common case, which will provide relevant information about their accuracy and suitability for application in models of the implanted knee. In this work a comparison of the Hertz model (HM), the elastic foundation model (EFM) and the finite element model (FEM) for the simulation of the elastic contact in a 3D model of the prosthetic knee is presented. From the results of this comparison it is found that although the nature of the EFM offers advantages when compared with that of the HM for its application to realistic prosthetic surfaces, and when compared with the FEM in CPU time, its predictions can differ from FEM in some circumstances. These differences are considerable if the comparison is performed for prescribed displacements, although they are less important for prescribed loads. To solve these problems a new modified elastic foundation model (mEFM) is proposed that maintains basically the simplicity of the original model while producing much more accurate results. In this paper it is shown that this new mEFM calculates pressure distribution and contact area with accuracy and short computation times for toroidal contacting surfaces. Although further work is needed to confirm its validity for more complex geometries the mEFM is envisaged as a good option for application in 3D knee models to predict prosthetic knee performance.
Modified Finch and Skea stellar model compatible with observational data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandya, D. M.; Thomas, V. O.; Sharma, R.
2015-04-01
We present a new class of solutions to the Einstein's field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric anisotropic system by generalizing the ansatz of Finch and Skea [Class. Quantum Grav. 6:467, 1989] for the gravitational potential g rr . The anisotropic stellar model previously studied by Sharma and Ratanpal [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 13:1350074, 2013] is a sub-class of the solutions provided here. Based on physical requirements, regularity conditions and stability, we prescribe bounds on the model parameters. By systematically fixing values of the model parameters within the prescribed bound, we demonstrate that our model is compatible with the observed masses and radii of a wide variety of compact stars like 4U 1820-30, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1608-52, Vela X-1, PSR J1614-2230, SAX J1808.4-3658 and Her X-1.
Predicted model for hydrous modified olivine (HyM-α)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudoh, Y.
A possible structure for hydrous modified olivine (HyM-α) has been obtained by the subtraction of Mg3SiO5 from forsterite by crystallographic shear along a direction parallel to the [010] direction of olivine. The subtraction of Mg3SiO5 results in the subtraction of MgO from bulk chemistry (-Mg3SiO5=-Mg2SiO4-MgO). A possible structure for HyM-α thus obtained has the chemical formula Mg9Si5H2O20 (= 5 × Mg1.8SiH0.4O4) with monoclinic unit cell a=4.754 Å, b=10.19 Å, c=29.90 Å, ρ=3.126 g cm-3, and space group=Ac2m (no. 39). Since the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of HyM-α proposed in this study is very close to that of clinohumite, there is the possibility of this phase having been undiscovered. The humite group minerals and HyM-α proposed in this study make a homologous series as recombination structures: Mg(2m+n)SimH2nO2(2m+n) for the humite group and Mg(2m+n)Si(m+n)H2nO4(m+n) for HyM-α A characteristic feature is that Mg/Si > 2 for the humite group and Mg/Si < 2 for HyM-α. Forsterite specimens containing around 100 ppm H2O reported in mantle xenoliths might be the disordered case with n=1 and m=1200 of the humite group or HyM-α.
Modified version of the combined model of photonucleon reactions
Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.
2015-07-15
A refined version of the combined photonucleon-reaction model is described. This version makes it possible to take into account the effect of structural features of the doorway dipole state on photonucleon reactions in the energy range of E{sub γ} ≤ 30 MeV. In relation to the previous version of the model, the treatment of isospin effects at the preequilibrium and evaporation reaction stages is refined; in addition, the description of the semidirect effect caused by nucleon emission from the doorway dipole state is improved. The model in question is used to study photonucleon reactions on the isotopes {sup 35-56}Ca and {sup 102-134}Sn in the energy range indicated above.
A modified Bogoliubov method applied to a simple boson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litt, O.; Bassichis, W. H.
2017-01-01
We use a non-gauge-invariant modification of the exact Hamiltonian to obtain a new Hamiltonian-like operator for a simple exactly solvable boson model. The eigenvalues of the new operator are close to those of the original Hamiltonian. We make a one-body approximation of the new two-body operator in the spirit of the Bogoliubov approximation. Because only the number operator appears, the c-number approximation is not required individually for the creation or annihilation operators in the ground state. For the simple model, the results using the new approximation are closer to the exact results than the usual Bogoliubov results over a wide range of parameters. The improvement increases dramatically as the model interaction strength increases.
Exact self-duality in a modified Skyrme model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, L. A.
2017-07-01
We propose a modification of the Skyrme model that supports a self-dual sector possessing exact non-trivial finite energy solutions. The action of such a theory possesses the usual quadratic and quartic terms in field derivatives, but the couplings of the components of the Maurer-Cartan form of the Skyrme model is made by a non-constant symmetric matrix, instead of the usual Killing form of the SU(2) Lie algebra. The introduction of such a matrix make the self-duality equations conformally invariant in three space dimensions, even though it may break the global internal symmetries of the original Skyrme model. For the case where that matrix is proportional to the identity we show that the theory possesses exact self-dual Skyrmions of unity topological charges.
[Dynamic analysis of ecological footprint of Dongying City based on a modified model].
Yang, Hai-Bo; Wang, Zong-Min; Zhao, Hong-Ling; Li, Ji-Ren
2009-07-01
Taking the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of water-heat condition into consideration, the traditional ecological footprint (EF) model was modified with net primary productivity (NPP). In the meanwhile, water resource EF was calculated to complement the deficiency of water EF account which only included water's fishing function. The EF dynamics of Dongying City from 1996 to 2003 was analyzed by using the modified model. Based on traditional model, the EF of Dongying City in 1996-2003 increased from 1.766 hm2 to 2.644 hm2, and the ecological capacity (EC) decreased from 0.889 hm2 to 0.813 hm2; while based on the modified model, the EF increased from 2.819 hm2 to 3.776 hm2, and the EC decreased from 1.935 hm2 to 1.865 hm2. Comparing with that from traditional model, the ecological pressure calculated by the modified model was lesser, which suggested that to increase the utilization of water resource would alleviate the ecological pressure on the region. The modified EF model was more precise to reflect the natural resource utilization of Dongying City.
Impression Formation and Modifiability: Testing a Theoretical Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mrug, Sylvie; Hoza, Betsy
2007-01-01
This study proposed and tested a developmental model of impression formation based on observed behavior, prior expectancies, and additional incongruent information. Participants were 51 kindergartners, 53 second graders, and 104 college students who provided trait and liking judgments after watching a child actor engage in behaviors from three…
Modelling of Scenedesmus obliquus; function of nutrients with modified Gompertz model.
Celekli, Abuzer; Balci, Muharrem; Bozkurt, Hüseyin
2008-12-01
This study attempted to investigate variation in biovolume of Scenedesmus obliquus, in the modified Johnson medium at 20+/-2 degrees C, under 16kergcm(-2)s(-1) continuous illumination. The experiments were carried out at four nitrate (8, 12, 16, and 20mM) and four phosphate (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7mM) concentrations at pH 7 and 8. The best response for algal growth was found at 0.3mM phosphate and 12mM nitrate at pH 7, as it was obtained from weight averaging method. Besides, optimum phosphate and nitrate concentrations significantly distinguished (p<0.01) from other concentrations according to Turkey's HSD test. Key features of the growth of S. obliquus under phosphate and nitrate influenced batch culture was successfully predicted by modified Gompertz model. Through the cultivations, specific growth rate (mu) ranged from 0.30 to 1.02 day(-1), while biovolume doubling time (td) varied from 0.68 to 2.30 days. There were important differences (p<0.05) for both mu and td among response variables. Both nutrients displayed noteworthy effect (p<0.01) on the algal biovolume.
Martin, Jean-Charles; Berton, Amélie; Ginies, Christian; Bott, Romain; Scheercousse, Pierre; Saddi, Alessandra; Gripois, Daniel; Landrier, Jean-François; Dalemans, Daniel; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Delplanque, Bernadette
2015-09-01
We assessed the atheroprotective efficiency of modified dairy fats in hyperlipidemic hamsters. A systems biology approach was implemented to reveal and quantify the dietary fat-related components of the disease. Three modified dairy fats (40% energy) were prepared from regular butter by mixing with a plant oil mixture, by removing cholesterol alone, or by removing cholesterol in combination with reducing saturated fatty acids. A plant oil mixture and a regular butter were used as control diets. The atherosclerosis severity (aortic cholesteryl-ester level) was higher in the regular butter-fed hamsters than in the other four groups (P < 0.05). Eighty-seven of the 1,666 variables measured from multiplatform analysis were found to be strongly associated with the disease. When aggregated into 10 biological clusters combined into a multivariate predictive equation, these 87 variables explained 81% of the disease variability. The biological cluster "regulation of lipid transport and metabolism" appeared central to atherogenic development relative to diets. The "vitamin E metabolism" cluster was the main driver of atheroprotection with the best performing transformed dairy fat. Under conditions that promote atherosclerosis, the impact of dairy fats on atherogenesis could be greatly ameliorated by technological modifications. Our modeling approach allowed for identifying and quantifying the contribution of complex factors to atherogenic development in each dietary setup.
Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model of the universe in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, B.; Vadrevu, Samhita
2017-02-01
In this paper, we have constructed the cosmological models of the universe in a cylindrically symmetric space time in two classes of f(R,T) gravity (Harko et al. in Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011). We have discussed two cases: one in the linear form and the other in the quadratic form of R. The matter is considered to be in the form of perfect fluid. It is observed that in the first case, the pressure and energy density remain the same, which reduces to a Zeldovich fluid. In the second case we have studied the quadratic function of f(R,T) gravity in the form f(R)=λ(R+R2) and f(T)=λ T. In the second case the pressure is in the negative domain and the energy density is in the positive domain, which confirms that the equation of state parameter is negative. The physical properties of the constructed models are studied.
Modified Sachs's Model of Deformation of Polycrystalline Magnesium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesarev, A. G.; Vlasova, A. M.
2017-09-01
There are a large number of approaches to a description of work hardening of metal polycrystals with various crystal lattices. In the present work, Sachs's model is generalized to uniaxial tension/compression of polycrystalline magnesium with hexagonal densely packed crystal lattice. The tensile yield stress is estimated taking into account two deformation modes: (0001)< 11\\overline{2}0> easy basal slip and (10\\overline{1}2)< \\overline{1}011> twinning.
Justification of sexual reproduction by modified Penna model of ageing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sá Martins, J. S.; Stauffer, D.
2001-05-01
We generalize the standard Penna bit-string model of biological ageing by assuming that each deleterious mutation diminishes the survival probability in every time interval by a small percentage. This effect is added to the usual lethal but age-dependent effect of the same mutation. We then find strong advantages or disadvantages of sexual reproduction (with males and females) compared to asexual cloning, depending on parameters.
Akbarzadeh, Pooria
2016-05-12
In this paper, magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries are numerically simulated using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid containing nanoparticles. In the modified nanofluids model, the viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids) which are commonly utilized as an effective value, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. The modified governing equations are solved numerically using Newton's method and a block tridiagonal matrix solver. The results are compared to the prevalent nanofluids single-phase model. In addition, the efficacies of important physical parameters such as pressure gradient, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, magnetic-field parameter, porosity parameter, and etc. on temperature, velocity and nanoparticles concentration profiles are examined.
Infrared face recognition based on modified blood perfusion model and 2DLDA in DWT domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shiqian; Liang, Wei; Fang, Zhijun; Yang, Jucheng; Yuan, Jiasheng
2009-10-01
A efficient method for infrared face recognition by modified blood perfusion model of human face and 2DLDA in DWT domain is proposed. Then we demonstrate from the theoretical that the 2DLDA subspace projection result remains the same with the original data are transformed using the wavelet transformation. The experiments conducted illustrate that the method proposed in this paper has better performance. While the recognition rate wasn't decrease based on modified blood perfusion model compared to blood perfusion model obviously and have even lightly improved in some cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalhori, Ebrahim Mohammadi; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Uygur, Nihan; Zarrabi, Mansur; Shmeis, Reham M. Abu
2013-12-01
Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) modified with an aqueous solution of magnesium chloride MgCl2 and hydrogen peroxide H2O2 was used to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption properties of the used adsorbents were investigated through batch studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effect created by magnesium chloride on the modification of the LECA surface was greater than that of hydrogen peroxide solution and showed a substantial increase in the specific surface area which has a value of 76.12 m2/g for magnesium chloride modified LECA while the values of 53.72 m2/g, and 11.53 m2/g were found for hydrogen peroxide modified LECA and natural LECA, respectively. The extent of surface modification with enhanced porosity in modified LECA was apparent from the recorded SEM patterns. XRD and FTIR studies of themodified LECA surface did not show any structural distortion. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the modified Freundlich kinetic model and the equilibrium data fitted the Sips and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations better than other models. Maximum sorption capacities were found to be 198.39, 218.29 and 236.24 mg/g for natural LECA, surface modified LECA with H2O2 and surface modified LECA with MgCl2, respectively. Adsorbents were found to have only a weak effect on conductivity and turbidity of aqueous solutions. Spent natural and surface modified LECA with MgCl2 was best regenerated with HCl solution, while LECA surface modified with H2O2 was best regenerated with HNO3 concentrated solution. Thermal method showed a lower regeneration percentage for all spent adsorbents.
Frame junction vibration transmission with a modified frame deformation model.
Moore, J A
1990-12-01
A previous paper dealt with vibration transmission through junctions of connected frame members where the allowed frame deformations included bending, torsion, and longitudinal motions [J.A. Moore, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2766-2776 (1990)]. In helicopter and aircraft structures the skin panels can constitute a high impedance connection along the length of the frames that effectively prohibits in-plane motion at the elevation of the skin panels. This has the effect of coupling in-plane bending and torsional motions within the frame. This paper discusses the transmission behavior through frame junctions that accounts for the in-plane constraint in idealized form by assuming that the attached skin panels completely prohibit inplane motion in the frames. Also, transverse shear deformation is accounted for in describing the relatively deep web frame constructions common in aircraft structures. Longitudinal motion in the frames is not included in the model. Transmission coefficient predictions again show the importance of out-of-plane bending deformation to the transmission of vibratory energy in an aircraft structure. Comparisons are shown with measured vibration transmission data along the framing in the overhead of a helicopter airframe, with good agreement. The frame junction description has been implemented within a general purpose statistical energy analysis (SEA) computer code in modeling the entire airframe structure including skin panels.
Murine Cervical Heart Transplantation Model Using a Modified Cuff Technique
Kofler, Markus; Ritschl, Paul; Oellinger, Robert; Aigner, Felix; Sucher, Robert; Schneeberger, Stefan; Pratschke, Johann; Brandacher, Gerald; Maglione, Manuel
2014-01-01
Mouse models are of special interest in research since a wide variety of monoclonal antibodies and commercially defined inbred and knockout strains are available to perform mechanistic in vivo studies. While heart transplantation models using a suture technique were first successfully developed in rats, the translation into an equally widespread used murine equivalent was never achieved due the technical complexity of the microsurgical procedure. In contrast, non-suture cuff techniques, also developed initially in rats, were successfully adapted for use in mice1-3. This technique for revascularization involves two major steps I) everting the recipient vessel over a polyethylene cuff; II) pulling the donor vessel over the formerly everted recipient vessel and holding it in place with a circumferential tie. This ensures a continuity of the endothelial layer, short operating time and very high patency rates4. Using this technique for vascular anastomosis we performed more than 1,000 cervical heart transplants with an overall success rate of 95%. For arterial inflow the common carotid artery and the proximal aortic arch were anastomosed resulting in a retrograde perfusion of the transplanted heart. For venous drainage the pulmonary artery of the graft was anastomosed with the external jugular vein of the recipient5. Herein, we provide additional details of this technique to supplement the video. PMID:25350682
Sentiment Contagion Based on the Modified SOSa-SPSa Model
Song, Zhijie; Jia, Jie; Wang, Jian
2016-01-01
Sentiment contagion is similar to an infectious disease that spreads in a crowd. In this study, we extend the proposed SOSa-SPSa model (susceptible-optimistic-susceptible and susceptible-pessimistic-susceptible) by considering the interaction between optimists and pessimists. Simulation results show that our model is reasonable and can better explain the entire contagion process by considering three groups of people. The recovery speed of pessimists has an obvious regulative effect on the number of pessimists and the possibility of optimists coming in contact with pessimists to be infected as pessimism plays a greater role than that of reverting to susceptibility. The number of pessimists is positively related to the possibility that optimists come in contact with pessimists to become pessimistic but is negatively related to the possibility of the other way around. When the speed of spontaneous generation is slow, the number of pessimists sharply increases. However, the increase is not so apparent when the speed of spontaneous generation reaches a certain number. PMID:27746827
An empirical modified fatigue damage model for impacted GFRP laminates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naderi, S.; Hassan, M. A.; Bushroa, A. R.
2014-10-01
The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the residual strength of GFRP laminates following a low-velocity impact event under cyclic loading. The residual strength is calculated using a linear fatigue damage model. According to an investigation into the effect of low-velocity impact on the fatigue behavior of laminates, it seems laminate fatigue life decreases after impact. By normalizing the fatigue stress against undamaged static strength, the Fatigue Damage parameter “FD” is presented with a linear relationship as its slope which is a linear function of the initial impact energy; meanwhile, the constants were attained from experimental data. FD is implemented into a plane-stress continuum damage mechanics based model for GFRP composite laminates, in order to predict damage threshold in composite structures. An S-N curve is implemented to indicate the fatigue behavior for 2 mm thickness encompassing both undamaged and impacted samples. A decline in lifespan is evident when the impact energy level increases. Finally, the FD is intended to capture the unique GFRP composite characteristics.
Existence of Periodic Solutions for a Modified Growth Solow Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabião, Fátima; Borges, Maria João
2010-10-01
In this paper we analyze the dynamic of the Solow growth model with a Cobb-Douglas production function. For this purpose, we consider that the labour growth rate, L'(t)/L(t), is a T-periodic function, for a fixed positive real number T. We obtain the closed form solutions for the fundamental Solow equation with the new description of L(t). Using notions of the qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations and nonlinear functional analysis, we prove that there exists one T-periodic solution for the Solow equation. From the economic point of view this is a new result which allows a more realistic interpretation of the stylized facts.
Genetically modified mouse models for oral drug absorption and disposition.
Tang, Seng Chuan; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H
2013-12-01
Intestinal absorption is an essential step in the therapeutic use of most orally administered drugs and often mediated by enterocyte transmembrane transporters. Here we discuss several of these drug transport systems and knockout mouse models to study them. These studies showed that Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) can limit intestinal drug absorption. Organic cation transporter n1 (Octn1) and Octn2 might also facilitate intestinal drug absorption, although direct in vivo evidence is lacking. On the other hand, intestinal uptake of drugs is facilitated by the Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (Ent1), Mrp3 and possibly Mrp4. No significant role in intestinal absorption for Oct1 and Oct2 or for Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatp) 1a and 1b was found so far.
The Jury Is In: Use of a Modified Legal Model for School Program Evaluation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wood, Kit C.; And Others
1986-01-01
This article examines the use of a modified judiciary model, called the Advocacy-Judiciary model, by the Mesa Public School System in Arizona. The method was used to investigate programs specifically directed toward the academic needs of the gifted and talented student population. (Author/JAZ)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacSwan, Jeff
2005-01-01
This article presents an empirical and theoretical critique of the Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model (Myers-Scotton, 1993; Myers-Scotton and Jake, 2001), and includes a response to Jake, Myers-Scotton and Gross's (2002) (JMSG) critique of MacSwan (1999, 2000) and reactions to their revision of the MLF model as a "modified minimalist approach." The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacSwan, Jeff
2005-01-01
This article presents an empirical and theoretical critique of the Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model (Myers-Scotton, 1993; Myers-Scotton and Jake, 2001), and includes a response to Jake, Myers-Scotton and Gross's (2002) (JMSG) critique of MacSwan (1999, 2000) and reactions to their revision of the MLF model as a "modified minimalist approach." The…
Comparative Studies of Population Synthesis Models in the Framework of Modified Strömgren Filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreedhar, Yuvraj Harsha; Rakos, Karl; Hensler, Gerhard
2014-03-01
Evolutionary models form a vital part of stellar population research in understanding their evolution, but despite their long history of development, they are often misrepresented and the properties of stellar population observed through broadband and spectroscopic measurements are also misinterpreted. With growing numbers of these synthesis models, model comparison becomes an important analysis to choose a suitable model for understanding stellar populations and model up-gradation. Along with model comparison, we reinvestigate the technique of modified Strömgren photometry to measure reliable parameter-sensitive colours and estimate precise model ages and metallicities. The assessment of Rakos/Schulz models with GALEV and Worthey's Lick/IDS model find smaller colour variation: Δ( uz - vz) ≤ 0.056, Δ( bz - yz) ≤ -0.05 and Δ( vz - yz) ≤ 0.061. The study conveys a good agreement of GALEV models with modified Strömgren colours but with poor UV model predictions and observed globular cluster data, while the spectroscopic models perform badly because of outdated isochrone and stellar spectral libraries with inaccurate/insufficient knowledge of various stellar phases and their treatment. Overall, the assessment finds modified Strömgren photometry well suited to study different types stellar populations by mitigating the effects of age-metallicity degeneracy.
Hwang, Jin-Ha; Lee, Deuck Hang; Ju, Hyunjin; Kim, Kang Su; Seo, Soo-Yeon; Kang, Joo-Won
2013-01-01
Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%–1.5%, in terms of shear performance. PMID:28788364
Hwang, Jin-Ha; Lee, Deuck Hang; Ju, Hyunjin; Kim, Kang Su; Seo, Soo-Yeon; Kang, Joo-Won
2013-10-23
Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%-1.5%, in terms of shear performance.
Breather-like structures in modified sine-Gordon models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, L. A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.
2016-05-01
We report analytical and numerical results on breather-like field configurations in a theory which is a deformation of the integrable sine-Gordon model in (1 + 1) dimensions. The main motivation of our study is to test the ideas behind the recently proposed concept of quasi-integrability, which emerged from the observation that some field theories possess an infinite number of quantities which are asymptotically conserved in the scattering of solitons, and periodic in time in the case of breather-like configurations. Even though the mechanism responsible for such phenomena is not well understood yet, it is clear that special properties of the solutions under a space-time parity transformation play a crucial role. The numerical results of the present paper give support for the ideas on quasi-integrability, as it is found that extremely long-lived breather configurations satisfy these parity properties. We also report on a mechanism, particular to the theory studied here, that favours the existence of long lived breathers even in cases of significant deformations of the sine-Gordon potential. We also find numerically that our breather-like configurations decay through the gradual increase of their frequency of oscillations.
A modified rat model of isolated bilateral pulmonary contusion
WANG, SHAOHUA; RUAN, ZHENG; ZHANG, JIE; ZHENG, JIN
2012-01-01
The aim of the present study was to create a feasible specific rat model of isolated bilateral pulmonary contusion (PC) and to evaluate the relationship between severity of hypoxemia and quantity of contusion lesions. Anesthetized rats were placed in a prone position. Injury energy ranging from 2.1 to 3.0 J was produced by a falling weight passed through a specially designed arched shield to the bilateral chest wall of rats. After injury (4 h), the contusion volume was measured using computer-generated three-dimensional reconstruction from a chest computed tomographic scan and expressed as a percentage of total lung volume. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in blood gas analysis and contusion volume percentage were used to assess the severity of contusion. Heart and lung biopsy was used to confirm the diagnosis and rule out the existence of myocardial contusion. There were 3 cases of death and 1 case of death in the 3.0 J and the 2.4 J group, respectively. PaO2 in the 2.7 J group was significantly lower than that in the lower energy groups (P<0.001). The percentage of pulmonary contusion in the 2.7 J group was significantly higher compared to that of the lower energy groups (P<0.001). PaO2 was negatively correlated with contusion percentage (R2=0.76). Hemorrhage, edema and neutrophil infiltration were determined by lung biopsy. No evidence of myocardial contusion was documented in multiple heart biopsies. The method illustrated in this research effectively duplicates isolated bilateral pulmonary contusion in rats, the severity of which is highly correlated with the contusion size. Thus, 2.7 J can be regarded as the maximal energy for sublethal injury. PMID:23181112
New creep-fatigue damage model based on the frequency modified strain range method
Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Park, J.J.
1996-12-01
For mechanical systems operating at high temperature, damage due to the interaction effect of creep and fatigue plays an important role. The objective of this paper is to propose a modified creep-fatigue damage model which separately analyzes the pure creep damage due to the hold time and the creep-fatigue interaction damage during the startup and the shutdown period. The creep damage was calculated by the general creep damage equation and the creep-fatigue interaction damage was calculated by the modified equation which is based on the frequency modified strain range method with strain rate term. In order to verify the proposed model, a series of high temperature low cycle fatigue tests were performed. The test specimens were made from Inconel-718 superalloy and the test parameters were wave form and hold time. A good agreement between the predicted lives based on the proposed model and experimentally obtained ones was obtained.
Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions
Robert E. Spears; J. Kevin Wilkins
2011-11-01
A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.
Hannan, Shabab B; Dräger, Nina M; Rasse, Tobias M; Voigt, Aaron; Jahn, Thomas R
2016-04-01
Abnormal tau accumulations were observed and documented in post-mortem brains of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before the identification of mutations in the Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene, encoding the tau protein, in a different neurodegenerative disease called Frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The discovery of mutations in the MAPT gene associated with FTDP-17 highlighted that dysfunctions in tau alone are sufficient to cause neurodegeneration. Invertebrate models have been diligently utilized in investigating tauopathies, contributing to the understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in disease etiology. An important discovery came with the demonstration that over-expression of human tau in Drosophila leads to premature mortality and neuronal dysfunction including neurodegeneration, recapitulating some key neuropathological features of the human disease. The simplicity of handling invertebrate models combined with the availability of a diverse range of experimental resources make these models, in particular Drosophila a powerful invertebrate screening tool. Consequently, several large-scale screens have been performed using Drosophila, to identify modifiers of tau toxicity. The screens have revealed not only common cellular and molecular pathways, but in some instances the same modifier has been independently identified in two or more screens suggesting a possible role for these modifiers in regulating tau toxicity. The purpose of this review is to discuss the genetic modifier screens on tauopathies performed in Drosophila and C. elegans models, and to highlight the common cellular and molecular pathways that have emerged from these studies. Here, we summarize results of tau toxicity screens providing mechanistic insights into pathological alterations in tauopathies. Key pathways or modifiers that have been identified are associated with a broad range of processes
Reddy, K.S.; Sendhil Kumar, N.
2009-10-15
A 2-D model has been proposed to investigate the approximate estimation of the natural convection heat loss from modified cavity receiver of without insulation (WOI) and with insulation (WI) at the bottom of the aperture plane in our previous article. In this paper, a 3-D numerical model is presented to investigate the accurate estimation of natural convection heat loss from modified cavity receiver (WOI) of fuzzy focal solar dish concentrator. A comparison of 2-D and 3-D natural convection heat loss from a modified cavity receiver is carried out. A parametric study is carried out to develop separate Nusselt number correlations for 2-D and 3-D geometries of modified cavity receiver for estimation of convective heat loss from the receiver. The results show that the 2-D and 3-D are comparable only at higher angle of inclinations (60 {<=} {beta} {<=} 90 ) of the receiver. The present 3-D numerical model is compared with other well known cavity receiver models. The 3-D model can be used for accurate estimation of heat losses from solar dish collector, when compared with other well known models. (author)
Odor emission rate estimation of indoor industrial sources using a modified inverse modeling method.
Li, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Sattayatewa, Chakkrid; Venkatesan, Dhesikan; Noll, Kenneth E; Pagilla, Krishna R; Moschandreas, Demetrios J
2011-08-01
Odor emission rates are commonly measured in the laboratory or occasionally estimated with inverse modeling techniques. A modified inverse modeling approach is used to estimate source emission rates inside of a postdigestion centrifuge building of a water reclamation plant. Conventionally, inverse modeling methods divide an indoor environment in zones on the basis of structural design and estimate source emission rates using models that assume homogeneous distribution of agent concentrations within a zone and experimentally determined link functions to simulate airflows among zones. The modified approach segregates zones as a function of agent distribution rather than building design and identifies near and far fields. Near-field agent concentrations do not satisfy the assumption of homogeneous odor concentrations; far-field concentrations satisfy this assumption and are the only ones used to estimate emission rates. The predictive ability of the modified inverse modeling approach was validated with measured emission rate values; the difference between corresponding estimated and measured odor emission rates is not statistically significant. Similarly, the difference between measured and estimated hydrogen sulfide emission rates is also not statistically significant. The modified inverse modeling approach is easy to perform because it uses odor and odorant field measurements instead of complex chamber emission rate measurements.
Low temperature performance prediction model of GAC-20 modified asphalt mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Z. H.; Cheng, H. Y.; Zhu, G. Q.; Ma, J.
2017-01-01
25 sets of GAC-20 modified asphalt mixture were designed by means of orthogonal design method. The bending and low temperature creep tests of the GAC-20 were carried out. The related models of the fractal dimension and the road performance evaluation index including low temperature bending failure strain εB and bending strength RB are established by using fractal theory. The model can be used to predict the low temperature performance of GAC-20 modified asphalt mixture according to the design gradation, which can reduce the test workload and improve the working efficiency, so as to provide the reference for engineering design.
Gu, Guo-Ying; Yang, Mei-Ju; Zhu, Li-Min
2012-06-01
This paper presents a novel real-time inverse hysteresis compensation method for piezoelectric actuators exhibiting asymmetric hysteresis effect. The proposed method directly utilizes a modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis model to characterize the inverse hysteresis effect of piezoelectric actuators. The hysteresis model is then cascaded in the feedforward path for hysteresis cancellation. It avoids the complex and difficult mathematical procedure for constructing an inversion of the hysteresis model. For the purpose of validation, an experimental platform is established. To identify the model parameters, an adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted. Based on the identified model parameters, a real-time feedforward controller is implemented for fast hysteresis compensation. Finally, tests are conducted with various kinds of trajectories. The experimental results show that the tracking errors caused by the hysteresis effect are reduced by about 90%, which clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed inverse compensation method with the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model.
A modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for mesons and baryons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masayuki, Katô; Wolfgang, Bentz; Koichi, Yazaki; Kazuhiro, Tanaka
1993-01-01
A baryon-like bound state of three valence quarks in the NJL model is investigated. We find that in the flavor SU(2) case there exists no such state. Using the modified flavor SU(3) model we can obtain a baryon-like state. The essential ingredient which stabilizes the system is the "instanton-induced" six-fermion interaction describing the U A(1) anomaly in a phenomenological way. The properties of mesons are also investigated in this model.
A modified simple dynamic model: Derived from the information embedded in observed streamflows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Nieber, John L.
2017-09-01
A zero-dimension hydrological model has been developed to simulate the discharge (Q) from watershed groundwater storage(S). The model is a modified version of the original model developed by Kirchner in 2009 which uses a unique sensitivity function, g (Q) to represent the relation between rate of flow recession and the instantaneous flow rate. The modified dynamic model instead uses a normalized sensitivity function g (Qnorm) which provides the model the flexibility to encompass the hysteretic effect of initial water storage on flow during recession periods. The sensitivity function is normalized based on a correlation function F (Q) which implicitly quantifies the influence of initial storage conditions on recession flow dynamics. For periods of either positive or negative net recharge to groundwater the model applies a term similar in form to an analytical solution based on solution to the linearized Boussinesq equation. The combination of these two streamflow components, the recession component and the net recharge response, provides the model with the flexibility to realistically mimic the hysteresis in the Q vs. S relations for a watershed. The model is applied to the Sagehen Creek watershed, a hilly watershed located in the Sierra Mountains of California. The results show that the modified model has an improved performance to simulate the discharge dynamic encompassing a wide range of water storage (degree of wetness) representing an almost ten-fold variation in annual streamflow.
COLA with scale-dependent growth: applications to screened modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winther, Hans A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Manera, Marc; Wright, Bill S.; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2017-08-01
We present a general parallelized and easy-to-use code to perform numerical simulations of structure formation using the COLA (COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration) method for cosmological models that exhibit scale-dependent growth at the level of first and second order Lagrangian perturbation theory. For modified gravity theories we also include screening using a fast approximate method that covers all the main examples of screening mechanisms in the literature. We test the code by comparing it to full simulations of two popular modified gravity models, namely f(R) gravity and nDGP, and find good agreement in the modified gravity boost-factors relative to ΛCDM even when using a fairly small number of COLA time steps.
Hydrophobic solvation of Gay-Berne particles in modified water models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Head-Gordon, Teresa; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M.
2008-03-01
The solvation of large hydrophobic solutes, modeled as repulsive and attractive Gay-Berne oblate ellipsoids, is characterized in several modified water liquids using the SPC/E model as the reference water fluid. We find that small amounts of attraction between the Gay-Berne particle and any model fluid result in wetting of the hydrophobic surface. However, significant differences are found among the modified and SPC/E water models and the critical distances in which they dewet the hydrophobic surfaces of pairs of repulsive Gay-Berne particles. We find that the dewetting trends for repulsive Gay-Berne particles in the various model liquids correlate directly with their surface tensions, the widths of the interfaces they form, and the openness of their network structure. The largest critical separations are found in liquids with the smallest surface tensions and the broadest interfaces as measured by the Egelstaff-Widom length.
Hydrophobic solvation of Gay-Berne particles in modified water models.
Head-Gordon, Teresa; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M
2008-03-14
The solvation of large hydrophobic solutes, modeled as repulsive and attractive Gay-Berne oblate ellipsoids, is characterized in several modified water liquids using the SPC/E model as the reference water fluid. We find that small amounts of attraction between the Gay-Berne particle and any model fluid result in wetting of the hydrophobic surface. However, significant differences are found among the modified and SPC/E water models and the critical distances in which they dewet the hydrophobic surfaces of pairs of repulsive Gay-Berne particles. We find that the dewetting trends for repulsive Gay-Berne particles in the various model liquids correlate directly with their surface tensions, the widths of the interfaces they form, and the openness of their network structure. The largest critical separations are found in liquids with the smallest surface tensions and the broadest interfaces as measured by the Egelstaff-Widom length.
Modified model of gate leakage currents in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yuan-Gang; Feng, Zhi-Hong; Lv, Yuan-Jie; Tan, Xin; Dun, Shao-Bo; Fang, Yu-Long; Cai, Shu-Jun
2016-10-01
It has been reported that the gate leakage currents are described by the Frenkel-Poole emission (FPE) model, at temperatures higher than 250 K. However, the gate leakage currents of our passivated devices do not accord with the FPE model. Therefore, a modified FPE model is developed in which an additional leakage current, besides the gate (I II), is added. Based on the samples with different passivations, the I II caused by a large number of surface traps is separated from total gate currents, and is found to be linear with respect to (φ B-V g)0.5. Compared with these from the FPE model, the calculated results from the modified model agree well with the I g-V g measurements at temperatures ranging from 295 K to 475 K. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61306113).
Wang, Q; Yang, Y; Fei, Q; Li, D; Li, J J; Meng, H; Su, N; Fan, Z H; Wang, B Q
2017-06-06
Objective: To build a three-dimensional finite element models of a modified posterior cervical single open-door laminoplasty with short-segmental lateral mass screws fusion. Methods: The C(2)-C(7) segmental data were obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of a male patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and spinal stenosis.Three-dimensional finite element models of a modified cervical single open-door laminoplasty (before and after surgery) were constructed by the combination of software package MIMICS, Geomagic and ABAQUS.The models were composed of bony vertebrae, articulating facets, intervertebral disc and associated ligaments.The loads of moments 1.5Nm at different directions (flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation)were applied at preoperative model to calculate intersegmental ranges of motion.The results were compared with the previous studies to verify the validation of the models. Results: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty had 102258 elements (preoperative model) and 161 892 elements (postoperative model) respectively, including C(2-7) six bony vertebraes, C(2-3)-C(6-7) five intervertebral disc, main ligaments and lateral mass screws.The intersegmental responses at the preoperative model under the loads of moments 1.5 Nm at different directions were similar to the previous published data. Conclusion: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty were successfully established and had a good biological fidelity, which can be used for further study.
Linden, D.S.
1993-05-01
The traditional two-fluid model of superconducting conductivity was modified to make it accurate, while remaining fast, for designing and simulating microwave devices. The modification reflects the BCS coherence effects in the conductivity of a superconductor, and is incorporated through the ratio of normal to superconducting electrons. This modified ratio is a simple analytical expression which depends on frequency, temperature and material parameters. This modified two-fluid model allows accurate and rapid calculation of the microwave surface impedance of a superconductor in the clean and dirty limits and in the weak- and strong-coupled regimes. The model compares well with surface resistance data for Nb and provides insight into Nb3Sn and Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta). Numerical calculations with the modified two-fluid model are an order of magnitude faster than the quasi-classical program by Zimmermann (1), and two to five orders of magnitude faster than Halbritter's BCS program (2) for surface resistance.
Use of a Modified Vector Model for Odor Intensity Prediction of Odorant Mixtures
Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Fang, Di
2015-01-01
Odor intensity (OI) indicates the perceived intensity of an odor by the human nose, and it is usually rated by specialized assessors. In order to avoid restrictions on assessor participation in OI evaluations, the Vector Model which calculates the OI of a mixture as the vector sum of its unmixed components’ odor intensities was modified. Based on a detected linear relation between the OI and the logarithm of odor activity value (OAV—a ratio between chemical concentration and odor threshold) of individual odorants, OI of the unmixed component was replaced with its corresponding logarithm of OAV. The interaction coefficient (cosα) which represented the degree of interaction between two constituents was also measured in a simplified way. Through a series of odor intensity matching tests for binary, ternary and quaternary odor mixtures, the modified Vector Model provided an effective way of relating the OI of an odor mixture with the lnOAV values of its constituents. Thus, OI of an odor mixture could be directly predicted by employing the modified Vector Model after usual quantitative analysis. Besides, it was considered that the modified Vector Model was applicable for odor mixtures which consisted of odorants with the same chemical functional groups and similar molecular structures. PMID:25760055
A model for phosphate glass topology considering the modifying ion sub-network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermansen, Christian; Mauro, John C.; Yue, Yuanzheng
2014-04-01
In the present paper we establish a temperature dependent constraint model of alkali phosphate glasses considering the structural and topological role of the modifying ion sub-network constituted by alkali ions and their non-bonding oxygen coordination spheres. The model is consistent with available structural data by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations and with dynamic data such glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid fragility (m). Alkali phosphate glasses are exemplary systems for developing constraint model since the modifying cation network plays an important role besides the primary phosphate network. The proposed topological model predicts the changing trend of the Tg and m with increasing alkali oxide content for alkali phosphate glasses, including an anomalous minimum at around 20 mol.% alkali oxide content. We find that the minimum in Tg and m is caused by increased connectivity of the modifying ion sub-network, as the alkali ions must share non-bonding oxygen to satisfy their coordination requirements at higher alkali oxide contents. We argue that the systematically decreasing the Tg values of alkali phosphate glasses from Li2O to Na2O to Cs2O could be caused by a weakening of the modifying ion sub-network and can be accounted for by lower constraint onset temperatures.
Cacna1g is a genetic modifier of epilepsy in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome.
Calhoun, Jeffrey D; Hawkins, Nicole A; Zachwieja, Nicole J; Kearney, Jennifer A
2017-08-01
Dravet syndrome, an early onset epileptic encephalopathy, is most often caused by de novo mutation of the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. Mouse models with deletion of Scn1a recapitulate Dravet syndrome phenotypes, including spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizures, susceptibility to seizures induced by elevated body temperature, and elevated risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Importantly, the epilepsy phenotype of Dravet mouse models is highly strain-dependent, suggesting a strong influence of genetic modifiers. We previously identified Cacna1g, encoding the Cav3.1 subunit of the T-type calcium channel family, as an epilepsy modifier in the Scn2a(Q54) transgenic epilepsy mouse model. In this study, we asked whether transgenic alteration of Cacna1g expression modifies severity of the Scn1a(+/-) Dravet phenotype. Scn1a(+/-) mice with decreased Cacna1g expression showed partial amelioration of disease phenotypes with improved survival and reduced spontaneous seizure frequency. However, reduced Cacna1g expression did not alter susceptibility to hyperthermia-induced seizures. Transgenic elevation of Cacna1g expression had no effect on the Scn1a(+/-) epilepsy phenotype. These results provide support for Cacna1g as a genetic modifier in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome and suggest that Cav3.1 may be a potential molecular target for therapeutic intervention in patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
On the Prediction of Separation Bubbles Using a Modified Chen-Thyson Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Platzer, Max F.; Ekaterinaris, John A.; Chandrasekhara, M. S.
2007-01-01
The prediction of separation bubbles on NACA 65-213 and NACA 0012 using a modified Chen-Thyson transition model is presented. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Analysis of NACA 65-213 separation bubble using cebeci's viscous-inviscid interaction method; 3) Analysis of NACA 0012 separation bubble using navier-stokes method; and 4) Comparison with experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.; Heymans, C.; Lombriser, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Steele, O. I.; Winther, H. A.
2016-06-01
We present an accurate non-linear matter power spectrum prediction scheme for a variety of extensions to the standard cosmological paradigm, which uses the tuned halo model previously developed in Mead et al. We consider dark energy models that are both minimally and non-minimally coupled, massive neutrinos and modified gravitational forces with chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms. In all cases, we compare halo-model power spectra to measurements from high-resolution simulations. We show that the tuned halo-model method can predict the non-linear matter power spectrum measured from simulations of parametrized w(a) dark energy models at the few per cent level for k < 10 h Mpc-1, and we present theoretically motivated extensions to cover non-minimally coupled scalar fields, massive neutrinos and Vainshtein screened modified gravity models that result in few per cent accurate power spectra for k < 10 h Mpc-1. For chameleon screened models, we achieve only 10 per cent accuracy for the same range of scales. Finally, we use our halo model to investigate degeneracies between different extensions to the standard cosmological model, finding that the impact of baryonic feedback on the non-linear matter power spectrum can be considered independently of modified gravity or massive neutrino extensions. In contrast, considering the impact of modified gravity and massive neutrinos independently results in biased estimates of power at the level of 5 per cent at scales k > 0.5 h Mpc-1. An updated version of our publicly available HMCODE can be found at https://github.com/alexander-mead/hmcode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, G.; Hameed, A.; Hetherington, J. G.; Barton, P. C.; Malik, A. Q.
2013-04-01
The formation of mild steel (MS) and copper (Cu) explosively formed projectiles (EFPs) was simulated in AUTODYN using both the Johnson-Cook (JC) and modified Johnson-Cook (JCM) constitutive models. The JC model was modified by increasing the hardening constant by 10%. The previously established semi-empirical equations for diameter, length, velocity, and depth of penetration were used to verify the design of the EFP. The length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio of the warhead used in the simulation varied between 1 < L/D < 2. To avoid projectile distortion or breakup for large standoff applications, the design of the EFP warhead was modified to obtain a lower L/D ratio. Simulations from the JC model underestimated the EFP diameter, resulting in an unrealistically elongated projectile. This shortcoming was resolved by employing the JCM model, giving good agreement with the experimental results. The projectile velocity and hole characteristics in 10-mm-thick aluminum target plates were studied for both models. The semi-empirical equations and the JC model overestimated the projectile velocity, whereas the JCM model underestimated the velocity slightly when compared to the experimental results. The depths of penetration calculated by the semi-empirical equations in the aluminum (Al) target plate were 55 and 52 mm for Cu and MS EFPs, respectively.
Gao, Feng; Nan, Jun; Zhang, Xinhui
2017-03-13
To interpret the biological nutrient removal in a cyclic activated sludge system (CAS), a modified model was developed by combining the process of simultaneous storage and growth, and the kinetics of soluble microbial product (S SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (X EPS) with activated sludge model no. 3 (ASM3). These most sensitive parameters were initially selected whilst parameters with low sensitivity were given values from literature. The selected parameters were then calibrated on an oxygen uptake rate test and a batch CAS reactor on an operational cycle. The calibrated model was validated using a combination of the measurements from a batch CAS reactor operated for 1 month and the average deviation method. The simulations demonstrated that the modified model was capable of predicting higher effluent concentrations compared to outputs of the ASM3 model. Additionally, it was also shown that the average deviation of effluent S COD, S NH, S SMP and X EPS simulated with the modified model was all less than 1 mg L(-1). In summary, the model could effectively describe biological processes in a CAS reactor and provide a wonderful tool for operation.
Modified social force model based on information transmission toward crowd evacuation simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yanbin; Liu, Hong
2017-03-01
In this paper, the information transmission mechanism is introduced into the social force model to simulate pedestrian behavior in an emergency, especially when most pedestrians are unfamiliar with the evacuation environment. This modified model includes a collision avoidance strategy and an information transmission model that considers information loss. The former is used to avoid collision among pedestrians in a simulation, whereas the latter mainly describes how pedestrians obtain and choose directions appropriate to them. Simulation results show that pedestrians can obtain the correct moving direction through information transmission mechanism and that the modified model can simulate actual pedestrian behavior during an emergency evacuation. Moreover, we have drawn four conclusions to improve evacuation based on the simulation results; and these conclusions greatly contribute in optimizing a number of efficient emergency evacuation schemes for large public places.
Modified graphical autocatalytic set model of combustion process in circulating fluidized bed boiler
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yusof, Nurul Syazwani; Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Ismail, Razidah
2014-07-01
Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler (CFB) is a device for generating steam by burning fossil fuels in a furnace operating under a special hydrodynamic condition. Autocatalytic Set has provided a graphical model of chemical reactions that occurred during combustion process in CFB. Eight important chemical substances known as species were represented as nodes and catalytic relationships between nodes are represented by the edges in the graph. In this paper, the model is extended and modified by considering other relevant chemical reactions that also exist during the process. Catalytic relationship among the species in the model is discussed. The result reveals that the modified model is able to gives more explanation of the relationship among the species during the process at initial time t.
Anisotropic modified holographic Ricci dark energy cosmological model with hybrid expansion law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Kanika; Sultana, Tazmin
2015-11-01
Here in this paper we present a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-II metric filled with dark matter and anisotropic modified holographic Ricci dark energy. To solve the Einstein's field equations we have taken the hybrid expansion law (HEL) which exhibits a cosmic transition of the universe from decelerating to accelerating phase. We have investigated the physical and geometrical properties of the model. It is observed that the anisotropy of the universe and that of the modified holographic Ricci dark energy tends to zero at later times and the universe becomes homogeneous, isotropic and flat. We have also studied the cosmic jerk parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schippmann, Bianca; Burchard, Hans
Modelling biogeochemical processes in the surface ocean is still a difficult task due to the challenge to identify the most convenient integration scheme for the reaction terms. The scheme is expected to deal with the model characteristics of positivity and conservativity as well as with the different time scales involved, which occur e.g., whenever photochemical reactions take place in the water column. This paper presents a numerical comparison of the Rosenbrock methods, ROS3 and ROS4, often used for solving chemical reactions, to the explicit fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and the unconditionally positive modified Patankar schemes. Following their successful application in air chemistry, we here test the hypothesis that the Rosenbrock methods are an optimal choice for marine biogeochemical modelling in terms of efficiency and accuracy. In this study the schemes are compared in terms of runtime and accuracy and are applied to two test cases of different complexity: a zero-dimensional nutrient-phytoplankton-detritus (NPD)-type model and a one-dimensional nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD)-type model. Applying the Rosenbrock methods to the simple NPD model shows their advantage over the other applied methods. They give the most accurate results of all solvers, especially for large step sizes, in less computing time due to their semi-implicitness and adaptive step sizing. On the contrary, for the one-dimensional NPZD model problem this is only the case in comparison to the Runge-Kutta solver, while their performance is worse than that of the second-order modified Patankar scheme. They need longer runtimes than the latter ones in order to achieve similarly accurate results. However, the modified Patankar schemes are not conservative if the system reactions contain more than one source compound. Thus, for more complex marine biogeochemical problems, it is recommended to apply the Rosenbrock methods while for simpler models the use of the second
Statefinder diagnosis for holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Pankaj
2016-05-01
In this paper we consider the non-viscous and viscous holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity in which the infra-red cutoff is set by the Hubble horizon. We find power-law and exponential form of scale factor for non-viscous and viscous models, respectively. It is shown that the Hubble horizon as an infra-red cut-off is suitable for both the models to explain the recent accelerated expansion. In non-viscous model, we find that there is no phase transition. However, viscous model explains the phase transition from decelerated phase to accelerated phase. The cosmological parameters like deceleration parameter and statefinder parameters are discussed to analyze the dynamics of evolution of the Universe for both the models. The trajectories for viscous model are plotted in r-s and r-q planes to discriminate our model with the existing dark energy models which show the quintessence like behavior.
Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Ramanathan, G.
2012-01-01
Progesterone (P) plays an important role in seizure susceptibility in women with epilepsy. Preclinical and experimental studies suggest that P appears to interrupt epileptogenesis, which is a process whereby a normal brain becomes progressively epileptic due to precipitating risk factors. P has not been investigated widely for its potential disease-modifying activity in epileptogenic models. Recently, P has been shown to exert disease-modifying effects in the kindling model of epileptogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of P against epileptogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of P-derived neurosteroids in the disease-modifying activity of P. It is hypothesized that 5α-reductase converts P to allopregnanolone and related neurosteroids that retard epileptogenesis in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we utilized the mouse hippocampus kindling model of epileptogenesis and investigated the effect of finasteride, a 5α-reductase and neurosteroid synthesis inhibitor. P markedly retarded the development of epileptogenesis and inhibited the rate of kindling acquisition to elicit stage 5 seizures. Pretreatment with finasteride led to complete inhibition of the P-induced retardation of limbic epileptogenesis in mice. Finasteride did not significantly influence the acute seizure expression in fully-kindled mice expressing stage 5 seizures. Thus, neurosteroids that potentiate phasic and tonic inhibition in the hippocampus, such as allopregnanolone, may mediate the disease-modifying effect of P, indicating a new role of neurosteroids in acquired limbic epileptogenesis and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22835430
Li, Ru; Huang, Jiqing; Kast, Juergen
2015-05-01
Oxidative stress due to the imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting reversible cysteine oxidation (CysOX) are involved in the early proatherogenic aspect of atherosclerosis. Given that the corresponding redox signaling pathways are still unclear, a modified biotin switch assay was developed to quantify the reversible CysOX in an atherosclerosis model established by using a monocytic cell line treated with platelet releasate. The accumulation of ROS was observed in the model system and validated in human primary monocytes. Through the application of the modified biotin switch assay, we obtained the first reversible CysOX proteome for this model. A total of 75 peptides, corresponding to 53 proteins, were quantified with oxidative modification. The bioinformatics analysis of these CysOX-containing proteins highlighted biological processes including glycolysis, cytoskeleton arrangement, and redox regulation. Moreover, the reversible oxidation of three glycolysis enzymes was observed using this method, and the regulation influence was verified by an enzyme activity assay. NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition treatment, in conjunction with the modified biotin switch method, was used to evaluate the global CysOX status. In conclusion, this versatile modified biotin switch assay provides an approach for the quantification of all reversible CysOX and for the study of redox signaling in atherosclerosis as well as in diseases in other biological systems.
Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying
2017-01-26
Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented.
Yan, Zhi; Jiang, Liying
2017-01-01
Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials. This paper reviews the recent progresses and achievements in the research on the continuum mechanics modeling of the size-dependent mechanical and physical properties of PNs. We start from the fundamentals of the modified continuum mechanics models for PNs, including the theories of surface piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and non-local piezoelectricity, with the introduction of the modified piezoelectric beam and plate models particularly for nanostructured piezoelectric materials with certain configurations. Then, we give a review on the investigation of the size-dependent properties of PNs by using the modified continuum mechanics models, such as the electromechanical coupling, bending, vibration, buckling, wave propagation and dynamic characteristics. Finally, analytical modeling and analysis of nanoscale actuators and energy harvesters based on piezoelectric nanostructures are presented. PMID:28336861
Groundwater vulnerability assessment in agricultural areas using a modified DRASTIC model.
Sadat-Noori, Mahmood; Ebrahimi, Kumars
2016-01-01
Groundwater contamination is a major concern for groundwater resource managers worldwide. We evaluated groundwater pollution potential by producing a vulnerability map of an aquifer using a modified Depth to water, Net recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone, and Hydraulic conductivity (DRASTIC) model within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The proposed modification which incorporated the use of statistical techniques optimizes the rating function of the DRASTIC model parameters, to obtain a more accurate vulnerability map. The new rates were computed using the relationships between the parameters and point data chloride concentrations in groundwater. The model was applied on Saveh-Nobaran plain in central Iran, and results showed that the coefficient of determination (R (2)) between the point data and the relevant vulnerability map increased significantly from 0.52 to 0.78 after modification. As compared to the original DRASTIC model, the modified version produced better vulnerability zonation. Additionally, single-parameter and parameter removal sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the relative importance of each DRASTIC parameter. The results from both analyses revealed that the vadose zone is the most sensitive parameter influencing the variability of the aquifers' vulnerability index. Based on the results, for non-point source pollution in agricultural areas, using the modified DRASTIC model is efficient compared to the original model. The proposed method can be effective for future groundwater assessment and plain-land management where agricultural activities are dominant.
Discrete-time models with mosquitoes carrying genetically-modified bacteria.
Li, Jia
2012-11-01
We formulate a homogeneous model and a stage-structured model for the interactive wild mosquitoes and mosquitoes carrying genetically-modified bacteria. We establish conditions for the existence and stability of fixed points for both models. We show that a unique positive fixed point exists and is asymptotically stable if the two boundary fixed points are both unstable. The unique positive fixed point exists and is unstable if the two boundary fixed points are both locally asymptotically stable. Using numerical examples, we demonstrate the models undergoing a period-doubling bifurcation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forte, Mónica
2016-12-01
We make a scalar representation of interactive models with cold dark matter and modified holographic Ricci dark energy through unified models driven by scalar fields with non-canonical kinetic term. These models are applications of the formalism of exotic k-essences generated by the global description of cosmological models with two interactive fluids in the dark sector and in these cases they correspond to the usual k-essences. The formalism is applied to the cases of constant potential in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometries.
Research on carbonate reservoir interwell connectivity based on a modified diffusivity filter model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wei; Yao, Jun; Li, Yang; Lv, Aimin
2017-05-01
According to the solution of dual-porosity model, a diffusivity filter model of carbonate reservoir was established, which can effectively illustrate the injection signal attenuation and lag characteristic. The interwell dynamic connectivity inversion model combines a multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis with a correction coefficient to eliminate the effect of fluctuating bottom-hole pressure (BHP). The modified MLR model was validated by synthetic field with fluctuating BHP. The method was applied to Tahe oilfield which showed that the inversion result was reliable. The interwell dynamic connectivity coefficients could reflect the real interwell connectivity of reservoir. The method is easy to use and proved to be effective in field applications.
Noise reduction with low dose CT data based on a modified ROF model.
Zhu, Yining; Zhao, Mengliu; Zhao, Yunsong; Li, Hongwei; Zhang, Peng
2012-07-30
In order to reduce the radiation exposure caused by Computed Tomography (CT) scanning, low dose CT has gained much interest in research as well as in industry. One fundamental difficulty for low dose CT lies in its heavy noise pollution in the raw data which leads to quality deterioration for reconstructed images. In this paper, we propose a modified ROF model to denoise low dose CT measurement data in light of Poisson noise model. Experimental results indicate that the reconstructed CT images based on measurement data processed by our model are in better quality, compared to the original ROF model or bilateral filtering.
Metabolism of modified mycotoxins studied through in vitro and in vivo models: an overview.
Boevre, Marthe De; Graniczkowska, Kinga; Saeger, Sarah De
2015-02-17
Mycotoxins are toxic, secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They occur in a wide variety of food and feed commodities, and are of major public health concern because they are the most hazardous of all food and feed contaminants in terms of chronic toxicity. In the past decades, it has become clear that in mycotoxin-contaminated commodities, many structurally related compounds generated by plant metabolism, fungi or food processing coexist with their free mycotoxins, defined as modified mycotoxins. These modified xenobiotics might endanger animal and human health as they are possibly hydrolysed into their free toxins in the digestive tract of mammals, and may consequently contribute to an unexpected high toxicity. As modified toxins represent an emerging issue, it is not a surprise that for most toxicological tests data are scarce to non-existent. Therefore, there is a need to elucidate the disposition and kinetics of both free and modified mycotoxins in mammals to correctly interpret occurrence data and biomonitoring results. This review emphasizes the current knowledge on the metabolism of modified mycotoxins using in vitro and in vivo models.
Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao
2014-05-01
Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past
Trueman, R C; Dunnett, S B; Brooks, S P
2012-06-01
Huntington's disease is the result of an expanded CAG repeat in the gene that codes for the protein huntingtin and results in a progressive sequelae of motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. The development of genetically modified rodent models of Huntington's disease has led to the need for sensitive behavioural phenotyping. Operant tests for rodents have been developed that can determine the functional deficits in these genetically modified models, from motor, cognitive and emotional domains. The current review discusses tests that employ operant equipment, an automated and highly flexible method for testing rodents. Different operant paradigms are examined in relation to their relevance to Huntington's disease symptomology, as well as summarising research to date on genetic models with these tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizvi, Zarghaam Haider; Shrestha, Dinesh; Sattari, Amir S.; Wuttke, Frank
2017-09-01
Macroscopic parameters such as effective thermal conductivity (ETC) is an important parameter which is affected by micro and meso level behaviour of particulate materials, and has been extensively examined in the past decades. In this paper, a new lattice based numerical model is developed to predict the ETC of sand and modified high thermal backfill material for energy transportation used for underground power cables. 2D and 3D simulations are performed to analyse and detect differences resulting from model simplification. The thermal conductivity of the granular mixture is determined numerically considering the volume and the shape of the each constituting portion. The new numerical method is validated with transient needle measurements and the existing theoretical and semi empirical models for thermal conductivity prediction sand and the modified backfill material for dry condition. The numerical prediction and the measured values are in agreement to a large extent.
Investigation of modified AD/RANS models for wind turbine wake predictions in large wind farm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, L. L.; Zhu, W. J.; Shen, W. Z.; Sørensen, J. N.; Zhao, N.
2014-06-01
Average power losses due to multiple wind turbine wakes in the large offshore wind farm is studied in this paper using properly modified k-ω SST turbulence models. The numerical simulations are carried out by the actuator disc methodology implemented in the flow solver EllipSys3D. In these simulations, the influence of different inflow conditions such as wind direction sectors are considered and discussed. Comparisons with measurements in terms of wake speed ratio and the corresponding power outputs show that the modified turbulence models had significant improvements; especially the SST-Csust model reflects the best ability in predicting the wake defect. The investigations of various inflow angles reveal that the agreement between predicted and measured data is improved for the wider sector case than the narrow case because of the wind direction uncertainty.
Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris
2016-09-15
The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tamaki, S; Kawazoe, K; Yagihara, T; Abe, T
1992-01-01
The effect of pulsatile pulmonary flow after the modified Fontan procedure was examined in a model that simulated the right heart. An inlet overflow tank (preload), axial pulsatile pump, Wind-Kessel model (afterload), and an outlet overflow tank were connected in series. The standard conditions were flow 2.00 l/min with 12 mm Hg preload pressure, 3.0 Wood units resistance, and an outlet overflow tank pressure at 6 mm Hg. The pump rate was set at 80 beats/min. The simulated pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary flow waves produced by this model closely resembled those obtained from patients who had undergone the modified Fontan procedure. All variables except the preload were fixed and changes in pulmonary flow were examined at preload pressures of 8, 12, 15, and 17 mm Hg. As the peak pulmonary arterial pressure increased so did pulmonary flow, until it was greater than during the non-pulsatile state. Because the afterload of this model was fixed, this result suggests that there was a concomitant decrease in resistance. This model indicates that pulsatile pulmonary blood flow is likely to have a beneficial effect on the pulmonary circulation after the modified Fontan procedure. PMID:1540439
Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme, Transporter and Nuclear Receptor Genetically Modified Mouse Models
Jiang, Xi-Ling; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yu, Ai-Ming
2011-01-01
Determining the in vivo significance of a specific enzyme, transporter or xenobiotic receptor in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics may be hampered by gene multiplicity and complexity, levels of expression and interaction between various components involved. The development of knockout (loss-of-function) and transgenic (gain-of-function) mouse models opens the door to the improved understanding of gene function in a whole body system. There is also growing interest in the development of humanized mice to overcome species difference in drug metabolism and disposition. This review, therefore, aims to summarize and discuss some successful examples of drug-metabolizing enzyme, transporter, and nuclear receptor genetically modified mouse models. These genetically modified mouse models have proven as invaluable models for understanding in vivo function of drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters and xenobiotic receptors in drug metabolism and transport, as well as predicting potential drug-drug interaction and toxicity in humans. Nevertheless, concerns remain about interpretation of data obtained from such genetically modified mouse models in which the expression of related genes is altered significantly. PMID:20854191
Maincent, Julien P; Najvar, Laura K; Kirkpatrick, William R; Huang, Siyuan; Patterson, Thomas F; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Peters, Jay I; Williams, Robert O
2017-02-01
Previously, modified release itraconazole in the form of a melt-extruded amorphous solid dispersion based on a pH dependent enteric polymer combined with hydrophilic additives (HME-ITZ), exhibited improved in vitro dissolution properties. These properties agreed with pharmacokinetic results in rats showing high and sustained itraconazole (ITZ) systemic levels. The objective of the present study was to better understand the best choice of rodent model for evaluating the pharmacokinetic and efficacy of this orally administered modified release ITZ dosage form against invasive Aspergillus fumigatus. A mouse model and a guinea pig model were investigated and compared to results previously published. In the mouse model, despite similar levels as previously reported values, plasma and lung levels were variable and fungal burden was not statistically different for placebo controls, HME-ITZ and Sporanox(®) (ITZ oral solution). This study demonstrated that the mouse model is a poor choice for studying modified release ITZ dosage forms based on pH dependent enteric polymers due to low fluid volume available for dissolution and low intestinal pH. To the contrary, guinea pig was a suitable model to evaluate modified release ITZ dosage forms. Indeed, a significant decrease in lung fungal burden as a result of high and sustained ITZ tissue levels was measured. Sufficiently high intestinal pH and fluids available for dissolution likely facilitated the dissolution process. Despite high ITZ tissue level, the primary therapeutic agent voriconazole exhibited an even more pronounced decrease in fungal burden due to its reported higher clinical efficacy specifically against Aspergillus fumigatus.
A modified Klobuchar model for single-frequency GNSS users over the polar region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bi, Tong; An, Jiachun; Yang, Jian; Liu, Shulun
2017-02-01
For single-frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users, it is necessary to select a simple and effective broadcast ionospheric model to mitigate the ionospheric delay, which is one of the most serious error sources in GNSS measurement. The widely used Global Positioning System (GPS) Klobuchar model can achieve better performance in mid-latitudes, however, this model is not applicable in high-latitudes due to the more complex ionospheric structure over the polar region. Under the premise of no additional coefficients, a modified Klobuchar model is established for single-frequency GNSS users over the polar region by improving the nighttime term and the amplitude of the cosine term. The performance of the new model is validated by different ionospheric models and their applications in single-frequency single-point positioning, during different seasons and different levels of solar activities. The new model can reduce the ionospheric error by 60% over the polar region, while the GPS-Klobuchar even increases the ionospheric error in many cases. Over the polar region, the single-frequency SPP error using the new model is approximately 3 m in vertical direction and 1 m in horizontal direction, which is superior to GPS-Klobuchar. This study suggests that the modified Klobuchar model is more accurate to depict the polar ionosphere and could be used to achieve better positioning accuracy for single-frequency GNSS users over the polar region.
A modified rabbit model of stroke: evaluation using clinical MRI scanner.
Yang, Ji-Ping; Liu, Huai-Jun; Liu, Rui-Chun
2009-12-01
Occluding the middle cerebral artery of small animals with an intraluminal filament to build a stroke model has gained increasing acceptance. In light of the growing demand for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies using the clinical MRI scanner, large animal models can be superior to small animal models. In this work, we developed a modified rabbit model of stroke, which was assessed using clinical MRI scanner and compared with a most commonly silicone-coated filament model. We presented a focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits. The key feature of this modified method is the use of a guide wire as a 'nylon suture'. At 3 days after ischemia, the percentage of brain infarct volume, neurobehavioral score, intracranial hemorrhagic incidence and dynamic changes of T(2) and apparent diffusion coefficient values were assessed respectively and compared between the focal cerebral models. Wire-induced models had more severe brain infarct size with less dispersion (32.7 +/- 6.5%, coefficient of variation=0.20) than that with filament models (25.4 +/- 8.9%, coefficient of variation=0.31; p<0.05). There were more significant MRI changes in the early stage, higher rate of technique success (wire, 20/20; filament, 17/20) and less intracranial hemorrhage (wire, 0/20; filament, 3/20) in wire-induced models than in filament-induced rabbits (p<0.05). Our data suggest that wire-induced method can provide a useful tool for the earlier research of ischemia.
Treatment planning for a scanned carbon beam with a modified microdosimetric kinetic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inaniwa, Taku; Furukawa, Takuji; Kase, Yuki; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Toshito, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Noda, Koji
2010-11-01
We describe a method to calculate the relative biological effectiveness in mixed radiation fields of therapeutic ion beams based on the modified microdosimetric kinetic model (modified MKM). In addition, we show the procedure for integrating the modified MKM into a treatment planning system for a scanned carbon beam. With this procedure, the model is fully integrated into our research version of the treatment planning system. To account for the change in radiosensitivity of a cell line, we measured one of the three MKM parameters from a single survival curve of the current cells and used the parameter in biological optimization. Irradiation of human salivary gland tumor cells was performed with a scanned carbon beam in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), and we then compared the measured depth-survival curve with the modified MKM predicted survival curve. Good agreement between the two curves proves that the proposed method is a candidate for calculating the biological effects in treatment planning for ion irradiation.
Regularized cosmological power spectrum and correlation function in modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Bernardeau, Francis; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Koyama, Kazuya
2014-12-01
Based on the multipoint propagator expansion, we present resummed perturbative calculations for cosmological power spectra and correlation functions in the context of modified gravity. In a wide class of modified gravity models that have a screening mechanism to recover general relativity (GR) on small scales, we apply the eikonal approximation to derive the governing equation for resummed propagator that partly includes the nonperturbative effect in the high-k limit. The resultant propagator in the high-k limit contains the new corrections arising from the screening mechanism as well as the standard exponential damping. We explicitly derive the expression for new high-k contributions in specific modified gravity models, and find that in the case of f (R ) gravity for a currently constrained model parameter, the corrections are basically of the subleading order and can be neglected. Thus, in f (R ) gravity, similarly to the GR case, we can analytically construct the regularized propagator that reproduces both the resummed high-k behavior and the low-k results computed with standard perturbation theory, consistently taking account of the nonlinear modification of gravity valid at large scales. With the regularized multipoint propagators, we give predictions for power spectrum and correlation function at one-loop order, and compare those with N -body simulations in f (R ) gravity model. As an important application, we also discuss the redshift-space distortions and compute the anisotropic power spectra and correlation functions.
El-Seddik, Mostafa M; Galal, Mona M; Radwan, A G; Abdel-Halim, Hisham S
2016-01-01
This paper addresses a modified kinetic-hydraulic model for up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor aimed to treat wastewater of biodegradable organic substrates as acetic acid based on Van der Meer model incorporated with biological granules inclusion. This dynamic model illustrates the biomass kinetic reaction rate for both direct and indirect growth of microorganisms coupled with the amount of biogas produced by methanogenic bacteria in bed and blanket zones of reactor. Moreover, the pH value required for substrate degradation at the peak specific growth rate of bacteria is discussed for Andrews' kinetics. The sensitivity analyses of biomass concentration with respect to fraction of volume of reactor occupied by granules and up-flow velocity are also demonstrated. Furthermore, the modified mass balance equations of reactor are applied during steady state using Newton Raphson technique to obtain a suitable degree of freedom for the modified model matching with the measured results of UASB Sanhour wastewater treatment plant in Fayoum, Egypt.
Modified phase-field-crystal model for solid-liquid phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai
2015-07-01
A modified phase-field-crystal (PFC) model is proposed to describe solid-liquid phase transitions by reconstructing the correlation function. The effects of fitting parameters of our modified PFC model on the bcc-liquid phase diagram, numerical stability, and solid-liquid interface properties during planar interface growth are examined carefully. The results indicate that the increase of the correlation function peak width at k =km will enhance the stability of the ordered phase, while the increase of peak height at k =0 will narrow the two-phase coexistence region. The third-order term in the free-energy function and the short wave-length of the correlation function have significant influences on the numerical stability of the PFC model. During planar interface growth, the increase of peak width at k =km will decrease the interface width and the velocity coefficient C , but increase the anisotropy of C and the interface free energy. Finally, the feasibility of the modified phase-field-crystal model is demonstrated with a numerical example of three-dimensional dendritic growth of a body-centered-cubic structure.
Linewidth Extraction From the THz Absorption Spectra Using a Modified Lorentz Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Su, Haixia; Zhang, Han; Lan, Jinhui
2013-10-01
Identification of specific materials is one of the most promising THz applications. It is commonly achieved by comparing the experimental peak central frequencies of the transmission or absorption spectra with a database for known materials while neglecting the linewidths. However, due to the restriction of the signal-to-noise ratio, only a narrow band, extending from several hundred GHz to several THz, can be used. It is difficult to distinguish two materials from each other if their peaks' central frequencies are similar. In this paper, we present a modified Lorentz model by taking the scattering effect into account. The modified Lorentz model can be used for the extraction of reliable absorption peak parameters, i.e. the central frequency and linewidth. On comparison with our experiments, we observed that the parameters extracted using the modified Lorentz model in glutamine samples of different concentrations exhibited a better agreement than those obtained using the traditional model. Therefore, the utilization of the narrow THz band to identify materials can be improved by comparing both the central frequency and linewidth obtained from this method.
Modified phase-field-crystal model for solid-liquid phase transitions.
Guo, Can; Wang, Jincheng; Wang, Zhijun; Li, Junjie; Guo, Yaolin; Tang, Sai
2015-07-01
A modified phase-field-crystal (PFC) model is proposed to describe solid-liquid phase transitions by reconstructing the correlation function. The effects of fitting parameters of our modified PFC model on the bcc-liquid phase diagram, numerical stability, and solid-liquid interface properties during planar interface growth are examined carefully. The results indicate that the increase of the correlation function peak width at k=k(m) will enhance the stability of the ordered phase, while the increase of peak height at k=0 will narrow the two-phase coexistence region. The third-order term in the free-energy function and the short wave-length of the correlation function have significant influences on the numerical stability of the PFC model. During planar interface growth, the increase of peak width at k=k(m) will decrease the interface width and the velocity coefficient C, but increase the anisotropy of C and the interface free energy. Finally, the feasibility of the modified phase-field-crystal model is demonstrated with a numerical example of three-dimensional dendritic growth of a body-centered-cubic structure.
A Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Finding Optimal Designs for Mixture Models
Wong, Weng Kee; Chen, Ray-Bing; Huang, Chien-Chih; Wang, Weichung
2015-01-01
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a meta-heuristic algorithm that has been shown to be successful in solving a wide variety of real and complicated optimization problems in engineering and computer science. This paper introduces a projection based PSO technique, named ProjPSO, to efficiently find different types of optimal designs, or nearly optimal designs, for mixture models with and without constraints on the components, and also for related models, like the log contrast models. We also compare the modified PSO performance with Fedorov's algorithm, a popular algorithm used to generate optimal designs, Cocktail algorithm, and the recent algorithm proposed by [1]. PMID:26091237
Giant halos in medium nuclei within modified relativistic mean field (MRMF) model
Nugraha, A. M. Sulaksono, A.; Sumaryada, T.
2016-04-19
The large number of neutrons in a region beyond a closed shell core indicates the presence of giant halos in nuclei. In this work, by using the Rotival method within a modified relativistic mean field (MRMF) model, we predict theoretically the formation of giant halos in Cr and Zr isotopes. The MRMF model is a modification of standard RMF model augmented with isoscalar and isovector tensor terms, isovector-isoscalar vector cross coupling term and electromagnetic exchange term for Coulomb interaction in local density approximation (LDA).
Modified Lennard-Jones model: virial coefficients to the 7th order.
Ushcats, M V
2014-06-21
The modified Lennard-Jones potential, which simplifies the numerical simulations and maintains the realistic behavior of its parent, is proposed to a role of the standard interaction model for both the experimental and theoretical studies. The virial coefficients of this model up to the seventh order have been calculated for the range of temperatures kT/ɛ = 0.3-70. In the computations, a technique has been used, that combines the quadrature integration and Mayer Sampling Monte Carlo method (MSMC). Unlike the original MSMC, this technique does not require the reference coefficients of another potential and can be used in a wide range of temperatures for various interaction models.
Modified Beef Tongue Model for Fourth-Degree Laceration Repair Simulation.
Illston, Jana D; Ballard, Alicia C; Ellington, David R; Richter, Holly E
2017-03-01
An existing model for fourth-degree laceration repair uses beef tongue with plastic or vinyl tubing. This modified model substitutes beef tripe for the anal mucosa and chicken leg muscles for the anal sphincter muscle analogs to create a realistic model. Tripe is tunneled through the body of the trimmed beef tongue and sutured like an ostomy to simulate the anal canal. The tongue is incised toward the tripe "anal canal." Chicken leg muscles are tunneled from the incision out to the cut edges of the beef tongue to create anal sphincter muscle analogs. Procedures can be repeated on the opposite side. Two double-sided models can be made per tongue. The model can be refrigerated or frozen and thawed before use. A fourth-degree laceration can be cut immediately before use. Materials were obtained at a local supermarket for $5-7 per half-tongue, double-sided model. Residents responded positively to the model and stated that animal tissue provided realistic haptic simulation. The modified beef tongue model utilizing tripe and chicken leg muscles as anal mucosa and anal sphincter muscle analogs, respectively, provided excellent perceived haptic fidelity. Moreover, it is an innovative, inexpensive, and well-received teaching tool to augment resident education.
Neimark-Sacker Bifurcation and Chaotic Behaviour of a Modified Host-Parasitoid Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Din, Qamar; Gümüş, Özlem Ak; Khalil, Hammad
2017-01-01
We study some qualitative behaviour of a modified discrete-time host-parasitoid model. Modification of classical Nicholson-Bailey model is considered by introducing Pennycuick growth function for the host population. Furthermore, the existence and uniqueness of positive equilibrium point of proposed system is investigated. We prove that the positive solutions of modified system are uniformly bounded and the unique positive equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable under certain parametric conditions. Moreover, it is also investigated that system undergoes Neimark-Sacker bifurcation by using standard mathematical techniques of bifurcation theory. Complexity and chaotic behaviour are confirmed through the plots of maximum Lyapunov exponents. In order to stabilise the unstable steady state, the feedback control strategy is introduced. Finally, in order to support theoretical discussions, numerical simulations are provided.
A modified homogeneous relaxation model for CO2 two-phase flow in vapour ejector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haida, M.; Palacz, M.; Smolka, J.; Nowak, A. J.; Hafner, A.; Banasiak, K.
2016-09-01
In this study, the homogenous relaxation model (HRM) for CO2 flow in a two-phase ejector was modified in order to increase the accuracy of the numerical simulations The two- phase flow model was implemented on the effective computational tool called ejectorPL for fully automated and systematic computations of various ejector shapes and operating conditions. The modification of the HRM was performed by a change of the relaxation time and the constants included in the relaxation time equation based on the experimental result under the operating conditions typical for the supermarket refrigeration system. The modified HRM was compared to the HEM results, which were performed based on the comparison of motive nozzle and suction nozzle mass flow rates.
Late time acceleration in a non-commutative model of modified cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malekolkalami, B.; Atazadeh, K.; Vakili, B.
2014-12-01
We investigate the effects of non-commutativity between the position-position, position-momentum and momentum-momentum of a phase space corresponding to a modified cosmological model. We show that the existence of such non-commutativity results in a Moyal Poisson algebra between the phase space variables in which the product law between the functions is of the kind of an α-deformed product. We then transform the variables in such a way that the Poisson brackets between the dynamical variables take the form of a usual Poisson bracket but this time with a noncommutative structure. For a power law expression for the function of the Ricci scalar with which the action of the gravity model is modified, the exact solutions in the commutative and noncommutative cases are presented and compared. In terms of these solutions we address the issue of the late time acceleration in cosmic evolution.
Mancini, John G; Neisius, Andreas; Smith, Nathan; Sankin, Georgy; Astroza, Gaston M; Lipkin, Michael E; Simmons, W Neal; Preminger, Glenn M; Zhong, Pei
2013-09-01
The acoustic lens of the Modularis electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter (Siemens, Malvern, Pennsylvania) was modified to produce a pressure waveform and focal zone more closely resembling that of the original HM3 device (Dornier Medtech, Wessling, Germany). We assessed the newly designed acoustic lens in vivo in an animal model. Stone fragmentation and tissue injury produced by the original and modified lenses of the Modularis lithotripter were evaluated in a swine model under equivalent acoustic pulse energy (about 45 mJ) at 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency. Stone fragmentation was determined by the weight percent of stone fragments less than 2 mm. To assess tissue injury, shock wave treated kidneys were perfused, dehydrated, cast in paraffin wax and sectioned. Digital images were captured every 120 μm and processed to determine functional renal volume damage. After 500 shocks, the mean ± SD stone fragmentation efficiency produced by the original and modified lenses was 48% ± 12% and 52% ± 17%, respectively (p = 0.60). However, after 2,000 shocks, the modified lens showed significantly improved stone fragmentation compared to the original lens (mean 86% ± 10% vs 72% ± 12%, p = 0.02). Tissue injury caused by the original and modified lenses was minimal at a mean of 0.57% ± 0.44% and 0.25% ± 0.25%, respectively (p = 0.27). With lens modification the Modularis lithotripter demonstrates significantly improved stone fragmentation with minimal tissue injury at a clinically relevant acoustic pulse energy. This new lens design could potentially be retrofitted to existing lithotripters, improving the effectiveness of electromagnetic lithotripters. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Twisted Gaussian Schell-model beams as series of partially coherent modified Bessel-Gauss beams.
Gori, F; Santarsiero, M
2015-04-01
We show that twisted Gaussian Schell-model (TGSM) beams can be represented through an incoherent superposition of partially coherent beams carrying optical vortices and whose cross-spectral densities are expressed in terms of modified Bessel functions. Moreover, starting from this result, we show that the modal expansion of the cross-spectral density of a TGSM source can be directly obtained through simple mathematics.
Numerical simulation of supersonic jet flow using a modified k-ɛ model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tandra, D. S.; Kaliazine, A.; Cormack, D. E.; Tran, H. N.
2006-01-01
Many papers have reported that the standard k-ɛ model fails to accurately predict the mean velocity profile of turbulent axisymmetric jets (Thies and Tam, Computation of turbulent axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric jet flows using the K-ɛ model, AIAA J., 1996, 34(2), 309 316; Pope, Turbulent Flows, 2002 (Cambridge University press: Cambridge). As the jet velocity increases, the deviation of the model with respect to the experimental measurements also increases. This work is aimed at the development of a modified k-ɛ model that can be used to predict the mean properties of an axisymmetric jet as it (i) flows as a free jet, (ii) propagates between walls, and (iii) impinges on a solid object. Three additional terms are proposed to improve the standard k-ɛ model predictions. They are Durbin realizable, Heinz turbulence production and Sarkar compressibility correction terms. The performance of the modified model in predicting the velocity and the impact pressure profiles of a free jet with an exit Mach number range of 0.6 2.8 has been confirmed by its close agreement with the experimental measurements. In addition, the study suggests that the model is also capable of predicting the impact pressure of a supersonic jet propagating between smooth walls and impinging on the front edge of the wall in various degrees of intensity.
Liu, X; Goodfellow, M R; Yu, Q; Zheng, C
2004-12-01
Equilibrium isotherms of heavy metal biosorption are commonly correlated with adsorption models such as the Freundlich model. On the other hand, the adsorption properties of heavy metal biosorption are strongly influenced by the solution pH of the biosorption system. Therefore, standard adsorption models are limited to the correlation of equilibrium isotherms under constant pH values. In this paper, a modified Freundlich model was developed for the correlation of pH dependent equilibrium isotherms of heavy metal biosorption. The model was based on the mechanism that the functional groups for heavy metal interactions are weakly acidic groups and the uptake capacities of the biomass are affected through the association and dissociation equilibrium between two apparent ionic forms. Both the standard and the modified Freundlich models were tested with isotherm data for Cd2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ biosorption onto pre-treated biomass of marine alga Durvillaea potatorum under various solution pH values. Regression analyses indicated that the developed model correlated the experimental data well.
Modeling of Sunspot Numbers by a Modified Binary Mixture of Laplace Distribution Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabarinath, A.; Anilkumar, A. K.
2008-07-01
This paper presents a new approach for describing the shape of 11-year sunspot cycles by considering the monthly averaged values. This paper also brings out a prediction model based on the analysis of 22 sunspot cycles from the year 1749 onward. It is found that the shape of the sunspot cycles with monthly averaged values can be described by a functional form of modified binary mixture of Laplace density functions, modified suitably by introducing two additional parameters in the standard functional form. The six parameters, namely two locations, two scales, and two area parameters, characterize this model. The nature of the estimated parameters for the sunspot cycles from 1749 onward has been analyzed and finally we arrived at a sufficient set of the parameters for the proposed model. It is seen that this model picks up the sunspot peaks more closely than any other model without losing the match at other places at the same time. The goodness of fit for the proposed model is also computed with the Hathaway Wilson Reichmann overline{χ} measure, which shows, on average, that the fitted model passes within 0.47 standard deviations of the actual averaged monthly sunspot numbers.
Reduced-order-model based feedback control of the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goumiri, Imene; Rowley, Clarence; Ma, Zhanhua; Gates, David; Parker, Jeffrey; Krommes, John
2012-10-01
In this study, we demonstrate the development of model-based feedback control for stabilization of an unstable equilibrium obtained in the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation is applied; a model reduction technique that has been proved successful in flow control design problems, to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. A model-based feedback controller is then designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR) then a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) control. The controllers are then applied on the original linearized and nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulences.
Suppression of B function strongly supports the modified ABCE model in Tricyrtis sp. (Liliaceae)
Otani, Masahiro; Sharifi, Ahmad; Kubota, Shosei; Oizumi, Kanako; Uetake, Fumi; Hirai, Masayo; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Kanno, Akira; Nakano, Masaru
2016-01-01
B class MADS-box genes play important roles in petal and stamen development. Some monocotyledonous species, including liliaceous ones, produce flowers with petaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2. A modified ABCE model has been proposed to explain the molecular mechanism of development of two-layered petaloid tepals. However, direct evidence for this modified ABCE model has not been reported to date. To clarify the molecular mechanism determining the organ identity of two-layered petaloid tepals, we used chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T) to examine the suppression of B function in the liliaceous ornamental Tricyrtis sp. Transgenic plants with suppressed B class genes produced sepaloid tepals in whorls 1 and 2 instead of the petaloid tepals as expected. In addition, the stamens of transgenic plants converted into pistil-like organs with ovule- and stigma-like structures. This report is the first to describe the successful suppression of B function in monocotyledonous species with two-layered petaloid tepals, and the results strongly support the modified ABCE model. PMID:27079267
Improved simulation of precipitation in the tropics using a modified BMJ scheme in the WRF model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fonseca, R. M.; Zhang, T.; Yong, K.-T.
2015-09-01
The successful modelling of the observed precipitation, a very important variable for a wide range of climate applications, continues to be one of the major challenges that climate scientists face today. When the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to dynamically downscale the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) over the Indo-Pacific region, with analysis (grid-point) nudging, it is found that the cumulus scheme used, Betts-Miller-Janjić (BMJ), produces excessive rainfall suggesting that it has to be modified for this region. Experimentation has shown that the cumulus precipitation is not very sensitive to changes in the cloud efficiency but varies greatly in response to modifications of the temperature and humidity reference profiles. A new version of the scheme, denoted "modified BMJ" scheme, where the humidity reference profile is more moist, was developed. In tropical belt simulations it was found to give a better estimate of the observed precipitation as given by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 data set than the default BMJ scheme for the whole tropics and both monsoon seasons. In fact, in some regions the model even outperforms CFSR. The advantage of modifying the BMJ scheme to produce better rainfall estimates lies in the final dynamical consistency of the rainfall with other dynamical and thermodynamical variables of the atmosphere.
New approaches based on modified Gaussian models for the prediction of chromatographic peaks.
Baeza-Baeza, J J; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; García-Álvarez-Coque, M C
2013-01-03
The description of skewed chromatographic peaks has been discussed extensively and many functions have been proposed. Among these, the Polynomially Modified Gaussian (PMG) models interpret the deviations from ideality as a change in the standard deviation with time. This approach has shown a high accuracy in the fitting to tailing and fronting peaks. However, it has the drawback of the uncontrolled growth of the predicted signal outside the elution region, which departs from the experimental baseline. To solve this problem, the Parabolic-Lorentzian Modified Gaussian (PLMG) model was developed. This combines a parabola that describes the variance change in the peak region, and a Lorentzian function that decreases the variance growth out of the peak region. The PLMG model has, however, the drawback of its high flexibility that makes the optimisation process difficult when the initial values of the model parameters are far from the optimal ones. Based on the fitting of experimental peaks of diverse origin and asymmetry degree, several semiempirical approaches that make use of the halfwidths at 60.65% and 10% peak height are here reported, which allow the use of the PLMG model for prediction purposes with small errors (below 2-3%). The incorporation of several restrictions in the algorithm avoids the indeterminations that arise frequently with this model, when applied to highly skewed peaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Modified optimal control pilot model for computer-aided design and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the theoretical development of a modified optimal control pilot model based upon the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison. This model is input compatible with the OCM and retains other key aspects of the OCM, such as a linear quadratic solution for the pilot gains with inclusion of control rate in the cost function, a Kalman estimator, and the ability to account for attention allocation and perception threshold effects. An algorithm designed for each implementation in current dynamic systems analysis and design software is presented. Example results based upon the analysis of a tracking task using three basic dynamic systems are compared with measured results and with similar analyses performed with the OCM and two previously proposed simplified optimal pilot models. The pilot frequency responses and error statistics obtained with this modified optimal control model are shown to compare more favorably to the measured experimental results than the other previously proposed simplified models evaluated.
Development of modified cable models to simulate accurate neuronal active behaviors
2014-01-01
In large network and single three-dimensional (3-D) neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3-D (R3D) models (which contain full anatomical details of dendrites) of spinal motoneurons were systematically compared with their reduced single unbranched cable (SUC, which reduces the dendrites to a single electrically equivalent cable) counterpart under passive and active conditions. The SUC models matched the R3D model's passive properties but failed to match key active properties, especially active behaviors originating from dendrites. For instance, persistent inward currents (PIC) hysteresis, frequency-current (FI) relationship secondary range slope, firing hysteresis, plateau potential partial deactivation, staircase currents, synaptic current transfer ratio, and regional FI relationships were not accurately reproduced by the SUC models. The dendritic morphology oversimplification and lack of dendritic active conductances spatial segregation in the SUC models caused significant underestimation of those behaviors. Next, SUC models were modified by adding key branching features in an attempt to restore their active behaviors. The addition of primary dendritic branching only partially restored some active behaviors, whereas the addition of secondary dendritic branching restored most behaviors. Importantly, the proposed modified models successfully replicated the active properties without sacrificing model simplicity, making them attractive candidates for running R3D single neuron and network simulations with accurate firing behaviors. The present results indicate that using reduced models to examine PIC behaviors in spinal motoneurons is unwarranted. PMID:25277743
Butler, Samuel D; Nauyoks, Stephen E; Marciniak, Michael A
2015-11-02
A popular class of BRDF models is the microfacet models, where geometric optics is assumed. In contrast, more complex physical optics models may more accurately predict the BRDF, but the calculation is more resource intensive. These seemingly disparate approaches are compared in detail for the rough and smooth surface approximations of the modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff BRDF model, assuming Gaussian surface statistics. An approximation relating standard Fresnel reflection with the semi-rough surface polarization term, Q, is presented for unpolarized light. For rough surfaces, the angular dependence of direction cosine space is shown to be identical to the angular dependence in the microfacet distribution function. For polished surfaces, the same comparison shows a breakdown in the microfacet models. Similarities and differences between microfacet BRDF models and the modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff model are identified. The rationale for the original Beckmann-Kirchhoff F(bk)(2) geometric term relative to both microfacet models and generalized Harvey-Shack model is presented. A modification to the geometric F(bk)(2) term in original Beckmann-Kirchhoff BRDF theory is proposed.
Baba, Mika; Maeda, Isseki; Morita, Tatsuya; Hisanaga, Takayuki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Iwashita, Tomoyuki; Kaneishi, Keisuke; Kawagoe, Shohei; Kuriyama, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Takashi; Mori, Ichiro; Nakajima, Nobuhisa; Nishi, Tomohiro; Sakurai, Hiroki; Shimoyama, Satofumi; Shinjo, Takuya; Shirayama, Hiroto; Yamada, Takeshi; Ono, Shigeki; Ozawa, Taketoshi; Yamamoto, Ryo; Tsuneto, Satoru
2015-05-01
Accurate prognostic information in palliative care settings is needed for patients to make decisions and set goals and priorities. The Prognosis Palliative Care Study (PiPS) predictor models were presented in 2011, but have not yet been fully validated by other research teams. The primary aim of this study is to examine the accuracy and to validate the modified PiPS (using physician-proxy ratings of mental status instead of patient interviews) in three palliative care settings, namely palliative care units, hospital-based palliative care teams, and home-based palliative care services. This multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted in 58 palliative care services including 16 palliative care units, 19 hospital-based palliative care teams, and 23 home-based palliative care services in Japan from September 2012 through April 2014. A total of 2426 subjects were recruited. For reasons including lack of followup and missing variables (primarily blood examination data), we obtained analyzable data from 2212 and 1257 patients for the modified PiPS-A and PiPS-B, respectively. In all palliative care settings, both the modified PiPS-A and PiPS-B identified three risk groups with different survival rates (P<0.001). The absolute agreement ranged from 56% to 60% in the PiPS-A model and 60% to 62% in the PiPS-B model. The modified PiPS was successfully validated and can be useful in palliative care units, hospital-based palliative care teams, and home-based palliative care services. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Kun; Li, Li; Zhu, Hongping
2009-09-01
Base isolation can effectively reduce the seismic forces on a superstructure, particularly in low- to medium-rise buildings. However, under strong near-fault ground motions, pounding may occur at the isolation level between the base-isolated building (BIB) and its surrounding retaining walls. To effectively investigate the behavior of the BIB pounding with adjacent structures, after assessing some commonly used impact models, a modified Kelvin impact model is proposed in this paper. Relevant parameters in the modified Kelvin model are theoretically derived and numerically verified through a simple pounding case. At the same time, inelasticity of the isolated superstructure is introduced in order to accurately evaluate the potential damage to the superstructure caused by the pounding of the BIB with adjacent structures. The reliability of the modified Kelvin impact model is validated through numerical comparisons with other impact models. However, the difference between the numerical results from the various impact analytical models is not significant. Many numerical simulations of BIBs are conducted to investigate the influence of various design parameters and conditions on the peak inter-story drifts and floor accelerations during pounding. It is shown that pounding can substantially increase floor accelerations, especially at the ground floor where impacts occur. Higher modes of vibration are excited during poundings, increasing the inter-story drifts instead of keeping a nearly rigid-body motion of the superstructure. Furthermore, higher ductility demands can be imposed on lower floors of the superstructure. Moreover, impact stiffness seems to play a significant role in the acceleration response at the isolation level and the inter-story drifts of lower floors of the superstructure. Finally, the numerical results show that excessive flexibility of the isolation system used to minimize the floor accelerations may cause the BIB to be more susceptible to pounding
Modified finite-element model for application to terrain-induced mesoscale flows
Lee, R.L.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Gresho, P.M.
1982-11-01
Terrain-induced mesoscale flows are localized atmospheric motions generated primarily by surface inhomogeneities such as differential heating and irregular terrain. Well-known examples of such flows are sea-and-land breeze circulations, mountain-valley flows, urban heat island circulations and mountain lee waves. A numerical model capable of capturing the details of these frequently complicated flow patterns must often contain a realistic and rather accurate representation of the relevant terrain. Over the last decade, mesoscale models have been developed in which various approaches were used to incorporate variable terrain. In this study, a somewhat unique approach, based on a modified finite element procedure, was used to solve the nonhydrostatic planetary boundary layer equations. The nonhydrostatic and finite element features of the model are particularly advantageous for modeling flows over complex topography. The numerical aspects of the model, the parameterizations currently used, and a few preliminary results are presented.
Isgur-Wise function within a modified heavy-light chiral quark model
Eeg, Jan O.; Kumericki, Kresimir
2010-04-01
We consider the Isgur-Wise function {xi}({omega}) within a new modified version of a heavy-light chiral quark model. While early versions of such models gave an absolute value of the slope that was too small, namely {xi}{sup '}(1){approx_equal}-0.4 to -0.3, we show how extended version(s) may lead to values around -1, in better agreement with recent measurements. This is obtained by introducing a new mass parameter in the heavy-quark propagator. We also shortly comment on the consequences for the decay modes B{yields}DD.
Levitation force on a permanent magnet over a superconducting plane: Modified critical-state model
Yang, Z.J.
1997-08-01
The authors consider a model system of a permanent magnet above a semi-infinite superconductor. They introduce a modified critical-state model, and carry out derivations of the levitation force acting on the magnet. A key feature of the modification allows the current density to be less than the critical value. The theoretical results show an exponential relationship between the force and the distance. Analytical expressions are developed for permanent magnets in the form of a point dipole, a tip of a magnetic force microscope, and a cylindrical magnet. In the latter case, the exponential relationship has been observed in numerous experiments but without previous interpretation.
Modified Lee-Friedberg soliton-bag model with absolute confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayer, L.; Forkel, H.; Weise, W.
1986-12-01
We systematically investigate solutions of a modified Lee-Friedberg model for fermions bound in a non-linearly self-interacting scalar field σ. In this model a running σ-fermion coupling strength g(σ) is introduced such as to interpolate between a perturbative vacuum with σ=0 and a non-trivial vacuum ( σ=σ v ) with strong coupling. We find soliton-bag-like solutions in which the fermions experience absolute confinement. These solutions are almost independent of the detailed form of g(σ).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigorev, V. Yu.; Grigoreva, L. D.; Salimov, I. E.
2017-08-01
Models of the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) between the structure of 19 alkylammonium cations and the basal distances ( d 001) of Na+ montmorillonite modified with these cations are created. Seven descriptors characterizing intermolecular interaction, including new fractal descriptors, are used to describe the structure of the compounds. It is shown that equations obtained via multiple linear regression have good statistical characteristics, and the calculated d 001 values agree with the results from experimental studies. The quantitative contribution from hydrogen bonds to the formation of interplanar spacing in Na+ montmorillonite is found by analyzing the QSPR models.
Huang, Hong-Zhong; Yuan, Rong
2014-01-01
Many structures are subjected to variable amplitude loading in engineering practice. The foundation of fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude loading is how to deal with the fatigue damage accumulation. A nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation model to consider the effects of load sequences was proposed in earlier literature, but the model cannot consider the load interaction effects, and sometimes it makes a major error. A modified nonlinear damage accumulation model is proposed in this paper to account for the load interaction effects. Experimental data of two metallic materials are used to validate the proposed model. The agreement between the model prediction and experimental data is observed, and the predictions by proposed model are more possibly in accordance with experimental data than that by primary model and Miner's rule. Comparison between the predicted cumulative damage by the proposed model and an existing model shows that the proposed model predictions can meet the accuracy requirement of the engineering project and it can be used to predict the fatigue life of welded aluminum alloy joint of Electric Multiple Units (EMU); meanwhile, the accuracy of approximation can be obtained from the proposed model though more simple computing process and less material parameters calling for extensive testing than the existing model. PMID:24574866
Modified pressure loss model for T-junctions of engine exhaust manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaolu; Cui, Yi; Deng, Kangyao
2014-11-01
The T-junction model of engine exhaust manifolds significantly influences the simulation precision of the pressure wave and mass flow rate in the intake and exhaust manifolds of diesel engines. Current studies have focused on constant pressure models, constant static pressure models and pressure loss models. However, low model precision is a common disadvantage when simulating engine exhaust manifolds, particularly for turbocharged systems. To study the performance of junction flow, a cold wind tunnel experiment with high velocities at the junction of a diesel exhaust manifold is performed, and the variation in the pressure loss in the T-junction under different flow conditions is obtained. Despite the trend of the calculated total pressure loss coefficient, which is obtained by using the original pressure loss model and is the same as that obtained from the experimental results, large differences exist between the calculated and experimental values. Furthermore, the deviation becomes larger as the flow velocity increases. By improving the Vazsonyi formula considering the flow velocity and introducing the distribution function, a modified pressure loss model is established, which is suitable for a higher velocity range. Then, the new model is adopted to solve one-dimensional, unsteady flow in a D6114 turbocharged diesel engine. The calculated values are compared with the measured data, and the result shows that the simulation accuracy of the pressure wave before the turbine is improved by 4.3% with the modified pressure loss model because gas compressibility is considered when the flow velocities are high. The research results provide valuable information for further junction flow research, particularly the correction of the boundary condition in one-dimensional simulation models.
The Hospital Incident Command System: Modified Model for Hospitals in Iran
Djalali, Ahmadreza; Hosseinijenab, Vahid; Peyravi, Mahmoudreza; Nekoei-Moghadam, Mahmood; Hosseini, Bashir; Schoenthal, Lisa; Koenig, Kristi L.
2015-01-01
Introduction: Effectiveness of hospital management of disasters requires a well-defined and rehearsed system. The Hospital Incident Command System (HICS), as a standardized method for command and control, was established in Iranian hospitals, but it has performed fairly during disaster exercises. This paper describes the process for, and modifications to HICS undertaken to optimize disaster management in hospitals in Iran. Methods: In 2013, a group of 11 subject matter experts participated in an expert consensus modified Delphi to develop modifications to the 2006 version of HICS. Results: The following changes were recommended by the expert panel and subsequently implemented: 1) A Quality Control Officer was added to the Command group; 2) Security was defined as a new section; 3) Infrastructure and Business Continuity Branches were moved from the Operations Section to the Logistics and the Administration Sections, respectively; and 4) the Planning Section was merged within the Finance/Administration Section. Conclusion: An expert consensus group developed a modified HICS that is more feasible to implement given the managerial organization of hospitals in Iran. This new model may enhance hospital performance in managing disasters. Additional studies are needed to test the feasibility and efficacy of the modified HICS in Iran, both during simulations and actual disasters. This process may be a useful model for other countries desiring to improve disaster incident management systems for their hospitals. PMID:25905024
Kandasamy, Palani; Moitra, Ranabir; Mukherjee, Souti
2015-01-01
Experiments were conducted to determine the respiration rate of tomato at 10, 20 and 30 °C using closed respiration system. Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation in the system containing tomato was monitored. Respiration rate was found to decrease with increasing CO2 and decreasing O2 concentration. Michaelis-Menten type model based on enzyme kinetics was evaluated using experimental data generated for predicting the respiration rate. The model parameters that obtained from the respiration rate at different O2 and CO2 concentration levels were used to fit the model against the storage temperatures. The fitting was fair (R2 = 0.923 to 0.970) when the respiration rate was expressed as O2 concentation. Since inhibition constant for CO2 concentration tended towards negetive, the model was modified as a function of O2 concentration only. The modified model was fitted to the experimental data and showed good agreement (R2 = 0.998) with experimentally estimated respiration rate.
Active Aeroelastic Wing Aerodynamic Model Development and Validation for a Modified F/A-18A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cumming, Stephen B.; Diebler, Corey G.
2005-01-01
A new aerodynamic model has been developed and validated for a modified F/A-18A used for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research program. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the advantages of using the inherent flexibility of an aircraft to enhance its performance. The research aircraft was an F/A-18A with wings modified to reduce stiffness and a new control system to increase control authority. There have been two flight phases. Data gathered from the first flight phase were used to create the new aerodynamic model. A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique was used to obtain stability and control derivatives. The derivatives were incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-18 simulation, validated, and used to develop new AAW control laws. The second phase of flights was used to evaluate the handling qualities of the AAW aircraft and the control law design process, and to further test the accuracy of the new model. The flight test envelope covered Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and dynamic pressures from 600 to 1250 pound-force per square foot. The results presented in this report demonstrate that a thorough parameter identification analysis can be used to improve upon models that were developed using other means. This report describes the parameter estimation technique used, details the validation techniques, discusses differences between previously existing F/A-18 models, and presents results from the second phase of research flights.
A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area
Clarke, K.C.; Hoppen, S.; Gaydos, L.
1997-01-01
In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including topography, road networks, and existing settlement distributions, and their modification over time. In addition, the control parameters of the model are allowed to self-modify: that is, the CA adapts itself to the circumstances it generates, in particular, during periods of rapid growth or stagnation. In addition, the model was written to allow the accumulation of probabilistic estimates based on Monte Carlo methods. Calibration of the model has been accomplished by the use of historical maps to compare model predictions of urbanization, based solely upon the distribution in year 1900, with observed data for years 1940, 1954, 1962, 1974, and 1990. The complexity of this model has made calibration a particularly demanding step. Lessons learned about the methods, measures, and strategies developed to calibrate the model may be of use in other environmental modeling contexts. With the calibration complete, the model is being used to generate a set of future scenarios for the San Francisco Bay area along with their probabilities based on the Monte Carlo version of the model. Animated dynamic mapping of the simulations will be used to allow visualization of the impact of future urban growth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sudakov, Ivan; Vakulenko, Sergey
2015-11-01
The original Rayleigh-Benard convection is a standard example of the system where the critical transitions occur with changing of a control parameter. We will discuss the modified Rayleigh-Benard convection problem which includes the radiative effects as well as the specific gas sources on a surface. Such formulation of this problem leads to identification a new kind of nonlinear phenomenon, besides the well-known Benard cells. Modeling of methane emissions from permafrost into the atmosphere drives to difficult problems, involving the Navier-Stokes equations. Taking into account the modified Rayleigh-Benard convection problem, we will discuss a new approach which makes the problem of a climate catastrophe in the result of a greenhouse effect more tractable and allows us to describe catastrophic transitions in the atmosphere induced by permafrost greenhouse gas sources.
Estimating parameters of a multiple autoregressive model by the modified maximum likelihood method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayrak, Özlem Türker; Akkaya, Aysen D.
2010-02-01
We consider a multiple autoregressive model with non-normal error distributions, the latter being more prevalent in practice than the usually assumed normal distribution. Since the maximum likelihood equations have convergence problems (Puthenpura and Sinha, 1986) [11], we work out modified maximum likelihood equations by expressing the maximum likelihood equations in terms of ordered residuals and linearizing intractable nonlinear functions (Tiku and Suresh, 1992) [8]. The solutions, called modified maximum estimators, are explicit functions of sample observations and therefore easy to compute. They are under some very general regularity conditions asymptotically unbiased and efficient (Vaughan and Tiku, 2000) [4]. We show that for small sample sizes, they have negligible bias and are considerably more efficient than the traditional least squares estimators. We show that our estimators are robust to plausible deviations from an assumed distribution and are therefore enormously advantageous as compared to the least squares estimators. We give a real life example.
Zhao, Pengfei; Roy, Subrata
2014-05-07
This work investigates the performance of underwater spark discharge relating to bubble growth and decay under high pressure and with salinity conditions by introducing a modified form of the resistance equation. Here, we study salinity influence on circuit parameters by fitting the experimental data for which gap resistance is much larger in conductive water than in dielectric water. Accordingly, the resistance equation is modified by considering the influence of both plasma and its surrounding liquid. Thermal radiation effect of the bubble is also studied by comparing two different radiation models. Numerical results predict a larger bubble pressure for saline water but a reduced size and a smaller bubble cycle at a greater water depth. Such study may be useful in many saltwater applications, including that for deep sea conditions.
Entropy-corrected new agegraphic dark energy model in the context of Chern-Simons modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aly, Ayman A.; Fekry, M.; Mansour, H.
2015-04-01
Within the framework of Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, we studied dark energy models. The new agegraphic dark energy (NADE) model, entropy-corrected new agegraphic dark energy (ECNADE) model and NADE model with generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) are investigated. For these models, we studied the evolution of scale factor a, Hubble parameter H and deceleration parameter q. On meantime, we studied the state finder parameters s and r. These models show some similar behavior with modified Chaplygin gas model in some regions, while in other regions some similarity with phantom and quintessence dark energy is noticed.
Pregnancy-associated homeostasis and dysregulation: lessons from genetically modified animal models.
Ishida, Junji; Matsuoka, Toshiki; Saito-Fujita, Tomoko; Inaba, Saki; Kunita, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-ichi; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi
2011-07-01
Physiological alterations occur in many organ systems during pregnancy. These changes are necessary for the adaptation to pregnancy-specific physiological processes in mother and fetus, and the placenta plays a critical role in the maintenance of homeostasis in pregnancy. Dysregulation of these functional feto-maternal interactions leads to severe complications. There have been many attempts to create animal models that mimic the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, especially pre-eclampsia. In this review, we summarize the physiology of pregnancy and placental function, and discuss the placental gene expression in normal pregnancy. In addition, we assess a number of established animal models focusing on a specific pathogenic mechanism of pre-eclampsia, including genetically modified mouse models involving the renin-angiotensin system. Validation of these animal models would contribute significantly to understanding the basic principles of pregnancy-associated homeostasis and the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.
A Study of Holographic Dark Energy Models in Chern-Simon Modified Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Sarfraz; Amir, M. Jamil
2016-12-01
This paper is devoted to study some holographic dark energy models in the context of Chern-Simon modified gravity by considering FRW universe. We analyze the equation of state parameter using Granda and Oliveros infrared cut-off proposal which describes the accelerated expansion of the universe under the restrictions on the parameter α. It is shown that for the accelerated expansion phase -1<ω _{Λ }<-1/3, the parameter α varies according as 1<α <2/3. Furthermore, for 0< α<1, the holographic energy and pressure density illustrates phantom-like theory of the evolution when ω Λ<-1. Also, we discuss the correspondence between the quintessence, K-essence, tachyon and dilaton field models and holographic dark energy models on similar fashion. To discuss the accelerated expansion of the universe, we explore the potential and the dynamics of quintessence, K-essence, tachyon and dilaton field models.
Barnett, J Matthew; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Recknagle, Kurtis P; Glissmeyer, John A
2016-11-01
A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated that a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan, thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack, thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans, which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well mixed location.
Orruño, Estibalitz; Gagnon, Marie Pierre; Asua, José; Ben Abdeljelil, Anis
2011-01-01
We examined the main factors affecting the intention of physicians to use teledermatology using a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The investigation was carried out during a teledermatology pilot study conducted in Spain. A total of 276 questionnaires were sent to physicians by email and 171 responded (62%). Cronbach's alpha was acceptably high for all constructs. Theoretical variables were well correlated with each other and with the dependent variable (Intention to Use). Logistic regression indicated that the original TAM model was good at predicting physicians' intention to use teledermatology and that the variables Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use were both significant (odds ratios of 8.4 and 7.4, respectively). When other theoretical variables were added, the model was still significant and it also became more powerful. However, the only significant predictor in the modified model was Facilitators with an odds ratio of 9.9. Thus the TAM was good at predicting physicians' intention to use teledermatology. However, the most important variable was the perception of Facilitators to using the technology (e.g. infrastructure, training and support).
Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Twa, Michael D; Larin, Kirill V
2017-02-01
The biomechanical properties of the cornea play a critical role in forming vision. Diseases such as keratoconus can structurally degenerate the cornea causing a pathological loss in visual acuity. UV-A/riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a clinically available treatment to stiffen the cornea and restore its healthy shape and function. However, current CXL techniques do not account for pre-existing biomechanical properties of the cornea nor the effects of the CXL treatment itself. In addition to the inherent corneal structure, the intraocular pressure (IOP) can also dramatically affect the measured biomechanical properties of the cornea. In this work, we present the details and development of a modified Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation model for quantifying corneal biomechanical properties. After comparison with finite element modeling, the model was utilized to quantify the viscoelasticity of in situ porcine corneas in the whole eye-globe configuration before and after CXL based on noncontact optical coherence elastography measurements. Moreover, the viscoelasticity of the untreated and CXL-treated eyes was quantified at various IOPs. The results showed that the stiffness of the cornea increased after CXL and that corneal stiffness is close to linear as a function of IOP. These results show that the modified Rayleigh-Lamb wave model can provide an accurate assessment of corneal viscoelasticity, which could be used for customized CXL therapies.
Barnett, J. Matthew; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Glissmeyer, John A.
2016-01-01
A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the new original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well-mixed location.
A modified procedure for mixture-model clustering of regional geochemical data
Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.; Horton, John D.
2014-01-01
A modified procedure is proposed for mixture-model clustering of regional-scale geochemical data. The key modification is the robust principal component transformation of the isometric log-ratio transforms of the element concentrations. This principal component transformation and the associated dimension reduction are applied before the data are clustered. The principal advantage of this modification is that it significantly improves the stability of the clustering. The principal disadvantage is that it requires subjective selection of the number of clusters and the number of principal components. To evaluate the efficacy of this modified procedure, it is applied to soil geochemical data that comprise 959 samples from the state of Colorado (USA) for which the concentrations of 44 elements are measured. The distributions of element concentrations that are derived from the mixture model and from the field samples are similar, indicating that the mixture model is a suitable representation of the transformed geochemical data. Each cluster and the associated distributions of the element concentrations are related to specific geologic and anthropogenic features. In this way, mixture model clustering facilitates interpretation of the regional geochemical data.
Application of modified Patankar schemes to stiff biogeochemical models for the water column
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burchard, Hans; Deleersnijder, Eric; Meister, Andreas
2005-12-01
In this paper, we apply recently developed positivity preserving and conservative Modified Patankar-type solvers for ordinary differential equations to a simple stiff biogeochemical model for the water column. The performance of this scheme is compared to schemes which are not unconditionally positivity preserving (the first-order Euler and the second- and fourth-order Runge-Kutta schemes) and to schemes which are not conservative (the first- and second-order Patankar schemes). The biogeochemical model chosen as a test ground is a standard nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model, which has been made stiff by substantially decreasing the half saturation concentration for nutrients. For evaluating the stiffness of the biogeochemical model, so-called numerical time scales are defined which are obtained empirically by applying high-resolution numerical schemes. For all ODE solvers under investigation, the temporal error is analysed for a simple exponential decay law. The performance of all schemes is compared to a high-resolution high-order reference solution. As a result, the second-order modified Patankar-Runge-Kutta scheme gives a good agreement with the reference solution even for time steps 10 times longer than the shortest numerical time scale of the problem. Other schemes do either compute negative values for non-negative state variables (fully explicit schemes), violate conservation (the Patankar schemes) or show low accuracy (all first-order schemes).
Kwong, C K; Fung, K Y; Jiang, Huimin; Chan, K Y; Siu, Kin Wai Michael
2013-01-01
Affective design is an important aspect of product development to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. A neural-fuzzy network approach has been attempted recently to model customer satisfaction for affective design and it has been proved to be an effective one to deal with the fuzziness and non-linearity of the modeling as well as generate explicit customer satisfaction models. However, such an approach to modeling customer satisfaction has two limitations. First, it is not suitable for the modeling problems which involve a large number of inputs. Second, it cannot adapt to new data sets, given that its structure is fixed once it has been developed. In this paper, a modified dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy approach is proposed to address the above mentioned limitations. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Validation tests were conducted and the test results indicated that: (1) the conventional Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) failed to run due to a large number of inputs; (2) the proposed dynamic neural-fuzzy model outperforms the subtractive clustering-based ANFIS model and fuzzy c-means clustering-based ANFIS model in terms of their modeling accuracy and computational effort.
A modified Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model for simulating pH-dependent adsorption effects.
Jeppu, Gautham P; Clement, T Prabhakar
2012-03-15
Analytical isotherm equations such as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms are widely used for modeling adsorption data. However, these isotherms are primarily useful for simulating data collected at a fixed pH value and cannot be easily adapted to simulate pH-dependent adsorption effects. Therefore, most adsorption studies currently use numerical surface-complexation models (SCMs), which are more complex and time consuming than traditional analytical isotherm models. In this work, we propose a new analytical isotherm model, identified as the modified Langmuir-Freundlich (MLF) isotherm, which can be used to simulate pH-dependent adsorption. The MLF isotherm uses a linear correlation between pH and affinity coefficient values. We validated the proposed MLF isotherm by predicting arsenic adsorption onto two different types of sorbents: pure goethite and goethite-coated sand. The MLF model gave good predictions for both experimental and surface complexation-model predicted datasets for these two sorbents. The proposed analytical isotherm framework can help reduce modeling complexity, model development time, and computational efforts. One of the limitations of the proposed method is that it is currently valid only for single-component systems. Furthermore, the model requires a system-specific pH. vs. affinity coefficient relation. Despite these limitations, the approach provides a promising analytical framework for simulating pH-dependent adsorption effects.
A modified Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model for simulating pH-dependent adsorption effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeppu, Gautham P.; Clement, T. Prabhakar
2012-03-01
Analytical isotherm equations such as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms are widely used for modeling adsorption data. However, these isotherms are primarily useful for simulating data collected at a fixed pH value and cannot be easily adapted to simulate pH-dependent adsorption effects. Therefore, most adsorption studies currently use numerical surface-complexation models (SCMs), which are more complex and time consuming than traditional analytical isotherm models. In this work, we propose a new analytical isotherm model, identified as the modified Langmuir-Freundlich (MLF) isotherm, which can be used to simulate pH-dependent adsorption. The MLF isotherm uses a linear correlation between pH and affinity coefficient values. We validated the proposed MLF isotherm by predicting arsenic adsorption onto two different types of sorbents: pure goethite and goethite-coated sand. The MLF model gave good predictions for both experimental and surface complexation-model predicted datasets for these two sorbents. The proposed analytical isotherm framework can help reduce modeling complexity, model development time, and computational efforts. One of the limitations of the proposed method is that it is currently valid only for single-component systems. Furthermore, the model requires a system-specific pH. vs. affinity coefficient relation. Despite these limitations, the approach provides a promising analytical framework for simulating pH-dependent adsorption effects.
Kwong, C. K.; Fung, K. Y.; Jiang, Huimin; Chan, K. Y.
2013-01-01
Affective design is an important aspect of product development to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. A neural-fuzzy network approach has been attempted recently to model customer satisfaction for affective design and it has been proved to be an effective one to deal with the fuzziness and non-linearity of the modeling as well as generate explicit customer satisfaction models. However, such an approach to modeling customer satisfaction has two limitations. First, it is not suitable for the modeling problems which involve a large number of inputs. Second, it cannot adapt to new data sets, given that its structure is fixed once it has been developed. In this paper, a modified dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy approach is proposed to address the above mentioned limitations. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Validation tests were conducted and the test results indicated that: (1) the conventional Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) failed to run due to a large number of inputs; (2) the proposed dynamic neural-fuzzy model outperforms the subtractive clustering-based ANFIS model and fuzzy c-means clustering-based ANFIS model in terms of their modeling accuracy and computational effort. PMID:24385884
Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Spencer, Brian; Michael, Sara; Castello, Nicholas A; Agazaryan, Andranik A; Davis, Joy L; Müller, Franz-Josef; Loring, Jeanne F; Masliah, Eliezer; LaFerla, Frank M
2014-04-16
Short-term neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation improves cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice by enhancing endogenous synaptic connectivity. However, this approach has no effect on the underlying beta-amyloid (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Long term efficacy of cell based approaches may therefore require combinatorial approaches. To begin to examine this question we genetically-modified NSCs to stably express and secrete the Aβ-degrading enzyme, neprilysin (sNEP). Next, we studied the effects of sNEP expression in vitro by quantifying Aβ-degrading activity, NSC multipotency markers, and Aβ-induced toxicity. To determine whether sNEP-expressing NSCs can also modulate AD-pathogenesis in vivo, control-modified and sNEP-NSCs were transplanted unilaterally into the hippocampus of two independent and well characterized transgenic models of AD: 3xTg-AD and Thy1-APP mice. After three months, stem cell engraftment, neprilysin expression, and AD pathology were examined. Our findings reveal that stem cell-mediated delivery of NEP provides marked and significant reductions in Aβ pathology and increases synaptic density in both 3xTg-AD and Thy1-APP transgenic mice. Remarkably, Aβ plaque loads are reduced not only in the hippocampus and subiculum adjacent to engrafted NSCs, but also within the amygdala and medial septum, areas that receive afferent projections from the engrafted region. Taken together, our data suggest that genetically-modified NSCs could provide a powerful combinatorial approach to not only enhance synaptic plasticity but to also target and modify underlying Alzheimer's disease pathology.
Modified virtual internal bond model for concrete subjected to dynamic loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Mayuri
Concrete is often used as a primary material to build protective structures. There is a wide range of research work being performed to simulate the behavior of reinforced concrete under impact and blast loading. This behavior is studied from both material and structural points of view. The research study presented in this thesis focuses on material aspects of modeling. LS-DYNARTM is an effective software for modeling and finite element analysis of structural members. It allows the user to define the material through commercially available or user-defined constitutive material models. Each material model has a distinct set of parameters to define a material which is further assigned to elements and used for simulations. This research study presents a user defined material model called Modified Concrete Virtual Internal Bond Model (MC-VIB). The basic constitutive model of VIB assumes the body as a collection of randomly oriented material points interconnected by a network of internal bonds. The model was modified by several researchers for different purposes. This research presents the MC-VIB for concrete under dynamic loading and studies its implementation into LS-DYNARTM. The modifications include incorporation of shear behavior and accounting for the difference in behavior of concrete in tension and compression. This project includes the calibration of the model based on stress-strain behavior of single element and cylinder model of concrete. The parameters are based on concrete with a uniaxial compressive strength of 27.6 MPa (4 ksi). These numerical curves are compared to those obtained from conventionally used material models for concrete and standard curves obtained by accepted equations to check the accuracy of prediction. The material model available in LS-DYNARTM requires a number of input parameters to define concrete behavior. These properties are normally derived from actual tests performed on the concrete under consideration. Often the properties are
A modified global Newton solver for viscous-plastic sea ice models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehlmann, C.; Richter, T.
2017-08-01
We present and analyze a modified Newton solver, the so called operator-related damped Jacobian method, with a line search globalization for the solution of the strongly nonlinear momentum equation in a viscous-plastic (VP) sea ice model.Due to large variations in the viscosities, the resulting nonlinear problem is very difficult to solve. The development of fast, robust and converging solvers is subject to present research. There are mainly three approaches for solving the nonlinear momentum equation of the VP model, a fixed-point method denoted as Picard solver, an inexact Newton method and a subcycling procedure based on an elastic-viscous-plastic model approximation. All methods tend to have problems on fine meshes by sharp structures in the solution. Convergence rates deteriorate such that either too many iterations are required to reach sufficient accuracy or convergence is not obtained at all.To improve robustness globalization and acceleration approaches, which increase the area of fast convergence, are needed. We develop an implicit scheme with improved convergence properties by combining an inexact Newton method with a Picard solver. We derive the full Jacobian of the viscous-plastic sea ice momentum equation and show that the Jacobian is a positive definite matrix, guaranteeing global convergence of a properly damped Newton iteration. We compare our modified Newton solver with line search damping to an inexact Newton method with established globalization and acceleration techniques. We present a test case that shows improved robustness of our new approach, in particular on fine meshes.
Inferring the spatial variation of the wedge strength based on a modified critical taper model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, C.; Liu, H.; Hsieh, Y.; Dong, J.
2013-12-01
Critical taper wedge theory has been widely applied to evaluate the strength of the detachment fault and the wedge by measuring taper angle. Traditional taper model, which incorporated constant cohesion and friction angle, fails to explain the lateral variation of the taper angle. A modified critical taper model adopting nonlinear Hoek-Brown failure criterion is proposed accordingly. The fold-and-thrust belt of central Taiwan was studied. Based on the field works and laboratory tests, the geological strength index (GSI) and the uniaxial compressive strength were obtained and the wedge strength can be estimated accordingly. The GSI values from investigation are decreased from the west to the east along the cross section due to the wedge strength heterogeneity. The uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock varies from the age of formation and lithology. The estimated wedge strength exhibits a strong spatial variation. The strength of the detachment fault was derived from rotary shear tests using fault gouge materials under different velocities and normal stresses. General speaking, the steady-state friction coefficient are about 0.29-0.46 when the shear velocity less than 0.1 m/s. The friction coefficient is not sensitive to the normal stress. Consequently, the lateral variation of the taper angle, which calculated by modified critical taper model, is mainly dominated by the wedge strength heterogeneity and the thickening of the wedge from the west to the east.
Modeling gravity-driven fingering in rough-walled fractures using modified percolation theory
Glass, R.J.
1992-12-31
Pore scale invasion percolation theory is modified for imbibition of.wetting fluids into fractures. The effects of gravity, local aperture field geometry, and local in-plane air/water interfacial curvatureare included in the calculation of aperture filling potential which controls wetted structure growth within the fracture. The inclusion of gravity yields fingers oriented in the direction of the gravitational gradient. These fingers widen and tend to meander and branch more as the gravitational gradient decreases. In-plane interfacial curvature also greatly affects the wetted structure in both horizontal and nonhorizontal fractures causing the formation of macroscopic wetting fronts. The modified percolation model is used to simulate imbibition into an analogue rough-walled fracture where both fingering and horizontal imbibition experiments were previously conducted. Comparison of numerical and experimental results showed reasonably good agreement. This process oriented physical and numerical modeling is-a necessary step toward including gravity-driven fingering in models of flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock.
Wang, Lu; Shen, Jincheng; Thall, Peter F
2014-10-01
In many biomedical studies, identifying effects of covariate interactions on survival is a major goal. Important examples are treatment-subgroup interactions in clinical trials, and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions in genomic studies. A common problem when implementing a variable selection algorithm in such settings is the requirement that the model must satisfy the strong heredity constraint, wherein an interaction may be included in the model only if the interaction's component variables are included as main effects. We propose a modified Lasso method for the Cox regression model that adaptively selects important single covariates and pairwise interactions while enforcing the strong heredity constraint. The proposed method is based on a modified log partial likelihood including two adaptively weighted penalties, one for main effects and one for interactions. A two-dimensional tuning parameter for the penalties is determined by generalized cross-validation. Asymptotic properties are established, including consistency and rate of convergence, and it is shown that the proposed selection procedure has oracle properties, given proper choice of regularization parameters. Simulations illustrate that the proposed method performs reliably across a range of different scenarios.
Speeding up N-body simulations of modified gravity: chameleon screening models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu; Barreira, Alexandre; He, Jian-hua; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Llinares, Claudio; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2017-02-01
We describe and demonstrate the potential of a new and very efficient method for simulating certain classes of modified gravity theories, such as the widely studied f(R) gravity models. High resolution simulations for such models are currently very slow due to the highly nonlinear partial differential equation that needs to be solved exactly to predict the modified gravitational force. This nonlinearity is partly inherent, but is also exacerbated by the specific numerical algorithm used, which employs a variable redefinition to prevent numerical instabilities. The standard Newton-Gauss-Seidel iterative method used to tackle this problem has a poor convergence rate. Our new method not only avoids this, but also allows the discretised equation to be written in a form that is analytically solvable. We show that this new method greatly improves the performance and efficiency of f(R) simulations. For example, a test simulation with 5123 particles in a box of size 512 Mpc/h is now 5 times faster than before, while a Millennium-resolution simulation for f(R) gravity is estimated to be more than 20 times faster than with the old method. Our new implementation will be particularly useful for running very high resolution, large-sized simulations which, to date, are only possible for the standard model, and also makes it feasible to run large numbers of lower resolution simulations for covariance analyses. We hope that the method will bring us to a new era for precision cosmological tests of gravity.
A Modified Adaptive Lasso for Identifying Interactions in the Cox Model with the Heredity Constraint
Wang, Lu; Shen, Jincheng; Thall, Peter F.
2014-01-01
In many biomedical studies, identifying effects of covariate interactions on survival is a major goal. Important examples are treatment-subgroup interactions in clinical trials, and gene-gene or gene-environment interactions in genomic studies. A common problem when implementing a variable selection algorithm in such settings is the requirement that the model must satisfy the strong heredity constraint, wherein an interaction may be included in the model only if the interaction’s component variables are included as main effects. We propose a modified Lasso method for the Cox regression model that adaptively selects important single covariates and pairwise interactions while enforcing the strong heredity constraint. The proposed method is based on a modified log partial likelihood including two adaptively weighted penalties, one for main effects and one for interactions. A two-dimensional tuning parameter for the penalties is determined by generalized cross-validation. Asymptotic properties are established, including consistency and rate of convergence, and it is shown that the proposed selection procedure has oracle properties, given proper choice of regularization parameters. Simulations illustrate that the proposed method performs reliably across a range of different scenarios. PMID:25071299
Modified biokinetic model for uranium from analysis of acute exposure to UF6.
Fisher, D R; Kathren, R L; Swint, M J
1991-03-01
Urinalysis measurements from 31 workers acutely exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and its hydrolysis product UO2F2 (during the 1986 Gore, Oklahoma UF6-release accident) were used to develop a modified recycling biokinetic model for soluble U compounds. The model is expressed as a five-compartment exponential equation: yu(t) = 0.086e-2.77t + 0.0048e-0.116t + 0.00069e-0.0267t + 0.00017 e-0.00231t + 2.5 x 10(-6) e-0.000187t, where yu(t) is the fractional daily urinary excretion and t is the time after intake, in days. The excretion constants of the five exponential compartments correspond to residence half-times of 0.25, 6, 26, 300, and 3,700 d in the lungs, kidneys, other soft tissues, and in two bone volume compartments, respectively. The modified recycling model was used to estimate intake amounts, the resulting committed effective dose equivalent, maximum kidney concentrations, and dose equivalent to bone surfaces, kidneys, and lungs.
Non-flat pilgrim dark energy FRW models in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rani, Shamaila; Jawad, Abdul; Salako, Ines G.; Azhar, Nadeem
2016-09-01
We study the cosmic acceleration in dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity in the frame-work of non-flat FRW universe. The pilgrim dark energy (with future event and apparent horizons) interacted with cold dark matter is being considered in this work. We investigate the cosmological parameters (equation of state, deceleration) and planes (state-finders, ω_{θ}-ω_{θ}^' }) in the present scenario. It is interesting to mention here that the obtained results of various cosmological parameters are consistent with various observational schemes. The validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics for present dark energy models is also being analyzed.
Pulsatile flow of blood using a modified second-grade fluid model
Massoudi, Mehrdad; Tran, P.X.
2008-07-01
We study the unsteady pulsatile flow of blood in an artery, where the effects of body acceleration are included. The blood is modeled as a modified second-grade fluid where the viscosity and the normal stress coefficients depend on the shear rate. It is assumed that the blood near the wall behaves as a Newtonian fluid, and in the core as a non-Newtonian fluid. This phenomenon is also known as the Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect. The equations are made dimensionless and solved numerically.
Modified holographic Ricci dark energy model with sign-changeable interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Kanika; Sultana, Tazmin
2016-02-01
In this paper we present a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-VI0 space-time filled with interacting dark matter and modified holographic Ricci dark energy. We have taken here a sign-changeable interaction. Assuming the relation between the shear scalar and expansion scalar with a particular form of Hubble parameter we have obtained the exact solution of the Einstein's field equations. The geometric and kinematic properties of the model have been investigated. Under suitable conditions it is observed that the universe becomes spatially homogeneous, isotropic and flat. The results are found to be consistent with the recent day observations.
A Modified BFGS Formula Using a Trust Region Model for Nonsmooth Convex Minimizations
Cui, Zengru; Yuan, Gonglin; Sheng, Zhou; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Duan, Xiabin
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a modified BFGS formula using a trust region model for solving nonsmooth convex minimizations by using the Moreau-Yosida regularization (smoothing) approach and a new secant equation with a BFGS update formula. Our algorithm uses the function value information and gradient value information to compute the Hessian. The Hessian matrix is updated by the BFGS formula rather than using second-order information of the function, thus decreasing the workload and time involved in the computation. Under suitable conditions, the algorithm converges globally to an optimal solution. Numerical results show that this algorithm can successfully solve nonsmooth unconstrained convex problems. PMID:26501775
A modified equatorial β-plane approximation modelling nonlinear wave-current interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henry, David
2017-09-01
A modification of the standard geophysical equatorial β-plane model equations, incorporating a gravitational-correction term in the tangent plane approximation, is derived. We present an exact solution satisfying the modified equations, whose form is explicit in the Lagrangian framework, and which represents three-dimensional, nonlinear oceanic wave-current interactions. It is rigorously established, by way of analytical and degree-theoretical considerations, that the solution is dynamically possible, in the sense that the mapping it prescribes from Lagrangian to Eulerian coordinates is a global diffeomorphism.
Finite size scaling and first-order phase transition in a modified XY model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Suman; Roy, Soumen Kumar
2010-02-01
Monte Carlo simulation has been performed in a two-dimensional modified XY -model first proposed by Domany [Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1535 (1984)] The cluster algorithm of Wolff has been used and multiple histogram reweighting is performed. The first-order scaling behavior of the quantities such as specific heat and free-energy barrier are found to be obeyed accurately. While the lowest-order correlation function was found to decay to zero at long distance just above the transition, the next-higher-order correlation function shows a nonzero plateau.
Finite size scaling and first-order phase transition in a modified XY model.
Sinha, Suman; Roy, Soumen Kumar
2010-02-01
Monte Carlo simulation has been performed in a two-dimensional modified XY -model first proposed by Domany [Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1535 (1984)] The cluster algorithm of Wolff has been used and multiple histogram reweighting is performed. The first-order scaling behavior of the quantities such as specific heat and free-energy barrier are found to be obeyed accurately. While the lowest-order correlation function was found to decay to zero at long distance just above the transition, the next-higher-order correlation function shows a nonzero plateau.
Modified robotic lightweight endoscope (ViKY) validation in vivo in a porcine model.
Gumbs, Andrew A; Crovari, Fernando; Vidal, Clement; Henri, Patrick; Gayet, Brice
2007-12-01
The added precision and steadiness of a robotically held camera enables the performance of more complex procedures laparoscopically. In contrast to typical laparoscope holders, the modified lightweight robotic endoscope, the ViKY system is particularly compact, simple to set up and use, and occupies no floor space. Ease and safety of setup was confirmed in a porcine model and several common general surgical procedures were performed. The sterilizable endoscope manipulator is sufficiently small to be placed directly on the operating room table without interfering with other handheld instruments during minimally invasive surgery. The endoscope manipulator and its user interface were tested and evaluated by several surgeons during a series of 5 minimally invasive surgical training procedures in a porcine model. The endoscope manipulator described has been shown to be a practical device with performance and functionality equivalent to those of commercially available models, yet with greatly reduced size, weight, and cost.
Modified FRW cosmologies arising from states of the hybrid quantum Gowdy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.
2015-07-01
We construct approximate solutions of the hybrid quantum Gowdy cosmology with three-torus topology, linear polarization, and local rotational symmetry, in the presence of a massless scalar field. More specifically, we determine some families of states for which the complicated inhomogeneous and anisotropic Hamiltonian constraint operator of the Gowdy model is approximated by a much simpler one. Our quantum states follow the dynamics governed by this simpler constraint, while being at the same time also approximate solutions of the full Gowdy model. This is so thanks to the quantum correlations that the considered states present between the isotropic and anisotropic sectors of the model. Remarkably, this simpler constraint can be regarded as that of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with different kinds of perfect fluids and geometrically corrected by homogeneous and isotropic curvaturelike terms. Therefore, our quantum states, which are intrinsically inhomogeneous, admit approximate homogeneous and isotropic effective descriptions similar to those considered in modified theories of gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foore, Larry; Ida, Nathan
2007-01-01
This study introduces the use of a modified Longley-Rice irregular terrain model and digital elevation data representative of an analogue lunar site for the prediction of RF path loss over the lunar surface. The results are validated by theoretical models and past Apollo studies. The model is used to approximate the path loss deviation from theoretical attenuation over a reflecting sphere. Analysis of the simulation results provides statistics on the fade depths for frequencies of interest, and correspondingly a method for determining the maximum range of communications for various coverage confidence intervals. Communication system engineers and mission planners are provided a link margin and path loss policy for communication frequencies of interest.
Wu, Chengzhen; Hong, Wei; Hong, Tao
2006-03-01
To optimize the projection function and direction of projection pursuit technique, predigest its realization process, and overcome the shortcomings in long time calculation and in the difficulty of optimizing projection direction and computer programming, this paper presented a modified simplex method (MSM), and based on it, brought forward the eco-value level classification model (EVLCM) of forest ecosystem, which could integrate the multidimensional classification index into one-dimensional projection value, with high projection value denoting high ecosystem services value. Examples of forest ecosystem could be reasonably classified by the new model according to their projection value, suggesting that EVLCM driven directly by samples data of forest ecosystem was simple and feasible, applicable, and maneuverable. The calculating time and value of projection function were 34% and 143% of those with the traditional projection pursuit technique, respectively. This model could be applied extensively to classify and estimate all kinds of non-linear and multidimensional data in ecology, biology, and regional sustainable development.
Source model estimation of the 2005 Kyushu Earthquake, Japan using Modified Semi Empirical Technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandeep; Joshi, A.; Sah, S. K.; Kumar, Parveen; Lal, Sohan; Vandana; Kamal; Singh, R. S.
2017-10-01
The 2005 Kyushu earthquake (MW 6.6, MJMA 7.0) occurred northwest of Fukuoka, Japan causing much damage and injuries. Here, we model the earthquake's source using the data recorded at surrounding field stations. Two isolated strong motion generation areas (SMGA) are identified on the rupture plane. The parameters of each SMGA are estimated using source displacement spectra and then used the spatiotemporal distribution of aftershocks to identify possible locations of SMGAs on the rupture plane. A modified semi empirical technique (MSET) simulated the records for the estimated rupture model. We then compared the observed and simulated acceleration records from eight regional stations. A comparable match between the observed and simulated records confirms the robustness of two SMGA rupture model and ability of MSET to simulate strong ground motion.
Application of a shear-modified GTN model to incremental sheet forming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Jacob; Malhotra, Rajiv; Liu, W. K.; Cao, Jian
2013-12-01
This paper investigates the effects of using a shear-modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model, which is based on the mechanics of voids, for simulating material behavior in the incremental forming process. The problem chosen for analysis is a simplified version of the NUMISHEET 2014 incremental forming benchmark test. The implications of the shear-modification of the model specifically for incremental sheet forming processes are confirmed using finite element analysis. It is shown that including the shear term has a significant effect on fracture timing in incremental forming, which is not well reflected in the observed tensile test simulations for calibration. The numerical implementation and the need for comprehensive calibration of the model are briefly discussed.
The simulation of circuit breaker switching using a composite Cassie-modified Mayr model
Thomas, D.W.P.; Pereira, E.T.; Christopoulos, C.; Howe, A.F.
1995-10-01
In substation electromagnetic compatibility studies or insulation coordination studies it is desirable to get as accurate a representation as possible of the transients generated by faults and switching events. A method of simulating the voltage and current transients generated by a gas blast circuit breaker operation using a composite Cassie-modified Mayr model of the circuit breaker arc is described. It is demonstrated that this gives good agreement with published laboratory measurements of the circuit breaker voltage and current. The transmission line modeling method is used int the construction of the simulation algorithm of the circuit breaker circuit. A method, based on describing the circuit breaker by a transmission-line model (TLM), is used to decouple the non-linear characteristics from the rest of the network.
Emerging Modified Transverse-Field Ising Model On A Hydrogenated Silicon Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritter, Burkhard; Beach, Kevin
2014-03-01
Advances in the precise placement of dangling bonds on a hydrogenated silicon surface open the prospect of manufacturing large scale quantum dot arrays. Small clusters of specifically arranged quantum dots comprise a system of bistable, interacting cells. Starting from an extended Hubbard model and using a set of controlled Hilbert space truncations, we show that such a system of quantum dot cells can be mapped to a modified transverse-field Ising model with long-ranged interactions. Each cell is described by a pseudo-spin. Because we control cell orientation and placement, we can construct a wide range of structures, with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic chains as simple examples. The Ising-like model is amenable to stochastic series expansion Monte Carlo, allowing the simulation and characterization of large systems. Work supported by Alberta Innovates Technology Futures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michelic, S. C.; Thuswaldner, J. M.; Bernhard, C.
2012-07-01
Numerous numerical models for simulating solidification of metals on a microscopic scale have been proposed in the past, among them are most importantly the phase-field method and models based on cellular automata. Especially the models based on cellular automata (adopting the virtual front tracking (VFT) concept) published so far are often only suitable for the consideration of one alloying element. Since industrial alloys are usually constituted of multicomponent alloys, the possibility of applying cellular automata is rather limited. With the aim of enhancing this modelling technique, a new, modified VFT model, which allows for the treatment of several alloying elements, in the low Péclet number regime is presented. The model uses the physical fundamentals of solute and heat diffusion in two dimensions as a basis for determining the solidification progress. By a new and effective approach, based on a functional extrapolation of the concentration gradient, dendritic growth in multicomponent Fe-C-Si-Mn-P-S alloys could be studied. The model shows the typical behaviour of dendritic solidification, such as parabolic tip and secondary dendrite arm formation as well as selection of preferably aligned columnar dendrites. A validation of the model is performed by the evaluation of morphological parameters and comparing them to experimentally determined values. The results for free and constrained dendritic growth effectively demonstrate the capabilities of this new model. The model is especially attractive for bridging the gap between one-dimensional microsegregation models and multidimensional morphology models with regard to modelling the complex interrelations between segregation on a multidimensional level and morphology formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, H.; Luo, Z.; Li, Q.; Zhong, B.
2016-12-01
The monthly gravity field model can be used to compute the information about the mass variation within the system Earth, i.e., the relationship between mass variation in the oceans, land hydrology, and ice sheets. For more than ten years, GRACE has provided valuable information for recovering monthly gravity field model. In this study, a new time series of GRACE monthly solution, which is truncated to degree and order 60, is computed by the modified dynamic approach. Compared with the traditional dynamic approach, the major difference of our modified approach is the way to process the nuisance parameters. This type of parameters is mainly used to absorb low-frequency errors in KBRR data. One way is to remove the nuisance parameters before estimating the geo-potential coefficients, called Pure Predetermined Strategy (PPS). The other way is to determine the nuisance parameters and geo-potential coefficients simultaneously, called Pure Simultaneous Strategy (PSS). It is convenient to detect the gross error by PPS, while there is also obvious signal loss compared with the solutions derived from PSS. After comparing the difference of practical calculation formulas between PPS and PSS, we create the Filter Predetermine Strategy (FPS), which can combine the advantages of PPS and PSS efficiently. With FPS, a new monthly gravity field model entitled HUST-Grace2016s is developed. The comparisons of geoid degree powers and mass change signals in the Amazon basin, the Greenland and the Antarctic demonstrate that our model is comparable with the other published models, e.g., the CSR RL05, JPL RL05 and GFZ RL05 models. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.2016M592337), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41131067, 41504014), the Open Research Fund Program of the State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth's Dynamics (Grant No. SKLGED2015-1-3-E).
Modeling the Mixture of IRT and Pattern Responses by a Modified HYBRID Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yamamoto, Kentaro; Everson, Howard T.
This study demonstrates the utility of a HYBRID psychometric model, which incorporates both item response theoretic and latent class models, for detecting test speededness. The model isolates where in a sequence of test items examinee response patterns shift from one providing reasonable estimates of ability to those best characterized by a random…
Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modelling of human-modified hydrosystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nalbantis, I.; Efstratiadis, A.; Rozos, E.; Kopsiafti, M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.
2011-03-01
The modelling of human-modified basins that are inadequately measured constitutes a challenge for hydrological science. Often, models for such systems are detailed and hydraulics-based for only one part of the system while for other parts oversimplified models or rough assumptions are used. This is typically a bottom-up approach, which seeks to exploit knowledge of hydrological processes at the micro-scale at some components of the system. Also, it is a monomeric approach in two ways: first, essential interactions among system components may be poorly represented or even omitted; second, differences in the level of detail of process representation can lead to uncontrolled errors. Additionally, the calibration procedure merely accounts for the reproduction of the observed responses using typical fitting criteria. The paper aims to raise some critical issues, regarding the entire modelling approach for such hydrosystems. For this, two alternative modelling strategies are examined that reflect two modelling approaches or philosophies: a dominant bottom-up approach, which is also monomeric and, very often, based on output information, and a top-down and holistic approach based on generalized information. Critical options are examined, which codify the differences between the two strategies: the representation of surface, groundwater and water management processes, the schematization and parameterization concepts and the parameter estimation methodology. The first strategy is based on stand-alone models for surface and groundwater processes and for water management, which are employed sequentially. For each model, a different (detailed or coarse) parameterization is used, which is dictated by the hydrosystem schematization. The second strategy involves model integration for all processes, parsimonious parameterization and hybrid manual-automatic parameter optimization based on multiple objectives. A test case is examined in a hydrosystem in Greece with high complexities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wati, Elvis; Meukam, Pierre; Damfeu, Jean Claude
2017-06-01
Uninsulated concrete block walls commonly found in tropical region have to be retrofitted to save energy. The thickness of insulation layer used can be reduced with the help of modified laterite based bricks layer (with the considerably lower thermal conductivity than that of concrete block layer) during the retrofit building fabrics. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum location and distribution of different materials. The investigation is carried out under steady periodic conditions under the climatic conditions of Garoua in Cameroon using a Simulink model constructed from H-Tools (the library of Simulink models). Results showed that for the continuous air-conditioned space, the best wall configuration from the maximum time lag, minimum decrement factor and peak cooling transmission load perspective, is dividing the insulation layer into two layers and placing one at the exterior surface and the other layer between the two different massive layers with the modified laterite based bricks layer at the interior surface. For intermittent cooling space, the best wall configuration from the minimum energy consumption depends on total insulation thickness. For the total insulation thickness less than 8 cm approximately, the best wall configuration is placing the half layer of insulation material at the interior surface and the other half between the two different massive layers with the modified earthen material at the exterior surface. Results also showed that, the optimum insulation thickness calculated from the yearly cooling transmission (estimated only during the occupied period) and some economic considerations slightly depends on the location of that insulation.
Interaction study between maltose-modified PPI dendrimers and lipidic model membranes.
Wrobel, Dominika; Appelhans, Dietmar; Signorelli, Marco; Wiesner, Brigitte; Fessas, Dimitrios; Scheler, Ulrich; Voit, Brigitte; Maly, Jan
2015-07-01
The influence of maltose-modified poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPC/DMPG) (3%) liposomes was studied. Fourth generation (G4) PPI dendrimers with primary amino surface groups were partially (open shell glycodendrimers - OS) or completely (dense shell glycodendrimers - DS) modified with maltose residues. As a model membrane, two types of 100nm diameter liposomes were used to observe differences in the interactions between neutral DMPC and negatively charged DMPC/DMPG bilayers. Interactions were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate the membrane fluidity of both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts of the lipid bilayer and using differential scanning calorimetry to investigate thermodynamic parameter changes. Pulsed-filed gradient NMR experiments were carried out to evaluate common diffusion coefficient of DMPG and DS PPI in D2O when using below critical micelle concentration of DMPG. Both OS and DS PPI G4 dendrimers show interactions with liposomes. Neutral DS dendrimers exhibit stronger changes in membrane fluidity compared to OS dendrimers. The bilayer structure seems more rigid in the case of anionic DMPC/DMPG liposomes in comparison to pure and neutral DMPC liposomes. Generally, interactions of dendrimers with anionic DMPC/DMPG and neutral DMPC liposomes were at the same level. Higher concentrations of positively charged OS dendrimers induced the aggregation process with negatively charged liposomes. For all types of experiments, the presence of NaCl decreased the strength of the interactions between glycodendrimers and liposomes. Based on NMR diffusion experiments we suggest that apart from electrostatic interactions for OS PPI hydrogen bonds play a major role in maltose-modified PPI dendrimer interactions with anionic and neutral model membranes where a contact surface is needed for undergoing multiple H-bond interactions between
Simulation of fluid-solid coexistence via thermodynamic integration using a modified cell model.
Nayhouse, Michael; Amlani, Ankur M; Heng, Vincent R; Orkoulas, G
2012-04-18
Despite recent advances, precise simulation of fluid-solid transitions still remains a challenging task. Thermodynamic integration techniques are the simplest methods to study fluid-solid coexistence. These methods are based on the calculation of the free energies of the fluid and the solid phases, starting from a state of known free energy which is usually an ideal-gas state. Despite their simplicity, the main drawback of thermodynamic integration techniques is the large number of states that must be simulated. In the present work, a thermodynamic integration technique, which reduces the number of simulated states, is proposed and tested on a system of particles interacting via an inverse twelfth-power potential energy function. The simulations are implemented at constant pressure and the solid phase is modeled according to the constrained cell model of Hoover and Ree. The fluid and the solid phases are linked together by performing constant-pressure simulations of a modified cell model. The modified cell model, which was originally proposed by Hoover and Ree, facilitates transitions between the fluid and the solid phase by tuning a homogeneous external field. This model is simulated on a constant-pressure path for a series of progressively increasing values of the field, thus allowing for direct determination of the free energy difference between the fluid and the solid phase via histogram reweighting. The size-dependent results are analyzed using histogram reweighting and finite-size scaling techniques. The scaling analysis is based on studying the size-dependent behavior of the second- and higher-order derivatives of the free energy as well as the dimensionless moment ratios of the order parameter. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting for size effects in simulation studies of fluid-solid transitions.
Liu, Yu; Li, Changyou; Anderson, Bruce; Zhang, Sheng; Shi, Xiaohong; Zhao, Shengnan
2017-06-01
Mercury contamination from industrial and agricultural drainage into lakes and rivers is a growing concern in Northern China. Lake Ulansuhai, located in Hetao irrigation district in Inner Mongolia, is the only sink for the all industrial and agricultural drainage and sole outlet for this district to the Yellow River, which is one of the main source of drinking water for the numerous cities and towns downstream. Because Ulansuahi is ice-covered during winter, the QWASI model was modified by adding an ice equation to get a more accurate understanding of the fate and transport of mercury within the lake. Both laboratory and field tests were carried out during the ice growth period. The aquivalence and mass balance approaches were used to develop the modified QWASI + ice model. The margins of error between the modelled and the measured average concentrations of Hg in ice, water, and sediment were 30%, 26.2%, and 19.8% respectively. These results suggest that the new QWASI + ice model could be used to more accurately represent the fate and transport of mercury in the seasonally ice-covered lakes, during the ice growth period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zellnitz, Sarah; Redlinger-Pohn, Jakob Dominik; Kappl, Michael; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne
2013-04-15
The aim of this work is the physical modification and characterization of the surface topography of glass beads used as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). By surface modification the contact area between drug and carrier and thereby interparticle forces may be modified. Thus the performance of DPIs that relies on interparticle interactions may be improved. Glass beads were chosen as model carriers because various prospects of physical surface modification may be applied without affecting other factors also impacting interparticle interactions like particle size and shape. To generate rough surfaces glass beads were processed mechanically by friction and impaction in a ball mill with different grinding materials that were smaller and harder with respect to the glass beads. By varying the grinding time (4 h, 8 h) and by using different grinding media (tungsten carbide, quartz) surfaces with different shades of roughness were generated. Depending on the hardness of the grinding material and the grinding time the surface roughness was more or less pronounced. Surface roughness parameters and specific surface area were determined via several complementary techniques in order to get an enhanced understanding of the impact of the modifying procedure on the surface properties of the glass beads.
Disease-modifying effect of intravenous immunoglobulin in an experimental model of epilepsy
Chen, Min; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Leanage, Gayeshika; Tieng, Quang M.; Yadav, Ashwin; Ullmann, Jeremy F. P.; She, David T.; Truong, Vy; Ruitenberg, Marc J.; Reutens, David C.
2017-01-01
Novel therapies that prevent or modify the development of epilepsy following an initiating brain insult could significantly reduce the burden of this disease. In light of evidence that immune mechanisms play an important role in generating and maintaining the epileptic condition, we evaluated the effect of a well-established immunomodulatory treatment, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), on the development of epilepsy in an experimental model of epileptogenesis. In separate experiments, IVIg was administered either before (pre-treatment) or after (post-treatment) the onset of pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE). Our results show that both pre- and post-treatment with IVIg attenuated acute inflammation in the SE model. Specifically, IVIg reduced local activation of glial cells, complement system activation, and blood-brain barrier damage (BBB), which are all thought to play important roles in the development of epilepsy. Importantly, post-treatment with IVIg was also found to reduce the frequency and duration of subsequent spontaneous recurrent seizures as detected by chronic video-electroencephalographic (video-EEG) recordings. This finding supports a novel application for IVIg, specifically its repurposing as a disease-modifying therapy in epilepsy. PMID:28074934
A modified full velocity difference model with the consideration of velocity deviation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jie; Shi, Zhong-Ke
2016-01-01
In this paper, a modified full velocity difference model (FVDM) based on car-following theory is proposed with the consideration of velocity deviation which represents the inexact judgement of velocity. The stability condition is obtained by the use of linear stability analysis. It is shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with the deviation extent of velocity. The Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified K-dV (MKdV) equations are derived to describe the triangular shock waves, soliton waves and kink-antikink waves in the stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The numerical simulations show a good agreement with the analytical results, such as density wave, hysteresis loop, acceleration, deceleration and so on. The results show that traffic congestion can be suppressed by taking the positive effect of velocity deviation into account. By taking the positive effect of high estimate of velocity into account, the unrealistic high deceleration and negative velocity which occur in FVDM will be eliminated in the proposed model.
A model for the control of malaria using genetically modified vectors.
Diaz, H; Ramirez, A A; Olarte, A; Clavijo, C
2011-05-07
Recent works have considered the problem of using transgenic mosquitoes to control a malaria epidemic. These insects have been genetically engineered to reduce their capacity to infect humans with malaria parasites. We analyze a model of the mosquito population dynamics when genetically modified individuals are introduced into a wild type population so that the effect of their introduction can be assessed. The model describes the dynamics of gene selection under sexual reproduction in a closed vector population. Our results show that the fitness of the resulting heterozygous population is the key parameter for the success of the invasion, independently of the fitness of homozygous vectors. The vector population dynamics model is then combined with an epidemiological model to study the feasibility of controlling a malaria epidemic. Basic reproductive numbers are calculated for both models, and conditions are obtained for preventing reappearance of the epidemic. Simulations on this model show that it may be possible to reduce or even eradicate the epidemic only if the heterozygous population is better adapted than the wild type. They also show that this can be achieved without completely eliminating the wild type mosquitoes.
The KdV—Burgers equation in a modified speed gradient continuum model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Rong-Jun; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ge, Hong-Xia
2013-06-01
Based on the full velocity difference model, Jiang et al. put forward the speed gradient model through the micro-macro linkage (Jiang R, Wu Q S and Zhu Z J 2001 Chin. Sci. Bull. 46 345 and Jiang R, Wu Q S and Zhu Z J 2002 Trans. Res. B 36 405). In this paper, the Taylor expansion is adopted to modify the model. The backward travel problem is overcome by our model, which exists in many higher-order continuum models. The neutral stability condition of the model is obtained through the linear stability analysis. Nonlinear analysis shows clearly that the density fluctuation in traffic flow leads to a variety of density waves. Moreover, the Korteweg-de Vries—Burgers (KdV—Burgers) equation is derived to describe the traffic flow near the neutral stability line and the corresponding solution for traffic density wave is derived. The numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the local cluster effects. The results are consistent with the realistic traffic flow and also further verify the results of nonlinear analysis.
Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Sejergaard, Lars; Cramer, Steven M
2013-11-29
The ability to predict downstream protein purification processes is of great value in the biopharmaceutical industry; saving time, cost and resources. While many complex models exist, the appropriate use of simple models can be a useful tool for rapidly designing and optimizing processes as well as for risk analysis and establishing parameter ranges. In this study, the steric mass action isotherm is success-fully employed to predict the chromatographic behavior of a multimodal anionic Capto adhere systemin the presence of various mobile phase modifiers. An experimental protocol consisting of only a few column experiments is shown to be sufficient to establish the model. Proof of concept is carried out using human insulin and bovine serum albumin which have varying degrees of hydrophobicity, charge and size. Finally, the model predictions are verified under various experimental conditions and the unique selectivity of this multimodal system is explored and compared with traditional anion exchange resins.The simple model approach described here represents a rapid and useful method for model based process development of multimodal chromatography.
Modified energy cascade model adapted for a multicrop Lunar greenhouse prototype
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boscheri, G.; Kacira, M.; Patterson, L.; Giacomelli, G.; Sadler, P.; Furfaro, R.; Lobascio, C.; Lamantea, M.; Grizzaffi, L.
2012-10-01
Models are required to accurately predict mass and energy balances in a bioregenerative life support system. A modified energy cascade model was used to predict outputs of a multi-crop (tomatoes, potatoes, lettuce and strawberries) Lunar greenhouse prototype. The model performance was evaluated against measured data obtained from several system closure experiments. The model predictions corresponded well to those obtained from experimental measurements for the overall system closure test period (five months), especially for biomass produced (0.7% underestimated), water consumption (0.3% overestimated) and condensate production (0.5% overestimated). However, the model was less accurate when the results were compared with data obtained from a shorter experimental time period, with 31%, 48% and 51% error for biomass uptake, water consumption, and condensate production, respectively, which were obtained under more complex crop production patterns (e.g. tall tomato plants covering part of the lettuce production zones). These results, together with a model sensitivity analysis highlighted the necessity of periodic characterization of the environmental parameters (e.g. light levels, air leakage) in the Lunar greenhouse.
Colacino, Francesco Maria; Moscato, Francesco; Piedimonte, Fabio; Danieli, Guido; Nicosia, Salvatore; Arabia, Maurizio
2008-01-01
This article describes an elastance-based mock ventricle able to reproduce the correct ventricular pressure-volume relationship and its correct interaction with the hydraulic circuit connected to it. A real-time control of the mock ventricle was obtained by a new left ventricular mathematical model including resistive and inductive terms added to the classical Suga-Sagawa elastance model throughout the whole cardiac cycle. A valved piston pump was used to mimic the left ventricle. The pressure measured into the pump chamber was fed back into the mathematical model and the calculated reference left ventricular volume was used to drive the piston. Results show that the classical model is very sensitive to pressure disturbances, especially during the filling phase, while the modified model is able to filter out the oscillations thus eliminating their detrimental effects. The presented model is thus suitable to control mock ventricles in real-time, where sudden pressure disturbances represent a key issue and are not negligible. This real-time controlled mock ventricle is able to reproduce the elastance mechanism of a natural ventricle by mimicking its preload (mean atrial pressure) and afterload (mean aortic pressure) sensitivity, i.e., the Starling law. Therefore, it can be used for designing and testing cardiovascular prostheses due to its capability to reproduce the correct ventricle-vascular system interaction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.
2015-01-01
A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles [0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg] relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.
A modified version of the Molly rumen model to quantify methane emissions from sheep.
Vetharaniam, I; Vibart, R E; Hanigan, M D; Janssen, P H; Tavendale, M H; Pacheco, D
2015-07-01
We modified the rumen submodel of the Molly dairy cow model to simulate the rumen of a sheep and predict its methane emissions. We introduced a rumen hydrogen (H2) pool as a dynamic variable, which (together with the microbial pool in Molly) was used to predict methane production, to facilitate future consideration of thermodynamic control of methanogenesis. The new model corrected a misspecification of the equation of microbial H2 utilization in Molly95, which could potentially give rise to unrealistic predictions under conditions of low intake rates. The new model included a function to correct biases in the estimation of net H2 production based on the default stoichiometric relationships in Molly95, with this function specified in terms of level of intake. Model parameters for H2 and methane production were fitted to experimental data that included fresh temperate forages offered to sheep at a wide range of intake levels and then tested against independent data. The new model provided reasonable estimates relative to the calibration data set, but a different parameterization was needed to improve its predicted ability relative to the validation data set. Our results indicate that, although feedback inhibition on H2 production and methanogen activity increased with feeding level, other feedback effects that vary with diet composition need to be considered in future work on modeling rumen digestion in Molly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.
2015-01-01
A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.
Vazquez-Leal, H.; Jimenez-Fernandez, V. M.; Benhammouda, B.; Filobello-Nino, U.; Sarmiento-Reyes, A.; Ramirez-Pinero, A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Huerta-Chua, J.
2014-01-01
We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157
Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J
2014-01-01
We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation.
Spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model: Heat diffusivity and greenhouse effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alberti, T.; Primavera, L.; Vecchio, A.; Lepreti, F.; Carbone, V.
2015-11-01
In this work we investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model, originally introduced by Lovelock and Watson to describe in a simple way the interactions between an Earth-like planet, its biosphere, and the incoming solar radiation. Here a spatial dependency on latitude is included, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitudes and a simple greenhouse effect description are introduced in the model. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions.
Numerical model of liquid metal flow in steel making tundish with flow modifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasantrao More, Manas; Saha, Sandip Kumar; Marje, Vishal; Balachandran, G.
2017-04-01
The optimum condition for clean steel production in the tundish of a continuous casting process reactor can be obtained using numerical modelling. Five different arrangements of flow modifier in the form of impact pad systems deployed in an eight ton, delta shaped, and two strand bloom caster tundish are analysed and optimum design of the impact pad to improve the inclusion removal efficiency is evolved. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Strokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε model of turbulence and energy equation are used to study fluid flow and inclusion flotation in the tundish. The inclusion separation efficiency is evaluated by solving the inclusion transport equation. Height variations along with additional notch amongst different impact pads yield best micro inclusion separation efficiency.
Nesseris, Savvas
2009-02-15
We consider theories with an arbitrary coupling between matter and gravity and obtain the perturbation equation of matter on subhorizon scales. Also, we derive the effective gravitational constant G{sub eff} and two parameters {sigma} and {eta}, which along with the perturbation equation of the matter density are useful to constrain the theory from growth factor and weak lensing observations. Finally, we use a completely solvable toy model which exhibits nontrivial phenomenology to investigate specific features of the theory. We obtain the analytic solution of the modified Friedmann equation for the scale factor a in terms of time t and use the age of the oldest star clusters and the primordial nucleosynthesis bounds in order to constrain the parameters of our toy model.
Spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model: Heat diffusivity and greenhouse effects.
Alberti, T; Primavera, L; Vecchio, A; Lepreti, F; Carbone, V
2015-11-01
In this work we investigate a modified version of the Daisyworld model, originally introduced by Lovelock and Watson to describe in a simple way the interactions between an Earth-like planet, its biosphere, and the incoming solar radiation. Here a spatial dependency on latitude is included, and both a variable heat diffusivity along latitudes and a simple greenhouse effect description are introduced in the model. We show that the spatial interactions between the variables of the system can locally stabilize the coexistence of the two vegetation types. The feedback on albedo is able to generate equilibrium solutions which can efficiently self-regulate the planet climate, even for values of the solar luminosity relatively far from the current Earth conditions.
Specific-heat exponent and modified hyperscaling in the 4D random-field Ising model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fytas, N. G.; Martín-Mayor, V.; Picco, M.; Sourlas, N.
2017-03-01
We report a high-precision numerical estimation of the critical exponent α of the specific heat of the random-field Ising model in four dimensions. Our result α =0.12(1) indicates a diverging specific-heat behavior and is consistent with the estimation coming from the modified hyperscaling relation using our estimate of θ via the anomalous dimensions η and \\barη . Our analysis benefited from a high-statistics zero-temperature numerical simulation of the model for two distributions of the random fields, namely a Gaussian and Poissonian distribution, as well as recent advances in finite-size scaling and reweighting methods for disordered systems. An original estimate of the critical slowing down exponent z of the maximum-flow algorithm used is also provided.
Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Hahn, Mark E.
2014-01-01
Summary The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has long been used as a model for developmental biology, making it an excellent model to use also in developmental toxicology. The many advantages of zebrafish include their small size, prolific spawning, rapid development, and transparent embryos. They can be easily manipulated genetically through the use of transgenic technology and gene knock-down via morpholino-modified antisense oligonucleotides (MOs). Knocking down specific genes to assess their role in the response to toxicant exposure provides a way to further our knowledge of how developmental toxicants work on a molecular and mechanistic level, while establishing a relationship between these molecular events and morphological, behavioral, and/or physiological effects (i.e. phenotypic anchoring). In this chapter we address important considerations for using MOs to study developmental toxicology in zebrafish embryos and provide a protocol for their use. PMID:22669659
LRS Bianchi type-II string cosmological models in a modified theory of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanakavalli, T.; Ananda Rao, G.; Reddy, D. R. K.
2017-03-01
This paper is devoted to the investigation of spatially homogeneous anisotropic LRS Bianchi type-II cosmological models with string source in a modified theory of gravitation formulated by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011) which is universally known as f( R, T) gravity. Here R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the energy momentum tensor. By solving the field equation we have presented massive string and Takabyasi or p-string models in this theory. However it is interesting to note that geometric string in this space-time does not exist in this theory. Physical and geometrical properties of the strings obtained are also discussed.
Stochastic model reduction using a modified Hill-type kinetic rate law.
Smadbeck, Patrick; Kaznessis, Yiannis
2012-12-21
In the present work, we address a major challenge facing the modeling of biochemical reaction networks: when using stochastic simulations, the computational load and number of unknown parameters may dramatically increase with system size and complexity. A proposed solution to this challenge is the reduction of models by utilizing nonlinear reaction rate laws in place of a complex multi-reaction mechanism. This type of model reduction in stochastic systems often fails when applied outside of the context in which it was initially conceived. We hypothesize that the use of nonlinear rate laws fails because a single reaction is inherently Poisson distributed and cannot match higher order statistics. In this study we explore the use of Hill-type rate laws as an approximation for gene regulation, specifically transcription repression. We matched output data for several simple gene networks to determine Hill-type parameters. We show that the models exhibit inaccuracies when placed into a simple feedback repression model. By adding an additional abstract reaction to the models we account for second-order statistics. This split Hill rate law matches higher order statistics and demonstrates that the new model is able to more accurately describe the mean protein output. Finally, the modified Hill model is shown to be modular and models retain accuracy when placed into a larger multi-gene network. The work as presented may be used in gene regulatory or cell-signaling networks, where multiple binding events can be captured by Hill kinetics. The added benefit of the proposed split-Hill kinetics is the improved accuracy in modeling stochastic effects. We demonstrate these benefits with a few specific reaction network examples.
Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani Model
Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.
2013-01-28
In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modi ed Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in ow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then a modelbased feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR). Finally, a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) controller, which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.
47 CFR 76.1905 - Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... services within defined business models. 76.1905 Section 76.1905 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Rules § 76.1905 Petitions to modify encoding rules for new services within defined business models. (a) The encoding rules for defined business models in § 76.1904 reflect the conventional methods for...
Mapping genetic modifiers of survival in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome
Miller, Alison R.; Hawkins, Nicole A.; McCollom, Clint E.; Kearney, Jennifer A.
2014-01-01
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population. Mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for several monogenic epilepsy syndromes. More than 800 mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A have been reported in patients with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus and Dravet syndrome. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A result in Dravet syndrome, a severe infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy characterized by intractable seizures, developmental delays and increased mortality. A common feature of monogenic epilepsies is variable expressivity among individuals with the same mutation, suggesting that genetic modifiers may influence clinical severity. Mice with heterozygous deletion of Scn1a (Scn1a+/−) model a number of Dravet syndrome features, including spontaneous seizures and premature lethality. Phenotype severity in Scn1a+/− mice is strongly dependent on strain background. On the 129S6/SvEvTac strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit no overt phenotype, while on the (C57BL/6J × 129S6/SvEvTac)F1 strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit spontaneous seizures and early lethality. To systematically identify loci that influence premature lethality in Scn1a+/− mice, we performed genome scans on reciprocal backcrosses. QTL mapping revealed modifier loci on mouse chromosomes 5, 7, 8 and 11. RNA-seq analysis of strain-dependent gene expression, regulation and coding sequence variation provided a list of potential functional candidate genes at each locus. Identification of modifier genes that influence survival in Scn1a+/− mice will improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for improved treatment of human patients. PMID:24152123
Choosing and using Drosophila models to characterize modifiers of Huntington's disease.
Green, Edward W; Giorgini, Flaviano
2012-08-01
HD (Huntington's disease) is a fatal inherited gain-of-function disorder caused by a polyQ (polyglutamine) expansion in the htt (huntingtin protein). Expression of mutant htt in model organisms is sufficient to recapitulate many of the cellular defects found in HD patients. Many groups have independently developed Drosophila models of HD, taking advantage of its rapid life cycle, carefully annotated genome and well-established molecular toolkits. Furthermore, unlike simpler models, Drosophila have a complex nervous system, displaying a range of carefully co-ordinated behaviours which offer an exquisitely sensitive readout of neuronal disruption. Measuring HD-associated changes in behaviour in Drosophila therefore offers a window into the earliest stages of HD, when therapeutic interventions might be particularly effective. The present review describes a number of recently developed Drosophila models of HD and offers practical guidance on the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental approaches that can be used to screen these models for modifiers of mutant htt-mediated toxicity.
Realistic spatial and temporal earthquake distributions in a modified Olami-Feder-Christensen model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jagla, E. A.
2010-04-01
The Olami-Feder-Christensen model describes a limiting case of an elastic surface that slides on top of a substrate and is one of the simplest models that display some features observed in actual seismicity patterns. However, temporal and spatial correlations of real earthquakes are not correctly described by this model in its original form. I propose and study a modified version of the model, which includes a mechanism of structural relaxation. With this modification, realistic features of seismicity emerge, which are not obtained with the original version, mainly: aftershocks that cluster spatially around the slip surface of the main shock and follow the Omori law, and averaged frictional properties similar to those observed in rock friction, in particular the velocity-weakening effect. In addition, a Gutenberg-Richter law for the decaying of number of earthquakes with magnitude is obtained, with a decaying exponent within the range of experimentally observed values. Contrary to the original version of the model, a realistic value of the exponent appears without the necessity to fine tune any parameter.
Phasic temperature and photoperiod control for soybean using a modified CROPGRO model.
Cavazzoni, J; Volk, T; Bugbee, B; Dougher, T
1999-01-01
A modified CROPGRO model is applied to phasic temperature and photoperiod control in order to optimize soybean production for NASA's program in Advanced Life Support. Baseline model simulations were established using data from soybean temperature experiments conducted at elevated CO2 levels (1100 micromol mol-1) at Utah State University (USU). The model simulations show little advantage in using phasic temperature control alone to increase average seed yield rate over the USU experimental values. However, simulations that combine phasic control of temperature (two phases) and photoperiod (two phases) do indicate the potential to improve seed yield (in g m-2 day-1) by approximately 15% over those currently obtained experimentally at USU for soybean cultivar Hoyt. This temperature and photoperiod phasing is experimentally practical. The simulations suggest extending photoperiods over those typically used experimentally during later phases of the crop life cycle, which would lengthen grain fill duration and thereby increase mass per seed. The model simulations indicate that the timing, and duration of extended photoperiods would be very important due to possible reductions in seed number m-2. Besides affecting seed yield directly, the model simulations suggest that such reductions may also cause feedback inhibition of photosynthesis due to low seed sink strength at elevated CO2 levels.
Genome editing revolutionize the creation of genetically modified pigs for modeling human diseases.
Yao, Jing; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Jianguo
2016-09-01
Pigs have anatomical, physiological and genomic characteristics that make them highly suitable for modeling human diseases. Genetically modified (GM) pig models of human diseases are critical for studying pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. The emergence of nuclease-mediated genome editing technology has been successfully employed for engineering of the pig genome, which has revolutionize the creation of GM pig models with highly complex pathophysiologies and comorbidities. In this review, we summarize the progress of recently developed genome editing technologies, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), which enable highly efficient and precise introduction of genome modifications into pigs, and tailored disease models that have been generated in various disciplines via genome editing technology. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated by conventional transgenic strategies. Additionally, perspectives regarding the application of GM pigs in biomedical research are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conley, Julianne M.; Leonard, B. P.
1994-01-01
The modified mixing length (MML) turbulence model was installed in the Proteus Navier-Stokes code, then modified to make it applicable to a wider range of flows typical of aerospace propulsion applications. The modifications are based on experimental data for three flat-plate flows having zero, mild adverse, and strong adverse pressure gradients. Three transonic diffuser test cases were run with the new version of the model in order to evaluate its performance. All results are compared with experimental data and show improvements over calculations made using the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, the standard algebraic model in Proteus.
Matusewicz, M; Patrykiejew, A; Sokołowski, S; Pizio, O
2007-11-07
We propose a density functional theory to describe adsorption of Lennard-Jones fluid in slitlike pores modified by chain molecules. Specifically, the chains are bonded by their ends to the opposite pore walls, so they can form pillaredlike structure. Two models are studied. In the first model, the nonterminating segments of chains can change their configuration inside the pore upon adsorption of spherical species. In the second model, the chains configuration remains fixed, so that the system is similar to a nonuniform quenched-annealed mixture. We study capillary condensation of fluid species inside such modified pores and compare the results obtained for two models.
Modelling fast forms of visual neural plasticity using a modified second-order motion energy model.
Pavan, Andrea; Contillo, Adriano; Mather, George
2014-12-01
The Adelson-Bergen motion energy sensor is well established as the leading model of low-level visual motion sensing in human vision. However, the standard model cannot predict adaptation effects in motion perception. A previous paper Pavan et al.(Journal of Vision 10:1-17, 2013) presented an extension to the model which uses a first-order RC gain-control circuit (leaky integrator) to implement adaptation effects which can span many seconds, and showed that the extended model's output is consistent with psychophysical data on the classic motion after-effect. Recent psychophysical research has reported adaptation over much shorter time periods, spanning just a few hundred milliseconds. The present paper further extends the sensor model to implement rapid adaptation, by adding a second-order RC circuit which causes the sensor to require a finite amount of time to react to a sudden change in stimulation. The output of the new sensor accounts accurately for psychophysical data on rapid forms of facilitation (rapid visual motion priming, rVMP) and suppression (rapid motion after-effect, rMAE). Changes in natural scene content occur over multiple time scales, and multi-stage leaky integrators of the kind proposed here offer a computational scheme for modelling adaptation over multiple time scales.
Kinetic evidence for a two-state, hybrid model for the trypsin activation by modifiers.
Mares-Guia, M; Rogana, E; Amorim, A F; Magalhães-Rocha, N
1981-02-25
Kinetic investigation of the activation of alpha- and beta-trypsins by tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester, in the presence of benzamidine at concentrations higher than 1 mM, indicates that each could exist as a two-state hybrid allosteric system, based on at least two enzyme forms, E and E* (or E and F). Form E* shows much higher affinity for ligands, thus giving rise to ternary complexes of the types SE*S, ME*S, ME*M, SE*M, where the right position identifies binding at the active site, whereas the left position represents binding to the allosteric site. Using a large number of experimental points, measured at different combinations of substrate and modifier concentrations, it was possible to evaluate quantitatively the parameters needed for the description of the model with considerable precision. At high concentrations, benzamidine competes with tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester for an allosteric site, blocking substrate activation of beta-trypsin, but allowing activation of alpha-trypsin. These results imply the participation of an induced fit step during ternary complex formation that gives rise to complexes of the form E*S2 or E*SI, where E* stands for the conformationally changed E* in the complex. The overall picture is that of a two-state model combined with induced-fit. Negative cooperativity (nH = 0.80) was found for the binding of benzamidine (over 1 mM) to trypsin in the presence of substrate. The proposed model is allowing the design of experiments that should lead to an understanding of the mechanism of trypsin activation by modifiers.
Jamal, Salma; Arora, Sonam; Scaria, Vinod
2016-01-01
The dynamic and differential regulation and expression of genes is majorly governed by the complex interactions of a subset of biomolecules in the cell operating at multiple levels starting from genome organisation to protein post-translational regulation. The regulatory layer contributed by the epigenetic layer has been one of the favourite areas of interest recently. This layer of regulation as we know today largely comprises of DNA modifications, histone modifications and noncoding RNA regulation and the interplay between each of these major components. Epigenetic regulation has been recently shown to be central to development of a number of disease processes. The availability of datasets of high-throughput screens for molecules for biological properties offer a new opportunity to develop computational methodologies which would enable in-silico screening of large molecular libraries. In the present study, we have used data from high throughput screens for the inhibitors of epigenetic modifiers. Computational predictive models were constructed based on the molecular descriptors. Machine learning algorithms for supervised training, Naive Bayes and Random Forest, were used to generate predictive models for the small molecule inhibitors of histone methyl-transferases and demethylases. Random forest, with the accuracy of 80%, was identified as the most accurate classifier. Further we complemented the study with substructure search approach filtering out the probable pharmacophores from the active molecules leading to drug molecules. We show that effective use of appropriate computational algorithms could be used to learn molecular and structural correlates of biological activities of small molecules. The computational models developed could be potentially used to screen and identify potential new biological activities of molecules from large molecular libraries and prioritise them for in-depth biological assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and
Scaria, Vinod
2016-01-01
Background The dynamic and differential regulation and expression of genes is majorly governed by the complex interactions of a subset of biomolecules in the cell operating at multiple levels starting from genome organisation to protein post-translational regulation. The regulatory layer contributed by the epigenetic layer has been one of the favourite areas of interest recently. This layer of regulation as we know today largely comprises of DNA modifications, histone modifications and noncoding RNA regulation and the interplay between each of these major components. Epigenetic regulation has been recently shown to be central to development of a number of disease processes. The availability of datasets of high-throughput screens for molecules for biological properties offer a new opportunity to develop computational methodologies which would enable in-silico screening of large molecular libraries. Methods In the present study, we have used data from high throughput screens for the inhibitors of epigenetic modifiers. Computational predictive models were constructed based on the molecular descriptors. Machine learning algorithms for supervised training, Naive Bayes and Random Forest, were used to generate predictive models for the small molecule inhibitors of histone methyl-transferases and demethylases. Random forest, with the accuracy of 80%, was identified as the most accurate classifier. Further we complemented the study with substructure search approach filtering out the probable pharmacophores from the active molecules leading to drug molecules. Results We show that effective use of appropriate computational algorithms could be used to learn molecular and structural correlates of biological activities of small molecules. The computational models developed could be potentially used to screen and identify potential new biological activities of molecules from large molecular libraries and prioritise them for in-depth biological assays. To the best of our knowledge
Prescott, Vanessa E; Hogan, Simon P
2006-08-01
The recent advances in biotechnology in the plant industry have led to increasing crop production and yield that in turn has increased the usage of genetically modified (GM) food in the human food chain. The usage of GM foods for human consumption has raised a number of fundamental questions including the ability of GM foods to elicit potentially harmful immunological responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. To assess the safety of foods derived from GM plants including allergenic potential, the US FDA, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), and the EU have developed approaches for evaluation assessment. One assessment approach that has been a very active area of research and debate is the development and usage of animal models to assess the potential allergenicity of GM foods. A number of specific animal models employing rodents, pigs, and dogs have been developed for allergenicity assessment. However, validation of these models is needed and consideration of the criteria for an appropriate animal model for the assessment of allergenicity in GM plants is required. We have recently employed a BALB/c mouse model to assess the potential allergenicity of GM plants. We have been able to demonstrate that this model is able to detect differences in antigenicity and identify aspects of protein post-translational modifications that can alter antigenicity. Furthermore, this model has also enabled us to examine the usage of GM plants as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic diseases. This review discusses the current approaches to assess the allergenic potential of GM food and particularly focusing on the usage of animal models to determine the potential allergenicity of GM foods and gives an overview of our recent findings and implications of these studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holifield, Phil; Terrell, Trevor; Mars, Philip
1995-02-01
With the emergence of Broadband ISDN and the adoption of ATM as its transport mechanism there is a growing interest in slotted ring networks both for high speed packet switching and for multimedia LAN applications. This paper describes a slotted ring testbed which uses a modified Orwell protocol for media access, and which has enabled a study of the modified Orwell protocol under symmetrical and asymmetrical traffic flow distributions. The architecture of the slotted ring testbed is outlined, and analytical models for the protocol are presented for different traffic flow distributions. The analytical results are compared to experimental results obtained from the testbed. The suitability of the reset rate as an indicator of available bandwidth in an access control mechanism is considered, and it is shown that for constant traffic flow and traffic statistics the reset rate works well as an indicator of potential network congestion. Under changing traffic distributions and traffic arrival statistics, additional indicators of congestion are required. On-going work into access control for the test-bed in a integrated services environment is outlined.
Modeling mechanical properties of core-shell rubber-modified epoxies
Wang, X.; Xiao, K.; Ye, L.; Mai, Y.W.; Wang, C.H.; Rose, L.R.F.
2000-01-24
Experiments have been carried out to quantify the effects of rubber content and strain rate on the elastic and plastic deformation behavior of core-shell rubber-modified epoxies. Both the Young's modulus and the yield stress were found to be slightly dependent on strain rate, but very sensitive to the volume fraction of rubber particles. Finite element analyses have also been performed to determine the influences of rubber content on the bulk elasticity modulus and the yield stress. By comparing with experimental results, it is found that the Young's modulus of rubber-toughened epoxies can be accurately estimated using the Mori-Tanaka method, provided that the volume fraction of rubber particles is appropriately evaluated. A yield function is provided that the volume fraction of rubber particles is appropriately evaluated. A yield function is proposed to quantify the effects of hydrostatic stress on the plastic yielding behaviors of rubber-modified epoxies. Agreement with experimental results is good. Also, a visco-plastic model is developed to simulate the strain-rate-dependent stress-strain relations.
Safakish, Ramin
2017-01-01
Lower back pain (LBP) is a global public health issue and is associated with substantial financial costs and loss of quality of life. Over the years, different literature has provided different statistics regarding the causes of the back pain. The following statistic is the closest estimation regarding our patient population. The sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is responsible for LBP in 18%-30% of individuals with LBP. Quadrapolar™ radiofrequency ablation, which involves ablation of the nerves of the SI joint using heat, is a commonly used treatment for SI joint pain. However, the standard Quadrapolar radiofrequency procedure is not always effective at ablating all the sensory nerves that cause the pain in the SI joint. One of the major limitations of the standard Quadrapolar radiofrequency procedure is that it produces small lesions of ~4 mm in diameter. Smaller lesions increase the likelihood of failure to ablate all nociceptive input. In this study, we compare the standard Quadrapolar radiofrequency ablation technique to a modified Quadrapolar ablation technique that has produced improved patient outcomes in our clinic. The methodology of the two techniques are compared. In addition, we compare results from an experimental model comparing the lesion sizes produced by the two techniques. Taken together, the findings from this study suggest that the modified Quadrapolar technique provides longer lasting relief for the back pain that is caused by SI joint dysfunction. A randomized controlled clinical trial is the next step required to quantify the difference in symptom relief and quality of life produced by the two techniques.
Percival, K.R.; Radi, Z.A.
2016-01-01
Optimal histochemical staining is critical to ensure excellent quality stained sections to enable light microscopic and histomorphometric image analysis. Verhoeff-van Gieson is the most widely used histochemical stain for the visualization of vascular elastic fibers. However, it is notoriously difficult to differentiate fine elastic fibers of small vasculature to enable histomorphometric image analysis, especially in organs such as the lung. A tissue fixation procedure of 10% neutral buffered formalin with subsequent fixation in 70% ethanol further compounds the problem of small vessel staining and identification. Therefore, a modified Verhoeff’s elastin stain was developed as a reliable method to optimally highlight the internal and external elastic laminae of small arteries (50-100 µm external diameter) and intra-acinar vessels (10-50 µm external diameter) in 3 µm thick lung tissue sections from models of pulmonary arterial hypertension. This modified Verhoeff’s elastin stain demonstrated well-defined staining of fine elastic fibers of pulmonary blood vessels enabling subsequent histomorphometric image analysis of vessel wall thickness in small arteries and intra-acinar vessels. In conclusion, modification of the standard Verhoeff-van Gieson histochemical stain is needed to visualize small caliber vessels’ elastic fibers especially in tissues fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin followed by additional fixation in 70% ethanol. PMID:26972717
Percival, K R; Radi, Z A
2016-02-11
Optimal histochemical staining is critical to ensure excellent quality stained sections to enable light microscopic and histomorphometric image analysis. Verhoeff-van Gieson is the most widely used histochemical stain for the visualization of vascular elastic fibers. However, it is notoriously difficult to differentiate fine elastic fibers of small vasculature to enable histomorphometric image analysis of vasculature size characterization especially in organs such as the lung. A tissue fixation regime of 10% neutral buffered formalin with subsequent fixation in 70% ethanol further compounds the problem of small vessel staining and identification. Therefore, a modified Verhoeff's elastin stain was developed as a reliable method to optimally highlight the internal and external elastic lamina of small arteries (50-100 µm) and intra-acinar vessels (10-50 µm) in 3 µm thick lung tissue sections from models of pulmonary arterial hypertension. This modified Verhoeff's elastin stain demonstrated optimal staining of fine elastic fibers of pulmonary blood vessels. As a result, high-quality histomorphometric image analysis evaluation of vessel wall thickness in small arteries and intra-acinar vessels was successfully accomplished. In conclusion, modification of the standard Verhoeff-van Gieson histochemical stain is needed to visualize small caliber vessels' elastic fibers especially in tissues not fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin only.
Speeding up N-body simulations of modified gravity: Vainshtein screening models
Barreira, Alexandre; Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu E-mail: sownak.bose@durham.ac.uk
2015-12-01
We introduce and demonstrate the power of a method to speed up current iterative techniques for N-body modified gravity simulations. Our method is based on the observation that the accuracy of the final result is not compromised if the calculation of the fifth force becomes less accurate, but substantially faster, in high-density regions where it is relatively weak due to screening. We focus on the nDGP model which employs Vainshtein screening, and test our method by running AMR simulations in which the fifth force on the finer levels of the mesh (high density) is not obtained iteratively, but instead interpolated from coarser levels. The calculation of the standard gravity component of the force still employs the full AMR structure. We show that the impact this has on the matter power spectrum is below 1% for k < 5h/Mpc at 0z = , and even smaller at higher redshift. The impact on halo properties is also small (∼< 3% for abundance, profiles, mass; and ∼< 0.05% for positions and velocities). The method can boost the performance of modified gravity simulations by more than a factor of 10. This allows them to run on timescales similar to GR simulations and to push them to resolution levels that were previously hard to achieve.
Sejergaard, Lars; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Krarup, Janus Kristian; Hagel, Anne Birgitte Bagge; Cramer, Steven M
2014-01-01
This study demonstrates how the multimodal Capto adhere resin can be used in concert with calcium chloride or arginine hydrochloride as mobile phase modifiers to create a highly selective purification process for a modified human growth hormone. Importantly, these processes are shown to result in significant clearance of product related aggregates and host cell proteins. Furthermore, the steric mass action model is shown to be capable of accurately describing the chromatographic process and the aggregate removal. Finally, justification of the selected operating ranges is evaluated using the model together with Latin hypercube sampling. The results in this article establish the utility of multimodal chromatography when used with appropriate mobile phase modifiers for the downstream bioprocessing of a modified human growth hormone and offer new approaches for bioprocess verification. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Modified scaling principle for rotational relaxation in a model for suspensions of rigid rods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Andersen, Hans C.
2013-07-01
We have performed simulations of the model of infinitely thin rigid rods undergoing rotational and translational diffusion, subject to the restriction that no two rods can cross one another, for various concentrations well into the semidilute regime. We used a modification of the algorithm of Doi et al. [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 3000 (1984)], 10.1143/JPSJ.53.3000 that simulates diffusive dynamics using a Monte Carlo method and a nonzero time step. In the limit of zero time step, this algorithm is an exact description of diffusive dynamics subject to the noncrossing restriction. For a wide range of concentrations in the semidilute regime, we report values of the long time rotational diffusion constant of the rods, extrapolated to the limit of zero time step, for various sets of values of the infinite dilution (bare) diffusion constants. These results are compared with the results of a previous simulation of the model by Doi et al. and of previous simulations of rods with finite aspect ratio by Fixman and by Cobb and Butler that had been extrapolated to the limit of infinitely thin rods. The predictions of the Doi-Edwards (DE) scaling law do not hold for this model for the concentrations studied. The simulation data for the model display two deviations from the predictions of the DE theory that have been observed in experimental systems in the semidilute regime, namely, the very slow approach toward DE scaling behavior as the concentration is increased and the large value of the prefactor in the DE scaling law. We present a modified scaling principle for this model that is consistent with the simulation results for a broad range of concentrations in the semidilute regime. The modified scaling principle takes into account two physical effects, which we call "leakage" and "drift," that were found to be important for the transport properties of a simpler model of nonrotating rods on a lattice [Y.-L. S. Tse and H. C. Andersen, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024904 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3673791.
Jia, Tao; Tao, Hongbing; Qin, Kun; Wang, Yulong; Liu, Chengkun; Gao, Qili
2014-10-22
In a conventional P-median model, demanding points are likely assigned to the closest supplying facilities, but this method exhibits evident limitations in real cases. This paper proposed a modified P-median model in which exact and approximate strategies are used. The first strategy aims to enumerate all of the possible combinations of P facilities, and the second strategy adopts simulated annealing to allocate resources considering capacity constraint and spatial compactness constraint. These strategies allow us to choose optimal locations by applying visual analytics, which is rarely employed in location allocation planning. This model is applied to a case study in Henan Province, China, where three optimal healthcare centers are selected from candidate cities. First, the weighting factor in spatial compactness constraint is visually evaluated to obtain a plausible spatial pattern. Second, three optimal healthcare centers, namely, Zhengzhou, Xinxiang, and Nanyang, are identified in a hybrid transportation network by performing visual analytics. Third, alternative healthcare centers are obtained in a road network and compared with the above solution to understand the impacts of transportation network types. The optimal healthcare centers are visually detected by employing an improved P-median model, which considers both geographic accessibility and service quality. The optimal solutions are obtained in two transportation networks, which suggest high-speed railways and highways play a significant role respectively.
2015-01-01
Background Different from other indicators of cardiac function, such as ejection fraction and transmitral early diastolic velocity, myocardial strain is promising to capture subtle alterations that result from early diseases of the myocardium. In order to extract the left ventricle (LV) myocardial strain and strain rate from cardiac cine-MRI, a modified hierarchical transformation model was proposed. Methods A hierarchical transformation model including the global and local LV deformations was employed to analyze the strain and strain rate of the left ventricle by cine-MRI image registration. The endocardial and epicardial contour information was introduced to enhance the registration accuracy by combining the original hierarchical algorithm with an Iterative Closest Points using Invariant Features algorithm. The hierarchical model was validated by a normal volunteer first and then applied to two clinical cases (i.e., the normal volunteer and a diabetic patient) to evaluate their respective function. Results Based on the two clinical cases, by comparing the displacement fields of two selected landmarks in the normal volunteer, the proposed method showed a better performance than the original or unmodified model. Meanwhile, the comparison of the radial strain between the volunteer and patient demonstrated their apparent functional difference. Conclusions The present method could be used to estimate the LV myocardial strain and strain rate during a cardiac cycle and thus to quantify the analysis of the LV motion function. PMID:25602778
Simulation of emotional contagion using modified SIR model: A cellular automaton approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lv, Wei; Lo, Siuming
2014-07-01
Emotion plays an important role in the decision-making of individuals in some emergency situations. The contagion of emotion may induce either normal or abnormal consolidated crowd behavior. This paper aims to simulate the dynamics of emotional contagion among crowds by modifying the epidemiological SIR model to a cellular automaton approach. This new cellular automaton model, entitled the “CA-SIRS model”, captures the dynamic process ‘susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible', which is based on SIRS contagion in epidemiological theory. Moreover, in this new model, the process is integrated with individual movement. The simulation results of this model show that multiple waves and dynamical stability around a mean value will appear during emotion spreading. It was found that the proportion of initial infected individuals had little influence on the final stable proportion of infected population in a given system, and that infection frequency increased with an increase in the average crowd density. Our results further suggest that individual movement accelerates the spread speed of emotion and increases the stable proportion of infected population. Furthermore, decreasing the duration of an infection and the probability of reinfection can markedly reduce the number of infected individuals. It is hoped that this study will be helpful in crowd management and evacuation organization.
Modified multiple measurement vectors model for squinted synthetic aperture radar imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yichang; Zhang, Qun; Chen, Yong-An; Sun, Li
2017-05-01
Inspired by the theoretical advances of compressed sensing, lots of sparsity-aware methods have been proposed for squinted synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging based on the single-measurement vector (SMV) model. Compared with SMV, the multiple measurement vectors (MMV) model has been demonstrated to have better reconstruction performance. In fact, echo received by SAR at different azimuth positions can be viewed as MMVs. However, the MMV model cannot be directly used in squinted SAR imaging, because MMV requires multiple sparse vectors of the common sparse structures, while the high-resolution range profiles (HRRPs) obtained by squinted SAR at different azimuth positions have different sparse structures due to range migration effect. A squinted SAR imaging method is proposed based on MMV. First, a modified MMV model that considers range migration is built to realize sparse representation of echo. Additionally, an improved orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm is developed to reconstruct HRRPs. Finally, a high-resolution two-dimensional image result can be easily achieved via traditional azimuth match filtering. Experimental results based on both simulated and real data demonstrate that the proposed MMV-based method can provide better computational efficiency and antinoise ability compared to the SMV-based method.
Corresponding-states behavior of SPC/E-based modified (bent and hybrid) water models.
Weiss, Volker C
2017-02-07
The remarkable and sometimes anomalous properties of water can be traced back at the molecular level to the tetrahedral coordination of molecules due to the ability of a water molecule to form four hydrogen bonds to its neighbors; this feature allows for the formation of a network that greatly influences the thermodynamic behavior. Computer simulations are becoming increasingly important for our understanding of water. Molecular models of water, such as SPC/E, are needed for this purpose, and they have proved to capture many important features of real water. Modifications of the SPC/E model have been proposed, some changing the H-O-H angle (bent models) and others increasing the importance of dispersion interactions (hybrid models), to study the structural features that set water apart from other polar fluids and from simple fluids such as argon. Here, we focus on the properties at liquid-vapor equilibrium and study the coexistence curve, the interfacial tension, and the vapor pressure in a corresponding-states approach. In particular, we calculate Guggenheim's ratio for the reduced apparent enthalpy of vaporization and Guldberg's ratio for the reduced normal boiling point. This analysis offers additional insight from a more macroscopic, thermodynamic perspective and augments that which has already been learned at the molecular level from simulations. In the hybrid models, the relative importance of dispersion interactions is increased, which turns the modified water into a Lennard-Jones-like fluid. Consequently, in a corresponding-states framework, the typical behavior of simple fluids, such as argon, is seen to be approached asymptotically. For the bent models, decreasing the bond angle turns the model essentially into a polar diatomic fluid in which the particles form linear molecular arrangements; as a consequence, characteristic features of the corresponding-states behavior of hydrogen halides emerge.
Corresponding-states behavior of SPC/E-based modified (bent and hybrid) water models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, Volker C.
2017-02-01
The remarkable and sometimes anomalous properties of water can be traced back at the molecular level to the tetrahedral coordination of molecules due to the ability of a water molecule to form four hydrogen bonds to its neighbors; this feature allows for the formation of a network that greatly influences the thermodynamic behavior. Computer simulations are becoming increasingly important for our understanding of water. Molecular models of water, such as SPC/E, are needed for this purpose, and they have proved to capture many important features of real water. Modifications of the SPC/E model have been proposed, some changing the H-O-H angle (bent models) and others increasing the importance of dispersion interactions (hybrid models), to study the structural features that set water apart from other polar fluids and from simple fluids such as argon. Here, we focus on the properties at liquid-vapor equilibrium and study the coexistence curve, the interfacial tension, and the vapor pressure in a corresponding-states approach. In particular, we calculate Guggenheim's ratio for the reduced apparent enthalpy of vaporization and Guldberg's ratio for the reduced normal boiling point. This analysis offers additional insight from a more macroscopic, thermodynamic perspective and augments that which has already been learned at the molecular level from simulations. In the hybrid models, the relative importance of dispersion interactions is increased, which turns the modified water into a Lennard-Jones-like fluid. Consequently, in a corresponding-states framework, the typical behavior of simple fluids, such as argon, is seen to be approached asymptotically. For the bent models, decreasing the bond angle turns the model essentially into a polar diatomic fluid in which the particles form linear molecular arrangements; as a consequence, characteristic features of the corresponding-states behavior of hydrogen halides emerge.
Duan, Kuijia; Wang, Xiangpeng; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Bo; Wang, Mingguo; Zhang, Hailong; Deng, Xingli
2016-01-01
To evaluate the therapeutic effect of transplantation of mesencephalic neural stem cells (mNSCs) genetically modified by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene in a rat model of Parkinson disease. mNSCs isolated from the lateral component of the midbrain of fetal rats at gestational age of 14 or 15 days were cultured for 5 days before genetic modification with GFP or GDNF gene. Rat models of Parkinson disease established by stereotactic injection of 6-hydroxy dopamine in the ventral area of the midbrain and the medial forebrain bundle were randomized into 3 groups to receive PBS injection, GFP gene-modified mNSCs transplantation, or GDNF gene-modified mNSCs transplantation into the right stratum. The behavioral changes of the rats were evaluated by observing rotations induced by intraperitoneal injection of apomorphine after the transplantation, and the survival, migration and differentiation of the transplanted cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. Transplantation with GDNF gene-modified mNSCs significantly improved the behavioral abnormalities of the rat models as compared with PBS injection and GFP gene-modified mNSCs transplantation. At 56 days after the transplantation, a greater number of the transplanted cells survived in the rat brain and more differentiated dopaminergic neurons were detected in GDNF gene-modified mNSCs transplantation group than in GFP gene-modified mNSCs transplantation group. GDNF gene-modified mNSCs transplantation can significantly improve dyskinesia in rat models of Parkinson disease, but the molecular mechanism needs further clarification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahab, Abdul; Quek, H. C.; Lim, B. H.
1998-10-01
This paper presents the use of a micro-controller-based Integrated Process Supervision as a tool for investigate work in expert control. Two different control theories integrated within process serve as examples of structured approach to expert control. The Integrated Process Supervision is a refinement of the Expert Control Architecture as proposed by Karl J. Astrom by allowing integration of several control techniques in a single generic framework. Specifically, the paper presents the result for experiments performed on an implementation of the Integrated Process Supervision on a PC and micro-controller environment. Autotuning techniques were first integrated within the process supervision. Three Autotuners based on specification of phase and amplitude margins were investigated. A modified version of Cerebellar MOdel Articulation Controller was then implemented in IPS as a direct controller. Results collected verify its integration in the integrated process supervision and also provide evidence of improved performance as compared to Autotuning.
A modified predator-prey model for the interaction of police and gangs.
Sooknanan, J; Bhatt, B; Comissiong, D M G
2016-09-01
A modified predator-prey model with transmissible disease in both the predator and prey species is proposed and analysed, with infected prey being more vulnerable to predation and infected predators hunting at a reduced rate. Here, the predators are the police and the prey the gang members. In this system, we examine whether police control of gangs is possible. The system is analysed with the help of stability analyses and numerical simulations. The system has five steady states-four of which involve no core gang members and one in which all the populations coexist. Thresholds are identified which determine when the predator and prey populations survive and when the disease remains endemic. For parameter values where the spread of disease among the police officers is greater than the death of the police officers, the diseased predator population survives, when it would otherwise become extinct.
Neutron driplines for Ca and Pb using modified relativistic mean field (MRMF) model
Diningrum, J. P. Sulaksono, A.
2016-04-19
The position of two neutron driplines for Ca and Pb nuclei are studied using four different parameter sets obtained from Modified Relativistic Mean Field (MRMF) model. The roles of isovector-isoscalar and electromagnetic exchange couplings to predict the position of two neutron driplines for Ca and Pb nuclei are also investigated. The prediction of the position of nuclei dripline is calculated using two different methods, i.e., by observing the separation energy of two neutrons in the corresponding isotopes chains and analyzing the corresponding single particle energies. Our results showed that the appearance of driplines for Ca and Pb nuclei are influenced by all these couplings that characterized by different position prediction on each parameter set.
Modified Levenberg-Marquardt Method for RÖSSLER Chaotic System Fuzzy Modeling Training
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Qing-Xian; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Xue, Ya-Li; Fang, Wei
Generally, fuzzy approximation models require some human knowledge and experience. Operator's experience is involved in the mathematics of fuzzy theory as a collection of heuristic rules. The main goal of this paper is to present a new method for identifying unknown nonlinear dynamics such as Rössler system without any human knowledge. Instead of heuristic rules, the presented method uses the input-output data pairs to identify the Rössler chaotic system. The training algorithm is a modified Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) method, which can adjust the parameters of each linear polynomial and fuzzy membership functions on line, and do not rely on experts' experience excessively. Finally, it is applied to training Rössler chaotic system fuzzy identification. Comparing this method with the standard L-M method, the convergence speed is accelerated. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Scanlon, T.M.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Hornberger, G.M.; Clapp, R.B.
2000-01-01
Transient, perched water tables in the shallow subsurface are observed at the South Fork Brokenback Run catchment in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Crest piezometers installed along a hillslope transect show that the development of saturated conditions in the upper 1.5 m of the subsurface is controlled by total precipitation and antecedent conditions, not precipitation intensity, although soil heterogeneities strongly influence local response. The macroporous subsurface storm flow zone provides a hydrological pathway for rapid runoff generation apart from the underlying groundwater zone, a conceptualization supported by the two-storage system exhibited by hydrograph recession analysis. A modified version of TOPMODEL is used to simulate the observed catchment dynamics. In this model, generalized topographic index theory is applied to the subsurface storm flow zone to account for logarithmic storm flow recessions, indicative of linearly decreasing transmissivity with depth. Vertical drainage to the groundwater zone is required, and both subsurface reservoirs are considered to contribute to surface saturation.
Nuclear symmetry energy in a modified quark-meson coupling model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, R. N.; Sahoo, H. S.; Panda, P. K.; Barik, N.; Frederico, T.
2015-10-01
We study nuclear symmetry energy and the thermodynamic instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark-meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically averaged potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ ,ω , and ρ mesons through mean-field approximations. We find an analytic expression for the symmetry energy Esym as a function of its slope L . Our result establishes a linear correlation between L and Esym. We also analyze the constraint on neutron star radii in (p n ) matter with β equilibrium.
A model of band-pass phenotypic resistance in a modified Beverton-Holt framework.
Nemzer, Louis R
2014-06-01
A new mathematical model of phenotypic bacterial resistance to a periodically applied antibiotic is presented. Using a modified Beverton-Holt framework, and without appealing to any explicit internal timescale or heritable mutations, we map the parameter-space regions corresponding to bacterial colony survival or extinction. It is demonstrated that band-pass behavior, in which colony survival occurs at intermediate - but not short or long - antibiotic application periods, is a possible regime for some initial population values if the bactericidal activity is sufficient. However, below this threshold value of antibiotic efficacy, a "fixed-point catastrophe" occurs, and colony extinction does not occur when the bacteria are challenged with long application periods. These results suggest that the dosing schedule of antibiotics within a clinical setting merits additional scrutiny, since even seemingly unimportant modifications to the frequency of administration may lead to widely diverging patient outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Analysis of Q-type Near-Earth Asteroid Spectra with Modified Gaussian Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hao; Ma, Yue-hua; Zhao, Hai-bin; Lu, Xiao-ping
2017-07-01
Using the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) developed by Sunshine et al., we extract the mineralogical information from the reflection spectra of eight Q-type near-Earth asteroids, and obtain their surface composition of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. We further get a compositional proportion of each asteroid: the abundance of clinopyroxene is about 70% on the surfaces of the asteroids 5143, 7341, 66146, and 162058, and it is about 60% on the surfaces of the asteroids 1862, 4688, and 5660, but only 43% on the surface of the asteroid 3753. Then we analyse the reason for the apparently low abundance of clinopyroxene on the surface of the asteroid 3753. The level of metamorphism experienced by an asteroid increases with the decreasing distance from the Sun, so the asteroid 3753 is highly metamorphosed, and the abundance of clinopyroxene is low.
A modified model for non-newtonian viscosity behavior of Aureobasidium pullulans culture fluid.
Furuse, Hisamoto; Yabe, Isamu; Asakura, Tomoko; Miyawaki, Osato; Toda, Kiyoshi
2003-01-01
The culture fluid of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans and the exopolysaccharide solution obtained by removal of the microbial cells exhibit a marked shear dependence of viscosity. The viscosity in a high shear rate region was a little higher than that predicted by a non-Newtonian viscosity equation derived previously on the basis of the concept of traveling force. In a sample exhibiting such high shear rate dependence, a hydrodynamic effect based on the fluid structure of the binding of contacting polymers and suspended microbial cells on viscosity becomes comparatively significant. A model for the shear rate dependence of the viscosity is needed to elucidate the mechanism of the viscosity behavior. A term concerning the increase in viscosity caused by the binding of polymers and the microbial cells suspended in a medium was added to the previous viscosity equation. The experimental shear dependence of the viscosity was well simulated by the modified viscosity equation.
A modified predator–prey model for the interaction of police and gangs
Sooknanan, J.; Bhatt, B.
2016-01-01
A modified predator–prey model with transmissible disease in both the predator and prey species is proposed and analysed, with infected prey being more vulnerable to predation and infected predators hunting at a reduced rate. Here, the predators are the police and the prey the gang members. In this system, we examine whether police control of gangs is possible. The system is analysed with the help of stability analyses and numerical simulations. The system has five steady states—four of which involve no core gang members and one in which all the populations coexist. Thresholds are identified which determine when the predator and prey populations survive and when the disease remains endemic. For parameter values where the spread of disease among the police officers is greater than the death of the police officers, the diseased predator population survives, when it would otherwise become extinct. PMID:27703682
Computer modeling of the mineralogy of the Martian surface, as modified by aqueous alteration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zolensky, M. E.; Bourcier, W. L.; Gooding, J. L.
1988-01-01
Mineralogical constraints can be placed on the Martian surface by assuming chemical equilibria among the surface rocks, atmosphere and hypothesized percolating groundwater. A study was made of possible Martian surface mineralogy, as modified by the action of aqueous alteration, using the EQ3/6 computer codes. These codes calculate gas fugacities, aqueous speciation, ionic strength, pH, Eh and concentration and degree of mineral saturation for complex aqueous systems. Thus, these codes are also able to consider mineralogical solid solutions. These codes are able to predict the likely alteration phases which will occur as the result of weathering on the Martian surface. Knowledge of the stability conditions of these phases will then assist in the definition of the specifications for the sample canister of the proposed Martian sample return mission. The model and its results are discussed.
de Sitter limit analysis for dark energy and modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Felice, Antonio; Frusciante, Noemi; Papadomanolakis, Georgios
2017-07-01
The effective field theory of dark energy and modified gravity is supposed to well describe, at low energies, the behavior of the gravity modifications due to one extra scalar degree of freedom. The usual curvature perturbation is very useful when studying the conditions for the avoidance of ghost instabilities as well as the positivity of the squared speeds of propagation for both the scalar and tensor modes, or the Stückelberg field performs perfectly when investigating the evolution of linear perturbations. We show that the viable parameter space identified by requiring no-ghost instabilities and positive squared speeds of propagation does not change by performing a field redefinition, while the requirement of the avoidance of tachyonic instability might instead be different. Therefore, we find it interesting to associate to the general modified gravity theory described in the effective field theory framework, a perturbation field which will inherit all of the properties of the theory. In the present paper we address the following questions: (1) how can we define such a field? and (2) what is the mass of such a field as the background approaches a final de Sitter state? We define a gauge-invariant quantity which identifies the density of the dark energy perturbation field valid for any background. We derive the mass associated to the gauge-invariant dark energy field on a de Sitter background, which we retain to be still a good approximation also at very low redshift (z ≃0 ). On this background we also investigate the value of the speed of propagation and we find that there exist classes of theories which admit a nonvanishing speed of propagation, even in the Horndeski model, for which a zero speed of sound has previously been found in the literature. We finally apply our results to specific well-known models.
3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei
2010-11-01
A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.
Bulk-friction modeling of afterslip and the modified Omori law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wennerberg, Leif; Sharp, Robert V.
1997-08-01
Afterslip data from the Superstition Hills fault in southern California, a creep event on the same fault, the modified Omori law, and cumulative moments from aftershocks of the 1957 Aleutian Islands earthquake all indicate that the original formulation by Dieterich (1981) [Constitutive properties of faults with simulated gouge. AGU, Geophys. Monogr. 24, 103-120] for friction evolution is more appropriate for systems far from instability than the commonly used approximation developed by Ruina (1983) [Slip instability and state variable friction laws. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10359-10370] to study instability. The mathematical framework we use to test the friction models is a one-dimensional, massless spring-slider under the simplifying assumption, proposed by Scholz (1990) [The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. Cambridge University Press] and used by Marone et al. (1991) [On the mechanics of earthquake afterslip. J. Geophys. Res., 96: 8441-8452], that the state variable takes on its velocity-dependent steady-state value throughout motion in response to a step in stress. This assumption removes explicit state-variable dependence from the model, obviating the need to consider state-variable evolution equations. Anti-derivatives of the modified Omori law fit our data very well and are very good approximate solutions to our model equations. A plausible friction model with Omori-law solutions used by Wesson (1988) [Dynamics of fault creep. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8929-8951] to model fault creep and generalized by Rice (1983) [Constitutive relations for fault slip and earthquake instabilities. Pure Appl. Geophys. 121, 443-475] to a rate-and-state variable friction model yields exactly Omori's law with exponents greater than 1, but yields unstable solutions for Omori exponents less than 1. We estimate from the Dieterich formulation the dimensionless parameter a∗ which is equal to the product of the nominal coefficient of friction and the more commonly reported friction
Bulk-friction modeling of afterslip and the modified Omori law
Wennerberg, Leif; Sharp, Robert V.
1997-01-01
Afterslip data from the Superstition Hills fault in southern California, a creep event on the same fault, the modified Omori law, and cumulative moments from aftershocks of the 1957 Aleutian Islands earthquake all indicate that the original formulation by Dieterich (1981) [Constitutive properties of faults with simulated gouge. AGU, Geophys. Monogr. 24, 103–120] for friction evolution is more appropriate for systems far from instability than the commonly used approximation developed by Ruina (1983) [Slip instability and state variable friction laws. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10359–10370] to study instability. The mathematical framework we use to test the friction models is a one-dimensional, massless spring-slider under the simplifying assumption, proposed by Scholz (1990) [The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. Cambridge University Press] and used by Marone et al. (1991) [On the mechanics of earthquake afterslip. J. Geophys. Res., 96: 8441–8452], that the state variable takes on its velocity-dependent steady-state value throughout motion in response to a step in stress. This assumption removes explicit state-variable dependence from the model, obviating the need to consider state-variable evolution equations. Anti-derivatives of the modified Omori law fit our data very well and are very good approximate solutions to our model equations. A plausible friction model with Omori-law solutions used by Wesson (1988) [Dynamics of fault creep. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8929–8951] to model fault creep and generalized by Rice (1983) [Constitutive relations for fault slip and earthquake instabilities. Pure Appl. Geophys. 121, 443–475] to a rate-and-state variable friction model yields exactly Omori's law with exponents greater than 1, but yields unstable solutions for Omori exponents less than 1. We estimate from the Dieterich formulation the dimensionless parameter a∗ which is equal to the product of the nominal coefficient of friction and the more commonly reported
A Modified Johnson-Cook Model for Advanced High-Strength Steels Over a Wide Range of Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qingdong, Zhang; Qiang, Cao; Xiaofeng, Zhang
2014-12-01
Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is widely used in automotive industry. In order to investigate the mechanical behaviors of AHSS over a wide range of temperatures, quasi-static tensile experiments were conducted at the temperatures from 298 to 1073 K on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation machine. The results show that flow behaviors are affected by testing temperature significantly. In order to describe the flow features of AHSS, the Johnson-Cook (JC) model is employed. By introducing polynomial functions to consider the effects of temperature on hardening behavior, the JC model is modified and used to predict flow behavior of AHSS at different experimental conditions. The accuracy of the modified JC model is verified and the predicted flow stress is in good agreement with experimental results, which confirms that the modified JC model can give an accurate and precise estimate over a wide range of temperatures.
A modified chronic ocular hypertension rat model for retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection.
Zhong, Lichun
2013-09-01
This study aimed to modify a chronic ocular hypertension (OHT) rat model to screen for potential compounds to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from responding to increased intraocular pressure (IOP). A total of 266 rats were prepared and randomly grouped according to different time-points, namely, weeks 3, 8, 16, and 24. Rats were sedated and eye examination was performed to score as the corneal damage on a scale of 1 to 4. The OHT rat model was created via the injection of a hypertonic saline solution into the episcleral veins once weekly for two weeks. OHT was identified when the IOP at week 0 was [Symbol: see text] 6 mmHg than that at week -2 for the same eye. Viable RGCs were labeled by injecting 4% FluoroGold. Rats were sacrificed, and the eyes were enucleated and fixed. The fixed retinas were dissected to prepare flat whole-mounts. The viable RGCs were visualized and imaged. The IOP (mean ± SD) was calculated, and data were analyzed by the paired t-test and one-way ANOVA. The OHT model was created in 234 of 266 rats (87.97%), whereas 32 rats (12.03%) were removed from the study because of the absence of IOP elevation (11.28%) and/or corneal damage scores over 4 (0.75%). IOP was elevated by as much as 81.35% for 24 weeks. The average IOP was (16.68 ± 0.98) mmHg in non-OHT eyes (n = 234), but was (27.95 ± 0.97) mmHg in OHTeyes (n = 234). Viable RGCs in the OHT eyes were significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner by 29.41%, 38.24%, 55.32%, and 59.30% at weeks 3, 8, 16, and 24, respectively, as compared to viable RGCs in the non-OHT eyes (P < 0.05). The OHT model was successfully created in 88% of the rats. The IOP in the OHT eyes was elevated by approximately 81% for 24 weeks. The number of viable RGCs was decreased by 59% of the rats in a time-dependent manner. The modified OHT model may provide an effective and reliable method for screening drugs to protect RGCs from glaucoma.
Modified conceptual model for compensated root water uptake - A simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Andre
2016-03-01
Modeling root water uptake within the macroscopic approach is usually done by introducing a sink term in the Richards equation. This sink term represents potential water uptake reduced by a so-called stress reduction factor accounting for stress due to high suctions, oxygen deficit or salinity. Since stress in some parts of the soil can be compensated by enhanced water uptake in less stressed parts, several compensation models have been suggested. One of them is the empirical model of Jarvis, which is often applied due to its mathematical elegance and simplicity. However, it has been discussed that under certain conditions and assumptions this model might predict too high transpiration rates, which are not in agreement with the assumed stress reduction function. The aim of this paper is (i) to analyze these inconsistencies and (ii) to introduce a simple constraint for transpiration in a way as if the complete water would be taken form the location with highest uptake rate in the uncompensated case. Transpiration from 50 cm deep soils with hydraulic functions representing different textures, ranging from a clay loam to a coarse sand, was simulated with the original and the modified model using HYDRUS-1D. Root distribution was assumed to be uniform or linearly decreasing with depth. In case of the fine textured soils and uniform root density, the original model predicted transpiration equal to potential transpiration even when the complete root domain was already heavily stressed if the maximum enhancement factor for uptake was 2. These results are not in agreement with the original meaning of the stress reduction function. The modification eliminates the inconsistencies by limiting transpiration to a maximum value based on the highest uncompensated uptake rate in the root zone. It does neither increase the mathematical complexity nor require any additional parameters.
Features of non-congruent phase transition in modified Coulomb model of the binary ionic mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stroev, N. E.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.
2016-11-01
Non-congruent gas-liquid phase transition (NCPT) have been studied previously in modified Coulomb model of a binary ionic mixture C(+6) + O(+8) on a uniformly compressible ideal electronic background /BIM(∼)/. The features of NCPT in improved version of the BIM(∼) model for the same mixture on background of non-ideal electronic Fermi-gas and comparison it with the previous calculations are the subject of present study. Analytical fits for Coulomb corrections to equation of state of electronic and ionic subsystems were used in present calculations within the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions of non-congruent phase equilibrium. Parameters of critical point-line were calculated on the entire range of proportions of mixed ions 0 < X < 1. Strong “distillation” effect was found for NCPT in the present BIM(∼) model. Just similar distillation was obtained in the variant of NCPT in dense nuslear matter. The absence of azeotropic compositions was revealed in studied variants of BIM(∼) in contrast to an explicit existence of the azeotropic compositions for the NCPT in chemically reacting plasmas and in astrophysical applications.
Overall picture of the cascade gamma decay of neutron resonances within a modified practical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sukhovoj, A. M.; Mitsyna, L. V.; Jovancevic, N.
2016-05-01
The intensities of two-step cascades in 43 nuclei of mass number in the range of 28 ≤ A ≤ 200 were approximated to a high degree of precision within a modified version of the practical cascade-gammadecay model introduced earlier. In this version, the rate of the decrease in the model-dependent density of vibrational levels has the same value for any Cooper pair undergoing breakdown. The most probable values of radiative strength functions both for E1 and for M1 transitions are determined by using one or two peaks against a smooth model dependence on the gamma-transition energy. The statement that the thresholds for the breaking of Cooper pairs are higher for spherical than for deformed nuclei is a basic result of the respective analysis. The parameters of the cascade-decay process are now determined to a precision that makes it possible to observe the systematic distinctions between them for nuclei characterized by different parities of neutrons and protons.
Antacid effects of Chinese herbal prescriptions assessed by a modified artificial stomach model
Wu, Tsung-Hsiu; Chen, I-Chin; Chen, Lih-Chi
2010-01-01
AIM: To assess the antacid effects of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions, Si-Jun-Zi-Tang (SJZT) and Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (SLBZS). METHODS: Decoctions of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions, SJZT and SLBZS, were prepared according to Chinese original documents. The pH of the prescription decoctions and their neutralizing effects on artificial gastric acids were determined and compared with water and the active controls, sodium bicarbonate and colloidal aluminum phosphate. A modified model of Vatier’s artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization effect on artificial gastric acids. The neutralization capacity in vitro was determined with the titration method of Fordtran’s model. RESULTS: The results showed that both SJZT and SLBZS have antacid effects in vitro. Compared with the water group, SJZT and SLBZS were found to possess significant gastric acid neutralizing effects. The duration for consistent neutralization of SLBZS was significantly longer than that of water. Also, SLBZS and SJZT exhibited significant antacid capacities compared to water. CONCLUSION: SJZT and SLBZS were consistently active in the artificial stomach model and are suggested to have antacid effects similar to the active control drugs. PMID:20845514
Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang
2016-01-01
The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants. PMID:27009902
Calculation of the joint strength of hot shear joined bars based on a modified lemaitre model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Kai; Lee, Seonggi; Kim, Naksoo
2016-01-01
To join the head and tail ends of two steel bars together, a solid-state joining technology named "shear joining" has been developed. In the process, no external heating is required since the bar temperature is around 1000 °C and sufficiently high for joining. Compared with the laser welding and fusion welding, the head and tail ends are joined together within a short time by pressing and shearing. So the process is very easy, quick and reliable without special heating and forming processes. As an innovative process, there is no appropriate method to evaluate the strength of joint up to now. In this research, a modified Lemaitre model was put forward to predict the strength of joint. This model could be also used to improve the design of joining tools and process conditions. Through comparison of load-displacement curves of tensile test obtained from FE simulation and experiment, the reliability of numerical model was verified. Compared with experimental results, the predicted joint strength showed a good quantitative agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang
2016-03-01
The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants.
Real-time robot path planning based on a modified pulse-coupled neural network model.
Qu, Hong; Yang, Simon X; Willms, Allan R; Yi, Zhang
2009-11-01
This paper presents a modified pulse-coupled neural network (MPCNN) model for real-time collision-free path planning of mobile robots in nonstationary environments. The proposed neural network for robots is topologically organized with only local lateral connections among neurons. It works in dynamic environments and requires no prior knowledge of target or barrier movements. The target neuron fires first, and then the firing event spreads out, through the lateral connections among the neurons, like the propagation of a wave. Obstacles have no connections to their neighbors. Each neuron records its parent, that is, the neighbor that caused it to fire. The real-time optimal path is then the sequence of parents from the robot to the target. In a static case where the barriers and targets are stationary, this paper proves that the generated wave in the network spreads outward with travel times proportional to the linking strength among neurons. Thus, the generated path is always the global shortest path from the robot to the target. In addition, each neuron in the proposed model can propagate a firing event to its neighboring neuron without any comparing computations. The proposed model is applied to generate collision-free paths for a mobile robot to solve a maze-type problem, to circumvent concave U-shaped obstacles, and to track a moving target in an environment with varying obstacles. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated through simulation and comparison studies.
Overall picture of the cascade gamma decay of neutron resonances within a modified practical model
Sukhovoj, A. M. Mitsyna, L. V.; Jovancevic, N.
2016-05-15
The intensities of two-step cascades in 43 nuclei of mass number in the range of 28 ≤ A ≤ 200 were approximated to a high degree of precision within a modified version of the practical cascade-gammadecay model introduced earlier. In this version, the rate of the decrease in the model-dependent density of vibrational levels has the same value for any Cooper pair undergoing breakdown. The most probable values of radiative strength functions both for E1 and for M1 transitions are determined by using one or two peaks against a smooth model dependence on the gamma-transition energy. The statement that the thresholds for the breaking of Cooper pairs are higher for spherical than for deformed nuclei is a basic result of the respective analysis. The parameters of the cascade-decay process are now determined to a precision that makes it possible to observe the systematic distinctions between them for nuclei characterized by different parities of neutrons and protons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yung-Fu; Du, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Chen, Tainsong
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, which is characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility. Finding an effective method for prevention and early diagnosis of the disease is very important. Several parameters, including broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and stiffness index (STI), have been used to measure the characteristics of bone tissues. In this paper, we proposed a method, namely modified contour deformable model (MCDM), bases on the active contour model (ACM) and active shape model (ASM) for automatically detecting the calcaneus contour from quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parametric images. The results show that the difference between the contours detected by the MCDM and the true boundary for the phantom is less than one pixel. By comparing the phantom ROIs, significant relationship was found between contour mean and bone mineral density (BMD) with R=0.99. The influence of selecting different ROI diameters (12, 14, 16 and 18 mm) and different region-selecting methods, including fixed region (ROI fix ), automatic circular region (ROI cir ) and calcaneal contour region (ROI anat ), were evaluated for testing human subjects. Measurements with large ROI diameters, especially using fixed region, result in high position errors (10-45%). The precision errors of the measured ultrasonic parameters for ROI anat are smaller than ROI fix and ROI cir . In conclusion, ROI anat provides more accurate measurement of ultrasonic parameters for the evaluation of osteoporosis and is useful for clinical application.
El Backly, Rania M.; Chiapale, Danilo; Muraglia, Anita; Tromba, Giuliana; Ottonello, Chiara; Santolini, Federico; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena
2014-01-01
The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX®) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12–16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX®) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute. PMID:25610828
Numerical solution of the Penna model of biological aging with age-modified mutation rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.
2009-06-01
In this paper we present results of numerical calculation of the Penna bit-string model of biological aging, modified for the case of a -dependent mutation rate m(a) , where a is the parent’s age. The mutation rate m(a) is the probability per bit of an extra bad mutation introduced in offspring inherited genome. We assume that m(a) increases with age a . As compared with the reference case of the standard Penna model based on a constant mutation rate m , the dynamics of the population growth shows distinct changes in age distribution of the population. Here we concentrate on mortality q(a) , a fraction of items eliminated from the population when we go from age (a) to (a+1) in simulated transition from time (t) to next time (t+1) . The experimentally observed q(a) dependence essentially follows the Gompertz exponential law for a above the minimum reproduction age. Deviation from the Gompertz law is however observed for the very old items, close to the maximal age. This effect may also result from an increase in mutation rate m with age a discussed in this paper. The numerical calculations are based on analytical solution of the Penna model, presented in a series of papers by Coe [J. B. Coe, Y. Mao, and M. E. Cates, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 288103 (2002)]. Results of the numerical calculations are supported by the data obtained from computer simulation based on the solution by Coe
El Backly, Rania M; Chiapale, Danilo; Muraglia, Anita; Tromba, Giuliana; Ottonello, Chiara; Santolini, Federico; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena
2014-01-01
The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX(®)) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12-16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX(®)) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute.
Large-scale hydrological modelling by using modified PUB recommendations: the India-HYPE case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pechlivanidis, I. G.; Arheimer, B.
2015-11-01
The scientific initiative Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) (2003-2012 by the IAHS) put considerable effort into improving the reliability of hydrological models to predict flow response in ungauged rivers. PUB's collective experience advanced hydrologic science and defined guidelines to make predictions in catchments without observed runoff data. At present, there is a raised interest in applying catchment models to large domains and large data samples in a multi-basin manner, to explore emerging spatial patterns or learn from comparative hydrology. However, such modelling involves additional sources of uncertainties caused by the inconsistency between input data sets, i.e. particularly regional and global databases. This may lead to inaccurate model parameterisation and erroneous process understanding. In order to bridge the gap between the best practices for flow predictions in single catchments and multi-basins at the large scale, we present a further developed and slightly modified version of the recommended best practices for PUB by Takeuchi et al. (2013). By using examples from a recent HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) hydrological model set-up across 6000 subbasins for the Indian subcontinent, named India-HYPE v1.0, we explore the PUB recommendations, identify challenges and recommend ways to overcome them. We describe the work process related to (a) errors and inconsistencies in global databases, unknown human impacts, and poor data quality; (b) robust approaches to identify model parameters using a stepwise calibration approach, remote sensing data, expert knowledge, and catchment similarities; and (c) evaluation based on flow signatures and performance metrics, using both multiple criteria and multiple variables, and independent gauges for "blind tests". The results show that despite the strong physiographical gradient over the subcontinent, a single model can describe the spatial variability in dominant hydrological processes at the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauwe, Andreas; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Lennartz, Bernd
2017-04-01
Eutrophication is still one of the main environmental problems in the Baltic Sea. Currently, agricultural diffuse sources constitute the major portion of phosphorus (P) fluxes to the Baltic Sea and have to be reduced to achieve the HELCOM targets and improve the ecological status. Eco-hydrological models are suitable tools to identify sources of nutrients and possible measures aiming at reducing nutrient loads into surface waters. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the Warnow river basin (3300 km2), the second largest watershed in Germany discharging into the Baltic Sea. The Warnow river basin is located in northeastern Germany and characterized by lowlands with a high proportion of artificially drained areas. The aim of this study were (i) to estimate P loadings for individual flow fractions (point sources, surface runoff, tile flow, groundwater flow), spatially distributed on sub-basin scale. Since the official version of SWAT does not allow for the modeling of P in tile drains, we tested (ii) two different approaches of simulating P in tile drains by changing the SWAT source code. The SWAT source code was modified so that (i) the soluble P concentration of the groundwater was transferred to the tile water and (ii) the soluble P in the soil was transferred to the tiles. The SWAT model was first calibrated (2002-2011) and validated (1992-2001) for stream flow at 7 headwater catchments at a daily time scale. Based on this, the stream flow at the outlet of the Warnow river basin was simulated. Performance statistics indicated at least satisfactory model results for each sub-basin. Breaking down the discharge into flow constituents, it becomes visible that stream flow is mainly governed by groundwater and tile flow. Due to the topographic situation with gentle slopes, surface runoff played only a minor role. Results further indicate that the prediction of soluble P loads was improved by the modified SWAT versions. Major sources of
Salted matters: modifying gelatine rheology for subduction thrust fault seismicity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brizzi, Silvia; Funiciello, Francesca; Corbi, Fabio; Di Giuseppe, Erika; Mojoli, Giorgio
2016-04-01
Most of the world's greatest earthquakes (Mw > 8.5, usually known as mega-earthquakes) occur at shallow depths along the subduction thrust fault (STF), i.e., the frictional interface between the subducting and overriding plates. The contribution of each subduction zone to the globally released seismic moment is not homogeneous, as well as the maximum Mw recorded in the instrumental and historical catalogues. To contribute to the unravelling of the seismic cycle along the STF, we used analogue models. Viscoelastic laboratory experiments realised with type A gelatine 2.5 wt% at 10 °C (Corbi et al., 2013) successfully simulate the seismic cycle along the STF, providing dynamic similarities with earthquakes in nature. However, analogue earthquakes are still not perfectly comparable to the natural prototype. In this work, we try to improve STF seismicity models by modifying the rheological behaviour of gelatine with the addition of NaCl. After testing salted gelatine rheology as a function of increasing concentration of NaCl, we selected 20 wt% NaCl gelatine, as this NaCl concentration provides a quasi-viscoelastic lithospheric analogue. Subduction interplate seismicity models were performed using both pure and salted gelatine to highlight the strengths and advantages this new material can provide for simulating the seismic cycle along the STF. We analysed analogue earthquakes Mw, recurrence time and rupture duration, which at first-order characterise the seismogenic behaviour of the STF. Results show that the experimental source parameters cover a wider range of values than obtained with pure gelatine, which is more compatible to the high variability globally observed. In particular, salted gelatine allows to simulate also smaller seismic events, giving the opportunity to apply the G-R law to the experimental seismicity of STF. Recurrence time and rupture duration are also characterised by an increased range of values when salted gelatine is used as analogue material
Orruño, Estibalitz; Asua, José; Abdeljelil, Anis Ben; Emparanza, José
2012-01-01
Abstract Objective: To examine the factors that could influence the decision of healthcare professionals to use a telemonitoring system. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire, based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), was developed. A panel of experts in technology assessment evaluated the face and content validity of the instrument. Two hundred and thirty-four questionnaires were distributed among nurses and doctors of the cardiology, pulmonology, and internal medicine departments of a tertiary hospital. Cronbach alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency of the questionnaire items. Construct validity was evaluated using interitem correlation analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the theoretical model. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Results: A response rate of 39.7% was achieved. With the exception of one theoretical construct (Habit) that corresponds to behaviors that become automatized, Cronbach alpha values were acceptably high for the remaining constructs. Theoretical variables were well correlated with each other and with the dependent variable. The original TAM was good at predicting telemonitoring usage intention, Perceived Usefulness being the only significant predictor (OR: 5.28, 95% CI: 2.12–13.11). The model was still significant and more powerful when the other theoretical variables were added. However, the only significant predictor in the modified model was Facilitators (OR: 4.96, 95% CI: 1.59–15.55). Conclusion: The TAM is a good predictive model of healthcare professionals' intention to use telemonitoring. However, the perception of facilitators is the most important variable to consider for increasing doctors' and nurses' intention to use the new technology. PMID:22082108
Additional disinfection with a modified salt solution in a root canal model.
van der Waal, Suzette V; Oonk, Charlotte A M; Nieman, Selma H; Wesselink, Paul R; de Soet, Johannes J; Crielaard, Wim
2015-10-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the disinfecting properties of a modified salt solution (MSS) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in a non-direct-contact ex-vivo model. Seventy-four single-canal roots infected with Enterococcus faecalis were treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation or with NaOCl irrigation with subsequent dressing with MSS or Ca(OH)2. After removal of the dressings, the roots were filled with bacterial growth medium and incubated for seven days to enable the surviving bacteria to repopulate the root canal lumen. Growth was determined by sampling the root canals with paper points before treatment (S1), after treatment (S2) and incubation after treatment (S3). The colony forming units were counted at S1 and S2. At S3, growth was determined as no/yes regrowth. The Kruskal-Wallis, McNemar and χ(2) test were used for statistical analyses. At S2, in the NaOCl group, growth was found in 5 of 19 root canals. After the removal of MSS or Ca(OH)2 bacteria were retrieved from one root canal in both groups. At S3, repopulation of the root canals had occurred in 14 of 19 roots after sole NaOCl irrigation, 6 of 20 roots after MSS-dressing and in 14 of 20 roots after Ca(OH)2-dressing. MSS was more effective in preventing regrowth than Ca(OH)2 (P=0.009). The modified salt solution prevented regrowth in roots which indicates that it can eliminate persistent bacteria. Dressing the root canals with Ca(OH)2 did not provide additional disinfection after NaOCl irrigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Safakish, Ramin
2017-01-01
Lower back pain (LBP) is a global public health issue and is associated with substantial financial costs and loss of quality of life. Over the years, different literature has provided different statistics regarding the causes of the back pain. The following statistic is the closest estimation regarding our patient population. The sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is responsible for LBP in 18%–30% of individuals with LBP. Quadrapolar™ radiofrequency ablation, which involves ablation of the nerves of the SI joint using heat, is a commonly used treatment for SI joint pain. However, the standard Quadrapolar radiofrequency procedure is not always effective at ablating all the sensory nerves that cause the pain in the SI joint. One of the major limitations of the standard Quadrapolar radiofrequency procedure is that it produces small lesions of ~4 mm in diameter. Smaller lesions increase the likelihood of failure to ablate all nociceptive input. In this study, we compare the standard Quadrapolar radiofrequency ablation technique to a modified Quadrapolar ablation technique that has produced improved patient outcomes in our clinic. The methodology of the two techniques are compared. In addition, we compare results from an experimental model comparing the lesion sizes produced by the two techniques. Taken together, the findings from this study suggest that the modified Quadrapolar technique provides longer lasting relief for the back pain that is caused by SI joint dysfunction. A randomized controlled clinical trial is the next step required to quantify the difference in symptom relief and quality of life produced by the two techniques. PMID:28652802
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinkhamer, F. R.; Schreck, M.
2012-03-01
In a previous article, Klinkhamer and Schreck (2011) [1], we established the consistency of isotropic modified Maxwell theory for a finite range of the Lorentz-violating parameter κ, which includes both positive and negative values of κ. As an aside, we mentioned the existence of a physical model which, for low-energy photons, gives rise to isotropic modified Maxwell theory with a positive parameter κ (corresponding to a "slow" photon). Here, we present a related model which gives rise to isotropic modified Maxwell theory with a negative parameter κ (corresponding to a "fast" photon). Both models have an identical particle content, photon and Dirac particles, but differ in the type of spacetime manifold considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nezlobin, David; Pariente, Sarah; Lavee, Hanoch; Sachs, Eyal
2017-04-01
Source-sink systems are very common in hydrology; in particular, some land cover types often generate runoff (e.g. embedded rocks, bare soil) , while other obstruct it (e.g. vegetation, cracked soil). Surface runoff coefficients of patchy slopes/plots covered by runoff generating and obstructing covers (e.g., bare soil and vegetation) depend critically on the percentage cover (i.e. sources/sinks abundance) and decrease strongly with observation scale. The classic mathematical percolation theory provides a powerful apparatus for describing the runoff connectivity on patchy hillslopes, but it ignores strong effect of the overland flow directionality. To overcome this and other difficulties, modified percolation theory approaches can be considered, such as straight percolation (for the planar slopes), quasi-straight percolation and models with limited obstruction. These approaches may explain both the observed critical dependence of runoff coefficients on percentage cover and their scale decrease in systems with strong flow directionality (e.g. planar slopes). The contributing area increases sharply when the runoff generating percentage cover approaches the straight percolation threshold. This explains the strong increase of the surface runoff and erosion for relatively low values (normally less than 35%) of the obstructing cover (e.g., vegetation). Combinatorial models of urns with restricted occupancy can be applied for the analytic evaluation of meaningful straight percolation quantities, such as NOGA's (Non-Obstructed Generating Area) expected value and straight percolation probability. It is shown that the nature of the cover-related runoff scale decrease is combinatorial - the probability for the generated runoff to avoid obstruction in unit area decreases with scale for the non-trivial percentage cover values. The magnitude of the scale effect is found to be a skewed non-monotonous function of the percentage cover. It is shown that the cover-related scale
Mizutani, Yasumichi; Sugiyama, Eiji; Tasaki, Chikako; Tsuji, Daisuke; Maita, Nobuo; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Asanuma, Daisuke; Kamiya, Mako; Sato, Kohei; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Urano, Yasuteru; Togawa, Tadayasu; Otaka, Akira; Sakuraba, Hitoshi
2016-01-01
GM2 gangliosidoses, including Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases, are neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases that are caused by deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A, which comprises an αβ heterodimer. There are no effective treatments for these diseases; however, various strategies aimed at restoring β-hexosaminidase A have been explored. Here, we produced a modified human hexosaminidase subunit β (HexB), which we have termed mod2B, composed of homodimeric β subunits that contain amino acid sequences from the α subunit that confer GM2 ganglioside–degrading activity and protease resistance. We also developed fluorescent probes that allow visualization of endocytosis of mod2B via mannose 6-phosphate receptors and delivery of mod2B to lysosomes in GM2 gangliosidosis models. In addition, we applied imaging mass spectrometry to monitor efficacy of this approach in Sandhoff disease model mice. Following i.c.v. administration, mod2B was widely distributed and reduced accumulation of GM2, asialo-GM2, and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate in brain regions including the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Moreover, mod2B administration markedly improved motor dysfunction and a prolonged lifespan in Sandhoff disease mice. Together, the results of our study indicate that mod2B has potential for intracerebrospinal fluid enzyme replacement therapy and should be further explored as a gene therapy for GM2 gangliosidoses. PMID:27018595
Design and development of a modified runway model of mouse drug self-administration.
Pandy, Vijayapandi; Khan, Yasmin
2016-02-23
The present study established a novel mouse model of a runway drug self-administration in our laboratory. The operant runway apparatus consisted of three long runways arranged in a zig-zag manner. The methodology consisted of six distinct phases: habituation, preconditioning, conditioning, post-conditioning, extinction and reinstatement. The effects of saline were compared with escalating doses of either ethanol (0.5-4.0 g/kg, i.p), heroin (5-40 mg/kg, i.p), or nicotine (0.1-0.5mg/kg, i.p) administered in the goal box during the conditioning phase (day 1 to day 5). A significant decrease in the time of trained (conditioned) mice to reach the goal box confirmed the subjects' motivation to seek those drugs on day 6 (expression). The mice were then subjected to non-rewarded extinction trials for 5 days over which run times were significantly increased. After 5 days of abstinence, a priming dose of ethanol or heroin (1/5th of maximum dose used in conditioning) significantly reinstated the drug-seeking behavior. These results suggest that the modified runway model can serve as a powerful behavioral tool for the study of the behavioral and neurobiological bases of drug self-administration and, as such, is appropriate simple but powerful tool for investigating the drug-seeking behavior of laboratory mice.
The MLP distribution: a modified lognormal power-law model for the stellar initial mass function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basu, Shantanu; Gil, M.; Auddy, Sayantan
2015-05-01
This work explores the mathematical properties of a distribution introduced by Basu & Jones (2004), and applies it to model the stellar initial mass function (IMF). The distribution arises simply from an initial lognormal distribution, requiring that each object in it subsequently undergoes exponential growth but with an exponential distribution of growth lifetimes. This leads to a modified lognormal with a power-law (MLP) distribution, which can in fact be applied to a wide range of fields where distributions are observed to have a lognormal-like body and a power-law tail. We derive important properties of the MLP distribution, like the cumulative distribution, the mean, variance, arbitrary raw moments, and a random number generator. These analytic properties of the distribution can be used to facilitate application to modelling the IMF. We demonstrate how the MLP function provides an excellent fit to the IMF compiled by Chabrier and how this fit can be used to quickly identify quantities like the mean, median, and mode, as well as number and mass fractions in different mass intervals.
Petit, Damien; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Ganesh, Gowrishankar
2016-01-01
The question of how we attribute observed body parts as our own, and the consequences of this attribution on our sensory-motor processes, is fundamental to understand how our brain distinguishes between self and other. Previous studies have identified interactions between the illusion of ownership, and multi-sensory integration and cross-sensory predictions by the brain. Here we show that illusory ownership additionally modifies the motor-sensory predictions by the brain. In our preliminary experiments, we observed a new numbness illusion following the classical rubber-hand illusion (RHI); brushing only the rubber hand after induction of the RHI results in illusory numbness in one's real hand. Previous studies have shown that self-generated actions (like tickling) are attenuated by motor-sensory predictions by the so-called forward model. Motivated by this finding, here we examined whether the numbness illusion after the RHI is different when the rubber hand is brushed oneself, compared with when the brushing is performed by another. We observed that, all other conditions remaining the same, haptic perception in the real hand was lower (numbness higher) during self-generated brushing. Our result suggests that RHI reorganizes the forward model, such that we predict haptic consequences of self-generated motor actions on the rubber hand. PMID:27853620
Testing of modified curvature-rotation correction for k-ω SST model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stabnikov, A. S.; Garbaruk, A. V.
2016-11-01
Using eddy viscosity models (EVM) for solving Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations is the most popular and economical way of turbulent flow computations up to date. However this approach, while being very convenient, is not flawless. For example, for accurate prediction of rotating flows and flows with significant streamline curvature (turbine rotors, various vortices etc.) special corrections must be used along with EVM to account for effects of these factors on turbulence. Current work presents the results of testing of the recently suggested modification of the Menter-Smirnov rotation and curvature correction for SST model. A range of internal and external flows is considered: flow in a plane rotating channel, flow in a channel with 180° turn, airfoil tip vortex and 3D boundary layer with the streamwise vortices produced by vortex generators. It is shown that the modified correction results in better prediction than the original version for the three dimensional vortex flows and gives virtually the same results for the 2D boundary layer flows.
Model systems of protein-misfolding diseases reveal chaperone modifiers of proteotoxicity
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Chaperones and co-chaperones enable protein folding and degradation, safeguarding the proteome against proteotoxic stress. Chaperones display dynamic responses to exogenous and endogenous stressors and thus constitute a key component of the proteostasis network (PN), an intricately regulated network of quality control and repair pathways that cooperate to maintain cellular proteostasis. It has been hypothesized that aging leads to chronic stress on the proteome and that this could underlie many age-associated diseases such as neurodegeneration. Understanding the dynamics of chaperone function during aging and disease-related proteotoxic stress could reveal specific chaperone systems that fail to respond to protein misfolding. Through the use of suppressor and enhancer screens, key chaperones crucial for proteostasis maintenance have been identified in model organisms that express misfolded disease-related proteins. This review provides a literature-based analysis of these genetic studies and highlights prominent chaperone modifiers of proteotoxicity, which include the HSP70-HSP40 machine and small HSPs. Taken together, these studies in model systems can inform strategies for therapeutic regulation of chaperone functionality, to manage aging-related proteotoxic stress and to delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27491084
Evolution of a turbulent pycnocline within the framework of a modified model of turbulent closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soustova, Irina; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Rybushkina, Galina; Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2015-04-01
The formation and evolution of a turbulent pycnocline generated by internal wave breaking were investigated within the framework of a modified model of turbulent closure. Numerical computation based on closed Reynolds equations using closure hypotheses obtained in the framework of the kinetic approach showed a strong dependence of vertical distributions corresponding to hydrodynamic parameters on the anisotropy of turbulence and speed of pycnocline motion. Strongly anisotropic motion is characterized by the presence of stepwise variations in the vertical profiles of buoyancy frequency, turbulence scale, and kinetic and potential energy as compared to the known analytical solution obtained earlier without allowance for a non-steady-state term in the kinetic energy balance equation. In the case of a weaker anisotropy, no sharp changes are observed in spatial and energy characteristics of turbulence and the qualitative shape of their profiles in the pycnolcline region coincides with the known analytical dependences. The obtained result is important for development of numerical climatic models of the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (13-05-00865, 14-05-91767, 15-45-02580).
A modified two-sphere model for solvent reorganization energy in electron transfer.
Wu, Han-Yu; Ren, Hai-Sheng; Zhu, Quan; Li, Xiang-Yuan
2012-04-28
In this work, the solvent reorganization energy is formulated within the framework of classical thermodynamics, by adding some external charges to construct a constrained equilibrium state. The derivation clearly shows that the reorganization energy is exactly the polarization cost for the inertial part of the polarization. We perform our derivation just within the framework of the first law of thermodynamics, and the final form of the reorganization energy is completely the same as that we gave in our recent work by defining a nonequilibrium solvation free energy. With the two-sphere model approximation, our solvent reorganization energy is derived as λ(0) = Δq(2)/2[1/r(D) + 1/r(A) - 2/d][(ε(-1)(op) - ε(-1)(s))/(1 - ε(-1)(s))]. This amends Marcus' model by a factor of (ε(-1)(op) - ε(-1)(s))/(1 - ε(-1)(s)), which is coupled with the solvent polarity. Making use of the modified expression of solvent reorganization energy, two recently reported electron transfer processes are investigated in representative solvents. The results show that our formula can well reproduce the experimental observations. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012
Model systems of protein-misfolding diseases reveal chaperone modifiers of proteotoxicity.
Brehme, Marc; Voisine, Cindy
2016-08-01
Chaperones and co-chaperones enable protein folding and degradation, safeguarding the proteome against proteotoxic stress. Chaperones display dynamic responses to exogenous and endogenous stressors and thus constitute a key component of the proteostasis network (PN), an intricately regulated network of quality control and repair pathways that cooperate to maintain cellular proteostasis. It has been hypothesized that aging leads to chronic stress on the proteome and that this could underlie many age-associated diseases such as neurodegeneration. Understanding the dynamics of chaperone function during aging and disease-related proteotoxic stress could reveal specific chaperone systems that fail to respond to protein misfolding. Through the use of suppressor and enhancer screens, key chaperones crucial for proteostasis maintenance have been identified in model organisms that express misfolded disease-related proteins. This review provides a literature-based analysis of these genetic studies and highlights prominent chaperone modifiers of proteotoxicity, which include the HSP70-HSP40 machine and small HSPs. Taken together, these studies in model systems can inform strategies for therapeutic regulation of chaperone functionality, to manage aging-related proteotoxic stress and to delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
The pressure-volume curve is greatly modified by recruitment. A mathematical model of ARDS lungs.
Hickling, K G
1998-07-01
A mathematical model of the ARDS lung, with simulated gravitational superimposed pressure, evaluated the effect of varying alveolar threshold opening pressures (TOP), PEEP and peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) on the static pressure-volume (PV) curve. The lower inflection point (Pflex) was affected by SP and TOP, and did not accurately indicate PEEP required to prevent end-expiratory collapse. Reinflation of collapsed lung units (recruitment) continued on the linear portion of the PV curve, which had a slope at any volume greater than the total compliance of aerated alveoli. As recruitment diminished, the reduced PV slope could produce an upper Pflex at 20 to 30 cm H2O pressure. An upper Pflex caused by alveolar overdistension could be modified or eliminated by recruitment with high TOP. With constant PIP as PEEP increased, and TOP range of 5 to 60 cm H2O, PEEP to prevent end-expiratory collapse was indicated by minimum PV slope above 20 cm H2O, minimum hysteresis, and maximum volume at a pressure of 20 cm H2O. With constant inflation volume as PEEP increased, the effect on PV slope was unpredictable. Although increased PV slope indicated recruitment, maximum PV slope usually underestimated PEEP required to prevent end-expiratory collapse. Therefore, with this model the PV curve did not reliably predict optimal ventilator settings.
Design and development of a modified runway model of mouse drug self-administration
Pandy, Vijayapandi; Khan, Yasmin
2016-01-01
The present study established a novel mouse model of a runway drug self-administration in our laboratory. The operant runway apparatus consisted of three long runways arranged in a zig-zag manner. The methodology consisted of six distinct phases: habituation, preconditioning, conditioning, post-conditioning, extinction and reinstatement. The effects of saline were compared with escalating doses of either ethanol (0.5–4.0 g/kg, i.p), heroin (5–40 mg/kg, i.p), or nicotine (0.1–0.5mg/kg, i.p) administered in the goal box during the conditioning phase (day 1 to day 5). A significant decrease in the time of trained (conditioned) mice to reach the goal box confirmed the subjects’ motivation to seek those drugs on day 6 (expression). The mice were then subjected to non-rewarded extinction trials for 5 days over which run times were significantly increased. After 5 days of abstinence, a priming dose of ethanol or heroin (1/5th of maximum dose used in conditioning) significantly reinstated the drug-seeking behavior. These results suggest that the modified runway model can serve as a powerful behavioral tool for the study of the behavioral and neurobiological bases of drug self-administration and, as such, is appropriate simple but powerful tool for investigating the drug-seeking behavior of laboratory mice. PMID:26902717
Operational forecasting based on a modified Weather Research and Forecasting model
Lundquist, J; Glascoe, L; Obrecht, J
2010-03-18
Accurate short-term forecasts of wind resources are required for efficient wind farm operation and ultimately for the integration of large amounts of wind-generated power into electrical grids. Siemens Energy Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Colorado at Boulder, are collaborating on the design of an operational forecasting system for large wind farms. The basis of the system is the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model; large-eddy simulations and data assimilation approaches are used to refine and tailor the forecasting system. Representation of the atmospheric boundary layer is modified, based on high-resolution large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary. These large-eddy simulations incorporate wake effects from upwind turbines on downwind turbines as well as represent complex atmospheric variability due to complex terrain and surface features as well as atmospheric stability. Real-time hub-height wind speed and other meteorological data streams from existing wind farms are incorporated into the modeling system to enable uncertainty quantification through probabilistic forecasts. A companion investigation has identified optimal boundary-layer physics options for low-level forecasts in complex terrain, toward employing decadal WRF simulations to anticipate large-scale changes in wind resource availability due to global climate change.
Kitakaze, Keisuke; Mizutani, Yasumichi; Sugiyama, Eiji; Tasaki, Chikako; Tsuji, Daisuke; Maita, Nobuo; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Asanuma, Daisuke; Kamiya, Mako; Sato, Kohei; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Urano, Yasuteru; Togawa, Tadayasu; Otaka, Akira; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Itoh, Kohji
2016-05-02
GM2 gangliosidoses, including Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases, are neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases that are caused by deficiency of β-hexosaminidase A, which comprises an αβ heterodimer. There are no effective treatments for these diseases; however, various strategies aimed at restoring β-hexosaminidase A have been explored. Here, we produced a modified human hexosaminidase subunit β (HexB), which we have termed mod2B, composed of homodimeric β subunits that contain amino acid sequences from the α subunit that confer GM2 ganglioside-degrading activity and protease resistance. We also developed fluorescent probes that allow visualization of endocytosis of mod2B via mannose 6-phosphate receptors and delivery of mod2B to lysosomes in GM2 gangliosidosis models. In addition, we applied imaging mass spectrometry to monitor efficacy of this approach in Sandhoff disease model mice. Following i.c.v. administration, mod2B was widely distributed and reduced accumulation of GM2, asialo-GM2, and bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate in brain regions including the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Moreover, mod2B administration markedly improved motor dysfunction and a prolonged lifespan in Sandhoff disease mice. Together, the results of our study indicate that mod2B has potential for intracerebrospinal fluid enzyme replacement therapy and should be further explored as a gene therapy for GM2 gangliosidoses.
Evaluation of disease modifying activity of Coriandrum sativum in experimental models.
Nair, Vinod; Singh, Surender; Gupta, Y K
2012-01-01
Coriandrum sativum (CS), has been widely used in traditional systems of medicine for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanism of action for its antiarthritic effects is not clearly known. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the antiarthritic activity of CS in rats in two experimental models. The antiarthritic activity of CS seed hydroalcoholic extract (CSHE) was evaluated in adult Wistar rats by using two experimental models, viz. formaldehyde and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (predominantly contributed by macrophages) was also evaluated. TNF- α level was estimated in serum by ELISA method. TNF-R1, IL-1 β and IL-6 expression in the synovium was analysed by immunohistochemistry. CSHE produced a dose dependent inhibition of joint swelling as compared to control animals in both, formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis. Although there was a dose dependent increase in serum TNF-α levels in the CSHE treated groups as compared to control, the synovial expression of macrophage derived pro-inflammatory cytokines/cytokine receptor was found to be lower in the CSHE treated groups as compared to control. Our results demonstrate that the antiarthritic activity of CSHE may be attributed to the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the synovium. In further studies CSHE could be explored to be developed as a disease modifying agent in the treatment of RA.
Evaluation of disease modifying activity of Coriandrum sativum in experimental models
Nair, Vinod; Singh, Surender; Gupta, Y.K.
2012-01-01
Background & objectives: Coriandrum sativum (CS), has been widely used in traditional systems of medicine for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the mechanism of action for its antiarthritic effects is not clearly known. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the antiarthritic activity of CS in rats in two experimental models. Methods: The antiarthritic activity of CS seed hydroalcoholic extract (CSHE) was evaluated in adult Wistar rats by using two experimental models, viz. formaldehyde and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (predominantly contributed by macrophages) was also evaluated. TNF-α level was estimated in serum by ELISA method. TNF-R1, IL-1 β and IL-6 expression in the synovium was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Results: CSHE produced a dose dependent inhibition of joint swelling as compared to control animals in both, formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis. Although there was a dose dependent increase in serum TNF-α levels in the CSHE treated groups as compared to control, the synovial expression of macrophage derived pro-inflammatory cytokines/cytokine receptor was found to be lower in the CSHE treated groups as compared to control. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the antiarthritic activity of CSHE may be attributed to the modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the synovium. In further studies CSHE could be explored to be developed as a disease modifying agent in the treatment of RA. PMID:22446868
Aymerich-Franch, Laura; Petit, Damien; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Ganesh, Gowrishankar
2016-08-01
The question of how we attribute observed body parts as our own, and the consequences of this attribution on our sensory-motor processes, is fundamental to understand how our brain distinguishes between self and other. Previous studies have identified interactions between the illusion of ownership, and multi-sensory integration and cross-sensory predictions by the brain. Here we show that illusory ownership additionally modifies the motor-sensory predictions by the brain. In our preliminary experiments, we observed a new numbness illusion following the classical rubber-hand illusion (RHI); brushing only the rubber hand after induction of the RHI results in illusory numbness in one's real hand. Previous studies have shown that self-generated actions (like tickling) are attenuated by motor-sensory predictions by the so-called forward model. Motivated by this finding, here we examined whether the numbness illusion after the RHI is different when the rubber hand is brushed oneself, compared with when the brushing is performed by another. We observed that, all other conditions remaining the same, haptic perception in the real hand was lower (numbness higher) during self-generated brushing. Our result suggests that RHI reorganizes the forward model, such that we predict haptic consequences of self-generated motor actions on the rubber hand.
Unification of Dark Matter and Dark Energy in a Modified Entropic Force Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Zhe; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Xin
2011-07-01
In Verlinde's entropic force scenario of gravity, Newton's laws and Einstein equations can be obtained from the first principles and general assumptions. However, the equipartition law of energy is invalid at very low temperatures. We show clearly that the threshold of the equipartition law of energy is related with horizon of the universe. Thus, a one-dimensional Debye (ODD) model in the direction of radius of the modified entropic force (MEF) may be suitable in description of the accelerated expanding universe. We present a Friedmann cosmic dynamical model in the ODD-MEF framework. We examine carefully constraints on the ODD-MEF model from the Union2 compilation of the Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) collaboration, the data from the observation of the large-scale structure (LSS) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), i.e. SNe Ia+LSS+CMB. The combined numerical analysis gives the best-fit value of the model parameters ζ ≃ 10-9 and Ωm0 = 0.224, with χ2min = 591.156. The corresponding age of the universe agrees with the result of D. Spergel et al. [J.M. Bardeen, B. Carter, and S.W. Hawking, Commun. Math. Phys. 31 (1973) 161] at 95% confidence level. The numerical result also yields an accelerated expanding universe without invoking any kind of dark energy. Taking ζ(≡ 2πωD/H0) as a running parameter associated with the structure scale r, we obtain a possible unified scenario of the asymptotic flatness of the radial velocity dispersion of spiral galaxies, the accelerated expanding universe and the Pioneer 10/11 anomaly in the entropic force framework of Verlinde.
The modified unified interaction model: incorporation of dose-dependent localised recombination.
Lavon, A; Eliyahu, I; Oster, L; Horowitz, Y S
2015-02-01
The unified interaction model (UNIM) was developed to simulate thermoluminescence (TL) linear/supralinear dose-response and the dependence of the supralinearity on ionisation density, i.e. particle type and energy. Before the development of the UNIM, this behaviour had eluded all types of TL modelling including conduction band/valence band (CB/VB) kinetic models. The dependence of the supralinearity on photon energy was explained in the UNIM as due to the increasing role of geminate (localised recombination) with decreasing photon/electron energy. Recently, the Ben Gurion University group has incorporated the concept of trapping centre/luminescent centre (TC/LC) spatially correlated complexes and localised/delocalised recombination into the CB/VB kinetic modelling of the LiF:Mg,Ti system. Track structure considerations are used to describe the relative population of the TC/LC complexes by an electron-hole or by an electron-only as a function of both photon/electron energy and dose. The latter dependence was not included in the original UNIM formulation, a significant over-simplification that is herein corrected. The modified version, the M-UNIM, is then applied to the simulation of the linear/supralinear dose-response characteristics of composite peak 5 in the TL glow curve of LiF:Mg,Ti at two representative average photon/electron energies of 500 and 8 keV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
A modified flow/field model of the solar wind interaction with Mars
Stewart, B.K.
1992-01-01
A modified steady state flow/field model is applied to the direct interaction of the solar wind with the Martian ionosphere. The original flow/field model (Cloutier et al., 1987) is a one-dimensional, self-consistent derivation of differentials in vertical velocity, magnetic field, and ion densities from the coupled MHD equations. While successful in reproducing features of the ionosphere of Venus (Cloutier et al., 1987; McGary 1987) and of Mars (Stewart, 1989), the flow/field model required an independently specified heating term (Q). The requirement of this term implies the presence of an energy source not accounted for in conventional calculations. This source was previously simulated with the inclusion of Q, but an unrecognized momentum or pressure term the inclusion of Q, but an unrecognized momentum or pressure term may also provide the coupling with the solar wind without the need of the free parameter Q. An in-depth analysis of Pioneer Venus data in relation to the total conservation of momentum of the system led to the discovery that the total momentum was in most cases not entirely accounted for, and that this [open quotes]missing[close quotes] term was correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure. By including this missing pressure, a new set of differential equations, which were also extended to include horizontal velocity terms, was derived. Extrapolation of the missing pressure to Mars gave results that faithfully reproduced the ionospheric features associated with previous flow/field models while maintaining agreement with Viking 1 and 2 observations. Finally, the author suggests that the source of P[sub missing] could be a population of suprathermal particles within the ionosphere. The missing pressures in the Viking simulations are consistent with measured suprathermal pressures at Mars (Hanson and Mantas, 1988).
Large-scale hydrological modelling by using modified PUB recommendations: the India-HYPE case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pechlivanidis, I. G.; Arheimer, B.
2015-03-01
The Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) scientific initiative (2003-2012 by IAHS) put considerable effort into improving the reliability of hydrological models to predict flow response in ungauged rivers. PUB's collective experience advanced hydrologic science and defined guidelines to make predictions in catchments without observed runoff data. At present, there is a raised interest in applying catchment models for large domains and large data samples in a multi-basin manner. However, such modelling involves several sources of uncertainties, which may be caused by the imperfectness of input data, i.e. particularly regional and global databases. This may lead to inaccurate model parameterisation and incomplete process understanding. In order to bridge the gap between the best practices for single catchments and large-scale hydrology, we present a further developed and slightly modified version of the recommended best practices for PUB by Takeuchi et al. (2013). By using examples from a recent HYPE hydrological model set-up on the Indian subcontinent, named India-HYPE v1.0, we explore the recommendations, indicate challenges and recommend quality checks to avoid erroneous assumptions. We identify the obstacles, ways to overcome them and describe the work process related to: (a) errors and inconsistencies in global databases, unknown human impacts, poor data quality, (b) robust approaches to identify parameters using a stepwise calibration approach, remote sensing data, expert knowledge and catchment similarities; and (c) evaluation based on flow signatures and performance metrics, using both multiple criteria and multiple variables, and independent gauges for "blind tests". The results show that despite the strong hydro-climatic gradient over the subcontinent, a single model can adequately describe the spatial variability in dominant hydrological processes at the catchment scale. Eventually, during calibration of India-HYPE, the median Kling-Gupta Efficiency for
Setia, Raj; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Chittleborough, David; Smith, Jo
2011-08-01
Soil organic carbon (SOC) models such as the Rothamsted Carbon Model (RothC) have been used to estimate SOC dynamics in soils over different time scales but, until recently, their ability to accurately predict SOC stocks/carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions from salt-affected soils has not been assessed. Given the large extent of salt-affected soils (19% of the 20.8 billion ha of arable land on Earth), this may lead to miss-estimation of CO(2) release. Using soils from two salt-affected regions (one in Punjab, India and one in South Australia), an incubation study was carried out measuring CO(2) release over 120 days. The soils varied both in salinity (measured as electrical conductivity (EC) and calculated as osmotic potential using EC and water content) and sodicity (measured as sodium adsorption ratio, SAR). For soils from both regions, the osmotic potential had a significant positive relationship with CO(2)-C release, but no significant relationship was found between SAR and CO(2)-C release. The monthly cumulative CO(2)-C was simulated using RothC. RothC was modified to take into account reductions in plant inputs due to salinity. A subset of non-salt-affected soils was used to derive an equation for a "lab-effect" modifier to account for changes in decomposition under lab conditions and this modifier was significantly related with pH. Using a subset of salt-affected soils, a decomposition rate modifier (as a function of osmotic potential) was developed to match measured and modelled CO(2)-C release after correcting for the lab effect. Using this decomposition rate modifier, we found an agreement (R(2) = 0.92) between modelled and independently measured data for a set of soils from the incubation experiment. RothC, modified by including reduced plant inputs due to salinity and the salinity decomposition rate modifier, was used to predict SOC stocks of soils in a field in South Australia. The predictions clearly showed that SOC stocks are reduced in saline soils
Babakhani, Peyman; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Shamsai, Abolfazl; Lowry, Gregory V; Phenrat, Tanapon
2015-08-25
The solute transport model MODFLOW has become a standard tool in risk assessment and remediation design. However, particle transport models that take into account both particle agglomeration and deposition phenomena are far less developed. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the standard code MODFLOW/MT3D to simulate the agglomeration and transport of three different types of polymer-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) in one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) saturated porous media. A first-order decay of the particle population was used to account for the agglomeration of particles. An iterative technique was used to optimize the model parameters. The model provided good matches to 1-D NZVI-breakthrough data sets, with R (2) values ranging from 0.96 to 0.99, and mass recovery differences between the experimental results and simulations ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 %. Similarly, simulations of NZVI transport in the heterogeneous 2-D model demonstrated that the model can be applied to more complicated heterogeneous domains. However, the fits were less good, with the R (2) values in the 2-D modeling cases ranging from 0.75 to 0.95, while the mass recovery differences ranged from 0.7 to 6.5 %. Nevertheless, the predicted NZVI concentration contours during transport were in good agreement with the 2-D experimental observations. The model provides insights into NZVI transport in porous media by mathematically decoupling agglomeration, attachment, and detachment, and it illustrates the importance of each phenomenon in various situations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Hosaka, Koji; Downes, Daniel P; Nowicki, Kamil W; Hoh, Brian L
2014-01-01
Introduction Cerebral aneurysms occur in up to 5% of the population. There are several murine models of aneurysms; however, all have limitations and none reproducibly model aneurysm rupture. To fulfill this need, we modified two current rodent aneurysm models to create a murine model which reproducibly produces intracranial aneurysms and rupture. Methods The left common carotid arteries and the right renal arteries were ligated in C57BL/6 female mice with a hypertensive diet. One week later, small burr holes were created with a stereotactic frame using the following stereotactic measurements: 1.2 mm rostral and 0.7 mm lateral to the right of the bregma. A 26 G needle was gradually advanced via the burr hole until contact with the skull base, upon which the needle was pulled back 0.3 mm. Five, 10 and 20 μL of 10 U/mL elastase solution and 10 μL of 1 U/mL elastase solution were stereotactically injected into the basal cisterns. Angiotensin II was then continually infused at a dose of 1000 ng/kg/min via an osmotic pump placed subcutaneously. In the control mice, 20 μL bromophenol blue solution was injected. Three weeks later, or earlier if mice expired prior to 3 weeks, the circle of Willis was inspected by microscopy for aneurysm formation and/or signs of rupture. Histological analyses were then performed to evaluate elastic lamina destruction, inflammatory cell and macrophage infiltration, absence of intimal endothelial cells and thickening of the smooth muscle layer within the aneurysm wall. To compare with human aneurysms, human aneurysm specimens (n=35; 34 unruptured and 1 ruptured) and normal control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) (n=9) were examined. Results All mice given 5, 10 and 20 μL of 10 U/mL elastase solution developed intracranial aneurysms within the circle of Willis; 40%, 60% and 50% of mice had ruptured aneurysms, respectively. In mice given 10 μL of 1.0 U/mL elastase solution, 90% developed intracranial
Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Connizzo, Brianne K.; Freedman, Benjamin R.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Shenoy, Vivek B.
2014-01-01
Tendon has a complex hierarchical structure composed of both a collagenous and a non-collagenous matrix. Despite several studies that have aimed to elucidate the mechanism of load transfer between matrix components, the roles of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) remain controversial. Thus, this study investigated the elastic properties of tendon using a modified shear-lag model that accounts for the structure and non-linear mechanical response of the GAGs. Unlike prior shear-lag models that are solved either in two dimensions or in axially symmetric geometries, we present a closed-form analytical model for three-dimensional periodic lattices of fibrils linked by GAGs. Using this approach, we show that the non-linear mechanical response of the GAGs leads to a distinct toe region in the stress-strain response of the tendon. The critical strain of the toe region is shown to decrease inversely with fibril length. Furthermore, we identify a characteristic length scale, related to microstructural parameters (e.g. GAG spacing, stiffness, and geometry) over which load is transferred from the GAGs to the fibrils. We show that when the fibril lengths are significantly larger than this length scale, the mechanical properties of the tendon are relatively insensitive to deletion of GAGs. Our results provide a physical explanation for the insensitivity for the mechanical response of tendon to the deletion of GAGs in mature tendons, underscore the importance of fibril length in determining the elastic properties of the tendon, and are in excellent agreement with computationally intensive simulations. PMID:23932185
Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Connizzo, Brianne K; Freedman, Benjamin R; Soslowsky, Louis J; Shenoy, Vivek B
2013-09-27
Tendon has a complex hierarchical structure composed of both a collagenous and a non-collagenous matrix. Despite several studies that have aimed to elucidate the mechanism of load transfer between matrix components, the roles of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) remain controversial. Thus, this study investigated the elastic properties of tendon using a modified shear-lag model that accounts for the structure and non-linear mechanical response of the GAGs. Unlike prior shear-lag models that are solved either in two dimensions or in axially symmetric geometries, we present a closed-form analytical model for three-dimensional periodic lattices of fibrils linked by GAGs. Using this approach, we show that the non-linear mechanical response of the GAGs leads to a distinct toe region in the stress-strain response of the tendon. The critical strain of the toe region is shown to decrease inversely with fibril length. Furthermore, we identify a characteristic length scale, related to microstructural parameters (e.g. GAG spacing, stiffness, and geometry) over which load is transferred from the GAGs to the fibrils. We show that when the fibril lengths are significantly larger than this length scale, the mechanical properties of the tendon are relatively insensitive to deletion of GAGs. Our results provide a physical explanation for the insensitivity for the mechanical response of tendon to the deletion of GAGs in mature tendons, underscore the importance of fibril length in determining the elastic properties of the tendon, and are in excellent agreement with computationally intensive simulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krench, Megan; Littleton, J Troy
2013-01-01
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the huntingtin (Htt) gene. Despite years of research, there is no treatment that extends life for patients with the disorder. Similarly, little is known about which cellular pathways that are altered by pathogenic Huntingtin (Htt) protein expression are correlated with neuronal loss. As part of a longstanding effort to gain insights into HD pathology, we have been studying the protein in the context of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. We generated transgenic HD models in Drosophila by engineering flies that carry a 12-exon fragment of the human Htt gene with or without the toxic trinucleotide repeat expansion. We also created variants with a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) tag fused to Htt that allows in vivo imaging of Htt protein localization and aggregation. While wild-type Htt remains diffuse throughout the cytoplasm of cells, pathogenic Htt forms insoluble aggregates that accumulate in neuronal soma and axons. Aggregates can physically block transport of numerous organelles along the axon. We have also observed that aggregates are formed quickly, within just a few hours of mutant Htt expression. To explore mechanisms of neurodegeneration in our HD model, we performed in vivo and in vitro screens to search for modifiers of viability and pathogenic Htt aggregation. Our results identified several novel candidates for HD therapeutics that can now be tested in mammalian models of HD. Furthermore, these experiments have highlighted the complex relationship between aggregates and toxicity that exists in HD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yun
2017-01-01
We present a new approach to measuring cosmic expansion history and growth rate of large-scale structure using the anisotropic two-dimensional galaxy correlation function (2DCF) measured from data; it makes use of the empirical modelling of small-scale galaxy clustering derived from numerical simulations by Zheng et al. We validate this method using mock catalogues, before applying it to the analysis of the CMASS sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find that this method enables accurate and precise measurements of cosmic expansion history and growth rate of large-scale structure. Modelling the 2DCF fully including non-linear effects and redshift space distortions in the scale range of 16-144 h-1 Mpc, we find H(0.57)rs(zd)/c = 0.0459 ± 0.0006, DA(0.57)/rs(zd) = 9.011 ± 0.073, and fg(0.57)σ8(0.57) = 0.476 ± 0.050, which correspond to precisions of 1.3 per cent, 0.8 per cent, and 10.5 per cent, respectively. We have defined rs(zd) to be the sound horizon at the drag epoch computed using a simple integral, fg(z) as the growth rate at redshift z, and σ8(z) as the matter power spectrum normalization on 8 h-1 Mpc scale at z. We find that neglecting the small-scale information significantly weakens the constraints on H(z) and DA(z), and leads to a biased estimate of fg(z). Our results indicate that we can significantly tighten constraints on dark energy and modified gravity by reliably modelling small-scale galaxy clustering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jie; Li, Xi; Mou, Hong-Gang; Jian, Li
Thermal management for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is actually temperature control, due to the importance of cell temperature for the performance of an SOFC. An SOFC stack is a nonlinear and multi-variable system which is difficult to model by traditional methods. A modified Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model that is suitable for nonlinear systems is built to model the SOFC stack. The model parameters are initialized by the fuzzy c-means clustering method, and learned using an off-line back-propagation algorithm. In order to obtain the training data to identify the modified T-S model, a SOFC physical model via MATLAB is established. The temperature model is the center of the physical model and is developed by enthalpy-balance equations. It is shown that the modified T-S fuzzy model is sufficiently accurate to follow the temperature response of the stack, and can be conveniently utilized to design temperature control strategies.
Estimating Modifying Effect of Age on Genetic and Environmental Variance Components in Twin Models
He, Liang; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pitkäniemi, Janne
2016-01-01
more insights into age-specific heritability of BMI and evidence of G × E interactions. These findings highlight the fundamental importance and implication of the proposed models in facilitating twin studies to investigate the heritability specific to age and other modifying factors. PMID:26868768
Estimating Modifying Effect of Age on Genetic and Environmental Variance Components in Twin Models.
He, Liang; Sillanpää, Mikko J; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pitkäniemi, Janne
2016-04-01
insights into age-specific heritability of BMI and evidence ofG×Einteractions. These findings highlight the fundamental importance and implication of the proposed models in facilitating twin studies to investigate the heritability specific to age and other modifying factors. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.
Yu, Tung Fai; Wilson, Adrian J
2014-05-01
In this paper we present an experimental method of parameterising the passive mechanical characteristics of the bicep and tricep muscles in vivo, by fitting the dynamics of a two muscle arm model incorporating anatomically meaningful and structurally identifiable modified Hill muscle models to measured elbow movements. Measurements of the passive flexion and extension of the elbow joint were obtained using 3D motion capture, from which the elbow angle trajectories were determined and used to obtain the spring constants and damping coefficients in the model through parameter estimation. Four healthy subjects were used in the experiments. Anatomical lengths and moment of inertia values of the subjects were determined by direct measurement and calculation. There was good reproducibility in the measured arm movement between trials, and similar joint angle trajectory characteristics were seen between subjects. Each subject had their own set of fitted parameter values determined and the results showed good agreement between measured and simulated data. The average fitted muscle parallel spring constant across all subjects was 143 N/m and the average fitted muscle parallel damping constant was 1.73 Ns/m. The passive movement method was proven to be successful, and can be applied to other joints in the human body, where muscles with similar actions are grouped together. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Zellnitz, Sarah; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of surface characteristics (surface roughness and specific surface area) of surface-modified glass beads as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) on the aerosolization, and thus, the in vitro respirable fraction often referred to as fine particle fraction (FPF). By processing glass beads in a ball mill with different grinding materials (quartz and tungsten carbide) and varying grinding time (4 h and 8 h), and by plasma etching for 1 min, glass beads with different shades of surface roughness and increased surface area were prepared. Compared with untreated glass beads, the surface-modified rough glass beads show increased FPFs. The drug detachment from the modified glass beads is also more reproducible than from untreated glass beads indicated by lower standard deviations for the FPFs of the modified glass beads. Moreover, the FPF of the modified glass beads correlates with their surface characteristics. The higher the surface roughness and the higher the specific surface area of the glass beads the higher is the FPF. Thus, surface-modified glass beads make an ideal carrier for tailoring the performance of DPIs in the therapy of asthma and chronically obstructive pulmonary diseases.
Wen-tao, Qi; Ying, Zhang; Juan, Ma; Xin, Guo; Yu-bing, Xie; Wei, Wang; Xiaojun, Ma
2006-04-05
Cell microencapsulation is one of the promising strategies for the in vitro production of proteins or in vivo delivery of therapeutic products. In order to design and fabricate the optimized microencapsulated cell system, the Gompertz model was applied and modified to describe the growth and metabolism of microencapsulated cell, including substrate consumption and product formation. The Gompertz model successfully described the cell growth kinetics and the modified Gompertz models fitted the substrate consumption and product formation well. It was demonstrated that the optimal initial cell seeding density was about 4-5 x 10(6) cells/mL of microcapsule, in terms of the maximum specific growth rate, the glucose consumption potential and the product formation potential calculated by the Gompertz and modified Gompertz models. Modeling of cell growth and metabolism in microcapsules provides a guideline for optimizing the culture of microencapsulated cells.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salas, M. D.; Kuehn, M. S.
1994-01-01
Original version of program incorporated into program SRGULL (LEW-15093) for use on National Aero-Space Plane project, its duty being to model forebody, inlet, and nozzle portions of vehicle. However, real-gas chemistry effects in hypersonic flow fields limited accuracy of that version, because it assumed perfect-gas properties. As a result, SEAGULL modified according to real-gas equilibrium-chemistry methodology. This program analyzes two-dimensional, hypersonic flows of real gases. Modified version of SEAGULL maintains as much of original program as possible, and retains ability to execute original perfect-gas version.
Knight, Paul E; Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael
2009-06-01
The rheological properties of different types of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) mixed with model drugs and water have been evaluated to identify the influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) added to the cellulose during preparation. A ram extruder was used as a capillary rheometer. The mixtures consisted of 20% spheronizing agent (standard grade MCC or modified types with 6% or 8% of low viscosity grade SCMC) and 80% of ascorbic acid, ibuprofen or lactose monohydrate. The introduction of SCMC changed all rheological parameters assessed. It produced more rigid systems, requiring more stress to induce and maintain flow. Degree of non-Newtonian flow, angle of convergence, extensional viscosity, yield and die land shear stress at zero velocity, and static wall friction were increased, but recoverable shear and compliance were decreased. The presence of SCMC did not remove the influence of the type of drug. The mixture of ibuprofen and standard MCC had the lowest values for shear stress as a function of the rate of shear, extensional viscosity, and angle of convergence, but the highest values for recoverable shear and compliance. The findings indicate that the system has insufficient rigidity to form pellets. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Luca, Lorenzini; Alessandro, Giuliani; Sandra, Sivilia; Antonio, Baldassarro Vito; Mercedes, Fernandez; Matteo, Lotti Margotti; Luciana, Giardino; Vania, Fontani; Salvatore, Rinaldi; Laura, Calzà
2016-01-01
The search for new therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer disease (AD) is a major goal in medicine and society, also due to the impressive economic and social costs of this disease. In this scenario, biotechnologies play an important role. Here, it is demonstrated that the Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC), an innovative technology platform for neuro- and bio-modulation, used according to the neuro-regenerative protocol (RGN-N), significantly increases astroglial reaction around the amyloid plaques in an AD mouse model, as evaluated by GFAP-immunoreactivity, and reduces microglia-associated neuroinflammation markers, as evaluated by Iba1-immunoreactivity and mRNA expression level of inflammatory cytokines TREM. IL1beta, iNOS and MRC1 were not affected neither by the genotype or by REAC RGN-N treatment. Also observed was an increase in locomotion in treated animals. The study was performed in 24-month-old male Tg2576 mice and age-matching wild-type animals, tested for Y-maze, contextual fear conditioning and locomotion immediately after the end of a specific REAC treatment administered for 15 hours/day for 15 days. These results demonstrated that REAC RGN-N treatment modifies pathological neuroinflammation, and mitigates part of the complex motor behaviour alterations observed in very old Tg2576 mice. PMID:27775040
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Y. K.
2016-09-01
A statistical density model for composite system scattering is formulated, by incorporating the ensemble density functional approach in describing the correlation dynamics during the collision. The principal difficulty of non-integrable propagating waves is first resolved by treating the open and closed channels separately; only the closed channel part does allow a density description. The unique open/closed channel separation adopted here allows not only the closed channel Hamiltonian MQ to support integrable densities, but also to establish the important bounds on the scattering amplitude. A modified ensemble energy functional for the MQ is constructed, and the statistical densities ρmtQ for the closed channels are generated. The scattering amplitude is then formulated in terms of the ρmtQ and the coefficients of variation that connect the closed channels to the asymptotic source. Evaluation of the amplitude integrals requires the determinantal functions deduced from the ρmtQ, which also leads to a coupled channel approach. The bound property of the amplitude allows variational optimization of the coefficients. Approximate procedures for securing the orthogonality of the MQ and for evaluation of the source term itself are discussed, including a judicious choice of configurations with zero and one inner-shell holes. Validity of the several critical modifications introduced is assessed.
Zhao, Peng; Huang, Yongfeng; Shen, Yutian; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng
2017-03-02
A modified Wenzel model is proposed for describing the wetting behavior of van der Waals layered materials with topographic surfaces, based on the measured linear relationship between water wetting and surface roughness for high quality Bi2Se3 thin films, synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the optimized temperature window of 180-200 °C. The water contact angles are found to have apparent dependence on the nanoscale surface morphology, enabling film wettability as a new tool to quickly characterize the quality of atomically thin films. The water contact angle of the ideal Bi2Se3 surface is inferred to be ∼98.4°, indicating its intrinsic hydrophobic nature; however, the edge of the terrace on its surface is extremely hydrophilic, leading to easy hydrophobic/hydrophilic transitions. The atomistic mechanism is further revealed by first principles calculations. The regulated wettability is of great importance for electronic applications of Bi2Se3 and other two-dimensional materials with distinctive electronic structures.
Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Horita, Katsuhei; Iwase, Takuji; Endo, Tokiko
2008-07-01
In this study, we developed an automatic extraction scheme for the precise recognition of the contours of masses on digital mammograms in order to improve a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. We propose a radial-searching contour extraction method based on a modified active contour model (ACM). In this technique, after determining the central point of a mass by searching for the direction of the density gradient, we arranged an initial contour at the central point, and the movement of a control point was limited to directions radiating from the central point. Moreover, it became possible to increase the extraction accuracy by sorting out the pixel used for processing and using two images-an edge-intensity image and a degree-of-separation image defined based on the pixel-value histogram-for calculation of the image forces used for constraints on deformation of the ACM. We investigated the accuracy of the automated extraction method by using 53 masses with several "difficult contours" on 53 digitized mammograms. The extraction results were compared quantitatively with the "correct segmentation" represented by an experienced physician's sketches. The numbers of cases in which the extracted region corresponded to the correct region with overlap ratios of more than 81 and 61% were 30 and 45, respectively. The initial results obtained with this technique show that it will be useful for the segmentation of masses in CAD schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balista, Junius André F.; Saloma, Caesar
2015-01-01
We show that at the onset of convection, the acceleration of a confined granular material is not necessarily equal to that of its vibrated container. Convection happens when the material is able to counter the downward gravitational pull and accelerates at a rate that is equal to the gravitational acceleration g. We modify the Inelastic Bouncing Ball Model and incorporate the transmissibility parameter Tr which measures the efficiency that the external force driving the container is transmitted to the material itself. For a specified Tr value, the material is represented by an inelastic bouncing ball with a time-of-flight T(Γ ;Tr) where Γ =A0ω2 / g, is the dimensionless container acceleration, and A0 and ω are the driving amplitude and angular frequency, respectively. For a given Γ-range, the T(Γ ;Tr) curve provides the bifurcation diagram of the perturbed material and a family of bifurcation diagrams is generated for a set of Tr values. We illustrate that Tr is useful in rationalizing experimental results produced by confined granular materials that is subjected to a range of applied force magnitudes. For the same physical set-up, the force transmission efficiency from the container to the grains may not remain constant as the force strength is varied. The efficiency is also affected by the presence or absence of air in the vibrated container.
Gene therapy model of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency using a modified foamy virus vector.
Horino, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Toru; So, Takanori; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Sun, Shu-Lan; Sato, Miki; Asao, Atsuko; Haji, Yoichi; Sasahara, Yoji; Candotti, Fabio; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kure, Shigeo; Sugamura, Kazuo; Ishii, Naoto
2013-01-01
X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is an inherited genetic immunodeficiency associated with mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) gene, and characterized by a complete defect of T and natural killer (NK) cells. Gene therapy for SCID-X1 using conventional retroviral (RV) vectors carrying the γc gene results in the successful reconstitution of T cell immunity. However, the high incidence of vector-mediated T cell leukemia, caused by vector insertion near or within cancer-related genes has been a serious problem. In this study, we established a gene therapy model of mouse SCID-X1 using a modified foamy virus (FV) vector expressing human γc. Analysis of vector integration in a human T cell line demonstrated that the FV vector integration sites were significantly less likely to be located within or near transcriptional start sites than RV vector integration sites. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, bone marrow cells from γc-knockout (γc-KO) mice were infected with the FV vector and transplanted into γc-KO mice. Transplantation of the FV-treated cells resulted in the successful reconstitution of functionally active T and B cells. These data suggest that FV vectors can be effective and may be safer than conventional RV vectors for gene therapy for SCID-X1.
FUS/TLS acts as an aggregation-dependent modifier of polyglutamine disease model mice
Kino, Yoshihiro; Washizu, Chika; Kurosawa, Masaru; Yamada, Mizuki; Doi, Hiroshi; Takumi, Toru; Adachi, Hiroaki; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen; Hicks, Geoffrey G.; Hattori, Nobutaka; Shimogori, Tomomi; Nukina, Nobuyuki
2016-01-01
FUS/TLS is an RNA/DNA-binding protein associated with neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Previously, we found that a prion-like domain in the N-terminus of FUS/TLS mediates co-aggregation between FUS/TLS and mutant huntingtin, the gene product of Huntington’s disease (HD). Here, we show that heterozygous knockout of FUS/TLS worsened the phenotypes of model mice of (HD, but not spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). This difference was correlated with the degree of pathological association between disease proteins and FUS/TLS. Co-aggregation between FUS/TLS and mutant huntingtin resulted in the depletion of free FUS/TLS protein in HD mice that was detected as a monomer in SDS-PAGE analysis. Recently, we found that FUS/TLS paralogs, TAF15 and EWS, were up-regulated in homozygous FUS/TLS knockout mice. These two proteins were up-regulated in both HD and FUS/TLS heterozygote mice, and were further elevated in HD-TLS+/− double mutant mice, consistent with the functional impairment of FUS/TLS. These results suggest that FUS/TLS sequestration by co-aggregation is a rate-limiting factor of disease phenotypes of HD and that inclusions may have an adverse aspect, rather than being simply benign or protective. In addition, our results highlight inclusions as repositories of potential modifiers of neurodegeneration. PMID:27739513
Laboratory modelling of the wind-wave interaction with modified PIV-method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Bopp, Maximilian; Jaehne, Bernd
2016-11-01
Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), in conditions modeling the near water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The main modifications are: 1) the use of high-speed video recording (1000-10000 frames/sec) with continuous laser illumination helps to obtain ensemble of the velocity fields in all phases of the wavy surface for subsequent statistical processing; 2) the development and application of special algorithms for obtaining form of the curvilinear wavy surface of the images for the conditions of parasitic images of the particles and the droplets in the air side close to the surface; 3) adaptive cross-correlation image processing to finding the velocity fields on a curved grid, caused by wave boarder; 4) using Hilbert transform to detect the phase of the wave in which the measured velocity field for subsequent appropriate binning within procedure obtaining the average characteristics.
Gene Therapy Model of X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Using a Modified Foamy Virus Vector
Horino, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Toru; So, Takanori; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Sun, Shu-lan; Sato, Miki; Asao, Atsuko; Haji, Yoichi; Sasahara, Yoji; Candotti, Fabio; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Kure, Shigeo; Sugamura, Kazuo; Ishii, Naoto
2013-01-01
X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is an inherited genetic immunodeficiency associated with mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) gene, and characterized by a complete defect of T and natural killer (NK) cells. Gene therapy for SCID-X1 using conventional retroviral (RV) vectors carrying the γc gene results in the successful reconstitution of T cell immunity. However, the high incidence of vector-mediated T cell leukemia, caused by vector insertion near or within cancer-related genes has been a serious problem. In this study, we established a gene therapy model of mouse SCID-X1 using a modified foamy virus (FV) vector expressing human γc. Analysis of vector integration in a human T cell line demonstrated that the FV vector integration sites were significantly less likely to be located within or near transcriptional start sites than RV vector integration sites. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, bone marrow cells from γc-knockout (γc-KO) mice were infected with the FV vector and transplanted into γc-KO mice. Transplantation of the FV-treated cells resulted in the successful reconstitution of functionally active T and B cells. These data suggest that FV vectors can be effective and may be safer than conventional RV vectors for gene therapy for SCID-X1. PMID:23990961
Dark-polariton bound pairs in the modified Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maggitti, A.; Radonjić, M.; Jelenković, B. M.
2016-01-01
We investigate a one-dimensional modified Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard chain of N identical QED cavities with nearest-neighbor photon tunneling and periodic boundary conditions. Each cavity contains an embedded three-level atom which is coupled to a cavity mode and an external classical control field. In the case of two excitations and common large detuning of two Raman-resonant fields, we show the emergence of two different species of dark-polariton bound pairs (DPBPs) that are mutually localized in their relative spatial coordinates. Due to the high degree of controllability, we show the appearance of either one or two DPBPs, having the energies within the energy gaps between three bands of mutually delocalized eigenstates. Interestingly, in a different parameter regime with negatively detuned Raman fields, we find that the ground state of the system is a DPBP which can be utilized for the photon storage, retrieval, and controllable state preparation. Moreover, we propose an experimental realization of our model system.
Disease Modifying Effects of the Spider Toxin Parawixin2 in the Experimental Epilepsy Model.
Godoy, Lívea Dornela; Liberato, José Luiz; Celani, Marcus Vinícius Batista; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira
2017-08-25
(1) Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults. It is also the one with the highest percentage of drug-resistance to the current available anti-epileptic drugs (AED). Additionaly, most antiepileptic drugs are only able to control seizures in epileptogenesis, but do not decrease the hippocampal neurodegenerative process. TLE patients have a reduced population of interneuronal cells, which express Parvalbumin (PV) proteins. This reduction is directly linked to seizure frequency and severity in the chronic period of epilepsy. There is therefore a need to seek new therapies with a disease-modifying profile, and with efficient antiepileptic and neuroprotective properties. Parawixin2, a compound isolated from the venom of the spider Parawixia bistriata, has been shown to inhibit GABA transporters (GAT) and to have acute anticonvulsant effects in rats. (2) Methods: In this work, we studied the effects of Parawixin2 and Tiagabine (an FDA- approved GAT inhibitor), and compared these effects in a TLE model. Rats were subjected to lithium-pilocarpine TLE model and the main features were evaluated over a chronic period including: (a) spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), (b) neuronal loss, and (c) PV cell density in different regions of the hippocampus (CA1, CA3, DG and Hilus). (3) Results: Parawixin2 treatment reduced SRS frequency whereas Tiagabine did not. We also found a significant reduction in neuronal loss in CA3 and in the hilus regions of the hippocampus, in animals treated with Parawixin2. Noteworthy, Parawixin2 significantly reversed PV cell loss observed particularly in DG layers. (4) Conclusions: Parawixin2 exerts a promising neuroprotective and anti-epileptic effect and has potential as a novel agent in drug design.
Disease Modifying Effects of the Spider Toxin Parawixin2 in the Experimental Epilepsy Model
Godoy, Lívea Dornela; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira
2017-01-01
(1) Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults. It is also the one with the highest percentage of drug-resistance to the current available anti-epileptic drugs (AED). Additionaly, most antiepileptic drugs are only able to control seizures in epileptogenesis, but do not decrease the hippocampal neurodegenerative process. TLE patients have a reduced population of interneuronal cells, which express Parvalbumin (PV) proteins. This reduction is directly linked to seizure frequency and severity in the chronic period of epilepsy. There is therefore a need to seek new therapies with a disease-modifying profile, and with efficient antiepileptic and neuroprotective properties. Parawixin2, a compound isolated from the venom of the spider Parawixia bistriata, has been shown to inhibit GABA transporters (GAT) and to have acute anticonvulsant effects in rats. (2) Methods: In this work, we studied the effects of Parawixin2 and Tiagabine (an FDA- approved GAT inhibitor), and compared these effects in a TLE model. Rats were subjected to lithium-pilocarpine TLE model and the main features were evaluated over a chronic period including: (a) spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), (b) neuronal loss, and (c) PV cell density in different regions of the hippocampus (CA1, CA3, DG and Hilus). (3) Results: Parawixin2 treatment reduced SRS frequency whereas Tiagabine did not. We also found a significant reduction in neuronal loss in CA3 and in the hilus regions of the hippocampus, in animals treated with Parawixin2. Noteworthy, Parawixin2 significantly reversed PV cell loss observed particularly in DG layers. (4) Conclusions: Parawixin2 exerts a promising neuroprotective and anti-epileptic effect and has potential as a novel agent in drug design. PMID:28841161
Stamatopoulos, Konstantinos; Batchelor, Hannah K; Simmons, Mark J H
2016-11-01
The human proximal colon has been considered a favourable site to deliver drugs for local and systemic treatments. However, modified dosage forms face a complex and dynamically changing colonic environment. Therefore, it has been realized that in addition to the use of biorelevant media, the hydrodynamics also need to be reproduced to create a powerful in vitro dissolution model to enable in vivo performance of the dosage forms to be predicted. A novel biorelevant Dynamic Colon Model (DCM) has been developed which provides a realistic environment in terms of the architecture of the smooth muscle, the physical pressures and the motility patterns occurring in the proximal human colon. Measurements of pressure inside the DCM tube confirmed a direct association between the magnitude of the pressure signal with the occlusion rate of the membrane and the viscosity of the fluid. The dissolution profile and the distribution of the highly soluble drug, theophylline, were assessed by collecting samples at different locations along the DCM tube. Differences in the release rates of the drug were observed which were affected by the sampling point location, the viscosity of the fluid and the mixing within the DCM tube. Images of the overall convective motion of the fluid inside the DCM tube obtained using Positron Emission Tomography enabled relation of the distribution of the tracer to likely areas of high and low concentrations of the theophylline drug. This information provides improved understanding of how extensive phenomena such as supersaturation and precipitation of the drug may be during the passage of the dosage form through the proximal colon. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bansode, Vijay B.; Koentgen, Frank; Trüb, Judith; Pelczar, Pawel; Schneider-Yin, Xiaoye; Minder, Elisabeth I.
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is caused by deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH), which incorporates iron into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) to form heme. Excitation of accumulated PPIX by light generates oxygen radicals that evoke excessive pain and, after longer light exposure, cause ulcerations in exposed skin areas of individuals with EPP. Moreover, ∼5% of the patients develop a liver dysfunction as a result of PPIX accumulation. Most patients (∼97%) have a severe FECH mutation (Mut) in trans to an intronic polymorphism (c.315-48C), which reduces ferrochelatase synthesis by stimulating the use of an aberrant 3′ splice site 63 nt upstream of the normal site for exon 4. In contrast, with the predominant c.315-48T allele, the correct splice site is mostly used, and individuals with a T/Mut genotype do not develop EPP symptoms. Thus, the C allele is a potential target for therapeutic approaches that modify this splicing decision. To provide a model for pre-clinical studies of such approaches, we engineered a mouse containing a partly humanized Fech gene with the c.315-48C polymorphism. F1 hybrids obtained by crossing these mice with another inbred line carrying a severe Fech mutation (named m1Pas) show a very strong EPP phenotype that includes elevated PPIX in the blood, enlargement of liver and spleen, anemia, as well as strong pain reactions and skin lesions after a short period of light exposure. In addition to the expected use of the aberrant splice site, the mice also show a strong skipping of the partly humanized exon 3. This will limit the use of this model for certain applications and illustrates that engineering of a hybrid gene may have unforeseeable consequences on its splicing. PMID:28093505
Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hong Min; Kwon, Kee Woong; Cho, Sang-Nae; Shin, Sung Jae; Koh, Won-Jung
2015-01-01
The latency and reactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been well studied. However, there have been few studies of the latency and reactivation of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), the most common etiological non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species next to M. tuberculosis in humans worldwide. We hypothesized that latent MAC infections can be reactivated following immunosuppression after combination chemotherapy with clarithromycin and rifampicin under experimental conditions. To this end, we employed a modified Cornell-like murine model of tuberculosis and investigated six strains consisting of two type strains and four clinical isolates of M. avium and M. intracellulare. After aerosol infection of each MAC strain, five to six mice per group were euthanized at 2, 4, 10, 18, 28 and 35 weeks post-infection, and lungs were sampled to analyze bacterial burden and histopathology. One strain of each species maintained a culture-negative state for 10 weeks after completion of 6 weeks of chemotherapy, but was reactivated after 5 weeks of immunosuppression in the lungs with dexamethasone (three out of six mice in M. avium infection) or sulfasalazine (four out of six mice in both M. avium and M. intracellulare infection). The four remaining MAC strains exhibited decreased bacterial loads in response to chemotherapy; however, they remained at detectable levels and underwent regrowth after immunosuppression. In addition, the exacerbated lung pathology demonstrated a correlation with bacterial burden after reactivation. In conclusion, our results suggest the possibility of MAC reactivation in an experimental mouse model, and experimentally demonstrate that a compromised immune status can induce reactivation and/or regrowth of MAC infection. PMID:26406237
2015-08-01
MODIFIED MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION METHOD FOR COMPLETELY SEPARATED AND QUASI-COMPLETELY SEPARATED DATA...Likelihood Estimation Method for Completely Separated and Quasi-Completely Separated Data for a Dose-Response Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...quasi-completely separated , the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method generates infinite estimates. The bias-reduction (BR) method
K. J. Skipka; D. B. Smith
1977-01-01
Alternative control strategies were developed for achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards in Portland, Maine, and its environs, using a modified climatological dispersion model (CDM) and manipulating the sulfur content of the fuel oil consumed in four concentric zones. Strategies were evaluated for their impact on ambient air quality, economics, and...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Wen; Krautblatter, Michael; Leith, Kerry; Thuro, Kurosch; Festl, Judith
2017-09-01
Deep-seated landslides are an important and widespread natural hazard within alpine regions and can have significant impacts on infrastructure. Pore water pressure plays an important role in determining the stability of hydrologically triggered deep-seated landslides. Based on a simple tank model structure, we improve groundwater level prediction by introducing time lags associated with groundwater supply caused by snow accumulation, snowmelt and infiltration in deep-seated landslides. In this study, we demonstrate an equivalent infiltration calculation to improve the estimation of time lags using a modified tank model to calculate regional groundwater levels. Applied to the deep-seated Aggenalm landslide in the German Alps at 1000-1200 m a. s. l. , our results predict daily changes in pore water pressure ranging from -1 to 1.6 kPa, depending on daily rainfall and snowmelt, which are compared to piezometric measurements in boreholes. The inclusion of time lags improves the results of standard tank models by ˜ 36 % (linear correlation with measurement) after heavy rainfall and by ˜ 82 % following snowmelt in a 1-2-day period. For the modified tank model, we introduced a representation of snow accumulation and snowmelt based on a temperature index and an equivalent infiltration method, i.e. the melted snow-water equivalent. The modified tank model compares well to borehole-derived water pressures. Changes of pore water pressure can be modelled with 0-8 % relative error in rainfall season (standard tank model: 2-16 % relative error) and with 0-7 % relative error in snowmelt season (standard tank model: 2-45 % relative error). Here we demonstrate a modified tank model for deep-seated landslides which includes snow accumulation, snowmelt and infiltration effects and can effectively predict changes in pore water pressure in alpine environments.
Neelon, Brian; O'Malley, A James; Smith, Valerie A
2016-11-30
Health services data often contain a high proportion of zeros. In studies examining patient hospitalization rates, for instance, many patients will have no hospitalizations, resulting in a count of zero. When the number of zeros is greater or less than expected under a standard count model, the data are said to be zero modified relative to the standard model. A similar phenomenon arises with semicontinuous data, which are characterized by a spike at zero followed by a continuous distribution with positive support. When analyzing zero-modified count and semicontinuous data, flexible mixture distributions are often needed to accommodate both the excess zeros and the typically skewed distribution of nonzero values. Various models have been introduced over the past three decades to accommodate such data, including hurdle models, zero-inflated models, and two-part semicontinuous models. This tutorial describes recent modeling strategies for zero-modified count and semicontinuous data and highlights their role in health services research studies. Part 1 of the tutorial, presented here, provides a general overview of the topic. Part 2, appearing as a companion piece in this issue of Statistics in Medicine, discusses three case studies illustrating applications of the methods to health services research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jian, Shuai; Xie, Jianliang; Liu, Yunfeng; Liu, Wenle; Deng, Longjiang
2017-06-01
A Modified Kubelka's layer model is developed to accurately predict the infrared emissivity of low infrared emissivity coatings. The coatings are formed by mixing aluminum flakes with polymeric binders. According to distribution of the flake pigment, the Modified Kubelka's layer model is constructed with two sub-models: rough-surface and Kubelka's layer models. The facts of root-mean-square roughness (δ), root-mean-square surface slope (δ/a), thickness and volume concentration of flake pigment are systematically discussed. The results show that the flat distribution and high volume concentration of thin flake pigment result in low infrared emissivity. Our works offer the possibility of predicting the infrared optical properties of coatings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surzhikov, S. T.
2017-02-01
Spatial structure of the Penning discharge at pressures p = 0.1 - 0.01 Torr is investigated within the framework of the modified drift-diffusion model. This modification includes three models of elementary physical processes, which take into account peculiarities of gas discharge processes at low pressures and large reduced electric fields. Presented results of numerical simulations are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data.
Jiao, Yun; Yao, Hong-Hong; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yang, Jian; Ding, Jie; Yang, Xiang-Yu; Teng, Gao-Jun
2016-01-01
Aims To precisely characterize the penumbra by MRI based on a modified photothrombotic stroke mouse model. Methods The proximal middle cerebral artery was occluded by a convenient laser system in conjunction with an intravenous injection of Rose Bengal in mice. And the suture MCAO model was performed in seven mice as a comparison of the reproducibility. One hour after occlusion, the penumbra was defined in six random photothrombotic stroke mice by mismatch between perfusion-weighted imaging and the apparent diffusion coefficient map on a home-made workstation. After imaging, three random mice of them were chosen to perform the reperfusion surgery. And the other three mice were sacrificed to stain for several potential penumbra markers, such as c-fos and heart shock protein 90. In the remaining mice, the evolution of the lesions was detected on the apparent diffusion coefficient map, diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. After evaluating the neurological deficit scores, the brains were sectioned and stained by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Nissl. Results The mice subjected to photothrombosis showed significant behavioral deficits. One hour after occlusion, the low perfusion areas on the perfusion-weighted imaging interlaced with the hypointense areas on the apparent diffusion coefficient map, demonstrating that the penumbra was located both surrounding and inside the lesions. This phenomenon was subsequently confirmed by the c-fos and heart shock protein 90 staining. The final T2-weighted images of the mice subjected to the reperfusion surgery were also consistent with the penumbra images at one hour. At early stages, the lesions were clearly identified on the apparent diffusion coefficient map; the volumes of the lesions on the diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging did not reach a maximum until 12 hours. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the final lesions in the photothrombotic stroke mice was 21.7% (0
Qian, Cheng; Li, Pei-Cheng; Jiao, Yun; Yao, Hong-Hong; Chen, Yu-Chen; Yang, Jian; Ding, Jie; Yang, Xiang-Yu; Teng, Gao-Jun
2016-01-01
To precisely characterize the penumbra by MRI based on a modified photothrombotic stroke mouse model. The proximal middle cerebral artery was occluded by a convenient laser system in conjunction with an intravenous injection of Rose Bengal in mice. And the suture MCAO model was performed in seven mice as a comparison of the reproducibility. One hour after occlusion, the penumbra was defined in six random photothrombotic stroke mice by mismatch between perfusion-weighted imaging and the apparent diffusion coefficient map on a home-made workstation. After imaging, three random mice of them were chosen to perform the reperfusion surgery. And the other three mice were sacrificed to stain for several potential penumbra markers, such as c-fos and heart shock protein 90. In the remaining mice, the evolution of the lesions was detected on the apparent diffusion coefficient map, diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. After evaluating the neurological deficit scores, the brains were sectioned and stained by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Nissl. The mice subjected to photothrombosis showed significant behavioral deficits. One hour after occlusion, the low perfusion areas on the perfusion-weighted imaging interlaced with the hypointense areas on the apparent diffusion coefficient map, demonstrating that the penumbra was located both surrounding and inside the lesions. This phenomenon was subsequently confirmed by the c-fos and heart shock protein 90 staining. The final T2-weighted images of the mice subjected to the reperfusion surgery were also consistent with the penumbra images at one hour. At early stages, the lesions were clearly identified on the apparent diffusion coefficient map; the volumes of the lesions on the diffusion-weighted imaging and T2-weighted imaging did not reach a maximum until 12 hours. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the final lesions in the photothrombotic stroke mice was 21.7% (0.08 of 0.37) on T2
Mechanistic study of methanol synthesis from CO₂ and H₂ on a modified model Mo₆S₈ cluster
Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ping
2015-01-12
We report the methanol synthesis from CO₂ and H₂ on metal (M = K, Ti, Co, Rh, Ni, and Cu)-modified model Mo₆S₈ catalyst using density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the catalytic behavior of a Mo₆S₈ cluster is changed significantly due to the modifiers, via the electron transfer from M to Mo₆S₈ and therefore the reduction of the Mo cation (ligand effect) and the direct participation of M in the reaction (ensemble effect) to promote some elementary steps. With the most positively charged modifier, the ligand effect in the case of K-Mo₆S₈ is the most obvious among the systems studied; however it cannot compete with the ensemble effect, which plays a dominate role in determining activity via the electrostatic attraction in particular to stabilize the CH_{x}O_{y} species adsorbed at the Mo sites of Mo₆S₈. In comparison, the ligand effect is weaker and the ensemble effect is more important when the other modifiers are used. In addition, the modifiers also vary the optimal reaction pathway for methanol synthesis on Mo₆S₈, ranging from the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) + CO hydrogenation as that of Mo₆S₈ to the formate pathway. Finally, K is able to accelerate the methanol synthesis on Mo₆S₈ the most; while the promotion by Rh is relatively small. Using the modifiers like Ti, Co, Ni, and Cu, the activity of Mo₆S₈ is decreased instead. The relative stability between *HCOO and *HOCO is identified as a descriptor to capture the variation in mechanism and scales well with the estimated activity. Our study not only provides better understanding of the reaction mechanism and actives on the modified Mo₆S₈, but also predicts some possible candidates, which can be used a promoter to facilitate the CH₃OH synthesis on Mo sulfides.
Mechanistic study of methanol synthesis from CO₂ and H₂ on a modified model Mo₆S₈ cluster
Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ping
2015-01-12
We report the methanol synthesis from CO₂ and H₂ on metal (M = K, Ti, Co, Rh, Ni, and Cu)-modified model Mo₆S₈ catalyst using density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the catalytic behavior of a Mo₆S₈ cluster is changed significantly due to the modifiers, via the electron transfer from M to Mo₆S₈ and therefore the reduction of the Mo cation (ligand effect) and the direct participation of M in the reaction (ensemble effect) to promote some elementary steps. With the most positively charged modifier, the ligand effect in the case of K-Mo₆S₈ is the most obvious among themore » systems studied; however it cannot compete with the ensemble effect, which plays a dominate role in determining activity via the electrostatic attraction in particular to stabilize the CHxOy species adsorbed at the Mo sites of Mo₆S₈. In comparison, the ligand effect is weaker and the ensemble effect is more important when the other modifiers are used. In addition, the modifiers also vary the optimal reaction pathway for methanol synthesis on Mo₆S₈, ranging from the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) + CO hydrogenation as that of Mo₆S₈ to the formate pathway. Finally, K is able to accelerate the methanol synthesis on Mo₆S₈ the most; while the promotion by Rh is relatively small. Using the modifiers like Ti, Co, Ni, and Cu, the activity of Mo₆S₈ is decreased instead. The relative stability between *HCOO and *HOCO is identified as a descriptor to capture the variation in mechanism and scales well with the estimated activity. Our study not only provides better understanding of the reaction mechanism and actives on the modified Mo₆S₈, but also predicts some possible candidates, which can be used a promoter to facilitate the CH₃OH synthesis on Mo sulfides.« less
Edwards, J Vincent; Castro, Nathan J; Condon, Brian; Costable, Carmen; Goheen, Steven C
2012-05-01
Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatographic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressings is adsorption and accumulation of proteins like albumin at the solid-liquid interface of the biological fluid and wound dressing fiber. To better understand the effect of fiber charge and molecular modifications in cellulose-containing fibers on the binding of serum albumin as observed in protease sequestrant dressings, albumin binding to modified cotton fibers was compared with traditional and chromatographic isotherms. Modified cotton including carboxymethylated, citrate-crosslinked, dialdehyde and phosphorylated cotton, which sequester elastase and collagenase, were compared for their albumin binding isotherms. Albumin isotherms on citrate-cellulose, cross-linked cotton demonstrated a two-fold increased binding affinity over untreated cotton. A comparison of albumin binding between traditional, solution isotherms and chromatographic isotherms on modified cellulose yielded similar equilibrium constants. Application of the binding affinity of albumin obtained in the in vitro protein isotherm to the in vivo wound dressing uptake of the protein is discussed. The chromatographic approach to assessment of albumin isotherms on modified cellulose offers a more rapid approach to evaluating protein binding on modified cellulose over traditional solution approaches.
Djoumerska-Alexieva, Iglika; Pashova, Shina; Vassilev, Tchavdar; Pashov, Anastas
2013-04-01
Intravenous immunoglobulin preparations (IVIg) that have undergone a mild oxidizing treatment with ferrous ions have an increased polyspecificity, which is not associated with a higher propensity to form aggregates. Among other biological properties of the modified IVIg, a protective effect in LPS sepsis model stands out as the native preparation is totally devoid of it or even exacerbates sepsis. A recent finding identified an LPS induced subset of B1 lymphocytes that migrate from the peritoneal cavity to the spleen acquiring the expression of CD93, GM-CSF as well as the capacity to control sepsis. This report demonstrates that modified IVIg, but not the native preparation, causes a further increase in this population during LPS sepsis. Partial targeted suppression of the peritoneal B cell proliferation by an intracellular dye abrogates this effect and the clinical benefit of modified IVIg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W.; Smika, D. (Principal Investigator)
1981-01-01
The Robertson phenology was used to provide growth stage information to a wheat stress indicator mode. A stress indicator model demands two acurate predictions from a crop calendar: date of spring growth initiation; and crop calendar stage at growth initiation. Several approaches for restarting the Robertson phenology model at spring growth initiation were studied. Although best results were obtained with a solar thermal unit method, an alternate approach which indicates soil temperature as the controlling parameter for spring growth initiation was selected and tested. The modified model (Doraiswamy-Thompson) is compared to LACIE-Robertson model predictions.
A modified collagen gel enhances healing outcome in a preclinical swine model of excisional wounds.
Elgharably, Haytham; Roy, Sashwati; Khanna, Savita; Abas, Motaz; Dasghatak, Piya; Das, Amitava; Mohammed, Kareem; Sen, Chandan K
2013-01-01
Collagen-based dressings are of great interest in wound care. However, evidence supporting their mechanism of action is scanty. This work provides first results from a preclinical swine model of excisional wounds, elucidating the mechanism of action of a modified collagen gel (MCG) dressing. Following wounding, wound-edge tissue was collected at specific time intervals (3, 7, 14, and 21 days postwounding). On day 7, histological analysis showed significant increase in the length of rete ridges, suggesting improved biomechanical properties of the healing wound tissue. Rapid and transient mounting of inflammation is necessary for efficient healing. MCG significantly accelerated neutrophil and macrophage recruitment to the wound site on day 3 and day 7 with successful resolution of inflammation on day 21. MCG induced monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression in neutrophil-like human promyelocytic leukemia-60 cells in vitro. In vivo, MCG-treated wound tissue displayed elevated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Consistently, MCG-treated wounds displayed significantly higher abundance of endothelial cells with increased blood flow to the wound area indicating improved vascularization. This observation was explained by the finding that MCG enhanced proliferation of wound-site endothelial cells. In MCG-treated wound tissue, Masson's trichrome and picrosirius red staining showed higher abundance of collagen and increased collagen type I:III ratio. This work presents first evidence from a preclinical setting explaining how a collagen-based dressing may improve wound closure by targeting multiple key mechanisms. The current findings warrant additional studies to determine whether the responses to the MCG are different from other collagen-based products used in clinical setting.
Elgharably, Haytham; Ganesh, Kasturi; Dickerson, Jennifer; Khanna, Savita; Abas, Motaz; Ghatak, Piya Das; Dixit, Sriteja; Bergdall, Valerie; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K
2014-01-01
We recently performed proteomic characterization of a modified collagen gel (MCG) dressing and reported promising effects of the gel in healing full-thickness excisional wounds. In this work, we test the translational relevance of our aforesaid findings by testing the dressing in a swine model of chronic ischemic wounds recently reported by our laboratory. Full-thickness excisional wounds were established in the center of bipedicle ischemic skin flaps on the backs of animals. Ischemia was verified by laser Doppler imaging, and MCG was applied to the test group of wounds. Seven days post wounding, macrophage recruitment to the wound was significantly higher in MCG-treated ischemic wounds. In vitro, MCG up-regulated expression of Mrc-1 (a reparative M2 macrophage marker) and induced the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and of fibroblast growth factor-basic (β-FGF). An increased expression of CCR2, an M2 macrophage marker, was noted in the macrophages from MCG treated wounds. Furthermore, analyses of wound tissues 7 days post wounding showed up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor, von Willebrand's factor, and collagen type I expression in MCG-treated ischemic wounds. At 21 days post wounding, MCG-treated ischemic wounds displayed higher abundance of proliferating endothelial cells that formed mature vascular structures and increased blood flow to the wound. Fibroblast count was markedly higher in MCG-treated ischemic wound-edge tissue. In addition, MCG-treated wound-edge tissues displayed higher abundance of mature collagen with increased collagen type I : III deposition. Taken together, MCG helped mount a more robust inflammatory response that resolved in a timely manner, followed by an enhanced proliferative phase, angiogenic outcome, and postwound tissue remodeling. Findings of the current study warrant clinical testing of MCG in a setting of ischemic chronic wounds.
Pore Size Distributions Inferred from Modified Inversion Percolation Modeling of Drainage Curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dralus, D. E.; Wang, H. F.; Strand, T. E.; Glass, R. J.; Detwiler, R. L.
2005-12-01
Experiments have been conducted of drainage in sand packs. At equilibrium, the interface between the fluids forms a saturation transition fringe where the saturation decreases monotonically with height. This behavior was observed in a 1-inch thick pack of 20-30 sand contained front and back within two thin, 12-inch-by-24-inch glass plates. The translucent chamber was illuminated from behind by a bank of fluorescent bulbs. Acquired data were in the form of images captured by a CCD camera with resolution on the grain scale. The measured intensity of the transmitted light was used to calculate the average saturation at each point in the chamber. This study used a modified invasion percolation (MIP) model to simulate the drainage experiments to evaluate the relationship between the saturation-versus-height curve at equilibrium and the pore size distribution associated with the granular medium. The simplest interpretation of a drainage curve is in terms of a distribution of capillary tubes whose radii reproduce the the observed distribution of rise heights. However, this apparent radius distribution obtained from direct inversion of the saturation profile did not yield the assumed radius distribution. Further investigation demonstrated that the equilibrium height distribution is controlled primarily by the Bond number (ratio of gravity to capillary forces) with some influence from the width of the pore radius distribution. The width of the equilibrium fringe is quantified in terms of the ratio of Bond number to the standard deviation of the pore throat distribution. The normalized saturation-vs-height curves exhibit a power-law scaling behavior consistent with both Brooks-Corey and Van Genuchten type curves. Fundamental tenets of percolation theory were used to quantify the relationship between the apparent and actual radius distributions as a function of the mean coordination number and of the ratio of Bond number to standard deviation, which was supported by both MIP
The Modifier Model of Autism and Social Development in Higher Functioning Children
Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne Pradella; Coman, Drew C.
2009-01-01
The study of phenotypic variability in social impairments and comorbid emotional disorders in autism is important because it provides information on phenotypic differences that currently complicate diagnosis, research, and treatment of this disorder. Currently, though, relatively little is known about the processes that contribute to individual differences in social impairments and comorbidity in autism. In this paper, we present a model that suggests modifier processes (MPs), which are not necessarily specific to the syndrome refractor alter the expression of autism and contribute to fundamental behavioral and psychological differences in children diagnosed with this disorder. One MPs involves the somewhat surprising tendency of some children with higher functioning autism (HFA) to make attributions about other peoples thoughts, although they have social cognitive deficits Just as in other children, the attributions of children with HFA are linked to some of their behavioral problems Another MP involves the influence of differences in motivation associated with the behavioral activation and inhibition systems that can be assessed with measures of anterior EEG asymmetry. This dimension of motivation may be linked to how active but inappropriate and withdrawn children with HFA may appear. Third, differences in the self-monitoring of errors among children with HFA appear to be related to individual differences in IQ and social symptom severity in these children. The possible role of these MPs in diagnostic subgroups and differences in treatment responses among children with HFA are discussed. In addition, the role of MPs in understanding the effects associated with specific genetic functions in autism, such as those associated with the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), is discussed. A conclusion of this paper is that the varied expression of autism may require that we understand how autism interacts with other non-syndrome-specific processes that are related to
Validating the personal health records adoption model using a modified e-Delphi.
Logue, Melanie D; Effken, Judith A
2013-03-01
To report the results of a preliminary test of validity of a proposed theoretical framework of electronic personal health record adoption by older adults. Personal health records can assist older adults in managing or co-managing their chronic health conditions. Although there is interest by this population, their adoption of this technology has been slow. Without a comprehensive understanding of the reasons for this phenomenon, facilitating adoption will be difficult. Therefore, we developed a theoretical framework of adoption barriers and facilitators. Survey. A modified e-Delphi methodology was used to validate the framework by obtaining consensus from a panel of experts in related healthcare fields. These data were collected over 3 months in 2010. Of 16 expert panellists, 13 completed Round 1, 12 completed Rounds 2 and 3, and 9 completed Round 4. Central tendencies and percent agreement were computed to establish consensus. The e-Delphi resulted in expert consensus on the concepts, variables, and empirical indicators that were retained in (or added to) the framework to describe barriers and/or facilitators to older adults' adoption of personal health records for self-management of chronic disease. The validated model will be used as the basis for developing an instrument to identify barriers and facilitators to personal health records adoption and use by older adults with chronic disease. With better understanding of the factors that influence personal health record adoption in this population, more effective strategies may be developed to increase adoption and thus improve chronic disease management. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Y.; Ye, S.; Wu, J.
2012-12-01
Land subsidence prediction depends on a theoretical model and values of involved parameters. An advanced inverse model (called for InvCOMPAC) has been developed for calibrating five parameters (K'v, S'skv, S'ske, S'sk and p'max0) in a compacting confined aquifer system (Liu and Helm, 2008). InvCOMPAC combines two steps: graphic analysis for initial set of parameters and Newton-Raphson method for adjustment procedure. Both steps were modified to improve the procedure involved, so the modified inverse model presented in this study was called MInvCOMPAC. Some improved procedures were introduced in both steps. For graphic analysis, smoothed data was used to get regular smooth hydrographs, compaction history curves and stress-strain curves, which could reduce the uncertainties for initial values of parameters. For Newton-Raphson method, three procedures were introduced to improve robustness and practicability of Newton-Raphson method. First procedure is to remove outliers from actual data by using smoothed data. This procedure can reduce risk of failure of numerical optimization. Second procedure is to use modified Newton method instead of Newton-Raphson, which can improve robustness of numerical optimization. Third procedure is to develop variable scale factor in modified Newton method instead of fixed scale factor. This procedure can simplify the modified Newton method. As a case study, MInvCOMPAC was applied to obtain values of five parameters mentioned above for Shanghai land subsidence model. Results of MInvCOMPAC were evaluated by the fit of observed and calculated data, and also compared to those of InvCOMPAC. Reference: Liu Y, Helm DC. Inverse procedure for calibrating parameters that control land subsidence caused by subsurface fluid withdrawal: 2. Field application. Water Resour Res. 2008 Jul 31;44(7). Acknowledgements Funding for this research from 973 Program No. 2010CB428803, and from NSFC No. 40872155, 40725010 and 41030746, is gratefully acknowledged.
Bai, Jie; Liu, He; Yin, Bo; Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xinchun
2017-02-01
Anaerobic acidogenic fermentation with high-solid sludge is a promising method for volatile fatty acid (VFA) production to realize resource recovery. In this study, to model inhibition by free ammonia in high-solid sludge fermentation, the anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) was modified to simulate the VFA generation in batch, semi-continuous and full scale sludge. The ADM1 was operated on the platform AQUASIM 2.0. Three kinds of inhibition forms, e.g., simple inhibition, Monod and non-inhibition forms, were integrated into the ADM1 and tested with the real experimental data for batch and semi-continuous fermentation, respectively. The improved particle swarm optimization technique was used for kinetic parameter estimation using the software MATLAB 7.0. In the modified ADM1, the Ks of acetate is 0.025, the km,ac is 12.51, and the KI_NH3 is 0.02, respectively. The results showed that the simple inhibition model could simulate the VFA generation accurately while the Monod model was the better inhibition kinetics form in semi-continuous fermentation at pH10.0. Finally, the modified ADM1 could successfully describe the VFA generation and ammonia accumulation in a 30m(3) full-scale sludge fermentation reactor, indicating that the developed model can be applicable in high-solid sludge anaerobic fermentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yue; Ye, Shujun; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Hanmei; Jiao, Xun
2016-05-01
Land-subsidence prediction depends on an appropriate subsidence model and the calibration of its parameter values. A modified inverse procedure is developed and applied to calibrate five parameters in a compacting confined aquifer system using records of field data from vertical extensometers and corresponding hydrographs. The inverse procedure of COMPAC (InvCOMPAC) has been used in the past for calibrating vertical hydraulic conductivity of the aquitards, nonrecoverable and recoverable skeletal specific storages of the aquitards, skeletal specific storage of the aquifers, and initial preconsolidation stress within the aquitards. InvCOMPAC is modified to increase robustness in this study. There are two main differences in the modified InvCOMPAC model (MInvCOMPAC). One is that field data are smoothed before diagram analysis to reduce local oscillation of data and remove abnormal data points. A robust locally weighted regression method is applied to smooth the field data. The other difference is that the Newton-Raphson method, with a variable scale factor, is used to conduct the computer-based inverse adjustment procedure. MInvCOMPAC is then applied to calibrate parameters in a land subsidence model of Shanghai, China. Five parameters of aquifers and aquitards at 15 multiple-extensometer sites are calibrated. Vertical deformation of sedimentary layers can be predicted by the one-dimensional COMPAC model with these calibrated parameters at extensometer sites. These calibrated parameters could also serve as good initial values for parameters of three-dimensional regional land subsidence models of Shanghai.
Plum, Stacy M; Park, Eun J; Strawn, Steve J; Moore, Elizabeth G; Sidor, Carolyn F; Fogler, William E
2009-05-01
into the joint. Examination of gene expression on dissected hind limbs from mice treated for 5 or 14 days with 2ME2 showed inhibition of inflammatory cytokine message for IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-17, as well as the angiogenic cytokines, VEGF and FGF-2. These data demonstrate that in the CAIA mouse model of RA, 2ME2 has disease modifying activity that is at least partially attributable to the inhibition of neovascular development. Further, the data suggests new mechanistic points of intervention for 2ME2 in RA, specifically inhibition of inflammatory mediators and osteoclast activity.
Plum, Stacy M; Park, Eun J; Strawn, Steve J; Moore, Elizabeth G; Sidor, Carolyn F; Fogler, William E
2009-01-01
prevented neovascularization into the joint. Examination of gene expression on dissected hind limbs from mice treated for 5 or 14 days with 2ME2 showed inhibition of inflammatory cytokine message for IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17, as well as the angiogenic cytokines, VEGF and FGF-2. Conclusion These data demonstrate that in the CAIA mouse model of RA, 2ME2 has disease modifying activity that is at least partially attributable to the inhibition of neovascular development. Further, the data suggests new mechanistic points of intervention for 2ME2 in RA, specifically inhibition of inflammatory mediators and osteoclast activity. PMID:19409094
Sisljagić, Vladimir; Jovanović, Savo; Mrcela, Tomislav; Radić, Radivoje; Belovari, Tatjana
2009-12-01
In surgery of fractured long bones, a patient suffering from osteoporosis represents constant challenge to a surgeon and applied material and instruments that need to destroy as little as possible of an already damaged bone. One potential way of increasing the contact surface between the implants and osteoporotic bone is injection of bone cement (methyl-metacrilat, Palakos) into a prepared screw bed. This method of osteosynthesis was therefore subjected to experimental research to prove that application of modified osteosynthesis using bone cement in treatment of fractures in osteoporotic patients has advantage over the standard method of osteosynthesis because this modified method enables significantly greater firmness and stability of the osteosynthesis, which is the essential precondition of a successful fracture healing. The research was carried out on six macerated cadaveric preparations of a shin bone from the osteological collection from Institute for Anatomy, School of Medicine, University "J. J. Strossmayer". All samples of long bones were artificially broken in the middle part of the diaphysis and then standard osteosynthesis and modified osteosynthesis with screws filled with bone cement were performed on the samples. Results show that under identical static action of the moment of torsion in the modified osteosynthesis torsion angle deviation is lower than in the standard osteosynthesis. In modified osteosynthesis with bone cement the first results for angle of torsion deviation greater than 0.2 degrees were noticed after 120 minutes, while in the standard method of osteosynthesis they were noticed already in the first minute.
Li, Li-Yan; Li, Jin-Tao; Wu, Qing-Ying; Li, Jin; Feng, Zhong-Tang; Liu, Su; Wang, Ting-Hua
2008-02-01
It is well known that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) grafted into the hippocampus of the rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could survive and differentiate into cholinergic neurons as well as contribute towards functional restoration. The present study evaluated the effects of BMSC as a seed cell modified by nerve growth factor (NGF) gene into the hippocampus of AD rats. The beta-amyloid protein was injected bilaterally into the rat hippocampus to reproduce the AD model. After the human total RNA was extracted, the NGF gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, then cloned into the pcDNA3. BMSC derived from a green fluorescence protein transgenic mouse were isolated, cultured, identified, and transfected by the NGF recombinant. The NGF-gene-modified BMSC were then transplanted into the hippocampus of AD rats. The results showed that implanted BMSC survived, migrated and expressed NGF as well as differentiated into ChAT-positive neurons. A significant improvement in learning and memory in AD rats was also seen in NGF-gene-modified BMSC group, when compared with the BMSC group. The present findings suggested that BMSC provided an effective carrier for delivery of NGF into AD rats, and the administration of NGF-gene-modified BMSC may be considered as a potential strategy for the development of effective therapies for the treatment of AD.
A transgenic-cloned pig model expressing non-fluorescent modified Plum
NAGAYA, Masaki; WATANABE, Masahito; KOBAYASHI, Mirina; NAKANO, Kazuaki; ARAI, Yoshikazu; ASANO, Yoshinori; TAKEISHI, Toki; UMEKI, Ikuma; FUKUDA, Tooru; YASHIMA, Sayaka; TAKAYANAGI, Shuko; WATANABE, Nobuyuki; ONODERA, Masafumi; MATSUNARI, Hitomi; UMEYAMA, Kazuhiro; NAGASHIMA, Hiroshi
2016-01-01
Genetically modified pigs that express fluorescent proteins such as green and red fluorescent proteins have become indispensable biomedical research tools in recent years. Cell or tissue transplantation studies using fluorescent markers should be conducted, wherein the xeno-antigenicity of the fluorescent proteins does not affect engraftment or graft survival. Thus, we aimed to create a transgenic (Tg)-cloned pig that was immunologically tolerant to fluorescent protein antigens. In the present study, we generated a Tg-cloned pig harboring a derivative of Plum modified by a single amino acid substitution in the chromophore. The cells and tissues of this Tg-cloned pig expressing the modified Plum (mPlum) did not fluoresce. However, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses clearly showed that the mPlum had the same antigenicity as Plum. Thus, we have obtained primary proof of principle for creating a cloned pig that is immunologically tolerant to fluorescent protein antigens. PMID:27396383
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurk, Brian P.; Hansen, Edward C.; Hazle, Dean
2013-12-01
Due to deadtime effects, undercounting by aeolian impact sensors is present at all sediment flux levels. During a short time interval following an impact (the deadtime), an impact sensor is unable to detect new impacts. The degree of undercounting increases with increasing flux so that the sensor eventually becomes saturated. We develop an undercounting model for aeolian impact sensors that accounts for deadtime. This model was applied to field data obtained using a miniphone sensor modified from Ellis et al. (2009). The modified miniphone is inexpensive ($75.00 USD per pair, including datalogging) and easy to assemble. A protective layer of foil increases longevity at the probable expense of sensitivity. Modified Wilson and Cooke (MWAC) sand traps were paired with modified miniphones (MM) for intervals of up to 50 min during two winter storms along the coast of Lake Michigan. Sand from each MWAC was sieved, and the masses were fit to a continuous density function to estimate grain counts. MM deployed for cumulative periods of up to 200 showed no evidence of signal degradation. Fitting a deadtime model to the MM/MWAC data yielded a R2 value of 0.9766. While short segments of the response curve can be approximated by a linear fit, linear models will fail if applied much beyond the experimental conditions at which they were calibrated. The deadtime curve is based on a more realistic model of how impact sensors work and should give a better approximation of aeolian sand flux over a broader range of impact rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.
2017-02-01
UV-A/riboflavin collagen cross-linking (UV-CXL) is a clinical treatment for keratoconus that stiffens mechanically degraded corneal tissue. On the other hand, the intraocular pressure (IOP) can also affect the measured cornea elasticity. However, the combined effects of CXL at different IOPs on the corneal biomechanical properties are not well understood. In this work, the feasibility of assessing the viscoelasticity of the porcine cornea before and after CXL at various IOPs was investigated by using a noncontact method of optical coherence elastography (OCE) and a modified Lamb wave model. The modified wave model was first verified by comparison with finite element modeling, and then utilized to quantify the viscoelasticity of porcine corneas in the whole eye-globe configuration before and after CXL treatment at various IOPs. The results show that the elasticity of the cornea increased after CXL and that corneal stiffness was linear as a function of IOP. At IOPs of 15, 20, 25, and 30 mmHg, the relative increase in Young's modulus after CXL was 109%, 86%, 64%, and 79%, respectively, while the shear viscosity decreased by 86%, 84%, 83%, and 81%. The modified Lamb wave model and OCE show promise for quantifying corneal viscoelasticity, which could provide a basis for customized CXL therapies and accurate disease detection.
Gene-Modified Adult Stem Cells Regenerate Vertebral Bone Defect in a Rat Model
Sheyn, Dmitriy; Kallai, Ilan; Tawackoli, Wafa; Yakubovich, Doron Cohn; Oh, Anthony; Su, Susan; Da, Xiaoyu; Lavi, Amir; Kimelman-Bleich, Nadav; Zilberman, Yoram; Li, Ning; Bae, Hyun; Gazit, Zulma; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan
2011-01-01
porcine vimentin indicated that the ASC-BMP6 cells contributed to new bone formation. Here we show the potential of injections of BMP-modified ASCs to repair vertebral bone defects in a rat model. Our results could pave the way to a novel approach for the biological treatment of traumatic and osteoporosis-related vertebral bone injuries. PMID:21834548
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatogrpahic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressin...
Applying Rasch Model and Generalizability Theory to Study Modified-Angoff Cut Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arce, Alvaro J.; Wang, Ze
2012-01-01
The traditional approach to scale modified-Angoff cut scores transfers the raw cuts to an existing raw-to-scale score conversion table. Under the traditional approach, cut scores and conversion table raw scores are not only seen as interchangeable but also as originating from a common scaling process. In this article, we propose an alternative…
Modified World Café Discussion Model for Conference and Course Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cassidy, Alice; Fox, Joanne
2013-01-01
A group facilitation technique called World Café usually involves dividing a large number of people into smaller groups at tables, exploring a variety of topics around a key focus, and collecting ideas from the discussions to debrief later as a large group. We used a modified version of World Café during the new Cracker Barrel session format at…
Logarithmic-corrected Ricci and modified Chaplygin gas dark energy models in fractal framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salti, M.; Yanar, H.; Aydogdu, O.; Sogut, K.
2017-05-01
Making use of the quantum theory of gravity in fractal geometry (FG) and considering a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW)-type universe containing dark matter interacting with dark energy, we investigate how the quantum and fractal contributions affect the dynamics of logarithmic-corrected Ricci dark energy (LCRDE) and modified Chaplygin gas (MCG).
Modified local diatomite as potential functional drug carrier--A model study for diclofenac sodium.
Janićijević, Jelena; Krajišnik, Danina; Čalija, Bojan; Vasiljević, Bojana Nedić; Dobričić, Vladimir; Daković, Aleksandra; Antonijević, Milan D; Milić, Jela
2015-12-30
Diatomite makes a promising candidate for a drug carrier because of its high porosity, large surface area, modifiable surface chemistry and biocompatibility. Herein, refined diatomite from Kolubara coal basin, which complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements for heavy metals content and microbiological quality, was used as a starting material. Inorganic modification of the starting material was performed through a simple, one-step procedure. Significant increase in adsorbent loading with diclofenac sodium (DS) was achieved after the modification process (∼373mg/g) which enabled the preparation of comprimates containing therapeutic dose of the adsorbed drug. Adsorption of DS onto modified diatomite resulted in the alteration of the drug's XRD pattern and FTIR spectrum. In vitro drug release studies in phosphate buffer pH 7.5 demonstrated prolonged DS release over 8h from comprimates containing DS adsorbed on modified diatomite (up to 37% after 8h) and those containing physical mixture of the same composition (up to 45% after 8h). The results of in vivo toxicity testing on mice pointed on potential safety of both unmodified (starting) and modified diatomite. All these findings favor the application of diatomite as a potential functional drug carrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pan, Huapu; Li, Zhi; Beling, Andreas; Campbell, Joe C
2009-10-26
The third-order intermodulation distortions of InGaAs/InP modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes with a highly-doped p-type absorber are characterized. The third-order local intercept point is 55 dBm at low frequency (< 3 GHz) and remains as high as 47.5 dBm up to 20 GHz. The frequency characteristics of the OIP3 are well explained by an equivalent circuit model.
Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Yixiang; Heng, Shuai; Lin, Zhenkun; Zhao, Jie
2017-01-01
High-performance position control of pneumatic artificial muscles is limited by their inherent nonlinearity and hysteresis. This study aims to model the length/pressure hysteresis of a single pneumatic artificial muscle and to realize its accurate position tracking control with forward hysteresis compensation. The classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is widely used in hysteresis modelling and compensation. But it is only effective for symmetric hysteresis. Therefore, a modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is built to characterize the asymmetric length/pressure hysteresis of a single pneumatic artificial muscle, by replacing the classical play operators with two more flexible elementary operators to independently describe the ascending branch and descending branch of hysteresis loops. On the basis, a position tracking controller, which is composed of cascade forward hysteresis compensation and simple proportional pressure controller, is designed for the pneumatic artificial muscle. Experiment results show that the MPI model can reproduce the length/pressure hysteresis of the pneumatic artificial muscle, and the proposed controller for the pneumatic artificial muscle can track the reference position signals with high accuracy. By modelling the length/pressure hysteresis with the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model and using its inversion for compensation, precise position control of a single pneumatic artificial muscle is achieved.
Kim, Hyunook; Noh, Soohong; Colosimo, Mark
2009-07-01
The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1), developed by The International Association of Water Pollution Research and Control, was applied to model dynamics of NH4+, and NO3- in a bench scale alternating aerobic-anoxic (AAA) activated sludge system for nitrogen removal. The model was modified by eliminating inert soluble COD (S(I)) and inert particulate COD (X(I)) from the model's state variables as these two variables are not involved in any biological reaction and are not readily measurable with conventional routine COD analysis. It was assumed that the soluble COD and particulate COD of wastewater represent readily biodegradable COD (S(S)) and slowly biodegradable (X(S)) in the model, respectively. In addition, alkalinity was also removed from the model, since alkalinity of an AAA system remains stable due to the cyclic modes of the system. Even with the elimination of the three state variables and the assumption made, the model could reasonably predict the NH4+ and NO3- dynamics of the AAA system, and effluent NH4+ and NO3- concentrations with adjustment of only a few kinetic parameters. Compared to the original ASM1, it is expected that the modified ASM1 presented in this study can be more easily utilized by engineers in designing or operating an AAA system in practice, since it requires simple characterization of wastewater COD.
Fjellström, M; Yakob, M; Söder, B
2010-08-01
The purpose of this project was to create a modified CBT model to determine the impact on increased adherence to oral hygiene instructions. In a pilot study test, this model was compared with traditional instructions. Tools developed and tested in this pilot study were a self-reporting questionnaire, a visual information consisting of pictures and a diary to document according to a modified CBT method. Four participants were divided into two groups, control group and CBT group. At the first visit, all participants answered a self-reporting questionnaire. The clinical examination consisted of measuring the PI, GI and GBI. The same information and instructions were given. All received toothbrushes, dental floss and professional tooth cleaning. The CBT group was instructed to document their feelings and thoughts in a diary. After 3 weeks, the participants answered the same questionnaire, and the same clinical measurements were conducted at the re-examination. The CBT group brought their diaries for evaluation. At the end of the study, there was a difference in PI, GI and GBI between the groups. The levels of PI, GI and GBI had decreased more in the CBT group than in the control group. The questionnaire also showed that the CBT group had increased their knowledge and awareness about oral health. This pilot study shows that using a modified model of CBT, by keeping a diary, resulted in increased adherence to oral hygiene and knowledge about gingivitis, compared with traditional instructions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taddei, Laura; Martinelli, Matteo; Amendola, Luca
2016-12-01
The aim of this paper is to constrain modified gravity with redshift space distortion observations and supernovae measurements. Compared with a standard ΛCDM analysis, we include three additional free parameters, namely the initial conditions of the matter perturbations, the overall perturbation normalization, and a scale-dependent modified gravity parameter modifying the Poisson equation, in an attempt to perform a more model-independent analysis. First, we constrain the Poisson parameter Y (also called Geff) by using currently available fσ8 data and the recent SN catalog JLA. We find that the inclusion of the additional free parameters makes the constraints significantly weaker than when fixing them to the standard cosmological value. Second, we forecast future constraints on Y by using the predicted growth-rate data for Euclid and SKA missions. Here again we point out the weakening of the constraints when the additional parameters are included. Finally, we adopt as modified gravity Poisson parameter the specific Horndeski form, and use scale-dependent forecasts to build an exclusion plot for the Yukawa potential akin to the ones realized in laboratory experiments, both for the Euclid and the SKA surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thanabalan, P.; Vidhya, R.
2016-05-01
This paper discusses about an estimation of soil moisture in agricultural region using SAR data with the use of HH and HV polarization. In this study the semi empirical approach derived by Dubois et al (1) was modified to work using (σdegHH) and σ°VV) so that soil moisture can be obtained for the larger area extent. The optical remote sensing is helps to monitor changes in vegetation biomass and canopy cover surface reflectance by using NDVI and LAI from which the site suitability from different land use/land cover are identified. The second use involves retrieve the backscattering coefficient valuesσ°) derived from SAR for soil moisture studies. In SAR techniques, the relative surface roughness can be directly estimate using surface roughness derivation empirical algorithms. The mid incidence angle is used to overcome the incidence angle effect and it worked successfully to this study. The modified Dubois Model (MDM) in combination with The Topp's et al (2) model is used to retrieve soil moisture. These two models have equations (HH, VV) and two independent variables i.e. root mean square height (s) and dielectric constant (epsilon). The linear regression analysis is performed and the surface roughness derived from SAR is well correlated with ground surface roughness having the value of (r2 = 0.69). By using the dielectric constant (epsilon) the modified Dubois model in combination with Topp's model are performed and the soil moisture is derived from SAR having value of (r2 = 0.60). Thus, the derived model is having good scope for soil moisture monitoring with present availability of SAR datasets.
Simulations of a modified SOP model applied to retrospective revaluation of human causal learning.
Aitken, Michael R F; Dickinson, Anthony
2005-05-01
Dickinson and Burke (1996) proposed a modified version of Wagner's (1981) SOP associative theory to explain retrospective revaluation of human causal judgments. In this modified SOP (MSOP), excitatory learning occurs when cue and outcome representations are either both directly activated or both associatively activated. By contrast, inhibitory learning occurs when one representation is directly activated while the other is associatively activated. Finite node simulations of MSOP yielded simple acquisition, overshadowing, blocking, and inhibitory learning under forward contingencies. Importantly, retrospective revaluation was predicted in the form of unovershadowing and backward inhibitory learning. However, MSOP did not yield backward blocking. These predictions are evaluated against the relevant empirical evidence and contrasted with the predictions of other associative theories that have been applied to retrospective revaluation of human causal and predictive learning.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matthew, J. R.
1980-01-01
A digital flutter suppression system was developed and mechanized for a significantly modified version of the 1/30-scale B-52E aeroelastic wind tunnel model. A model configuration was identified that produced symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes that occur at 2873N/sq m (60 psf) dynamic pressure with violent onset. The flutter suppression system, using one trailing edge control surface and the accelerometers on each wing, extended the flutter dynamic pressure of the model beyond the design limit of 4788N/sq m (100 psf). The hardware and software required to implement the flutter suppression system were designed and mechanized using digital computers in a fail-operate configuration. The model equipped with the system was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center and results showed the flutter dynamic pressure of the model was extended beyond 4884N/sq m (102 psf).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charbonnier, A.; Charron, S.; Houdayer, A.; Lebel, C.; Leroy, C.; Linhart, V.; Pospíšil, S.
2007-06-01
The Hecht model describes the charge collection efficiency of semiconductor detectors using the mean free path of the charge carriers. While the fits to data are very good for non-irradiated detectors, modifications to the model are necessary to take into account the structural changes in the detectors induced by their exposure to high particle fluences. A modified model is presented. In this model, the mean free path depends on the shape of the electric field and on the charge carrier lifetimes. The lifetimes were measured experimentally from the front- and back-illuminations of the detectors by 660 nm laser light and by α particles from an 241Am source. This new Hecht model was successfully fitted to alpha and beta charge collection efficiencies of standard and oxygenated silicon detectors after their irradiation by 10 MeV protons with fluences varying from 10 11 to 3×10 14 p/cm 2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rǎdulescu, I. R.; Cândea, D.; Kaslik, E.
2017-01-01
In this paper, a delay differential equations (DDEs) model of leukemia is introduced and its dynamical properties are investigated in comparison with the modified fractional-order system where the Caputo's derivative is used. The model takes into account three types of division that a stem-like cell can undergo and cell competition between healthy and leukemia cell populations. The action of the immune system on the leukemic cell populations is also considered. The stability properties of the equilibrium points are established through numerical results and the differences between the two types of approaches are discussed. Medical conclusions are drawn in view of the obtained numerical simulations.
Biocompatibility of Portland Cement Modified with Titanium Oxide and Calcium Chloride in a Rat Model
Hoshyari, Narjes; Labbaf, Hossein; Jalayer Naderi, Nooshin; Kazemi, Ali; Bastami, Farshid; Koopaei, Maryam
2016-01-01
Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of two modified formulations of Portland cement (PC) mixed with either titanium oxide or both titanium oxide and calcium chloride. Methods and Materials: Polyethylene tubes were filled with modified PCs or Angelus MTA as the control; the tubes were then implanted in 28 Wistar rats subcutaneously. One tube was left empty as a negative control in each rat. Histologic samples were taken after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. Sections were assessed histologically for inflammatory responses and presence of fibrous capsule and granulation tissue formation. Data were analyzed using the Fisher’s exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Result: PC mixed with titanium oxide showed the highest mean scores of inflammation compared with others. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean inflammatory grades between all groups in each of the understudy time intervals. Conclusion: The results showed favorable biocompatibility of these modified PC mixed with calcium chloride and titanium oxide. PMID:27141221
A 3D finite element simulation model for TBM tunnelling in soft ground
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasper, Thomas; Meschke, Günther
2004-12-01
A three-dimensional finite element simulation model for shield-driven tunnel excavation is presented. The model takes into account all relevant components of the construction process (the soil and the ground water, the tunnel boring machine with frictional contact to the soil, the hydraulic jacks, the tunnel lining and the tail void grouting). The paper gives a detailed description of the model components and the stepwise procedure to simulate the construction process. The soil and the grout material are modelled as saturated porous media using a two-field finite element formulation. This allows to take into account the groundwater, the grouting pressure and the fluid interaction between the soil and slurry at the cutting face and between the soil and grout around the tail void. A Cam-Clay plasticity model is used to describe the material behaviour of cohesive soils. The cementitious grouting material in the tail void is modelled as an ageing elastic material with time-dependent stiffness and permeability. To allow for an automated computation of arbitrarily long and also curvilinear driving paths with suitable finite element meshes, the simulation procedure has been fully automated. The simulation of a tunnel advance in soft cohesive soil below the ground water table is presented and the results are compared with measurements taken from the literature. Copyright
Szymusiak; Zielinski; Domagalska; Wilk
2000-05-01
Several model polyenes with modified indanone groups were studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-31G*, ab initio HF/3-21G* and semiempirical AM1 methods. We investigated the effect of several substituents upon the relationship between the structure, spatial distribution of the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied pi-MOs, a concept of the global softness and the global hardness as well as both linear and nonlinear polarizabilities for the set of pi-electron chromophores represented by the short-chain model polyene (butadiene) carrying out p-methoxyphenyl group on the one end and several modified indanone groups on the opposite end of the molecule. As probing endocyclic groups used to modify the structure of indanone the following substituents: > CH2; > C=O; > SO2, > C=CH(NO2) and > C=C(CN)2 were selected. The cubic relationship between the polarizability and the global softness was found. The highest polarizabilities (alpha, beta, gamma) are predicted for the derivatives with > C=C(CN)2 group. It was found that the value of beta depends mainly on the difference between dipole moments in the excited and ground states of the molecules. In the case of > SO2 group the results of AMI calculations significantly deviate from relationships found for other derivatives. Experimental IR and Raman spectra of newly synthesized indandione derivative of cinnamaldehyde were compared with computed ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mairani, A.; Magro, G.; Tessonnier, T.; Böhlen, T. T.; Molinelli, S.; Ferrari, A.; Parodi, K.; Debus, J.; Haberer, T.
2017-06-01
Models able to predict relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values are necessary for an accurate determination of the biological effect with proton and 4He ion beams. This is particularly important when including RBE calculations in treatment planning studies comparing biologically optimized proton and 4He ion beam plans. In this work, we have tailored the predictions of the modified microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM), which is clinically applied for carbon ion beam therapy in Japan, to reproduce RBE with proton and 4He ion beams. We have tuned the input parameters of the MKM, i.e. the domain and nucleus radii, reproducing an experimental database of initial RBE data for proton and He ion beams. The modified MKM, with the best fit parameters obtained, has been used to reproduce in vitro cell survival data in clinically-relevant scenarios. A satisfactory agreement has been found for the studied cell lines, A549 and RENCA, with the mean absolute survival variation between the data and predictions within 2% and 5% for proton and 4He ion beams, respectively. Moreover, a sensitivity study has been performed varying the domain and nucleus radii and the quadratic parameter of the photon response curve. The promising agreement found in this work for the studied clinical-like scenarios supports the usage of the modified MKM for treatment planning studies in proton and 4He ion beam therapy.
Active Aeroelastic Wing Aerodynamic Model Development and Validation for a Modified F/A-18A Airplane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cumming, Stephen B.; Diebler, Corey G.
2005-01-01
A new aerodynamic model has been developed and validated for a modified F/A-18A airplane used for the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research program. The goal of the program was to demonstrate the advantages of using the inherent flexibility of an aircraft to enhance its performance. The research airplane was an F/A-18A with wings modified to reduce stiffness and a new control system to increase control authority. There have been two flight phases. Data gathered from the first flight phase were used to create the new aerodynamic model. A maximum-likelihood output-error parameter estimation technique was used to obtain stability and control derivatives. The derivatives were incorporated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F-18 simulation, validated, and used to develop new AAW control laws. The second phase of flights was used to evaluate the handling qualities of the AAW airplane and the control law design process, and to further test the accuracy of the new model. The flight test envelope covered Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.30 and dynamic pressures from 600 to 1250 pound-force per square foot. The results presented in this report demonstrate that a thorough parameter identification analysis can be used to improve upon models that were developed using other means. This report describes the parameter estimation technique used, details the validation techniques, discusses differences between previously existing F/A-18 models, and presents results from the second phase of research flights.
Kanno, Akira; Saeki, Hiroshi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter
2003-07-01
In higher eudicotyledonous angiosperms the floral organs are typically arranged in four different whorls, containing sepals, petals, stamens and carpels. According to the ABC model, the identity of these organs is specified by floral homeotic genes of class A, A+B, B+C and C, respectively. In contrast to the sepal and petal whorls of eudicots, the perianths of many plants from the Liliaceae family have two outer whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, called tepals. To explain the Liliaceae flower morphology, van Tunen et al. (1993) proposed a modified ABC model, exemplified with tulip. According to this model, class B genes are not only expressed in whorls 2 and 3, but also in whorl 1. Thus the organs of both whorls 1 and 2 express class A plus class B genes and, therefore, get the same petaloid identity. To test this modified ABC model we have cloned and characterized putative class B genes from tulip. Two DEF- and one GLO-like gene were identified, named TGDEFA, TGDEFB and TGGLO. Northern hybridization analysis showed that all of these genes are expressed in whorls 1, 2 and 3 (outer and inner tepals and stamens), thus corroborating the modified ABC model. In addition, these experiments demonstrated that TGGLO is also weakly expressed in carpels, leaves, stems and bracts. Gel retardation assays revealed that TGGLO alone binds to DNA as a homodimer. In contrast, TGDEFA and TGDEFB cannot homodimerize, but make heterodimers with PI. Homodimerization of GLO-like protein has also been reported for lily, suggesting that this phenomenon is conserved within Liliaceae plants or even monocot species.
Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut
2016-01-01
The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a serious health problem in Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), endemic among human populations in northeast and north Thailand where raw fish containing fluke metacercariae are frequently consumed. Recently, Thailand public health authorities have been organized to reduce morbidity and mortality particularly in the northeast through O. viverrini and CCA screening projects. Health modfication is one of activities included in this campaign, but systemic guidelines of modifying and developing health behavior for liver flukes and CCA prevention in communities towards health belief and social support theory are still various and unclear. Here we review the guidelines for modifying and developing health behavior among populations in rural communities to strengthen understanding regarding perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to liver fluke and CCA prevention. This model may be useful for public health of cancers and related organizations to further health behavior change in endemic areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Shifei; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Chengliang; Wu, Hongjie; Zhang, Xi
2017-06-01
The electrochemistry-based battery model can provide physics-meaningful knowledge about the lithium-ion battery system with extensive computation burdens. To motivate the development of reduced order battery model, three major contributions have been made throughout this paper: (1) the transfer function type of simplified electrochemical model is proposed to address the current-voltage relationship with Padé approximation method and modified boundary conditions for electrolyte diffusion equations. The model performance has been verified under pulse charge/discharge and dynamic stress test (DST) profiles with the standard derivation less than 0.021 V and the runtime 50 times faster. (2) the parametric relationship between the equivalent circuit model and simplified electrochemical model has been established, which will enhance the comprehension level of two models with more in-depth physical significance and provide new methods for electrochemical model parameter estimation. (3) four simplified electrochemical model parameters: equivalent resistance Req, effective diffusion coefficient in electrolyte phase Deeff, electrolyte phase volume fraction ε and open circuit voltage (OCV), have been identified by the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm with the modified DST profiles under 45, 25 and 0 °C. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model coupled with RLS algorithm can achieve high accuracy for electrochemical parameter identification in dynamic scenarios.
Conceição, Katiane S; Andrade, Marinho G; Louzada, Francisco
2013-09-01
In this paper, a Bayesian method for inference is developed for the zero-modified Poisson (ZMP) regression model. This model is very flexible for analyzing count data without requiring any information about inflation or deflation of zeros in the sample. A general class of prior densities based on an information matrix is considered for the model parameters. A sensitivity study to detect influential cases that can change the results is performed based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Simulation studies are presented in order to illustrate the performance of the developed methodology. Two real datasets on leptospirosis notification in Bahia State (Brazil) are analyzed using the proposed methodology for the ZMP model. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Li, Peizhi; Wang, Yong; Dong, Qingli
2017-04-01
Cities in China suffer from severe smog and haze, and a forecasting system with high accuracy is of great importance to foresee the concentrations of the airborne particles. Compared with chemical transport models, the growing artificial intelligence models can simulate nonlinearities and interactive relationships and getting more accurate results. In this paper, the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter is modified and firstly applied to construct the model using an artificial intelligence method. The concentration of inhalable particles and fine particulate matter in Dalian are used to analyze the filtered components and test the forecasting accuracy. Besides, an extended experiment is made by implementing a comprehensive comparison and a stability test using data in three other cities in China. Results testify the excellent performance of the developed hybrid models, which can be utilized to better understand the temporal features of pollutants and to perform a better air pollution control and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liotta, Flavia; Chatellier, Patrice; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco
2015-01-01
The role of total solids (TS) content in anaerobic digestion of selected complex organic matter, e.g. rice straw and food waste, was investigated. A range of TS from wet (4.5%) to dry (23%) was evaluated. A modified version of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 for a complex organic substrate is proposed to take into account the effect of the TS content on anaerobic digestion. A linear function that correlates the kinetic constants of three specific processes (i.e. disintegration, acetate and propionate up-take) was included in the model. Results of biomethanation and volatile fatty acids production tests were used to calibrate the proposed model. Model simulations showed a good agreement between numerical and observed data.
Narayanan, M.; Tong, S.; Ma, B.; Liu, S.; Balachandran, U.
2012-01-01
A modified Johnson model is proposed to describe the nonlinear field dependence of the dielectric constant ({var_epsilon}-E loop) in ferroelectric materials below the Curie temperature. This model describes the characteristic ferroelectric 'butterfly' shape observed in typical {var_epsilon}-E loops. The predicted nonlinear behavior agreed well with the measured values in both the low- and high-field regions for lead lanthanum zirconate titanate films. The proposed model was also validated at different temperatures below the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric Curie point. The anharmonic coefficient in the model decreased from 6.142 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} to 2.039 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} when the temperature increased from 25 C to 250 C.
Gena, Angeliki; Couloura, Sophia; Kymissis, Effie
2005-10-01
The purpose of this study was to modify the affective behavior of three preschoolers with autism in home settings and in the context of play activities, and to compare the effects of video modeling to the effects of in-vivo modeling in teaching these children contextually appropriate affective responses. A multiple-baseline design across subjects, with a return to baseline condition, was used to assess the effects of treatment that consisted of reinforcement, video modeling, in-vivo modeling, and prompting. During training trials, reinforcement in the form of verbal praise and tokens was delivered contingent upon appropriate affective responding. Error correction procedures differed for each treatment condition. In the in-vivo modeling condition, the therapist used modeling and verbal prompting. In the video modeling condition, video segments of a peer modeling the correct response and verbal prompting by the therapist were used as corrective procedures. Participants received treatment in three categories of affective behavior--sympathy, appreciation, and disapproval--and were presented with a total of 140 different scenarios. The study demonstrated that both treatments--video modeling and in-vivo modeling--systematically increased appropriate affective responding in all response categories for the three participants. Additionally, treatment effects generalized across responses to untrained scenarios, the child's mother, new therapists, and time.
Mesh-free modeling of liquid crystals using modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics.
Yakutovich, M V; Care, C M; Newton, C J P; Cleaver, D J
2010-10-01
We present a generalization of the modified smooth particle hydrodynamics simulation technique capable of simulating static and dynamic liquid crystalline behavior. This generalization is then implemented in the context of the Qian-Sheng description of nematodynamics. To test the method, we first use it to simulate switching in both a Fréedericksz setup and a chiral hybrid aligned nematic cell. In both cases, the results obtained give excellent agreement with previously published results. We then apply the technique in a three-dimensional simulation of the switching dynamics of the post aligned bistable nematic device.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prajoon, P.; Nirmal, D.; Anuja Menokey, M.; Charles Pravin, J.
2016-08-01
In this paper, Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with compositionally step graded (CSG) Alternating Barriers (AB) of InGaN-AlGaN with p-doped GaN barrier is designed and analysed. The improved crystal structure and modified band bending in the device enhances the carrier confinement and diminishes the polarization-related efficiency reduction. Furthermore, the good crystalline quality increases the hole injection and transportation; this significantly improves the radiative recombination rate and reduces the non-radiative recombination as well as carrier leakage out of the active region. Simulation result show mitigated efficiency droop of 3% and light output power of 1500 mW at the injection current of 500 mA. A modified ABC model is also developed to model the carrier leakage mechanism at high injection current density. In the model, total carrier leakage currents from the active region due to thermionic emission and electron overflow at high injection current are considered. Also, the obtained result of the modelled conventional LED shows a good fit with experimental data. Moreover, the SiC substrate technology in the design is attributed with improved crystal structure, reduced polarization effect and thermal conductivity, which improve the optical performance of the device.
Zhou, Siyuan; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Pang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Linshu; Yam, Kit L
2015-02-01
Salmonella is a microorganism of concern on a global basis for raw shrimp. This research modeled the impact of vapor thymol concentration (0, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/liter), storage temperature (8, 12, and 16°C), and modified atmosphere condition (0.04 as in the natural atmosphere and 59.5% CO2) against the growth behavior of a Salmonella cocktail (six strains) on raw shrimp. Lag time (hour) and maximum growth rate (log CFU per gram per hour), chosen as two growth indicators, were obtained through DMFit software and then developed into polynomial as well as nonlinear modified secondary models (dimensional and/or dimensionless), consisting of two or even three impact factors in the equations. The models were validated, and results showed that the predictive values from both models demonstrated good matches to the observed experimental values, yet the prediction based on lag time was more accurate than maximum growth rate. The information will provide the food industry with insight into the potential safety risk of Salmonella growth on raw shrimp under stressed conditions.
Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Man; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Zeng, Raymond J
2013-07-01
A modified metabolic model for mixed culture fermentation (MCF) is proposed with the consideration of an energy conserving electron bifurcation reaction and the transport energy of metabolites. The production of H2 related to NADH/NAD(+) and Fdred/Fdox is proposed to be divided in three processes in view of energy conserving electron bifurcation reaction. This assumption could fine-tune the intracellular redox balance and regulate the distribution of metabolites. With respect to metabolite transport energy, the proton motive force is considered to be constant, while the transport rate coefficient is proposed to be proportional to the octanol-water partition coefficient. The modeling results for a glucose fermentation in a continuous stirred tank reactor show that the metabolite distribution is consistent with the literature: (1) acetate, butyrate, and ethanol are main products at acidic pH, while the production shifts to acetate and propionate at neutral and alkali pH; (2) the main products acetate, ethanol, and butyrate shift to ethanol at higher glucose concentration; (3) the changes for acetate and butyrate are following an increasing hydrogen partial pressure. The findings demonstrate that our modified model is more realistic than previous proposed model concepts. It also indicates that inclusion of an energy conserving electron bifurcation reaction and metabolite transport energy for MCF is sound in the viewpoint of biochemistry and physiology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakker, Mark; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.
2011-09-01
Two new approaches are presented for the accurate computation of the potential due to line elements that satisfy the modified Helmholtz equation with complex parameters. The first approach is based on fundamental solutions in elliptical coordinates and results in products of Mathieu functions. The second approach is based on the integration of modified Bessel functions. Both approaches allow evaluation of the potential at any distance from the element. The computational approaches are applied to model transient flow with the Laplace transform analytic element method. The Laplace domain solution is computed using a combination of point elements and the presented line elements. The time domain solution is obtained through a numerical inversion. Two applications are presented to transient flow fields, which could not be modeled with the Laplace transform analytic element method prior to this work. The first application concerns transient single-aquifer flow to wells near impermeable walls modeled with line-doublets. The second application concerns transient two-aquifer flow to a well near a stream modeled with line-sinks.
Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Wei-Ting; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chan, Chang-Chuan
2012-08-15
A prediction model was developed to map road traffic noise in an area with significant motorcycle traffic in Taichung City, Taiwan. This model was modified from the Nordic prediction method by adding three types of traffic flow rates, including heavy vehicles, light vehicles, and motorcycles, as well as local traffic speeds and road characteristics to the calculating equations. The parameters that were input into the equations include traffic flow, vehicle speed, distance from the center of the road, height of the road surface, position and height of the barriers, thickness of the barriers, location of the receiver relative to the surrounding road surface or barriers, reflecting vertical surfaces, type of ground, and height of the buildings. The model was validated by comparing the measured noise levels at 42 sampling sites close to main roads with the predicted values. A significant correlation was found between the predicted and measured noise levels (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.75, p<0.001). The deviation between the predicted and measured noise levels within the range of ±3.5 A-weighted decibel (dB(A)) was 90.5%. The mean difference between the predicted and measured noise levels was 0.9±2.1 dB(A). The modified Nordic prediction model is therefore applicable to estimate the noise exposure in this urban environment in Taiwan.
Powell, S M; Ratkowsky, D A; Tamplin, M L
2015-05-01
Most existing models for the spoilage of modified atmosphere packed Atlantic salmon are based on the growth of the spoilage organism Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, there is evidence that this organism is not the specific spoilage organism on salmon produced and packaged in Australia. We developed a predictive model for the growth of bacteria in Australian-produced Atlantic salmon stored under modified atmosphere conditions (30-98% carbon dioxide in nitrogen) at refrigeration temperatures (0-10 °C). As expected, both higher levels of carbon dioxide and lower temperatures decreased the observed growth rates of the total population. A Bělehrádek-type model for growth rate fitted the data best with an acceptably low root mean square error. At low temperatures (∼0 °C) the growth rates in this study were similar to those predicted by other models but at higher temperatures (∼10 °C) the growth rates were significantly lower in the current study.
Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.
Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H
2003-02-01
Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles.
Mohammed-Saeid, Waleed; Chitanda, Jackson; Al-Dulaymi, Mays; Verrall, Ronald; Badea, Ildiko
2017-09-01
We have developed and evaluated novel peptide-targeted gemini surfactant-based lipoplexes designed for melanoma gene therapy. Integrin receptor targeting peptide, cyclic-arginylglycylaspartic acid (cRGD), was either chemically coupled to a gemini surfactant backbone or physically co-formulated with lipoplexes. Several formulations and transfection techniques were developed. Transfection efficiency and cellular toxicity of the lipoplexes were evaluated in an in vitro human melanoma model. Physicochemical properties were examined using dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential, and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. RGD-modified gemini surfactant based lipoplexes showed significant enhancement in gene transfection activity in A375 cell lines compared to the standard non-targeted formulation, especially when RGD was chemically conjugated to the gemini surfactant (RGD-G). The RGD had no effect on the cell toxicity profile of the lipoplex systems. Targeting specificity was confirmed by using an excess of free RGD and negative control peptide (RAD) and was demonstrated by using normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Physicochemical characterization showed that all nanoparticles were in the optimal size range for cellular uptake and there were no significant differences between RGD-modified and standard lipoplexes. These findings indicate the potential of RGD-modified gemini surfactant-based lipoplexes for use in melanoma gene therapy as an alternative to conventional chemotherapy.
Modeling flows over gravel beds by a drag force method and a modified S-A turbulence closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, C.; Li, C. W.
2012-09-01
A double-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (DANS) model has been developed for depth-limited open channel flows over gravels. Three test cases are used to validate the model: an open-channel flow over a densely packed gravel bed with small-scale uniform roughness (D/d50 ˜ 13, d50 = median diameter of roughness elements, D = water depth), open-channel flows over large-scale sparsely distributed roughness elements (D/Δ ˜ 2.3-8.7, Δ = roughness height) and steep slope gravel-bed river flows with D/d50 ˜ 7-25. Various methods of treatment of the gravel-induced resistance effect have been investigated. The results show that the wall function approach (WFA) is successful in simulating flows over small gravels but is not appropriate for large gravels since the vertical profile of the longitudinal velocity does not follow the logarithmic-linear relationship. The drag force method (DFM) performs better but the non-logarithmic velocity distribution generated by sparsely distributed gravels cannot be simulated accurately. Noting that the turbulence length scale within the gravel layer is gove