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Sample records for modified conductimetrical analysis

  1. Application of zirconium-modified silica gel as a stationary phase in the ion-exclusion chromatography of carboxylic acids. II. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids with pyromellitic acid as eluent and with suppressed conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K

    2001-06-22

    The application of zirconium-modified silica gels (Zr-Silica) as stationary phases for ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection (IEC-CD) for C1-C8 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, caproic, heptanoic and caprylic acids) was carried out using pyromellitic acid as the eluent. Zr-Silicas were prepared by the reaction of the silanol group on the surface of silica gel with zirconium tetrabutoxide [Zr(OCH2CH2CH2CH3)4] in ethanol solution. An ASRS-Ultra anion self-regenerating suppressor in the K+ form was used for the enhancement of conductimetric detector response of these aliphatic carboxylic acids. A Zr-Silica adsorbed on 10 mg zirconium g(-1) silica gel was the most suitable stationary phase in IEC-CD for the separation of these aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation and highly sensitive detection for these aliphatic carboxylic acids were achieved in 25 min by IEC-CD with the Zr-Silica column (250x4.6 mm I.D.) and a 0.2 mM pyromellitic acid containing 0.15% heptanol as the eluent.

  2. A highly reproducible solenoid micropump system for the analysis of total inorganic carbon and ammonium using gas-diffusion with conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Camelia; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Cerdà, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a simple, economic, and miniaturized flow-based analyzer based on solenoid micropumps is presented. It was applied to determine two parameters of high environmental interest: ammonium and total inorganic carbon (TIC) in natural waters. The method is based on gas diffusion (GD) of CO₂ and NH3 through a hydrophobic gas permeable membrane from an acidic or alkaline donor stream, respectively. The analytes are trapped in an acceptor solution, being slightly alkaline for CO₂ and slightly acidic for NH₃. The analytes are quantified using a homemade stainless steel conductimetric cell. The proposed system required five solenoid micro-pumps, one for each reagent and sample. Two especially made air bubble traps were placed down-stream of the solendoid pumps, which provided the acceptor solutions, by this increasing the method's reproducibility. Values of RSD lower than 1% were obtained. Achieved limits of detection were 0.27 µmol L⁻¹ for NH₄⁺ and 50 µmol L⁻¹ for TIC. Add-recovery tests were used to prove the trueness of the method and recoveries of 99.5 ± 7.5% were obtained for both analytes. The proposed system proved to be adequate for monitoring purpose of TIC and NH₄⁺ due to its high sample throughput and repeatability.

  3. Determination of some aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuaki; Takayama, Yohichi; Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Taoda, Hiroshi; Xu, Qun; Hu, Wenzhi; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Sato, Shinji; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-11

    The determination of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, n-butyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acids in anaerobic digestion process waters was examined using ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection. The analysis of these biologically important carboxylic acids is necessary as a measure for evaluating and controlling the process. The ion-exclusion chromatography system employed consisted of polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin columns (TSKgel OApak-A or TSKgel Super IC-A/C). weakly acidic eluent (benzoic acid), and conductimetric detection. Particle size and cation-exchange capacity were 5 microm and 0.1 meq./ml for TSKgel OApak-A and 3 microm and 0.2 meq./ml for TSKgel Super IC-A/C, respectively. A dilute eluent (1.0-2.0 mM) of benzoic acid was effective for the high resolution and highly conductimetric detection of the carboxylic acids. The good separation of isobutyric and n-butyric acids was performed using the TSKgel Super IC-A/C column (150 mm x 6.0 mm i.d. x 2). The simple and good chromatograms were obtained by the optimized ion-exclusion chromatography conditions for real samples from mesophilic anaerobic digestors, thus the aliphatic carboxylic acids were successfully determined without any interferences.

  4. Comparative study of controlled pore glass, silica gel and poraver for the immobilization of urease to determine urea in a flow injection conductimetric biosensor system.

    PubMed

    Limbut, Warakorn; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Asawatreratanakul, Punnee; Limsakul, Chusak; Wongkittisuksa, Booncharoen

    2004-03-15

    This study compared the responses of three enzyme reactors containing urease immobilized on three types of solid support, controlled pore glass (CPG), silica gel and Poraver. The evaluation of each enzyme reactor column was done in a flow injection conductimetric system. When urea in the sample solution passed though the enzyme reactor, urease catalysed the hydrolysis of urea into charged products. A lab-built conductivity meter was used to measure the increase in conductivity of the solution. The responses of the enzyme reactor column with urease immobilized on CPG and silica gel were similar and were much higher than that of Poraver. Both CPG and silica gel reactor columns gave the same limit of detection, 0.5 mM, and the response was still linear up to 150mM. The analysis time was 4-5 min per sample. The enzyme reactor column with urease immobilized on CPG gave a slightly better sensitivity, 4% higher than the reactor with silica gel. The life time of the immobilized urease on CPG and silica gel were more than 310h operation time (used intermittently over 7 months). Good agreement was obtained when urea concentrations of human serum samples determined by the flow injection conductimetric biosensor system was compared to the conventional methods (Fearon and Berthelot reactions). These were statistically shown using the regression line and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The results showed that the reactor with urease immobilized on silica gel had the same efficiency as the reactor with urease immobilized on CPG.

  5. Ion-chromatographic determination of carbocisteine in pharmaceuticals based on non-suppressed conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Megoulas, Nikolaos C; Koupparis, Michael A

    2004-02-13

    A novel method for the determination of carbocisteine (S-CMC), a mucolytic and expectorant drug with an acidic amino acid structure, was developed and validated, using non-suppressed ion-chromatographic system with conductimetric detection, and anion or cation exchange columns. Among the various combinations of column type and eluent composition tested, a cation exchange column with a 0.25 mM tri-fluoroacetic acid (TFA) as eluent in isocratic mode at 1.2 ml/min gave the best results. S-CMC was very well separated from all common amino acids (resolution > 2.6). The retention time was 3.5 min and the asymmetry factor 1.1. A linear calibration curve from 17 to 400 microg/ml (r = 0.99994), with a detection limit of 0.14 microg (5.6 microg/ml-25 microl injection volume) and a precision of 1.5% R.S.D. (100 microg/ml, n = 3) was achieved. The proposed method was applied for the determination of S-CMC content in intensely colored commercial formulations (syrups). No interference from excipients was found and the only pretreatment step was the appropriate dilution with the mobile phase. Recovery from standard additions was ranged from 96.0 to 104.9% and precision (R.S.D., n = 3) 1.8-3.6%.

  6. High-performance liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection of perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorosulfonates.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hisao; Hayakawa, Etsuko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Nakata, Fumiya; Kobayashi, Yoshimi

    2004-10-01

    A rapid and simple method for separating and determining various environmentally harmful perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorosulfonates was successfully developed using high- performance liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection, for product and waste management of these compounds at manufacturing and processing sites. Compounds having C(3)-C(8) perfluoroalkyl groups were separated using a Tosoh TSKgel Super-ODS column and a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol and aqueous NaH(2)PO(4) at several mixing ratios. The best detection limits for the compounds ranged from 0.12 to 0.66 mg l(-1) (ppm), and linear calibration graphs were obtained up to 87-109 mg l(-1). The combination of this method with concentration of the sample by solid-phase extraction with cartridges based on styrene-divinylbenzene-copolymer enabled the determination of approximately 50 microg l(-1) (ppb) for compounds with C(4)-C(8) perfluoroalkyl groups. This method was successfully used to monitor the artificial decomposition of the perfluorocarboxylic acid n-C(4)F(9)COOH induced by a photocatalyst.

  7. Analysis of genetically modified oils.

    PubMed

    Hazebroek, J P

    2000-11-01

    Genetically modified oils with altered functional or nutritional characteristics are being introduced into the marketplace. A wide array of analytical techniques has been utilized to facilitate developing these oils. This article attempts to review the utilization of these analytical procedures for characterizing both the chemistry and some functionality of these oils. Although techniques to assess oxidative stability in frying and food applications are covered, measurement of nutritional characteristics are not.

  8. Conductimetric determination of phenylpropanolamine HCl, ranitidine HCl, hyoscyamine HBr and betaine HCl in their pure state and pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Issa, Yousry M; Youssef, Ahmed F A; Mutair, Ali A

    2005-01-01

    Sodium tetraphenylborate and phosphotungstic acid were used as titrants for the conductimetric determination of phenylpropanolamine HCl (PPA.Cl), ranitidine HCl (Ra.Cl), hyoscyamine HBr (Hy.Br) and betaine HCl (Be.Cl) through ion-associate complex formation. The molar combining ratio and the solubility products of the formed ion-associates were studied and calculated. The suggested method has been applied to the determination of the mentioned drugs in their pure state and pharmaceutical preparations with mean recovery values of 97.71-102.97% and relative standard deviations 0.25-0.85%. The accuracy of the method is indicated by excellent recovery and low standard deviation. The results are compared with the pharmacopoeial or the official methods.

  9. Conductimetric Biosensor for the Detection of Uric Acid by Immobilization Uricase on Nata de Coco Membrane—Pt Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Mulyasuryani, Ani; Srihardiastutie, Arie

    2011-01-01

    A conductimetric enzyme biosensor for uric acid detection has been developed. The uricase, as enzyme, is isolated from Candida utilis and immobilized on a nata de coco membrane-Pt electrode. The biosensor demonstrates a linear response to urate over the concentration range 1–6 ppm and has good selectivity properties. The response is affected by the membrane thickness and pH change in the range 7.5–9.5. The response time is three minutes in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. Application of the biosensor to the determination of uric acid in human serum gave results that compared favourably with those obtained by medical laboratory. The operational stability of the biosensor was not less than three days and the relative error is smaller than 10%. PMID:21792276

  10. Conductimetric biosensor for the detection of uric Acid by immobilization uricase on nata de coco membrane-pt electrode.

    PubMed

    Mulyasuryani, Ani; Srihardiastutie, Arie

    2011-01-01

    A conductimetric enzyme biosensor for uric acid detection has been developed. The uricase, as enzyme, is isolated from Candida utilis and immobilized on a nata de coco membrane-Pt electrode. The biosensor demonstrates a linear response to urate over the concentration range 1-6 ppm and has good selectivity properties. The response is affected by the membrane thickness and pH change in the range 7.5-9.5. The response time is three minutes in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. Application of the biosensor to the determination of uric acid in human serum gave results that compared favourably with those obtained by medical laboratory. The operational stability of the biosensor was not less than three days and the relative error is smaller than 10%.

  11. NFO diagnostics: a modified Sassouni Cephalometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Jay W; Magill, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This extensively modified version of the Sassouni Cephalometric Analysis is very beneficial to the dentist treating functional orthodontic and TMD patients. Some practitioners even derive benefits from its application when determining vertical in the edentulous patient. The NFO analysis has been shown to be of great benefit to determine vertical proportion and growth potential of the young patient. The analysis has the ability to show incisor placement relative to opening and closing trajectory and where to place the mandible for functional advancement. Practitioners need a diagnostic cephalogram that is visual and descriptive of the skeletal and dental malocclusion. This analysis provides many tools that will assist the clinician in making those decisions.

  12. Transactional Analysis Model: Modified and Extended.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Joseph J.

    This theoretical paper explores the implications of some modifications and extensions of the Transactional Analysis (TA) theory of personality and attempts to understand some specific aspects of human nature and behavior in evolutionary terms. "Ego State" as used in TA designates both a structural and functional unit of the personality.…

  13. A Modified Content Analysis of Existing School Psychology Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallin, Barry; Schellenberg, Miriam E.; Smith, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Discrepancies between our university's training program's report-writing guidelines and common practice in Manitoba could not be resolved by reference to the literature. To inform the discussion, we collected a sample of local real world school psychology reports and undertook a modified content analysis to operationally define and measure…

  14. A Modified Content Analysis of Existing School Psychology Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallin, Barry; Schellenberg, Miriam E.; Smith, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Discrepancies between our university's training program's report-writing guidelines and common practice in Manitoba could not be resolved by reference to the literature. To inform the discussion, we collected a sample of local real world school psychology reports and undertook a modified content analysis to operationally define and measure…

  15. Separation and conductimetric detection of C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines on unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin columns.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Towata, Atsuya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2004-06-11

    The application of unfunctionized polymethacrylate resin (TSKgel G3000PWXL) as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography with conductimetric detection for C1-C7 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, 3,3-dimethylbutyric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid, 2-methylhexanoic acid, 5-methylhexanoic acid and heptanoic acid) and C1-C7 aliphatic monoamines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isobutylamine, butylamine, isoamylamine, amylamine, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine, hexylamine, 2-heptylamine and heptylamine) was attempted with C8 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (2-propylvaleric acid, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 2-methylheptanoic acid and octanoic acid) and C8 aliphatic monoamines (1,5-dimethylhexylamine, 2-ethylhexylamine, 1-methylheptylamine and octylamine) as eluents, respectively. Using 1 mM 2-methylheptanoic acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 carboxylic acids were achieved on a TSKgel G3000PWXL column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) in 60 min. Using 2 mM octylamine at pH 11.0 as the eluent, excellent separation and relatively high sensitive detection for these C1-C7 amines were also achieved on the TSKgel G3000PWXL column in 60 min.

  16. GISAXS analysis of ion beam modified films and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buljan, Maja; Karlušić, Marko; Nekić, Nikolina; Jerčinović, Marko; Bogdanović-Radović, Iva; Bernstorff, Sigrid; Radić, Nikola; Mekterović, Igor

    2017-03-01

    Simple and efficient methods for the accurate structural characterization of ion-beam modified materials are important due to their interesting properties and many applications. Here we demonstrate the application of the Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) method on the structural analysis of swift heavy ion-beam modified materials. Passing through a material, an accelerated ion usually modifies its surrounding causing the formation of nano-objects along its trajectory, called ion track. We show that GISAXS can be used to determine the structural properties of the nano-objects formed along the ion tracks, as well as their ordering properties. We have developed theoretical models describing GISAXS intensity distributions of the systems having different ordering types. The efficiencies of the models are tested on experimental examples.

  17. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

    2006-12-15

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products.

  18. Small Parameter Analysis of the Modified Tate Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    priori using laboratory strengths, Cinnamon et al [8]. There is a period of initial transient behavior at impact which is dominated by the shock...section ( Cinnamon et al [8]). Including this behavior in the analysis will modify the crater geometry and increase the penetration depth, which is...Alloy Long Rod Penetrator,” Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Ballistics, Oct. 1990. 8. John D. Cinnamon , S. E. Jones, Joel W

  19. Modified permutation-entropy analysis of heartbeat dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bian, Chunhua; Qin, Chang; Ma, Qianli D Y; Shen, Qinghong

    2012-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) contains important information about the modulation of the cardiovascular system. Various methods of nonlinear dynamics (e.g., estimating Lyapunov exponents) and complexity measures (e.g., correlation dimension or entropies) have been applied to HRV analysis. Permutation entropy, which was proposed recently, has been widely used in many fields due to its conceptual and computational simplicity. It maps a time series onto a symbolic sequence of permutation ranks. The original permutation entropy assumes the time series under study has a continuous distribution, thus equal values are rare and can be ignored by ranking them according to their order of emergence, or broken by adding small random perturbations to ensure every symbol in a sequence is different. However, when the observed time series is digitized with lower resolution leading to a greater number of equal values, or the equalities represent certain characteristic sequential patterns of the system, it may not be rational to simply ignore or break them. In the present paper, a modified permutation entropy is proposed that, by mapping the equal value onto the same symbol (rank), allows for a more accurate characterization of system states. The application of the modified permutation entropy to the analysis of HRV is investigated using clinically collected data. Results show that modified permutation entropy can greatly improve the ability to distinguish the HRV signals under different physiological and pathological conditions. It can characterize the complexity of HRV more effectively than the original permutation entropy.

  20. Modified permutation-entropy analysis of heartbeat dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Chunhua; Qin, Chang; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Shen, Qinghong

    2012-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) contains important information about the modulation of the cardiovascular system. Various methods of nonlinear dynamics (e.g., estimating Lyapunov exponents) and complexity measures (e.g., correlation dimension or entropies) have been applied to HRV analysis. Permutation entropy, which was proposed recently, has been widely used in many fields due to its conceptual and computational simplicity. It maps a time series onto a symbolic sequence of permutation ranks. The original permutation entropy assumes the time series under study has a continuous distribution, thus equal values are rare and can be ignored by ranking them according to their order of emergence, or broken by adding small random perturbations to ensure every symbol in a sequence is different. However, when the observed time series is digitized with lower resolution leading to a greater number of equal values, or the equalities represent certain characteristic sequential patterns of the system, it may not be rational to simply ignore or break them. In the present paper, a modified permutation entropy is proposed that, by mapping the equal value onto the same symbol (rank), allows for a more accurate characterization of system states. The application of the modified permutation entropy to the analysis of HRV is investigated using clinically collected data. Results show that modified permutation entropy can greatly improve the ability to distinguish the HRV signals under different physiological and pathological conditions. It can characterize the complexity of HRV more effectively than the original permutation entropy.

  1. Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Soltani-Gordefaramarzi, Sajjad; Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Moosa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, copper ferrite nanoparticle (CFN) was synthesized, modified by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, and characterized. Dye removal ability of the surface modified copper ferrite nanoparticle (SMCFN) from single system was investigated. The physical characteristics of SMCFN were studied using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Acid Blue 92, Direct Green 6, Direct Red 23, and Direct Red 80 were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters (surfactant concentration, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and pH) on dye removal was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis of the dye removal data. The experimental checking in these optimal conditions confirms good agreements with RSM results. The results showed that the SMCFN being a magnetic adsorbent might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  2. Quantitative microstructure analysis of polymer-modified mortars.

    PubMed

    Jenni, A; Herwegh, M; Zurbriggen, R; Aberle, T; Holzer, L

    2003-11-01

    Digital light, fluorescence and electron microscopy in combination with wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy were used to visualize individual polymers, air voids, cement phases and filler minerals in a polymer-modified cementitious tile adhesive. In order to investigate the evolution and processes involved in formation of the mortar microstructure, quantifications of the phase distribution in the mortar were performed including phase-specific imaging and digital image analysis. The required sample preparation techniques and imaging related topics are discussed. As a form of case study, the different techniques were applied to obtain a quantitative characterization of a specific mortar mixture. The results indicate that the mortar fractionates during different stages ranging from the early fresh mortar until the final hardened mortar stage. This induces process-dependent enrichments of the phases at specific locations in the mortar. The approach presented provides important information for a comprehensive understanding of the functionality of polymer-modified mortars.

  3. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues.

  4. Bismuth nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes modified sensor for sulfasalazine analysis.

    PubMed

    Nigović, Biljana; Jurić, Sandra; Mitrović, Iva

    2017-03-01

    Nanocomposite of bismuth nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes in Nafion matrix was used as modifier for glassy carbon electrode in analysis of anti-inflamatory drug sulfasalazine. The nanocomposite surface exhibited exceptional synergy and remarkable enhancement effect to the voltammetric response of drug. The surface morphology and structure characterization of the modified electrodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The sensor exhibited excellent electroanalytical performance for drug determination in comparison with bismuth film electrode. The adsorptive stripping square-wave voltammetric signal showed a good linear correlation to sulfasalazine concentration in a broad range from 5.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-5)M with low detection limit of 1.3×10(-8)M.The method was successfully utilised for drug quantification in human serum samples and good recoveries were obtained without interference from endogenous substances, 5-aminosalycilic acid and sulfapyridine formed after biotransformation of drug and folic acid co-administered as the supplement during sulfasalazine therapy. Additionally, the proposed sensor was successfully applied to analysis of sulfasalazine content in gastro-resistant pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  5. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    SciTech Connect

    Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; Titus, Peter

    2015-06-21

    The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagnetic simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    DOE PAGES

    Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; ...

    2015-06-21

    The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagneticmore » simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.« less

  7. Noether symmetry analysis of anisotropic universe in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, M. Farasat; Kanwal, Fiza

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we study the anisotropic universe using Noether symmetries in modified gravity. In particular, we choose a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-I universe for the analysis in f(R,G) gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar and G is the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Firstly, a model f(R,G)=f_0R^l+f_1G^n is proposed and the corresponding Noether symmetries are investigated. We have also recovered the Noether symmetries for f( R) and f(G) theories of gravity. Secondly, some important cosmological solutions are reconstructed. Exponential and power-law solutions are reported for a well-known f(R,G) model, i.e., f(R,G)=f_0R^nG^{1-n}. Especially, Kasner's solution is recovered and it is anticipated that the familiar de Sitter spacetime giving Λ CDM cosmology may be reconstructed for some suitable value of n.

  8. Testing and analysis of modified HMMWV front lift provisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallaro, Christopher; Dooley, Robert B.; Weight, Kristen D.; Cavallaro, Paul V.

    1992-05-01

    The U.S. Army Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL) was requested by the Tank and Automotive Command (TACOM) and the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) to investigate the performance of the modified front lift provisions on the high mobility, multipurpose, wheeled vehicle (HMMWV). In order to evaluate the front lift provisions, a series of simulated air lift, ultimate pull, and fatigue tests were performed. Each type of test was performed for two different load magnitudes and angles. In addition to the mechanical tests performed, nondestructive testing procedures were utilized to inspect the provisions for imperfections and cracks before and after testing. A finite element analysis (FEA) was also conducted to analyze the hook and the provision bracket for each of the two load configurations.

  9. Taylor series expansion and modified extended Prony analysis for localization

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.; Lewis, P.S.

    1994-12-01

    In the multiple source localization problem, many inverse routines use a rooting of a polynomial to determine the source locations. The authors present a rooting algorithm for locating an unknown number of three-dimensional, near-field, static sources from measurements at an arbitrarily spaced three-dimensional array. Since the sources are near-field and static, the spatial covariance matrix is always rank one, and spatial smoothing approaches are inappropriate due to the spatial diversity. The authors approach the solution through spherical harmonics, essentially replacing the point source function with its Taylor series expansion. They then perform a modified extended Prony analysis of the expansion coefficients to determine the number and location of the sources. The full inverse method is typically ill-conditioned, but a portion of the algorithm is suitable for synthesis analysis. They present a simulation for simplifying point charges limited to a spherical region, using an array of voltage potential measurements made outside the region. Future efforts of this work will focus on adapting the analysis to the electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography.

  10. Multifractal analysis of weighted networks by a modified sandbox algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Qin; Liu, Jin-Long; Yu, Zu-Guo; Li, Bao-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks have attracted growing attention in many fields. As a generalization of fractal analysis, multifractal analysis (MFA) is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns. Some algorithms for MFA of unweighted complex networks have been proposed in the past a few years, including the sandbox (SB) algorithm recently employed by our group. In this paper, a modified SB algorithm (we call it SBw algorithm) is proposed for MFA of weighted networks. First, we use the SBw algorithm to study the multifractal property of two families of weighted fractal networks (WFNs): “Sierpinski” WFNs and “Cantor dust” WFNs. We also discuss how the fractal dimension and generalized fractal dimensions change with the edge-weights of the WFN. From the comparison between the theoretical and numerical fractal dimensions of these networks, we can find that the proposed SBw algorithm is efficient and feasible for MFA of weighted networks. Then, we apply the SBw algorithm to study multifractal properties of some real weighted networks — collaboration networks. It is found that the multifractality exists in these weighted networks, and is affected by their edge-weights. PMID:26634304

  11. Multifractal analysis of weighted networks by a modified sandbox algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu-Qin; Liu, Jin-Long; Yu, Zu-Guo; Li, Bao-Gen

    2015-12-01

    Complex networks have attracted growing attention in many fields. As a generalization of fractal analysis, multifractal analysis (MFA) is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns. Some algorithms for MFA of unweighted complex networks have been proposed in the past a few years, including the sandbox (SB) algorithm recently employed by our group. In this paper, a modified SB algorithm (we call it SBw algorithm) is proposed for MFA of weighted networks. First, we use the SBw algorithm to study the multifractal property of two families of weighted fractal networks (WFNs): “Sierpinski” WFNs and “Cantor dust” WFNs. We also discuss how the fractal dimension and generalized fractal dimensions change with the edge-weights of the WFN. From the comparison between the theoretical and numerical fractal dimensions of these networks, we can find that the proposed SBw algorithm is efficient and feasible for MFA of weighted networks. Then, we apply the SBw algorithm to study multifractal properties of some real weighted networks — collaboration networks. It is found that the multifractality exists in these weighted networks, and is affected by their edge-weights.

  12. Meta-analysis of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Tan, Lan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Jiang, Teng; Tan, Meng-Shan; Tan, Lin; Zhao, Qing-Fei; Li, Jie-Qiong; Wang, Jun; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2015-12-01

    The aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is believed to involve environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The aim of our present systematic review and meta-analysis was to roundly evaluate the association between AD and its modifiable risk factors. We systematically searched PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to July 2014, and the references of retrieved relevant articles. We included prospective cohort studies and retrospective case-control studies. 16,906 articles were identified of which 323 with 93 factors met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Among factors with relatively strong evidence (pooled population >5000) in our meta-analysis, we found grade I evidence for 4 medical exposures (oestrogen, statin, antihypertensive medications and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy) as well as 4 dietary exposures (folate, vitamin E/C and coffee) as protective factors of AD. We found grade I evidence showing that one biochemical exposure (hyperhomocysteine) and one psychological condition (depression) significantly increase risk of developing AD. We also found grade I evidence indicative of complex roles of pre-existing disease (frailty, carotid atherosclerosis, hypertension, low diastolic blood pressure, type 2 diabetes mellitus (Asian population) increasing risk whereas history of arthritis, heart disease, metabolic syndrome and cancer decreasing risk) and lifestyle (low education, high body mass index (BMI) in mid-life and low BMI increasing the risk whereas cognitive activity, current smoking (Western population), light-to-moderate drinking, stress, high BMI in late-life decreasing the risk) in influencing AD risk. We identified no evidence suggestive of significant association with occupational exposures. Effective interventions in diet, medications, biochemical exposures, psychological condition, pre-existing disease and lifestyle may decrease new incidence of AD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  13. The phase-space analysis of modified gravity (MOG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Sara; Roshan, Mahmood

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the cosmological consequences of a scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravity known as modified gravity (MOG). In MOG, in addition to metric tensor, there are two scalar fields G( x) and μ (x), and one vector field φ _{α }(x). Using the phase space analysis, we explore the cosmological consequences of a model of MOG and find some new interesting features which are absent in Λ CDM model. More specifically we study the possibility that if the extra fields of this theory behave like dark energy to explain the cosmic speedup. More interestingly, with or without cosmological constant, a strongly phantom crossing occurs. Also we find that this theory in its original form (Λ ≠ 0) possesses a true sequence of cosmological epochs. However, we show that, surprisingly, there are two radiation-dominated epochs, f_5 and f_6, two matter-dominated phases, f_3 and f_4, and two late time accelerated eras, f_{12} and f7. Depending on the initial conditions the universe will realize only three of these six eras. However, the matter-dominated phases are dramatically different from the standard matter-dominated epoch. In these phases the cosmic scale factor grows as a(t)˜ t^{0.46} and t^{0.52}, respectively, which are slower than the standard case, i.e. a(t)˜ t^{2/3}. Considering these results we discuss the cosmological viability of MOG.

  14. ANALYSIS OF OUT OF DATE MCU MODIFIER LOCATED IN SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.

    2014-10-22

    SRNL recently completed density measurements and chemical analyses on modifier samples stored in drums within SRNL. The modifier samples date back to 2008 and are in various quantities up to 40 gallons. Vendor information on the original samples indicates a shelf life of 5 years. There is interest in determining if samples that have been stored for more than the 5 year shelf life are still acceptable for use. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent component Cs-7SB [(2,2,3,3- tetraflouropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, CAS #308362-88-1] is used as a diluent modifier to increase extractant solubility and provide physical characteristics necessary for diluent trimming.

  15. Erosion Modeling Analysis For Modified DWPF SME Tank

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, SI

    2004-05-03

    In support of an erosion evaluation for the modified cooling coil guide and its supporting structure in the DWPF SME vessel, a computational model was developed to identify potential sites of high erosion using the same methodology established by previous work. The erosion mechanism identified in the previous work was applied to the evaluation of high erosion locations representative of the actual flow process in the modified coil guide of the SME vessel, abrasive erosion which occurs by high wall shear of viscous liquid. The results show that primary locations of the highest erosion due to the abrasive wall erosion are at the leading edge of the guide, external surface of the insert plate, the tank floor next to the insert plate of the coil guide support, and the upstream lead-in plate. The present modeling results show a good comparison between the original and the modified cases in terms of high erosion sites, as well as the degree of erosion and the calculated shear stress. Wall she ar of the tank floor is reduced by about 30 per cent because of the new coil support plate. Calculations for the impeller speed lower than 103 rpm in the SME showed similar erosion patterns but significantly reduced wall shear stresses and reduced overall erosion. Comparisons of the 103 rpm results with SME measurements indicated that no significant erosion of the tank floor in the SME is to be expected. Thus, it is recommended that the agitator speed of SME does not exceed 103 rpm.

  16. The Use of a Modified Semantic Features Analysis Approach in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Frome, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported improved naming using the semantic feature analysis (SFA) approach in individuals with aphasia. Whether the SFA can be modified and still produce naming improvements in aphasia is unknown. The present study was designed to address this question by using a modified version of the SFA approach. Three, rather than the…

  17. The Use of a Modified Semantic Features Analysis Approach in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Frome, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported improved naming using the semantic feature analysis (SFA) approach in individuals with aphasia. Whether the SFA can be modified and still produce naming improvements in aphasia is unknown. The present study was designed to address this question by using a modified version of the SFA approach. Three, rather than the…

  18. Radiographic Parameter Analysis on Modified Sauvé-Kapandji Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Norikazu; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Takuji; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The Sauvé-Kapandji (S-K) procedure is now an established treatment option for symptomatic distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dysfunction. However, for patients with poor bone quality (frequently as a result of advanced-stage rheumatoid arthritis [RA]), the conventional S-K procedure is difficult to perform without reducing the radioulnar diameter of the wrist, which may result in a loss of grip strength and pain over the proximal ulnar stump. The purpose of this study was to review the radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent a modified S-K procedure that involves rotating the resected ulnar segment 90 degrees and using it to bridge the gap between the sigmoid notch and the ulnar head. Methods The modified S-K procedure was performed in 29 wrists of 23 patients. Twenty-one patients had severe RA, while two had malunited radius fractures. The mean follow-up period was 43 months (range, 23 to 95). The radiographic evaluation included a measurement of the radioulnar width, the pseudarthrosis gap between the proximal and distal ulnar stump, the radioulnar distance, and the ulnar translation of the carpus. Results The radioulnar width of the wrist, pseudarthrosis gap, and radioulnar distance were well maintained throughout the period. A postoperative loss in the radioulnar width of the wrists appeared to correlate with a postoperative additional ulnar translocation of the carpus. Conclusion Narrowing of the radioulnar width of the wrist is a potential cause of progressive ulnar translocation of the carpus. The modified technique for the S-K procedure maintains the distal ulna in the proper position and provides sufficient ulnar support for the carpus. It is a useful reconstruction procedure in patients with severe RA with poor bone quality. PMID:24436785

  19. Radiographic parameter analysis on modified sauvé-kapandji procedure.

    PubMed

    Ota, Norikazu; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Takuji; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2013-02-01

    Purpose The Sauvé-Kapandji (S-K) procedure is now an established treatment option for symptomatic distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) dysfunction. However, for patients with poor bone quality (frequently as a result of advanced-stage rheumatoid arthritis [RA]), the conventional S-K procedure is difficult to perform without reducing the radioulnar diameter of the wrist, which may result in a loss of grip strength and pain over the proximal ulnar stump. The purpose of this study was to review the radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent a modified S-K procedure that involves rotating the resected ulnar segment 90 degrees and using it to bridge the gap between the sigmoid notch and the ulnar head. Methods The modified S-K procedure was performed in 29 wrists of 23 patients. Twenty-one patients had severe RA, while two had malunited radius fractures. The mean follow-up period was 43 months (range, 23 to 95). The radiographic evaluation included a measurement of the radioulnar width, the pseudarthrosis gap between the proximal and distal ulnar stump, the radioulnar distance, and the ulnar translation of the carpus. Results The radioulnar width of the wrist, pseudarthrosis gap, and radioulnar distance were well maintained throughout the period. A postoperative loss in the radioulnar width of the wrists appeared to correlate with a postoperative additional ulnar translocation of the carpus. Conclusion Narrowing of the radioulnar width of the wrist is a potential cause of progressive ulnar translocation of the carpus. The modified technique for the S-K procedure maintains the distal ulna in the proper position and provides sufficient ulnar support for the carpus. It is a useful reconstruction procedure in patients with severe RA with poor bone quality.

  20. Temperature-dependent bursting pattern analysis by modified Plant model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many electrophysiological properties of neuron including firing rates and rhythmical oscillation change in response to a temperature variation, but the mechanism underlying these correlations remains unverified. In this study, we analyzed various action potential (AP) parameters of bursting pacemaker neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia juliana to examine whether or not bursting patterns are altered in response to temperature change. Here we found that the inter-burst interval, burst duration, and number of spike during burst decreased as temperature increased. On the other hand, the numbers of bursts per minute and numbers of spikes per minute increased and then decreased, but interspike interval during burst firstly decreased and then increased. We also tested the reproducibility of temperature-dependent changes in bursting patterns and AP parameters. Finally we performed computational simulations of these phenomena by using a modified Plant model composed of equations with temperature-dependent scaling factors to mathematically clarify the temperature-dependent changes of bursting patterns in burst-firing neurons. Taken together, we found that the modified Plant model could trace the ionic mechanism underlying the temperature-dependent change in bursting pattern from experiments with bursting pacemaker neurons in the abdominal ganglia of Aplysia juliana. PMID:25051923

  1. Analysis of modified SMI method for adaptive array weight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dilsavor, R. L.; Moses, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive array is applied to the problem of receiving a desired signal in the presence of weak interference signals which need to be suppressed. A modification, suggested by Gupta, of the sample matrix inversion (SMI) algorithm controls the array weights. In the modified SMI algorithm, interference suppression is increased by subtracting a fraction F of the noise power from the diagonal elements of the estimated covariance matrix. Given the true covariance matrix and the desired signal direction, the modified algorithm is shown to maximize a well-defined, intuitive output power ratio criterion. Expressions are derived for the expected value and variance of the array weights and output powers as a function of the fraction F and the number of snapshots used in the covariance matrix estimate. These expressions are compared with computer simulation and good agreement is found. A trade-off is found to exist between the desired level of interference suppression and the number of snapshots required in order to achieve that level with some certainty. The removal of noise eigenvectors from the covariance matrix inverse is also discussed with respect to this application. Finally, the type and severity of errors which occur in the covariance matrix estimate are characterized through simulation.

  2. Modified Strongly Implicit Procedure for groundwater flow analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Kumar, M. S.; Sridharan, K.; Lakshmana Rao, N. S.

    1986-10-01

    A Modified Strongly Implicit Procedure (MSIP) to solve two dimensional groundwater flow problems in non-rectangular regions is presented. At present while using SIP, such problems are solved over a superscribed rectangular computational region with zero transmissivities for nodes outside the region of interest. This leads to wastage in computer storage and time. The MSIP is developed to handle non-rectangular regions directly without such dummy nodes. It is found that except for four types of boundary nodes, the same equations as in the normal SIP are applicable. The relationships for the special types of boundary nodes for row computations are presented. The method is tested on two test problems and compared with other finite difference methods, and MSIP is found to be the best. The MSIP will be particularly advantageous in regions with non-rectangular boundaries and where a number of parameters have to be stored for each node.

  3. Analysis of asphaltic binders modified with PPA by surface techniques.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Erico R; Pizzorno, Bianca S; Motta, Laura M G; Simao, Renata A; Leite, Leni F M

    2014-06-01

    Samples of unmodified and modified asphalt binders containing 1% polyphosphoric acid were studied. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to evaluate the structural indices of the functional groups present in the samples and the results indicated there was a strong interaction between the polyphosphoric acid and oxygenated species. Contact angle measurements indicated that adhesion of the binder to the aggregate depended on the polyphosphoric acid content. Atomic force microscopy was used to relate features observed on the surface of the asphalt binder 50/70, with their local mechanical properties such as stiffness and elasticity. It was observed that the surface of the sample containing 1% polyphosphoric acid provides stiffness values lower than the unmodified asphalt binder. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Outcome analysis of reduction mammaplasty using the modified Robertson technique.

    PubMed

    Chalekson, Charles P; Neumeister, Michael W; Zook, Elvin G; Russell, Robert C

    2002-07-01

    The benefits of reduction mammaplasty have been well documented in previous literature. Anticipating and correcting for pseudoptosis (bottoming-out), however, can impair the cosmetic outcome as the inferior skin envelope stretches and lengthens over time. We present long-term results on patients using the modified Robertson technique for reduction mammaplasty, which appears to have significant benefit in helping to prevent bottoming-out. Surveys were sent to patients undergoing reduction mammaplasty surgery with this technique from 1987 to 1997. Patients were queried regarding preoperative and postoperative symptoms, satisfaction, and outcome related to their surgery and were also offered free follow-up examinations. The patients who returned for follow-up were then evaluated by the attending surgeons for evaluation of scarring, nipple position, ptosis, pseudoptosis, shape, and overall appearance. Reduced breasts were also compared with cosmetically optimal breasts to compare for measured levels of pseudoptosis using our defined visual inferior pole ratio measurements. Average reduction size was 910 g and follow-up was 4.7 years from the time of surgery. There was significant improvement demonstrated in all areas questioned, with the greatest relief shown in back and shoulder pain, shoulder grooving, and difficulty fitting clothing. There was also demonstrated to be significantly less use of medical modalities postoperatively and significant increases in activity levels. Satisfaction for size, shape, symmetry, and overall results was 85, 94, 98, and 94 percent, respectively. Evaluations for pseudoptosis by the attending surgeons were rated good or excellent in 95 percent of patients. Measurements of the visual inferior pole ratio for pseudoptosis also demonstrated no significant differences when compared with aesthetically optimal breasts. The modified Robertson reduction mammaplasty is a reliable technique that can be used for both small and large reductions

  5. A Bootstrap Generalization of Modified Parallel Analysis for IRT Dimensionality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes; Monahan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a bootstrap generalization to the Modified Parallel Analysis (MPA) method of test dimensionality assessment using factor analysis. This methodology, based on the use of Marginal Maximum Likelihood nonlinear factor analysis, provides for the calculation of a test statistic based on a parametric bootstrap using the MPA…

  6. A Bootstrap Generalization of Modified Parallel Analysis for IRT Dimensionality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes; Monahan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a bootstrap generalization to the Modified Parallel Analysis (MPA) method of test dimensionality assessment using factor analysis. This methodology, based on the use of Marginal Maximum Likelihood nonlinear factor analysis, provides for the calculation of a test statistic based on a parametric bootstrap using the MPA…

  7. Performance analysis of modified tent map interleaver in IDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Aasheesh; Deolia, Vinay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In the last years, Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) has been presented as a potential alternate of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system. In IDMA systems, the interleavers are used to separate the users of the system in multiple access environments. Random interleaver is popular and basic taxonomy, which scrambles information bits of craving users with different patterns. However the indispensable characteristics of a random interleaver such as bandwidth requirement, computational complexity, and memory restraint at both transmitter and receiver end is uttermost. Further, it has also been observed that the study of role of chaos in interleaver design is very limited in literature. Hence, in this paper, a low complexity chaos based interleaver named as modified Tent map interleaver is designed for further performance improvement of IDMA system and the characteristic parameters are compared with the random interleaver. The IDMA system model uses a BPSK modulation and repetition coder with a code rate of 1/2. The system is simulated in MATLAB and results show that the better BER performance without the need of extra memory resources.

  8. Ergonomic analysis of working posture in nursing personnel: example of modified Ovako Working Analysis System application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Chiou, W K

    1995-02-01

    A postural analysis system was developed using a biomechanical approach to identify low back pain related working postures of nursing personnel. The Ovako Working Analysis System (OWAS) was modified for doing postural recording. Chaffin's biomechanical model was used to calculate the associated work stress on the L5/S1. The system was applied to examine the working postures of 64 nurses of 16 departments. The frequency distribution of the trunk showed 15.9% of the 8,629 observed postures were bending more than 15 degrees. Based on the calculated stress, 17.0% of the observed postures generated forces higher than the recommended action limit of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition to patient transfers, potentially health hazardous postures were identified in nursing tasks of inspection, nursing techniques, instrumentation, physical examination, taking inventory, and documentation.

  9. Convergence analysis for a modified SP iterative method.

    PubMed

    Öztürk Çeliker, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    We consider a new iterative method due to Kadioglu and Yildirim (2014) for further investigation. We study convergence analysis of this iterative method when applied to class of contraction mappings. Furthermore, we give a data dependence result for fixed point of contraction mappings with the help of the new iteration method.

  10. Genetic modifier loci of mouse Mfrp(rd6) identified by quantitative trait locus analysis.

    PubMed

    Won, Jungyeon; Charette, Jeremy R; Philip, Vivek M; Stearns, Timothy M; Zhang, Weidong; Naggert, Jürgen K; Krebs, Mark P; Nishina, Patsy M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes that modify pathological ocular phenotypes in mouse models may improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and lead to new treatment strategies. Here, we identify modifier loci affecting photoreceptor cell loss in homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice, which exhibit a slowly progressive photoreceptor degeneration. A cohort of 63 F2 homozygous Mfrp(rd6) mice from a (B6.C3Ga-Mfrp(rd6)/J × CAST/EiJ) F1 intercross exhibited a variable number of cell bodies in the retinal outer nuclear layer at 20 weeks of age. Mice were genotyped with a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and genotypes were correlated with phenotype by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map modifier loci. A genome-wide scan revealed a statistically significant, protective candidate locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 and suggestive modifier loci on Chromosomes 6 and 11. Multiple regression analysis of a three-QTL model indicated that the modifier loci on Chromosomes 1 and 6 together account for 26% of the observed phenotypic variation, while the modifier locus on Chromosome 11 explains only an additional 4%. Our findings indicate that the severity of the Mfrp(rd6) retinal degenerative phenotype in mice depends on the strain genetic background and that a significant modifier locus on CAST/EiJ Chromosome 1 protects against Mfrp(rd6)-associated photoreceptor loss.

  11. Modified generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis for stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Huang, Jingjing

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a modified method of generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis is proposed as a new measure to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. The method based on Hausdorff distance presents a different way of time series patterns match showing distinct behaviors of complexity. Simulations are conducted over synthetic and real-world data for providing the comparative study. Results show that the modified method is more sensitive to the change of dynamics and has richer information. In addition, exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the curves obtained from the modified method and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data.

  12. Modified electrokinetic sample injection method in chromatography and electrophoresis analysis

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, J. Courtney; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    A sample injection method for horizontal configured multiple chromatography or electrophoresis units, each containing a number of separation/analysis channels, that enables efficient introduction of analyte samples. This method for loading when taken in conjunction with horizontal microchannels allows much reduced sample volumes and a means of sample stacking to greatly reduce the concentration of the sample. This reduction in the amount of sample can lead to great cost savings in sample preparation, particularly in massively parallel applications such as DNA sequencing. The essence of this method is in preparation of the input of the separation channel, the physical sample introduction, and subsequent removal of excess material. By this method, sample volumes of 100 nanoliter to 2 microliters have been used successfully, compared to the typical 5 microliters of sample required by the prior separation/analysis method.

  13. [Interpretation of modified prescription for pharmacoeconomic analysis of New Zealand].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Su, Xia; Gao, Yan; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The Prescription for Pharmacoeconomic Analysis (PFPA) of New Zealand was firstly published in 1999. The original version was reviewed in 2004 and version 2, approved and published in 2007, is the living document. The main purpose for this guideline is to provide an overview of the methods PHARMAC (Pharmaceutical Management of Agency) uses when conducting cost-utility analysis. Compared with version 1, version 2 involved and discussed the most frequently mentioned issues in pharmacoeconomic guidelines around the world. This paper describes the distinguishes between version 1 and 2, the advantages of version 2 as well as the amendments that will be made in PHARMAC's future work, in order to provide meaningful advice for standardizing and documenting methods in China

  14. Reanalysis, compatibility and correlation in analysis of modified antenna structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1989-01-01

    A simple computational procedure is synthesized to process changes in the microwave-antenna pathlength-error measure when there are changes in the antenna structure model. The procedure employs structural modification reanalysis methods combined with new extensions of correlation analysis to provide the revised rms pathlength error. Mainframe finite-element-method processing of the structure model is required only for the initial unmodified structure, and elementary postprocessor computations develop and deal with the effects of the changes. Several illustrative computational examples are included. The procedure adapts readily to processing spectra of changes for parameter studies or sensitivity analyses.

  15. Blade design and analysis using a modified Euler solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, O.; Vandenbraembussche, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    An iterative method for blade design based on Euler solver and described in an earlier paper is used to design compressor and turbine blades providing shock free transonic flows. The method shows a rapid convergence, and indicates how much the flow is sensitive to small modifications of the blade geometry, that the classical iterative use of analysis methods might not be able to define. The relationship between the required Mach number distribution and the resulting geometry is discussed. Examples show how geometrical constraints imposed upon the blade shape can be respected by using free geometrical parameters or by relaxing the required Mach number distribution. The same code is used both for the design of the required geometry and for the off-design calculations. Examples illustrate the difficulty of designing blade shapes with optimal performance also outside of the design point.

  16. Modified method of analysis for surgical correction of facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Terpsithea; Kau, Chung How; Waite, Peter D.; Kheir, Nadia Abou; Mouritsen, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this article was to present a new method of analysis using a three dimensional (3D) model of an actual patient with facial asymmetry, for the assessment of her facial changes and the quantification of the deformity. This patient underwent orthodontic and surgical treatment to correct a severe facial asymmetry. Materials and Methods: The surgical procedure was complex and the case was challenging. The treatment procedure required an orthodontic approach followed by Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, septorhinoplasty and chin advancement. The imaging devices used in this paper is the 3dMDface system (Atlanta, GA) and the Kodak 9500 Cone Beam 3D system device (Atlanta, GA). 3D digital stereophotogrammetric cameras were used for image acquisition and a reverse modeling software package, the Rapidform 2006 Software (INUS Technology, Seoul, Korea) was applied for surface registration. The images were also combined and analyzed using the 3dMD vultus (Atlanta, GA) software and InVivoDental 5.2.3 (San Jose, CA). All data gathered from previously mentioned sources were adjusted to the patient's natural head position. Results: The 3D images of the patient were taken and analyzed in three time frames; before orthodontics and surgical treatment (T1), at the end of orthodontic therapy and before surgery (T2) and about 2 months after surgery (T3). The patient showed significant improvement of her skeletal discrepancy between T1 and T3. In addition, there were some dentoalveolar changes between T1 and T2 as expected. The 3D analysis of surgical changes on the 3D models correlated very well to the actual surgical movements. Conclusions: The use of these 3D imaging tools offer a reliable accuracy to accessing and quantifying changes that occur after surgery. This study shows supportive evidence for the use of 3D imaging techniques. PMID:24205481

  17. Experimental analysis of density fingering instability modified by precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binda, L.; El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A.; D'Onofrio, A.

    2017-05-01

    We analyze the effect of precipitate formation on the development of density induced hydrodynamic instabilities. In this case, the precipitate is BaCO3, obtained by reaction of CO2 with aqueous BaCl2. CO2(g) dissolution increases the local density of the aqueous phase, triggering Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and BaCO3 formation. It was observed that at first the precipitate was formed at the finger front. As the particles became bigger, they began to fall down from the front. These particles were used as tracers using PIV technique to visualize the particle streamlines and to obtain the velocity of that movement. This falling produced a downward flow that might increase the mixing zone. Contrary to expectations, it was observed that the finger length decreased, indicating that for the mixing zone development, the consumption of CO2 to form the precipitate is more important than the downward flow. The mixing zone length was recovered by increasing the availability of the reactant (higher CO2 partial pressure), compensating the CO2 used for BaCO3 formation. Mixing zone development rates reached constant values at shorter times when the precipitate is absent than when it is present. An analysis of the nonlinear regime with and without the precipitate is performed.

  18. In Vitro Analysis of Fibronectin-Modified Titanium Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Chang, Wei Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Glow discharge plasma (GDP) procedure is an effective method for grafting various proteins, including albumin, type I collagen, and fibronectin, onto a titanium surface. However, the behavior and impact of titanium (Ti) surface modification is yet to be unraveled. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the biological properties of fibronectin-grafted Ti surfaces treated by GDP. Materials and Methods Grade II Ti discs were initially cleaned and autoclaved to obtain original specimens. Subsequently, the specimens were GDP treated and grafted with fibronectin to form Ar-GDP (Argon GDP treatment only) and GDP-fib (fibronectin coating following GDP treatment) groups. Blood coagulation test and MG-63 cell culture were performed to evaluate the biological effects on the specimen. Results There was no significant difference between Ar-GDP and GDP-fib groups in blood compatibility analysis. While in the MTT test, cellular proliferation was benefited from the presence of fibronectin coating. The numbers of cells on Ar-GDP and GDP-fib specimens were greater than those in the original specimens after 24 h of culturing. Conclusions GDP treatment combined with fibronectin grafting favored MG-63 cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation on titanium surfaces, which could be attributed to the improved surface properties. PMID:26731536

  19. Experimental analysis of density fingering instability modified by precipitation.

    PubMed

    Binda, L; El Hasi, C; Zalts, A; D'Onofrio, A

    2017-05-01

    We analyze the effect of precipitate formation on the development of density induced hydrodynamic instabilities. In this case, the precipitate is BaCO3, obtained by reaction of CO2 with aqueous BaCl2. CO2(g) dissolution increases the local density of the aqueous phase, triggering Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and BaCO3 formation. It was observed that at first the precipitate was formed at the finger front. As the particles became bigger, they began to fall down from the front. These particles were used as tracers using PIV technique to visualize the particle streamlines and to obtain the velocity of that movement. This falling produced a downward flow that might increase the mixing zone. Contrary to expectations, it was observed that the finger length decreased, indicating that for the mixing zone development, the consumption of CO2 to form the precipitate is more important than the downward flow. The mixing zone length was recovered by increasing the availability of the reactant (higher CO2 partial pressure), compensating the CO2 used for BaCO3 formation. Mixing zone development rates reached constant values at shorter times when the precipitate is absent than when it is present. An analysis of the nonlinear regime with and without the precipitate is performed.

  20. Analysis of modified wet-air oxidation for soil detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Unterberg, W.; Willms, R.S.; Balinsky, A.M.; Reible, D.D.; Wetzel, D.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of research on wet-air oxidation as a method for the destruction of hazardous wastes. For organics in the presence of large amounts of water, the water need not be vaporized during wet-air oxidation, an attractive characteristic for energy conservation. The feasibility of using wet-air oxidation was investigated in terms of the effects of temperature, pressure, and the presence or absence of soil on the oxidation rate of three model compounds. Wet-air oxidation is a semi-commercial process that has been used to treat a variety of weakly toxic chemical wastes and for the regeneration of activated carbon. In the study, wet-air oxidation research was carried out in a 1-liter batch reactor at temperatures from 130 to 275/sup 0/C and pressures from 703-1760 x 10/sup 3/ kg/sq m on three substances: m-xylene, tetrachloroethylene (TCE), and malathion, both with and without addition of soil. Any attempt to balance the effect of residence time and the cost of energy requires an accurate description of the oxidation kinetics for the compound or waste stream in question. Due to the sampling technique used during the investigation and the inherent nature of the wet-air oxidation process, a variety of potential problems with the interpretation and analysis of the raw concentration-time data were encountered during the study.

  1. Failure Behavior Characterization of Mo-Modified Ti Surface by Impact Test and Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong; Qin, Jianfeng; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lin, Naiming; Huang, Xiaobo; Tang, Bin

    2015-07-01

    Using the impact test and finite element simulation, the failure behavior of the Mo-modified layer on pure Ti was investigated. In the impact test, four loads of 100, 300, 500, and 700 N and 104 impacts were adopted. The three-dimensional residual impact dents were examined using an optical microscope (Olympus-DSX500i), indicating that the impact resistance of the Ti surface was improved. Two failure modes cohesive and wearing were elucidated by electron backscatter diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometer performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope. Through finite element forward analysis performed at a typical impact load of 300 N, stress-strain distributions in the Mo-modified Ti were quantitatively determined. In addition, the failure behavior of the Mo-modified layer was determined and an ideal failure model was proposed for high-load impact, based on the experimental and finite element forward analysis results.

  2. Low-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation Fragmentation Analysis of Cysteinyl-Modified Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, Oleg V.; Goshe, Michael B. ); Conrads, Thomas P. ); Rakov, Vsevolod S. ); Veenstra, Timothy D. ); Smith, Richard D. )

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of D. radiodurans, the presence of these labeled-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys-residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-D0 or ICAT-D8.

  3. Low-energy collision-induced dissociation fragmentation analysis of cysteinyl-modified peptides.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Oleg V; Goshe, Michael B; Conrads, Thomas P; Rakov, V Sergey; Veenstra, Timothy D; Smith, Richard D

    2002-05-15

    The development of methods to chemically modify and isolate cysteinyl-residue-containing peptides (Cys-peptides) for LC-MS/MS analysis has generated considerable interest in the field of proteomics. Methods using isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine (iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin) employ similar Cys-modifying reagents that contain a thiolate-specific biotin group to modify and isolate Cys-containing peptides in conjunction with immobilized avidin. For these strategies to be effective on a proteome-wide level, the presence of the ICAT or acetyl-PEO-biotin tag should not interfere with the efficiency of induced dissociation in MS/MS experiments or with the identification of the modified Cys-peptides by automated database searching algorithms. We have compared the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of peptides labeled with iodoacetyl-PEO-biotin and the ICAT reagent to those of the unmodified peptides. CID of Cys-peptides modified with either reagent resulted in the formation of ions attributed to the modified Cys-peptides as well as those unique to the labeling reagent. As demonstrated by analyzing acetyl-PEO-biotin labeled peptides from ribonuclease A and the ICAT-labeled proteome of Deinococcus radiodurans, the presence of these label-specific product ions provides a useful identifier to discern whether a peptide has been modified with the Cys-specific reagent, especially when a number of peptides analyzed using these methods do not contain a modified Cys residue, and to differentiate identical Cys-peptides labeled with either ICAT-d0 or ICAT-d8.

  4. Functional site profiling and electrostatic analysis of cysteines modifiable to cysteine sulfenic acid.

    PubMed

    Salsbury, Freddie R; Knutson, Stacy T; Poole, Leslie B; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S

    2008-02-01

    Cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH), a reversible modification, is a catalytic intermediate at enzyme active sites, a sensor for oxidative stress, a regulator of some transcription factors, and a redox-signaling intermediate. This post-translational modification is not random: specific features near the cysteine control its reactivity. To identify features responsible for the propensity of cysteines to be modified to sulfenic acid, a list of 47 proteins (containing 49 known Cys-SOH sites) was compiled. Modifiable cysteines are found in proteins from most structural classes and many functional classes, but have no propensity for any one type of protein secondary structure. To identify features affecting cysteine reactivity, these sites were analyzed using both functional site profiling and electrostatic analysis. Overall, the solvent exposure of modifiable cysteines is not different from the average cysteine. The combined sequence, structure, and electrostatic approaches reveal mechanistic determinants not obvious from overall sequence comparison, including: (1) pKaS of some modifiable cysteines are affected by backbone features only; (2) charged residues are underrepresented in the structure near modifiable sites; (3) threonine and other polar residues can exert a large influence on the cysteine pKa; and (4) hydrogen bonding patterns are suggested to be important. This compilation of Cys-SOH modification sites and their features provides a quantitative assessment of previous observations and a basis for further analysis and prediction of these sites. Agreement with known experimental data indicates the utility of this combined approach for identifying mechanistic determinants at protein functional sites.

  5. Understanding and predicting effects of modified interactions through a qualitative analysis of community structure.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo

    2007-09-01

    Models of ecological communities are traditionally based on relationships between pairs of species, where the strengths of per capita interactions are fixed and independent of population abundance. A growing body of literature, however; describes interactions whose strength is modified by the density of either a third species or by one of the species involved in a pairwise interaction. These modified interactions have been treated as indirect effects, and the terminology addressing them is diverse and overlapping. In this paper we develop a general analytical framework based on a qualitative analysis of community structure to account for the consequence of modified interactions in complex ecological communities. Modified interactions are found to create both direct and indirect effects between species. The sign of a direct effect can change in some instances depending on the magnitude of a key variable or parameter, which leads to a threshold change in system structure and dynamics. By considering alternative structures of a community, we extend our ability to model perturbations that move the system far from a previous equilibrium. Using specific examples, we reinterpret existing results, develop hypotheses to guide experiments or management interventions, and explore the role of modified interactions and positive feedback in creating and maintaining alternative stable states. Through a qualitative analysis of community structure, system feedback is demonstrated as being key in understanding and predicting the dynamics of complex ecological communities.

  6. Comments on "A modified reachability tree approach to analysis of unbounded Petri nets".

    PubMed

    Ru, Yu; Wu, Weimin; Hadjicostis, Christoforos N

    2006-10-01

    The above paper introduced the construction of a modified reachability tree (MRT) for (unbounded) Petri nets and its application to reachability, liveness, and deadlock analysis. This note shows via a counterexample that some of the MRT properties claimed in the above paper are incorrect.

  7. Metabolome analysis via comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography: identification of modified nucleosides from RNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Lucas; Erbes, Thalia; Krieger, Sonja; Trafkowski, Jens; Rodamer, Michael; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-05-01

    Modified nucleosides derived from the RNA metabolism constitute an important chemical class, which are discussed as potential biomarkers in the detection of mammalian breast cancer. Not only the variability of modifications, but also the complexity of biological matrices such as urinary samples poses challenges in the analysis of modified nucleosides. In the present work, a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS) approach for the analysis of modified nucleosides in biological samples was established. For prepurification of urinary samples and cell culture supernatants, we performed a cis-diol specific affinity chromatography using boronate-derivatized polyacrylamide gel. In order to establish a 2D-LC method, we tested numerous column combinations and chromatographic conditions. In order to determine the target compounds, we coupled the 2D-LC setup to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer performing full scans, neutral loss scans, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The combination of a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column with a Zorbax Bonus-RP column was found to deliver a high degree of orthogonality and adequate separation. By application of 2D-LC-MS approaches, we were able to detect 28 target compounds from RNA metabolism and crosslinked pathways in urinary samples and 26 target compounds in cell culture supernatants, respectively. This is the first demonstration of the applicability and benefit of 2D-LC-MS for the targeted metabolome analysis of modified nucleosides and compounds from crosslinked pathways in different biological matrices.

  8. A modified coupled map car following model and its traffic congestion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Liu, Yu-Xia; Cheng, Rong-Jun; Lo, Siu-Ming

    2012-11-01

    Based on the coupled map car following model which was presented by Konishi et al. [Konishi KJ, Kokame H, Hirate K. Phys Rev E 1999;60:4000-7.] (for short, KKH), a modified coupled map car following model is proposed. In this model two successive vehicles' headway distances in front of the considered one are incorporated in the optimal velocity (for short, OV) function. The stability condition is given for the change of the speed of the preceding vehicle on the base of the control theory. The control scheme in KKH model is applied to the modified model and the feedback gains are determined. Comparison between the modified model and KKH model is carried out. And the corresponding numerical simulation results show that the temporal behavior obtained by our model is better than that by KKH model. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  9. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Matrix modifiers for feedstuff selenium analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.F.; Zeringue, L.K.

    1988-01-01

    Gallium, Co, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn, dissolved in methanol, were evaluated for efficacy as an alternate volume matrix modifier in Se analysis of forages and concentrates. Gallium, Co, Mn, and Zn were unsuitable as modifiers. Nickel, Cd, Cu, and modifier M (Ni + Cd + Cu) were used to test recovery of Se addition (.025, .050, .100, .200, and .500 ..mu..g) in meat and bone meal, pelleted grain dust, dry milk replacer, whole soybeans, and alfalfa hay. Recovery of Se with Cu, Cd, and M had large and variable SD of means within Se concentrations across feedstuffs and within feedstuff across Se concentrations. Mean percent recoveries of Se with the Ni modifier for the five concentrations over all feedstuffs were 106.4, 102.4, 100.2, 97.5, and 97.4, respectively. Repeated analyses of these same five feedstuffs, plus National Bureau of Standards citrus leaves and corn stalk (recommended Se = .016 ..mu..g/g), gave Se concentration (means ..mu..g/g) of .423, .104, .168, .196, .624, .027, and .015, respectively. Results obtained with Cd, Cu, and M had larger SD than did results obtained with Ni. Nickel nitrate in methanol as an alternate volume matrix modifier for Se provided reliable and sensititive Se analyses for a variety of feedstuffs.

  11. Carbon-dot organic surface modifier analysis by solution-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippidis, Aggelos; Spyros, Apostolos; Anglos, Demetrios; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Zbořil, Radek; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-07-01

    Carbon dots (C-dots) represent a new class of carbon-based materials that were discovered recently and have drawn the interest of the scientific community, particularly because of their attractive optical properties and their potential as fluorescent sensors. Investigation of the chemical structure of C-dots is extremely important for correlating the surface modifier composition with C-dot optical properties and allow for structure-properties fine tuning. In this article, we report the structural analysis of the surface modifiers of three different types of C-dot nanoparticles (Cwax, Cws, and Csalt) by use of 1D- and 2D-high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in solution. We unambiguously verify that the structure of the modifier chains remains chemically unchanged during the passivation procedure, and confirm the covalent attachment of the modifiers to the nanoparticle core, which contributes no signal to the solution-state NMR spectra. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the full structural assignment of C-dot organic surface modifiers by use of solution NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Aeroelastic analysis and ground vibration survey of the NASA, Grumman American Yankee modified for spin testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A complete ground vibration and aeroelastic analysis was made of a modified version of the Grumman American Yankee. The aircraft had been modified for four empennage configurations, a wing boom was added, a spin chute installed and provisions included for large masses in the wing tip to vary the lateral and directional inertia. Other minor changes were made which have much less influence on the flutter and vibrations. Neither static divergence nor aileron reversal was considered since the wing structure was not sufficiently changed to affect its static aeroelastic qualities. The aircraft was found to be free from flutter in all of the normal modes explored in the ground shake test. The analysis demonstrated freedom from flutter up to 214 miles per hour.

  13. Acute and subchronic toxicity analysis of surface modified paclitaxel attached hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubbu, Gopinath Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Kumar, J

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are widely used for targeted drug delivery applications. Surface modification with appropriate polymer and ligands is carried out to target the drug to the affected area. Toxicity analysis is carried out to evaluate the safety of the surface modified nanoparticles. In this study, paclitaxel attached, folic acid functionalized, polyethylene glycol modified hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used for targeted drug delivery system. The toxicological behavior of the system was studied in vivo in rats and mice. Acute and subchronic studies were carried out. Biochemical, hematological, and histopathological analysis was also done. There were no significant alterations in the biochemical parameters at a low dosage. There was a small change in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level at a high dosage. The results indicate a safe toxicological profile.

  14. Application of modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to microbial quinone analysis.

    PubMed

    Irvan; Hasanudin, Udin; Faisal, Muhammad; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) was applied to extract microbial quinones from activated sludge. Identification and analysis was then performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) detector and photodiode array detector (PDA). Extracted microbial quinones were trapped and separated as menaquinones (MK) and ubiquinones (Q) species using two Sep-Pak Plus Silica cartridges joined in series. Four ubiquinones and 12 menaquinones species were identified in 0.1 g dried activated sludge based on retention time and spectrum analysis. Among the tested various polar solvents, methanol showed to be the best modifier, based on the highest total quinone content extracted and the lowest dissimilarity index. The diversity index of quinone and the number of quinone species using methanol-modified scCO2 were similar to that of the conventional method (organic solvent extraction).

  15. Migrating Huns and modified heads: Eigenshape analysis comparing intentionally modified crania from Hungary and Georgia in the Migration Period of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mayall, Peter; Bitadze, Liana

    2017-01-01

    An intentionally modified head is a visually distinctive sign of group identity. In the Migration Period of Europe (4th– 7th century AD) the practice of intentional cranial modification was common among several nomadic groups, but was strongly associated with the Huns from the Carpathian Basin in Hungary, where modified crania are abundant in archaeological sites. The frequency of modified crania increased substantially in the Mtskheta region of Georgia in this time period, but there are no records that Huns settled here. We compare the Migration Period modified skulls from Georgia with those from Hungary to test the hypothesis that the Huns were responsible for cranial modification in Georgia. We use extended eigenshape analysis to quantify cranial outlines, enabling a discriminant analysis to assess group separation and identify morphological differences. Twenty-one intentionally modified skulls from Georgia are compared with sixteen from Hungary, using nineteen unmodified crania from a modern population as a comparative baseline. Results indicate that modified crania can be differentiated from modern unmodified crania with 100% accuracy. The Hungarian and Georgian crania show some overlap in shape, but can be classified with 81% accuracy. Shape gradations along the main eigenvectors indicate that the Hungarian crania show little variation in cranial shape, in accordance with a two-bandage binding technique, whereas the Georgian crania had a wider range of variation, fitting with a diversity of binding styles. As modification style is a strong signifier of social identity, our results indicate weak Hunnic influence on cranial modification in Georgia and are equivocal about the presence of Huns in Georgia. We suggest instead that other nomadic groups such as Alans and Sarmatians living in this region were responsible for modified crania in Georgia. PMID:28152046

  16. Understanding gas phase modifier interactions in rapid analysis by Differential Mobility-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L.; Wong, Bryan M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Glick, James J.; Vouros, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility- mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using mucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 106 normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab-initio thermochemical results we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry in mobility differences, but at lower temperatures multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects. PMID:24452298

  17. Understanding Gas Phase Modifier Interactions in Rapid Analysis by Differential Mobility-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L.; Wong, Bryan M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Glick, James J.; Vouros, Paul

    2014-07-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas-phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using nucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes, and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 106 normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab initio thermochemical results, we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry, but at lower temperatures, multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects.

  18. Dynamical analysis of fractional-order Rössler and modified Lorenz systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2013-10-01

    This Letter is devoted to the dynamical analysis of fractional-order systems, namely the Rössler and a modified Lorenz system. The work here described compares the dynamical regimes of such fractional-order systems to that of the corresponding standard systems. It turns out that most of the chaotic attractors are topologically equivalent to those found in the original integer-order systems, although in some particular (and apparently rare) cases unusual bifurcation patterns and attractors are found.

  19. User’s Guide: Modified Slope Stability Package with Kansas City Analysis (DGSLOPE).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    MODIFIED SLOPE STABILITY PACKAGE WITH KANSAS CITY ANALYSIS (DGSLOPE) by Robert L. Hall, Michael E. Pace Automatic Data Processing Center U. S. Army Engineer...endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. J W’ Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (16.., Dots gntenod) EPAGE AD...report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR~s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(S) Robert L. Hall Michael E. Pace S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND

  20. Harmonic Scalpel versus Electrocautery Dissection in Modified Radical Mastectomy for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinbo; Yu, Yinghua; Wei, Changyuan; Qin, Qinghong; Mo, Qinguo; Yang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the common use of conventional electrocautery in modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, the harmonic scalpel is recently emerging as a dominant surgical instrument for dissection and haemostasis, which is thought to reduce the morbidity, such as seroma and blood loss. But the results of published trials are inconsistent. So we made the meta-analysis to assess the intraoperative and postoperative endpoints among women undergoing modified radical mastectomy with harmonic scalpel or electrocautery. Methods A comprehensive literature search of case-control studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases involving modified radical mastectomy with harmonic scalpel or electrocautery was performed. We carried out a meta-analysis of primary endpoints including postoperative drainage, seroma development, intraoperative blood loss and secondly endpoints including operative time and wound complications. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the effect size for categorical outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes. Results A total of 11 studies with 702 patients were included for this meta-analysis. There was significant difference in total postoperative drainage (SMD: -0.74 [95%CI: -1.31, -0.16]; P< 0.01), seroma development[OR: 0.49 (0.34, 0.70); P < 0.01], intraoperative blood loss(SMD: -1.14 [95%CI: -1.81,-0.47]; P < 0.01) and wound complications [OR: 0.38 (0.24, 0.59); P < 0.01] between harmonic scalpel dissection and standard electrocautery in modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. No difference was found as for operative time between harmonic scalpel dissection and standard electrocautery (SMD: 0.04 [95%CI: -0.41, 0.50]; P = 0.85). Conclusion Compared to standard electrocautery, harmonic scalpel dissection presents significant advantages in decreasing postoperative drainage, seroma development, intraoperative blood loss and wound complications in

  1. Harmonic Scalpel versus Electrocautery Dissection in Modified Radical Mastectomy for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinbo; Yu, Yinghua; Wei, Changyuan; Qin, Qinghong; Mo, Qinguo; Yang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Despite the common use of conventional electrocautery in modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer, the harmonic scalpel is recently emerging as a dominant surgical instrument for dissection and haemostasis, which is thought to reduce the morbidity, such as seroma and blood loss. But the results of published trials are inconsistent. So we made the meta-analysis to assess the intraoperative and postoperative endpoints among women undergoing modified radical mastectomy with harmonic scalpel or electrocautery. A comprehensive literature search of case-control studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases involving modified radical mastectomy with harmonic scalpel or electrocautery was performed. We carried out a meta-analysis of primary endpoints including postoperative drainage, seroma development, intraoperative blood loss and secondly endpoints including operative time and wound complications. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the effect size for categorical outcomes and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous outcomes. A total of 11 studies with 702 patients were included for this meta-analysis. There was significant difference in total postoperative drainage (SMD: -0.74 [95%CI: -1.31, -0.16]; P< 0.01), seroma development[OR: 0.49 (0.34, 0.70); P < 0.01], intraoperative blood loss(SMD: -1.14 [95%CI: -1.81,-0.47]; P < 0.01) and wound complications [OR: 0.38 (0.24, 0.59); P < 0.01] between harmonic scalpel dissection and standard electrocautery in modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. No difference was found as for operative time between harmonic scalpel dissection and standard electrocautery (SMD: 0.04 [95%CI: -0.41, 0.50]; P = 0.85). Compared to standard electrocautery, harmonic scalpel dissection presents significant advantages in decreasing postoperative drainage, seroma development, intraoperative blood loss and wound complications in modified radical mastectomy for breast

  2. Functional genomic screen and network analysis reveal novel modifiers of tauopathy dissociated from tau phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Jackson, George R.

    2011-01-01

    A functional genetic screen using loss-of-function and gain-of-function alleles was performed to identify modifiers of tau-induced neurotoxicity using the 2N/4R (full-length) isoform of wild-type human tau expressed in the fly retina. We previously reported eye pigment mutations, which create dysfunctional lysosomes, as potent modifiers; here, we report 37 additional genes identified from ∼1900 genes screened, including the kinases shaggy/GSK-3beta, par-1/MARK, CamKI and Mekk1. Tau acts synergistically with Mekk1 and p38 to down-regulate extracellular regulated kinase activity, with a corresponding decrease in AT8 immunoreactivity (pS202/T205), suggesting that tau can participate in signaling pathways to regulate its own kinases. Modifiers showed poor correlation with tau phosphorylation (using the AT8, 12E8 and AT270 epitopes); moreover, tested suppressors of wild-type tau were equally effective in suppressing toxicity of a phosphorylation-resistant S11A tau construct, demonstrating that changes in tau phosphorylation state are not required to suppress or enhance its toxicity. Genes related to autophagy, the cell cycle, RNA-associated proteins and chromatin-binding proteins constitute a large percentage of identified modifiers. Other functional categories identified include mitochondrial proteins, lipid trafficking, Golgi proteins, kinesins and dynein and the Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein (Hop). Network analysis uncovered several other genes highly associated with the functional modifiers, including genes related to the PI3K, Notch, BMP/TGF-β and Hedgehog pathways, and nuclear trafficking. Activity of GSK-3β is strongly upregulated due to TDP-43 expression, and reduced GSK-3β dosage is also a common suppressor of Aβ42 and TDP-43 toxicity. These findings suggest therapeutic targets other than mitigation of tau phosphorylation. PMID:21949350

  3. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging.

  4. Analysis on the risk of contralateral proximal femoral epiphyseal slippage using the modified Oxford score.

    PubMed

    Soni, Jamil Faissal; Valenza, Weverley Rubele; Ueda, Wellington Keity; Schelle, Gisele Cristine; Costa, Anna Carolina Pavelec; Ferraz Faria, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To determine the application of the modified Oxford score among patients with proximal femoral epiphyseal slippage (PFES) as an aid to indicating prophylactic surgical treatment on the contralateral hip. Retrospective analysis on the medical files of patients attended at the institution where the authors work. From these, patients attended between 2008 and 2011 who presented unilateral PFES and were followed up for a minimum of two years were selected. Patients were excluded if they presented endocrine disease, metabolic disease, Down syndrome or radiographs that were inadequate for determining the modified Oxford score. The initial radiographs received scores ranging from 16 to 26. Statistical analysis was used to determine whether the scoring was predictive of future development of contralateral slippage. Among the 15 patients with unilateral PFES that were selected, five (33.3%) evolved with contralateral slippage. The patients were divided into two groups. Four patients were considered to present risk and three of them developed contralateral slippage. In the group that was considered not to present risk, there were 11 patients and two of these evolved with contralateral slippage. Thus, there was a tendency for the patients in the group that developed the disease to differ from the group that did not develop it, in relation to the risk classification. Although application of the modified Oxford score was not statistically significant in our sample, we noted a tendency toward contralateral slippage among hips with low scores.

  5. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lehert, Philippe; Villaseca, Paulina; Hogervorst, Eef; Maki, Pauline M.; Henderson, Victor W.

    2016-01-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually-modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For 10 of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least six months), randomized controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11 to 0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  6. An assessment of SBS modified asphalt concrete pavements performance features performing numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Ahmet Sertac; Bozkurt, Tarik Serhat; Sayin, Baris; Ortes, Faruk

    2017-07-01

    In passenger and freight traffic on the roads, which has the largest share of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) prepared asphalt concrete pavement is one of the most preferred type of flexible superstructure. During the service life of the road, they must provide the performance which is expected to show. HMA must be high performance mix design, comfortable, safe and resistance to degradation. In addition, it becomes a critical need to use various additives materials for roads to be able to serve long-term against environmental conditions such as traffic and climate due to the fact that the way of raw materials is limited. Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) polymers are widely used among additives. In this study, the numerical analysis of SBS modified HMA designed asphalt concrete coatings prepared with different thicknesses with SBS modified HMA is performed. After that, stress and deformation values of the three pavement models are compared and evaluated.

  7. Using modified visual-inspection criteria to interpret functional analysis outcomes.

    PubMed

    Roane, Henry S; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E; Mevers, Joanna L; Bouxsein, Kelly J

    2013-01-01

    The development of functional analysis (FA) methodologies allows the identification of the reinforcers that maintain problem behavior and improved intervention efficacy in the form of function-based treatments. Despite the profound impact of FA on clinical practice and research, questions still remain about the methods by which clinicians and researchers interpret FA graphs. In the current study, 141 FA data sets were evaluated using the structured visual-inspection criteria developed by Hagopian et al. (1997). However, the criteria were modified for FAs of varying lengths. Interobserver agreement assessments revealed high agreement coefficients across expert judges, postdoctoral reviewers, master's-level reviewers, and postbaccalaureate reviewers. Once the validity of the modified visual-inspection procedures was established, the utility of those procedures was examined by using them to categorize the maintaining reinforcement contingency related to problem behavior for all 141 data sets and for the 101 participants who contributed to the 141 data sets.

  8. Modified Involute Helical Gears: Computerized Design, Simulation of Meshing and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The computerized design, methods for generation, simulation of meshing, and enhanced stress analysis of modified involute helical gears is presented. The approaches proposed for modification of conventional involute helical gears are based on conjugation of double-crowned pinion with a conventional helical involute gear. Double-crowning of the pinion means deviation of cross-profile from an involute one and deviation in longitudinal direction from a helicoid surface. Using the method developed, the pinion-gear tooth surfaces are in point-contact, the bearing contact is localized and oriented longitudinally, and edge contact is avoided. Also, the influence of errors of alignment on the shift of bearing contact, vibration, and noise are reduced substantially. The theory developed is illustrated with numerical examples that confirm the advantages of the gear drives of the modified geometry in comparison with conventional helical involute gears.

  9. Genetic analysis of opaque2 modifier loci in quality protein maize.

    PubMed

    Holding, David R; Hunter, Brenda G; Chung, Taijoon; Gibbon, Bryan C; Ford, Clark F; Bharti, Arvind K; Messing, Joachim; Hamaker, Bruce R; Larkins, Brian A

    2008-07-01

    Quality protein maize (QPM) was created by selecting genetic modifiers that convert the starchy endosperm of an opaque2 (o2) mutant to a hard, vitreous phenotype. Genetic analysis has shown that there are multiple, unlinked o2 modifiers (Opm), but their identity and mode of action are unknown. Using two independently developed QPM lines, we mapped several major Opm QTLs to chromosomes 1, 7 and 9. A microarray hybridization performed with RNA obtained from true breeding o2 progeny with vitreous and opaque kernel phenotypes identified a small group of differentially expressed genes, some of which map at or near the Opm QTLs. Several of the genes are associated with ethylene and ABA signaling and suggest a potential linkage of o2 endosperm modification with programmed cell death.

  10. Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Valentina; Parracino, Maria Antonietta; La Spina, Rita; Rossi, Francois; Ceccone, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP). The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules. Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behavior of the glucose-modified particles in the presence of the maltose binding protein. PMID:26973830

  11. Surface analysis of gold nanoparticles functionalized with thiol-modified glucose SAMs for biosensor applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Valentina; Parracino, Mariaantonietta; La Spina, Rita; Rossi, Francois; Ceccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP). The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules. Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behaviour of the glucose-modified particles in presence of the maltose binding protein.

  12. Modified Involute Helical Gears: Computerized Design, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert (Technical Monitor); Litvin, Faydor L.; Gonzalez-Perez, Ignacio; Carnevali, Luca; Kawasaki, Kazumasa; Fuentes-Aznar, Alfonso

    2003-01-01

    The computerized design, methods for generation, simulation of meshing, and enhanced stress analysis of modified involute helical gears is presented. The approaches proposed for modification of conventional involute helical gears are based on conjugation of double-crowned pinion with a conventional helical involute gear. Double-crowning of the pinion means deviation of cross-profile from an involute one and deviation in longitudinal direction from a helicoid surface. Using the method developed, the pinion-gear tooth surfaces are in point-contact, the bearing contact is localized and oriented longitudinally, and edge contact is avoided. Also, the influence of errors of aligment on the shift of bearing contact, vibration, and noise are reduced substantially. The theory developed is illustrated with numerical examples that confirm the advantages of the gear drives of the modified geometry in comparison with conventional helical involute gears.

  13. The feasibility of a modified shoe for multi-segment foot motion analysis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Halstead, J; Keenan, A M; Chapman, G J; Redmond, A C

    2016-01-01

    The majority of multi-segment kinematic foot studies have been limited to barefoot conditions, because shod conditions have the potential for confounding surface-mounted markers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a shoe modified with a webbed upper can accommodate multi-segment foot marker sets without compromising kinematic measurements under barefoot and shod conditions. Thirty participants (15 controls and 15 participants with midfoot pain) underwent gait analysis in two conditions; barefoot and wearing a shoe (shod) in a random order. The shod condition employed a modified shoe (rubber plimsoll) with a webbed upper, allowing skin mounted reflective markers to be visualised through slits in the webbed material. Three dimensional foot kinematics were captured using the Oxford multi-segment foot model whilst participants walked at a self-selected speed. The foot pain group showed greater hindfoot eversion and less hindfoot dorsiflexion than controls in the barefoot condition and these differences were maintained when measured in the shod condition. Differences between the foot pain and control participants were also observed for walking speed in the barefoot and in the shod conditions. No significant differences between foot pain and control groups were demonstrated at the forefoot in either condition. Subtle differences between pain and control groups, which were found during barefoot walking are retained when wearing the modified shoe. The novel properties of the modified shoe offers a potential solution for the use of passive infrared based motion analysis for shod applications, for instance to investigate the kinematic effect of foot orthoses.

  14. Improved protocols for quantitative determination of metabolites from biological samples using high performance ionic-exchange chromatography with conductimetric and pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Groussac; Ortiz; François

    2000-06-01

    Simple and reliable protocols are described for an extensive analysis of metabolites in extracts from different biological sources. The separation was performed by high performance ionic-exchange chromatography (HPIC) at alkaline pH using two types of chromatography columns and two detection methods. Organic acids and inorganic anions were separated on an ionPac AS11 column using a 0.5 to 35 mM Na0H gradient. Detection limits in the range of milligrams per liter were achieved by use of a conductivity detector equipped with an anion self-regenerating suppressor. Twelve phosphorylated compounds belonging to the glycolytic and the pentose phosphate pathways could be resolved on a CarboPac PA1 column using a Na0H/Na-acetate gradient. Quantification was achieved by pulsed amperometry with detection limits in the micromolar range. Cell extracts obtained by extraction in boiling buffered ethanol described previously could be directly injected onto HPIC columns for the separation of metabolites because the extraction procedure affected neither the retention time nor the stability of most of the metabolites, and yielded very clean chromatograms. These improved protocols were applied for a dynamic analysis of intracellular metabolites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to a glucose pulse.

  15. A modified approach for change detection using change vector analysis in posterior probability space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, S. A.; Vidal, A.; Bentounes, H. A.

    2015-04-01

    The multispectral and multitemporal data coming from satellites allow us to extract valuable spatiotemporal change. Consequently, Earth surface change detection analysis has been used in the past to monitor land cover changes caused by different reasons. Several techniques have been used for that purpose and change vector analysis (CVA) has been frequently employed to carry out automatic spatiotemporal information extraction. This work describes a modified methodology based on Supervised Change Vector Analysis in Posterior probability Space (SCVAPS) with the final aim of obtaining a change detection map in Blida, Algeria. The proposed technique is a Modified version of Supervised Change Vector Analysis Posterior probability Space (MSCVAPS) and it is applied at the same region that the original technique studied in the literature. The classical Maximum Likelihood classifier is the selected method for supervised classification since it provides good properties in the posterior probability map. An improved method for threshold determination based on Double Flexible Pace Search (DFPS) is proposed in this work and it is employed to obtain the most adequate threshold value. Then, the MSCVAPS approach is evaluated by two cases study of the land cover change detection in the region of Blida, Algeria, and in the region of Shunyi District, Beijing, China, using a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper images and pair of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper images, respectively. The final evaluation is given by the overall accuracy of changed and unchanged pixels and the kappa coefficient. The results show that the modified approach gives excellent results using the same area of study that was selected in the literature.

  16. Determination of DNA adducts by combining acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chromatographic analysis of the carcinogen-modified nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Leung, Elvis M K; Deng, Kailin; Wong, Tin-Yan; Chan, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The commonly used method of analyzing carcinogen-induced DNA adducts involves the hydrolysis of carcinogen-modified DNA samples by using a mixture of enzymes, followed by (32)P-postlabeling or liquid chromatography (LC)-based analyses of carcinogen-modified mononucleotides/nucleosides. In the present study, we report the development and application of a new approach to DNA adduct analysis by combining the H(+)/heat-catalyzed release of carcinogen-modified nucleobases and the use of LC-based methods to analyze DNA adducts. Results showed that heating the carcinogen-modified DNA samples at 70 °C for an extended period of 4 to 6 h in the presence of 0.05% HCl can efficiently induce DNA depurination, releasing the intact carcinogen-modified nucleobases for LC analyses. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, DNA samples with C8- and N (2) -modified 2'-deoxyguanosine, as well as N (6) -modified 2'-deoxyadenosine, were synthesized by reacting DNA with 1-nitropyrene, acetaldehyde, and aristolochic acids, respectively. These samples were then hydrolyzed, and the released nucleobase adducts were analyzed using LC-based analytical methods. Analysis results demonstrated a dose-dependent release of target DNA adducts from carcinogen-modified DNA samples, indicating that the developed H(+)/heat-catalyzed hydrolysis method was quantitative. Comparative studies with enzymatic digestion method on carcinogen-modified DNA samples revealed that the two hydrolysis methods did not yield systematically different results.

  17. A comparative analysis between NACA 4412 airfoil and it's modified form with tubercles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Jonayed; Islam, Md. Tazul; Hassan, Md. Mehedi

    2017-06-01

    The effect of tubercles on the leading edge of an airfoil become more vivid at high angle of attacks. The effect of tubercles with large wavelength and small amplitude on the leading edge of a NACA 4412 airfoil section was investigated numerically and experimentally. The phenomena of improving the airfoil performance by modifying the contours drove our interest to do this analysis. The models were developed & numerical simulations were carried out with both NACA 4412 airfoil and modified airfoil model at Re=1.03×106 and angles of attack ranging from 0° to 20°. Flow separation was analyzed with vector profiles. CL, CD at different angle of attacks was developed and it gave down noticeable pre-stall & post-stall behavior. The airfoils were studied experimentally in a low speed wind tunnel. Pressure distribution over the two airfoils was obtained. It was evident from the pressure distributions that the modified airfoil exhibits significant aerodynamic performance at high angles of attack. We can infer that these effects will be advantageous for maneuverability and post-stall behavior.

  18. OMA and OPA--software-supported mass spectra analysis of native and modified nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Nyakas, Adrien; Blum, Lorenz C; Stucki, Silvan R; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Schürch, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    The platform-independent software package consisting of the oligonucleotide mass assembler (OMA) and the oligonucleotide peak analyzer (OPA) was created to support the analysis of oligonucleotide mass spectra. It calculates all theoretically possible fragments of a given input sequence and annotates it to an experimental spectrum, thus, saving a large amount of manual processing time. The software performs analysis of precursor and product ion spectra of oligonucleotides and their analogues comprising user-defined modifications of the backbone, the nucleobases, or the sugar moiety, as well as adducts with metal ions or drugs. The ability to expand the library of building blocks and to implement individual structural variations makes it extremely useful for supporting the analysis of therapeutically active compounds. The functionality of the software tool is demonstrated on the examples of a platinated double-stranded oligonucleotide and a modified RNA sequence. Experiments also reveal the unique dissociation behavior of platinated higher-order DNA structures.

  19. OMA and OPA—Software-Supported Mass Spectra Analysis of Native and Modified Nucleic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyakas, Adrien; Blum, Lorenz C.; Stucki, Silvan R.; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Schürch, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    The platform-independent software package consisting of the oligonucleotide mass assembler (OMA) and the oligonucleotide peak analyzer (OPA) was created to support the analysis of oligonucleotide mass spectra. It calculates all theoretically possible fragments of a given input sequence and annotates it to an experimental spectrum, thus, saving a large amount of manual processing time. The software performs analysis of precursor and product ion spectra of oligonucleotides and their analogues comprising user-defined modifications of the backbone, the nucleobases, or the sugar moiety, as well as adducts with metal ions or drugs. The ability to expand the library of building blocks and to implement individual structural variations makes it extremely useful for supporting the analysis of therapeutically active compounds. The functionality of the software tool is demonstrated on the examples of a platinated double-stranded oligonucleotide and a modified RNA sequence. Experiments also reveal the unique dissociation behavior of platinated higher-order DNA structures.

  20. Learning representative features for facial images based on a modified principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averkin, Anton; Potapov, Alexey

    2013-05-01

    The paper is devoted to facial image analysis and particularly deals with the problem of automatic evaluation of the attractiveness of human faces. We propose a new approach for automatic construction of feature space based on a modified principal component analysis. Input data sets for the algorithm are the learning data sets of facial images, which are rated by one person. The proposed approach allows one to extract features of the individual subjective face beauty perception and to predict attractiveness values for new facial images, which were not included into a learning data set. The Pearson correlation coefficient between values predicted by our method for new facial images and personal attractiveness estimation values equals to 0.89. This means that the new approach proposed is promising and can be used for predicting subjective face attractiveness values in real systems of the facial images analysis.

  1. XPS profile analysis on CdS thin film modified with Ag by an ion exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristova, M.; Ristov, M.

    2001-09-01

    Thin CdS films were produced by the method of chemical bath deposition. The composition of the film surface was modified with Ag by their immersion in 0.025 M thiosulfate Ag + complex solution for 60 s. After 3-4 months, films underwent XPS analysis. The peaks on the Auger electron spectrum were identified to originate from Cd, Ag, S, O and C electrons. Depth profile electron spectra were taken for 15 different depths of the film profile. AgMNN and CdMNN, Cd3d, S2p, Ag3d and O1s peaks were subject to detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results of the quantitative profile analysis showed that the Ag +-ions from the ion exchange solution, introduced into the CdS thin film by this method, displace the Cd +2 ions during the substitution diffusion by a kick-out mechanism, forming Ag 2S. The distribution of Ag 2S in the film profile could be fitted to a exponential curve. The overall Ag 2S concentration in the thin CdS film was calculated from the integral of the normalized fitted curve over the entire film thickness. The data from the film profile was related to the optical and electrical properties of the Ag modified CdS films, which were the subject of study in our previous research.

  2. Quantitative analysis of the Trendelenburg test and invention of a modified method.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kenji; Kabata, Tamon; Kajino, Yoshitomo; Iwai, Shintaro; Kuroda, Kazunari; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Katsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    While the Trendelenburg test has been used for 120 years to detect hip abductor muscle weakness, the methodology has not been standardised. This study undertook to quantitatively analyze the relation between abductor muscle activity and pelvic tilt angle in the Trendelenburg one-leg stance, examine the pitfalls associated with performing the T-test, and develop a modified method that will produce reliable results. A convenience sample of 15 healthy males was asked to assume a one-leg stance in ten different postures, five with mild flexion on the unsupported side, and five with severe flexion. Trunk sway angle, pelvic tilt angle, and the pelvic on femur (POF) angle were measured for each posture. Statistical analysis was used to assess differences in hip abductor activity and public tilt angle between the control posture and the test postures. With minimum trunk sway, hip abductor muscle activity increases when the pelvis is elevated and decreases when it is dropped. With trunk sway toward the test side, abductor muscle activity decreased when the pelvis was elevated; with trunk sway toward the non-test side, muscle activity stayed approximately constant when the pelvis was dropped. Based on the results we developed a modified T-test methodology that would improve reliability. This test should be performed with minimum trunk sway and severe flexion on the non-test side. The assessment of muscle weakness is based on whether the patient can keep the single-leg standing posture when forced to elevate the pelvis, not simply on the pelvic drop. In future research, we will perform the modified T-test on patients with a suspected hip abductor deficiency, and assess the usefulness of the modified test. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Symmetry analysis of a system of modified shallow-water equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmari, Simon; Bihlo, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    We revise the symmetry analysis of a modified system of one-dimensional shallow-water equations (MSWE) recently considered by Raja Sekhar and Sharma [Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 2012;20:630-36]. Only a finite dimensional subalgebra of the maximal Lie invariance algebra of the MSWE, which in fact is infinite dimensional, was found in the aforementioned paper. The MSWE can be linearized using a hodograph transformation. An optimal list of inequivalent one-dimensional subalgebras of the maximal Lie invariance algebra is constructed and used for Lie reductions. Non-Lie solutions are found from solutions of the linearized MSWE.

  4. A Method for Microalgae Proteomics Analysis Based on Modified Filter-Aided Sample Preparation.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Cao, Xupeng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Haowei; Xue, Song; Tian, Jing

    2017-04-11

    With the fast development of microalgal biofuel researches, the proteomics studies of microalgae increased quickly. A filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method is widely used proteomics sample preparation method since 2009. Here, a method of microalgae proteomics analysis based on modified filter-aided sample preparation (mFASP) was described to meet the characteristics of microalgae cells and eliminate the error caused by over-alkylation. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the model, the prepared sample was tested by standard LC-MS/MS and compared with the previous reports. The results showed mFASP is suitable for most of occasions of microalgae proteomics studies.

  5. Diffraction analysis of blazed transmission gratings with a modified extended scalar theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaijun; Kuang, Dengfeng; Fang, Zhiliang

    2008-06-01

    An alternative interpretation of the diffraction of blazed transmission gratings with moderate structure period is proposed according to a modified extended scalar theory (MEST). The diffraction field on the bottom facet of the grating is considered to be the interference of four subfields investigated in the problem of diffraction of a plane wave by an infinite half-plane. It is observed that MEST gives the total field that agrees with rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), and the result is more reliable than that of extended scalar theory (EST). The MEST is still a ray-optical-based approximation approach, and the region of validity is compared with EST and RCWA.

  6. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ([minus]60[degrees]F) temperatures.

  7. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ({minus}60{degrees}F) temperatures.

  8. Modifiable partner factors associated with perinatal depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Pamela D; Milne, Lisa C; Cairns, Kathryn E; Lewis, James; Whelan, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Perinatal distress is a significant public health problem that adversely impacts the individual and their family. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to identify factors that partners can modify to protect each other from developing perinatal depression and anxiety. In accordance with the PRISMA statement, we reviewed the risk and protective factors associated with perinatal depression and anxiety symptoms that partners can potentially modify without professional assistance (PROSPERO reference CRD42014007524). Participants were new or expectant parents aged 16 years or older. The partner factors were sub-grouped into themes (e.g., instrumental support) based on a content analysis of the scale items and measure descriptions. A series of meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the pooled effect sizes of associations. We included 120 publications, reporting 245 associations with depression and 44 with anxiety. Partner factors with sound evidence that they protect against both perinatal depression and anxiety are: emotional closeness and global support. Partner factors with a sound evidence base for depression only are communication, conflict, emotional and instrumental support, and relationship satisfaction. This review is limited by the lack of generalizability to single parents and the inability to systematically review moderators and mediators, or control for baseline symptoms. The findings suggest that future prevention programs targeting perinatal depression and anxiety should aim to enhance relationship satisfaction, communication, and emotional closeness, facilitate instrumental and emotional support, and minimize conflict between partners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Explaining public resistance to genetically modified corn: an analysis of the distribution of benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia

    2004-06-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have met with widespread approval among scientists and policy makers in the United States, but public approval of GM crops, both domestically and abroad, is progressing much more slowly. An underlying cause of public wariness may be that both nations and individual consumers do not perceive significant benefits to themselves from GM crops, while fearing the risks they may incur. In this study, an economic analysis is conducted to determine whether the benefits of one type of GM corn, Bt corn (genetically modified to resist damage from the ECB and Southwestern corn borer), outweigh the potential risks; and who the "winners" and "losers" are among stakeholder groups that may be affected by Bt corn. It is found that Bt corn growers, consumers, and industry all benefit from Bt corn adoption, though the purported health and environmental benefits of reducing chemical pesticide usage through Bt corn are negligible. Though the aggregated public benefit is large, the welfare gain to individual consumers is small and may not make up for perceived risks. While environmental and health risks of Bt corn are unlikely, the potential market risks-impacting both the organic corn market and total U.S. corn exports-are found to be significant. Currently, distributional analysis is not a part of regulatory decision making of Bt corn in the United States; yet it may help to explain why decision makers at both the government and individual-consumer levels have failed to embrace Bt corn and other GM crops.

  10. Modified optimal control pilot model for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development of a modified optimal control pilot model based upon the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison. This model is input compatible with the OCM and retains other key aspects of the OCM, such as a linear quadratic solution for the pilot gains with inclusion of control rate in the cost function, a Kalman estimator, and the ability to account for attention allocation and perception threshold effects. An algorithm designed for each implementation in current dynamic systems analysis and design software is presented. Example results based upon the analysis of a tracking task using three basic dynamic systems are compared with measured results and with similar analyses performed with the OCM and two previously proposed simplified optimal pilot models. The pilot frequency responses and error statistics obtained with this modified optimal control model are shown to compare more favorably to the measured experimental results than the other previously proposed simplified models evaluated.

  11. Rotational analysis of birefringent crystal particles based on modified theory in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yong; Zhu, Yanying; Yao, Wenying; Pei, Huan

    2015-04-01

    In order to achieve high-precision, controllable rotation of uniaxial birefringent crystal particles, we study the principle of optical rotation due to the transfer of spin angular momentum from light to birefringent crystal particles. The interaction process between the beam and particles is affected by various factors existed actually, for instance: the reflection of beam on the crystal surface, laser power, the set of angle between the crystal optical axis and surface, radius, phase difference between the ordinary ray and extraordinary ray. According to the analysis of these factors, the theoretical model of optical rotation is reconstructed. The theoretical curves of calcium carbonate and silicon particles chosen as experimental material between the rotational frequency and the radius are simulated and calculated. The result shows that the rotation frequency is inversely proportional to the cube of radius, and compared the performance of modified model with traditional model. The birefringent particles are rotated by optical tweezers in the experiment, and rotation frequency is measured with the same laser power. According to the experimental results of optical rotation, the modified Friese theoretical model is proved to be the reasonably and excellence, in addition, the result shows the maximum frequency of calcium carbonate is 19.1Hz, and the maximum frequency of silicon particles is 11.5Hz. The rationality of our experiment is testified by compared with theoretical analysis. Our study has great directive significance to the design of optical driven micro-mechanical motor and the material selection of rotor.

  12. Qualitative analysis of SBS modifier in asphalt pavements using field samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Fengxia; Liu, Zhifei

    2017-06-01

    Series of tests are implemented to analysis the related characteristics of common asphalt and unknown asphalt mainly using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) for chemical compositions and rheological properties of asphalt, respectively. In addition, a series of mechanical properties were performed on asphalt mixtures, including indirect tensile strength test and three point bending test at low temperature. Experimental results indicated that compared with common asphalt, the characteristic absorption peak of the unknown asphalt are appeared at 966cm-1and 699cm-1, which are accordant with the SBS modifier. The results of DSR indicated that the unknown asphalt’s complex modulus is higher and the phase angle is lower. The mechanical tests indicated that some properties of the unknown mixture samples are increased by 24.7%∼41.8% compared with common pavement sample, like the indirect tensile strength, the bending test at low temperature and indirect tensile resilient modulus. Comprehensive analysis indicates that SBS modifier is existed in the unknown asphalt pavement.

  13. Conductimetric determination of decomposition of silicate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, C.; Lieck, K.

    1986-01-01

    A description of a procedure is given to detect decomposition of silicate systems in the liquid state by conductivity measurements. Onset of decomposition can be determined from the temperature curves of resistances measured on two pairs of electrodes, one above the other. Degree of decomposition can be estimated from temperature and concentration dependency of conductivity of phase boundaries. This procedure was tested with systems PbO-B2O3 and PbO-B2O3-SiO2.

  14. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow Injection Analysis of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde in Honey by a Modified Winkler Method.

    PubMed

    Castoldi, Karine; Milani, Maria Izabel; Rossini, Eduardo L; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena R

    2016-01-01

    One of the quality indicators for honey is 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), which is formed during the heating or aging of honey. The International Honey Commission recommends three methods for the determination of HMF in honey: the Winkler method, the White method, and determination by HPLC. The Winkler method uses the carcinogenic substance p-toluidine, which is not in accordance with the principles of Green Chemistry. The present work describes the determination of HMF in honey by flow injection analysis (FIA) using a modified Winkler method, replacing p-toluidine with p-aminobenzoic acid. The linear range was 1.00 to 40.0 mg L(-1), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.43 mg L(-1), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.32 mg L(-1). The method is an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for the analysis of HMF in honey.

  16. Coupled Loads Analysis of the Modified NASA Barge Pegasus and Space Launch System Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    A Coupled Loads Analysis (CLA) has been performed for barge transport of Space Launch System hardware on the recently modified NASA barge Pegasus. The barge re-design was facilitated with detailed finite element analyses by the ARMY Corps of Engineers - Marine Design Center. The Finite Element Model (FEM) utilized in the design was also used in the subject CLA. The Pegasus FEM and CLA results are presented as well as a comparison of the analysis process to that of a payload being transported to space via the Space Shuttle. Discussion of the dynamic forcing functions is included as well. The process of performing a dynamic CLA of NASA hardware during marine transport is thought to be a first and can likely support minimization of undue conservatism.

  17. Modified Delphi survey for decision analysis for prophylaxis of post-radiation osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Carl K; Epstein, Joel B; Sheps, Samuel B; Schechter, Martin T; Busser, James R

    2002-09-01

    to augment epidemiological data from the literature, assist Bayesian perspectives and a decision analytic framework for the minimization of post-radiation osteonecrosis (PRON; osteoradionecrosis) and its impacts in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. a modified Delphi process survey of 15 international clinical experts was used to identify and assess outcome data and factors related to PRON risk, extraction, and factor suitability for formal decision analysis. Clinimetric pain and function outcome scales were created and assessed for relevance to quality of life. expert opinion qualitative assessments were generally adequate and consistent between open- and close-ended items, but many quantitative (e.g. PRON risk rate) estimates were not. A research agenda advocated to validate the epidemiological database for minimization of PRON and decision analysis includes: adoption of a uniform definition of PRON, and ICD code for non-experimental databases; more detailed, consistent data reporting in articles; and quality of life studies.

  18. Ecological risk analysis and genetically modified salmon: management in the face of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Darek T R

    2014-02-01

    The commercialization of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon for aquaculture has become a controversial public policy issue. Concerns exist over the potential ecological effects of this biotechnology should animals escape captivity. From within an ecological risk-analysis framework, science has been sought to provide decision makers with evidence upon which to base regulatory decisions pertaining to genetically modified salmon. Here I review the available empirical information on the potential ecological and genetic effects of transgenic salmon and discuss the underlying eco-evolutionary science behind the topic. I conclude that data gaps and irreducible epistemic uncertainties limit the role of scientific inference in support of ecological risk management for transgenic salmon. I argue that predictive uncertainties are pervasive in complex eco-evolutionary systems and that it behooves those involved in the risk-analysis process to accept and communicate these limitations in the interest of timely, clear, and cautious risk-management options.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Wikmark, Odd-Gunnar; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2013-12-04

    Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from "omics" analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments.

  1. Modified cross sample entropy and surrogate data analysis method for financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2015-09-01

    For researching multiscale behaviors from the angle of entropy, we propose a modified cross sample entropy (MCSE) and combine surrogate data analysis with it in order to compute entropy differences between original dynamics and surrogate series (MCSDiff). MCSDiff is applied to simulated signals to show accuracy and then employed to US and Chinese stock markets. We illustrate the presence of multiscale behavior in the MCSDiff results and reveal that there are synchrony containing in the original financial time series and they have some intrinsic relations, which are destroyed by surrogate data analysis. Furthermore, the multifractal behaviors of cross-correlations between these financial time series are investigated by multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method, since multifractal analysis is a multiscale analysis. We explore the multifractal properties of cross-correlation between these US and Chinese markets and show the distinctiveness of NQCI and HSI among the markets in their own region. It can be concluded that the weaker cross-correlation between US markets gives the evidence for the better inner mechanism in the US stock markets than that of Chinese stock markets. To study the multiscale features and properties of financial time series can provide valuable information for understanding the inner mechanism of financial markets.

  2. Drought in a human-modified world: reframing drought definitions, understanding, and analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, Anne F.; Stahl, Kerstin; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Clark, Julian; Rangecroft, Sally; Wanders, Niko; Gleeson, Tom; Van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Hannaford, Jamie; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Hannah, David M.; Sheffield, Justin; Svoboda, Mark; Verbeiren, Boud; Wagener, Thorsten; Van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2016-09-01

    In the current human-modified world, or Anthropocene, the state of water stores and fluxes has become dependent on human as well as natural processes. Water deficits (or droughts) are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological anomalies, land surface processes, and human inflows, outflows, and storage changes. Our current inability to adequately analyse and manage drought in many places points to gaps in our understanding and to inadequate data and tools. The Anthropocene requires a new framework for drought definitions and research. Drought definitions need to be revisited to explicitly include human processes driving and modifying soil moisture drought and hydrological drought development. We give recommendations for robust drought definitions to clarify timescales of drought and prevent confusion with related terms such as water scarcity and overexploitation. Additionally, our understanding and analysis of drought need to move from single driver to multiple drivers and from uni-directional to multi-directional. We identify research gaps and propose analysis approaches on (1) drivers, (2) modifiers, (3) impacts, (4) feedbacks, and (5) changing the baseline of drought in the Anthropocene. The most pressing research questions are related to the attribution of drought to its causes, to linking drought impacts to drought characteristics, and to societal adaptation and responses to drought. Example questions include

    • (i) What are the dominant drivers of drought in different parts of the world? (ii) How do human modifications of drought enhance or alleviate drought severity? (iii) How do impacts of drought depend on the physical characteristics of drought vs. the vulnerability of people or the environment? (iv) To what extent are physical and human drought processes coupled, and can feedback loops be identified and altered to lessen or mitigate drought? (v) How should we adapt our drought analysis to

    • CFD analysis of cloud cavitation on three tip-modified propellers with systematically varied tip geometry

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Shin, K. W.; Andersen, P.

      2015-12-01

      The blade tip loading is often reduced as an effort to restrain sheet and tip vortex cavitation in the design of marine propellers. This CFD analysis demonstrates that an excessive reduction of the tip loading can cause cloud cavitation responsible for much of noise and surface erosion. Detached eddy simulations (DES) are made for cavitating flows on three tip- modified propellers, of which one is a reference propeller having an experimental result from a cavitation tunnel test with a hull model, and the other two are modified from the reference propeller by altering the blade tip loading. DES results have been validated against the experiment in terms of sheet and cloud cavitation. In DES, non-uniform hull wake is modelled by using the inlet flow and momentum sources instead of including a hull model. A 4-bladed Kappel propeller with a smooth tip bending towards the suction side is used as the reference propeller. For the reference propeller, sheet cavitation extends over a whole chord length in the hull wake peak. As the blade gets out of the wake peak, the rear part of sheet cavity is detached in a form of cloud cavitation. For the reference propeller, the tip pitch reduction from the maximum is about 35%. When decreasing the tip pitch reduction to 10%, tip vortex cavitation is formed and cloud cavitation is significantly weakened. When increasing the tip pitch reduction to 60%, sheet cavitation slightly moves to inner radii and cloud cavitation grows larger.

    • Analysis of styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer modified bitumen using fluorescent microscopy and conventional test methods.

      PubMed

      Sengoz, Burak; Isikyakar, Giray

      2008-01-31

      This paper presents a laboratory study of modified bitumen containing styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer. Polymer modified bitumen (PMB) samples have been produced by mixing a 50/70 penetration grade unmodified (base) bitumen with SBS Kraton D1101 copolymer at five different polymer contents. The fundamental characteristics of the SBS PMB samples have been determined using conventional methods. The morphology of the samples as well as the percent area (%) distribution of SBS polymers throughout the base bitumen have been characterized and determined by means of fluorescence microscopy and Qwin Plus image analysis program, respectively. The mechanical properties of the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) containing SBS PMBs have also been analyzed and compared with HMA incorporating base bitumen. The effect of polymer addition on the short and long term aging characteristics of HMA have been evaluated by indirect tensile strength (ITS) test. The results indicated that polymer modification improved the conventional properties (penetration, softening point, etc.) and the mechanical properties (Marshall, ITS, etc.) of the base bitumen. It was also concluded that at low polymer contents, the samples revealed the existence of dispersed polymer particles in a continuous bitumen phase, whereas at high polymer contents a continuous polymer phase has been observed. Moreover, it was found out that the polymer addition minimizes the short and long term aging of HMA.

    • Simple protein structure-sensitive chronopotentiometric analysis with dithiothreitol-modified Hg electrodes.

      PubMed

      Ostatná, Veronika; Cernocká, Hana; Paleček, Emil

      2012-10-01

      We have shown that proteins produce at bare mercury electrodes a well-developed chronopotentiometric peak H. At sufficiently high current densities and low ionic strengths, this peak is sensitive to changes in protein structures. At higher ionic strengths this sensitivity can be lost but it can be restored, when instead of bare, thiol-modified Hg electrodes are used. Here we studied properties of the dithiothreitol (DTT) layer at the hanging mercury drop electrode and showed that at low concentrations (5 μM-200 μM) the DTT is adsorbed as a dithiol with both -SH groups attached to the surface. At higher DTT concentrations than 1mM, a densely packed pinhole-free layer is formed with the DTT molecules bound to the electrode surface by a single -SH group, oriented perpendicularly to the surface. We found that, if a sufficiently high DTT concentration is used, preparation of the DTT-modified Hg electrodes can be omitted and proteins can be co-adsorbed with DTT on liquid Hg or solid amalgam electrodes without the loss of sensitivity for changes in protein structures. The newly observed properties of the DTT self assembled monolayers (SAMs) at Hg electrodes appear important for designing new types of solid amalgam electrode arrays for electrochemical analysis of proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    • Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser.

      PubMed

      Gupta, Rajkumar; Modi, Mohammed H; Kumar, M; Chakera, J A; Lodha, G S

      2014-04-01

      Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50-360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90-180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%-60% in the wavelength range of 150-260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120-360 Å wavelength range.

    • Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Widiawati, Nina; Su'ud, Zaki

      2015-09-01

      Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from -0.6695443 % at BOC to -0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

    • Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser

      SciTech Connect

      Gupta, Rajkumar Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.

      2014-04-15

      Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50–360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90–180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%–60% in the wavelength range of 150–260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120–360 Å wavelength range.

    • Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

      SciTech Connect

      Widiawati, Nina Su’ud, Zaki

      2015-09-30

      Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from −0.6695443 % at BOC to −0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

    • Integrated analysis on static/dynamic aeroelasticity of curved panels based on a modified local piston theory

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yang, Zhichun; Zhou, Jian; Gu, Yingsong

      2014-10-01

      A flow field modified local piston theory, which is applied to the integrated analysis on static/dynamic aeroelastic behaviors of curved panels, is proposed in this paper. The local flow field parameters used in the modification are obtained by CFD technique which has the advantage to simulate the steady flow field accurately. This flow field modified local piston theory for aerodynamic loading is applied to the analysis of static aeroelastic deformation and flutter stabilities of curved panels in hypersonic flow. In addition, comparisons are made between results obtained by using the present method and curvature modified method. It shows that when the curvature of the curved panel is relatively small, the static aeroelastic deformations and flutter stability boundaries obtained by these two methods have little difference, while for curved panels with larger curvatures, the static aeroelastic deformation obtained by the present method is larger and the flutter stability boundary is smaller compared with those obtained by the curvature modified method, and the discrepancy increases with the increasing of curvature of panels. Therefore, the existing curvature modified method is non-conservative compared to the proposed flow field modified method based on the consideration of hypersonic flight vehicle safety, and the proposed flow field modified local piston theory for curved panels enlarges the application range of piston theory.

    • Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Surface Modified Cellulose Utilizing TGA-MS.

      PubMed

      Loof, Daniel; Hiller, Matthias; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Koschek, Katharina

      2016-05-25

      With the aim to enhance interfacial adhesion of a hydrophobic polymer matrix and cellulosic fibers and fillers, chemical surface modifications with silane coupling agents are performed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) could be used to determine the degree of surface functionalization. However, similar thermal properties of treated and untreated cellulose hamper a precise determination of silane loading. This contribution deals with quantitative determination of silane loading combining both TGA and elemental analysis. Firstly, silane modified celluloses were studied by FT-IR, Raman, solid state NMR spectroscopy, and polarized light microscopy in order to determine functional groups and to study the impact of chemical treatment on cellulose morphology. Secondly, thermal stability and pyrolysis processes were studied by TG-MS analysis. In order to determine the exact silane loading, the mass percentages of the appropriate elements were quantified by elemental analysis and correlated with the charred residues determined by TGA yielding a linear dependency. With that correlation, it was possible to determine silane loadings for additional samples utilizing simple TGA measurements. The main advantage of that approach is that only one calibration is necessary for routine analyses of further samples and TGA-MS coupling gives additional information on thermal stability and pyrolysis routes, simultaneously.

    • Accelerated design and quality control of impact modifiers for plastics through atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Moeller, Gunter

      2011-03-01

      Standard polymer resins are often too brittle or do not meet other mechanical property requirements for typical polymer applications. To achieve desired properties it is common to disperse so called ``impact modifiers'', which are spherical latex particles with diameters of much less than one micrometer, into the pure resin. Understanding and control of the entire process from latex particle formation to subsequent dispersion into polymer resins are necessary to accelerate the development of new materials that meet specific application requirements. In this work AFM imaging and nanoindentation techniques in combination with AFM-based spectroscopic techniques were applied to assess latex formation and dispersion. The size and size distribution of the latex particles can be measured based on AFM amplitude modulation images. AFM phase images provide information about the chemical homogeneity of individual particles. Nanoindentation may be used to estimate their elastic and viscoelastic properties. Proprietary creep and nanoscale Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) tests that we have developed were used to measure these mechanical properties. The small size of dispersed latex inclusions requires local mechanical and spectroscopic analysis techniques with high lateral and spatial resolution. We applied the CRAVE AFM method, developed at NIST, to perform mechanical analysis of individual latex inclusions and compared results with those obtained using nanoscale DMA. NanoIR, developed by Anasys Inc., and principal component confocal Raman were used for spectroscopic analysis and results from both techniques compared.

    • Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Surface Modified Cellulose Utilizing TGA-MS

      PubMed Central

      Loof, Daniel; Hiller, Matthias; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Koschek, Katharina

      2016-01-01

      With the aim to enhance interfacial adhesion of a hydrophobic polymer matrix and cellulosic fibers and fillers, chemical surface modifications with silane coupling agents are performed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) could be used to determine the degree of surface functionalization. However, similar thermal properties of treated and untreated cellulose hamper a precise determination of silane loading. This contribution deals with quantitative determination of silane loading combining both TGA and elemental analysis. Firstly, silane modified celluloses were studied by FT-IR, Raman, solid state NMR spectroscopy, and polarized light microscopy in order to determine functional groups and to study the impact of chemical treatment on cellulose morphology. Secondly, thermal stability and pyrolysis processes were studied by TG-MS analysis. In order to determine the exact silane loading, the mass percentages of the appropriate elements were quantified by elemental analysis and correlated with the charred residues determined by TGA yielding a linear dependency. With that correlation, it was possible to determine silane loadings for additional samples utilizing simple TGA measurements. The main advantage of that approach is that only one calibration is necessary for routine analyses of further samples and TGA-MS coupling gives additional information on thermal stability and pyrolysis routes, simultaneously. PMID:28773537

    • Recent Advances and Future Challenges in Modified Mycotoxin Analysis: Why HRMS Has Become a Key Instrument in Food Contaminant Research

      PubMed Central

      Righetti, Laura; Paglia, Giuseppe; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall’Asta, Chiara

      2016-01-01

      Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by pathogenic fungi in crops worldwide. These compounds can undergo modification in plants, leading to the formation of a large number of possible modified forms, whose toxicological relevance and occurrence in food and feed is still largely unexplored. The analysis of modified mycotoxins by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry remains a challenge because of their chemical diversity, the large number of isomeric forms, and the lack of analytical standards. Here, the potential benefits of high-resolution and ion mobility mass spectrometry as a tool for separation and structure confirmation of modified mycotoxins have been investigated/reviewed. PMID:27918432

    • Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

      PubMed

      Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

      2013-12-01

      Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    • Application of modified VICAR/IBIS GIS to analysis of July 1991 Flevoland AIRSAR data

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Norikane, L.; Broek, B.; Freeman, A.

      1992-01-01

      Three overflights of the Flevoland calibration/agricultural site were made by the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) on 3, 12, and 28 July 1991 as part of MAC-Europe '92. A polygon map was generated at TNO-FEL which overlayed the slant range projected July 3 data set. Each polygon was identified by a sequence of points and a crop label. The polygon map was composed of 452 uniquely identified polygons and 15 different crop types. Analysis of the data was done using our modified Video Image Communication and Retrieval/Image Based Information System Geographic Information System (VICAR/IBIS GIS). This GIS is an extension of the VICAR/IBIS GIS first developed by Bryant in the 1970's which is itself an extension of the VICAR image processing system also developed at JPL.

    • Assessment of facial form modifications in orthodontics: proposal of a modified computerized mesh diagram analysis.

      PubMed

      Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Dalloca, L L; DeFranco, D J

      1996-03-01

      A modified computerized mesh diagram analysis enables rapid, easy, and independent quantifications of facial size, shape, and head position. A lateral cephalometric radiograph is traced, positioned in natural head position (NHP) according to the NHP registered on a lateral photograph, and superimposed by the standard grid of rectangles determined by the patient's upper face height and face depth. The patient's tracing is compared with a reference tracing of a norm. The two tracings are registered at nasion in NHP, and the size difference of the patient's mesh rectangles from the norm is quantified by a size normalization. The shape discrepancies are evaluated by calculating relevant displacement vectors for each cephalometric landmark, and a global difference factor. This computerized method provides a rapid graphic evaluation of the patient's sagittal and vertical discrepancies and can also be applied to determine the effects of orthodontic therapy and/or growth on the skeletal and dental relationships in a single patient.

    • Principal component analysis of modified gravity using weak lensing and peculiar velocity measurements

      SciTech Connect

      Asaba, Shinsuke; Hikage, Chiaki; Koyama, Kazuya; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Hojjati, Alireza; Pogosian, Levon E-mail: hikage@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk E-mail: levon@sfu.ca

      2013-08-01

      We perform a principal component analysis to assess ability of future observations to measure departures from General Relativity in predictions of the Poisson and anisotropy equations on linear scales. In particular, we focus on how the measurements of redshift-space distortions (RSD) observed from spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys will improve the constraints when combined with lensing tomographic surveys. Assuming a Euclid-like galaxy imaging and redshift survey, we find that adding the 3D information decreases the statistical uncertainty by a factor between 3 and 7 compared to the case when only observables from lensing tomographic surveys are used. We also find that the number of well-constrained modes increases by a factor between 3 and 6. Our study indicates the importance of joint galaxy imaging and redshift surveys such as SuMIRe and Euclid to give more stringent tests of the ΛCDM model and to distinguish between various modified gravity and dark energy models.

    • Analytical simulation of water system capacity reliability, 1. Modified frequency-duration analysis

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Beim, Gina K.

      1988-09-01

      The problem addressed is the computation of the unavailability and expected unserved demand of a water supply system having random demand, finished water storage, and unreliable capacity components. Examples of such components include pumps, treatment plants, and aqueducts. Modified frequency-duration analysis estimates these reliability statistics by, first, calculating how often demand exceeds available capacity and, second, comparing the amount of water in storage with how long such capacity deficits last. This approach builds upon frequency-duration methods developed by the power industry for analyzing generation capacity deficits. Three versions of the frequency-duration approach are presented. Two yield bounds to system unavailability and unserved demand and the third gives an estimate of their true values between those bounds.

    • The Role of Fluorinated Alcohols as Mobile Phase Modifiers for LC-MS Analysis of Oligonucleotides

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Basiri, Babak; van Hattum, Hilde; van Dongen, William D.; Murph, Mandi M.; Bartlett, Michael G.

      2017-01-01

      Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) has been widely used as an acidic modifier for mobile phases for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of oligonucleotides ever since the first report of its use for this purpose. This is not surprising, considering the exceptional performance of HFIP compared with carboxylic acids, which cause significant MS signal suppression in electrospray ionization. However, we have found that other fluorinated alcohols can also be utilized for mobile phase preparation and the choice of optimal fluorinated alcohol is determined by the ion-pairing (IP) agent. Although HFIP is a very good choice to be used alongside less hydrophobic IP agents, other fluorinated alcohols such as 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-methyl-2-propanol (HFMIP) can significantly outperform HFIP when used with more hydrophobic IP agents. We also found that more acidic fluorinated alcohols assist with the transfer of oligonucleotides with secondary structure (e.g., folded strands and hairpins) into the gas phase.

  1. Modified transfer path analysis considering transmissibility functions for accurate estimation of vibration source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ba-Leum; Jung, Jin-Young; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we developed a modified transfer path analysis (MTPA) method to more accurately estimate the operational force of the main vibration source in a complicated system subjected to multiple vibration sources, base excitation and several disturbances. In the proposed method, transmissibility functions are adopted to compensate the disturbances due to base excitation or to reject transferred forces from other vibration sources. The MTPA method was verified numerically using a simple beam model and was practically applied to estimate vibration forces of a compressor in an outdoor air conditioner unit. Present results show that the MTPA method is feasible for predicting the pure operation forces of the compressor in an outdoor air conditioner unit regardless of the vibration sources due to a rotating fan and base excitations. The proposed MTPA method has very important advantages that it can be used to more accurately estimates the operational force of the main vibration source, properly rejecting other vibration sources and disturbances.

  2. Analysis of Modified Williamson-Hall Plots on GaN Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Qi; Qiu, Yong-Xin; Wang, Jian-Feng; Xu, Ke; Yang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Williamson—Hall (W-H) analysis is often used to separate the lateral coherence length (LCL) broadening and dislocation broadening on the ω-scan with a Lorentzian distribution. However, besides the LCL broadening and dislocation broadening, curvature also can broaden the ω-scan peak. Usually, the ω-scan can be described by a Pseudo-Voigt (P-V) function more precisely than a Lorentzian function. Based on the P-V fit peak profile, we modify the W-H plots. Both LCL broadening and curvature broadening can be eliminated from (001) ω-scans plots simultaneously, and a reliable tilt can be obtained. This method is a good complementary for the existing method, but is more convenient. Although we focuse on GaN layers, the results are applicable to a wide range of other materials having mosaic structures.

  3. Detailed specificity analysis of antibodies binding to modified histone tails with peptide arrays.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ina; Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Brandt, Ole; Rathert, Philipp; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-02-01

    Chromatin structure is greatly influenced by histone tail post-translational modifications (PTM), which also play a central role in epigenetic processes. Antibodies against modified histone tails are central research reagents in chromatin biology and molecular epigenetics. We applied Celluspots peptide arrays for the specificity analysis of 36 commercial antibodies from different suppliers which are directed towards modified histone tails. The arrays contained 384 peptides from 8 different regions of the N-terminal tails of histones, viz. H3 1-19, 7-26, 16-35 and 26-45, H4 1-19 and 11-30, H2A 1-19 and H2B 1-19, featuring 59 post-translational modifications in many different combinations. Using various controls we document the reliability of the method. Our analysis revealed previously undocumented details in the specificity profile. Most of the antibodies bound well to the PTM they have been raised for, but some failed. In addition some antibodies showed high cross-reactivity and most antibodies were inhibited by specific additional PTMs close to the primary one. Furthermore, specificity profiles for antibodies directed towards the same modification sometimes were very different. The specificity of antibodies used in epigenetic research is an important issue. We provide a catalog of antibody specificity profiles for 36 widely used commercial histone tail PTM antibodies. Better knowledge about the specificity profiles of antibodies will enable researchers to implement necessary control experiments in biological studies and allow more reliable interpretation of biological experiments using these antibodies.

  4. A Targeted Proteomic Analysis of the Ubiquitin-Like Modifier Nedd8 and Associated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeffrey; Wu, Kenneth; Yang, Yingying; Guerrero, Cortnie; Nillegoda, Nadinath; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Huang, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Nedd8 is a small ubiquitin-like protein that can be conjugated to substrate–proteins in a process known as neddylation. Although neddylation plays a critical regulatory role in cell proliferation and development, the spectrum of Nedd8 substrates and its interaction network remain poorly understood. To explore the neddylation pathway at the proteome level, we have affinity purified Nedd8 modified and associated proteins from HEK293 cells stably expressing GST-Nedd8 and employed LC–MS/MS for subsequent protein identification. A total of 496 GST-Nedd8 modified and associated proteins have been identified, including all of the eight cullin family members (i.e., Cul-1, -2, -3, -4A, -4B, -5, -7, and Parc) that are involved in the neddylation and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. In addition, a group of proteins involved in transcription, DNA repair and replication, cell cycle regulation and chromatin organization, and remodeling have been copurified and identified. Apart from protein identification, the neddylation sites of cullins were determined by MS/MS analysis, which agree well with previous mutagenesis studies. Furthermore, MS analyses revealed that Nedd8 K11, K22, K48, and K60 can form chains in vivo, whereas Nedd8 K22 and K48 can be neddylated in vitro. These results present the first molecular evidence for in vitro and in vivo polyneddylation, suggesting that chain formation of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins may be a general phenomenon for these modifications. Although much remains to be explored for the biological significance of the observations, this work provides critically important information regarding Nedd8 chain assembly and its interaction network. The vast amount of proteomic information obtained here can provide clues on the biological role of Nedd8 and lay the foundation for an in-depth analysis of the regulation of the Nedd8 pathway. PMID:18247557

  5. Meta-analysis of studies of a specific delivery mode for a modified-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Shikany, J M; Desmond, R; McCubrey, R; Allison, D B

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is highly prevalent throughout the world. Although modified-carbohydrate diets (MCDs) comprise one popular approach, questions remain about their utility for weight loss. The objective of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of a specific MCD compared with various control diets on weight loss. Data from four RCTs (three obtained from the sponsor and one indentified through literature searches) were included. Intent-to-treat analyses were conducted using multiple imputation to handle missing data, where possible. Because inter-study heterogeneity was demonstrated with fixed-effects meta-analysis, a random-effects meta-analysis also was conducted. When considered separately, all four studies showed greater reduction in body weight with the MCD compared to control diets at 12-week follow-up; the results at 24 weeks (available for three of the studies) were not as consistent. Results for body mass index (BMI) were similar. Greater reductions in waist circumference with the MCD were seen at either time point in only one study. When fixed-effects meta-analysis was applied, significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI and waist circumference with the MCD at both 12 weeks (1.66 kg, 0.53 kg m(-2) and 1.02 cm, respectively) and 24 weeks (1.20 kg, 0.43 kg m(-2) and 0.69 cm, respectively) were evident. Random-effects meta-analysis revealed similar results; however, the 24-week difference for a reduction in waist circumference was no longer statistically significant. Meta-analysis of individual RCT results demonstrated consistent benefits of this MCD compared to control diets on weight loss up to 24 weeks and waist circumference up to 12 weeks. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Modified PCR methods for 3' end amplification from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tags.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Jie; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2009-05-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique to study gene expression at the genome level. However, a disadvantage of the shortness of SAGE tags is that it prevents further study of SAGE library data, thus limiting extensive application of the SAGE method in gene expression studies. However, this problem can be solved by extension of the SAGE tags to 3' cDNAs. Therefore, several methods based on PCR have been developed to generate a 3' longer fragment cDNA corresponding to a SAGE tag. The list of modified methods is extensive, and includes rapid RT-PCR analysis of unknown SAGE tags (RAST-PCR), generation of longer cDNA fragments from SAGE tags for gene identification (GLGI), a high-throughput GLGI procedure, reverse SAGE (rSAGE), two-step analysis of unknown SAGE tags (TSAT-PCR), etc. These procedures are constantly being updated because they have characteristics and advantages that can be shared. Development of these methods has promoted the widespread use of the SAGE technique, and has accelerated the speed of studies of large-scale gene expression.

  7. A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

  8. Modified therapeutic community for co-occurring disorders: single investigator meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Sacks, JoAnn Y; Cleland, Charles M

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis for a single investigator examining the effectiveness of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) for clients with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders (COD). The flexibility and utility of meta-analytic tools are described, although their application in this context is atypical. The analysis includes 4 comparisons from 3 studies (retrieved N = 569) for various groups of clients with COD (homeless persons, offenders, and outpatients) in substance abuse treatment, comparing clients assigned either to an MTC or a control condition of standard services. An additional study is included in a series of sensitivity tests. The overall findings increase the research base of support for the MTC program for clients with COD, as results of the meta-analysis indicate significant MTC treatment effects for 5 of the 6 outcome domains across the 4 comparisons. Limitations of the approach are discussed. Independent replications, clinical trials, multiple outcome domains, and additional meta-analyses should be emphasized in future research. Given the need for research-based approaches, program and policy planners should consider the MTC when designing programs for co-occurring disorders.

  9. Electrical motor current signal analysis using a modified bispectrum for fault diagnosis of downstream mechanical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, F.; Shao, Y.; Hu, N.; Naid, A.; Ball, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the use of the induction motor current to identify and quantify common faults within a two-stage reciprocating compressor based on bispectrum analysis. The theoretical basis is developed to understand the nonlinear characteristics of current signals when the motor undertakes a varying load under different faulty conditions. Although conventional bispectrum representation of current signal allows the inclusion of phase information and the elimination of Gaussian noise, it produces unstable results due to random phase variation of the sideband components in the current signal. A modified bispectrum based on the amplitude modulation feature of the current signal is then adopted to combine both lower sidebands and higher sidebands simultaneously and hence characterise the current signal more accurately. Based on this new bispectrum analysis a more effective diagnostic feature, namely normalised bispectral peak, is developed for fault classification. In association with the kurtosis value of the raw current signal, the bispectrum feature gives rise to reliable fault classification results. In particular, the low feature values can differentiate the belt looseness from the other fault cases and different degrees of discharge valve leakage and inter-cooler leakage can be separated easily using two linear classifiers. This work provides a novel approach to the analysis of stator current for the diagnosis of motor drive faults from downstream driving equipment.

  10. Description, Usage, and Validation of the MVL-15 Modified Vortex Lattice Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    MVL-15 is the most recent version of the Modified Vortex-Lattice (MVL) code developed within the Aerodynamics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) at NASA LaRC. The term "modified" refers to the primary modification of the core vortex-lattice methodology: inclusion of viscous aerodynamics tables that are linked to the linear solution via iterative processes. The inclusion of the viscous aerodynamics inherently converts the MVL-15 from a purely analytic linearized method to a semi-empirical blend which retains the rapid execution speed of the linearized method while empirically characterizing the section aerodynamics at all spanwise lattice points. The modification provides a means to assess non-linear effects on lift that occur at angles of attack near stall, and provides a means to determine the drag associated with the application of design strategies for lift augmentation such as the use of flaps or blowing. The MVL-15 code is applicable to the analyses of aircraft aerodynamics during cruise, but it is most advantageously applied to the analysis of aircraft operating in various high-lift configurations. The MVL methodology has been previously conceived and implemented; the initial concept version was delivered to the ASAB in 2001 (van Dam, C.), subsequently revised (Gelhausen, P. and Ozoroski, T. 2002 / AVID Inc., Gelhausen, P., and Roberts, M. 2004), and then overhauled (Ozoroski, T., Hahn, A. 2008). The latest version, MVL-15 has been refined to provide analysis transparency and enhanced to meet the analysis requirements of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Each revision has been implemented with reasonable success. Separate applications of the methodology are in use, including a similar in-house capability, developed by Olson, E. that is tailored for structural and acoustics analyses. A central premise of the methodology is that viscous aerodynamic data can be associated with analytic inviscid aerodynamic results at each spanwise wing section

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Incidence and Modified Braden Scale Score Risk Classifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jing; Huai, Bao-Sha

    2015-09-01

    The Braden Scale is the most widely used pressure ulcer risk assessment in the world, but the currently used 5 risk classification groups do not accurately discriminate among their risk categories. To optimize risk classification based on Braden Scale scores, a retrospective analysis of all consecutively admitted patients in an acute care facility who were at risk for pressure ulcer development was performed between January 2013 and December 2013. Predicted pressure ulcer incidence first was calculated by logistic regression model based on original Braden score. Risk classification then was modified based on the predicted pressure ulcer incidence and compared between different risk categories in the modified (3-group) classification and the traditional (5-group) classification using chi-square test. Two thousand, six hundred, twenty-five (2,625) patients (mean age 59.8 ± 16.5, range 1 month to 98 years, 1,601 of whom were men) were included in the study; 81 patients (3.1%) developed a pressure ulcer. The predicted pressure ulcer incidence ranged from 0.1% to 49.7%. When the predicted pressure ulcer incidence was greater than 10.0% (high risk), the corresponding Braden scores were less than 11; when the predicted incidence ranged from 1.0% to 10.0% (moderate risk), the corresponding Braden scores ranged from 12 to 16; and when the predicted incidence was less than 1.0% (mild risk), the corresponding Braden scores were greater than 17. In the modified classification, observed pressure ulcer incidence was significantly different between each of the 3 risk categories (P less than 0.05). However, in the traditional classification, the observed incidence was not significantly different between the high-risk category and moderate-risk category (P less than 0.05) and between the mild-risk category and no-risk category (P less than 0.05). If future studies confirm the validity of these findings, pressure ulcer prevention protocols of care based on Braden Scale scores can

  12. Computational Analysis and Predictive Cheminformatics Modeling of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Epigenetic Modifiers.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Salma; Arora, Sonam; Scaria, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    most comprehensive computational analysis towards understanding activities of small molecules inhibitors of epigenetic modifiers.

  13. Computational Analysis and Predictive Cheminformatics Modeling of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Epigenetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Scaria, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    , this is the first and most comprehensive computational analysis towards understanding activities of small molecules inhibitors of epigenetic modifiers. PMID:27622288

  14. Epidemiologic studies of modifiable factors associated with cognition and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment, including dementia, is a major health concern with the increasing aging population. Preventive measures to delay cognitive decline are of utmost importance. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia, increasing in prevalence from <1% below the age of 60 years to >40% above 85 years of age. Methods We systematically reviewed selected modifiable factors such as education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, caffeine, antioxidants, homocysteine (Hcy), n-3 fatty acids that were studied in relation to various cognitive health outcomes, including incident AD. We searched MEDLINE for published literature (January 1990 through October 2012), including cross-sectional and cohort studies (sample sizes > 300). Analyses compared study finding consistency across factors, study designs and study-level characteristics. Selecting studies of incident AD, our meta-analysis estimated pooled risk ratios (RR), population attributable risk percent (PAR%) and assessed publication bias. Results In total, 247 studies were retrieved for systematic review. Consistency analysis for each risk factor suggested positive findings ranging from ~38.9% for caffeine to ~89% for physical activity. Education also had a significantly higher propensity for “a positive finding” compared to caffeine, smoking and antioxidant-related studies. Meta-analysis of 31 studies with incident AD yielded pooled RR for low education (RR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.30-3.04), high Hcy (RR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.50-2.49), and current/ever smoking status (RR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.23-1.52) while indicating protective effects of higher physical activity and n-3 fatty acids. Estimated PAR% were particularly high for physical activity (PAR% = 31.9; 95% CI: 22.7-41.2) and smoking (PAR%=31.09%; 95% CI: 17.9-44.3). Overall, no significant publication bias was found. Conclusions Higher Hcy levels, lower educational attainment, and decreased physical activity were

  15. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of novel peptide-modified gemini surfactants used as gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Al-Dulaymi, M; El-Aneed, A

    2017-06-01

    Diquaternary ammonium gemini surfactants have emerged as effective gene delivery vectors. A novel series of 11 peptide-modified compounds was synthesized, showing promising results in delivering genetic materials. The purpose of this work is to elucidate the tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) dissociation behavior of these novel molecules establishing a generalized MS/MS fingerprint. Exact mass measurements were achieved using a hybrid quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a multi-stage MS/MS analysis was conducted using a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Both instruments were operated in the positive ionization mode and are equipped with electrospray ionization. Abundant triply charged [M+H](3+) species were observed in the single-stage analysis of all the evaluated compounds with mass accuracies of less than 8 ppm in mass error. MS/MS analysis showed that the evaluated gemini surfactants exhibited peptide-related dissociation characteristics because of the presence of amino acids within the compounds' spacer region. In particular, diagnostic product ions were originated from the neutral loss of ammonia from the amino acids' side chain resulting in the formation of pipecolic acid at the N-terminus part of the gemini surfactants. In addition, a charge-directed amide bond cleavage was initiated by the amino acids' side chain producing a protonated α-amino-ε-caprolactam ion and its complimentary C-terminus ion that contains quaternary amines. MS/MS and MS(3) analysis revealed common fragmentation behavior among all tested compounds, resulting in the production of a universal MS/MS fragmentation pathway. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A modified SUnSAL-TV algorithm for hyperspectral unmixing based on spatial homogeneity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuqian, Wang; Zhenfeng, Shao; Lei, Zhang; Weixun, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    The sparse regression framework has been introduced by many works to solve the linear spectral unmixing problem due to the knowledge that a pixel is usually mixed by less endmembers compared with the endmembers in spectral libraries or the entire hyperspectral data sets. Traditional sparse unmixing techniques focus on analyzing the spectral properties of hyperspectral imagery without incorporating spatial information. But the integration of spatial information would be beneficial to promote the performance of the linear unmixing process. An algorithm called sparse unmixing via variable splitting augmented Lagrangian and total variation (SUnSAL-TV) adds a total variation spatial regularizer besides the sparsity-inducing regularizer to the final unmixing objective function. The total variation spatial regularization is helpful to promote the fractional abundance smoothness. However, the abundance smoothness varies in the image. In this paper, the spatial smoothness is estimated through homogeneity analysis. Then the spatial regularizer is weighted for each pixel by a homogeneity index. The modified algorithm, called homogeneity analysis based SUnSAL-TV (SUnSAL-TVH), integrates the spatial information with finer modelling of spatial smoothness and is supposed insensitive to the noise and more stable. Experiments on synthetic data sets are taken and indicate the validity of our algorithm.

  17. Application of radiation grafted media for lectin affinity separation and urease immobilization: A novel approach to tumor therapy and renal disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Schulte, D.; Daschek, W.

    1995-09-01

    Carriers modified by synergistic radiation grafting are used as affinity media for the separation of a lectin from a mistletoe extract. The grafted supports show distinctly superior properties when compared to conventional affinity media. The application of these carriers as urease immobilization support incorporated in a conductimetric bioreactor for urea analysis as potential diagnostic device in renal diseases is also described.

  18. A comparison of two prospective risk analysis methods: Traditional FMEA and a modified healthcare FMEA.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jeong-Eun; Manger, Ryan P; Yock, Adam D; Kim, Gwe-Ya

    2016-12-01

    To examine the abilities of a traditional failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and modified healthcare FMEA (m-HFMEA) scoring methods by comparing the degree of congruence in identifying high risk failures. The authors applied two prospective methods of the quality management to surface image guided, linac-based radiosurgery (SIG-RS). For the traditional FMEA, decisions on how to improve an operation were based on the risk priority number (RPN). The RPN is a product of three indices: occurrence, severity, and detectability. The m-HFMEA approach utilized two indices, severity and frequency. A risk inventory matrix was divided into four categories: very low, low, high, and very high. For high risk events, an additional evaluation was performed. Based upon the criticality of the process, it was decided if additional safety measures were needed and what they comprise. The two methods were independently compared to determine if the results and rated risks matched. The authors' results showed an agreement of 85% between FMEA and m-HFMEA approaches for top 20 risks of SIG-RS-specific failure modes. The main differences between the two approaches were the distribution of the values and the observation that failure modes (52, 54, 154) with high m-HFMEA scores do not necessarily have high FMEA-RPN scores. In the m-HFMEA analysis, when the risk score is determined, the basis of the established HFMEA Decision Tree™ or the failure mode should be more thoroughly investigated. m-HFMEA is inductive because it requires the identification of the consequences from causes, and semi-quantitative since it allows the prioritization of high risks and mitigation measures. It is therefore a useful tool for the prospective risk analysis method to radiotherapy.

  19. MRI-based strain and strain rate analysis of left ventricle: a modified hierarchical transformation model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Different from other indicators of cardiac function, such as ejection fraction and transmitral early diastolic velocity, myocardial strain is promising to capture subtle alterations that result from early diseases of the myocardium. In order to extract the left ventricle (LV) myocardial strain and strain rate from cardiac cine-MRI, a modified hierarchical transformation model was proposed. Methods A hierarchical transformation model including the global and local LV deformations was employed to analyze the strain and strain rate of the left ventricle by cine-MRI image registration. The endocardial and epicardial contour information was introduced to enhance the registration accuracy by combining the original hierarchical algorithm with an Iterative Closest Points using Invariant Features algorithm. The hierarchical model was validated by a normal volunteer first and then applied to two clinical cases (i.e., the normal volunteer and a diabetic patient) to evaluate their respective function. Results Based on the two clinical cases, by comparing the displacement fields of two selected landmarks in the normal volunteer, the proposed method showed a better performance than the original or unmodified model. Meanwhile, the comparison of the radial strain between the volunteer and patient demonstrated their apparent functional difference. Conclusions The present method could be used to estimate the LV myocardial strain and strain rate during a cardiac cycle and thus to quantify the analysis of the LV motion function. PMID:25602778

  20. Chiral analysis of neurotransmitters using cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis equipped with microfabricated interdigitated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Male, Keith B; Luong, John H T

    2003-06-27

    We present cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis equipped with a microfabricated chip consisting of an array of eight interdigitated microband platinum electrodes (IDs) for simultaneous analysis of three chiral models: epinephrine, norepinephrine and isoproterenol. The IDE chip, positioned very close to the capillary outlet, served as an amplification/detection system. Emerging neurotransmitters at the IDE surface were oxidized at +1.1 V by seven electrodes of the array and then detected by the remaining electrode, poised at +0.0 V. There was an amplification effect on the detecting electrode owing to the recycle between the reduced and oxidized forms of the optical isomers at the electrode surface. The detecting "amplification" current response was governed by the applied potential, the detecting electrode position, the number of adjacent electrodes used for recycling and the distance between the oxidative and reductive electrodes. The six chiral forms of the three neurotransmitters were resolved using 25 mM heptakis(2,6,di-o-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin with a detection limit of approximately 5 microM. The scheme detected a reduced compound at a reducing potential instead of conventional oxidation detection to alleviate electrode fouling and electroactive interferences. The concurrent oxidation/reduction detection of compounds also facilitated and ascertained peak identification as interfering compounds were unlikely to have the same oxidative/reductive characteristics and mobilities as the analytes of interrogation.

  1. Cancelling ECG Artifacts in EEG Using a Modified Independent Component Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devuyst, Stéphanie; Dutoit, Thierry; Stenuit, Patricia; Kerkhofs, Myriam; Stanus, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    We introduce a new automatic method to eliminate electrocardiogram (ECG) noise in an electroencephalogram (EEG) or electrooculogram (EOG). It is based on a modification of the independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm which gives promising results while using only a single-channel electroencephalogram (or electrooculogram) and the ECG. To check the effectiveness of our approach, we compared it with other methods, that is, ensemble average subtraction (EAS) and adaptive filtering (AF). Tests were carried out on simulated data obtained by addition of a filtered ECG on a visually clean original EEG and on real data made up of 10 excerpts of polysomnographic (PSG) sleep recordings containing ECG artifacts and other typical artifacts (e.g., movement, sweat, respiration, etc.). We found that our modified ICA algorithm had the most promising performance on simulated data since it presented the minimal root mean-squared error. Furthermore, using real data, we noted that this algorithm was the most robust to various waveforms of cardiac interference and to the presence of other artifacts, with a correction rate of 91.0%, against 83.5% for EAS and 83.1% for AF.

  2. Laser spot tracking based on modified circular Hough transform and motion pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Krstinić, Damir; Skelin, Ana Kuzmanić; Milatić, Ivan

    2014-10-27

    Laser pointers are one of the most widely used interactive and pointing devices in different human-computer interaction systems. Existing approaches to vision-based laser spot tracking are designed for controlled indoor environments with the main assumption that the laser spot is very bright, if not the brightest, spot in images. In this work, we are interested in developing a method for an outdoor, open-space environment, which could be implemented on embedded devices with limited computational resources. Under these circumstances, none of the assumptions of existing methods for laser spot tracking can be applied, yet a novel and fast method with robust performance is required. Throughout the paper, we will propose and evaluate an efficient method based on modified circular Hough transform and Lucas-Kanade motion analysis. Encouraging results on a representative dataset demonstrate the potential of our method in an uncontrolled outdoor environment, while achieving maximal accuracy indoors. Our dataset and ground truth data are made publicly available for further development.

  3. Laser Spot Tracking Based on Modified Circular Hough Transform and Motion Pattern Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krstinić, Damir; Skelin, Ana Kuzmanić; Milatić, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Laser pointers are one of the most widely used interactive and pointing devices in different human-computer interaction systems. Existing approaches to vision-based laser spot tracking are designed for controlled indoor environments with the main assumption that the laser spot is very bright, if not the brightest, spot in images. In this work, we are interested in developing a method for an outdoor, open-space environment, which could be implemented on embedded devices with limited computational resources. Under these circumstances, none of the assumptions of existing methods for laser spot tracking can be applied, yet a novel and fast method with robust performance is required. Throughout the paper, we will propose and evaluate an efficient method based on modified circular Hough transform and Lucas–Kanade motion analysis. Encouraging results on a representative dataset demonstrate the potential of our method in an uncontrolled outdoor environment, while achieving maximal accuracy indoors. Our dataset and ground truth data are made publicly available for further development. PMID:25350502

  4. Chemical and Nanomechanical Analysis of Rice Husk Modified by ATRP-Grafted Oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Morsi, Samir M.; Pakzad, Anahita; Amin, Amal; Yassar, Reza S.; Heiden, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Rice husk (RH), an abundant agricultural residue, was reacted with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, to convert it to a heterogeneous polyfunctional macroinitiator for Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). The number of active sites placed on the RH surface was small, but they were ATRP active. Non-polar methyl methacrylate (MMA) and polar acrylonitrile (AN) were polymerized from the RH, and a sequential monomer addition was used to prepare an amphiphilic PMMA-b-PAN copolymer on RH surface. FTIR qualitatively confirmed the grafting. Gravimetric and XPS analysis of the different RH surface compositions indicated thin layers of oligomeric PMMA, PAN, and PMMA-b-PAN. The modified surfaces were mapped by nanomechanical AFM to measure surface roughness, and adhesion and moduli using the Derjaguin-Muller-Toropov model. RH grafted with MMA possessed a roughness value of 7.92, and a hard and weakly adhering surface (13.1 GPa and 16.7 nN respectively) while RH grafted with AN yielded a roughness value of 29 with hardness and adhesion values of 4.0 GPa and 23.5 nN. The PMMA-b-PAN modification afforded a surface with a roughness value of 51.5 nm, with hardness and adhesion values of 3.0 GPa and .75.3 nN. PMID:21565356

  5. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Triaxially Braided Composites Utilizing a Modified Subcell Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles [0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg] relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.

  6. Analysis of trabecular bone texture by modified Hurst orientation transform method.

    PubMed

    Podsiadlo, P; Stachowiak, G W

    2002-04-01

    There is a growing need for noninvasive and inexpensive methods that can effectively be used on a large scale, to detect an onset of early osteoarthritis in human knee joints. Of many possible options, fractal analysis of two-dimensional projection x-ray images of trabecular bone (TB) texture, appears as one of the best approaches. However, there are some problems associated with the characterization of the roughness and anisotropy of the bone texture. To resolve these problems, a modified Hurst orientation transform (HOT) method, previously developed by the authors, has been used in this study. The advantages of the HOT method over other techniques used to analyze bone texture, are that it calculates a two-dimensional fractal dimension in all possible directions and also provides a measure of anisotropy for both surfaces exhibiting strong anisotropy and surfaces exhibiting weak anisotropy. In this study, the accuracy of the HOT method in measuring the bone texture roughness and anisotropy; together with the effects of image noise, blur, exposure, magnification, and projection angle on its performance were investigated. Computer-generated images of fractal surfaces and x-ray images obtained for a human tibia head were used. Results obtained show that the HOT method can effectively be used to characterize the roughness and anisotropy (isotropy) of TB texture.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Triaxially Braided Composites Utilizing a Modified Subcell Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.

  8. The modified equation approach to the stability and accuracy analysis of finite-difference methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warming, R. F.; Hyett, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    The stability and accuracy of finite-difference approximations to simple linear partial differential equations are analyzed by studying the modified partial differential equation. Aside from round-off error, the modified equation represents the actual partial differential equation solved when a numerical solution is computed using a finite-difference equation. The modified equation is derived by first expanding each term of a difference scheme in a Taylor series and then eliminating time derivatives higher than first order by certain algebraic manipulations. The connection between 'heuristic' stability theory based on the modified equation approach and the von Neumann (Fourier) method is established. In addition to the determination of necessary and sufficient conditions for computational stability, a truncated version of the modified equation can be used to gain insight into the nature of both dissipative and dispersive errors.

  9. How Competency-Based Training Locks the Working Class out of Powerful Knowledge: A Modified Bernsteinian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that competency-based training in vocational education and training in Australia is one mechanism through which the working class is denied access to powerful knowledge represented by the academic disciplines. The paper presents a modified Bernsteinian analysis to argue that vocational education and training students need access…

  10. A Modified Extraction Method of Circulating Free DNA for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Haihua; Zhu, Zhong-Zheng; Lu, Yachao; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Wenying; Huang, Gang; Zhu, Guanshan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma is promising to be a surrogate for tumor tissue DNA. However, not all epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in tumor tissue DNA has been detected in matched cfDNA, at least partly due to inefficient cfDNA extraction method. The purpose of this study was to establish an efficient plasma cfDNA extraction protocol. Materials and Methods The yield of plasma cfDNA extracted by our modified phenol-chloroform (MPC) method from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients was compared with that by QIAamp MinElute Virus Spin kit (Qiagen kit) as control, using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to quantify the plasma cfDNA extracted. Both Mutant-enriched PCR (ME-PCR) coupled sequencing and DxS EGFR mutation test kit were used to evaluate the impact of extraction method on EGFR mutation analysis. Results MPC method extracted more plasma cfDNA than Qiagen kit method (p=0.011). The proportion of longer fragment (≥202 bp) in cfDNA extracted by MPC method was significantly higher than by Qiagen kit method (p=0.002). In the sequencing maps of ME-PCR products, a higher mutant peak was observed on plasma cfDNA extracted by MPC method than by Qiagen kit method. In DxS EGFR mutation test kit results, plasma cfDNA extracted by MPC method contained more tumor-origin DNA than by Qiagen kit method. Conclusion An improved plasma cfDNA extraction method of MPC is provided, which will be beneficial for EGFR mutation analysis for patients with NSCLC. PMID:22187243

  11. Genome-wide analysis of histone modifiers in tomato: gaining an insight into their developmental roles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histone post-translational modifications (HPTMs) including acetylation and methylation have been recognized as playing a crucial role in epigenetic regulation of plant growth and development. Although Solanum lycopersicum is a dicot model plant as well as an important crop, systematic analysis and expression profiling of histone modifier genes (HMs) in tomato are sketchy. Results Based on recently released tomato whole-genome sequences, we identified in silico 32 histone acetyltransferases (HATs), 15 histone deacetylases (HDACs), 52 histone methytransferases (HMTs) and 26 histone demethylases (HDMs), and compared them with those detected in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs. Comprehensive analysis of the protein domain architecture and phylogeny revealed the presence of non-canonical motifs and new domain combinations, thereby suggesting for HATs the existence of a new family in plants. Due to species-specific diversification during evolutionary history tomato has fewer HMs than Arabidopsis. The transcription profiles of HMs within tomato organs revealed a broad functional role for some HMs and a more specific activity for others, suggesting key HM regulators in tomato development. Finally, we explored S. pennellii introgression lines (ILs) and integrated the map position of HMs, their expression profiles and the phenotype of ILs. We thereby proved that the strategy was useful to identify HM candidates involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato fruits. Conclusions In this study, we reveal the structure, phylogeny and spatial expression of members belonging to the classical families of HMs in tomato. We provide a framework for gene discovery and functional investigation of HMs in other Solanaceae species. PMID:23356725

  12. A modified fixation technique for a decompressional shortening osteotomy: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Jessica L; Goforth, W David; Stone, Paul A; Paden, Matthew H

    2014-01-01

    A long metatarsal and/or metatarsophalangeal joint dislocation associated with a digital contracture is a surgical challenge. Without appropriate surgical correction, the patient will be predisposed to numerous complications, including persistent subluxation or dislocation, recurrent metatarsalgia, dorsiflexory contracture of the digit, transfer lesions, and inadequate pain relief. The results of the present surgical treatment options have varied, with the most common complication being a floating toe. The purpose of our study was to introduce a decompression, shortening, lesser metatarsal osteotomy with a modified fixation technique using a T-plate and to report our results. Additionally, we have discussed trigonometric analysis of metatarsal declination and shortening. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 30 consecutive patients with 33 osteotomies who had been treated surgically for pathologic features associated with a long metatarsal and varying biomechanical abnormalities. Before surgery, all the patients had been treated conservatively for a minimum of 3 months. The surgical procedure included a dorsal to plantar V-shaped shortening osteotomy of a lesser metatarsal that was fixated with a T plate. The patients were assessed radiographically and using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Lesser Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal Scale and visual analog scale. The mean age at surgery was 53 (range 37 to 75) years, with a mean follow-up period of 9.1 (range 6 to 15.4) months. The average shortening of the metatarsal was 2.7 mm. One patient (3%) had had asymptomatic delayed union and 2 patients (6%) hypertrophic nonunion. No incidence of malunion or avascular necrosis was identified. Five cases (15.2%) of hardware failure occurred. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 76.7 postoperatively. The visual analog scale score had improved from 6.7 to 1.7. Of the 30 patients, 72% rated the overall surgical experience as

  13. How scary! An analysis of visual communication concerning genetically modified organisms in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Vera; Frisio, Dario G; Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Siletti, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the role of written communication in influencing public perception towards genetically modified organisms, whereas visual communication has been sparsely investigated. This article aims to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to scary genetically modified organism-related images. A set of 517 images collected through Google are classified considering fearful attributes, and an index that accounts for the scary impact of these images is built. Then, through an ordinary least-squares regression, we estimate the relationship between the Scary Impact Index and a set of variables that describes the context in which the images appear. The results reveal that the first (and most viewed) Google result images contain the most frightful contents. In addition, the agri-food sector in Italy is strongly oriented towards offering a negative representation of genetically modified organisms. Exposure to scary images could be a factor that affects the negative perception of genetically modified organisms in Italy.

  14. A modified selective-repeat type-II hybrid ARQ system and its performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Lin, S.

    1983-05-01

    A modification of the Lin-Yu type II hybrid ARQ scheme is presented. In the modification, the block code C1 is only used for error correction, while error detection for each transmission and retransmission is performed by C0. This makes the modified scheme more flexible in utilizing the error-correction power of C1 to its full capability. The scheme has a particular advantage over the original scheme when the block length is small. It can be incorporated with a rate 1/2 convolutional code using Viterbi decoding. Furthermore, the pure selective-repeat ARQ is a degenerated case of the modified scheme in selective mode. The throughput performance of the modified scheme is analyzed for any size of receiver buffer, so that the throughput efficiency of the pure selective repeat ARQ for any receiver buffer size can be obtained. It is shown that the modified scheme achieves the same order of reliability as a pure ARQ scheme.

  15. A Preliminary ZEUS Lightning Location Error Analysis Using a Modified Retrieval Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elander, Valjean; Koshak, William; Phanord, Dieudonne

    2004-01-01

    The ZEUS long-range VLF arrival time difference lightning detection network now covers both Europe and Africa, and there are plans for further expansion into the western hemisphere. In order to fully optimize and assess ZEUS lightning location retrieval errors and to determine the best placement of future receivers expected to be added to the network, a software package is being developed jointly between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV). The software package, called the ZEUS Error Analysis for Lightning (ZEAL), will be used to obtain global scale lightning location retrieval error maps using both a Monte Carlo approach and chi-squared curvature matrix theory. At the core of ZEAL will be an implementation of an Iterative Oblate (IO) lightning location retrieval method recently developed at MSFC. The IO method will be appropriately modified to account for variable wave propagation speed, and the new retrieval results will be compared with the current ZEUS retrieval algorithm to assess potential improvements. In this preliminary ZEAL work effort, we defined 5000 source locations evenly distributed across the Earth. We then used the existing (as well as potential future ZEUS sites) to simulate arrival time data between source and ZEUS site. A total of 100 sources were considered at each of the 5000 locations, and timing errors were selected from a normal distribution having a mean of 0 seconds and a standard deviation of 20 microseconds. This simulated "noisy" dataset was analyzed using the IO algorithm to estimate source locations. The exact locations were compared with the retrieved locations, and the results are summarized via several color-coded "error maps."

  16. A Preliminary ZEUS Lightning Location Error Analysis Using a Modified Retrieval Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elander, Valjean; Koshak, William; Phanord, Dieudonne

    2004-01-01

    The ZEUS long-range VLF arrival time difference lightning detection network now covers both Europe and Africa, and there are plans for further expansion into the western hemisphere. In order to fully optimize and assess ZEUS lightning location retrieval errors and to determine the best placement of future receivers expected to be added to the network, a software package is being developed jointly between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV). The software package, called the ZEUS Error Analysis for Lightning (ZEAL), will be used to obtain global scale lightning location retrieval error maps using both a Monte Carlo approach and chi-squared curvature matrix theory. At the core of ZEAL will be an implementation of an Iterative Oblate (IO) lightning location retrieval method recently developed at MSFC. The IO method will be appropriately modified to account for variable wave propagation speed, and the new retrieval results will be compared with the current ZEUS retrieval algorithm to assess potential improvements. In this preliminary ZEAL work effort, we defined 5000 source locations evenly distributed across the Earth. We then used the existing (as well as potential future ZEUS sites) to simulate arrival time data between source and ZEUS site. A total of 100 sources were considered at each of the 5000 locations, and timing errors were selected from a normal distribution having a mean of 0 seconds and a standard deviation of 20 microseconds. This simulated "noisy" dataset was analyzed using the IO algorithm to estimate source locations. The exact locations were compared with the retrieved locations, and the results are summarized via several color-coded "error maps."

  17. Time series in analysis of yerba-mate biennial growth modified by environment.

    PubMed

    Rakocevic, Miroslava; Martim, Simoni Fernanda

    2011-03-01

    To assess differences in the lag-effect pattern in the relationship between yerba-mate biennial growth and environmental factors, a time-series analysis was performed. A generalized Poisson regression model was used to control time trends, temperature, growing degree days (GDD), rainfalls and night length (NL). It was hypothesized that the active growth and growth pauses in yerba-mate are controlled endogenously and modified by environment, and that genders would respond differently to environmental modifications. The patterns in the lag effect from the distributed-lag models were similar to those of time-series models with meteorological data means with lag = 0. GDD and NL were principal factors affecting biennial yerba-mate shoot elongation and the number of green leaves of females grown in monoculture, besides their significant effects on metamer emission and leaf area in males grown in monoculture. NL also had a significant influence on shoot elongation and leaf area of both genders grown in forest understorey (FUS), indicating that yerba-mate growth is synchronized by an internal clock sensitive to temperature adjustments. The morphological plasticity and the adaptation efforts of yerba-mate were more pronounced in monoculture than in FUS. Sexual dimorphism was expressed-males were more sensitive to environmental changes than females, especially in monoculture. Growth modifications were much more intense when plants were grown in a cultivation system that is less like yerba-mate natural habitat (monoculture) than in one resembling its natural habitat (FUS). Our data support the ecological specialization theory.

  18. Time-frequency analysis of spike-wave discharges using a modified wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Bosnyakova, Daria; Gabova, Alexandra; Kuznetsova, Galina; Obukhov, Yuri; Midzyanovskaya, Inna; Salonin, Dmitrij; van Rijn, Clementina; Coenen, Anton; Tuomisto, Leene; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2006-06-30

    The continuous Morlet wavelet transform was used for the analysis of the time-frequency pattern of spike-wave discharges (SWD) as can be recorded in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy (rats of the WAG/Rij strain). We developed a new wavelet transform that allows to obtain the time-frequency dynamics of the dominating rhythm during the discharges. SWD were analyzed pre- and post-administration of certain drugs. SWD recorded predrug demonstrate quite uniform time-frequency dynamics of the dominant rhythm. The beginning of the discharge has a short period with the highest frequency value (up to 15 Hz). Then the frequency decreases to 7-9 Hz and frequency modulation occurs during the discharge in this range with a period of 0.5-0.7 s. Specific changes of SWD time-frequency dynamics were found after the administration of psychoactive drugs, addressing different brain mediator and modulator systems. Short multiple SWDs appeared under low (0.5 mg/kg) doses of haloperidol, they are characterized by a fast frequency decrease to 5-6 Hz at the end of every discharge. The frequency of the dominant frequency of SWD was not stable in long lasting SWD after 1.0 mg/kg or more haloperidol: then two periodicities were found. Long lasting SWD seen after the administration of vigabatrin showed a stable frequency of the discharge. The EEG after Ketamin showed a distinct 5 s quasiperiodicity. No clear changes of time-frequency dynamics of SWD were found after perilamine. It can be concluded that the use of the modified Morlet wavelet transform allows to describe significant parameters of the dynamics in the time-frequency domain of the dominant rhythm of SWD that were not previously detected.

  19. Establishment of quantitative analysis method for genetically modified maize using a reference plasmid and novel primers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

    2012-12-01

    For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×10(1)~10(5) copies of pGMmaize and the R(2) values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods.

  20. Establishment of Quantitative Analysis Method for Genetically Modified Maize Using a Reference Plasmid and Novel Primers

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

    2012-01-01

    For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×101~105 copies of pGMmaize and the R2 values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods. PMID:24471096

  1. Time series in analysis of yerba-mate biennial growth modified by environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakocevic, Miroslava; Martim, Simoni Fernanda

    2011-03-01

    To assess differences in the lag-effect pattern in the relationship between yerba-mate biennial growth and environmental factors, a time-series analysis was performed. A generalized Poisson regression model was used to control time trends, temperature, growing degree days (GDD), rainfalls and night length (NL). It was hypothesized that the active growth and growth pauses in yerba-mate are controlled endogenously and modified by environment, and that genders would respond differently to environmental modifications. The patterns in the lag effect from the distributed-lag models were similar to those of time-series models with meteorological data means with lag = 0. GDD and NL were principal factors affecting biennial yerba-mate shoot elongation and the number of green leaves of females grown in monoculture, besides their significant effects on metamer emission and leaf area in males grown in monoculture. NL also had a significant influence on shoot elongation and leaf area of both genders grown in forest understorey (FUS), indicating that yerba-mate growth is synchronized by an internal clock sensitive to temperature adjustments. The morphological plasticity and the adaptation efforts of yerba-mate were more pronounced in monoculture than in FUS. Sexual dimorphism was expressed—males were more sensitive to environmental changes than females, especially in monoculture. Growth modifications were much more intense when plants were grown in a cultivation system that is less like yerba-mate natural habitat (monoculture) than in one resembling its natural habitat (FUS). Our data support the ecological specialization theory.

  2. Interexaminer reliability of the Johnston and Friedman percussion scan of the thoracic spine: secondary data analysis using modified methods

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstein, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to perform a secondary analysis using modified methods of previously reported data to analyze the amount of examiner concordance in the Johnston and Friedman percussion scan of the most fixated spinal level. Method A 2001 study evaluated interexaminer reliability of the percussive method of Johnston and Friedman for detecting altered segmental mobility (somatic dysfunction, spinal/segmental dysfunction, or chiropractic subluxation) in the thoracic spine. The original reported level of agreement using the κ statistic for discrete measures was only 0.07, judged “slight.” The data were reformatted to permit recalculating the degree of interexaminer agreement using the intraclass correlation coefficient statistic, which uses continuous analysis, unlike κ that performs discrete analysis. Following an initial calculation, the data were modified to reflect the caudally increasing vertebral height of the thoracic vertebrae. Results The reformatted and modified data, intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) = 0.253 (0.100,0.482), showed the findings as “poor,” which is better interexaminer agreement for percussion motion palpation than the original reported κ value judged as “slight.” Conclusions Reanalyzing the data using an alternative statistical method showed greater interexaminer reliability than was originally reported. This secondary analysis demonstrates how study results may vary depending on the experimental design and statistical methods chosen for analysis. PMID:23449758

  3. Interexaminer reliability of the Johnston and Friedman percussion scan of the thoracic spine: secondary data analysis using modified methods.

    PubMed

    Cooperstein, Robert

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a secondary analysis using modified methods of previously reported data to analyze the amount of examiner concordance in the Johnston and Friedman percussion scan of the most fixated spinal level. A 2001 study evaluated interexaminer reliability of the percussive method of Johnston and Friedman for detecting altered segmental mobility (somatic dysfunction, spinal/segmental dysfunction, or chiropractic subluxation) in the thoracic spine. The original reported level of agreement using the κ statistic for discrete measures was only 0.07, judged "slight." The data were reformatted to permit recalculating the degree of interexaminer agreement using the intraclass correlation coefficient statistic, which uses continuous analysis, unlike κ that performs discrete analysis. Following an initial calculation, the data were modified to reflect the caudally increasing vertebral height of the thoracic vertebrae. The reformatted and modified data, intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) = 0.253 (0.100,0.482), showed the findings as "poor," which is better interexaminer agreement for percussion motion palpation than the original reported κ value judged as "slight." Reanalyzing the data using an alternative statistical method showed greater interexaminer reliability than was originally reported. This secondary analysis demonstrates how study results may vary depending on the experimental design and statistical methods chosen for analysis.

  4. [Dynamic analysis of ecological footprint of Dongying City based on a modified model].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Bo; Wang, Zong-Min; Zhao, Hong-Ling; Li, Ji-Ren

    2009-07-01

    Taking the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of water-heat condition into consideration, the traditional ecological footprint (EF) model was modified with net primary productivity (NPP). In the meanwhile, water resource EF was calculated to complement the deficiency of water EF account which only included water's fishing function. The EF dynamics of Dongying City from 1996 to 2003 was analyzed by using the modified model. Based on traditional model, the EF of Dongying City in 1996-2003 increased from 1.766 hm2 to 2.644 hm2, and the ecological capacity (EC) decreased from 0.889 hm2 to 0.813 hm2; while based on the modified model, the EF increased from 2.819 hm2 to 3.776 hm2, and the EC decreased from 1.935 hm2 to 1.865 hm2. Comparing with that from traditional model, the ecological pressure calculated by the modified model was lesser, which suggested that to increase the utilization of water resource would alleviate the ecological pressure on the region. The modified EF model was more precise to reflect the natural resource utilization of Dongying City.

  5. The analysis of MHD blood flows through porous arteries using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2016-05-12

    In this paper, magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries are numerically simulated using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid containing nanoparticles. In the modified nanofluids model, the viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids) which are commonly utilized as an effective value, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. The modified governing equations are solved numerically using Newton's method and a block tridiagonal matrix solver. The results are compared to the prevalent nanofluids single-phase model. In addition, the efficacies of important physical parameters such as pressure gradient, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, magnetic-field parameter, porosity parameter, and etc. on temperature, velocity and nanoparticles concentration profiles are examined.

  6. Modified Electrodes Used for Electrochemical Detection of Metal Ions in Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    March, Gregory; Nguyen, Tuan Dung; Piro, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells. PMID:25938789

  7. Analysis of bit error rate for modified T-APPM under weak atmospheric turbulence channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yong-jun; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Li-jia; Wang, Kai-min; Xiao, Fei; Deng, Chao-gong

    2013-12-01

    T-APPM is combined of TCM (trellis-coded modulation) and APPM (Amplitude-Pulse-position modulation) and has broad application prospects in space optical communication. Set partitioning in standard T-APPM algorithm has the optimal performance in a multi-carrier system, but whether this method has the optimal performance in APPM which is a single-carrier system is unknown. To solve this problem, we first research the atmospheric channel model with weak turbulence; then a modified T-APPM algorithm was proposed, compared to the standard T-APPM algorithm, modified algorithm uses Gray code mapping instead of set partitioning mapping; finally, simulate the two algorithms with Monte-Carlo method. Simulation results showed that, when bit error rate at 10-4, the modified T-APPM algorithm achieved 0.4dB in SNR, effectively improve the system error performance.

  8. Analysis of standard reference materials following digestion using a modified appliance grade microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaumloffel, John C.; Siems, William F.

    1996-12-01

    Microwave digestion provides a rapid means of sample preparation in the analytical laboratory. The major disadvantage of this method is the high cost of commercial microwave digestion systems. Modifications to the magnetron timing circuits of an appliance grade oven to make it suitable for sealed vessel microwave digestion are reported. The oven was modified without alteration to the irradiation cavity, and all initial safety features remain intact. Following digestion with the modified oven, NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The analytical data are similar to the certified concentrations in the SRMs, indicating that the modified oven provides a durable, rapid, cost-effective means of sample preparation.

  9. Evaluation of a Modified BOOST Tool in the Acute Care Setting: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Denise A

    Several readmission risk prediction tools exist but have had varying success in identifying patients at risk for readmission. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a tool available within Project BOOST, Better Outcomes by Optimizing Safe Transitions, from the Society of Hospital Medicine. The tool was modified within the institution to include risk stratification scores in order to better identify the highest-risk patients. The modified risk tool may assist in predicting the risk of readmission in those patients with heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are discharged home.

  10. Surfactant Modified/Mediated Thin-Layer Chromatographic Systems for the Analysis of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Bhawani, Showkat A.; Albishri, Hassan M.; Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad N.; Mohammad, A.

    2013-01-01

    This review incorporates a large number of chromatographic systems modified by the surfactants. A large number of solvent systems and stationary phases are summarized in this paper. Three different kinds of surfactants (anionic, cationic, and nonionic) are used as modifiers for stationary phases as well as solvent systems. Surfactants are used at all the three different concentration levels (below, above, and at critical micelle concentration) where surfactants behave differently. Modifications of both stationary phases and solvent systems by surfactants produced a new generation of chromatographic systems. Microemulsion solvent systems are also incorporated in this paper. Microemulsion thin-layer chromatography is a new approach in the field of chromatography. PMID:24455427

  11. Surfactant modified/mediated thin-layer chromatographic systems for the analysis of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Bhawani, Showkat A; Albishri, Hassan M; Khan, Ziya Ahmad; Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad N; Mohammad, A

    2013-01-01

    This review incorporates a large number of chromatographic systems modified by the surfactants. A large number of solvent systems and stationary phases are summarized in this paper. Three different kinds of surfactants (anionic, cationic, and nonionic) are used as modifiers for stationary phases as well as solvent systems. Surfactants are used at all the three different concentration levels (below, above, and at critical micelle concentration) where surfactants behave differently. Modifications of both stationary phases and solvent systems by surfactants produced a new generation of chromatographic systems. Microemulsion solvent systems are also incorporated in this paper. Microemulsion thin-layer chromatography is a new approach in the field of chromatography.

  12. The Importance of Source: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Undergraduate Students' Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Taylor K.; Rumble, Joy N.; Gay, Keegan D.; Rodriguez, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Even though science says genetically modified (GM) foods are safe, many consumers remain skeptical of the technology. Additionally, the scientific community has trouble communicating to the public, causing consumers to make uninformed decisions. The Millennial Generation will have more buying power than any other generation before them, and more…

  13. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Çırak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  14. The Importance of Source: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Undergraduate Students' Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Taylor K.; Rumble, Joy N.; Gay, Keegan D.; Rodriguez, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Even though science says genetically modified (GM) foods are safe, many consumers remain skeptical of the technology. Additionally, the scientific community has trouble communicating to the public, causing consumers to make uninformed decisions. The Millennial Generation will have more buying power than any other generation before them, and more…

  15. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  16. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  17. Genetic analysis of a synaptic calcium channel in Drosophila: intragenic modifiers of a temperature-sensitive paralytic mutant of cacophony.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, I M; Felling, R; Kawasaki, F; Ordway, R W

    2003-01-01

    Our previous genetic analysis of synaptic mechanisms in Drosophila identified a temperature-sensitive paralytic mutant of the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha1 subunit gene, cacophony (cac). Electrophysiological studies in this mutant, designated cac(TS2), indicated cac encodes a primary calcium channel alpha1 subunit functioning in neurotransmitter release. To further examine the functions and interactions of cac-encoded calcium channels, a genetic screen was performed to isolate new mutations that modify the cac(TS2) paralytic phenotype. The screen recovered 10 mutations that enhance or suppress cac(TS2), including second-site mutations in cac (intragenic modifiers) as well as mutations mapping to other genes (extragenic modifiers). Here we report molecular characterization of three intragenic modifiers and examine the consequences of these mutations for temperature-sensitive behavior, synaptic function, and processing of cac pre-mRNAs. These mutations may further define the structural basis of calcium channel alpha1 subunit function in neurotransmitter release. PMID:12750329

  18. Lipopolysaccharide engineering in Neisseria meningitidis: structural analysis of different pentaacyl lipid A mutants and comparison of their modified agonist properties.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Elder; Hamstra, Hendrik-Jan; Meiring, Hugo; van der Ley, Peter

    2014-03-21

    Engineering the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic pathway offers the potential to obtain modified derivatives with optimized adjuvant properties. Neisseria meningitidis strain H44/76 was modified by expression of the pagL gene encoding lipid A 3-O-deacylase from Bordetella bronchiseptica and by inactivation of the lgtB gene encoding the terminal oligosaccharide galactosyltransferase. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified mutant LPS was used for detailed compositional analysis of all present molecular species. This determined that the modified LPS was mainly pentaacylated, demonstrating high efficiency of conversion from the hexaacyl to the 3-O-deacylated form by heterologous lipid A 3-O-deacylase (PagL) expression. MS analyses also provided evidence for expression of only one major oligosaccharide glycoform, which lacked the terminal galactose residue as expected from inactivation of the lgtB gene. The immunomodulatory properties of PagL-deacylated LPS were compared with another pentaacyl form obtained from an lpxL1(-) mutant, which lacks the 2' secondary acyl chain. Although both LPS mutants displayed impaired capacity to induce production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6, induction of the Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β-dependent chemokine interferon-γ-induced protein 10 was largely retained only for the lgtB(-)/pagL(+) mutant. Removal of remaining hexaacyl species exclusively present in lgtB(-)/pagL(+) LPS demonstrated that these minor species potentiate but do not determine the activity of this LPS. These results are the first to indicate a qualitatively different response of human innate cells to pentaacyl lpxL1(-) and pagL(+) LPS and show the importance of detailed structure-function analysis when working with modified lipid A structures. The pagL(+) LPS has significant potential as immune modulator in humans.

  19. Microchip capillary electrophoresis with a cellulose-DNA-modified screen-printed electrode for the analysis of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Johirul, Muhammad; Shiddiky, Alam; Kim, Rog-Eun; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2005-08-01

    A microfluidic chip based on capillary electrophoresis coupled with a cellulose-single-stranded DNA (cellulose-ssDNA) modified electrode was used for the simultaneous analysis of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and ascorbic acid (AA). The modification of the electrode improved the electrophoretic analysis performance by lowering the detection potential and enhancing the signal-to-noise characteristic without surface poisoning of the electrode. The sensitivity of the modified electrode was about 12 times higher than those of the bare ones. The test compounds were separated using a 62 mm long separation channel at the separation field strength of +200 V/cm within 220 s in a 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The most favorable potential for the amperometric detection was 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). A reproducible response (relative standard deviation of 1.3, 1.3, 2.1, 3.1, 3.4% for DA, NE, L-DOPA, DOPAC, and AA, respectively, for n = 9) for repetitive sample injections reflected the negligible electrode fouling at the cellulose-ssDNA modified electrode. Square-wave voltammetric analyses reflected the sensitivities of the modified electrode for DA, NE, L-DOPA, DOPAC, and AA which were 1.78, 0.82, 0.69, 2.45, and 1.23 nC/microM with detection limits of 0.032, 0.93, 1.13, 0.31, and 0.62 microM, respectively. The applicability of this microsystem to real sample analysis was demonstrated.

  20. Development and application of an analysis of axisymmetric body effects on helicopter rotor aerodynamics using modified slender body theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, G.; Johnson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A computationally efficient body analysis designed to couple with a comprehensive helicopter analysis is developed in order to calculate the body-induced aerodynamic effects on rotor performance and loads. A modified slender body theory is used as the body model. With the objective of demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and application of the method, the analysis at this stage is restricted to axisymmetric bodies at zero angle of attack. By comparing with results from an exact analysis for simple body shapes, it is found that the modified slender body theory provides an accurate potential flow solution for moderately thick bodies, with only a 10%-20% increase in computational effort over that of an isolated rotor analysis. The computational ease of this method provides a means for routine assessment of body-induced effects on a rotor. Results are given for several configurations that typify those being used in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and in the rotor-body aerodynamic interference tests being conducted at Ames. A rotor-hybrid airship configuration is also analyzed.

  1. Histometric analysis and topographic characterization of cp Ti implants with surfaces modified by laser with and without silica deposition.

    PubMed

    Souza, Francisley Á; Queiroz, Thallita P; Sonoda, Celso K; Okamoto, Roberta; Margonar, Rogério; Guastaldi, Antônio C; Nishioka, Renato S; Garcia Júnior, Idelmo R

    2014-11-01

    Biologic behavior of the bone tissue around implants with four different surfaces was evaluated. The surfaces were: modified by laser (LS); modified by laser with sodium silicate deposition (SS); and commercially available surfaces modified by acid etching (AS) and machined surface (MS). Topographic characterization of the surfaces was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)- energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) before experimental surgery. Thirty rabbits received 60 implants in their right and left tibias, 1 implant of each surface being placed in each tibia. The analyzed periods were 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Histometric analysis was performed evaluating bone interface contact (BIC) and bone area (BA). The results obtained were submitted to the analysis of variance and the Tukey t-test. The elemental mapping was evaluated by means of SEM at 4 weeks postoperatively. The topographic characterization showed differences between the analyzed surfaces. Generally, the BIC and BA of LS and SS implants were statistically higher than those of AS and MS in most of the analyzed periods. Elemental mapping showed high peaks of calcium and phosphorous in all groups. Based on the present methodology, it may be concluded that experimental modifications LS and SS accelerated the stages of the bone tissue repair process around the implants, providing the highest degree of osseointegration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Potentiometric stripping analysis of antimony based on carbon paste electrode modified with hexathia crown ether and rice husk.

    PubMed

    Gadhari, Nayan S; Sanghavi, Bankim J; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2011-10-03

    An electrochemical method based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employing a hexathia 18C6 (HT18C6) and rice husk (RH) modified carbon paste electrode (HT18C6-RH-CPE) has been proposed for the subnanomolar determination of antimony. The characterization of the electrode surface has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. By employing HT18C6-RH-CPE, a 12-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) was observed as compared to plain carbon paste electrode (PCPE). Under the optimized conditions, dt/dE (sV(-1)) was proportional to the Sb(III) concentration in the range of 1.42×10(-8) to 6.89×10(-11)M (r=0.9944) with the detection limit (S/N=3) of 2.11×10(-11)M. The practical analytical utilities of the modified electrode were demonstrated by the determination of antimony in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, urine and blood serum samples. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages, such as simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limit and excellent reproducibility. Moreover, the results obtained for antimony analysis in commercial and real samples using HT18C6-RH-CPE and those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  3. Operant-based instrumental learning for analysis of genetically modified models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Trueman, R C; Dunnett, S B; Brooks, S P

    2012-06-01

    Huntington's disease is the result of an expanded CAG repeat in the gene that codes for the protein huntingtin and results in a progressive sequelae of motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. The development of genetically modified rodent models of Huntington's disease has led to the need for sensitive behavioural phenotyping. Operant tests for rodents have been developed that can determine the functional deficits in these genetically modified models, from motor, cognitive and emotional domains. The current review discusses tests that employ operant equipment, an automated and highly flexible method for testing rodents. Different operant paradigms are examined in relation to their relevance to Huntington's disease symptomology, as well as summarising research to date on genetic models with these tests.

  4. Pepsin immobilization on an aldehyde-modified polymethacrylate monolith and its application for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenjuan; Yamauchi, Mika; Hasegawa, Urara; Noda, Masanori; Fukui, Kiichi; van der Vlies, André J; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Polymer-based monoliths with interconnected porous structure have attracted much attention as a high-performance stationary phase for online digestion liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) system. In this study, a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PGM) monolith prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was used as a solid support to covalently immobilize pepsin. The PGM monolith was modified with aminoacetal to yield an aldehyde-bearing (PGM-CHO) monolith. Pepsin was immobilized onto the PGM-CHO monolith via reductive amination. The immobilized pepsin showed better pH and thermal stability compared with free pepsin. Furthermore, the PGM-CHO monolith modified with pepsin was applied for online protein digestion followed by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses. As a result, a larger number of peptides are reproducibly identified compared to those by polystyrene/divinylbenzene particle (POROS)-based online pepsin column.

  5. Analysis of Modified SMI Method for Adaptive Array Weight Control. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dilsavor, Ronald Louis

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive array is used to receive a desired signal in the presence of weak interference signals which need to be suppressed. A modified sample matrix inversion (SMI) algorithm controls the array weights. The modification leads to increased interference suppression by subtracting a fraction of the noise power from the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix. The modified algorithm maximizes an intuitive power ratio criterion. The expected values and variances of the array weights, output powers, and power ratios as functions of the fraction and the number of snapshots are found and compared to computer simulation and real experimental array performance. Reduced-rank covariance approximations and errors in the estimated covariance are also described.

  6. Evaluation and analysis of uncertainty in tensile experiment results of modified PPR at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yu; Zhonghua, Su; Jinhua, Leng; Teng, Yun

    2017-08-01

    A high temperature tensile experiment of modified random copolymerized polypropylene was carried out by ASTM D 638-2014. It analyzed the factors influencing the accuracy of the high temperature mechanical properties of modified random copolymer polypropylene and discussed the causes of the uncer-tainty of measurement standards from the sample size measurement, the indication error of force value of experiment machines, its calibration, data acquisition of the experimental software, the temperature control, the numerical correction, and the material nonuniformity, etc. According to JJF 1059.1-2012, class A and class B evaluation were conducted on the above-mentioned uncertainty components, and all the uncertainty components were synthesized. By analyzing the uncertainty of the measurement results, this paper provides a reference for evaluating the uncertainty of the same type of measurement results.

  7. Phase analysis of aluminium modified GeSbTe bulk prepared from XRD of samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Sharanjit; Singh, D.; Kumar, S.; Thangaraj, R.

    2016-05-01

    Various compositions of Aluminium modified GST as Alx(Ge2Sb2Te5)1-x x= 0, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 are prepared to study as a phase change material. Bulk prepared is studied with XRD scans for various phases formed. Phases other than Ge2Sb2Te5 do come in but dominated one is Ge2Sb2Te5 hexagonal phase.

  8. Analysis of the Threat of Genetically Modified Organisms for Biological Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    genetically modified organisms ( GMOs ) and synthetic biology remains a contentious issue. Some believe that, inevitably, these advances will lead to a...the issue by establishing an “Analytical Framework”—a baseline of the technical requirements to “play” in the field of GMOs at the scale of...biomolecules. We conclude that, broadly stated, peaceful scientific advances, global statistics and demographics of GMOs suggest that the potential

  9. Detection and Analysis of Proteins Modified by O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, Natasha E.; Vosseller, Keith; Hart, Gerald W.

    2012-01-01

    O-GlcNAc is a common post-translational modification of nuclear, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic proteins, that is implicated in the etiology of type II diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as cardioprotection. This unit covers simple and comprehensive techniques for identifying proteins modified by O-GlcNAc, studying the enzymes that add and remove O-GlcNAc, and mapping O-GlcNAc modification sites. PMID:21732316

  10. Detection and Analysis of Proteins Modified by O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, Natasha E.; Vosseller, Keith; Hart, Gerald W.

    2012-01-01

    O-GlcNAc is a common post-translational modification of nuclear, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic proteins, that is implicated in the etiology of type II diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as cardioprotection. This unit covers simple and comprehensive techniques for identifying proteins modified by O-GlcNAc, studying the enzymes that add and remove O-GlcNAc, and mapping O-GlcNAc modification sites. PMID:22045558

  11. Connotations of pixel-based scale effect in remote sensing and the modified fractal-based analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guixiang; Ming, Dongping; Wang, Min; Yang, Jianyu

    2017-06-01

    Scale problems are a major source of concern in the field of remote sensing. Since the remote sensing is a complex technology system, there is a lack of enough cognition on the connotation of scale and scale effect in remote sensing. Thus, this paper first introduces the connotations of pixel-based scale and summarizes the general understanding of pixel-based scale effect. Pixel-based scale effect analysis is essentially important for choosing the appropriate remote sensing data and the proper processing parameters. Fractal dimension is a useful measurement to analysis pixel-based scale. However in traditional fractal dimension calculation, the impact of spatial resolution is not considered, which leads that the scale effect change with spatial resolution can't be clearly reflected. Therefore, this paper proposes to use spatial resolution as the modified scale parameter of two fractal methods to further analyze the pixel-based scale effect. To verify the results of two modified methods (MFBM (Modified Windowed Fractal Brownian Motion Based on the Surface Area) and MDBM (Modified Windowed Double Blanket Method)); the existing scale effect analysis method (information entropy method) is used to evaluate. And six sub-regions of building areas and farmland areas were cut out from QuickBird images to be used as the experimental data. The results of the experiment show that both the fractal dimension and information entropy present the same trend with the decrease of spatial resolution, and some inflection points appear at the same feature scales. Further analysis shows that these feature scales (corresponding to the inflection points) are related to the actual sizes of the geo-object, which results in fewer mixed pixels in the image, and these inflection points are significantly indicative of the observed features. Therefore, the experiment results indicate that the modified fractal methods are effective to reflect the pixel-based scale effect existing in remote sensing

  12. Hydrocode Simulation with Modified Johnson-Cook Model and Experimental Analysis of Explosively Formed Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, G.; Hameed, A.; Hetherington, J. G.; Barton, P. C.; Malik, A. Q.

    2013-04-01

    The formation of mild steel (MS) and copper (Cu) explosively formed projectiles (EFPs) was simulated in AUTODYN using both the Johnson-Cook (JC) and modified Johnson-Cook (JCM) constitutive models. The JC model was modified by increasing the hardening constant by 10%. The previously established semi-empirical equations for diameter, length, velocity, and depth of penetration were used to verify the design of the EFP. The length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio of the warhead used in the simulation varied between 1 < L/D < 2. To avoid projectile distortion or breakup for large standoff applications, the design of the EFP warhead was modified to obtain a lower L/D ratio. Simulations from the JC model underestimated the EFP diameter, resulting in an unrealistically elongated projectile. This shortcoming was resolved by employing the JCM model, giving good agreement with the experimental results. The projectile velocity and hole characteristics in 10-mm-thick aluminum target plates were studied for both models. The semi-empirical equations and the JC model overestimated the projectile velocity, whereas the JCM model underestimated the velocity slightly when compared to the experimental results. The depths of penetration calculated by the semi-empirical equations in the aluminum (Al) target plate were 55 and 52 mm for Cu and MS EFPs, respectively.

  13. Analysis of Tertiary Interactions between SART3 and U6 Small Nuclear RNA Using Modified Nanocapillaries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choongman; Park, Joon Kyu; Youn, Yeoan; Kim, Joo Hyoung; Lee, Kyo-Seok; Kim, Nak-Kyoon; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Eunice Eunkyeong; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2017-02-21

    We employed modified glass nanocapillaries to investigate interactions between the RNA-binding protein, known as cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells-3 (SART3), and the noncoding spliceosome component, U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), at the single-molecule level. We functionalized the nanocapillaries with U6 snRNA fragments, which were hybridized to DNA molecules and then covalently attached to the nanocapillary surface. When transported through the modified nanocapillaries, two different SART3-derived constructs, HAT-RRM1-RRM2 and RRM1-RRM2, exhibited resistive ionic current pulses with different dwell times, which represented their different binding affinities to tethered U6 snRNAs. The dissociation constants (KD), estimated from the bias voltage dependence of translocation events, were approximately 1.9 μM and 201 μM for HAT-RRM1-RRM2 and RRM1-RRM2, respectively. These values were comparable to corresponding values obtained with isothermal titration calorimetry, demonstrating that the modified glass nanocapillaries are applicable to analyses of protein-ligand interactions at the single-molecule level.

  14. Particle-by-Particle Charge Analysis of DNA-Modified Nanoparticles Using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Emma L C J; Vogel, Robert; Platt, Mark

    2016-02-02

    Resistive pulse sensors, RPS, are allowing the transport mechanism of molecules, proteins and even nanoparticles to be characterized as they traverse pores. Previous work using RPS has shown that the size, concentration and zeta potential of the analyte can be measured. Here we use tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) which utilizes a tunable pore to monitor the translocation times of nanoparticles with DNA modified surfaces. We start by demonstrating that the translocation times of particles can be used to infer the zeta potential of known standards and then apply the method to measure the change in zeta potential of DNA modified particles. By measuring the translocation times of DNA modified nanoparticles as a function of packing density, length, structure, and hybridization time, we observe a clear difference in zeta potential using both mean values and population distributions as a function of the DNA structure. We demonstrate the ability to resolve the signals for ssDNA, dsDNA, small changes in base length for nucleotides between 15 and 40 bases long, and even the discrimination between partial and fully complementary target sequences. Such a method has potential and applications in sensors for the monitoring of nanoparticles in both medical and environmental samples.

  15. Quantitative analysis of phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase in genetically modified herbicide tolerant pepper by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Shim, Youn-Young; Shin, Weon-Sun; Moon, Gi-Seong; Kim, Kyung-Hwan

    2007-04-01

    An immunoassay method was developed to quantitatively detect phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) encoded by the Bialaphos resistance (bar) gene in genetically modified (GM) pepper. The histidine-tagged PAT was overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 (pQE31-bar) and efficiently purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. A developed sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) method (detection limit: 0.01 microg/ml) was 100-fold more sensitive than a competitive indirect ELISA (CI-ELISA) method or Western blot analysis in detecting the recombinant PAT. In real sample tests, PAT in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) peppers was successfully quantified [4.9 +/- 0.4 microg/g of sample (n = 6)] by the S-ELISA method. The S-ELISA method developed here could be applied to other GMHT crops and vegetables producing PAT.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers immersed in liquids based on the modified couple stress theory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chang, Win-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The modified couple stress theory is adopted to study the sensitivity of a rectangular atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever immersed in acetone, water, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and 1-butanol. The theory contains a material length scale parameter and considers the size effect in the analysis. However, this parameter is difficult to obtain via experimental measurements. In this study, a conjugate gradient method for the parameter estimation of the frequency equation is presented. The optimal method provides a quantitative approach for estimating the material length scale parameter based on the modified couple stress theory. The results show that the material length scale parameter of the AFM cantilever immersed in acetone, CCl4, water, and 1-butanol is 0, 25, 116.3, and 471 nm, respectively. In addition, the vibration sensitivities of the AFM cantilever immersed in these liquids are investigated. The results are useful for the design of AFM cantilevers immersed in liquids.

  17. Modified Stoppa Approach versus Ilioinguinal Approach for Anterior Acetabular Fractures; A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Sanjay; Sharma, Pankaj Kumar; Mittal, Samarth; Sharma, Jyoti; Chowdhury, Buddhadev

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Modified Stoppa approach was introduced as an alternative to ilioinguinal approach for management of anterior fractures of acetabulum in order to reduce complications of the latter. However, the efficacy of either approach over other is not well established. The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the efficacy of modified stoppa and ilioinguinal approach in the management of acetabular fractures in terms of a) quality of reduction achieved b) complication rates c) functional outcomes d) operative time e) intra-operative blood loss. Methods: Databases of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane registry of controlled trials were taken into consideration for studies on modified Stoppa approach versus Ilioinguinal approach group for the treatment of anterior acetabular fractures. Dichotomous variables were presented as risk ratios (RRs) /Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and continuous data was measured as mean differences, with 95% CIs. Result: Four studies involving 375 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Out of those 375 patients, 192 were managed with ilioinguinal approach and 183 were managed with modified Stoppa approach. Anatomical reduction was significantly higher in Stoppa group (p=0.052, RR=1. 19 (1.02, 1.37), p=0. 90, I2=0%). The complication rate was significantly higher in the Ilioinguinal approach as compared with the Stoppa approach (p=0.01, RR 0.63 (0.44 to 0.91), p=0.73 (I2= 0%). The operative time was significantly shorter with modified Stoppa approach (MD = -48.79 (-80.29 to -17.30), p=0.002). No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of their functional outcomes (p=0.63, RR 0.96 (-0.80 to 1.15), p=0. 56, I2=0%) and blood loss (MD= -212.89 (-476.27 to 50.49) p=0. 06, I2=71%). Conclusion: Anterior acetabular fractures, if operated with the modified Stoppa approach were found to have better reduction and lower complication rates with less operative time, when compared to ilioinguinal

  18. Characterisation of volatile profile and sensory analysis of fresh-cut "Radicchio di Chioggia" stored in air or modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Martignetti, Antonella; Pellicano, Mario Paolo; Stocchero, Matteo; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    The volatile profile of two hybrids of "Radicchio di Chioggia", Corelli and Botticelli, stored in air or passive modified atmosphere (MAP) during 12 days of cold storage, was monitored by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS. Botticelli samples were also subjected to sensory analysis. Totally, 61 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of radicchio samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fresh product possessed a metabolic content similar to that of the MAP samples after 5 and 8 days of storage. Projection to latent structures by partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed the volatiles content of the samples varied depending only on the packaging conditions. Specifically, 12 metabolites describing the time evolution and explaining the effects of the different storage conditions were highlighted. Finally, a PCA analysis revealed that VOCs profile significantly correlated with sensory attributes.

  19. Modified distance in average linkage based on M-estimator and MADn criteria in hierarchical cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muda, Nora; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2015-10-01

    The process of grouping a set of objects into classes of similar objects is called clustering. It divides a large group of observations into smaller groups so that the observations within each group are relatively similar and the observations in different groups are relatively dissimilar. In this study, an agglomerative method in hierarchical cluster analysis is chosen and clusters were constructed by using an average linkage technique. An average linkage technique requires distance between clusters, which is calculated based on the average distance between all pairs of points, one group with another group. In calculating the average distance, the distance will not be robust when there is an outlier. Therefore, the average distance in average linkage needs to be modified in order to overcome the problem of outlier. Therefore, the criteria of outlier detection based on MADn criteria is used and the average distance is recalculated without the outlier. Next, the distance in average linkage is calculated based on a modified one step M-estimator (MOM). The groups of cluster are presented in dendrogram graph. To evaluate the goodness of a modified distance in the average linkage clustering, the bootstrap analysis is conducted on the dendrogram graph and the bootstrap value (BP) are assessed for each branch in dendrogram that formed the group, to ensure the reliability of the branches constructed. This study found that the average linkage technique with modified distance is significantly superior than the usual average linkage technique, if there is an outlier. Both of these techniques are said to be similar if there is no outlier.

  20. Simultaneous analysis of nitrate and nitrite in a microfluidic device with a Cu-complex-modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2006-11-01

    A CE microsystem coupled with a microchip and a copper-(3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (Cu-MPS) complex-modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nitrite and nitrate. The method is based on the electrocatalytic reduction of both analytes with the modified electrode. The Cu-MPS complex was characterized by voltammetric, XPS, and FT-IR analyses. Experimental parameters affecting the sensitivity of the modified electrode were assessed and optimized. The best separation was achieved in a 60 mm separation channel filled with a 20 mM acetate buffer of pH 5.0 containing 3.0 mM CTAB at separation field strength of -250 V/cm within 90 s. The detection potential for the simultaneous analysis of nitrite and nitrate was found to be -225 mV versus Ag/AgCl. A reproducible response (RSD of 3.2% (nitrite) and 2.8% (nitrate), n = 8) for repetitive sample injections reflected the negligible electrode fouling at the modified CPE. The interference effect was examined for other inorganic ions and biological compounds. A wide hydrodynamic range between 0.25 and 120 microM was observed for analyzing nitrite and nitrate with the sensitivities of 0.069 +/- 0.003 and 0.065 +/- 0.002 nA/microM, and the detection limits, based on S/N = 3, were found to be 0.09 +/- 0.007 and 0.08 +/- 0.009 microM, respectively. The applicability of the method to water and urine samples analyses was demonstrated.

  1. Bromination of aromatic compounds by residual bromide in sodium chloride matrix modifier salt during heated headspace GC/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Fine, Dennis D; Ko, Saebom; Huling, Scott

    2013-12-15

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation reactions and contained aromatic compounds, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferric sulfate. Prior to GC/MS headspace analysis, the samples were acidified (pH<2), and sodium chloride was amended to the headspace vial as a matrix modifier. The brominated artifacts were generated during heated headspace analysis. Further, when samples were spiked with a mixture of volatile chlorinated and aromatic compounds (50 µg/L), poor spike recoveries of toluene and xylenes occurred, and in some cases complete loss of trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene resulted. Where poor recovery of aromatic spike compounds occurred, brominated aromatic compounds were found. The only significant source of bromine in the reaction scheme is the bromide typically present (<0.01% w/w) in the sodium chloride amended to the samples. Conversely, brominated artifacts were absent when a buffered salt mixture composed of sodium chloride and potassium phosphate dibasic/monobasic was used as a matrix modifier and raised the sample pH (pH~6). This indicated that the brominated artifacts resulted from the reaction of the aromatic compounds with BrCl, which was formed by the reaction of H2O2, chloride, and bromide under acidic conditions. An alternative matrix modifier salt is recommended that prevents the bromination reaction and avoids these deleterious effects on sample integrity during headspace analysis.

  2. Histopathological and Radiographic Analysis of Dental Follicle of Impacted Teeth Using Modified Gallego’s Stain

    PubMed Central

    Satheesan, Evie; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Periera, Treville

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the WHO classification of odontogenic tumours, hard tissue formation has been considered as a sub-classification however, this parameter has not been much explored in dental follicle in literature. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play an important role in odontogenesis and its associated pathologies; therefore research on dental follicle should also include mesenchymal components along with epithelial components. Additionally, special stains to identify the nature of such depositions in dental follicle have been less explored. Modified Gallego’s stain is such an example which has not been tried in odontogenic lesions which makes this study unique. Aim Aim of this study was to study histopathological variations in dental follicle, the nature of calcification and depositions using Modified Gallego’s stain and to correlate histological features of dental follicle with pericoronal width radiographically. Materials and Methods A prospective histological study of the dental follicles of 50 impacted teeth was carried out to microscopically evaluate the dental follicular tissues for pathological changes, and to correlate it with pericoronal radiolucency. Impacted teeth with pericoronal radiographic width less than 3mm were included in the study and symptomatic teeth were excluded. Further Modified Gallego stain was used to differentiate the nature of hard tissue formation in dental follicle tissues. Results Dental follicle histologically showed pathological changes resembling dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic fibroma (Simple and WHO Type), clear cell odontogenic tumour, neurofibroma, neurilemmoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusion The dental follicle surrounding an impacted tooth has the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue types, and thus shows the potential for cyst and tumour development which was observed in this study in most of the specimens with normal follicular width radiographically. PMID:27437341

  3. Proteomic analysis of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine modified proteins in RTT fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Carlo; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Cervellati, Franco; Sticozzi, Claudia; Mirasole, Cristiana; Guerranti, Roberto; Trentini, Alessandro; Zolla, Lello; Savelli, Vinno; Hayek, Joussef; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive developmental disorder, primarily affecting girls with a prevalence of 1 in every 10,000 births. A clear etiological factor present in more than 90% of classical RTT cases is the mutation of the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Recent work from our group was able to shown a systemic oxidative stress (OxS) in these patients that correlates with the gravity of the clinical features. Using freshly isolated skin fibroblasts from RTT patients and healthy subjects, we have performed a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in order to evidence the oxidative modifications of proteins with special focus on the formation of protein adducts with 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE PAs)-a major secondary product of lipid peroxidation- and Nitrotyrosine, a marker derived from the biochemical interaction of nitric oxide (NO) or nitric oxide-derived secondary products with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Then, oxidatively modified spots were identified by mass spectrometry, LC-ESI-CID-MS/MS. Our results showed that 15 protein spots presented 4-HNE PAs and/or nitrotyrosine adducts in fibroblasts proteome from RTT patients compared to healthy control cells. Post-translationally modified proteins were related to several functional categories, in particular to cytoskeleton structure and protein folding. In addition, clear upregulated expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with high nitrite levels were observed in RTT fibroblasts, justifying the increased nitrotyrosine protein modifications. The present work describes not only the proteomic profile in RTT fibroblasts, but also identifies the modified proteins by 4-HNE and nitrotyrosine. Of note, for the first time, it appears that a dysregulation of NO pathway can be associated to RTT pathophysiology. In conclusion, the evidence of a wide range of proteins able to forms adducts with 4-HNE, Nitrotyrosine or with both confirms the possible alteration of several aspects of cellular functions

  4. Histopathological and Radiographic Analysis of Dental Follicle of Impacted Teeth Using Modified Gallego's Stain.

    PubMed

    Satheesan, Evie; Tamgadge, Sandhya; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Periera, Treville

    2016-05-01

    In the WHO classification of odontogenic tumours, hard tissue formation has been considered as a sub-classification however, this parameter has not been much explored in dental follicle in literature. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play an important role in odontogenesis and its associated pathologies; therefore research on dental follicle should also include mesenchymal components along with epithelial components. Additionally, special stains to identify the nature of such depositions in dental follicle have been less explored. Modified Gallego's stain is such an example which has not been tried in odontogenic lesions which makes this study unique. Aim of this study was to study histopathological variations in dental follicle, the nature of calcification and depositions using Modified Gallego's stain and to correlate histological features of dental follicle with pericoronal width radiographically. A prospective histological study of the dental follicles of 50 impacted teeth was carried out to microscopically evaluate the dental follicular tissues for pathological changes, and to correlate it with pericoronal radiolucency. Impacted teeth with pericoronal radiographic width less than 3mm were included in the study and symptomatic teeth were excluded. Further Modified Gallego stain was used to differentiate the nature of hard tissue formation in dental follicle tissues. Dental follicle histologically showed pathological changes resembling dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic fibroma (Simple and WHO Type), clear cell odontogenic tumour, neurofibroma, neurilemmoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The dental follicle surrounding an impacted tooth has the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue types, and thus shows the potential for cyst and tumour development which was observed in this study in most of the specimens with normal follicular width radiographically.

  5. A modified and cost-effective method for hair cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol may hold potential as a biomarker for assessment of chronic psychological stress. We report a modified and cost-effective method to prepare hair samples for cortisol assay. Hair samples were ground using an inexpensive ball grinder - ULTRA-TURRAX tube drive. Cortisol was extracted from the powder under various defined conditions. The data showed that the optimal conditions for this method include cortisol extraction at room temperature and evaporation using a stream of room air. These findings should allow more widespread research using economical technology to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a biomarker for assessing chronic stress status.

  6. Major incident triage: Derivation and comparative analysis of the Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT).

    PubMed

    Vassallo, James; Beavis, John; Smith, Jason E; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-05-01

    Triage is a key principle in the effective management at a major incident. There are at least three different triage systems in use worldwide and previous attempts to validate them, have revealed limited sensitivity. Within a civilian adult population, there has been no work to develop an improved system. A retrospective database review of the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was performed for all adult patients (>18years) presenting to a deployed Military Treatment Facility between 2006 and 2013. Patients were defined as Priority One if they had received one or more life-saving interventions from a previously defined list. Using first recorded hospital physiological data (HR/RR/GCS), binary logistic regression models were used to derive optimum physiological ranges to predict need for life-saving intervention. This allowed for the derivation of the Modified Physiological Triage Tool-MPTT (GCS≥14, HR≥100, 12Modified Military Sieve) and specificity of 98.4% (Careflight). The MPTT (sensitivity 69.9%, 95% CI 0.677-0.720, specificity 65.3%, 95% CI 0.632-0.675) showed an absolute increase in sensitivity over existing tools ranging from 19.0% (Modified Military Sieve) to 45.1% (Triage Sieve). There was a statistically significant difference between the performance (p<0.001) between the MPTT and the Modified Military Sieve. The performance characteristics of the MPTT exceed existing major incident triage systems, whilst maintaining an appropriate rate of over-triage and minimising under-triage within the context of

  7. ESEM analysis of polymeric film in EVA-modified cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, D.A. . E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2005-10-01

    Portland cement pastes modified by 20% weight (polymer/cement ratio) of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) were prepared, cured, and immersed in water for 11 days. The effects of water saturation and drying on the EVA polymeric film formed in cement pastes were observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). This technique allowed the imaging of the EVA film even in saturated samples. The decrease of the relative humidity inside the ESEM chamber did not cause any visual modification of the polymeric film during its drying.

  8. A modified reachability tree approach to analysis of unbounded Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei-Yue; Gao, Yanqing; Zhou, MengChu

    2004-02-01

    Reachability trees, especially the corresponding Karp-Miller's finite reachability trees generated for Petri nets are fundamental for systematically investigating many characteristics such as boundedness, liveness, and performance of systems modeled by Petri nets. However, too much information is lost in a FRT to render it useful for many applications. In this paper, modified reachability trees (MRT) of Petri nets are introduced that extend the capability of Karp-Miller's FRTs in solving the liveness, deadlock, and reachability problems, and in defining or determining possible firing sequences. The finiteness of MRT is proved and several examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of MRT over FRT.

  9. Fine Mapping of a Dravet Syndrome Modifier Locus on Mouse Chromosome 5 and Candidate Gene Analysis by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Nicole A.; Zachwieja, Nicole J.; Miller, Alison R.; Anderson, Lyndsey L.; Kearney, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of mutations have been identified in voltage-gated sodium channel genes that result in various forms of human epilepsy. SCN1A mutations result in a spectrum of severity ranging from mild febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome, an infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Dravet syndrome patients experience multiple seizures types that are often refractory to treatment, developmental delays, and elevated risk for SUDEP. The same sodium channel mutation can produce epilepsy phenotypes of varying clinical severity. This suggests that other factors, including genetic, modify the primary mutation and change disease severity. Mouse models provide a useful tool in studying the genetic basis of epilepsy. The mouse strain background can alter phenotype severity, supporting a contribution of genetic modifiers in epilepsy. The Scn1a+/- mouse model has a strain-dependent epilepsy phenotype. Scn1a+/- mice on the 129S6/SvEvTac (129) strain have a normal phenotype and lifespan, while [129xC57BL/6J]F1-Scn1a+/- mice experience spontaneous seizures, hyperthermia-induced seizures and high rates of premature death. We hypothesize the phenotypic differences are due to strain-specific genetic modifiers that influence expressivity of the Scn1a+/- phenotype. Low resolution mapping of Scn1a+/- identified several Dravet syndrome modifier (Dsm) loci responsible for the strain-dependent difference in survival. One locus of interest, Dsm1 located on chromosome 5, was fine mapped to a 9 Mb region using interval specific congenics. RNA-Seq was then utilized to identify candidate modifier genes within this narrowed region. Three genes with significant total gene expression differences between 129S6/SvEvTac and [129xC57BL/6J]F1 were identified, including the GABAA receptor subunit, Gabra2. Further analysis of Gabra2 demonstrated allele-specific expression. Pharmological manipulation by clobazam, a common anticonvulsant with preferential affinity for the GABRA2 receptor, revealed

  10. Fine Mapping of a Dravet Syndrome Modifier Locus on Mouse Chromosome 5 and Candidate Gene Analysis by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Nicole A; Zachwieja, Nicole J; Miller, Alison R; Anderson, Lyndsey L; Kearney, Jennifer A

    2016-10-01

    A substantial number of mutations have been identified in voltage-gated sodium channel genes that result in various forms of human epilepsy. SCN1A mutations result in a spectrum of severity ranging from mild febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome, an infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Dravet syndrome patients experience multiple seizures types that are often refractory to treatment, developmental delays, and elevated risk for SUDEP. The same sodium channel mutation can produce epilepsy phenotypes of varying clinical severity. This suggests that other factors, including genetic, modify the primary mutation and change disease severity. Mouse models provide a useful tool in studying the genetic basis of epilepsy. The mouse strain background can alter phenotype severity, supporting a contribution of genetic modifiers in epilepsy. The Scn1a+/- mouse model has a strain-dependent epilepsy phenotype. Scn1a+/- mice on the 129S6/SvEvTac (129) strain have a normal phenotype and lifespan, while [129xC57BL/6J]F1-Scn1a+/- mice experience spontaneous seizures, hyperthermia-induced seizures and high rates of premature death. We hypothesize the phenotypic differences are due to strain-specific genetic modifiers that influence expressivity of the Scn1a+/- phenotype. Low resolution mapping of Scn1a+/- identified several Dravet syndrome modifier (Dsm) loci responsible for the strain-dependent difference in survival. One locus of interest, Dsm1 located on chromosome 5, was fine mapped to a 9 Mb region using interval specific congenics. RNA-Seq was then utilized to identify candidate modifier genes within this narrowed region. Three genes with significant total gene expression differences between 129S6/SvEvTac and [129xC57BL/6J]F1 were identified, including the GABAA receptor subunit, Gabra2. Further analysis of Gabra2 demonstrated allele-specific expression. Pharmological manipulation by clobazam, a common anticonvulsant with preferential affinity for the GABRA2 receptor, revealed

  11. Analysis of total polyphenols in wines by FIA with highly stable amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Martínez-Fernández, Marta; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2013-02-15

    The use of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) films for the continuous monitoring of polyphenols in flow systems has been examined. The performance of these modified electrodes was evaluated and compared to bare GCE by cyclic voltammetry experiments and by flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection monitoring the response of gallic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids in 0.050 M acetate buffer pH 4.5 containing 100 mM NaCl. The GCE modified with CNT dispersions in polyethyleneimine (PEI) provided lower overpotentials, higher sensitivity and much higher signal stability under a dynamic regime than bare GCEs. These properties allowed the estimation of the total polyphenol content in red and white wines with a remarkable long-term stability in the measurements despite the presence of potential fouling substances in the wine matrix. In addition, the versatility of the electrochemical methodology allowed the selective estimation of the easily oxidisable polyphenol fraction as well as the total polyphenol content just by tuning the detection potential at +0.30 or 0.70 V, respectively. The significance of the electrochemical results was demonstrated through correlation studies with the results obtained with conventional spectrophotometric assays for polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu, absorbance at 280 nm index and colour intensity index). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Modified Hematite by Methane (CH{sub 4}) for Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Global Kinetics Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Miller, Duane D

    2013-10-01

    Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or in its natural form (hematite) is a potential material to capture CO{sub 2} through the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process. It is known that magnesium (Mg) is an effective methyl cleaving catalyst and as such it has been combined with hematite to assess any possible enhancement to the kinetic rate for the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. Therefore, in order to evaluate its effectiveness as a hematite additive, the behaviors of Mg-modified hematite samples (hematite –5% Mg(OH){sub 2}) have been analyzed with regard to assessing any enhancement to the kinetic rate process. The Mg-modified hematite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The reactivity experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) using continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (5, 10, and 20%) at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825 {degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2} and CO in the gaseous product. The kinetic data at reduction step obtained by isothermal experiments could be well fitted by two parallel rate equations. The modified hematite samples showed higher reactivity as compared to unmodified hematite samples during reduction at all investigated temperatures.

  13. Trace analysis of cefotaxime at carbon paste electrode modified with novel Schiff base Zn(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Preeti; Mohan, Swati; Kundu, Subir; Prakash, Rajiv

    2009-02-15

    Cefotaxime a third generation cephalosporin drug estimation in nanomolar concentration range is demonstrated for the first time in aqueous and human blood samples using novel Schiff base octahedral Zn(II) complex. The cefotaxime electrochemistry is studied over graphite paste and Zn(II) complex modified graphite paste capillary electrodes in H(2)SO(4) (pH 2.3) using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Cefotaxime enrichment is observed over Zn(II) complex modified graphite paste electrode probably due to interaction of functional groups of cefotaxime with Zn(II) complex. Possible interactions between metal complex and cefotaxime drug is examined by UV-vis and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) techniques and further supported by voltammetric analysis. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with modified electrode is applied for the determination of cefotaxime in acidified aqueous and blood samples. Cefotaxime estimation is successfully demonstrated in the range of 1-500 nM for aqueous samples and 0.1-100 microM in human blood samples. Reproducibility, accuracy and repeatability of the method are checked by triplicate reading for large number of samples. The variation in the measurements is obtained less than 10% without any interference of electrolyte or blood constituents.

  14. Photoamperometric flow injection analysis of glucose based on dehydrogenase modified quantum dots-carbon nanotube nanocomposite electrode.

    PubMed

    Ertek, Bensu; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a core-shell quantum dot (QD, ZnS-CdS) was electrodeposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) and following glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was immobilized onto QD modified electrode. The proposed electrode (GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) was effectively used for the photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using a home-made flow cell. Results from cyclic voltammetric and FI amperometric measurements have revealed that GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE is capable of signaling photoelectrocatalytic activity toward NADH when the surface of enzyme modified electrode was irradiated with a light source (250W Halogen lamp). Thus, photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose was monitored by recording current-time curve of enzymatically produced NADH at optimized conditions. The biosensor response was found linear over the range 0.010-2.0mM glucose with detection limits of 6.0 and 4.0μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n=5) for 0.5mM glucose were 5.8% and 3.8% for photoamperometric and amperometric results, respectively. The photoelectrochemical biosensor was successfully applied to the real samples. The results with this biosensor showed good selectivity, repeatability and sensitivity for monitoring glucose in amperometric and photoamperometric FIA studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A modified release analysis procedure using advanced froth flotation mechanisms. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to reinvestigate the release analysis procedure, which is traditionally conducted using a laboratory Denver cell, and to develop a modified process that can be used for all froth flotation technologies. Recent studies have found that the separation performance achieved by multiple stage cleaning and, in some cases, single stage cleaning using column flotation is superior to the performance achieved by the traditional release procedure. These findings are a result of the advanced flotation mechanisms provided by column flotation, which will be incorporated into a modified release analysis procedure developed in this study. A fundamental model of an open column has been developed which incorporates the effects of system hydrodynamics, froth drop-back, selective and non-selective detachment, operating parameters, feed solids content, and feed component flotation kinetics. Simulation results obtained during this reporting period indicate that the ultimate separation that can be achieved by a column flotation process can only be obtained in a single cleaning stage if the detachment mechanism in the froth phase is highly selective, which does not appear to occur in practice based on experimental results. Two to three cleaning stages were found to be required to obtain the ultimate performance if non-selective detachment or kinetic limiting conditions are assumed. this simulated finding agrees well with the experimental results obtained from the multiple stage cleaning of an Illinois No. 5 seam coal using the Packed-Column. Simulated results also indicate that the separation performance achieved by column flotation improves with increasing feed solids content after carrying-capacity limiting conditions are realized. These findings will be utilized in the next reporting period to modify the traditional release analysis procedure.

  16. An Analysis of Anthropometric Indicators and Modifiable Lifestyle Parameters Associated with Hypertensive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Laing, Edwin F.; Owusu, Isaac K.

    2016-01-01

    The surge in prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases like hypertension and chronic kidney disease has been linked with modifiable lifestyle practices and increased body fat. This study sought to compare the association between different modifiable lifestyle practices, adiposity indices, renal function parameters, and hypertension as well as the predictive implications for levels of these parameters in target cardiac organ damage among an urban Ghanaian hypertensive population. Using a hospital-based case-control study design, 241 Ghanaian indigenes from the Kumasi metropolis were recruited for this study. The case group was made up of 180 hypertensives and 61 normotensives served as controls. In addition to sociodemographic data, standard haemodynamic, anthropometric, renal function, and cardiac organ damage assessments were done. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) ranged from 13.3% to 16.6% depending on the equation used in estimating the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Percentage cluster distribution by chronic kidney disease was observed to be significantly tilted toward the upper quartiles (3rd and 4th) of the haemodynamic parameters measured. Chronic kidney disease was significantly higher among self-reported smokers and alcoholic hypertensives. In this urban population, adiposity was associated with hypertension and renal insufficiency. Chronic kidney disease was associated with hypertension and cardiac abnormalities. PMID:27774313

  17. Modified GDP Through Health Cost Analysis of Air Pollution: The Case of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Zaim

    1999-02-01

    / Economic growth and performance is monitored through the gross domestic product (GDP) of a nation. It has long been recognized that the traditionally computed GDP does not account for gains and losses observed due to the consumption of natural resources and environmental services. Hence, the objective of this study is to modify the Turkish GDP by taking social cost associated with air pollution into consideration. To this end health benefits and economic costs of air-quality improvement are estimated. The computations are based on the dose-response coefficients reported in several studies. The results indicate that a decrease in PM10 and SO2 levels to the WHO guideline would have resulted in a total of 48.309 x 10(10) and 153.38 x 10(10) Turkish lira savings in 1990 and 1993, respectively. These correspond to 0.12% and 0.08% of 1990 and 1993 GDPs, respectively. KEY WORDS: Health costs; Air pollution; Modified GDP

  18. Tensile properties and flow behavior analysis of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel clad tube material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kanwarjeet; Latha, S.; Nandagopal, M.; Mathew, M. D.; Laha, K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-11-01

    The tensile properties and flow behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel clad tube have been investigated in the framework of various constitutive equations for a wide range of temperatures (300-923 K) and strain rates (3 × 10-3 s-1, 3 × 10-4 s-1 and 3 × 10-5 s-1). The tensile flow behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel clad tube was most accurately described by Voce equation. The variation of instantaneous work hardening rate (θ = dσ/dε) and σθ with stress (σ) indicated two stage behavior characterized by rapid decrease at low stresses (transient stage) followed by a gradual decrease in high stresses (Stage III). The variation of work hardening parameters and work hardening rate in terms of θ vs. σ and σθ vs. σ with temperature exhibited three distinct regimes. Rapid decrease in flow stress and work hardening parameters and rapid shift of θ vs. σ and σθ vs. σ towards low stresses with increase in temperature indicated dynamic recovery at high temperatures. Tensile properties of the material have been best predicted from Voce equation.

  19. Quantitative analysis of planar technetium-99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion images using modified background subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, K.; Wackers, F.J.; Mattera, J.A.; Fetterman, R.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Standard interpolative background subtraction, as used for thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl), may create artifacts when applied to planar technetium-99m-Sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi) images, apparently because of the oversubtraction of relatively high extra-cardiac activity. A modified background subtraction algorithm was developed and compared to standard background subtraction in 16 patients who had both exercise-delayed {sup 201}Tl and exercise-rest {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi imaging. Furthermore, a new normal data base was generated. Normal {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi distribution was slightly different compared to {sup 201}Tl. Using standard background subtraction, mean defect reversibility was significantly underestimated by {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi compared to {sup 201}Tl (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus -1.8 +/- 8.4, p less than 0.05). Using the modified background subtraction, mean defect reversibility on {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images was comparable (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus 1.7 +/- 5.2, p = NS). We conclude, that for quantification of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images a new normal data base, as well as a modification of the interpolative background subtraction method should be employed to obtain quantitative results comparable to those with {sup 201}Tl.

  20. An analysis of variation in expression of neurofibromatosis (NF) type I (NFI): Evidence for modifying genes

    SciTech Connect

    Easton, D.F.; Ponder, B.A.J. ); Huson, S.M. ); Ponder, M.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 (NF1) is notable for its variable expression. To determine whether variation in expression has an inherited component, the authors examined 175 individuals in 48 NF families, including six MZ twin pairs. Three quantitative traits were scored - number of cafe-au-lait patches, number of cutaneous neurofibromas, and head circumference; and five binary traits were scored - the presence or absence of plexiform neurofibromas, optic gliomas, scoliosis, epilepsy, and referral for remedial education. For cafe-au-lait patches and neurofibromas, correlation was highest between MZ twins, less high between first-degree relatives, and lower still between more distant relatives. The high correlation between distant relatives suggests that the type of mutation at the NF1 locus itself plays only a minor role. All of the five binary traits, with the exception of plexiformneurofibromas, also showed significant familial clustering. The familial effects for these traits were consistent with polygenic effects, but there were insufficient data to rule out other models, including a significant effect of different NF1 mutations. There was no evidence of any association between the different traits in affected individuals. The authors conclude that the phenotypic expression of NF1 is to a large extent determined by the genotype at other [open quotes]modifying[close quotes] loci and that these modifying genes are trait specific. 22 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. Comparative analysis of cholinesterase activities in food animals using modified Ellman and Michel assays

    PubMed Central

    Askar, Kasim Abass; Kudi, A. Caleb; Moody, A. John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated correlations between modified Ellman and Michel assay methods for measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activities. It also established a foundation for the applicability of measuring ChE activities in food animal species as biochemical biomarkers for evaluating exposure to and effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Measuring ChE activities in blood and tissue is currently the most important method of confirming the diagnosis of such exposure. The study also characterized the level of ChE activity in the selected organs/tissues of these animals and determined the best organ/tissue in which to measure ChE activity. The ChE activities were found to be higher in cattle than in sheep and higher in erythrocytes than in plasma and serum. The anticoagulant heparin significantly affects AChE activity in plasma compared with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Of the different tissues tested, the mean of ChE activities was found to be highest in tissue from liver, followed by lung, muscle, kidney, and heart for sheep and cattle. In pigs, the ChE activities tested higher in kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and heart. The highest activities of ChE were found in pigs, followed by cattle and sheep. There was no significant difference between the modified Ellman and Michel method, but the percentage coefficient of variance (%CV) values were higher when the Michel method was used. PMID:22468023

  2. Modified biokinetic model for uranium from analysis of acute exposure to UF6.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D R; Kathren, R L; Swint, M J

    1991-03-01

    Urinalysis measurements from 31 workers acutely exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and its hydrolysis product UO2F2 (during the 1986 Gore, Oklahoma UF6-release accident) were used to develop a modified recycling biokinetic model for soluble U compounds. The model is expressed as a five-compartment exponential equation: yu(t) = 0.086e-2.77t + 0.0048e-0.116t + 0.00069e-0.0267t + 0.00017 e-0.00231t + 2.5 x 10(-6) e-0.000187t, where yu(t) is the fractional daily urinary excretion and t is the time after intake, in days. The excretion constants of the five exponential compartments correspond to residence half-times of 0.25, 6, 26, 300, and 3,700 d in the lungs, kidneys, other soft tissues, and in two bone volume compartments, respectively. The modified recycling model was used to estimate intake amounts, the resulting committed effective dose equivalent, maximum kidney concentrations, and dose equivalent to bone surfaces, kidneys, and lungs.

  3. Comparative analysis of the modified enclosed energy metric for self-focusing holograms from digital lensless holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    A comparative analysis of the performance of the modified enclosed energy (MEE) method for self-focusing holograms recorded with digital lensless holographic microscopy is presented. Notwithstanding the MEE analysis previously published, no extended analysis of its performance has been reported. We have tested the MEE in terms of the minimum axial distance allowed between the set of reconstructed holograms to search for the focal plane and the elapsed time to obtain the focused image. These parameters have been compared with those for some of the already reported methods in the literature. The MEE achieves better results in terms of self-focusing quality but at a higher computational cost. Despite its longer processing time, the method remains within a time frame to be technologically attractive. Modeled and experimental holograms have been utilized in this work to perform the comparative study.

  4. Reliability and validity of a modified lateral cephalometric analysis for evaluation of craniofacial morphology and growth in patients with clefts.

    PubMed

    Swennen, Gwen R J; Grimaldi, Hannes; Berten, Johannes-Ludwig; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Dempf, Rupert; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Hausamen, Jarg-Erich

    2004-05-01

    In previous intercenter studies on craniofacial morphology in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, probable surgical-induced changes in mandibular morphology and spatial position related to posterior vertical maxillary morphology were identified by our group. These changes could not be detected in other cephalometric cleft studies because posterior vertical maxillary height and vertical mandibular ramus length were not measured simultaneously. This study presents a modified digital lateral cephalometric hard and soft tissue analysis (Onyx Ceph software, version 2.5.6.; Image Instruments GmbH, Chemnitz, Germany) to evaluate craniofacial morphology and growth patterns in patients with clefts. Forty controls without clefts were used to evaluate the accuracy, reliability, and validity of this analysis for future cleft research. Measurement error according to the method of Bland and Altman was less than 1.00 degrees and 1.00 mm, whereas squared correlation coefficients (r) according to the method of Sackett et al showed a high reliability. Method comparison tests according to the method of Bland and Altman clearly showed that the modified digital cephalometric analysis ("test") was valid for future cleft research compared with the "gold standard" (conventional cephalometry).

  5. The Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) website: genome-wide association analysis for genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Kevin; Harold, Denise; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Myers, Richard H.; Kwak, Seung; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Lee, Jong-Min

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited disease caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT. The age at onset of clinical symptoms is determined primarily by the length of this CAG expansion but is also influenced by other genetic and/or environmental factors. OBJECTIVE Recently, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aimed at discovering genetic modifiers, we identified loci associated with age at onset of motor signs that are significant at the genome-wide level. However, many additional HD modifiers may exist but may not have achieved statistical significance due to limited power. METHODS In order to disseminate broadly the entire GWAS results and make them available to complement alternative approaches, we have developed the internet website "GeM MOA" where genetic association results can be searched by gene name, SNP ID, or genomic coordinates of a region of interest. RESULTS Users of the Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) site can therefore examine support for association between any gene region and age at onset of HD motor signs. GeM MOA's interactive interface also allows users to navigate the surrounding region and to obtain association p-values for individual SNPs. CONCLUSIONS Our website conveys a comprehensive view of the genetic landscape of modifiers of HD from the existing GWAS, and will provide the means to evaluate the potential influence of genes of interest on the onset of HD. GeM MOA is freely available at https://www.hdinhd.org/. PMID:26444025

  6. The Genetic Modifiers of Motor OnsetAge (GeM MOA) Website: Genome-wide Association Analysis for Genetic Modifiers of Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Correia, Kevin; Harold, Denise; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Holmans, Peter; Jones, Lesley; Orth, Michael; Myers, Richard H; Kwak, Seung; Wheeler, Vanessa C; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited disease caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT. The age at onset of clinical symptoms is determined primarily by the length of this CAG expansion but is also influenced by other genetic and/or environmental factors. Recently, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) aimed at discovering genetic modifiers, we identified loci associated with age at onset of motor signs that are significant at the genome-wide level. However, many additional HD modifiers may exist but may not have achieved statistical significance due to limited power. In order to disseminate broadly the entire GWAS results and make them available to complement alternative approaches, we have developed the internet website "GeM MOA" where genetic association results can be searched by gene name, SNP ID, or genomic coordinates of a region of interest. Users of the Genetic Modifiers of Motor Onset Age (GeM MOA) site can therefore examine support for association between any gene region and age at onset of HD motor signs. GeM MOA's interactive interface also allows users to navigate the surrounding region and to obtain association p-values for individual SNPs. Our website conveys a comprehensive view of the genetic landscape of modifiers of HD from the existing GWAS, and will provide the means to evaluate the potential influence of genes of interest on the onset of HD. GeM MOA is freely available at https://www.hdinhd.org/.

  7. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology.

  9. Stability analysis of Boundary Layer in Poiseuille Flow through a modified Orr-Sommerfeld equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabi Orou, Jean Bio; Monwanou, Vincent; Miwadinou, Clément

    2012-11-01

    For applications regarding transition prediction, wing design and control of boundary layers, the fundamental understanding of disturbance growth in the flat plate boundary layer is an important issue. In the present work we investigate the stability of boundary layer in Poiseuille flow. We normalize pressure and time by inertial and viscous effect. The disturbances are taken to be periodic in the spanwise direction and time. We present a set of linear governing equations for the parabolic evolution of wavelike disturbances. Then, we derive modified Orr-Sommerfeld equations that can be applied in the layer. We find that Squire's theorem is applicable for the boundary layer. We find also that normalization by inertial or viscous effects leads to the same stability or instability. We find through the graphs that transition from stability to instability or the opposite can occur according to the Reynolds number and the wave number.

  10. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis. A Systematic Review Literature

    PubMed Central

    Benucci, Maurizio; Saviola, Gianantonio; Manfredi, Mariangela; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of treatments that have changed the “natural history” of a chronic progressive disease needs to be evaluated over the long term. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the standard treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and should be started as early as possible. A number of studies have shown that they are effective in improving disease activity and function, and in joint damage. Our review was focused on revision and critical evaluation of the studies including the literature on cost effectiveness of DMARDs (cyclosporine A, sulphasalazine, leflunomide, and methotrexate). The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations showed that traditional DMARDs are cost effective at the time of disease onset. They are less expensive than biological DMARDs and can be useful in controlling disease activity in early RA. PMID:22162693

  11. A modified PN code tracking loop - Its performance analysis and comparative evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, R. A.; Boyd, R. W.

    1982-05-01

    A modified PN code tracking loop (MCTL) has been reported by Yost and Boyd (1980). The MCTL makes it possible to reduce the hardware complexity of a noncoherent delay lock loop in multiple data rate applications. The MCTL utilizes the on-time or data channel as the reference. This concept eliminates the need for the traditional loop's sum channel (early signal plus late signal) and, hence, the hardware associated with that channel. This saving may be substantial if the channel were to be optimized for a number of different data rates. With the elimination of an entire IF channel, the MCTL complexity is nearly equivalent to the dithering loop for PN code tracking considered by Hartmann (1974). However, the MCTL does not suffer the loss in tracking performance (with respect to the traditional loop) that the dithering loop experiences.

  12. Analysis of dysphagia risk using the modified dysphagia risk assessment for the community-dwelling elderly

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The elderly are susceptible to dysphagia, and complications can be minimized if high-risk groups are screened in early stages and properly rehabilitated. This study provides basic material for the early detection and prevention of dysphagia by investigating the risks of dysphagia and related factors in community-dwelling elders. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 325 community-dwelling elderly people aged 65 or older. The modified dysphagia risk assessment for the community-dwelling elderly was used to assess dysphagia risk. [Results] Approximately 52.6% (n=171) of participants belonged to the high-risk group for dysphagia. After adjusting for confounding variables, people aged 75+, who used dentures, and who needed partial help in daily living had a significantly higher risk of dysphagia. [Conclusion] It is necessary to develop guidelines for dysphagia for early detection and rehabilitation. PMID:27799680

  13. Consistent modified gravity analysis of anisotropic galaxy clustering using BOSS DR11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yong-Seon; Taruya, Atsushi; Linder, Eric; Koyama, Kazuya; Sabiu, Cristiano G.; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bernardeau, Francis; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the clustering of a cosmic large scale structure using a consistent modified gravity perturbation theory, accounting for anisotropic effects along and transverse to the line of sight. The growth factor has a particular scale dependence in f (R ) gravity and we fit for the shape parameter fR 0 simultaneously with the distance and the large scale (general relativity) limit of the growth function. Using more than 690,000 galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopy survey data release 11, we find no evidence for extra scale dependence, with the 95% confidence upper limit |fR 0|<8 ×1 0-4 . Future clustering data, such as from the dark energy spectroscopic instrument, can use this consistent methodology to impose tighter constraints.

  14. On Heat Transfer - Stress Analysis of Modified Brick (Reed Filler) Upon Its Production Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornam, Kurniati; Kimsan, Masykur; Teguh Prakasa, Cadas; Ode Ngkoimani, La; Santi

    2017-05-01

    This paper aimed to scrutinize how burning process in modified brick’s production impinge on crack as a result of stress differentiation between two consecutive layers of the brick’s element. Diffusion engages in burning process of bricks, hence it generates thermal stress on element for different temperature between layers. This research focused on burning process in traditional production ward. Analytical of nonlinear equation and numerical solution, finite difference, were involved to obtain temperature value in each layer, followed by stress calculation. Based on the results, it can be concluded that crack occurs particularly on boundary area, since difussion tends to yield relatively more different value on it. Therefore, certain strategies, that may decrease this differentiation, are required to minimize number of cracks during brick’s production.

  15. Novel bicyclic sugar modified nucleosides: synthesis, conformational analysis and antiviral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kifli, Nurolaini; Thet Htar, Thet; De Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan; Simons, Claire

    2004-06-15

    Methodology previously described by us was applied to the formation of novel conformationally restrained bicyclic sugar modified nucleosides, with introduction of an oxazole and a thiocarbamate ring at the 2('),3(')-positions of the ribonucleosides. Two novel alkyl derivatives of 2('),3(')-dideoxy-2('),3(')-oxazole-beta-d-uridine and a novel uridine 2('),3(')-thiocarbamate were successfully synthesised. Conformational evaluation of all the synthesised compounds was conducted using the theoretical potential energy calculation via the macromodel v.6.0 molecular modelling programme. The conformationally restrained nucleosides described were evaluated against a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses. None of the compounds showed specific antiviral effects at subtoxic concentrations.

  16. Analysis of Q-type Near-Earth Asteroid Spectra with Modified Gaussian Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Ma, Yue-hua; Zhao, Hai-bin; Lu, Xiao-ping

    2017-07-01

    Using the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) developed by Sunshine et al., we extract the mineralogical information from the reflection spectra of eight Q-type near-Earth asteroids, and obtain their surface composition of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. We further get a compositional proportion of each asteroid: the abundance of clinopyroxene is about 70% on the surfaces of the asteroids 5143, 7341, 66146, and 162058, and it is about 60% on the surfaces of the asteroids 1862, 4688, and 5660, but only 43% on the surface of the asteroid 3753. Then we analyse the reason for the apparently low abundance of clinopyroxene on the surface of the asteroid 3753. The level of metamorphism experienced by an asteroid increases with the decreasing distance from the Sun, so the asteroid 3753 is highly metamorphosed, and the abundance of clinopyroxene is low.

  17. de Sitter limit analysis for dark energy and modified gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Frusciante, Noemi; Papadomanolakis, Georgios

    2017-07-01

    The effective field theory of dark energy and modified gravity is supposed to well describe, at low energies, the behavior of the gravity modifications due to one extra scalar degree of freedom. The usual curvature perturbation is very useful when studying the conditions for the avoidance of ghost instabilities as well as the positivity of the squared speeds of propagation for both the scalar and tensor modes, or the Stückelberg field performs perfectly when investigating the evolution of linear perturbations. We show that the viable parameter space identified by requiring no-ghost instabilities and positive squared speeds of propagation does not change by performing a field redefinition, while the requirement of the avoidance of tachyonic instability might instead be different. Therefore, we find it interesting to associate to the general modified gravity theory described in the effective field theory framework, a perturbation field which will inherit all of the properties of the theory. In the present paper we address the following questions: (1) how can we define such a field? and (2) what is the mass of such a field as the background approaches a final de Sitter state? We define a gauge-invariant quantity which identifies the density of the dark energy perturbation field valid for any background. We derive the mass associated to the gauge-invariant dark energy field on a de Sitter background, which we retain to be still a good approximation also at very low redshift (z ≃0 ). On this background we also investigate the value of the speed of propagation and we find that there exist classes of theories which admit a nonvanishing speed of propagation, even in the Horndeski model, for which a zero speed of sound has previously been found in the literature. We finally apply our results to specific well-known models.

  18. Empirical testing of modified Salmonella MLST in aquatic environmental samples by in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ying-Ning; Chou, Ming-Yuan; Tsai, Hsin-Chi; Huang, Tung-Yi; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Hsu, Bing-Mu

    2017-03-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is an approach for prediction of Salmonella servoar and eBRUST groups (eBGs) based on seven typing scheme of housekeeping genes. Up to date, >220.000 allelic profiles and 65,973 Salmonella strains have been established in the MLST database. Several studies have modified MLST method with fewer targeted housekeeping genes for the purpose of economy and efficiency. Nevertheless, no study has conducted systematically to evaluate the correlation between the numbers of housekeeping genes targeted and the accuracy of prediction rate. In this study, we aimed to tackle this problem by extracting data from the MLST database as a whole using the software RStudio. Our results indicated that as the numbers of genes in MLST scheme increased, the accuracy of the eBGs prediction rate increased and reached 100% when the gene numbers are greater than or equal to 5. To examine the applicability of the approach, 395 environmental water samples were subjected to this study. A set of 52 Salmonella enterica isolates was initially used to develop MLST targeting seven housekeeping genes. A total of 29 sequence types, including 11 new sequence types were found among the 52 sequenced isolates that differentiated into 19 serotypes. Moreover, two novel sequence types did not belong to current classification. Our results show that the outcome in the three-gene sequence typing (aroC, hisD, and purE) was as accurate as in the seven-gene sequence typing for prediction of environmental Salmonella isolates. Our data suggested that this five-gene and reduced gene-number sequence-typing scheme can serve as an alternative modified MLST when effectiveness and financial management were the concerns.

  19. An empirical analysis of online gamers' perceptions of game items: modified theory of consumption values approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong-Won; Lee, Kun Chang

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this article are (1) to propose a modified theory of consumption values (MTCV) for investigation of online gamer perceptions of the value of purchasable game items and (2) to apply the developed MTCV to multiple game genres and player age groups. To address these aims, 327 valid questionnaires were obtained and analyzed. The original theory of consumption values (TCV) was modified to apply to the specific characteristics of online games. The original TCV specifies five types of consumption values: functional value, social value, emotional value, conditional value, and epistemic value. After revising the TCV to apply to the examination of online games, we proposed that the MTCV be composed of character competency value, enjoyment value, visual authority value, and monetary value. The validity of the MTCV was proven by statistically analyzing the responses provided by the 327 valid questionnaires. To examine the second aim, experiments were conducted to examine the MTCV in three online game genres-massive multiplayer online role-playing games, first-person shooters games, and casual games. The second aim was also studied via questionnaires that examined the ages of online gamers. It was determined that massive multiplayer online role-playing games players regard visual authority value and monetary value as more important than do casual gamers. It was also determined that younger gamers tend to be more interested in visual authority, whereas older gamers tend to be more interested in character competency. This research provides a foundation for future studies to extend the MTCV to consider other user factors, such as cultural effects.

  20. Modifiers of Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Friebel, Tara M.; Domchek, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is substantial variability in cancer risk in women who have inherited a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation. Numerous factors have been hypothesized to modify these risks, but studies are of variable quality, and it remains unclear which of these may be of value in clinical risk assessment. Methods PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for articles published through September 2013. Fixed effects meta-analysis was done using the hazard ratios and/or odds ratios to estimate the pooled effect estimates (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to identify factors that are associated with cancer risk modification in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Results We identified 44 nonoverlapping studies that met predefined quality criteria. Sufficient evidence is available to make clinically relevant inferences about a number of cancer risk modifiers. The only variable examined that produced a probable association was late age at first live birth, a meta-analysis showed a decrease in the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers with women aged 30 years or older vs. women younger than 30 years (ES = 0.65; 95% CI =0.42 to 0.99). The same was shown for women aged 25 to 29 years versus those aged less than 25 years (ES = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.99). Breastfeeding and tubal ligation were associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers; oral contraceptives were associated with reduced risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Smoking was associated with increased breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers only. Conclusions Data assessing many potential risk modifiers are inadequate, and many have not been externally validated. Although additional studies are required to confirm some associations, sufficient information is available for some risk factors to be used in risk counseling or lifestyle modification to minimize cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:24824314

  1. Using Decomposition Analysis to Identify Modifiable Racial Disparities in the Distribution of Blood Pressure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Hong, Anthony; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2015-01-01

    To lower the prevalence of hypertension and racial disparities in hypertension, public health agencies have attempted to reduce modifiable risk factors for high blood pressure, such as excess sodium intake or high body mass index. In the present study, we used decomposition methods to identify how population-level reductions in key risk factors for hypertension could reshape entire population distributions of blood pressure and associated disparities among racial/ethnic groups. We compared blood pressure distributions among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American persons using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010). When using standard adjusted logistic regression analysis, we found that differences in body mass index were the only significant explanatory correlate to racial disparities in blood pressure. By contrast, our decomposition approach provided more nuanced revelations; we found that disparities in hypertension related to tobacco use might be masked by differences in body mass index that significantly increase the disparities between black and white participants. Analysis of disparities between white and Mexican-American participants also reveal hidden relationships between tobacco use, body mass index, and blood pressure. Decomposition offers an approach to understand how modifying risk factors might alter population-level health disparities in overall outcome distributions that can be obscured by standard regression analyses. PMID:26199379

  2. Top-Down Analysis of Highly Post-Translationally Modified Peptides by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Andres; Lerno, Larry; Barile, Daniela; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2015-03-01

    Bovine κ-caseinoglycomacropeptide (GMP) is a highly modified peptide from κ-casein produced during the cheese making process. The chemical nature of GMP makes analysis by traditional proteomic approaches difficult, as the peptide bears a strong net negative charge and a variety of post-translational modifications. In this work, we describe the use of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) for the top-down analysis of GMP. The method allows the simultaneous detection of different GMP forms that result from the combination of amino acid genetic variations and post-translational modifications, specifically phosphorylation and O-glycosylation. The different GMP forms were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode and confirmation was achieved by tandem MS. The results showed the predominance of two genetic variants of GMP that occur as either mono- or bi-phosphorylated species. Additionally, these four forms can be modified with up to two O-glycans generally sialylated. The results demonstrate the presence of glycosylated, bi-phosphorylated forms of GMP never described before.

  3. Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies five modifier loci of lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Corvol, Harriet; Blackman, Scott M.; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Gallins, Paul J.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Stonebraker, Jaclyn R.; Accurso, Frank J.; Clement, Annick; Collaco, Joseph M.; Dang, Hong; Dang, Anthony T.; Franca, Arianna; Gong, Jiafen; Guillot, Loic; Keenan, Katherine; Li, Weili; Lin, Fan; Patrone, Michael V.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Sun, Lei; Zhou, Yi-Hui; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Sontag, Marci K.; Levy, Hara; Durie, Peter R.; Rommens, Johanna M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Wright, Fred A.; Strug, Lisa J.; Cutting, Garry R.; Knowles, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of small molecules that target specific CFTR variants has ushered in a new era of treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF), yet optimal, individualized treatment of CF will require identification and targeting of disease modifiers. Here we use genome-wide association analysis to identify genetic modifiers of CF lung disease, the primary cause of mortality. Meta-analysis of 6,365 CF patients identifies five loci that display significant association with variation in lung disease. Regions on chr3q29 (MUC4/MUC20; P=3.3 × 10−11), chr5p15.3 (SLC9A3; P=6.8 × 10−12), chr6p21.3 (HLA Class II; P=1.2 × 10−8) and chrXq22-q23 (AGTR2/SLC6A14; P=1.8 × 10−9) contain genes of high biological relevance to CF pathophysiology. The fifth locus, on chr11p12-p13 (EHF/APIP; P=1.9 × 10−10), was previously shown to be associated with lung disease. These results provide new insights into potential targets for modulating lung disease severity in CF. PMID:26417704

  4. Using Decomposition Analysis to Identify Modifiable Racial Disparities in the Distribution of Blood Pressure in the United States.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Hong, Anthony; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2015-08-15

    To lower the prevalence of hypertension and racial disparities in hypertension, public health agencies have attempted to reduce modifiable risk factors for high blood pressure, such as excess sodium intake or high body mass index. In the present study, we used decomposition methods to identify how population-level reductions in key risk factors for hypertension could reshape entire population distributions of blood pressure and associated disparities among racial/ethnic groups. We compared blood pressure distributions among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American persons using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2010). When using standard adjusted logistic regression analysis, we found that differences in body mass index were the only significant explanatory correlate to racial disparities in blood pressure. By contrast, our decomposition approach provided more nuanced revelations; we found that disparities in hypertension related to tobacco use might be masked by differences in body mass index that significantly increase the disparities between black and white participants. Analysis of disparities between white and Mexican-American participants also reveal hidden relationships between tobacco use, body mass index, and blood pressure. Decomposition offers an approach to understand how modifying risk factors might alter population-level health disparities in overall outcome distributions that can be obscured by standard regression analyses.

  5. Free vibration analysis of embedded magneto-electro-thermo-elastic cylindrical nanoshell based on the modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Safarpour, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, size-dependent effect of an embedded magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) nanoshell subjected to thermo-electro-magnetic loadings on free vibration behavior is investigated. Also, the surrounding elastic medium has been considered as the model of Winkler characterized by the spring. The size-dependent MEE nanoshell is investigated on the basis of the modified couple stress theory. Taking attention to the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), the modeled nanoshell and its equations of motion are derived using principle of minimum potential energy. The accuracy of the presented model is validated with some cases in the literature. Finally, using the Navier-type method, an analytical solution of governing equations for vibration behavior of simply supported MEE cylindrical nanoshell under combined loadings is presented and the effects of material length scale parameter, temperature changes, external electric potential, external magnetic potential, circumferential wave numbers, constant of spring, shear correction factor and length-to-radius ratio of the nanoshell on natural frequency are identified. Since there has been no research about size-dependent analysis MEE cylindrical nanoshell under combined loadings based on FSDT, numerical results are presented to be served as benchmarks for future analysis of MEE nanoshells using the modified couple stress theory.

  6. High Content Analysis Provides Mechanistic Insights on the Pathways of Toxicity Induced by Amine-Modified Polystyrene Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Anguissola, Sergio; Garry, David; Salvati, Anna; O'Brien, Peter J.; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    The fast-paced development of nanotechnology needs the support of effective safety testing. We have developed a screening platform measuring simultaneously several cellular parameters for exposure to various concentrations of nanoparticles (NPs). Cell lines representative of different organ cell types, including lung, endothelium, liver, kidney, macrophages, glia, and neuronal cells were exposed to 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene (PS-NH2) NPs previously reported to induce apoptosis and to 50 nm sulphonated and carboxyl-modified polystyrene NPs that were reported to be silent. All cell lines apart from Raw 264.7 executed apoptosis in response to PS-NH2 NPs, showing specific sequences of EC50 thresholds; lysosomal acidification was the most sensitive parameter. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and plasma membrane integrity measured by High Content Analysis resulted comparably sensitive to the equivalent OECD-recommended assays, allowing increased output. Analysis of the acidic compartments revealed good cerrelation between size/fluorescence intensity and dose of PS-NH2 NPs applied; moreover steatosis and phospholipidosis were observed, consistent with the lysosomal alterations revealed by Lysotracker green; similar responses were observed when comparing astrocytoma cells with primary astrocytes. We have established a platform providing mechanistic insights on the response to exposure to nanoparticles. Such platform holds great potential for in vitro screening of nanomaterials in highthroughput format. PMID:25238162

  7. Systematic analysis of the in situ crosstalk of tyrosine modifications reveals no additional natural selection on multiply modified residues

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhicheng; Liu, Zexian; Cheng, Han; Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Tianshun; Ullah, Shahid; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that different post-translational modifications (PTMs) synergistically orchestrate specific biological processes by crosstalks. However, the preference of the crosstalk among different PTMs and the evolutionary constraint on the PTM crosstalk need further dissections. In this study, the in situ crosstalk at the same positions among three tyrosine PTMs including sulfation, nitration and phosphorylation were systematically analyzed. The experimentally identified sulfation, nitration and phosphorylation sites were collected and integrated with reliable predictions to perform large-scale analyses of in situ crosstalks. From the results, we observed that the in situ crosstalk between sulfation and nitration is significantly under-represented, whereas both sulfation and nitration prefer to co-occupy with phosphorylation at same tyrosines. Further analyses suggested that sulfation and nitration preferentially co-occur with phosphorylation at specific positions in proteins, and participate in distinct biological processes and functions. More interestingly, the long-term evolutionary analysis indicated that multi-PTM targeting tyrosines didn't show any higher conservation than singly modified ones. Also, the analysis of human genetic variations demonstrated that there is no additional functional constraint on inherited disease, cancer or rare mutations of multiply modified tyrosines. Taken together, our systematic analyses provided a better understanding of the in situ crosstalk among PTMs. PMID:25476580

  8. Analysis of the Modified Rankin Scale in Randomised Controlled Trials of Acute Ischaemic Stroke: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Aimie; Bath, Philip M.; Gray, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Historically, most acute stroke clinical trials were neutral statistically, with trials typically dichotomising ordinal scales, such as the modified Rankin Scale. Studies published before 2007 have shown that preserving the ordinal nature of these scales increased statistical power. A systematic review of trials published since 2007 was conducted to reevaluate statistical methods used and to assess whether practice has changed. Methods. A search of electronic databases identified RCTs published between January 2007 and July 2014 in acute ischaemic stroke using an ordinal dependency scale as the primary outcome. Findings. Forty-two RCTs were identified. The majority used a dichotomous analysis (25, 59.5%), eight (21.4%) retained the ordinal scale, and nine (19.0%) used another type of analysis. Conclusions. Trials published since 2007 still favoured dichotomous analyses over ordinal. Stroke trials, where appropriate, should consider retaining the ordinal nature of dependency scales. PMID:27088036

  9. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study of bamboo waste treated by Echinodontium taxodii using a modified three-parallel-reactions model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbo; Liu, Fang; Ke, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of pretreatment with Echinodontium taxodii on thermal decomposition characteristics and kinetics of bamboo wastes was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed fungal pretreatment can enhance the thermal degradation of bamboo. The negative effect of extractives in bamboo on the thermal decomposition can be decreased by the pretreatment. A modified three-parallel-reactions model based on isolated lignin was firstly proposed to study pyrolysis kinetics of bamboo lignocellulose. Kinetic analysis showed that with increasing pretreatment time fungal delignification was enhanced to transform the lignin component with high activation energy into that with low activation energy and raise the cellulose content in bamboo, making the thermal decomposition easier. These results demonstrated fungal pretreatment provided a potential way to improve thermal conversion efficiency of bamboo.

  10. Design, Generation and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) of Asymmetric Face Gear Drive With Modified Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Hawkins, J. M.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    A new type of face gear drive for application in transmissions, particularly in helicopters, has been developed. The new geometry differs from the existing geometry by application of asymmetric profiles and double-crowned pinion of the face gear mesh. The paper describes the computerized design, simulation of meshing and contact, and stress analysis by finite element method. Special purpose computer codes have been developed to conduct the analysis. The analysis of this new type of face gear is illustrated with a numerical example.

  11. Sludge reduction and performance analysis of a modified sludge reduction process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Qiao, Weimin; Xing, Can; Wang, Yingjun; Wang, Chunying; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Yiru; Wang, Luochun

    2014-01-01

    A modified sludge process reduction activated sludge (SPRAS) technology was developed by inserting a sludge process reduction (SPR) module, composed of an aeration tank and a settler, before the activated sludge system was proposed in this study. Compared with the anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (AAO) process, the SPRAS resulted in a remarkable decrease in sludge production by 76.6%; sludge decay owing to lengthy solids retention time (about 121.5 d) could be the major cause. During the 217-day operation, the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) (from 54 to -198 mV) and pH (from 7.8 to 5.0) at the bottom of the SPR settler gradually decreased, and low ORP and pH were in favor of sludge reduction in the SPRAS system. The insertion of the SPR module improved the removal efficiencies of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and ammonium nitrogen, and total nitrogen concentration in the effluent was reduced from 23.89 ± 4.82 to 14.16 ± 3.98 mg/L by 50% influent bypassing the SPR module. These results indicated that the SPRAS process could produce much less excess sludge and guarantee better effluent quality than the AAO process.

  12. The socioeconomics of genetically modified biofortified crops: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Gellynck, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    Building upon the growing interest and research on genetically modified (GM) biofortification, its socioeconomic potential has been increasingly examined. We conducted two systematic reviews and meta-analyses to provide comprehensive evidence of consumers' willingness to pay (11 economic valuation studies, 64 estimates) and cost-effectiveness/benefits (five economic evaluation studies, 30 estimates). Worldwide, consumers were willing to pay 23.9% more for GM biofortified food crops. Aside from crop and design-related differences, information provision was deemed crucial. Positive information (nutrition and GM benefits) is associated with the highest consumer willingness to pay, compared with negative, objective, and conflicting GM information, especially when negative information was mentioned last. This health intervention would reduce the aggregated micronutrient deficiency burden in Asia (15.6 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)) by 12.5-51.4%, at a low cost of USD 7.9-27.8 per DALY in a pessimistic and optimistic scenario, respectively. Given that GM biofortified crops could tackle hidden hunger in a cost-effective and well-accepted way, its implementation is worth pursuing. A case study on folate biofortification further elaborates on the importance of socioeconomic research and the determinants of their market potential. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Fractal analysis of dendrite morphology of rotated neuronal pictures: the modified box counting method.

    PubMed

    Ristanović, Dušan; Stefanović, Bratislav D; Puškaš, Nela

    2014-01-01

    The fractal dimension of a non-stellate neuron changes continuously with rotation of the neuronal picture. For a stellate neuron such changes cannot be noticed. During preprocessing for the box counting, non-stellate neurons should be arranged so that the major diameters of their dendrite fields are parallel. It was shown that a non-stellate neuronal picture had the smallest box dimension when the angle between the horizontal or vertical axis and its major diameter was about 45 degrees. The box counting method which uses ImageJ software does not consider the position of a picture on the computer's screen. A dispersion of the box dimension values of a sample is generally rather large so that their mean value is with larger standard deviation. Modified box counting method partly diminishes these findings. To improve a dependence on neuronal rotation for the box counting dimension of nonstellate neurons, prior to applying the box counting, the non-stellate neurons should be arranged so that the major diameters of their dendrite fields are parallel.

  14. Performance analysis of a modified moving shadow elimination method developed for indoor scene activity tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Bhargav Kumar; Fiaz, Muhammad Kamran; Kypraios, Ioannis; Birch, Philip; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2008-10-01

    Moving shadow detection is an important step in automated robust surveillance systems in which a dynamic object is to be segmented and tracked. Rejection of the shadow region significantly reduces the erroneous tracking of non-target objects within the scene. A method to eliminate such shadows in indoor video sequences has been developed by the authors. The objective has been met through the use of a pixel-wise shadow search process that utilizes a computational model in the RGB colour space to demarcate the moving shadow regions from the background scene and the foreground objects. However, it has been observed that the robustness and efficiency of the method can be significantly enhanced through the deployment of a binary-mask based shadow search process. This, in turn, calls for the use of a prior foreground object segmentation technique. The authors have also automated a standard foreground object segmentation technique through the deployment of some popular statistical outlier-detection based strategies. The paper analyses the performance i.e. the effectiveness as a shadow detector, discrimination potential, and the processing time of the modified moving shadow elimination method on the basis of some standard evaluation metrics.

  15. Genetically modified organisms: an analysis of the regulatory framework currently employed within the European Union.

    PubMed

    Gent, R N

    1999-09-01

    Genetic engineering technology is starting to bring many commercial products to the market. These genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their derived products are subject to topical debate as to their benefits and risks. The strengths and weaknesses of the regulatory framework that controls their development and application is central to the question of whether this technology poses significant risk to the public health during this critical phase of its evolution. A critical review was carried out of the legal framework regulating the contained use, deliberate release and some aspects of consumer protection relevant to the control of GMOs in Europe and the United Kingdom. The current legal framework is failing to provide a speed of adaptation commensurate with the development of the science of genetic engineering; failing to properly respond to democratic control; failing to resolve significant conflict between the protection of free markets and protection of public health and the environment; and failing to implement obligations on biodiversity. The present legal framework must be replaced. Current European Union proposals for new standards of regulation are welcome, but provide only for further incremental change, and do not address some significant fundamental flaws in our current laws.

  16. Procedures for a modified tritium trick-helium doping and residual tritium analysis of vanadium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramey, D. W.; Braski, D. N.

    1985-05-01

    A modified tritium trick technique was used to implant three levels of 3He in V-15% Cr-5% Ti and Vanstar-7 specimens. The modifications include: (1) wrapping of the specimens with tantalum foil to minimize oxygen contamination and (2) tritiation treatment at 400°C to prevent vanadium tritide formation and to produce a 3He bubble distribution similar to that produced during elevated temperature irradiation. Preliminary results show that both modifications were successful. An electrochemical dissolution technique was developed to determine residual tritium levels in the vanadium alloys. Measured residual tritium levels after tritium removal were in the range of 500 to 1400 μCi/g (0.88 to 2.99 appm tritium in the alloy). Tritium solubilities in the alloys were calculated from the tritium decay time and the measured 3He content. Vanstar-7 specimens consistently absorbed about half as much tritium, and subsequently contained half as much 3He as V-15% Cr-5% Ti. Implanting 3He in vanadium alloys via the tritium trick offers a convenient technique to study the mechanism of helium embrittlement without irradiation and should provide a rapid screening method to help develop embrittlement-resistant vanadium alloys.

  17. Reducing breast biopsies by ultrasonographic analysis and a modified self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Greenleaf, James F.; Gisvold, John J.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual evaluation of ultrasound images could decrease negative biopsies of breast cancer diagnosis. However, visual evaluation requires highly experienced breast sonographers. The objective of this study is to develop computerized radiologist assistant to reduce breast biopsies needed for evaluating suspected breast cancer. The approach of this study utilizes a neural network and tissue features extracted from digital sonographic breast images. The features include texture parameters of breast images: characteristics of echoes within and around breast lesions, and geometrical information of breast tumors. Clusters containing only benign lesions in the feature space are then identified by a modified self- organizing map. This newly developed neural network objectively segments population distributions of lesions and accurately establishes benign and equivocal regions.t eh method was applied to high quality breast sonograms of a large number of patients collected with a controlled procedure at Mayo Clinic. The study showed that the number of biopsies in this group of women could be decreased by 40 percent to 59 percent with high confidence and that no malignancies would have been included in the nonbiopsied group. The advantages of this approach are that it is robust, simple, and effective and does not require highly experienced sonographers.

  18. Microstructure analysis of Kr+ irradiation and post-irradiation corrosion of modified N36 zirconium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Penghui; Ran, Guang; Liu, Chenwei; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiqian; Ye, Chao; Li, Ning; Yang, Peihua; Yang, Yungchun

    2017-09-01

    The irradiation behaviors and corrosion properties of a modified N36 zirconium alloy with the composition of Zr-0.8Sn-1Nb-0.3Fe, developed by Nuclear Power Institute of China, were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam. The polished samples were irradiated by 400 keV Kr+ ions up to 25 dpa at 360 °C using a NEC 400 kV ion implanter. The as-received and irradiated samples were corroded for 14 days at the water-vapor environment with 10.3 MPa and 400 °C. The krypton gas bubbles were formed in zirconium matrix and their size was increased with increasing ion dose. Meanwhile, a model that related with gas bubble size and displacement damage had been established. After the corrosion, a layer composed of zircona with different stoichiometric composition was formed on the sample surface. The higher the displacement damage was, the thicker the corrosion layer would be. An empirical equation between oxide thickness and displacement damage was provided. From sample surface to matrix inner, the oxygen content was decreased with increasing corrosion depth. Correspondingly, the zircona was changed from ZrO2 with monoclinic structure on the sample surface to the mixtures of ZrO2 with tetragonal structure and ZrO2 with monoclinic structure in the middle of corrosion layer, and then to ZrO2 with tetragonal structure near alloy matrix.

  19. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this.

  20. Modified cyanobacteria

    DOEpatents

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  1. Validation of a low-cost modified technique for constructing tissue microarrays for canine mammary tumor analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Franciele Basso Fernandes; Leite, Juliana da Silva; de Mello, Marcela Freire Vallim; Ferreira, Ana Maria Reis

    2016-09-01

    Compared with conventional histological paraffin blocks, tissue microarray (TMA) represents a "high-throughput tool" that provides rapid results, a time- and cost-effective approach and simultaneous investigation of several tissue samples under the same conditions. Given the large number of cases of dogs affected with mammary tumors, the complexity of these tumors and their similarity with breast cancer in women, this study aimed to validate a low-cost modified method to construct TMAs for canine mammary tumor analysis using immunomarkers. Carcinoma cases were selected from canine mammary carcinomas in mixed tumors (CMT) because this tumor type is the most heterogeneous among the histopathological types of mammary tumors observed in female dogs. Through a histopathological examination, tumor representativity was compared between conventional sections and histological sections obtained from the TMA block; both were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. An immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to compare the percentages of immunoreactive cells obtained in whole tissue sections versus those obtained from sections from the TMA block. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex and anti-PCNA, anti-vimentin and anti-pancytokeratin antibodies were used. Statistical analysis consisted of the nonparametric Friedman's test (p≤0.05) and descriptive statistical analysis. Histopathological analysis showed tumor representativity in all TMA cores selected for the study. There was no difference between the immunohistochemical analysis of mammary tumors using conventional histological sections or sections obtained from a single 1-mm-diameter TMA core, regardless of the marker used: PCNA (p=0.279), pancytokeratin (p=0.243) and vimentin (p=0.967). The results did not change even when the means of any number of cores were compared among each other and with the conventional histological section: PCNA (p=0.413), pancytokeratin (p=0.177) and vimentin (p=1.0). Therefore, this study

  2. Analysis of catechins in Theobroma cacao beans by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gotti, Roberto; Furlanetto, Sandra; Pinzauti, Sergio; Cavrini, Vanni

    2006-04-21

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the quantitation of polyphenols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (catechin monomers) and the methylxanthine theobromine in Theobroma cacao beans. Owing to the poor stability of catechin monomers in alkaline conditions, a 50 mM Britton-Robinson buffer at a pH 2.50 was preferred as the background electrolyte. Under these conditions, the addition of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) at a concentration of 12 mM to the SDS micellar solution (90 mM), resulted in a cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) endowed with two peculiar advantages compare to the conventional MEKC: (i) strong improvement of separation of the most important phytomarkers of T. cacao and (ii) enantioselectivity toward (+/-)-catechin. In particular, separation of methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine), procyanidin dimers B1 and B2, and catechins (epicatechin and catechin) was obtained simultaneously to the enantioseparation of racemic catechin within 10min. The enantioselectivity of the method makes it suitable in evaluation of possible epimerisation at the C-2 position of epicatechin monomer potentially occurring during heat processing and storage of T. cacao beans. The extraction procedure of the phytomarkers from the beans was approached using ultrasonic bath under mild conditions optimized by a multivariate strategy. The method was validated for robustness, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, range, accuracy and precision and it was applied to T. cacao beans from different countries; interestingly, the native enantiomer (+)-catechin was found in the beans whereas, for the first time we reported that in chocolate, predominantly (-)-catechin is present, probably yielded by epimerisation of (-)-epicatechin occurred during the manufacture of chocolate.

  3. New technique for analysis of cardiac energetics using a modified Fenn equation.

    PubMed

    Ando, H; Nakano, E; Ueno, Y; Tokunaga, K

    1989-04-01

    In 12 dogs being supported by cardiopulmonary bypass, the relationship among myocardial oxygen consumption and four energy-consuming factors (basal metabolism, heart rate, tension development, and external work) was studied. Tension (internal work) in the left ventricular wall was evaluated by myocardial tissue pressure with a Mikro-Tip pressure transducer. In an empty beating heart with constant perfusion pressure, both systolic tissue pressure and developed tissue pressure represented the same characteristics as developed tension measured by other methods. As the heart rate was increased, the systolic tissue pressure and developed tissue pressure continued to increase stepwise (Bowditch effect) up to some stimulation rate, at which, however, a decrease began despite a further increase in heart rate (Woodworth effect). Significant regression was established between myocardial oxygen consumption and heart rate, tension (developed tissue pressure x heart rate), and external work (minute work): myocardial oxygen consumption = (9.05 x 10(-3) heart rate) + (1.95 x 10(-4) developed tissue pressure) x heart rate + (1.63 x 10(-3) minute work) + 1.42 (r = 0.7999), where activation energy = 9.05 x 10(-3) ml/100 gm per beat, tension-related energy = 1.95 x 10(-4) ml/100 gm per unit of internal work, energy for work = 1.63 ml/100 gm per unit of external work, and basal metabolism = 1.42 ml/min/100 gm. We concluded that myocardial tissue pressure is a good substitute for tension and that multiple regression with heart rate, tension, and external work (as by modified Fenn's equation) seems indispensable to predict myocardial oxygen tension in the whole heart.

  4. Reverse engineering of modified genes by Bayesian network analysis defines molecular determinants critical to the development of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, Brian W; Yoo, Changwon; Roy, Deodutta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have identified key genes that are critical in development of astrocytic tumors. Meta-analysis of microarray studies which compared normal tissue to astrocytoma revealed a set of 646 differentially expressed genes in the majority of astrocytoma. Reverse engineering of these 646 genes using Bayesian network analysis produced a gene network for each grade of astrocytoma (Grade I-IV), and 'key genes' within each grade were identified. Genes found to be most influential to development of the highest grade of astrocytoma, Glioblastoma multiforme were: COL4A1, EGFR, BTF3, MPP2, RAB31, CDK4, CD99, ANXA2, TOP2A, and SERBP1. All of these genes were up-regulated, except MPP2 (down regulated). These 10 genes were able to predict tumor status with 96-100% confidence when using logistic regression, cross validation, and the support vector machine analysis. Markov genes interact with NFkβ, ERK, MAPK, VEGF, growth hormone and collagen to produce a network whose top biological functions are cancer, neurological disease, and cellular movement. Three of the 10 genes - EGFR, COL4A1, and CDK4, in particular, seemed to be potential 'hubs of activity'. Modified expression of these 10 Markov Blanket genes increases lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to the normal population. The glioblastoma risk estimates were dramatically increased with joint effects of 4 or more than 4 Markov Blanket genes. Joint interaction effects of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 Markov Blanket genes produced 9, 13, 20.9, 26.7, 52.8, 53.2, 78.1 or 85.9%, respectively, increase in lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to normal population. In summary, it appears that modified expression of several 'key genes' may be required for the development of glioblastoma. Further studies are needed to validate these 'key genes' as useful tools for early detection and novel therapeutic options for these tumors.

  5. Dynamic malware analysis using IntroVirt: a modified hypervisor-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joshua S.; Pape, Stephen R.; Meily, Adam T.; Gloo, Richard M.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a system for Dynamic Malware Analysis which incorporates the use of IntroVirt™. IntroVirt is an introspective hypervisor architecture and infrastructure that supports advanced analysis techniques for stealth-malwareanalysis. This system allows for complete guest monitoring and interaction, including the manipulation and blocking of system calls. IntroVirt is capable of bypassing virtual machine detection capabilities of even the most sophisticated malware, by spoofing returns to system call responses. Additional fuzzing capabilities can be employed to detect both malware vulnerabilities and polymorphism.

  6. Collaborative ring trial of the papaya endogenous reference gene and its polymerase chain reaction assays for genetically modified organism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Feiwu; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Junfeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-11-27

    The papaya (Carica papaya L.) Chymopapain (CHY) gene has been reported as a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) papaya detection in previous studies. Herein, we further validated the use of the CHY gene and its qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays through an interlaboratory collaborative ring trial. A total of 12 laboratories working on detection of genetically modified organisms participated in the ring trial and returned test results. Statistical analysis of the returned results confirmed the species specificity, low heterogeneity, and single-copy number of the CHY gene among different papaya varieties. The limit of detection of the CHY qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%, while the limit of quantification of the quantitative PCR assay was ∼25 copies of haploid papaya genome with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. The differences between the tested and true values of papaya content in 10 blind samples ranged from 0.84 to 6.58%. These results indicated that the CHY gene was suitable as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM papaya.

  7. Analysis of the effect of older drivers’ driving behaviors on traffic flow based on a modified CA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Mei-Ying; Shi, Jing; Liu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    As the global population ages, there are more and more older drivers on the road. The decline in driving performance of older drivers may influence the properties of traffic flow and safety. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of older drivers’ driving behaviors on traffic flow. A modified cellular automaton (CA) model which takes driving behaviors of older drivers into account is proposed. The simulation results indicate that older drivers’ driving behaviors induce a reduction in traffic flow especially when the density is higher than 15 vehicles per km per lane and an increase in Lane-changing frequency. The analysis of stability shows that a number of disturbances could frequently emerge, be propagated and eventually dissipate in this modified model. The results also reflect that with the increase of older drivers on the road, the probability of the occurrence of rear-end collisions increases greatly and obviously. Furthermore, the value of acceleration influences the traffic flow and safety significantly. These results provide the theoretical basis and reference for the traffic management departments to develop traffic management measure in the aging society.

  8. Potentiometric stripping analysis of methyl and ethyl parathion employing carbon nanoparticles and halloysite nanoclay modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, Bankim J; Hirsch, Gary; Karna, Shashi P; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2012-07-20

    Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and halloysite nanoclay (HNC) modified carbon paste electrode (HNC-CNP-CPE) was developed for the determination of methyl parathion (MP) and ethyl parathion (EP). The electrochemical behavior of these molecules was investigated employing cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA). After optimization of analytical conditions employing this electrode at pH 5.0 in acetate buffer (0.1 M), the peak currents were found to vary linearly with its concentration in the range of 1.55×10(-9) to 3.67×10(-6) M and 1.21×10(-9) to 4.92×10(-6) M for MP and EP, respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) of 4.70×10(-10) M and 3.67×10(-10) M were obtained for MP and EP, respectively, using PSA. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages such as simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limits and excellent reproducibility. The proposed method was employed for the determination of MP and EP in fruits, vegetables, water and soil samples.

  9. Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometric analysis of hexamethylenediamine-modified maltodextrin and dextran.

    PubMed

    Sisu, Eugen; Bosker, Wouter T E; Norde, Willem; Slaghek, Ted M; Timmermans, Johan W; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Cohen-Stuart, Martien A; Zamfir, Alina D

    2006-01-01

    A combined methodology for obtaining at the preparative scale and characterization by nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS (MS/MS) of linear polysaccharides modified at the reducing end is presented. Two polydisperse maltodextrins (1000 and 3000 Da) and a high molecular weight polydisperse dextran (6000 Da) were coupled with hexamethylenediamine (HMD). The coupling products were analyzed by nanoESI-QTOF-MS in the positive ion mode and MS/MS using collision-induced dissociation (CID) at low energies. In the HMD-M1000 mixture, the polysaccharide chains containing from 2 to 8 Glc residues were detected, while in HMD-M3000 we identified a complete series of chains containing from 8 to 21 Glc moieties. The employed ESI conditions enhanced the detection of chains with up to 46 Glc residues in the HMD-D6000 sample. By optimized MS/MS, HMD-modified polysaccharides of 3, 4, 5, 12 and 46 degrees of polymerization yielded product ion spectra exhibiting the whole set of Y- and B-fragment ions. The MS structural data were obtained within a few minutes of signal acquisition, with a sample consumption situating the analysis sensitivity in the picomolar range.

  10. Experimental analysis and modified rotor description of the infrared fundamental band of HCl in Ar, Kr, and Xe solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, J.; Padilla, A.; Herrebout, W. A.; Van der Veken, B. J.; Hernández, A. Calvo; Bulanin, M. O.

    2005-05-01

    We report an experimental study of the rotovibrational fundamental PQR-band shapes in the IR absorption spectra of HCl dissolved in condensed rare gases in a wide range of temperatures. The effective vibrational frequencies are determined from analysis of the fine rotational structure partially resolved in the band wings. The central Q-branch components appear redshifted with respect to the effective vibrational frequencies, their shifts in different solvents found to match the HCl stretching mode shifts in binary Rg⋯HCl van der Waals heterodimers. Theoretical quasi-free rotor and modified rotor models are applied to describe evolution of the band profiles at changing thermodynamic conditions. Both models are shown to reproduce equally well the observed spectral density distributions in the band wings. However, the modified rotor formalism that accounts for depopulation of the lower-energy rotational solute states provides better agreement with the experiment in the range of the P- and R-branch maxima. We surmise that the Q branches separated from the measured spectral profiles are formed by transitions between rotationally hindered states of diatomic molecules coupled to the solvent by the local anisotropy of the interaction potential.

  11. Interpretive subgroup analysis extends modified grounded theory research findings in oncologic music therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Hiscock, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Following an investigation into oncologic patients' experiences of the helpfulness of music therapy (O'Callaghan & McDermott, 2004), it was considered that examining relationships between specific patient characteristics and their responses could yield further interesting understandings. "Interpretative subgroup analysis" is introduced, which adapts principles of subgroup analysis in quantitative research to textual data analysis. Anonymous written responses from 128 oncologic patients were analyzed to compare responses from (a) those that had one music therapy session with those who had more than one session, (b) males and females, and (c) middle and older aged respondents. The number of music therapy sessions had scant effect on reported music therapy experiences, and males were much more likely to return questionnaires but much less likely to participate. Unlike some females, males always described positive affective responses when experiencing both sad and positive memories. Variations in the middle and older aged subgroups were evident in type of affective response, and emphases in descriptions of memories and music therapy's effect. Implications of these findings for music therapy practice are considered. Interpretive subgroup analysis is recommended for extending understanding of subjective within group experiences in music therapy research incorporating a grounded theory approach and large enough samples.

  12. Resources for methylome analysis suitable for gene knockout studies of potential epigenome modifiers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gareth A; Dhami, Pawandeep; Feber, Andrew; Cortázar, Daniel; Suzuki, Yuka; Schulz, Reiner; Schär, Primo; Beck, Stephan

    2012-07-12

    Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) is a popular enrichment based method and can be combined with sequencing (termed MeDIP-seq) to interrogate the methylation status of cytosines across entire genomes. However, quality control and analysis of MeDIP-seq data have remained to be a challenge. We report genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of wild type (wt) and mutant mouse cells, comprising 3 biological replicates of Thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg) knockout (KO) embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in vitro differentiated neural precursor cells (NPCs) and embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The resulting 18 methylomes were analysed with MeDUSA (Methylated DNA Utility for Sequence Analysis), a novel MeDIP-seq computational analysis pipeline for the identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). The observed increase of hypermethylation in MEF promoter-associated CpG islands supports a previously proposed role for Tdg in the protection of regulatory regions from epigenetic silencing. Further analysis of genes and regions associated with the DMRs by gene ontology, pathway, and ChIP analyses revealed further insights into Tdg function, including an association of TDG with low-methylated distal regulatory regions. We demonstrate that MeDUSA is able to detect both large-scale changes between cells from different stages of differentiation and also small but significant changes between the methylomes of cells that only differ in the KO of a single gene. These changes were validated utilising publicly available datasets and confirm TDG's function in the protection of regulatory regions from epigenetic silencing.

  13. Modified gel preparation for distinct DNA fragment analysis in agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, S V; Bahaman, A R

    2010-08-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis is the standard method that is used to separate, identify, and purify DNA fragments. However, this method is time-consuming and capable of separating limited range of fragments. A new technique of gel preparation was developed to improve the DNA fragment analysis via electrophoresis.

  14. Using multiple PCR and CE with chemiluminescence detection for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, an ultrasensitive CE-CL detection system coupled with a novel double-on-column coaxial flow detection interface was developed for the detection of PCR products. A reliable procedure based on this system had been demonstrated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism-the detection of Roundup Ready Soy (RRS) samples was presented as an example. The promoter, terminator, function and two reference genes of RRS were amplified with multiplex PCR simultaneously. After that, the multiplex PCR products were labeled with acridinium ester at the 5'-terminal through an amino modification and then analyzed by the proposed CE-CL system. Reproducibility of analysis times and peak heights for the CE-CL analysis were determined to be better than 0.91 and 3.07% (RSD, n=15), respectively, for three consecutive days. It was shown that this method could accurately and qualitatively detect RRS standards and the simulative samples. The evaluation in terms of quantitative analysis of RRS provided by this new method was confirmed by comparing our assay results with those of the standard real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) using SYBR Green I dyes. The results showed a good coherence between the two methods. This approach demonstrated the possibility for accurate qualitative and quantitative detection of GM plants in a single run.

  15. Analysis of trunk neural crest cell migration using a modified Zigmond chamber assay.

    PubMed

    Walheim, Christopher C; Zanin, Juan Pablo; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2012-01-19

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a transient population of cells present in vertebrate development that emigrate from the dorsal neural tube (NT) after undergoing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Following EMT, NCCs migrate large distances along stereotypic pathways until they reach their targets. NCCs differentiate into a vast array of cell types including neurons, glia, melanocytes, and chromaffin cells. The ability of NCCs to reach and recognize their proper target locations is foundational for the appropriate formation of all structures containing trunk NCC-derived components. Elucidating the mechanisms of guidance for trunk NCC migration has therefore been a matter of great significance. Numerous molecules have been demonstrated to guide NCC migration. For instance, trunk NCCs are known to be repelled by negative guidance cues such as Semaphorin, Ephrin, and Slit ligands. However, not until recently have any chemoattractants of trunk NCCs been identified. Conventional in vitro approaches to studying the chemotactic behavior of adherent cells work best with immortalized, homogenously distributed cells, but are more challenging to apply to certain primary stem cell cultures that initially lack a homogenous distribution and rapidly differentiate (such as NCCs). One approach to homogenize the distribution of trunk NCCs for chemotaxis studies is to isolate trunk NCCs from primary NT explant cultures, then lift and replate them to be almost 100% confluent. However, this plating approach requires substantial amounts of time and effort to explant enough cells, is harsh, and distributes trunk NCCs in a dissimilar manner to that found in in vivo conditions. Here, we report an in vitro approach that is able to evaluate chemotaxis and other migratory responses of trunk NCCs without requiring a homogenous cell distribution. This technique utilizes time-lapse imaging of primary, unperturbed trunk NCCs inside a modified Zigmond chamber (a standard Zigmond chamber is

  16. Does time since immigration modify neighborhood deprivation gradients in preterm birth? A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Urquia, Marcelo Luis; Frank, John William; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard Henry

    2011-10-01

    Immigrants' health is jointly influenced by their pre- and post-migration exposures, but how these two influences operate with increasing duration of residence has not been well-researched. We aimed to examine how the influence of maternal country of birth and neighborhood deprivation effects, if any, change over time since migration and how neighborhood effects among immigrants compare with those observed in the Canadian-born population. Birth data from Ontario hospital records (2002-2007) were linked with an official Canadian immigration database (1985-2000). The outcome measure was preterm birth. Neighborhoods were ranked according to a neighborhood deprivation index developed for Canadian urban areas and collapsed into tertiles of approximately equal size. Time since immigration was measured from the date of arrival to Canada to the date of delivery, ranging from 1 to 22 years. We used cross-classified random effect models to simultaneously account for the membership of births (N = 83,233) to urban neighborhoods (N = 1,801) and maternal countries of birth (N = 168). There were no differences in preterm birth between neighborhood deprivation tertiles among immigrants with less than 15 years of residence. Among immigrants with 15 years of stay or more, the adjusted absolute risk difference (ARD%, 95% confidence interval) between high-deprived (tertile 3) and low-deprived (tertile 1) neighborhoods was 1.86 (0.68, 2.98), while the ARD% observed among the Canadian-born (N = 314,237) was 1.34 (1.11, 1.57). Time since migration modifies the neighborhood deprivation gradient in preterm birth among immigrants living in Ontario cities. Immigrants reached the level of inequalities in preterm birth observed at the neighborhood level among the Canadian-born after 14 years of stay, but neighborhoods did not influence preterm birth among more recent immigrants, for whom the maternal country of birth was more predictive of preterm birth.

  17. Price analysis of multiple sclerosis disease-modifying therapies marketed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bin Sawad, Aseel; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Turkistani, Fatema

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed trends in the average wholesale price (AWP) at the market entry of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the period 1987-2014. DMT regulatory information was derived from the FDA website. The AWPs per unit at market entry data were derived from the Red Book (Truven Health Analytics Inc.). The AWP history for each DMT was collected from its date of approval to 31 December 2014. The FDA approved label defined daily dose (DDD) for adult patients was obtained from FDA approved labels. The AWP per DDD and the AWP/DDD per year of therapy were computed. Descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon tests, t-test, and multiple linear regression were performed. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05. The FDA approved 12 multiple sclerosis (MS) DMTs, including five new drug applications (NDAs) and seven biologic license applications (BLAs) as of 31 December 2014. The FDA granted orphan designation to five DMTs. There was one DMT approved by the FDA in the 1980s, three in the 1990s, three in 2000s, and five in the period 2010-2014. The market entry inflation-adjusted AWP per DDD was $10.23 for the first DMT (mitoxantrone hydrochloride) that was approved in the 1980s. The median market entry inflation-adjusted AWP per DDD was $12.41 (interquartile range [IQR] = 4.51) for DMTs approved in the 1990s, $71.26 (IQR = 58.35) in the 2000s, and $172.56 (IQR = 84.97) in the period 2010-2014. The median AWP per DDD was statistically significantly different (p = 0.011) for orphan (median = $41.82, IQR = 56.077) compared to non-orphan drugs (median = $171.32, IQR = 199.29). Year of market entry was positively associated with DMT prices at US market entry (p = 0.01). The AWP per DDD for DMTs at market entry increased substantially over time. The increase in DMTs prices exceeded the general consumer price index.

  18. Performance analysis of modified Asymmetrically-Clipped Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Salma D.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Andonovic, Ivan; Aly, Moustafa H.

    2016-12-01

    A modification to the Asymmetrically-Clipped Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) technique is proposed through unipolar encoding. A performance analysis of the Bit Error Rate (BER) is developed and Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to verify the analysis. Results are compared to that of the corresponding ACO-OFDM system under the same bit energy and transmission rate; an improvement of 1 dB is obtained at a BER of 10-4 . In addition, the performance of the proposed system in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is investigated using single-input multiple-output (SIMO) configuration and its performance under that environment is compared to that of ACO-OFDM. Energy improvements of 4 dB and 2.2 dB are obtained at a BER of 10-4 for SIMO systems of 1 and 2 photodetectors at the receiver for the case of strong turbulence, respectively.

  19. Ion trap mass spectrometry in the structural analysis of haemoglobin peptides modified by epichlorohydrin and diepoxybutane.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Nadia; Basile, Adriana; Pieri, Maria; Acampora, Antonio; Malorni, Livia; De Giulio, Beatrice; Sannolo, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Ion trap mass spectrometry has been shown to be particularly suitable for the structural analysis of high molecular weight peptides directly fragmented in the mass analyser without needing further sub-digestion reactions. Here we report the advantages of using multi-stage ion trap mass spectrometry in the structural characterisation of haemoglobin alkylated with epichlorohydrin and diepoxybutane. Alkylated globins were digested with trypsin and the peptide mixtures were analysed by MS(3). This technique allows the sequential fragmentation of peptides under analysis, giving rise to MS(3) product ion spectra with additional information with respect to MS(2) mass spectra. The results obtained complete the previously reported structural characterisation of alkylated haemoglobin, demonstrating the potential of ion trap mass spectrometry.

  20. A Cellular Screening Assay Using Analysis of Metal-Modified Fluorescence Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Nicholas I.; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Archibald, Stephen J.; Ng, Tony; Richards, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current methods for screening cell receptor internalization often require complex image analysis with limited sensitivity. Here we describe a novel bioassay based on detection of changes in global fluorescence lifetime above a gold substrate, with superresolution axial sensitivity and no need for image analysis. We show that the lifetime of enhanced green fluorescent protein expressed in a cellular membrane is greatly reduced in close proximity to the gold, resulting in a distance-dependent lifetime distribution throughout the cell. We demonstrate the application of this phenomenon in a screening assay by comparing the efficacies of two small molecule inhibitors interfering with the internalization process of a G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:20513420

  1. Resources for methylome analysis suitable for gene knockout studies of potential epigenome modifiers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) is a popular enrichment based method and can be combined with sequencing (termed MeDIP-seq) to interrogate the methylation status of cytosines across entire genomes. However, quality control and analysis of MeDIP-seq data have remained to be a challenge. Results We report genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of wild type (wt) and mutant mouse cells, comprising 3 biological replicates of Thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg) knockout (KO) embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in vitro differentiated neural precursor cells (NPCs) and embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The resulting 18 methylomes were analysed with MeDUSA (Methylated DNA Utility for Sequence Analysis), a novel MeDIP-seq computational analysis pipeline for the identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). The observed increase of hypermethylation in MEF promoter-associated CpG islands supports a previously proposed role for Tdg in the protection of regulatory regions from epigenetic silencing. Further analysis of genes and regions associated with the DMRs by gene ontology, pathway, and ChIP analyses revealed further insights into Tdg function, including an association of TDG with low-methylated distal regulatory regions. Conclusions We demonstrate that MeDUSA is able to detect both large-scale changes between cells from different stages of differentiation and also small but significant changes between the methylomes of cells that only differ in the KO of a single gene. These changes were validated utilising publicly available datasets and confirm TDG's function in the protection of regulatory regions from epigenetic silencing. PMID:23587164

  2. [An enzyme reactor based on aptamer modified microfluidic chip for protein analysis].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peng; Li, Dalei; Man, Yan; Geng, Lina; Lü, Xuefei; Deng, Yulin

    2012-11-01

    As a kind of recognition molecule, aptamer has been studied and applied widely in numerous science fields in recent years. Immobilized enzymatic reactor has drawn much attention because of its striking advantages, such as high digestion efficiency and ease in coupling with the separation and detection systems. In this study, a novel microfluidic enzymatic chip, which immobilized trypsin based on aptamer, was prepared and proposed. An online analysis platform, which consisted of an aptamer-based chip and high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, was established by using a 6-port valve and applied to protein analysis. The enzymatic capacity and stability performance of chip reactor were characterized by using mixed protein sample, which consisted of bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin (Mb) and cytochrome c (Cyt. c). The sample digestion time of the chip reactor was about 5.76 s while 1 microL/min of flow rate was adopted; and moreover, 5 ng of Mb was identified successfully with the sequence coverage of 37%. Furthermore, the sequence coverages and the relative standard deviations were 44.3% and 6.5% for BSA, 65.0% and 2.7% for Mb, 62.0% and 5.6% for Cyt. c respectively when 500 ng digest of mixed proteins were analyzed in three runs. According to experimental results, the online analysis platform possesses the ability of high sensitivity and good stability, which can provide a promising tool for rapid and high-throughput proteomics study in the near future.

  3. Safety Analysis of Pb-208 Cooled 800 MWt Modified CANDLE Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Widiawati, Nina; Sekimoto, H.; Artoto, A.

    2017-01-01

    Safely analysis of 800MWt Pb-208 cooled fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input employing axial-radial combined Modiified CANDLE burnup scheme has been performed. The analysis of unprotected loss of flow(ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient overpower (UTOP) are discussed. Some simulations for 800 MWt Pb-208 cooled fast reactors has been performed and the results show that the reactor can anticipate complete pumping failure inherently by reducing power through reactivity feedback and remove the rest of heat through natural circulations. Compared to the Pb-nat cooled long life Fast Reactors, Pb-208 cooled reactors have smaller Doppler but higher coolant density reactivity coefficient. In the UTOP accident case the analysis has been performed against external reactivity up to 0.003dk/k. And for ULOHS case it is assumed that the secondary cooling system has broken. During all accident the cladding temperature is the most critical. Especially for the case of UTOP accident. In addition the steam generator design has also consider excess power which may reach 50% extra during severe UTOP case..

  4. The modified nodal analysis method applied to the modeling of the thermal circuit of an asynchronous machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, O.; Salisteanu, C. I.; Popa, F.; Salisteanu, B.; Oprescu, C. V.; Dogaru, V.

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of electrical circuits or of equivalent thermal circuits that were considered to be analyzed and solved requires taking into account the method that is used for their solving. Choosing the method of solving determines the amount of calculation necessary for applying one of the methods. The heating and ventilation systems of electrical machines that have to be modeled result in complex equivalent electrical circuits of large dimensions, which requires the use of the most efficient methods of solving them. The purpose of the thermal calculation of electrical machines is to establish the heating, the overruns of temperatures or over-temperatures in some parts of the machine compared to the temperature of the ambient, in a given operating mode of the machine. The paper presents the application of the modified nodal analysis method for the modeling of the thermal circuit of an asynchronous machine.

  5. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  6. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-05-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  7. Sequestration, fluorometric detection, and mass spectroscopy analysis of lanthanide ions using surface modified magnetic microspheres for microfluidic manipulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I. A.; Kaminski, M. D.; Mertz, C. J.; Rickert, P. G.; Derzon, M. S.; Rahimian, K.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2009-11-04

    Several methods for rapid sequestration, fluorometric detection, and the subsequent mass spectroscopic analysis of lanthanide ions using surface modified polystyrene magnetic microspheres are demonstrated. Mixed-ligand antenna complexes of Eu{sup 3+} in which one of the ligands is attached to the surface of the microspheres have been used as a means for the sequestration, immobilization, and detection of these ions. Using the ion-exchange properties of these microspheres, this scheme has been extended to the detection of nonluminescent ions. The principles of these assays form the basis for operation of a portable microfluidic device for general analytical and nuclear forensics applications and indicate the manner in which the established methods of analytical chemistry, such as liquid-liquid extraction and ion-exchange chromatography, can be adapted for such miniature devices.

  8. Calculation of measurement uncertainty in quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms using intermediate precision--a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina; Cankar, Katarina; Stebih, Dejan; Blejec, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of nucleic acids is becoming a frequently used method in routine analysis of biological samples, one use being the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Measurement uncertainty is an important factor to be considered in these analyses, especially where precise thresholds are set in regulations. Intermediate precision, defined as a measure between repeatability and reproducibility, is a parameter describing the real situation in laboratories dealing with quantitative aspects of molecular biology methods. In this paper, we describe the top-down approach to calculating measurement uncertainty, using intermediate precision, in routine GMO testing of food and feed samples. We illustrate its practicability in defining compliance of results with regulations. The method described is also applicable to other molecular methods for a variety of laboratory diagnostics where quantitative characterization of nucleic acids is needed.

  9. Design of Dual band Modified Inverted F-Antenna for Military and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Applications by Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Robiul; Karmokar, Debabrata Kumar

    2012-11-01

    A design of single feed Dual Band Modified Inverted F-Antenna (IFA) operating at 4.45 GHz (4.4-4.7GHz) and 5.9 GHz (5.850-5.925 GHz) has been proposed in this paper. The design is initiated by trial and error method of Numerical Analysis and method of moments (MoMís) in Numerical Electromagnetic code (NEC) is used to design, simulate and analyze this antenna. The results exhibit a proper operation of the antenna in terms of return loss, bandwidth, efficiency, VSWR, and gain at both bands. Proposed antenna is designed to achieve multi-serving purposes. Military applications and applications in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are the most important applications within the above mentioned frequency bands respectively. The simulated results including performance parameters of antenna are presented and all are acceptable for the standard antennas.

  10. Doubly imprinted polymer nanofilm-modified electrochemical sensor for ultra-trace simultaneous analysis of glyphosate and glufosinate.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Jauhari, Darshika; Tiwari, Mahavir Prasad

    2014-09-15

    A rapid, selective, and sensitive double-template imprinted polymer nanofilm-modified pencil graphite electrode was fabricated for the simultaneous analysis of phosphorus-containing amino acid-type herbicides (glyphosate and glufosinate) in soil and human serum samples. Since both herbicides respond overlapped oxidation peaks and only glyphosate is prone to nitrosation, n-nitroso glyphosate and glufosinate were used as templates for obtaining the well-resolved quantitative differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric peaks on the proposed sensor. Toward sensor fabrication, a nano-structured polymer film was first grown directly on the electrode via initial immobilization of gold nanoparticles at its surface. This was followed by linking of monomeric (N-methacryloyl-l-cysteine) molecules through S-Au bonds. Subsequently, these molecules were subjected to free radical polymerization, in the presence of templates, cross linker, initiator, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes as pre-polymer mixture. The modified sensor observed wide linear ranges (3.98-176.23 ng mL(-1) and 0.54-3.96 ng mL(-1)) of simultaneous analysis with detection limits as low as 0.35 and 0.19 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3) for glyphosate and glufosinate, respectively, in aqueous samples. The respective oxidation peak potentials of both analytes were found to be substantially apart by 265 mV. This enabled the simultaneous determination of one target in the presence of other, without any cross reactivity, interferences, and false-positives, in real samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bifurcation Analysis and Chaos Control in a Modified Finance System with Delayed Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jihua; Zhang, Erli; Liu, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect of delayed feedback on the finance system, which describes the time variation of the interest rate, for establishing the fiscal policy. By local stability analysis, we theoretically prove the existences of Hopf bifurcation and Hopf-zero bifurcation. By using the normal form method and center manifold theory, we determine the stability and direction of a bifurcating periodic solution. Finally, we give some numerical solutions, which indicate that when the delay passes through certain critical values, chaotic oscillation is converted into a stable equilibrium or periodic orbit.

  12. Stability Limits of Modified Hilber-Hughes Algorithm for Time Integration in Dynamic Analysis,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Materials Research Department of Civil Engineering, Report No. UCSESM 68-1, Jan 1968. 11. E. L. Wilson, I. Farhoomand, and K. J. Bathe, "Nonlinear Dynamic...Dimensional Structure/Media Interaction Computer Code," ITT Research Institute, AFWL-TR-81-109, Jan 1982, p. 101. 34. S. P. Chan, H. L. Cox, and W. A. Benfleld...Analysis of Thin Shells, SLA-73-0079, Sandia Labs, Jan 1973. 7-3 NSWC TR 86-324 REFERENCES (Cont.) 40. T. Belytschko, "Efficient Finite Element Methods

  13. Development and application of a multi-targeting reference plasmid as calibrator for analysis of five genetically modified soybean events.

    PubMed

    Pi, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Cao, Yiwei; Wang, Canhua; Pan, Liangwen; Yang, Litao

    2015-04-01

    Reference materials are important in accurate analysis of genetically modified organism (GMO) contents in food/feeds, and development of novel reference plasmid is a new trend in the research of GMO reference materials. Herein, we constructed a novel multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, which contained seven event-specific sequences of five GM soybeans (MON89788-5', A2704-12-3', A5547-127-3', DP356043-5', DP305423-3', A2704-12-5', and A5547-127-5') and sequence of soybean endogenous reference gene Lectin. We evaluated the specificity, limit of detection and quantification, and applicability of pSOY in both qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses. The limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 20 copies in qualitative PCR, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) in quantitative PCR was 10 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and Lectin assays were higher than 90%, and the squared regression coefficients (R(2)) were more than 0.999. The quantification bias varied from 0.21% to 19.29%, and the relative standard deviations were from 1.08% to 9.84% in simulated samples analysis. All the results demonstrated that the developed multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, was a credible substitute of matrix reference materials, and could be used as a reliable reference calibrator in the identification and quantification of multiple GM soybean events.

  14. Multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains using modified magnetic nanoparticle adsorbent for facile and efficient cleanup.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Xiangyun; Wang, Zhiwei; Xu, Xiahong; Chen, Wenxue; Wu, Liyu; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan

    2017-09-01

    A facile, rapid sample pretreatment method was developed based on magnetic nanoparticles for multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles modified with 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (Fe3O4-PSA) and commercial C18 were selected as the cleanup adsorbents to remove the target interferences of the matrix, such as fatty acids and non-polar compounds. Rice was used as the representative grain sample for method optimization. The amount of Fe3O4-PSA and C18 were systematically investigated for selecting the suitable purification conditions, and the simultaneous determination of 50 pesticides and 8 related metabolites in rice was established by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimal conditions, the method validation was performed including linearity, sensitivity, matrix effect, recovery and precision, which all satisfy the requirement for pesticides residue analysis. Compared to the conventional QuEChERS method with non-magnetic material as cleanup adsorbent, the present method can save 30% of the pretreatment time, giving the high throughput analysis possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quadrantal multi-scale distribution entropy analysis of heartbeat interval series based on a modified Poincaré plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Chengyu; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhuang, Jianjun; Hou, Fengzhen; Ni, Huangjing; Ning, Xinbao

    2013-09-01

    The Poincaré plot is one of the most important approaches in human cardiac rhythm analysis. However, further investigations are still needed to concentrate on techniques that can characterize the dispersion of the points displayed by a Poincaré plot. Based on a modified Poincaré plot, we provide a novel measurement named distribution entropy (DE) and propose a quadrantal multi-scale distribution entropy analysis (QMDE) for the quantitative descriptions of the scatter distribution patterns in various regions and temporal scales. We apply this method to the heartbeat interval series derived from healthy subjects and congestive heart failure (CHF) sufferers, respectively, and find that the discriminations between them are most significant in the first quadrant, which implies significant impacts on vagal regulation brought about by CHF. We also investigate the day-night differences of young healthy people, and it is shown that the results present a clearly circadian rhythm, especially in the first quadrant. In addition, the multi-scale analysis indicates that the results of healthy subjects and CHF sufferers fluctuate in different trends with variation of the scale factor. The same phenomenon also appears in circadian rhythm investigations of young healthy subjects, which implies that the cardiac dynamic system is affected differently in various temporal scales by physiological or pathological factors.

  16. A meta-analysis of the association of serum ischaemia-modified albumin levels with human hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Varikasuvu Seshadri; Bukke, Suman; Mahato, Khageshwar; Kumar, Vinod; Reddy, Netala Vasudeva; Munikumar, Manne; Vodelu, Bramahanapally

    2017-02-28

    Serum levels of ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA) have been studied as a novel and simple measure of oxidative stress (OXS) in different thyroid pathologies. However, results of available studies in the literature were not consistent. This meta-analysis was attempted to quantify the overall effect size for serum IMA levels in human hypothyroidism (HT) and hyperthyroidism (HYT) and to study its associations with the thyroid profile. Databases of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct were searched for articles. Data on serum IMA levels in HT, HYT patients and euthyroid controls were extracted to compute standardized mean differences (SMD) by the random-effects model. The associations between IMA and thyroid profile were computed by the meta-analysis of correlation coefficients. IMA levels in HT patients (SMD=1.12; Z=2.76; P=0.006) and HYT patients (SMD=1.64; Z=2.57; P=0.01) were significantly higher than in euthyroid controls and the thyroid treatment showed a favourble effect on serum IMA levels. There were strong and significant correlations between IMA and hormonal status in HT and HYT groups. This meta-analysis showing increased IMA level in both HT and HYT patients and its association with thyroid profile suggests that serum IMA could be used as a simple measure of increased OXS in thyroid dysfunction.

  17. A meta-analysis of the association of serum ischaemia-modified albumin levels with human hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Varikasuvu Seshadri; Bukke, Suman; Mahato, Khageshwar; Kumar, Vinod; Reddy, Netala Vasudeva; Munikumar, Manne; Vodelu, Bramahanapally

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA) have been studied as a novel and simple measure of oxidative stress (OXS) in different thyroid pathologies. However, results of available studies in the literature were not consistent. This meta-analysis was attempted to quantify the overall effect size for serum IMA levels in human hypothyroidism (HT) and hyperthyroidism (HYT) and to study its associations with the thyroid profile. Databases of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct were searched for articles. Data on serum IMA levels in HT, HYT patients and euthyroid controls were extracted to compute standardized mean differences (SMD) by the random-effects model. The associations between IMA and thyroid profile were computed by the meta-analysis of correlation coefficients. IMA levels in HT patients (SMD=1.12; Z=2.76; P=0.006) and HYT patients (SMD=1.64; Z=2.57; P=0.01) were significantly higher than in euthyroid controls and the thyroid treatment showed a favourble effect on serum IMA levels. There were strong and significant correlations between IMA and hormonal status in HT and HYT groups. This meta-analysis showing increased IMA level in both HT and HYT patients and its association with thyroid profile suggests that serum IMA could be used as a simple measure of increased OXS in thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27920278

  18. Modifying the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (6-18 years) to a Chinese Context: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Lili; Luo, Xuerong; Wu, Lijie; Zou, Xiaobing; Xia, Kun; Wang, Yimin; Xu, Xiu; Ge, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Fombonne, Eric; Yan, Weili; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the autism spectrum rating scale (ASRS). We recruited 1,625 community-based children and 211 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases from 4 sites, and the parents of all participants completed the Chinese version of the ASRS. A robust weighted least squares means and variance adjusted estimator was used for exploratory factor analysis. The 3-factor structure included 59 items suitable for the current sample. The item reliability for the modified Chinese version of the ASRS (MC-ASRS) was excellent. Moreover, with 60 as the cut-off point, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the MC-ASRS had excellent discriminate validity, comparable to that of the unmodified Chinese version (UC-ASRS), with area under the curve values of 0.952 (95% CI: 0.936-0.967) and 0.948 (95% CI: 0.930-0.965), respectively. Meanwhile, the confirm factor analysis revealed that MC-ASRS had a better construct validity than UC-ASRS based on the above factor solution in another children sample. In conclusion, the MC-ASRS shows better efficacy in epidemiological screening for ASD in Chinese children.

  19. Modified data analysis for thermal conductivity measurements of polycrystalline silicon microbridges using a steady state Joule heating technique.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Robert A; Piekos, Edward S; Phinney, Leslie M

    2012-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of thermophysical properties is needed to predict and optimize the thermal performance of microsystems. Thermal conductivity is experimentally determined by measuring quantities such as voltage or temperature and then inferring a thermal conductivity from a thermal model. Thermal models used for data analysis contain inherent assumptions, and the resultant thermal conductivity value is sensitive to how well the actual experimental conditions match the model assumptions. In this paper, a modified data analysis procedure for the steady state Joule heating technique is presented that accounts for bond pad effects including thermal resistance, electrical resistance, and Joule heating. This new data analysis method is used to determine the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) microbridges fabricated using the Sandia National Laboratories SUMMiT V™ micromachining process over the temperature range of 77-350 K, with the value at 300 K being 71.7 ± 1.5 W/(m K). It is shown that making measurements on beams of multiple lengths is useful, if not essential, for inferring the correct thermal conductivity from steady state Joule heating measurements.

  20. Modified data analysis for thermal conductivity measurements of polycrystalline silicon microbridges using a steady state Joule heating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, Robert A.; Piekos, Edward S.; Phinney, Leslie M.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of thermophysical properties is needed to predict and optimize the thermal performance of microsystems. Thermal conductivity is experimentally determined by measuring quantities such as voltage or temperature and then inferring a thermal conductivity from a thermal model. Thermal models used for data analysis contain inherent assumptions, and the resultant thermal conductivity value is sensitive to how well the actual experimental conditions match the model assumptions. In this paper, a modified data analysis procedure for the steady state Joule heating technique is presented that accounts for bond pad effects including thermal resistance, electrical resistance, and Joule heating. This new data analysis method is used to determine the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) microbridges fabricated using the Sandia National Laboratories SUMMiT V™ micromachining process over the temperature range of 77-350 K, with the value at 300 K being 71.7 ± 1.5 W/(m K). It is shown that making measurements on beams of multiple lengths is useful, if not essential, for inferring the correct thermal conductivity from steady state Joule heating measurements.

  1. Perfluorosulfonated ionomer-modified diffusive gradients in thin films: tool for inorganic arsenic speciation analysis.

    PubMed

    Panther, Jared G; Stillwell, Kathryn P; Powell, Kipton J; Downard, Alison J

    2008-12-15

    A new concept in speciation analysis based on the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique is described. By use of two sets of DGT devices, one set with perfluorosulfonated ionomer (Nafion) diffusive membranes and the other with polyacrylamide, anionic and uncharged analytes can be fractionated on the basis of charge. The dual device method is applied to speciation analysis of dissolved inorganic arsenic species. Over the environmentally significant pH range, inorganic As(III) exists as neutral H(3)AsO(3), whereas As(V) is present as anionic H(2)AsO(4)(-) and HAsO(4)(2-). The measured diffusion coefficient of As(III) through the negatively charged Nafion membrane is significantly larger than that of the As(V) species, whereas diffusion rates are similar through polyacrylamide diffusive gels. Hence, after simultaneously deploying DGT devices with and without Nafion membranes, measurement of the amount of accumulated As in each type of device enables the concentration of both oxidation states to be determined.

  2. Topology of modified helical gears and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Jiao

    1989-01-01

    The contents of this report covers: (1) development of optimal geometries for crowned helical gears; (2) a method for their generation; (3) tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer programs for the analysis of meshing and bearing contact of the crowned helical gears; and (4) modelling and simulation of gear shaft deflection. The developed method for synthesis was used to determine the optimal geometry for a crowned helical pinion surface and was directed to localize the bearing contact and guarantee favorable shape and a low level of transmission errors. Two new methods for generation of the crowned helical pinion surface are proposed. One is based on the application of a tool with a surface of revolution that slightly deviates from a regular cone surface. The tool can be used as a grinding wheel or as a shaver. The other is based on a crowning pinion tooth surface with predesigned transmission errors. The pinion tooth surface can be generated by a computer-controlled automatic grinding machine. The TCA program simulates the meshing and bearing contact of the misaligned gears. The transmission errors are also determined. The gear shaft deformation was modelled and investigated. It was found that the deflection of gear shafts has the same effect as gear misalignment.

  3. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin T

    2015-03-03

    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 μL) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC system includes a nanostructured Au surface that serves dual roles as the electrochemical working electrode (WE) and SERS substrate, a microfabricated Pt counter electrode (CE), and an external Ag/AgCl reference electrode (RE). The nanostructured Au WE enables highly sensitive in situ SERS spectroscopy through large and reproducible SERS enhancements, which eliminates the need for resonant wavelength matching of the laser excitation source with the electronic absorption of the target molecule. The new SEC analysis system has the merits of wide applicability to target molecules, small sample volume, and a low detection limit. We demonstrate in situ SERS spectroelectrochemistry measurements of the metalloporphyrin hemin showing shifts of the iron oxidation marker band ν4 with the nanostructured Au working electrode under precise potential control.

  4. Structure-activity analysis of 2'-modified cinnamaldehyde analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fei Fei; Chua, Yee Shin; Scarmagnani, Silvia; Palaniappan, Puvithira; Franks, Mark; Poobalasingam, Thurka; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Westwell, Andrew D; Hagen, Thilo

    2009-10-02

    The natural product 2'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) and its analogue, 2'-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde (BCA), have been previously shown to have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we use structure-activity analysis to define structural features that are important for the activity of cinnamaldehyde analogues. Our results emphasize an important role for both the propenal group as well as the modification at the 2'-position. Further studies were aimed to characterize the mechanism of action of BCA. Exposure to BCA induced cell death via caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. Cell death was not due to autophagy or necrosis as a result of energy depletion or induction of reactive oxygen species. Our findings have important implications for future drug design and highlight the importance of defining molecular drug targets for this promising class of potential anticancer agents.

  5. RNA Expression Microarray Analysis in Mouse Prospermatogonia: Identification of Candidate Epigenetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Christophe; Mann, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian totipotent and pluripotent lineage exhibits genome-wide dynamics in respect to DNA methylation content. The first phase of global DNA demethylation and de novo remethylation occurs during preimplantation development and gastrulation, respectively, while the second phase occurs in primordial germ cells and primary oocytes/prospermatogonia, respectively. These dynamics are indicative of a comprehensive epigenetic resetting or reprogramming of the genome in preparation for major differentiation events. To gain further insight into the mechanisms driving DNA methylation dynamics and other types of epigenetic modification, we performed an RNA expression microarray analysis of fetal prospermatogonia at the stage when they are undergoing rapid de novo DNA remethylation. We have identified a number of highly or specifically expressed genes which could be important for determining epigenetic change in prospermatogonia. These data provide a useful resource in the discovery of molecular pathways involved in epigenetic reprogramming in the mammalian germ line. PMID:18330932

  6. Astute observations in their analysis of modifying existing person--environment interaction theory in disability.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Jahiel and Scherer point out very astutely that time can be a baffling confounder in viewing disability, taxing our ability to meaningfully apply the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) model to outcomes analysis. Their approach to segmenting person and environment is constructive. But distilling factors based upon an a priori self-determination of disability as part of the model may also undercut the validity of the larger construct. While the authors are to be applauded for their efforts to extend existing models of disability to address their current shortcomings, attention must also be given to important socio- or geo-political factors that may deserve more than a contextual discussion and their own place in this developing theory.

  7. The scaling properties of stock markets based on modified multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Aijing; Ma, Hui; Shang, Pengjian

    2015-10-01

    Here we propose the new method DH-MMA, based on multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis(MMA), to investigate the scaling properties in stock markets. It is demonstrated that our approach can provide a more stable and faithful description of the scaling properties in comprehensive range rather than fixing the window length and slide length. It allows the assessment of more universal and subtle scaling characteristics. We illustrate DH-MMA by selecting power-law artificial data sets and six stock markets from US and China. The US stocks exhibit very strong multifractality for positive values of q, however, the Chinese stocks show stronger multifractality for negative q than positive q. In general, the US stock markets show similar behaviors, but Chinese stock markets display distinguishing characteristics.

  8. Item response theory analysis of the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, Thelma J; Carey, Timothy S; Edwards, Michael C

    2015-03-15

    This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional population-based survey. Shorten the modified 23-item Roland (mRoland) scale using item response theory (IRT) methods and describe where in the functional disability range each scale is the most precise. The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire is recommended for a functional disability outcome measure in patients with low back pain (LBP). One commonly used version is the Roland. It is unknown where in the functional disability range the Roland measures. One candidate individual with LBP in randomly selected households was interviewed, identifying 694 adults with chronic LBP. To justify the use of a unidimensional 2-parameter logistic IRT model, we performed both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis revealed one dominant eigenvalue. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicate that the 1-factor model fit well. IRT analysis revealed variability in the slopes, in the range from 1.07 to 3.10. The marginal reliability, an IRT-based analog to coefficient α, was 0.88. The mRoland produces reliable scores (i.e., with a standard error <0.3) from 1.4 standard deviations below the mean to roughly 0.2 above the mean. The mRoland measures one construct. The mRoland seems to be an excellent tool for measuring just-below-average levels of functional disability. The mRoland measures high levels of functional disability with relatively poor reliability and may be more appropriate for a less-disabled population with LBP. We demonstrate that the mRoland can be shortened to 11 items with minimal loss of information. We show that there are different ways to go about selecting the set of 11 items that yield short forms with different strengths. 3.

  9. Statistical analysis of modified complete randomized designs: applications to chemo-orientation studies.

    PubMed

    Pilla, Ramani S; Kitska, David J; Loader, Catherine

    2005-04-01

    Often experimental scientists employ a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) to study the effect of treatments on different subjects. Under a 'complete randomization', the order of the apparatus setups within each block, including all replications of each treatment across all subjects, is completely randomized. However, in many experimental settings complete randomization is impractical due to the cost involved in re-adjusting the device to administer a new treatment. One typically resorts to a type of 'restricted randomization', in which multiple subjects are tested under each treatment before the apparatus is re-adjusted. The order of the treatments as well as the assignment of subjects to each block are random. If the data obtained under any type of restricted randomization are treated as if the data were collected under an RCBD with complete randomization within each block, then there is potential to increase the risk of false positives (Type I error). This is of concern to animal orientation studies and other areas such as chemical ecology where it is impractical to reset the experimental device for each subject tested. The goal of the research presented in this article is twofold: (1) to demonstrate the consequences of constructing an F-statistic based on a mean square error for testing the significance of treatment effects under the restricted randomization; (2) to describe an alternative method, based on split-plot analysis of variance, to analyze designed experiments that yield better power under the restricted randomization. The statistical analyses of simulated experiments and data involving virgin male Periplaneta americana substantiate the benefits of the alternative approach under the restricted randomization. The methodology and analysis employed for the simulated experiment is equally applicable to any organism or artificial agent tested under a restricted randomization protocol.

  10. Beyond trend analysis: How a modified breakpoint analysis enhances knowledge of agricultural production after Zimbabwe's fast track land reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentze, Konrad; Thonfeld, Frank; Menz, Gunter

    2017-10-01

    In the discourse on land reform assessments, a significant lack of spatial and time-series data has been identified, especially with respect to Zimbabwe's ;Fast-Track Land Reform Programme; (FTLRP). At the same time, interest persists among land use change scientists to evaluate causes of land use change and therefore to increase the explanatory power of remote sensing products. This study recognizes these demands and aims to provide input on both levels: Evaluating the potential of satellite remote sensing time-series to answer questions which evolved after intensive land redistribution efforts in Zimbabwe; and investigating how time-series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be enhanced to provide information on land reform induced land use change. To achieve this, two time-series methods are applied to MODIS NDVI data: Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) and Breakpoint Analysis for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST). In our first analysis, a link of agricultural productivity trends to different land tenure regimes shows that regional clustering of trends is more dominant than a relationship between tenure and trend with a slightly negative slope for all regimes. We demonstrate that clusters of strong negative and positive productivity trends are results of changing irrigation patterns. To locate emerging and fallow irrigation schemes in semi-arid Zimbabwe, a new multi-method approach is developed which allows to map changes from bimodal seasonal phenological patterns to unimodal and vice versa. With an enhanced breakpoint analysis through the combination of STA and BFAST, we are able to provide a technique that can be applied on large scale to map status and development of highly productive cropping systems, which are key for food production, national export and local employment. We therefore conclude that the combination of existing and accessible time-series analysis methods: is able to achieve both: overcoming demonstrated limitations of

  11. A Systematic Homogeneous Archival Ultraviolet Spectral Analysis of Cataclysmic Variables using a Modified Standard Disk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godon, Patrick

    Many ultraviolet spectra of cataclysmic variables (CVs) with a white dwarf (WD) accreting at a high rate have been difficult, even impossible, to model with standard disk models. The standard disk models appear to be too blue in comparison to the observed spectra. We propose to carry out a systematic and consistent analysis of archival ultraviolet spectra of 90 CVs using a truncated inner disk model (based and backed by observational data and theoretical results). We use the synthetic stellar spectra codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC to generate these synthetic spectra. Deriving mass accretion rates for CVs will advance the theories of evolution of CVs as well as shed light on the Physics of accretion disks. As a by product we will make our theoretical spectra publicly available online. This will be of invaluable importance to future NASA UV missions. The WD is the most common end-product of stellar evolution and the accretion disk is the most common universal structure resulting from mass transfer with angular momentum, and both can be observed in CVs in the UV. As a consequence, an understanding of accretion in CV systems is the first step toward a global understanding of accretion in other systems throughout the universe, ranging from Young Stellar Objects, galactic binaries to AGN. This ADP proposal address the NASA Strategic Goals and Science Outcomes 3D: Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe, and search for Earth-like planets.

  12. A modified analysis for thermal-mechanical properties of staggered structure in biomimetic materials.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yun-Fei; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2012-12-01

    The thermal-mechanical stress distributions and equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the staggered arrangement of mineral platelets wrapped by soft matrix are analyzed, which exist in numerous natural biological and biomimetic materials. Two analytical models, 'Stress model' and 'Displacement model', were established from the ways of stress and displacement solution based on the modification of classical shear-lag model. Complementary finite element analysis (FEA) was used to verify the analytical models. Results reveal that, compared to 'Displacement model', 'Stress model' gives a better prediction of the stress distributions within the staggered structure referring to FEA. The equivalent CTE predicted by both models reach constant as the aspect ratio and volume fraction of platelets exceeding the critical values. Nevertheless, the relative error between the results from different models increases with the increase of the ratio of overlap to length of platelets. These provide a benchmark to the optimum design of micro/nano-structure in bio-inspired materials suffering to temperature fluctuation and applied loading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon paste electrode modified molecularly imprinted polymer as a sensor for creatinine analysis by stripping voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanah, M.; Darmokoesoemo, H.; Rizki, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    Modification of carbon paste electrode with molecularly imprinted polymer (CP-MIP) as a voltammetric sensor for creatinine has been developed. MIP was synthesized by reacting melamine, chloranil and creatinine with a mole ratio of 1:1:0.1. Creatinine was extracted from polymer chain by using hot water to form a specific imprinted for creatinine molecule. Carbon paste-MIP electrode was prepared by mixing activated carbon, solid paraffin, and MIP in a 45:40:15(w/w %) ratio. The optimum conditions of creatinine analysis by differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) using the developed electrode were the accumulation potential -1000 mV during 90 s at pH 5. The precision of the method for 0.1-0.5 μlg/L creatinine was 88.7-96.3%, while the detection limit of this method was 0.0315 μlg/L. The accuracy compared by spectrophotometric method was 95.3-103.6%

  14. The dynamical analysis of modified two-compartment neuron model and FPGA implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qianjin; Wang, Jiang; Yang, Shuangming; Yi, Guosheng; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao

    2017-10-01

    The complexity of neural models is increasing with the investigation of larger biological neural network, more various ionic channels and more detailed morphologies, and the implementation of biological neural network is a task with huge computational complexity and power consumption. This paper presents an efficient digital design using piecewise linearization on field programmable gate array (FPGA), to succinctly implement the reduced two-compartment model which retains essential features of more complicated models. The design proposes an approximate neuron model which is composed of a set of piecewise linear equations, and it can reproduce different dynamical behaviors to depict the mechanisms of a single neuron model. The consistency of hardware implementation is verified in terms of dynamical behaviors and bifurcation analysis, and the simulation results including varied ion channel characteristics coincide with the biological neuron model with a high accuracy. Hardware synthesis on FPGA demonstrates that the proposed model has reliable performance and lower hardware resource compared with the original two-compartment model. These investigations are conducive to scalability of biological neural network in reconfigurable large-scale neuromorphic system.

  15. Compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops: key issues and future needs.

    PubMed

    Hoekenga, Owen A; Srinivasan, Jannavi; Barry, Gerard; Bartholomaeus, Andrew

    2013-09-04

    Effective symposia need two strong legs to stand upon: informative presentations of recent research paired with lively discussion of these topics. Although it is easy for the organizers of a symposium to predict the usefulness of the former, as they select the speakers and their topic areas, guaranteeing productive discussion is a far more difficult task. For the Crop Composition Workshop sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute's Committee on Food and Biotechnology (ILSI IFBIC), the organizers scheduled four roundtable discussions with preselected questions and with rapporteurs drawn from governmental organizations and public-sector research institutes (the authors). It was also the organizers' intent to let these discussions flow on the basis of the experiences of the participants and pressing issues within the overall debate on the role of crop compositional analysis within safety assessment of biotechnology as it exists now and in the future. The goal of this perspective is to summarize the issues raised, providing references when possible, and to describe the consensus statements reached through the course of these discussions.

  16. Analysis of buoyancy and tube rotation relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M.; Lin, Y.T.; Greif, R. )

    1990-11-01

    The secondary flows resulting from buoyancy effects in respect to the MCVD process have been studied in a rotating horizontal tube using a perturbation analysis. The three-dimensional secondary flow fields have been determined at several axial locations in a tube whose temperature varies in both the axial and circumferential directions for different rotational speeds. For small rotational speeds, buoyancy and axial convection are dominant and the secondary flow patterns are different in the regions near and far from the torch. For moderate rotational speeds, the effects of buoyancy, axial and angular convection are all important in the region far from the torch where there is a spiraling secondary flow. For large rotational speeds, only buoyancy and angular convection effects are important and no spiraling secondary motions occurs far downstream. Compared with thermophoresis, the important role of buoyancy in determining particle trajectories in MCVD is presented. As the rotational speed increases, the importance of the secondary flow decreases and the thermophoretic contribution vecomes more important. It is noted that thermophoresis is considered to be the main cause of particle deposition in the MCVD process.

  17. The short-term effect of heat waves on mortality and its modifiers in China: an analysis from 66 communities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjun; Zeng, Weilin; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Lijun; Rutherford, Shannon; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yonghui; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zhang, Yewu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Xin; Chu, Cordia

    2015-02-01

    Many studies have reported increased mortality risk associated with heat waves. However, few have assessed the health impacts at a nation scale in a developing country. This study examines the mortality effects of heat waves in China and explores whether the effects are modified by individual-level and community-level characteristics. Daily mortality and meteorological variables from 66 Chinese communities were collected for the period 2006-2011. Heat waves were defined as ≥2 consecutive days with mean temperature ≥95th percentile of the year-round community-specific distribution. The community-specific mortality effects of heat waves were first estimated using a Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM), adjusting for potential confounders. To investigate effect modification by individual characteristics (age, gender, cause of death, education level or place of death), separate DLNM models were further fitted. Potential effect modification by community characteristics was examined using a meta-regression analysis. A total of 5.0% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.9%-7.2%) excess deaths were associated with heat waves in 66 Chinese communities, with the highest excess deaths in north China (6.0%, 95% CI: 1%-11.3%), followed by east China (5.2%, 95% CI: 0.4%-10.2%) and south China (4.5%, 95% CI: 1.4%-7.6%). Our results indicate that individual characteristics significantly modified heat waves effects in China, with greater effects on cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, the elderly, females, the population dying outside of a hospital and those with a higher education attainment. Heat wave mortality effects were also more pronounced for those living in urban cities or densely populated communities. Heat waves significantly increased mortality risk in China with apparent spatial heterogeneity, which was modified by some individual-level and community-level factors. Our findings suggest adaptation plans that target vulnerable

  18. Fatigue damage evaluation of plain woven carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) modified with MFC (micro-fibrillated cellulose) by thermo-elastic damage analysis (TDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Ryohei; Okubo, Kazuya; Fujii, Toru

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate characteristics of fatigue damage of CFRP modified with MFC by TDA under tensile cyclic loading. In this paper, fatigue life of CFRP modified with MFC was investigated under cyclic loading. Characteristics of fatigue damage of CFRP modified with MFC were evaluated by thermo-elastic damage analysis. Maximum improvement in fatigue life was also obtained under cyclic loading when epoxy matrix was enhanced with 0.3wt% of MFC as well as under static loading. Result of TDA showed same tendency as the result of fatigue test, and the result of TDA well expressed the fatigue damage behavior of plain woven CFRP plate. Eventually, TDA was effective for clear understanding the degree of fatigue damage progression of CFRP modified with MFC.

  19. How biological background assumptions influence scientific risk evaluation of stacked genetically modified plants: an analysis of research hypotheses and argumentations.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Elena; Andersen, Fredrik

    2017-08-14

    Scientific risk evaluations are constructed by specific evidence, value judgements and biological background assumptions. The latter are the framework-setting suppositions we apply in order to understand some new phenomenon. That background assumptions co-determine choice of methodology, data interpretation, and choice of relevant evidence is an uncontroversial claim in modern basic science. Furthermore, it is commonly accepted that, unless explicated, disagreements in background assumptions can lead to misunderstanding as well as miscommunication. Here, we extend the discussion on background assumptions from basic science to the debate over genetically modified (GM) plants risk assessment. In this realm, while the different political, social and economic values are often mentioned, the identity and role of background assumptions at play are rarely examined. We use an example from the debate over risk assessment of stacked genetically modified plants (GM stacks), obtained by applying conventional breeding techniques to GM plants. There are two main regulatory practices of GM stacks: (i) regulate as conventional hybrids and (ii) regulate as new GM plants. We analyzed eight papers representative of these positions and found that, in all cases, additional premises are needed to reach the stated conclusions. We suggest that these premises play the role of biological background assumptions and argue that the most effective way toward a unified framework for risk analysis and regulation of GM stacks is by explicating and examining the biological background assumptions of each position. Once explicated, it is possible to either evaluate which background assumptions best reflect contemporary biological knowledge, or to apply Douglas' 'inductive risk' argument.

  20. Quantitative assessment of hyperspectral imaging in detection of plasmonic nanoparticles: a modified contrast-detail analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianting; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) is an emerging imaging modality being applied for clinical indications such as tissue oximetry, and cancer detection based on endogenous biological constituents including plasmonic nanoparticles. However, there is currently a lack of standardized test methods for objective, quantitative evaluation of HRI system performance. Contrast-detail analysis (CDA) is a phantom-based test method commonly used to evaluate medical imaging devices (e.g., mammography systems) in terms of their lower detection limit. We investigated a modified CDA (mCDA) method to quantify the detectability of gold nanoparticles by HRI systems. Silicone-based turbid phantoms containing micro-fluidic channels were developed for the mCDA tests. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantom materials were doped with chromophores and scatterers to achieve biologically relevant optical properties (OPs). Molds were used to produce cylindrical channels of diameters 0.3 to 1.65 mm and depths of 0.2 mm inside the phantoms. Channels were filled with a mixture of hemoglobin and concentrations of gold nanorods (GNR) and measured with our HRI system. The contrast of GNRs was solved with a spectral unmixing algorithm from the reflectance spectra. The lowest detectable concentration was determined as a function of inclusion size and depth and plotted as modified contrast detail curve (mCDC). mCDCs were used to compare the detectabilities of the HRI system with different data processing algorithms. It is demonstrated that our mCDA test method involving turbid microchannel phantoms can help to elucidate the combined performance of imaging devices and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast agents. This approach may be useful for performing clinical trial standardization and device re-calibration, thus ensuring quality control and clinical performance.

  1. Exercise and ankylosing spondylitis with New York modified criteria: a systematic review of controlled trials with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, N A; Furtado, Guilherme Eustáquio; Campos, Maria João; Leitão, José Carlos; Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, José Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causing inflammatory back pain, structural and functional changes which decrease quality of life. Several treatments for ankylosing spondylitis have been proposed and among them the use of exercise. The present study aims to synthesize information from the literature and identify the results of controlled clinical trials on exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis with the New York modified diagnostic criteria and to assess whether exercise is more effective than physical activity to reduce functional impairment. The sources of studies used were: LILACS, Pubmed, EBSCOhost, B-on, personal communication, manual research and lists of references. The criteria used for the studies selection was controlled clinical trials, participants with New York modified diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis, and with interventions through exercise. The variables studied were related to primary outcomes such as BASFI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index) as a functional index, BASDAI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index) as an index of intensity of disease activity and BASMI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index) as a metrological index assessing patient's limitation on movement. From the 603 studies identified after screening only 37 articles were selected for eligibility, from which 18 studies were included. The methodological quality was assessed to select those with an high methodological expressiveness using the PEDro scale. A cumulative meta-analysis was subsequently performed to compare exercise versus usual level of physical activity. Exercise shows significant statistical outcomes for the BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI, higher than those found for usual level of physical activity.

  2. Lifestyle factors may modify the effect of disease activity on radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramiro, Sofia; Landewé, Robert; van Tubergen, Astrid; Boonen, Annelies; Stolwijk, Carmen; Dougados, Maxime; van den Bosch, Filip; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the complex relationship between inflammation, mechanical stress and radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), using job type as a proxy for continuous mechanical stress. Methods Patients from the Outcome in Ankylosing Spondylitis International Study were followed up for 12 years, with 2-yearly assessments. Two readers independently scored the X-rays according to the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS). Disease activity was assessed by the AS Disease Activity Score C reactive protein (ASDAS-CRP). The relationship between ASDAS and spinal radiographic progression was investigated with longitudinal analysis, with job type at baseline (physically demanding (‘blue-collar’) versus sedentary (‘white-collar’) labour) as a potential factor influencing this relationship. The effects of smoking status and socioeconomic factors were also investigated. Results In total, 184 patients were included in the analyses (70% males, 83% human leucocyte antigen-B27 positive, 39% smokers, 48% blue-collar workers (65/136 patients in whom data on job type were available)). The relationship between disease activity and radiographic progression was significantly and independently modified by job type: In ‘blue-collar’ workers versus ‘white-collar’ workers, every additional unit of ASDAS resulted in an increase of 1.2 versus 0.2 mSASSS-units/2-years (p=0.014 for the difference between blue-collar and white-collar workers). In smokers versus non-smokers, every additional unit of ASDAS resulted in an increase of 1.9 versus 0.4 mSASSS-units/2-years. Conclusions Physically demanding jobs may amplify the potentiating effects of inflammation on bone formation in AS. Smoking and socioeconomic factors most likely confound this relationship and may have separate effects on bone formation. PMID:26535153

  3. Identification of CCR4 and other essential thyroid hormone receptor co-activators by modified yeast synthetic genetic array analysis

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Manjapra; Meng, Xianwang; Denis, Clyde L.; Webb, Paul; Baxter, John D.; Walfish, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) co-regulators has enhanced our understanding of thyroid hormone (TH) action. However, it is likely that many other co-regulators remained unidentified, and unbiased methods are required to discover these proteins. We have previously demonstrated that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent system in which to study TR action, and that defined TR signaling complexes in a eukaryotic background devoid of complicating influences of mammalian cell co-regulators can be constructed and analyzed for endogenous yeast genes, many of which are conserved in mammals. Here, a modified synthetic genetic array analysis was performed by crossing a yeast strain that expressed TRβ1 and the co-activator GRIP1/SRC2 with 384 yeast strains bearing deletions of known genes. Eight genes essential for TH action were isolated, of which 4 are conserved in mammals. Examination of one, the yeast CCR4 and its human homolog CCR4/NOT6 (hCCR4), confirmed that (i) transfected CCR4 potentiates a TH response in cultured cells more efficiently than established TR co-activators and (ii) knockdown of CCR4 expression strongly inhibited a TH response (>80%). TH treatment promoted rapid and sustained hCCR4 recruitment to the TH-responsive deiodinase 1 promoter and TR co-localizes with hCCR4 in the nucleus and interacts with hCCR4 in 2-hybrid and pull-down assays. These findings indicate that a modified yeast synthetic genetic array strategy is a feasible method for unbiased identification of conserved genes essential for TR and other nuclear receptor hormone functions in mammals. PMID:19903885

  4. A modified release analysis procedure using advanced froth flotation mechanisms: Technical report, March 1, 1996-May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q., Mohanty, M.K.

    1997-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that the optimum separation performances achieved by multiple stage cleaning using various column flotation technologies and single stage cleaning using a Packed-Flotation Column are superior to the performance achieved by the traditional release procedure, especially in terms of pyritic sulfur rejection. This superior performance is believed to be the result of the advanced flotation mechanisms provided by column flotation technologies. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a suitable process utilizing the advanced froth flotation mechanisms to characterize the true flotation response of a coal sample. Work in this reporting period concentrated on developing a modified coal flotation characterization procedure, termed as Advanced Flotation Washability (AFW) technique. The new apparatus used for this procedure is essentially a batch operated packed-column device equipped with a controlled wash water system. Several experiments were conducted using the AFW technique on a relatively high sulfur, -100 mesh Illinois No. 5 run-of-mine coal sample collected from a local coal preparation plant. Similar coal characterization experiments were also conducted using the traditional release and tree analysis procedures. The best performance curve generated using the AFW technique was found to be superior to the optimum curve produced by the traditional procedures. For example, at a combustible recovery of 80%, a 19% improvement in the reduction of the pyritic sulfur content was achieved by the AFW method while the ash reduction was also enhanced by 4%. Several tests are on-going to solidify the AFW procedure and verify the above finding by conducting Anova analyses to evaluate the repeatability of the AFW method and the statistical significance of the difference in the performance achieved from the traditional and modified coal characterization procedures.

  5. Transuretral resection of the bladder (TURB): analysis of complications using a modified Clavien system in an Italian real life cohort.

    PubMed

    De Nunzio, C; Franco, G; Cindolo, L; Autorino, R; Cicione, A; Perdonà, S; Falsaperla, M; Gacci, M; Leonardo, C; Damiano, R; De Sio, M; Tubaro, A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of a modified Clavien classification system (CCS) in grading postoperative complications of transurethral resection of bladder tumours (TURB). A series of patients undergoing monopolar TURB from April 2011 to March 2012 at five Italian centers were enrolled. All complications occurring within the first 30-day postoperative period were prospectively recorded and graded according to the CCS. Overall, 275 patients were included. Median age was 71 (63/78) years; median BMI was 28 (25.4/30.8) Kg/m(2), median tumour size was 2 (1-3) cm; median number of tumour lesions was 1 (1-3). Median operative time was 30 (20/45) min. Fifty-seven complications were recorded in 43 patients. Overall postoperative morbidity rate was 16%. Most of the complications were not serious and classified as Clavien type I (42 cases; 74%) or II (8 cases, 14%). Higher grade complications were scarce: CCS IIIa in 1 case (2%) and CCS IIIb in six cases (10%). No TURB related death was reported. Six patients were re-operated due to significant bleeding or clot retention on postoperative days 2-7. On univariate (73.5 ± 38 versus 36.7 ± 21.6 min) and multivariate analysis longer operative time was an independent predictor of complications (OR: 1.06 per min, 95%CI 1.04-1.08, p = 0.001). A modified CCS can be used as a standardized tool to objectively define the complications of TURB which confirms to be a safe procedure with a low surgical morbidity. This tool can be used to aid in patient counselling and to facilitate scientific assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A modified minimal model analysis of insulin sensitivity and glucose-mediated glucose disposal in insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ward, G M; Weber, K M; Walters, I M; Aitken, P M; Lee, B; Best, J D; Boston, R C; Alford, F P

    1991-01-01

    Although glucose utilization is impaired in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), it is unclear whether this is due to reductions in insulin sensitivity (Si) and/or glucose-mediated glucose disposal (SG). The minimal model of Bergman et al can be applied to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) to simultaneously estimate Sl and SG, but cannot accommodate data from diabetics. Exogenous insulin approximating the normal pattern of insulin secretion was infused during FSIGTs in eight young non-obese C-peptide-negative IDDM subjects, but with the total dose modified to achieve sufficient glucose disappearance rates (KG) to allow analysis of data. The minimal model was modified to model the effects of the exogenous insulin on glucose kinetics to estimate SI and SG. Despite deliberately achieving supranormal plasma-free insulin levels during the FSIGT ("first-phase insulin" = 62 +/- 9 SE mU/L; "second phase insulin" = 34 +/- 9 mU/L), the diabetics showed low-normal KG values (1.3 +/- 0.29 min-1 X 10(2). Using the model, good parameter resolution (fractional SD [FSD] less than .5) was achieved (IDDM v controls: SI = 2.5 +/- 0.6 v 8.3 +/- 1.5 min-1.mU-1.L-1 X 10(4); SG = 1.6 +/- 0.5 v 2.6 +/- 0.2 min-1 X 10(2); P less than .05). This reduction in SG was confirmed in the same IDDM subjects by FSIGT during basal insulin infusion only (SG = 1.0 +/- 0.3 min-1 X 10(2)).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Reverse Engineering of Modified Genes by Bayesian Network Analysis Defines Molecular Determinants Critical to the Development of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kunkle, Brian W.; Yoo, Changwon; Roy, Deodutta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have identified key genes that are critical in development of astrocytic tumors. Meta-analysis of microarray studies which compared normal tissue to astrocytoma revealed a set of 646 differentially expressed genes in the majority of astrocytoma. Reverse engineering of these 646 genes using Bayesian network analysis produced a gene network for each grade of astrocytoma (Grade I–IV), and ‘key genes’ within each grade were identified. Genes found to be most influential to development of the highest grade of astrocytoma, Glioblastoma multiforme were: COL4A1, EGFR, BTF3, MPP2, RAB31, CDK4, CD99, ANXA2, TOP2A, and SERBP1. All of these genes were up-regulated, except MPP2 (down regulated). These 10 genes were able to predict tumor status with 96–100% confidence when using logistic regression, cross validation, and the support vector machine analysis. Markov genes interact with NFkβ, ERK, MAPK, VEGF, growth hormone and collagen to produce a network whose top biological functions are cancer, neurological disease, and cellular movement. Three of the 10 genes - EGFR, COL4A1, and CDK4, in particular, seemed to be potential ‘hubs of activity’. Modified expression of these 10 Markov Blanket genes increases lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to the normal population. The glioblastoma risk estimates were dramatically increased with joint effects of 4 or more than 4 Markov Blanket genes. Joint interaction effects of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 Markov Blanket genes produced 9, 13, 20.9, 26.7, 52.8, 53.2, 78.1 or 85.9%, respectively, increase in lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to normal population. In summary, it appears that modified expression of several ‘key genes’ may be required for the development of glioblastoma. Further studies are needed to validate these ‘key genes’ as useful tools for early detection and novel therapeutic options for these tumors. PMID:23737970

  8. Biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel for knee meniscus applications, including comparison with human donor samples.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jennifer C; Curley, Colin; Tierney, Paul; Kennedy, James E

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was the biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, in order to assess its potential for use as an artificial meniscal implant. Aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was treated with a sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution to precipitate out the polyvinyl alcohol resulting in a pliable hydrogel. The freeze-thaw process, a strictly physical method of crosslinking, was employed to crosslink the hydrogel. Development of a meniscal shaped mould and sample housing unit allowed the production of meniscal shaped hydrogels for direct comparison to human meniscal tissue. Results obtained show that compressive responses were slightly higher in PVA/Na2SO4 menisci, displaying maximum compressive loads of 2472N, 2482N and 2476N for samples having undergone 1, 3 and 5 freeze-thaw cycles respectively. When compared to the human meniscal tissue tested under the same conditions, an average maximum load of 2467.5N was observed. This suggests that the PVA/Na2SO4 menisci are mechanically comparable to the human meniscus. Biocompatibility analysis of PVA/Na2SO4 hydrogels revealed no acute cytotoxicity. The work described herein has innovative potential in load bearing applications, specifically as an alternative to meniscectomy as replacement of critically damaged meniscal tissue in the knee joint where repair is not viable.

  9. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize.

  10. Improved consistency in DNPH-mediated pyruvic acid analysis of onion juice by modifying the sample processing order.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-01

    Onion pungency is commonly measured on absorbency of the wine pink color that results from adding NaOH to the heated mixture of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and onion juice. However, significant variation exists among several modifications of the original Schwimmer and Weston (SW) method. We observed differences in pyruvic acid concentrations of 20%-30% between our automated method and a batch method with manual absorbency readings. To determine the source of the differences, we examined the heating time and waiting time of the sample-DNPH mixtures and found no differences. The differences were caused by differential color degradation between the pyruvic acid standards and onion juice samples. These differences could be minimized by reading the absorbency within 1 min of NaOH addition. Using this information, we devised the one-by-one method to control the reading time at 30 s. We compared 5 different analysis methods of 40 onion samples representing 4 onion colors. The automated, high-performance liquid chromatography, and SW methods had similar results, with only about a 5% difference. However, the batch method resulted in differences of approximately 24% as compared to the automated method. The one-by-one method produced very comparable results, within 5%, to the automated method. By modifying the procedure to ensure a uniform and fast reading time, we increased the consistency between the pungency analysis methods. Therefore, fast and uniform absorbency reading time is essential for an accurate measurement of pungency in undiluted onion juice.

  11. Real-time, in-situ analysis of silver ions using nucleic acid probes modified silica microfiber interferometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Huang, Yunyun; Zhou, Jun; Guo, Tuan; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2017-04-01

    A sensitive Ag(+) sensor based on nucleic acid probes modified silica microfiber interferometry is designed and developed. The probes on microfiber surface plays the part on catching Ag(+) as tentacles, while their conformation change from random coils to hairpins. It induces the fiber surface refractive index change, which is captured by the optical fiber and translated into a significant wavelength shift in the interferometric fringe. Such a combination enables an improved concentration sensitivity of 0.22nm/log M and limit of detection of 1.36 × 10(-9)M, taking the advantage of real-time and in-situ analysis. It shows good selectivity in the present of many other metal ions and offers potential to analysis in real matrix, especially in the environmental samples must be analyzed in a short time. This may provide insights into the preparation of sensing platforms for optical quantification of other small molecular, supplementing the existing tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. C3N4 Nanosheet Modified Microwell Array with Enhanced Electrochemiluminescence for Total Analysis of Cholesterol at Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Jiang, Depeng; Qin, Yanling; Xia, Juan; Jiang, Dechen; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-02-21

    Here, a g-C3N4 nanosheet modified microwell array providing enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and better visible sensitivity was prepared to simultaneously analyze total (membrane and intracellular) cholesterol at single cells. The detection limit for ECL visualization of hydrogen peroxide at microwell array was improved to be 500 nM that guaranteed the detection of low concentration cholesterol at single cells in parallel. To achieve single cell cholesterol analysis, the individual cells cultured at the microwell array were exposed to cholesterol oxidase generating hydrogen peroxide for luminescence analysis of membrane cholesterol, and then treated with triton X-100, cholesterol esterase, and cholesterol oxidase to produce hydrogen peroxide from intracellular cholesterol for luminescence determination. The observation of the luminescence spots at microwells in these two steps confirmed the codetection of membrane and intracellular cholesterol at single cells. The inhibition of intracellular acyl-coA/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) resulted in less intracellular cholesterol storage (less luminescence) and more membrane cholesterol (more luminescence). The correlation of the luminescence intensity with the amount of cholesterol confirmed that our assay could simultaneously monitor membrane and intracellular cholesterol pools at different cellular states, which should offer more information for the study of cholesterol-related pathways at single cells.

  13. Improvements in teaching behavior at two German medical schools resulting from a modified Flanders interaction analysis feedback intervention process.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Harold C; Holzer, Matthias; Reincke, Martin; Brendel, Thomas; Ring, Johannes; Weindl, Adolph; Zottmann, Jan M; Fischer, Martin R

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Background: Person-centered teachers who are more empathic and "indirect" (accept, encourage, praise and ask questions) tend to be more effective than those who are "direct" (lecture, give directions and criticize) (Amidon & Flanders 1991). The Flanders Interaction Analysis (FIA) is a tool for diagnosing these teaching aspects, though not yet used to improve lecturing in undergraduate medical education. Does structured expert feedback to volunteer lecturers lead to improvement in person-centered teaching behavior as measured by a Modified Flanders Interaction Analysis (MFIA) and student questionnaires? Twenty-one volunteer lecturers from two German medical faculties were stratified by past teaching experience and randomized into two groups. The intervention group received MFIA diagnoses of their lectures plus feedback by an expert observer after winter and summer semester lectures, respectively. The control group was only diagnosed with the MFIA. Teaching behavior changes for both groups were compared and teacher feedback about the intervention process was assessed. Faculty in the intervention group improved significantly in their summer lectures regarding person-centered teaching behavior while controls did not. A structured individual expert feedback intervention using a MFIA as a teaching diagnostic tool is a powerful, cost-effective faculty development process for improving teaching behavior of volunteer lecturers in undergraduate medical education.

  14. Ion chromatographic analysis of amines, alkanolamines, and associated anions in concrete.

    PubMed

    Page, Mary M; Page, Christopher L; Shaw, Stuart J; Sawada, Shohei

    2005-03-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness of applying penetrating corrosion inhibitors to the surface of reinforced concrete, it is necessary to devise accurate methods for their detection and quantification. In this paper, methods for ion chromatographic analysis of a variety of amines, alkanolamines, and associated anions, which may be used as corrosion inhibitors for steel reinforcement in concrete, are described. By careful adjustment of the conditions for analysis, these inhibitors were readily identified and quantified in concrete/cement pore solutions or digests. Characterisation of the cationic inhibitors, ethanolamine, quaternary methylammonium, dimethylethanolamine, cyclohexylamine, guanidine, and arginine, and the anionic inhibitors, nitrite, molybdate, acetate, benzoate, and azelate, was carried out conductimetrically. To enhance the sensitivity of detection, amperometry was used for the analysis of triethanolamine and low concentrations of ethanolamine. Ion chromatography was also used as a means of obtaining a distribution profile of the concentrations of inhibitor ions present throughout a concrete structure.

  15. Reusable, extensible, and modifiable R scripts and Kepler workflows for comprehensive single set ChIP-seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Nathan; Kolisnik, Tyler; Bieda, Mark

    2016-07-05

    There has been an enormous expansion of use of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) technologies. Analysis of large-scale ChIP-seq datasets involves a complex series of steps and production of several specialized graphical outputs. A number of systems have emphasized custom development of ChIP-seq pipelines. These systems are primarily based on custom programming of a single, complex pipeline or supply libraries of modules and do not produce the full range of outputs commonly produced for ChIP-seq datasets. It is desirable to have more comprehensive pipelines, in particular ones addressing common metadata tasks, such as pathway analysis, and pipelines producing standard complex graphical outputs. It is advantageous if these are highly modular systems, available as both turnkey pipelines and individual modules, that are easily comprehensible, modifiable and extensible to allow rapid alteration in response to new analysis developments in this growing area. Furthermore, it is advantageous if these pipelines allow data provenance tracking. We present a set of 20 ChIP-seq analysis software modules implemented in the Kepler workflow system; most (18/20) were also implemented as standalone, fully functional R scripts. The set consists of four full turnkey pipelines and 16 component modules. The turnkey pipelines in Kepler allow data provenance tracking. Implementation emphasized use of common R packages and widely-used external tools (e.g., MACS for peak finding), along with custom programming. This software presents comprehensive solutions and easily repurposed code blocks for ChIP-seq analysis and pipeline creation. Tasks include mapping raw reads, peakfinding via MACS, summary statistics, peak location statistics, summary plots centered on the transcription start site (TSS), gene ontology, pathway analysis, and de novo motif finding, among others. These pipelines range from those performing a single task to those performing full analyses of

  16. Genetic modifiers of neurofibromatosis type 1-associated café-au-lait macule count identified using multi-platform analysis.

    PubMed

    Pemov, Alexander; Sung, Heejong; Hyland, Paula L; Sloan, Jennifer L; Ruppert, Sarah L; Baldwin, Andrea M; Boland, Joseph F; Bass, Sara E; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jones, Kristine M; Zhang, Xijun; Mullikin, James C; Widemann, Brigitte C; Wilson, Alexander F; Stewart, Douglas R

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, monogenic disorder of dysregulated neurocutaneous tissue growth. Pleiotropy, variable expressivity and few NF1 genotype-phenotype correlates limit clinical prognostication in NF1. Phenotype complexity in NF1 is hypothesized to derive in part from genetic modifiers unlinked to the NF1 locus. In this study, we hypothesized that normal variation in germline gene expression confers risk for certain phenotypes in NF1. In a set of 79 individuals with NF1, we examined the association between gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines with NF1-associated phenotypes and sequenced select genes with significant phenotype/expression correlations. In a discovery cohort of 89 self-reported European-Americans with NF1 we examined the association between germline sequence variants of these genes with café-au-lait macule (CALM) count, a tractable, tumor-like phenotype in NF1. Two correlated, common SNPs (rs4660761 and rs7161) between DPH2 and ATP6V0B were significantly associated with the CALM count. Analysis with tiled regression also identified SNP rs4660761 as significantly associated with CALM count. SNP rs1800934 and 12 rare variants in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 were also associated with CALM count. Both SNPs rs7161 and rs4660761 (DPH2 and ATP6V0B) were highly significant in a mega-analysis in a combined cohort of 180 self-reported European-Americans; SNP rs1800934 (MSH6) was near-significant in a meta-analysis assuming dominant effect of the minor allele. SNP rs4660761 is predicted to regulate ATP6V0B, a gene associated with melanosome biology. Individuals with homozygous mutations in MSH6 can develop an NF1-like phenotype, including multiple CALMs. Through a multi-platform approach, we identified variants that influence NF1 CALM count.

  17. Genetic Modifiers of Neurofibromatosis Type 1-Associated Café-au-Lait Macule Count Identified Using Multi-platform Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pemov, Alexander; Sung, Heejong; Hyland, Paula L.; Sloan, Jennifer L.; Ruppert, Sarah L.; Baldwin, Andrea M.; Boland, Joseph F.; Bass, Sara E.; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jones, Kristine M.; Zhang, Xijun; Mullikin, James C.; Widemann, Brigitte C.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Stewart, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, monogenic disorder of dysregulated neurocutaneous tissue growth. Pleiotropy, variable expressivity and few NF1 genotype-phenotype correlates limit clinical prognostication in NF1. Phenotype complexity in NF1 is hypothesized to derive in part from genetic modifiers unlinked to the NF1 locus. In this study, we hypothesized that normal variation in germline gene expression confers risk for certain phenotypes in NF1. In a set of 79 individuals with NF1, we examined the association between gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines with NF1-associated phenotypes and sequenced select genes with significant phenotype/expression correlations. In a discovery cohort of 89 self-reported European-Americans with NF1 we examined the association between germline sequence variants of these genes with café-au-lait macule (CALM) count, a tractable, tumor-like phenotype in NF1. Two correlated, common SNPs (rs4660761 and rs7161) between DPH2 and ATP6V0B were significantly associated with the CALM count. Analysis with tiled regression also identified SNP rs4660761 as significantly associated with CALM count. SNP rs1800934 and 12 rare variants in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 were also associated with CALM count. Both SNPs rs7161 and rs4660761 (DPH2 and ATP6V0B) were highly significant in a mega-analysis in a combined cohort of 180 self-reported European-Americans; SNP rs1800934 (MSH6) was near-significant in a meta-analysis assuming dominant effect of the minor allele. SNP rs4660761 is predicted to regulate ATP6V0B, a gene associated with melanosome biology. Individuals with homozygous mutations in MSH6 can develop an NF1-like phenotype, including multiple CALMs. Through a multi-platform approach, we identified variants that influence NF1 CALM count. PMID:25329635

  18. Sensitivity analysis in the context of regional safety modeling: identifying and assessing the modifiable areal unit problem.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengpeng; Huang, Helai; Dong, Ni; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    A wide array of spatial units has been explored in current regional safety analysis. Since traffic crashes exhibit extreme spatiotemporal heterogeneity which has rarely been a consideration in partitioning these zoning systems, research based on these areal units may be subjected to the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). This study attempted to conduct a sensitivity analysis to quantitatively investigate the MAUP effect in the context of regional safety modeling. The emerging regionalization method-RECDAP (regionalization with dynamically constrained agglomerative clustering and partitioning) was employed to aggregate 738 traffic analysis zones in the county of Hillsborough to 14 zoning schemes at an incremental step-size of 50 zones based on spatial homogeneity of crash risk. At each level of aggregation, a Bayesian Poisson lognormal model and a Bayesian spatial model were calibrated to explain observed variations in total/severe crash counts given a number of zone-level factors. Results revealed that as the number of zones increases, the spatial autocorrelation of crash data increases. The Bayesian spatial model outperforms the Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model in accurately accounting for spatial autocorrelation effects, unbiased parameter estimates, and model performance, especially in cases with higher disaggregated levels. Zoning schemes with higher number of zones tend to have increasing number of significant variables, more stable coefficient estimation, smaller standard error, whereas worse model performance. The variables of population density and median household income show consistently significant effects on crash risk and are robust to variation in data aggregation. The MAUP effects may be significantly reduced if we just maintain at about 50% of the original number of zones (350 or larger). The present study highlights MAUP that is generally ignored by transportation safety analysts, and provides insights into the nature of parameter sensitivity to

  19. Post-marketing of disease modifying drugs in multiple sclerosis: an exploratory analysis of gender effect in interferon beta treatment.

    PubMed

    Trojano, M; Pellegrini, F; Paolicelli, D; Fuiani, A; Zimatore, G B; Tortorella, C; Simone, I L; Patti, F; Ghezzi, A; Portaccio, E; Rossi, P; Pozzilli, C; Salemi, G; Lugaresi, A; Bergamaschi, R; Millefiorini, E; Clerico, M; Lus, G; Vianello, M; Avolio, C; Cavalla, P; Iaffaldano, P; Direnzo, V; D'Onghia, M; Lepore, V; Livrea, P; Comi, G; Amato, M P

    2009-11-15

    There are a few and conflicting results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) pertaining to the influence of gender in response to currently used disease modifying drugs in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Observational studies may be especially valuable for answering effectiveness questions in subgroups not studied in RCTs. To conduct a post-marketing analysis aimed to evaluate the gender effect on Interferon beta (IFNbeta) treatment response in a cohort of relapsing (RR) MS patients. A cohort of 2570 IFNbeta-treated RRMS was prospectively followed for up to 7 years in 15 Italian MS Centers. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess gender differences for risk of reaching 1st relapse and risk of progression by 1 point on Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. Gender effects were also explored by a propensity score (PS) matching algorithm, and a tree-growing technique. The multivariate Cox Regression analyses showed that male patients had a significant (p=0.0097) lower risk for 1st relapse and a trend (p=0.0897) for a higher risk to reach 1 point EDSS progression than females. The PS matched multivariate Cox Regression confirmed these results. The RECPAM analysis showed that male sex conferred a significant reduction in the risk for 1st relapse (HR=0.86; 95% CI=0.76-0.98; p=0.0226) in the subgroup with a low pre-treatment number of bouts, and a significant increase in the risk for 1 point EDSS progression (HR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.00-1.76; p<0.05) in the subgroup with a delayed treatment, but a still young age at the start of treatment. The results of this exploratory analysis seem to suggest that male patients do not respond to IFNbeta treatment in the same way of females.

  20. The mechanism of adenosine to inosine conversion by the double-stranded RNA unwinding/modifying activity: A high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Polson, A.G.; Crain, P.F.; Pomerantz, S.C.; McCloskey, J.A.; Bass, B.L. )

    1991-12-10

    The authors have used directly combined high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to examine the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by the double-stranded RNA unwinding/modifying activity. A double-stranded RNA substrate in which all adenosines were uniformly labeled with {sup 13}C was synthesized. An LC/MS analysis of the nucleoside products from the modified, labeled substrate confirmed that adenosine is modified to inosine during the unwinding/modifying reaction. Most importantly, they found that no carbons are exchanged during the reaction. By including H{sub 2} {sup 18}O in the reaction, they showed that water serves efficiently as the oxygen donor in vitro. These results are consistent with a hydrolytic deamination mechanism and rule out a base replacement mechanism. Although the double-stranded RNA unwinding/modifying activity appears to utilize a catalytic mechanism similar to that of adenosine deaminase, coformycin, a transition-state analogue, will not inhibit the unwinding/modifying activity.

  1. Improved production of genetically modified fetuses with homogeneous transgene expression after transgene integration site analysis and recloning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; Dos Santos Miranda, Moyses; Perecin, Felipe; De Bem, Tiago Henrique; Pereira, Flavia Thomaz Verechia; Russo-Carbolante, Elisa Maria; Alves, Daiani; Strauss, Bryan; Bajgelman, Marcio; Krieger, José Eduardo; Binelli, Mario; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira

    2011-02-01

    Animal cloning by nuclear transfer (NT) has made the production of transgenic animals using genetically modified donor cells possible and ensures the presence of the gene construct in the offspring. The identification of transgene insertion sites in donor cells before cloning may avoid the production of animals that carry undesirable characteristics due to positional effects. This article compares blastocyst development and competence to establish pregnancies of bovine cloned embryos reconstructed with lentivirus-mediated transgenic fibroblasts containing either random integration of a transgene (random integration group) or nuclear transfer derived transgenic fibroblasts with known transgene insertion sites submitted to recloning (recloned group). In the random integration group, eGFP-expressing bovine fetal fibroblasts were selected by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and used as nuclei donor cells for NT. In the recloned group, a fibroblast cell line derived from a transgenic cloned fetus was characterized regarding transgene insertion and submitted to recloning. The recloned group had higher blastocyst production (25.38 vs. 14.42%) and higher percentage of 30-day pregnancies (14.29 vs. 2.56%) when compared to the random integration group. Relative eGFP expression analysis in fibroblasts derived from each cloned embryo revealed more homogeneous expression in the recloned group. In conclusion, the use of cell lines recovered from transgenic fetuses after identification of the transgene integration site allowed for the production of cells and fetuses with stable transgene expression, and recloning may improve transgenic animal yields.

  2. Analysis and design of modified window shapes for S-transform to improve time-frequency localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianping; Jiang, Jin

    2015-06-01

    This paper deals with window design issues for modified S-transform (MST) to improve the performance of time-frequency analysis (TFA). After analyzing the drawbacks of existing window functions, a window design technique is proposed. The technique uses a sigmoid function to control the window width in frequency domain. By proper selection of certain tuning parameters of a sigmoid function, windows with different width profiles can be obtained for multi-component signals. It is also interesting to note that the MST algorithm can be considered as a special case of a generalized method that adds a tunable shaping function to the standard window in frequency domain to meet specific frequency localization needs. The proposed design technique has been validated on a physical vibration test system using signals with different characteristics. The results have demonstrated that the proposed MST algorithm has superior time-frequency localization capabilities over standard ST, as well as other classical TFA methods. Subsequently, the proposed MST algorithm is applied to vibration monitoring of pipes in a water supply process controlled by a diaphragm pump for fault detection purposes.

  3. Runners with patellofemoral pain have altered biomechanics which targeted interventions can modify: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neal, Bradley S; Barton, Christian J; Gallie, Rosa; O'Halloran, Patrick; Morrissey, Dylan

    2016-03-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most prevalent running pathology and associated with multi-level biomechanical factors. This systematic review aims to guide treatment and prevention of PFP by synthesising prospective, observational and intervention studies that measure clinical and biomechanical outcomes in symptomatic running populations. Medline, Web of Science and CINAHL were searched from inception to April 2015 for prospective, case-control or intervention studies in running-related PFP cohorts. Study methodological quality was scored by two independent raters using the modified Downs and Black or PEDro scales, with meta-analysis performed where appropriate. 28 studies were included. Very limited evidence indicates that increased peak hip adduction is a risk factor for PFP in female runners, supported by moderate evidence of a relationship between PFP and increased peak hip adduction, internal rotation and contralateral pelvic drop, as well as reduced peak hip flexion. Limited evidence was also identified that altered peak force and time to peak at foot level is a risk factor for PFP development. Limited evidence from intervention studies indicates that both running retraining and proximal strengthening exercise lead to favourable outcomes in both pain and function, but only running retraining significantly reduces peak hip adduction, suggesting a possible kinematic mechanism. Put together, these findings highlight limited but coherent evidence of altered biomechanics which interventions can alter with resultant symptom change in females with PFP. There is a clear need for high quality prospective studies of intervention efficacy with measurement of explanatory mechanisms.

  4. Decreased risk of cancer in multiple sclerosis patients and analysis of the effect of disease modifying therapies on cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Gaindh, Deeya; Kavak, Katelyn S; Teter, Barbara; Vaughn, Caila B; Cookfair, Diane; Hahn, Theresa; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2016-11-15

    Although dysimmunity is considered an important link between multiple sclerosis (MS), family history and cancer risk, their relationship to the use of disease modifying therapies (DMT) is not fully understood. To assess the observed versus expected number of cancers in MS patients, and family history of cancer, among DMT users and DMT naïve patients. Cancer, DMT use, and family history of cancer were assessed using the New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium (NYSMSC) registry. Self-reported cancers in MS patients were tested for associations with DMT use, family history of cancer and other factors. Expected number of cancer cases was estimated using age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence rates from the general population. The prevalence of cancer in males and females in the NYSMSC cohort was lower than expected (p<0.001). Patients with cancer were older at MS diagnosis and more likely to be female (p<0.001). MS patients with a personal history of cancer were more likely to report DMT use (p<0.001) and family history of cancer (p<0.001). Multivariable analysis did not support a higher risk of cancer after DMT initiation. We report a lower than expected number of cancer cases in MS patients compared to the general population. MS patients with a personal history of cancer were more likely to report DMT use suggesting that DMTs may abrogate the lower incidence of cancer in MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Modified Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle: Age- and Sex-Dependent Reference Values and Reliability Analysis.

    PubMed

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Frink, Michael; Jostmeier, Janine; Haneder, Stefan; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer; Lechler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Background. The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is of high importance for the diagnostics and treatment of various conditions of the hip. However, rotational effects limit its precision and applicability using plain radiographs. This study introduces a novel method to measure the femoral NSA: the modified NSA (mNSA), possibly being less susceptible against rotational effects compared to the conventional NSA. Patients and Methods. The method of measurement is described and its applicability was tested in 400 pelvis computed tomography scans (800 hips). Age- and gender-dependent reference values are given and intra- and interrater reliability are analyzed. Results. The mean age of all 400 patients (800 hips) was 54.32 years (18-100, SD 22.05 years). The mean mNSA was 147.0° and the 95% confidence interval was 146.7°-147.4°. Differences of the mNSA between sexes, age groups, and sides were nonsignificant. The absolute difference between NSA and mNSA was 16.3° (range 3-31°; SD 4.4°); the correlation was high (0.738; p < 0.001). Overall, the intra- and interrater reliability were excellent for the mNSA. Interpretation. We introduced a novel concept for the analysis of the neck-shaft angle. The high reliability of the measurement has been proven and its robustness to hip rotation was demonstrated.

  6. Displacement damage analysis and modified electrical equivalent circuit for electron and photon-irradiated silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjhangmehr, Afshin; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-10-01

    Solar modules and arrays are the conventional energy resources of space satellites. Outside the earth's atmosphere, solar panels experience abnormal radiation environments and because of incident particles, photovoltaic (PV) parameters degrade. This article tries to analyze the electrical performance of electron and photon-irradiated mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. PV cells are irradiated by mono-energetic electrons and poly-energetic photons and immediately characterized after the irradiation. The mean degradation of the maximum power (Pmax) of silicon solar cells is presented and correlated using the displacement damage dose (Dd) methodology. This method simplifies evaluation of cell performance in space radiation environments and produces a single characteristic curve for Pmax degradation. Furthermore, complete analysis of the results revealed that the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the filling factor of mono-Si cells did not significantly change during the irradiation and were independent of the radiation type and fluence. Moreover, a new technique is developed that adapts the irradiation-induced effects in a single-cell equivalent electrical circuit and adjusts its elements. The "modified circuit" is capable of modeling the "radiation damage" in the electrical behavior of mono-Si solar cells and simplifies the designing of the compensation circuits.

  7. Modified kernel principal component analysis using double-weighted local outlier factor and its application to nonlinear process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaogang; Wang, Lei

    2017-10-07

    Traditional kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) based nonlinear process monitoring method may not perform well because its Gaussian distribution assumption is often violated in the real industrial processes. To overcome this deficiency, this paper proposes a modified KPCA method based on double-weighted local outlier factor (DWLOF-KPCA). In order to avoid the assumption of specific data distribution, local outlier factor (LOF) is introduced to construct two LOF-based monitoring statistics, which are used to substitute for the traditional T(2) and SPE statistics, respectively. To provide better online monitoring performance, a double-weighted LOF method is further designed, which assigns the weights for each component to highlight the key components with significant fault information, and uses the moving window to weight the historical statistics for reducing the drastic fluctuations in the monitoring results. Finally, simulations on a numerical example and the Tennessee Eastman (TE) benchmark process are used to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed DWLOF-KPCA method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Modifiable Areal Unit Problem in the Analysis of Deforestation Drivers Using Remote Sensing and Census Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, J. F.; Pérez Vega, A.; Andablo Reyes, A.; Castillo Santiago, M. A.; Flamenco Sandoval, A.

    2015-08-01

    In order to identify drivers of land use / land cover change (LUCC), the rate of change is often compared with environmental and socio-economic variables such as slope, soil suitability or population density. Socio-economic information is obtained from census data which are collected for individual households but are commonly presented in aggregate on the basis of geographical units as municipalities. However, a common problem, known as the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), is that the results of statistical analysis are not independent of the scale and the spatial configuration of the units used to aggregate the information. In this article, we evaluate how strong MAUP effects are for a study on the deforestation drivers in Mexico at municipality level. This was done by taking socio-economic variables from the 2010 Census of Mexico along with environmental variables and the rate of deforestation. As population census is given for each human settlement and environmental variables are obtained from high resolution spatial database, it was possible to aggregate the information using spatial units ("pseudo municipalities") with different sizes in order to observe the effect of scale and aggregation on the values of bivariate correlations (Pearsons r) between pairs of variables. We found that MAUP produces variations in the results, and we observed some variable pairs and some configurations of the spatial units where the effect was substantial.

  9. The Modified Femoral Neck-Shaft Angle: Age- and Sex-Dependent Reference Values and Reliability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jostmeier, Janine; Haneder, Stefan; Dargel, Jens; Eysel, Peer; Lechler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Background. The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) is of high importance for the diagnostics and treatment of various conditions of the hip. However, rotational effects limit its precision and applicability using plain radiographs. This study introduces a novel method to measure the femoral NSA: the modified NSA (mNSA), possibly being less susceptible against rotational effects compared to the conventional NSA. Patients and Methods. The method of measurement is described and its applicability was tested in 400 pelvis computed tomography scans (800 hips). Age- and gender-dependent reference values are given and intra- and interrater reliability are analyzed. Results. The mean age of all 400 patients (800 hips) was 54.32 years (18–100, SD 22.05 years). The mean mNSA was 147.0° and the 95% confidence interval was 146.7°–147.4°. Differences of the mNSA between sexes, age groups, and sides were nonsignificant. The absolute difference between NSA and mNSA was 16.3° (range 3–31°; SD 4.4°); the correlation was high (0.738; p < 0.001). Overall, the intra- and interrater reliability were excellent for the mNSA. Interpretation. We introduced a novel concept for the analysis of the neck-shaft angle. The high reliability of the measurement has been proven and its robustness to hip rotation was demonstrated. PMID:28070521

  10. Application of neural networks with novel independent component analysis methodologies to a Prussian blue modified glassy carbon electrode array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Yang, Die; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Zuliang; Lesniewski, Peter J; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-01-01

    Sodium potassium absorption ratio (SPAR) is an important measure of agricultural water quality, wherein four exchangeable cations (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) should be simultaneously determined. An ISE-array is suitable for this application because its simplicity, rapid response characteristics and lower cost. However, cross-interferences caused by the poor selectivity of ISEs need to be overcome using multivariate chemometric methods. In this paper, a solid contact ISE array, based on a Prussian blue modified glassy carbon electrode (PB-GCE), was applied with a novel chemometric strategy. One of the most popular independent component analysis (ICA) methods, the fast fixed-point algorithm for ICA (fastICA), was implemented by the genetic algorithm (geneticICA) to avoid the local maxima problem commonly observed with fastICA. This geneticICA can be implemented as a data preprocessing method to improve the prediction accuracy of the Back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The ISE array system was validated using 20 real irrigation water samples from South Australia, and acceptable prediction accuracies were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modified detrended fluctuation analysis based on empirical mode decomposition for the characterization of anti-persistent processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2011-11-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a simple but very efficient method for investigating the power-law long-term correlations of non-stationary time series, in which a detrending step is necessary to obtain the local fluctuations at different timescales. We propose to determine the local trends through empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and perform the detrending operation by removing the EMD-based local trends, which gives an EMD-based DFA method. Similarly, we also propose a modified multifractal DFA algorithm, called an EMD-based MFDFA. The performance of the EMD-based DFA and MFDFA methods is assessed with extensive numerical experiments based on fractional Brownian motion and multiplicative cascading process. We find that the EMD-based DFA method performs better than the classic DFA method in the determination of the Hurst index when the time series is strongly anticorrelated and the EMD-based MFDFA method outperforms the traditional MFDFA method when the moment order q of the detrended fluctuations is positive. We apply the EMD-based MFDFA to the 1 min data of Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite index, and the presence of multifractality is confirmed. We also analyze the daily Austrian electricity prices and confirm its anti-persistence.

  12. Vibration analysis of bonded double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplate systems based on a modified strain gradient theory incorporating surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalpoor, Ali; Kiani, Ali

    2017-03-01

    On the basis of the modified strain gradient theory, the present paper deals with the theoretical analysis of the free vibration of coupled double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplates by Kelvin-Voigt visco-Pasternak medium. To establish static equilibrium of atoms on the each nanoplate surface, the effects of the surface layers are considered. The properties of material in the thickness direction vary according to the power low distribution. Kirchhoff plate assumption and Hamilton's variational principle are employed to achieve the partial differential equations for three different cases of vibration (out-of-phase, in-phase, and one nanoplate of the system being stationary) and corresponding boundary conditions. Navier's approach which satisfies the simply supported boundary conditions applied to analytically investigate the size effect on the natural frequencies of double-FGM viscoelastic nanoplate systems. Numerical studies are carried out to illustrate the influence of viscoelastic damping structural of the nanoplates, damping coefficient of the visco-Pasternak medium, independent length scale parameter, aspect ratio, surface properties, and other factors on the frequency behavior system. Some numerical results of this research illustrate that the frequencies may increase or decrease with respect to the sign of the surface properties of FGMs.

  13. Modified cumulative distribution function in application to waiting time analysis in the continuous time random walk scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Połoczański, Rafał; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Maciejewska, Monika; Szczurek, Andrzej; Gajda, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    The continuous time random walk model plays an important role in modelling of the so-called anomalous diffusion behaviour. One of the specific properties of such model is the appearance of constant time periods in the trajectory. In the continuous time random walk approach they are realizations of the sequence called waiting times. In this work we focus on the analysis of waiting time distribution by introducing novel methods of parameter estimation and statistical investigation of such a distribution. These methods are based on the modified cumulative distribution function. In this paper we consider three special cases of waiting time distributions, namely α-stable, tempered stable and gamma. However, the proposed methodology can be applied to broad set of distributions—in general it may serve as a method of fitting any distribution function if the observations are rounded. The new statistical techniques are applied to the simulated data as well as to the real data of \\text{C}{{\\text{O}}2} concentration in indoor air.

  14. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of Trained Speech Patterns in Stuttering: Interjudge and Intrajudge Agreement of Experts by Means of Modified Time-Interval Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpermann, Anke; Huber, Walter; Natke, Ulrich; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Improved fluency after stuttering therapy is usually measured by the percentage of stuttered syllables. However, outcome studies rarely evaluate the use of trained speech patterns that speakers use to manage stuttering. This study investigated whether the modified time interval analysis can distinguish between trained speech patterns, fluent…

  16. Measurement of Trained Speech Patterns in Stuttering: Interjudge and Intrajudge Agreement of Experts by Means of Modified Time-Interval Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpermann, Anke; Huber, Walter; Natke, Ulrich; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Improved fluency after stuttering therapy is usually measured by the percentage of stuttered syllables. However, outcome studies rarely evaluate the use of trained speech patterns that speakers use to manage stuttering. This study investigated whether the modified time interval analysis can distinguish between trained speech patterns, fluent…

  17. Immobilization of trypsin on water-soluble dendrimer-modified carbon nanotubes for on-plate proteolysis combined with MALDI-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Cao, Weiman; Liu, Minbo; Yang, Shiping; Wu, Huixia; Lu, Haojie; Yang, Pengyuan

    2010-08-01

    A novel on-plate digestion method combined with MALDI-MS analysis is reported, using trypsin-linked dendrimer-modified carbon nanotubes (dCNTs) as the enzyme immobilization probe. Excellent digestion performance was achieved in a short time without any complicated reduction and alkylation procedures.

  18. A modified hybrid uncertain analysis method for dynamic response field of the LSOAAC with random and interval parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, Bin; Zhou, Bin

    2016-07-01

    For the prediction of dynamic response field of the luffing system of an automobile crane (LSOAAC) with random and interval parameters, a hybrid uncertain model is introduced. In the hybrid uncertain model, the parameters with certain probability distribution are modeled as random variables, whereas, the parameters with lower and upper bounds are modeled as interval variables instead of given precise values. Based on the hybrid uncertain model, the hybrid uncertain dynamic response equilibrium equation, in which different random and interval parameters are simultaneously included in input and output terms, is constructed. Then a modified hybrid uncertain analysis method (MHUAM) is proposed. In the MHUAM, based on random interval perturbation method, the first-order Taylor series expansion and the first-order Neumann series, the dynamic response expression of the LSOAAC is developed. Moreover, the mathematical characteristics of extrema of bounds of dynamic response are determined by random interval moment method and monotonic analysis technique. Compared with the hybrid Monte Carlo method (HMCM) and interval perturbation method (IPM), numerical results show the feasibility and efficiency of the MHUAM for solving the hybrid LSOAAC problems. The effects of different uncertain models and parameters on the LSOAAC response field are also investigated deeply, and numerical results indicate that the impact made by the randomness in the thrust of the luffing cylinder F is larger than that made by the gravity of the weight in suspension Q . In addition, the impact made by the uncertainty in the displacement between the lower end of the lifting arm and the luffing cylinder a is larger than that made by the length of the lifting arm L .

  19. Performance and microbial community analysis in a modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor treating recycled paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Zwain, Haider M; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ng, Wun Jern; Dahlan, Irvan

    2017-04-05

    Recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) contains high levels of organic and solid compounds, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. In this study, a unique modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor (MAI-BR) has been developed to treat RPME at various initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (1000-4000 mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (3 and 1 day). The COD removal efficiency was decreased from 96 to 83% when the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 0.33 to 4 g/L day. Throughout the study, a maximum methane yield of 0.25 L CH4/g COD was obtained, while the pH fluctuated in the range of 5.8 to 7.8. The reactor performance was influenced by the development and distribution of the microbial communities. Based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, the microbial community represented a variety of bacterial phyla with significant homology to Euryarchaeota (43.06%), Planctomycetes (24.68%), Proteobacteria (21.58%), Acidobacteria (4.12%), Chloroflexi (3.14%), Firmicutes (1.12%), Bacteroidetes (1.02%), and others (1.28%). The NGS analysis showed that the microbial community was dominated by Methanosaeta concilii and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. This can be supported by the presence of filamentous and spherical microbes of different sizes. Additionally, methanogenic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) microorganisms coexisted in all compartments, and these contributed to the overall degradation of substances in the RPME. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  20. Physical mapping of a pollen modifier locus controlling self-incompatibility in apricot and synteny analysis within the Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga, Elena; Molina, Laura; Badenes, María Luisa; Romero, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    S-locus products (S-RNase and F-box proteins) are essential for the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) specific recognition in Prunus. However, accumulated genetic evidence suggests that other S-locus unlinked factors are also required for GSI. For instance, GSI breakdown was associated with a pollen-part mutation unlinked to the S-locus in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. 'Canino'. Fine-mapping of this mutated modifier gene (M-locus) and the synteny analysis of the M-locus within the Rosaceae are here reported. A segregation distortion loci mapping strategy, based on a selectively genotyped population, was used to map the M-locus. In addition, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig was constructed for this region using overlapping oligonucleotides probes, and BAC-end sequences (BES) were blasted against Rosaceae genomes to perform micro-synteny analysis. The M-locus was mapped to the distal part of chr.3 flanked by two SSR markers within an interval of 1.8 cM corresponding to ~364 Kb in the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome. In the integrated genetic-physical map of this region, BES were mapped against the peach scaffold_3 and BACs were anchored to the apricot map. Micro-syntenic blocks were detected in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) LG17/9 and strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) FG6 chromosomes. The M-locus fine-scale mapping provides a solid basis for self-compatibility marker-assisted selection and for positional cloning of the underlying gene, a necessary goal to elucidate the pollen rejection mechanism in Prunus. In a wider context, the syntenic regions identified in peach, apple and strawberry might be useful to interpret GSI evolution in Rosaceae.

  1. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) genes from grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Wei, Jingguang; Chen, Xiuli; Gao, Pin; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins binding to lysine residues of target proteins and thereby modifying their stability, activity and subcellular localization. In the present study, two SUMO homolog genes (EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were cloned and characterized. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO1 was 749 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 306 bp encoding 101 amino acids with a molecular mass of 11.34 kDa. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO2 was 822 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 291 bp encoding 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.88 kDa EcSUMO1 shares 44.55% identity with EcSUMO2. EcSUMO1 shares 99%, 90%, and 88% identity with those from Oreochromis niloticus, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, respectively. EcSUMO2 shares 98%, 93%, and 96% identity with those from Anoplopoma fimbria, D.rerio, and H. sapiens, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were constitutively expressed in all of the analyzed tissues in healthy grouper, but the expression of EcSUMO2 was higher than that of EcSUMO1. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were identified as a remarkably (P < 0.01) up-regulated responding to poly(I:C) and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation in head kidney of groupers. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus in GS cells. Over-expressed EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 enhanced SGIV and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) replication during viral infection in vitro. Our study was an important attempt to understand the SUMO pathway in fish, which may provide insights into the regulatory mechanism of viral infection in E.coioides under farmed conditions.

  2. Study of the tornado event in Greece on March 25, 2009: Synoptic analysis and numerical modeling using modified topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research revealed that western Greece and NW Peloponnese are regions that favor prefrontal tornadic incidence. On March 25, 2009 a tornado developed approximately at 10:30 UTC near Varda village (NW Peloponnese). Tornado intensity was T4-T5 (TORRO scale) and consequently caused an economic impact of 350,000 € over the local society. The goals of this study are: (i) to analyze synoptic and remote sensing features regarding the tornado event over NW Peloponnese and (ii) to investigate the role of topography in tornadogenesis triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over that area. Synoptic analysis was based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data sets. The analysis of daily anomaly of synoptic conditions with respect to 30 years' climatology (1981-2010), was based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets. In addition, numerous remote sensing data sets were derived by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) weather station network in order to better interpret the examined tornado event. Finally, numerical modeling was performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized by ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso-scale. The two numerical experiments were performed on the basis of: (a) the presence and (b) the absence of topography (landscape), so as to determine whether the occurrence of a tornado - identified by diagnostic instability indices - could be indicated by modifying topography. The energy helicity index (EHI), the bulk Richardson number (BRN) shear, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH), and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcels with maximum θe) were considered as principal diagnostic instability variables and

  3. Use of a modified Tenax GC column packing for the direct gas chromatographic analysis of phenols in water at the ppm level.

    PubMed

    Bartle, K D; Elstub, J; Novotny, M; Robinson, R J

    1977-05-21

    Dilute solutions of phenols in water at the ppm level may be analysed gas chromatographically by direct injection onto a column with a packing similar to that used in the Viking 1975 spacecraft: Tenax GC (2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide polymer) modified with polymetaphenyl ether liquid phase to eradicate irreversible adsorption. Symmetrical peaks were observed for injections of less than 1 ng of phenol and some of its alkylated derivatives. Chromatographic properties of modified Tenax GC columns are reported along with their application to the analysis of some industrial effluents with previous work-up.

  4. Calorimetric and Spectroscopic Analysis of the Thermal Stability of Short Duplex DNA-Containing Sugar and Base-Modified Nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Fakhfakh, Kareem; Hughesman, Curtis B; Louise Creagh, A; Kao, Vincent; Haynes, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Base- and sugar-modified analogs of DNA and RNA are finding ever expanding use in medicine and biotechnology as tools to better tailor structured oligonucleotides by altering their thermal stability, nuclease resistance, base-pairing specificity, antisense activity, or cellular uptake. Proper deployment of these chemical modifications generally requires knowledge of how each affects base-pairing properties and thermal stabilities. Here, we describe in detail how differential scanning calorimetry and UV spectroscopy may be used to quantify the melting thermodynamics of short dsDNA containing chemically modified nucleosides in one or both strands. Insights are provided into why and how the presence of highly stable base pairs containing modified nucleosides can alter the nature of calorimetry or melting spectroscopy data, and how each experiment must therefore be conducted to ensure high-quality melting thermodynamics data are obtained. Strengths and weaknesses of the two methods when applied to chemically modified duplexes are also addressed.

  5. Long-Term use of Modified Diets in Huntington's Disease: A Descriptive Clinical Practice Analysis on Improving Dietary Enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Moorhouse, Bronwyn; Fisher, Caroline A

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is a very common occurrence in Huntington's disease (HD). As such, many people with HD require texture modified diets. This commentary discusses the implications for individuals living long-term on modified diets, including the loss of sensory stimulation and dietary enjoyment. Clinical practice analyses of two interventions aimed at promoting dietary satisfaction and involvement in food preparation for those with HD are described and parameters for future research are discussed.

  6. Three-Dimensional Bending Analysis of Functionally-Modified Bimorph PZT Actuator for cm-Scale Flapping Wing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    equations for quasi- static three-dimensional bending of functionally–modified bimorph designs intended for active bend-twist actuation of cm-scale flapping...have also been presented that use energy methods (10) and elasticity solutions (11) to develop quasi- static bending solutions that yielded...Effect of orientation angle θ on functionally-modified bimorph deflection for L/b = 1.3. 5. Conclusions A quasi- static three-dimensional bending

  7. Biosorption of Acid Blue 25 by unmodified and CPC-modified biomass of Penicillium YW01: kinetic study, equilibrium isotherm and FTIR analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyi; Jin, Danfeng; Wang, Guan; Liu, Danfeng; Jia, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yuhua

    2011-11-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the biosorption performance of unmodified and Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)-modified biomass of Penicillium YW 01 for Acid Blue 25 (AB 25). Maximum biosorption capacity of AB 25 onto CPC-modified biosorbent was 118.48 mg g(-1) under phosphoric-phosphate buffer with initial dye concentration of 200 mg L(-1) at 30°C. The biosorption pattern of AB 25 onto unmodified biosorbent in aqueous solution and phosphoric-phosphate buffer was well fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. While the equilibrium data of CPC-modified biosorbent in aqueous solution and phosphoric-phosphate buffer failed to fit the Freundlich isotherm model, indicating the monolayer biosorption formed onto CPC-modified biosorbent. The values of initial biosorption rate of biosorbent in phosphoric-phosphate buffer were found to be higher than that of corresponding values in aqueous solution, indicating phosphoric-phosphate buffer enhanced the initial biosorption rate of biosorption process. Weber-Morris model analysis indicated that the boundary layer effect had more influence on the biosorption process in phosphoric-phosphate buffer. The BET surface area of CPC-modified biosorbent (0.5761 m(2) g(-1)) was larger than that of unmodified biomass (0.3081 m(2) g(-1)). Possible dye-biosorbent interactions were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Analysis of Dysphagia Patterns Using a Modified Barium Swallowing Test Following Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Yoon; Kim, Bo Hwan; Park, Young Hak

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate specific dysphagia patterns and to identify the factors affecting dysphagia, especially aspiration, following treatment of head and neck cancer. A retrospective analysis of 57 patients was performed. Dysphagia was evaluated using a modified barium swallow (MBS) test. The MBS results were rated on the 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) and swallowing performance status (SPS) score. Reduced base of the tongue (BOT) retraction (64.9%), reduced laryngeal elevation (57.9%), and cricopharyngeus (CP) dysfunction (47.4%) were found. Reduced BOT retraction was correlated with clinical stage (p=0.011) and treatment modality (p=0.001). Aspiration in 42.1% and penetration in 33.3% of patients were observed. Twenty-four patients had PAS values over 6, implying aspiration. Forty-one patients had a SPS score of more than 3, 25 patients had a score greater than 5, and 13 patients had a SPS score of more than 7. Aspiration was found more often in patients with penetration (p=0.002) and in older patients (p=0.026). In older patients, abnormal swallowing caused aspiration even in those with a SPS score of more than 3, irrespective of stage or treatment, contrary to younger patients. Tube feeders (n=20) exhibited older age (65.0%), dysphagia/aspiration related structures (DARS) primaries (75.0%), higher stage disease (66.7%), and a history of radiotherapy (68.8%). Reduced BOT retraction was the most common dysphagia pattern and was correlated with clinical stage and treatment regimens including radiotherapy. Aspiration was more frequent in patients who had penetration and in older patients. In contrast to younger patients, older patients showed greater risk of aspiration even with a single abnormal swallowing irrespective of stage or treatment.

  9. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

    2007-05-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product.

  10. The Effects of Modified Simiao Decoction in the Treatment of Gouty Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Wen, Cai-Yu-Zhu; Zhang, Jun-Jun; Xing, Guo-Lan; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The modified Simiao decoctions (MSD) have been wildly applied in the treatment of gouty arthritis in China. However, the evidence needs to be evaluated by a systematic review and meta-analysis. After filtering, twenty-four randomised, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of MSD and anti-inflammation medications and/or urate-lowering therapies in patients with gouty arthritis were included. In comparison with anti-inflammation medications, urate-lowering therapies, or coadministration of anti-inflammation medications and urate-lowering therapies, MSD monotherapy significantly lowered serum uric acid (p < 0.00001, mean difference = −90.62, and 95% CI [−128.38, −52.86]; p < 0.00001, mean difference = −91.43, and 95% CI [−122.38, −60.49]; p = 0.02, mean difference = −40.30, and 95% CI [−74.24, −6.36], resp.). Compared with anti-inflammation medications and/or urate-lowering therapies, MSD monotherapy significantly decreased ESR (p < 0.00001; mean difference = −8.11; 95% CI [−12.53, −3.69]) and CRP (p = 0.03; mean difference = −3.21; 95% CI [−6.07, −0.36]). Additionally, the adverse effects (AEs) of MSD were fewer (p < 0.00001; OR = 0.08; 95% CI [0.05, 0.16]). MSD are effective in the treatment of gouty arthritis through anti-inflammation and lowering urate. However, the efficacy of MSD should be estimated with more RCTs. PMID:28373889

  11. [Acupuncture Therapy versus Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs for the Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis--a Meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Lv, Zheng-tao; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, An-min

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy and safety of acupuncture compared to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Four databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and ISI Web of Science were searched in December 2014, taking also the reference section into account. Randomized controlled trials that aimed to assess the efficacy of acupuncture therapy were identified. The inclusion criteria for the outcome measurements were the clinical effect, ESR, occipital wall test, chest expansion, CRP and finger ground distance. Finally, six studies met these inclusion criteria. Two reviewers screened each article independently and were blinded to the findings of each other. We analyzed data from 6 RCTs involving 541 participants. Acupuncture therapy could further improve the clinical effect (OR = 3.01; 95% CI, 1.48-6.13; P = 0.002) and reduce ESR level (SMD = -0.77; 95% CI, -1.46 to -0.08; P = 0.03) compared to DMARDs; a combination of acupuncture and DMARDs could further improve clinical effect (OR = 3.20, 95% CI, 1.36-7.54; P = 0.008), occipital-wall distance (SMD = -0.84; 95% CI, -1.37 to -0.31; P = 0.002), chest expansion (SMD = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.60; P = 0.0009), and finger-ground distance (SMD = -0.48; 95% CI, -0.87 to -0.09; P = 0.02) as compared to DMARDs treatment alone. Our findings support that acupuncture therapy could be an option to relieve symptoms associated with AS. These results should be interpreted cautiously due to the generally poor methodological qualities of the included trials. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. Analysis of carbon forms in chemically-modified peat humic acids by partial least squares regression analysis of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, G.; Hernández, Z.; González-Vila, F. J.; Sanz, J.; De la Rosa, J. M.; Knicker, H.

    2012-04-01

    Classical structural studies on soil organic matter often show that the natural variability in C- and N forms in soil humic acids (HAs) is in many cases not enough to distinguish significant differences amongst HAs from different origin. In the present research contrasting C-distribution patterns are obtained when the HAs are modified in the laboratory through chemical treatments (derivatization reactions or methods focused to incorporation or removal of specific structural constituents). For instance, oxygen functionality can be modified by introducing or blocking the major functional groups (methylation, acetylation, oximation, nitration, sulphonation, etc). Other treatments lead to selective hydrolysis or drastic peroxydation of the HA carbon backbone. Apart from this, N-groups can be introduced in the HA structure by e.g., nitration, oximation, amidation or ammonification. A series of chemically-modified HA preparations were obtained from a sapric peat (Vivero peat, Northern Spain) and their 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (13C NMR) were obtained, showing the success of the above treatments which lead to contrasted NMR profiles. This set of 12 HA preparations was considered suitable material to assess the extent to which 13C NMR spectroscopy reflect the induced structural modifications, as well as to help the assignation of signals in conflicting chemical shift ranges. In order to improve the interpretation of the 13C NMR spectra, partial least squares regression (PLS) was used as a multivariate chemometric tool based on covariance. This is a convenient method in cases where the number of variables (spectral points in the 200-(-25) ppm spectral range with 1-ppm resolution) is high as regards the number of individuals (modified HAs), mainly when there is large redundancy in data sets of variables mutually correlated. The spectroscopic information in the spectral matrix is processed by successively examining independent variables from an external matrix of

  13. Modified SEAGULL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuehn, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Original version of program incorporated into program SRGULL (LEW-15093) for use on National Aero-Space Plane project, its duty being to model forebody, inlet, and nozzle portions of vehicle. However, real-gas chemistry effects in hypersonic flow fields limited accuracy of that version, because it assumed perfect-gas properties. As a result, SEAGULL modified according to real-gas equilibrium-chemistry methodology. This program analyzes two-dimensional, hypersonic flows of real gases. Modified version of SEAGULL maintains as much of original program as possible, and retains ability to execute original perfect-gas version.

  14. Does disability status modify the association between psychosocial job quality and mental health? A longitudinal fixed-effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Milner, A; Krnjacki, L; Butterworth, P; Kavanagh, A; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-11-01

    People with disabilities have difficulties in obtaining work. However, evidence suggests that those with disabilities derive substantial mental health benefits from employment. This paper assesses how the relationship between work and mental health is influenced by psychosocial job quality for people working with a disability. The study design was a longitudinal cohort with 13 annual waves of data collection, yielding a sample of 122,883 observations from 21,848 people. Fixed-effects within-person regression was used to control for time invariant confounding. The Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) measure was used as the primary outcome measure. The main exposure was a six-category measure of psychosocial job quality and employment status (including 'not in the labour force' [NILF] and unemployment). Disability status ('no waves of disability reported' and 'all contributed waves with reported disability') was assessed as an effect modifier. We also conducted a secondary analysis on respondents contributing both disability and non-disability waves. For those with no disability, the greatest difference in mental health (compared to optimal employment) occurs when people have the poorest quality jobs (-2.12, 95% CI -2.48, -1.75, p < 0.001). The relative difference in mental health was less in relation to NILF and unemployment (-0.39 and -0.66 respectively). For those with consistent disability, the difference in mental health when employed in an optimal job was similar between the poorest quality jobs (-2.25, 95% CI -3.84, -0.65, p = 0.006), NILF (-2.84, 95% CI -4.49, -1.20, p = 0.001) or unemployment (-2.56, 95% CI -4.32, -0.80, p = 0.004). These results were confirmed by the secondary analysis. Efforts to improve psychosocial job quality may have significant mental health benefits for people with disabilities. This will contribute to the economic viability of disability employment insurance schemes in Australia and other

  15. Sleep disordered breathing in mucopolysaccharidosis I: a multivariate analysis of patient, therapeutic and metabolic correlators modifying long term clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Pal, Abhijit Ricky; Langereis, Eveline J; Saif, Muhammad A; Mercer, Jean; Church, Heather J; Tylee, Karen L; Wynn, Robert F; Wijburg, Frits A; Jones, Simon A; Bruce, Iain A; Bigger, Brian W

    2015-04-10

    The lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I), commonly manifests with upper airway obstruction and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). The success of current therapies, including haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) may be influenced by a number of factors and monitored using biomarkers of metabolic correction. We describe the pattern of SDB seen in the largest MPS I cohort described to date and determine therapies and biomarkers influencing the severity of long-term airway disease. Therapeutic, clinical and biomarker data, including longitudinal outcome parameters from 150 sleep oximetry studies were collected in 61 MPS I (44 Hurler, 17 attenuated) patients between 6 months pre to 16 years post-treatment (median follow-up 22 months). The presence and functional nature of an immune response to ERT was determined using ELISA and a cellular uptake inhibition assay. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine significant correlators of airway disease. The incidence of SDB in our cohort is 68%, while 16% require therapeutic intervention for airway obstruction. A greater rate of progression (73%) and requirement for intervention is seen amongst ERT patients in contrast to HSCT treated individuals (24%). Multivariate analysis identifies poorer metabolic clearance, as measured by a rise in the biomarker urinary dermatan sulphate: chondroitin sulphate (DS:CS) ratio, as a significant correlator of increased presence and severity of SDB in MPS I patients (p = 0.0017, 0.008). Amongst transplanted Hurler patients, delivered enzyme (leukocyte iduronidase) at one year is significantly raised in those without SDB (p = 0.004). Cellular uptake inhibitory antibodies in ERT treated patients correlate with reduced substrate clearance and occurrence of severe SDB (p = 0.001). We have identified biochemical and therapeutic factors modifying airway disease across the phenotypic spectrum in MPS I

  16. Subribosomal particle analysis reveals the stages of bacterial ribosome assembly at which rRNA nucleotides are modified

    PubMed Central

    Siibak, Triinu; Remme, Jaanus

    2010-01-01

    Modified nucleosides of ribosomal RNA are synthesized during ribosome assembly. In bacteria, each modification is made by a specialized enzyme. In vitro studies have shown that some enzymes need the presence of ribosomal proteins while other enzymes can modify only protein-free rRNA. We have analyzed the addition of modified nucleosides to rRNA during ribosome assembly. Accumulation of incompletely assembled ribosomal particles (25S, 35S, and 45S) was induced by chloramphenicol or erythromycin in an exponentially growing Escherichia coli culture. Incompletely assembled ribosomal particles were isolated from drug-treated and free 30S and 50S subunits and mature 70S ribosomes from untreated cells. Nucleosides of 16S and 23S rRNA were prepared and analyzed by reverse-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pseudouridines were identified by the chemical modification/primer extension method. Based on the results, the rRNA modifications were divided into three major groups: early, intermediate, and late assembly specific modifications. Seven out of 11 modified nucleosides of 16S rRNA were late assembly specific. In contrast, 16 out of 25 modified nucleosides of 23S rRNA were made during early steps of ribosome assembly. Free subunits of exponentially growing bacteria contain undermodified rRNA, indicating that a specific set of modifications is synthesized during very late steps of ribosome subunit assembly. PMID:20719918

  17. Subribosomal particle analysis reveals the stages of bacterial ribosome assembly at which rRNA nucleotides are modified.

    PubMed

    Siibak, Triinu; Remme, Jaanus

    2010-10-01

    Modified nucleosides of ribosomal RNA are synthesized during ribosome assembly. In bacteria, each modification is made by a specialized enzyme. In vitro studies have shown that some enzymes need the presence of ribosomal proteins while other enzymes can modify only protein-free rRNA. We have analyzed the addition of modified nucleosides to rRNA during ribosome assembly. Accumulation of incompletely assembled ribosomal particles (25S, 35S, and 45S) was induced by chloramphenicol or erythromycin in an exponentially growing Escherichia coli culture. Incompletely assembled ribosomal particles were isolated from drug-treated and free 30S and 50S subunits and mature 70S ribosomes from untreated cells. Nucleosides of 16S and 23S rRNA were prepared and analyzed by reverse-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pseudouridines were identified by the chemical modification/primer extension method. Based on the results, the rRNA modifications were divided into three major groups: early, intermediate, and late assembly specific modifications. Seven out of 11 modified nucleosides of 16S rRNA were late assembly specific. In contrast, 16 out of 25 modified nucleosides of 23S rRNA were made during early steps of ribosome assembly. Free subunits of exponentially growing bacteria contain undermodified rRNA, indicating that a specific set of modifications is synthesized during very late steps of ribosome subunit assembly.

  18. Modified Spin Wave Analysis of Low Temperature Properties of the Spin-1/2 Frustrated Ferromagnetic Ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Kazuo; Iino, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Low temperature properties of the spin-1/2 frustrated ladder with ferromagnetic rungs and legs, and two different antiferromagnetic next nearest neighbor interactions are investigated using the modified spin wave approximation in the region with ferromagnetic ground states. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic structure factors is calculated. The results are consistent with the numerical exact diagonalization results in the intermediate temperature range. Below this temperature range, the finite size effect is significant in the numerical diagonalization results, while the modified spin wave approximation gives more reliable results. The low temperature properties near the limit of the stability of the ferromagnetic ground state are also discussed.

  19. Development of a modified factor analysis/multiple regression model to apportion suspended particulate matter in a complex urban airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, Maria T.; Daisey, Joan M.; Lioy, Paul J.

    A modified factor analysis/multiple regression (FA/MR) receptor-oriented source apportionment model has been developed which permits application of FA/MR statistical methods when some of the tracers are not unique to an individual source type. The new method uses factor and regression analyses to apportion non-unique tracer ambient concentrations in situations where there are unique tracers for all sources contributing to the non-unique tracer except one, and ascribes the residual concentration to that source. This value is then used as the source tracer in the final FA/MR apportionment model for ambient paniculate matter. In addition, factor analyses results are complemented with examination of regression residuals in order to optimize the number of identifiable sources. The new method has been applied to identify and apportion the sources of inhalable particulate matter (IPM; D5015 μm), Pb and Fe at a site in Newark, NJ. The model indicated that sulfate/secondary aerosol contributed an average of 25.8 μ -3 (48%) to IPM concentrations, followed by soil resuspension (8.2 μ -3 or 15%), paint spraying/paint pigment (6.7/gmm -3or 13%), fuel oil burning/space heating (4.3 μ -3 or 8 %), industrial emissions (3.6 μm -3 or 7 %) and motor vehicle exhaust (2.7 μ -3 or 15 %). Contributions to ambient Pb concentrations were: motor vehicle exhaust (0.16μm -3or 36%), soil resuspension (0.10μm -3 or 24%), fuel oil burning/space heating (0.08μm -3or 18%), industrial emissions (0.07 μ -3 or 17 %), paint spraying/paint pigment (0.036 μm -3or 9 %) and zinc related sources (0.022 μ -3 or 5 %). Contributions to ambient Fe concentrations were: soil resuspension (0.43μ -3or 51%), paint spraying/paint pigment (0.28 μm -3or 33 %) and industrial emissions (0.15 μ -3or 18 %). The models were validated by comparing partial source profiles calculated from modeling results with the corresponding published source emissions composition.

  20. Modifiability Tactics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    about purchasing paper copies of SEI reports, please visit the publications portion of our Web site (http://www.sei.cmu.edu/ publications /pubweb.html...architects need to understand how architectural tactics and patterns relate and how to use them effectively. In this report, we explore the relation ...architecture transformations that support the achievement of modifiability [Bass 2003]. In this report, we relate coupling and cohesion to tactics

  1. Microchip capillary gel electrophoresis using programmed field strength gradients for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Jeong; Chae, Joon-Seok; Chang, Jun Keun; Kang, Seong Ho

    2005-08-12

    We have developed a novel method for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in soybeans by microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (MCGE) using programmed field strength gradients (PFSG) in a conventional glass double-T microchip. Under the programmed electric field strength and 0.3% poly(ethylene oxide) sieving matrix, the GMO in soybeans was analyzed within only 11 s of the microchip. The MCGE-PFSG method was a program that changes the electric field strength during GMO analysis, and was also applied to the ultra-fast analysis of PCR products. Compared to MCGE using a conventional and constantly applied electric field, the MCGE-PFSG analysis generated faster results without the loss of resolving power and reproducibility for specific DNA fragments (100- and 250-bp DNA) of GM-soybeans. The MCGE-PFSG technique may prove to be a new tool in the GMO analysis due to its speed, simplicity, and high efficiency.

  2. A modified eco-efficiency framework and methodology for advancing the state of practice of sustainability analysis as applied to green infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M

    2017-03-17

    We propose a modified eco-efficiency (EE) framework and novel sustainability analysis methodology for green infrastructure (GI) practices used in water resource management. GI practices such as rainwater harvesting (RWH), rain gardens, porous pavements, and green roofs are emerging as viable strategies for climate change adaptation. The modified framework includes four economic, 11 environmental, and three social indicators. Using six indicators from the framework, at least one from each dimension of sustainability, we demonstrate the methodology to analyze RWH designs. We use life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost assessment to calculate the sustainability indicators of 20 design configurations as Decision Management Objectives (DMOs). Five DMOs emerged as relatively more sustainable along the EE analysis Tradeoff Line, and we used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a widely applied statistical approach, to quantify the modified EE measures as DMO sustainability scores. We also addressed the subjectivity and sensitivity analysis requirements of sustainability analysis, and we evaluated the performance of 10 weighting schemes that included classical DEA, equal weights, National Institute of Standards and Technology's stakeholder panel, Eco-Indicator 99, Sustainable Society Foundation's Sustainable Society Index, and five derived schemes. We improved upon classical DEA by applying the weighting schemes to identify sustainability scores that ranged from 0.18 to 1.0, avoiding the non-uniqueness problem and revealing the least to most sustainable DMOs. Our methodology provides a more comprehensive view of water resource management and is generally applicable to GI and industrial, environmental, and engineered systems to explore the sustainability space of alternative design configurations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and interlaboratory validation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for screening analysis of genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    A novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative screening method was developed for three genetically modified soybeans: RRS, A2704-12, and MON89788. The 35S promoter (P35S) of cauliflower mosaic virus is introduced into RRS and A2704-12 but not MON89788. We then designed a screening method comprised of the combination of the quantification of P35S and the event-specific quantification of MON89788. The conversion factor (Cf) required to convert the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO) from a copy number ratio to a weight ratio was determined experimentally. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDR), respectively. The determined RSDR values for the method were less than 25% for both targets. We consider that the developed method would be suitable for the simple detection and approximate quantification of GMO.

  4. Quantitative analysis of modified proteins and their positional isomers by tandem mass spectrometry: human histone H4.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, James J; Mizzen, Craig A; Kelleher, Neil L

    2006-07-01

    Here we show that fragment ion abundances from dissociation of ions created from mixtures of multiply modified histone H4 (11 kDa) or of N-terminal synthetic peptides (2 kDa) correspond to their respective intact ion abundances measured by Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Isomeric mixtures of modified forms of the same protein are resolved and quantitated with a precision of

  5. Retrospective analysis of the overt proteinuria diabetic kidney disease in the treatment of modified Shenzhuo formula for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Zhao, Xuemin; He, Xinhui; He, Zhongchen; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the 2-year effectiveness of modified Shenzhuo formula in the treatment of overt proteinuria diabetic kidney disease (DKD).Patients diagnosed with type 2 DKD in the clinical research database of Prof Xiaolin Tong (>20,000 data points) with >1-year follow-up were screened for this study. Patients' demographic data, chief complaint, present illness, past history, allergic history, personal history, family history, test results, tongue images, pulse information, and prescription information at 1, 1.5, and 2 years of follow-up were analyzed. EpiData3.1 was used to establish the electronic database of this research and SPSS v20.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) was used for performing statistical analyses.The patients' common main symptoms of overt proteinuria DKD were weak breath and fatigue, numbness of limbs, insomnia, blurred vision, nocturia, edema, low backache, constipation, itchy skin ulcer, and chills. The average 24-hour urinary protein of patients treated with modified Shenzhuo formula was statistically significantly lower than baseline values at 1, 1.5, and 2 years (0.66 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.95, -0.41]; 1.00 g, 95% CI [-1.67, 0.38]; 1.11 g, 95% CI [-1.79, -0.57]). There are no statistically significant differences between the glomerular filtration rate at the baseline and that after modified Shenzhuo formula intervention. Statistically significant reductions in serum triglyceride and glycosylated hemoglobin values and systolic blood pressure also were recorded. Other indexes, including serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoproteins, did not differ between baseline and post-treatment time points.Modified Shenzhuo formula could reduce 24-hour urinary protein excretion in patients with DKD. The formula maybe had the potential advantages on glomerular filtration rate, creatinine reciprocal, blood lipid levels, etc.

  6. [Serum AMH level is not a predictive value for IVF in modified natural cycle: analysis of 342 cycles].

    PubMed

    Lamazou, F; Genro, V; Fuchs, F; Grynberg, M; Gallot, V; Achour-Frydman, N; Fanchin, R; Frydman, R

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to compare the IVF procedures in modified natural cycle outcomes according to serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels. We included in this retrospective study 342 patients undergoing their first IVF in modified natural cycle. Patients were regrouped in three groups according to their serum AMH level: group 1 was defined by patients with AMH level<0.97 ng/mL (<25th percentile), group 2, patients with AMH level between 0.97 ng/mL and 2.60 ng/mL (25-75th percentile), and group 3, patients with AMH level between 2.61 ng/mL and 6.99 ng/mL (>75th percentile). The main outcomes were cancellation rate, embryo transfer rate and clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate and implantation rate. No difference has been observed on cancellation rate, embryo transfer rate, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate. The ongoing pregnancy rate per IVF cycle was respectively: 12.8±3.6% for AMH inferior to 0.97 ng/mL versus 12.5±2.5% for AMH between 0.97 to 2.60 ng/mL and 13.4±4.2% for AMH between 2.61 ng/mL and 6.99 ng/mL. In conclusion, IVF in modified natural cycles procedures should be considered as an option for patients with an altered ovarian reserve defined by a serum AMH inferior to 1 ng/mL. Serum AMH level seems a quantitative marker of the ovary but not a quality factor. Serum AMH level does not seem to be a prognostic factor for ongoing pregnancy rated in IVF modified cycles.

  7. Visible light-induced photocatalytic reaction of gold-modified titanium(IV) oxide particles: action spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Ewa; Abe, Ryu; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2009-01-08

    Action spectrum analyses showed that visible light-induced oxidation of 2-propanol by aerated gold-modified titanium(IV) oxide (titania) suspensions is initiated by excitation of gold surface plasmon, and polychromatic irradiation experiments revealed that the photocatalytic reaction rate depends strongly on properties of titania, such as particle size, surface area and crystalline form (anatase or rutile) and on properties of gold deposits, such as size and shape.

  8. Serum IgE and eosinophil count in allergic rhinitis--analysis using a modified Bayes' theorem.

    PubMed

    Demirjian, M; Rumbyrt, J S; Gowda, V C; Klaustermeyer, W B

    2012-01-01

    To use probability theory to establish threshold values for total serum IgE and eosinophil counts that support a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and to compare our results with previously published data. Prospective study of rhinitis patients using a modified version of Bayes' theorem. Study included 125 patients at the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center diagnosed with rhinitis who completed allergy consultation and immediate hypersensitivity skin testing. Eighty-nine of 125 patients were atopic by prick and/or intradermal skin testing. Using a modified version of Bayes' theorem and positive and negative probability weights, calculations for different thresholds of serum IgE and eosinophil counts were summated and a posttest probability for atopy was calculated. Calculated posttest probabilities varied according to the threshold used to determine a positive or negative test; however, IgE thresholds greater than 140IU/ml and eosinophil counts greater that 80cells/ml were found to have a high probability of predicting atopy in patients with rhinitis. Moreover, IgE had a greater influence than eosinophil count in determining posttest probability of allergy in this population. Considerable differences were noted in the IgE levels of atopic and non-atopic patients, including those with asthma or a history of smoking. However, these differences were not observed with eosinophil levels. Using a modified version of Bayes' theorem to determine posttest probability, IgE threshold levels greater than 140IU/ml and eosinophil counts greater than 80cells/ml in an individual with clinical signs and symptoms of rhinitis are likely to correlate with an atopic aetiology. This model of probability may be helpful in evaluating individuals for diagnostic skin testing and certain types of allergy-modifying treatment. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of sol-gel silica modified with covalently bound peptides.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Rickus, Jenna L; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y

    2007-10-11

    Chemical surface characterization of biologically modified sol-gel derived silica is critical but somewhat limited. This work demonstrates the ability of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to characterize the surface chemistry of peptide modified sol-gel thin films based on the example of four different free peptide-silanes, denoted RGD, NID, KDI ,and YIG. The N 1s and C 1s peaks were found to be good fingerprints of the peptides, whereas O 1s overlapped with the signal of substrate oxygen and, therefore, the O 1s peak was not informative in the case of the thin films. The C 1s peak was fitted and the contribution of the residual hydrocarbons was sorted out. The curve-fitting procedure of the C 1s peak accounted for the different chemical states of carbon atoms in the peptide structure. The curve-fitting procedure was validated by analyzing free peptides in the powder form and was then applied to the characterization of the peptide-modified thin films. The XPS measured ratio between nitrogen and carbon for the peptide thin film was similar to the corresponding value calculated from the peptide structures. Angle resolved XPS confirmed the surface nature of peptides in modified thin films. The coverage and thickness of the peptides on the thin film surface depended on the peptide sequence. The coverage was in the range of 10% of a monolayer, and the layer thickness varied from 10 to 30 A. We believe that the different thicknesses and surface coverage are due to the local structure of the peptides, with the RGD and NID peptides taking a globule conformation and the YIG and KDI peptides adopting a more linear structure.

  10. Decreasing Neuroscience Anxiety in an Introductory Neuroscience Course: An Analysis Using Data from a Modified Science Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Melissa; Shelton, Kerisa

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether participation in a neuroscience course reduced neuroscience anxiety, a modified version of the Science Anxiety Scale was administered to students at the beginning and end of an introductory course. Neuroscience anxiety scores were significantly reduced at the end of the course and correlated with higher final grades. Reduced neuroscience anxiety did not correlate with reduced science anxiety, suggesting that neuroscience anxiety is a distinct subtype of anxiety. PMID:23626491

  11. Electrochemical sensor for multiplex screening of genetically modified DNA: identification of biotech crops by logic-based biomolecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Ching; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Ho, Ja-An Annie

    2013-12-15

    Genetically modified (GM) technique, one of the modern biomolecular engineering technologies, has been deemed as profitable strategy to fight against global starvation. Yet rapid and reliable analytical method is deficient to evaluate the quality and potential risk of such resulting GM products. We herein present a biomolecular analytical system constructed with distinct biochemical activities to expedite the computational detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The computational mechanism provides an alternative to the complex procedures commonly involved in the screening of GMOs. Given that the bioanalytical system is capable of processing promoter, coding and species genes, affirmative interpretations succeed to identify specified GM event in terms of both electrochemical and optical fashions. The biomolecular computational assay exhibits detection capability of genetically modified DNA below sub-nanomolar level and is found interference-free by abundant coexistence of non-GM DNA. This bioanalytical system, furthermore, sophisticates in array fashion operating multiplex screening against variable GM events. Such a biomolecular computational assay and biosensor holds great promise for rapid, cost-effective, and high-fidelity screening of GMO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tellurium speciation analysis using hydride generation in situ trapping electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and ruthenium or palladium modified graphite tubes.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Emrah; Akay, Pınar; Arslan, Yasin; Bakirdere, Sezgin; Ataman, O Yavuz

    2012-12-15

    Speciation of tellurium can be achieved by making use of different kinetic behaviors of Te(IV) and Te(VI) upon their reaction with sodium borohydride using hydride generation. While Te(IV) can form H(2)Te, Te(VI) will not form any volatile species during the course of hydride formation and measurement by atomic absorption spectrometry. Quantitative reduction of Te(VI) was achieved through application of a microwave assisted prereduction of Te(VI) in 6.0 mol/L HCl solution. Enhanced sensitivity was achieved by in situ trapping of the generated H(2)Te species in a previously heated graphite furnace whose surface was modified using Pd or Ru. Overall efficiency for in situ trapping in pyrolytically coated graphite tube surface was found to be 15% when volatile analyte species are trapped for 60s at 300°C. LOD and LOQ values were calculated as 0.086 ng/mL and 0.29 ng/mL, respectively. Efficiency was increased to 46% and 36% when Pd and Ru surface modifiers were used, respectively. With Ru modified graphite tube 173-fold enhancement was obtained over 180 s trapping period with respect to ETAAS; the tubes could be used for 250 cycles. LOD values were 0.0064 and 0.0022 ng/mL for Pd and Ru treated ETAAS systems, respectively, for 180 s collection of 9.6 mL sample solution.

  13. Direct analysis of in-gel proteins by carbon nanotubes-modified paper spray ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Yang, Yuhan; Ouyang, Jin; Na, Na

    2015-02-07

    The in situ and direct extraction, desorption and ionization of in-gel intact proteins after electrophoresis has been achieved by carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-modified paper spray mass spectrometry at ambient conditions. Characteristics of CNTs (including larger surface area, smaller pore diameter and enhanced conductivity) were endowed to the porous filter paper substrate by uniformly dispersing the CNTs on the filter paper. Upon applying electric potential to the CNTs-modified paper, the in-gel proteins were extracted from the gel and subsequently migrated to the tip of the filter paper by electrophoresis-like behavior for paper spray ionization, which was monitored by extracted ion chronograms. The characterizations of modified filter papers and CNTs nanoparticles further confirmed the role of CNTs in in-gel protein extraction, protein migration as well as spray ionization at the paper tip. Under optimized conditions, a mixture of cytochrome c, lysozyme and myoglobin was successfully separated by native electrophoresis and subsequently analysed by the present method, showing a limit of detection of 10 ng per gel band. The present strategy offers a new pathway for the direct detection of in-gel intact proteins at ambient conditions without any pre-treatment (e.g. digestion, chemical extraction and desalting), which exhibits potential applications in top-down proteomics.

  14. Interacting modified Chaplygin gas in f(T) gravity framework and analysis of its stability against gravitational perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit

    In this work, we investigate the cosmological application of modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) interacting with pressureless dark matter (DM) in the f(T) modified gravity framework, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. The interaction term has been chosen proportional to the MCG density with positive coupling constant. In the Einstein general relativity (GR) framework, the interacting MCG has been found to have equation of state (EoS) parameter behaving like quintessence. However, the f(T) gravity reconstructed via the interacting MCG has been found to have EoS crossing the phantom boundary of ‑ 1. Thus, one can generate a quintom-like EoS from an interacting MCG model in flat universe in the modified gravity cosmology framework. The reconstructed f(T) model has been found to interpolate between dust and ΛCDM. Stability of the reconstructed f(T) has been investigated and it has been observed that the model is stable against gravitational perturbation. Cosmological evolution of primordial perturbations has also been investigated and the self-interacting potential has been found to increase with cosmic time and the squared speed of sound has been found to be non-negative.

  15. Analysis of carbohydrates in drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography with a dynamically modified amino column and evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y; Ding, M Y

    2000-12-22

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with a dynamically modified amino column and evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was established for the direct analysis of the carbohydrates in some drinks. A separation column (Zorbax Rx-SIL, 250 mm x 4.6 mm I.D., 5 microm, Hewlett-Packard, USA) which was modified by ethylenediamine and a guard column (Zorbax Rx-SIL, 12.5 mm x 4.6 mm I.D., 5 microm) were used. The mobile phase was a mixture of water-acetonitrile (1:2.6, v/v) containing 0.03% (v/v) ethylenediamine. Regression equations revealed linear relationship (correlation coefficients=0.996-0.999) between the mass of carbohydrates injected and the carbohydrates peak areas detected by ELSD. The detection limits of ELSD (S/N=3) were between 0.2 and 1.2 microg for different carbohydrates. This method is simple and sensitive.

  16. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Histone Modifiers and RNA Silencing Genes in Soybean during Floral Initiation Process

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics has been recognised to play vital roles in many plant developmental processes, including floral initiation through the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The histone modifying proteins that mediate these modifications involve the SET domain-containing histone methyltransferases, JmjC domain-containing demethylase, acetylases and deacetylases. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi)-associated genes are also involved in epigenetic regulation via RNA-directed DNA methylation and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Soybean, a major crop legume, requires a short day to induce flowering. How histone modifications regulate the plant response to external cues that initiate flowering is still largely unknown. Here, we used RNA-seq to address the dynamics of transcripts that are potentially involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi mediated gene silencing during the floral initiation of soybean. Soybean is a paleopolyploid that has been subjected to at least two rounds of whole genome duplication events. We report that the expanded genomic repertoire of histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes in soybean includes 14 histone acetyltransferases, 24 histone deacetylases, 47 histone methyltransferases, 15 protein arginine methyltransferases, 24 JmjC domain-containing demethylases and 47 RNAi-associated genes. To investigate the role of these histone modifiers and RNA silencing genes during floral initiation, we compared the transcriptional dynamics of the leaf and shoot apical meristem at different time points after a short-day treatment. Our data reveal that the extensive activation of genes that are usually involved in the epigenetic programming and RNAi gene silencing in the soybean shoot apical meristem are reprogrammed for floral development following an exposure to inductive conditions. PMID:24147010

  17. Modified Core Biopsy Technique to Increase Diagnostic Yields for Well-Circumscribed Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Shin, J H; Hahn, S Y; Oh, Y L

    2016-06-01

    The results of conventional core biopsy for some thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology have still remained indeterminate. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy technique containing the nodule, capsular portion, and surrounding parenchyma was more effective than a conventional method in enhancing diagnostic yield for circumscribed solid thyroid nodules without malignant sonographic features. This retrospective comparative study evaluated 26 thyroid nodules in 26 consecutive patients between 2006 and 2010. They were biopsied by using a conventional method, and 61 nodules from 60 patients were biopsied by using a modified ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy technique in 2013. The patients enrolled in this study presented with circumscribed solid thyroid nodules without malignant sonographic features, classified as nondiagnostic or atypia/follicular lesions of undetermined significance at previous cytology. The ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy results of the 2 groups were compared. The rate of inconclusive ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy results was 34.6% (9/26) in the conventional group and 11.4% (7/61) in the modified technique group (P = .018). There was no significant difference in the mean size of the nodules between the 2 groups (P = .134). The malignancy rate was 33% (3/9) for the conventional group and 52% (27/52) for the modified technique group (P = .473). The most common malignant pathology was a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular adenoma was the most common benign lesion. For circumscribed solid nodules without malignant sonographic features with indeterminate cytology, the ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy technique containing the nodule, capsular portion, and surrounding parenchyma is more effective in diagnostic yield compared with a conventional method that biopsies the intranodular portion. © 2016 by American Journal of

  18. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES.

    PubMed

    Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A

    2017-08-01

    Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p < 0.05) when the dominant knee was flexed to 135 ° (23.49% MVIC) versus the traditional 90 ° (75.34% MVIC), while gluteal activation remained similarly high (51.01% and 57.81% MVIC in the traditional position, versus 47.35% and 57.23% MVIC in the modified position for the gluteus maximus and medius, respectively). Modifying the traditional single-leg bridge by flexing the

  19. A modified Poisson-Boltzmann analysis of the capacitance behavior of the electric double layer at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, L B; Outhwaite, C W; Henderson, D

    2005-07-15

    The modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory is used to analyze the anomalous behavior of the electric double layer capacitance for small surface charge at low temperatures and densities. Good agreement is found with simulation and recent density-functional theory results. Negative adsorption is also found in line with theory and simulation. An unsatisfactory feature is the relatively poor structure in this region due to the inherent approximations in the theory. This feature is unimportant in relation to the capacitance results but has implications when calculating adsorption properties.

  20. Retrospective analysis of the overt proteinuria diabetic kidney disease in the treatment of modified Shenzhuo formula for 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Zhao, Xuemin; He, Xinhui; He, Zhongchen; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the 2-year effectiveness of modified Shenzhuo formula in the treatment of overt proteinuria diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Patients diagnosed with type 2 DKD in the clinical research database of Prof Xiaolin Tong (>20,000 data points) with >1-year follow-up were screened for this study. Patients’ demographic data, chief complaint, present illness, past history, allergic history, personal history, family history, test results, tongue images, pulse information, and prescription information at 1, 1.5, and 2 years of follow-up were analyzed. EpiData3.1 was used to establish the electronic database of this research and SPSS v20.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) was used for performing statistical analyses. The patients’ common main symptoms of overt proteinuria DKD were weak breath and fatigue, numbness of limbs, insomnia, blurred vision, nocturia, edema, low backache, constipation, itchy skin ulcer, and chills. The average 24-hour urinary protein of patients treated with modified Shenzhuo formula was statistically significantly lower than baseline values at 1, 1.5, and 2 years (0.66 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] [−0.95, −0.41]; 1.00 g, 95% CI [−1.67, 0.38]; 1.11 g, 95% CI [−1.79, −0.57]). There are no statistically significant differences between the glomerular filtration rate at the baseline and that after modified Shenzhuo formula intervention. Statistically significant reductions in serum triglyceride and glycosylated hemoglobin values and systolic blood pressure also were recorded. Other indexes, including serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoproteins, did not differ between baseline and post-treatment time points. Modified Shenzhuo formula could reduce 24-hour urinary protein excretion in patients with DKD. The formula maybe had the potential advantages on glomerular filtration rate, creatinine reciprocal

  1. Slurry analysis of cadmium and copper collected on 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid modified TiO2 core-Au shell nanoparticles by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, S; Akman, S; Kahraman, M

    2011-02-15

    Separation/preconcentration of copper and cadmium using TiO(2) core-Au shell nanoparticles modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and their slurry analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry were described. For this purpose, at first, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were coated with gold shell by reducing the chloroauric acid with sodium borohydride and then modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The characterization of modified nanoparticles was performed using ultra-violet spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Copper and cadmium were then collected on the prepared sorbent by batch method. The solid phase loaded with the analytes was separated by centrifugation and the supernatant was removed. Finally, the precipitate was slurried and directly aspirated into the flame for the determination of analytes. Thus, elution step and its all drawbacks were eliminated. The effects of pH, amount of sorbent, slurry volume, sample volume and diverse ions on the recovery were investigated. After optimization of experimental parameters, the analytes in different certified reference materials and spiked water samples were quantitatively recovered with 5% RSD. The analytes were enriched up to 20-fold. Limits of detection (N=10, 3σ) for copper and cadmium were 0.28 and 0.15 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro analysis of riboflavin-modified, experimental, two-step etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman studies.

    PubMed

    Daood, Umer; Swee Heng, Chan; Neo Chiew Lian, Jennifer; Fawzy, Amr S

    2015-06-26

    To modify two-step experimental etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive with different concentrations of riboflavin and to study its effect on the bond strength, degree of conversion, along with resin infiltration within the demineralized dentin substrate, an experimental adhesive-system was modified with different concentrations of riboflavin (m/m, 0, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10%). Dentin surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, bonded with respective adhesives, restored with restorative composite-resin, and sectioned into resin-dentin slabs and beams to be stored for 24 h or 9 months in artificial saliva. Micro-tensile bond testing was performed with scanning electron microscopy to analyse the failure of debonded beams. The degree of conversion was evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at different time points along with micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis. Data was analyzed with one-way and two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's for pair-wise comparison. Modification with 1% and 3% riboflavin increased the micro-tensile bond strength compared to the control at 24 h and 9-month storage with no significant differences in degree of conversion (P<0.05). The most predominant failure mode was the mixed fracture among all specimens except 10% riboflavin-modified adhesive specimens where cohesive failure was predominant. Raman analysis revealed that 1% and 3% riboflavin adhesives specimens showed relatively higher resin infiltration. The incorporation of riboflavin in the experimental two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive at 3% (m/m) improved the immediate bond strengths and bond durability after 9-month storage in artificial saliva without adversely affecting the degree of conversion of the adhesive monomers and resin infiltration.

  3. In vitro analysis of riboflavin-modified, experimental, two-step etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman studies

    PubMed Central

    Daood, Umer; Swee Heng, Chan; Neo Chiew Lian, Jennifer; Fawzy, Amr S

    2015-01-01

    To modify two-step experimental etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive with different concentrations of riboflavin and to study its effect on the bond strength, degree of conversion, along with resin infiltration within the demineralized dentin substrate, an experimental adhesive-system was modified with different concentrations of riboflavin (m/m, 0, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10%). Dentin surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, bonded with respective adhesives, restored with restorative composite–resin, and sectioned into resin–dentin slabs and beams to be stored for 24 h or 9 months in artificial saliva. Micro-tensile bond testing was performed with scanning electron microscopy to analyse the failure of debonded beams. The degree of conversion was evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at different time points along with micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis. Data was analyzed with one-way and two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's for pair-wise comparison. Modification with 1% and 3% riboflavin increased the micro-tensile bond strength compared to the control at 24 h and 9-month storage with no significant differences in degree of conversion (P<0.05). The most predominant failure mode was the mixed fracture among all specimens except 10% riboflavin-modified adhesive specimens where cohesive failure was predominant. Raman analysis revealed that 1% and 3% riboflavin adhesives specimens showed relatively higher resin infiltration. The incorporation of riboflavin in the experimental two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive at 3% (m/m) improved the immediate bond strengths and bond durability after 9-month storage in artificial saliva without adversely affecting the degree of conversion of the adhesive monomers and resin infiltration. PMID:25257880

  4. Application of Celluspots peptide arrays for the analysis of the binding specificity of epigenetic reading domains to modified histone tails.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ina; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Tamas, Raluca; Kungulovski, Goran; Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-08-31

    Epigenetic reading domains are involved in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin state by interacting with histones in a post-translational modification specific manner. A detailed knowledge of the target modifications of reading domains, including enhancing and inhibiting secondary modifications, will lead to a better understanding of the biological signaling processes mediated by reading domains. We describe the application of Celluspots peptide arrays which contain 384 histone peptides carrying 59 post translational modifications in different combinations as an inexpensive, reliable and fast method for initial screening for specific interactions of reading domains with modified histone peptides. To validate the method, we tested the binding specificities of seven known epigenetic reading domains on Celluspots peptide arrays, viz. the HP1ß and MPP8 Chromo domains, JMJD2A and 53BP1 Tudor domains, Dnmt3a PWWP domain, Rag2 PHD domain and BRD2 Bromo domain. In general, the binding results agreed with literature data with respect to the primary specificity of the reading domains, but in almost all cases we obtained additional new information concerning the influence of secondary modifications surrounding the target modification. We conclude that Celluspots peptide arrays are powerful screening tools for studying the specificity of putative reading domains binding to modified histone peptides.

  5. Analysis of polyphenols in white wine by CZE with amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mónica; Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous detection of five polyphenols (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) by CZE with electrochemical detection was developed. Separation of these polyphenols was performed in a 100 mM borate buffer (pH 9.2) within 15 min. Under optimized separation conditions, the performance of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotube layer obtained from different dispersions was examined. GC electrode modified with a dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in polyethylenimine has proven to be the most suitable CNT-based electrode for its application as amperometric detector for the CZE separation of the studied compounds. The excellent electrochemical properties of this electrode allowed the detection of the selected polyphenols at +200 mV and improved the efficiency and the resolution of their CZE separation. Limits of detection below 3.1 μM were obtained with linear ranges covering the 10⁻⁵ to 10⁻⁴  M range. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the detection (ferulic, caffeic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) and the quantification (gallic acid and (+)-catechin) of polyphenols in two different white wines without any preconcentration step. A remarkable signal stability was observed on the electrode performance despite the presence of potential fouling substances in wine. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A computational analysis of natural convection in a vertical channel with a modified power law non-Newtonian fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.; Irvine, T.F. Jr.; Greene, G.A.

    1998-04-01

    An implicit finite difference method was applied to analyze laminar natural convection in a vertical channel with a modified power law fluid. This fluid model was chosen because it describes the viscous properties of a pseudoplastic fluid over the entire shear rate range likely to be found in natural convection flows since it covers the shear rate range from Newtonian through transition to simple power law behavior. In addition, a dimensionless similarity parameter is identified which specifies in which of the three regions a particular system is operating. The results for the average channel velocity and average Nusselt number in the asymptotic Newtonian and power law regions are compared with numerical data in the literature. Also, graphical results are presented for the velocity and temperature fields and entrance lengths. The results of average channel velocity and Nusselt number are given in the three regions including developing and fully developed flows. As an example, a pseudoplastic fluid (carboxymethyl cellulose) was chosen to compare the different results of average channel velocity and Nusselt number between a modified power law fluid and the conventional power law model. The results show, depending upon the operating conditions, that if the correct model is not used, gross errors can result.

  7. Application of Celluspots peptide arrays for the analysis of the binding specificity of epigenetic reading domains to modified histone tails

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epigenetic reading domains are involved in the regulation of gene expression and chromatin state by interacting with histones in a post-translational modification specific manner. A detailed knowledge of the target modifications of reading domains, including enhancing and inhibiting secondary modifications, will lead to a better understanding of the biological signaling processes mediated by reading domains. Results We describe the application of Celluspots peptide arrays which contain 384 histone peptides carrying 59 post translational modifications in different combinations as an inexpensive, reliable and fast method for initial screening for specific interactions of reading domains with modified histone peptides. To validate the method, we tested the binding specificities of seven known epigenetic reading domains on Celluspots peptide arrays, viz. the HP1ß and MPP8 Chromo domains, JMJD2A and 53BP1 Tudor domains, Dnmt3a PWWP domain, Rag2 PHD domain and BRD2 Bromo domain. In general, the binding results agreed with literature data with respect to the primary specificity of the reading domains, but in almost all cases we obtained additional new information concerning the influence of secondary modifications surrounding the target modification. Conclusions We conclude that Celluspots peptide arrays are powerful screening tools for studying the specificity of putative reading domains binding to modified histone peptides. PMID:21884582

  8. Recombinant Expression of a Modified Shrimp Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor Gene in Pichia pastoris GS115 and Its Characteristic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Yu, Kuijie; Yang, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-01-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) with a LPS-binding domain (LBD) are considered to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and certain antiviral properties in crustaceans. FcALF2 was one isoform of ALFs isolated from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Our previous study showed that a modified LBD domain (named LBDv) of FcALF2 exhibited a highly enhanced antimicrobial activity. In the present study, a modified FcALF2 gene (mFcALF2), in which the LBD was substituted by LBDv, was designed and synthesized. This gene was successfully expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 eukaryotic expression system, and the characteristics of the recombinant protein mFcALF2 were analyzed. mFcALF2 exhibited apparent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus licheniformis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, mFcALF2 could reduce the propagation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in vivo by pre-incubation with virus. The present study paves the way for developing antimicrobial drugs in aquaculture. PMID:27517939

  9. An analysis of variation in expression of neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 (NF1): evidence for modifying genes.

    PubMed Central

    Easton, D F; Ponder, M A; Huson, S M; Ponder, B A

    1993-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 (NF1) is notable for its variable expression. To determine whether variation in expression has an inherited component, we examined 175 individuals in 48 NF families, including six MZ twin pairs. Three quantitative traits were scored--number of café-au-lait patches, number of cutaneous neurofibromas, and head circumference; and five binary traits were scored--the presence or absence of plexiform neurofibromas, optic gliomas, scoliosis, epilepsy, and referral for remedial education. For café-au-lait patches and neurofibromas, correlation was highest between MZ twins, less high between first-degree relatives, and lower still between more distant relatives. The high correlation between MZ twins suggests a strong genetic component in variation of expression, but the low correlation between distant relatives suggests that the type of mutation at the NF1 locus itself plays only a minor role. All of the five binary traits, with the exception of plexiform neurofibromas, also showed significant familial clustering. The familial effects for these traits were consistent with polygenic effects, but there were insufficient data to rule out other models, including a significant effect of different NF1 mutations. There was no evidence of any association between the different traits in affected individuals. We conclude that the phenotypic expression of NF1 is to a large extent determined by the genotype at other "modifying" loci and that these modifying genes are trait specific. PMID:8328449

  10. Analysis of optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using modified Bessel-like function and trapezoid annulus modulation structures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Wei, Zhongchao; Liu, Yuebo; Huang, Aili

    2015-02-01

    Two amplitude modulation methods, including modified Bessel-like function modulation structure and trapezoid annulus structure, for suppressing sidelobes of optical vortices are studied. In the former approach, we propose that the order of the Bessel-like function can be an additional parameter to modulate diffraction patterns of optical vortices motivated by the idea of conventional annulus structures. Furthermore, new Bessel-like modulation functions are introduced to solve the problem of low diffraction efficiency of the original one. Trapezoid annulus structure is proposed as a compromise structure between the modified Bessel-like modulation structure and the conventional annulus one, and has advantages of both. It is demonstrated that these two approaches can achieve high-quality optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes effectively, and the relative structures behave as more flexible and applicable structures for producing optical vortices with large coverage of topological charges, which suggests great potential in simplifying the structure designing procedure. These reliable and generalized structures for generating high-quality optical vortices will help to promote the development of future optical communication and optical manipulation significantly.

  11. An Initial Investigation of a Modified Procedure for Parallel Analysis. Research Report. ETS RR-07-41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rijmen, Frank; Kong, Nan

    2017-01-01

    Parallel analysis has been well documented to be an effective and accurate method for determining the number of factors to retain in exploratory factor analysis. Despite its theoretical and empirical advantages, the popularity of parallel analysis has been thwarted by its limited access in statistical software such as SPSS and SAS, especially in…

  12. An enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot analysis for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein: cross-reactivity of curculin and miraculin to both antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, S; Akabane, T; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1992-02-01

    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay method for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein. This method can accurately quantify 0.05-20 ng of curculin, a sensitivity about 3000-times that of the psychometric method. The content of curculin in the fruit of Curculigo latifolia increased gradually until 3 weeks after artificial pollination and dramatically at 4 weeks, to finally reach 1.3 mg per fruit. Immunoblot analysis indicated that antiserum to curculin was faintly reactive with miraculin, but not with thaumatin or monellin.

  13. An emerging class of volatile organic compound sorbents: Friedel-Crafts modified polystyrenes. 2: Performance comparison with commercially-available sorbents and isotherm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, E.J.; Koros, W.J.; Schechter, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The performance of Friedel-Crafts modified polystyrene (FCMPS) as a volatile organic compound (VOC) sorbent is compared with commercially available polymers and activated carbon. Detailed analyses of the equilibrium isotherms are presented, including vapor phase isotherm temperature dependence and isosteric heats of sorption. Although significant absorption contributions are observed for the polymeric sorbents of this study, the data are mathematically well represented by Polanyi potential analysis. FCMPS can be synthesized with desirable performance qualities such as ultimate VOC sorption capacity of {approximately}2 mL/g, competitively high capacity in dilute streams versus activated carbon, insensitivity to humidity in vapor phase applications, and comparative ease of regeneration.

  14. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a powerful tool for the mass and sequence analysis of natural and modified oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Pieles, U; Zürcher, W; Schär, M; Moser, H E

    1993-01-01

    We report the analysis and characterization of natural and modified oligonucleotides by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The present technology was highly improved for this class of compounds by using a new matrix, 2,4,6-trihydroxy acetophenone, together with di- and triammonium salts of organic or inorganic acids to suppress peak broadening due to multiple ion adducts. This methodology can be used in combination with time dependent degradation of oligonucleotides by exonucleases as powerful tool to determine sequence compositions. PMID:8341593

  15. Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, L.W.

    1993-07-01

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

  16. Computer-aided analysis of Landsat-1 MSS data - A comparison of three approaches, including a 'modified clustering' approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. D.; Berkebile, J. S.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Three approaches for analyzing Landsat-1 data from Ludwig Mountain in the San Juan Mountain range in Colorado are considered. In the 'supervised' approach the analyst selects areas of known spectral cover types and specifies these to the computer as training fields. Statistics are obtained for each cover type category and the data are classified. Such classifications are called 'supervised' because the analyst has defined specific areas of known cover types. The second approach uses a clustering algorithm which divides the entire training area into a number of spectrally distinct classes. Because the analyst need not define particular portions of the data for use but has only to specify the number of spectral classes into which the data is to be divided, this classification is called 'nonsupervised'. A hybrid method which selects training areas of known cover type but then uses the clustering algorithm to refine the data into a number of unimodal spectral classes is called the 'modified-supervised' approach.

  17. Morphological study and thermal analysis of surface modified {alpha}-FeOOH via in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yaoxing; Ma Xinsheng; Cao Hongming; Zhang Haiying; Wu Qiufang

    2004-06-08

    Considering the interfacial characteristics of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH, iron oxide yellow), the in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate was employed to modify the surfaces of {alpha}-FeOOH pigments in aqueous slurry. The scanning electron micrographs indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) anchored on the surfaces of the particle homogeneously. From this study, it was found that one of the key requirements in the synthesis of the {alpha}-FeOOH-PMMA composite was to enhance interfacial compatibility between inorganic particles and organic monomer. Moreover, polymer-treated {alpha}-FeOOH particles were easily dispersed in organic medium to form a stable colloid and the heat resistance of {alpha}-FeOOH particles was improved.

  18. Spacelab system analysis: The modified free access protocol: An access protocol for communication systems with periodic and Poisson traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, Frank; Owens, John; Daniel, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The protocol definition and terminal hardware for the modified free access protocol, a communications protocol similar to Ethernet, are developed. A MFA protocol simulator and a CSMA/CD math model are also developed. The protocol is tailored to communication systems where the total traffic may be divided into scheduled traffic and Poisson traffic. The scheduled traffic should occur on a periodic basis but may occur after a given event such as a request for data from a large number of stations. The Poisson traffic will include alarms and other random traffic. The purpose of the protocol is to guarantee that scheduled packets will be delivered without collision. This is required in many control and data collection systems. The protocol uses standard Ethernet hardware and software requiring minimum modifications to an existing system. The modification to the protocol only affects the Ethernet transmission privileges and does not effect the Ethernet receiver.

  19. Transient finite element analysis of electric double layer using Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations with a modified Stern layer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongil; Whitcomb, John; Boyd, James; Varghese, Julian

    2007-01-01

    A finite element implementation of the transient nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) and Nernst-Planck-Poisson-modified Stern (NPPMS) models is presented. The NPPMS model uses multipoint constraints to account for finite ion size, resulting in realistic ion concentrations even at high surface potential. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is used to provide a limited check of the transient models for low surface potential and dilute bulk solutions. The effects of the surface potential and bulk molarity on the electric potential and ion concentrations as functions of space and time are studied. The ability of the models to predict realistic energy storage capacity is investigated. The predicted energy is much more sensitive to surface potential than to bulk solution molarity.

  20. The analysis and application of a new hybrid pollutants forecasting model using modified Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filter.

    PubMed

    Li, Peizhi; Wang, Yong; Dong, Qingli

    2017-04-01

    Cities in China suffer from severe smog and haze, and a forecasting system with high accuracy is of great importance to foresee the concentrations of the airborne particles. Compared with chemical transport models, the growing artificial intelligence models can simulate nonlinearities and interactive relationships and getting more accurate results. In this paper, the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter is modified and firstly applied to construct the model using an artificial intelligence method. The concentration of inhalable particles and fine particulate matter in Dalian are used to analyze the filtered components and test the forecasting accuracy. Besides, an extended experiment is made by implementing a comprehensive comparison and a stability test using data in three other cities in China. Results testify the excellent performance of the developed hybrid models, which can be utilized to better understand the temporal features of pollutants and to perform a better air pollution control and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A modified lead-matrix separation procedure shown for lead isotope analysis in Trojan silver artefacts as an example.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Jochen; Paz, Boaz; Koenig, Maren; Pritzkow, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    A modified Pb-matrix separation procedure using NH4HCO3 solution as eluent has been developed and validated for determination of Pb isotope amount ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The procedure is based on chromatographic separation using the Pb·Spec resin and an in-house-prepared NH4HCO3 solution serving as eluent. The advantages of this eluent are low Pb blanks (<40 pg mL(-1)) and the property that NH4HCO3 can be easily removed by use of a heating step (>60 °C). Pb recovery is >95 % for water samples. For archaeological silver samples, however, the Pb recovery is reduced to approximately 50 %, but causes no bias in the determination of Pb isotope amount ratios. The validated procedure was used to determine lead isotope amount ratios in Trojan silver artefacts with expanded uncertainties (k = 2) <0.09 %.

  2. Design and Analysis of Miniaturized Microstrip Patch Antenna with Metamaterials Based on Modified Split-Ring Resonator for UWB Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedrouche, D.; Bougoutaia, T.; Hocini, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a miniaturized microstrip patch antenna using a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) unit cells is proposed for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The new design of metamaterial based microstrip patch antenna has been optimized to provide an improved bandwidth and multiple frequency operations. All the antenna performance parameters are presented in response-graphs. Also it is mentioned that the physical dimensions of the metamaterial based patch antenna are very small, which is convenient to modern communication. A 130 % bandwidth, covering the frequency band of 2.9-13.5 GHz, (for return loss less than or equal -10 dB) is achieved, which allow the antenna to operate in the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) band. In addition, the antenna has a good radiation pattern in the ultra-wide band spectrum, and it is nearly omnidirectional.

  3. Modified Sol-Gel Processing of NiCr2O4 Nanoparticles; Structural Analysis and Optical Band Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enhessari, Morteza; Salehabadi, Ali; Khanahmadzadeh, Salah; Arkat, Kamal; Nouri, Jalal

    2017-02-01

    Nickel Chromite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a modified sol-gel method using nickel acetate and ammonium dichromate in melted stearic acid as a complexing agent. The diffractograms of the nanoparticles confirmed a pure formation of NiCr2O4 spinel without any minor phase. The coordination structure of as prepared nanoparticles shows a series of absorption bands below 1,000 cm-1 were evidenced the M-O (Cr-O, Ni-O) bond in the sample. Optical band gap, magnetic properties and color parameters (L*.a*.b*) indicates that the final nanoparticles are optically and magnetically active. The particle size of NiCr2O4 was calculated using Scherrer equation at about 24 nm. Optical band gap obtained at 1.7 eV indicating that NiCr2O4 nanoparticles are semiconductor material and can be used in electrical devices.

  4. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-30

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  5. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-01

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  6. Effect of diet- and lifestyle-based metabolic risk-modifying interventions on preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rebecca; Rogozinska, Ewelina; Sivarajasingam, Priya; Khan, Khalid S; Thangaratinam, Shakila

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions with the potential to modify metabolic risk factors on the risk of preeclampsia. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane from inception until February 2013. Randomized trials in pregnant women evaluating the effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions with the potential to modify metabolic risks such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension on the risk of preeclampsia were included. Two independent reviewers selected studies, extracted data and assessed quality. Results were summarized as pooled relative risks (RR) for dichotomous data. Eighteen studies (8712 women) met our search criteria for inclusion. Six studies evaluated diet (2695 women), six studied mixed interventions with diet, physical activity and lifestyle (1438 women) and six assessed essential fatty acid supplementation (4579 women). The interventions overall reduced the risk of preeclampsia (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.94; p = 0.006 I(2) = 0%) compared with the control group. Dietary interventions reduced the risk of preeclampsia by 33% (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.85; p = 0.001; I(2) = 0%). There was no reduction in the risk of preeclampsia with mixed interventions (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.66-1.32, p = 0.68, I(2) = 0%) or fatty acid supplementation (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71-1.18; p = 0.49, I(2) = 15%). Meta-regression showed a borderline impact of gestational diabetes status (p = 0.05) on the observed effect. Dietary and lifestyle interventions have the potential to reduce the risk of preeclampsia. The effect of additional therapeutic interventions in women with gestational diabetes mellitus on preeclampsia is not known. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. A sensitivity analysis of the modified chi-square ratio statistic for equivalence testing of aerodynamic particle size distribution.

    PubMed

    Weber, Benjamin; Lee, Sau L; Lionberger, Robert; Li, Bing V; Tsong, Yi; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2013-04-01

    Demonstration of equivalence in aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) is one key component for establishing bioequivalence of orally inhaled drug products. We previously proposed a modified version of the Chi-square ratio statistic (mCSRS) for APSD equivalence testing and demonstrated that the median of the distribution of the mCSRS (MmCSRS) is a robust metric when test (T) and reference (R) cascade impactor (CI) profiles are identical. Here, we systematically evaluate the behavior of the MmCSRS when T and R CI profiles differ from each other in their mean deposition and variability on a single and multiple sites. All CI profiles were generated by Monte-Carlo simulations based upon modified actual CI data. Twenty thousand sets of 30 T and 30 R CI profiles were simulated for each scenario, and the behavior of the MmCSRS was correlated to metrics that characterize the difference between T and R product in mean deposition and variability. The two key findings were, first, that the MmCSRS is more sensitive to difference between T and R CI profiles on high deposition sites, and second, that a cut-off value for APSD equivalence testing based on the MmCSRS needs to be scaled on the variability of the R product. The former is considered as beneficial for equivalence testing of CI profiles as it decreases the likelihood of failing identical CI profiles by chance, in part, due to increasing analytical variability associated with lower deposition sites. The latter is expected to be important for consistently being able to discriminate equivalent from inequivalent CI profiles.

  8. Using nanostructured conductive carbon tape modified with bismuth as the disposable working electrode for stripping analysis in paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Zhang, Qing; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2013-10-15

    Low cost disposable working electrodes are specifically desired for practical applications of electrochemical detection considering maturity of electrochemical stations and data collection protocols. In this paper double-sided conductive adhesive carbon tape with nanostructure was applied to fabricate disposable working electrodes. Being supported by indium tin oxide glass, the prepared carbon tape electrodes were coated with bismuth film for stripping analysis of heavy metal ions. By integrating the bismuth modified electrodes with paper-based analytical devices, we were able to differentiate Zn, Cd and Pb ions with the sample volume of around 15 μL. After the optimization of parameters, including modification of bismuth film and the area of the electrodes, etc., Pb ions could be measured in the linear range from 10 to 500 μg/L with the detection limit of 2 μg/L. Our experimental results revealed that the disposable modified electrodes could be used to quantify migrated lead from toys with the results agreed well with that using atomic absorption spectrometry. Although bismuth modification and stripping analysis could be influenced by the low conductivity of the carbon tape, the low cost disposable carbon tape electrodes take the advantages of large-scaled produced double-sided carbon tape, including its reproducible nanostructure and scaled-up fabrication process. In addition, the preparation of disposable electrodes avoids time-consuming pretreatment and experienced operation. This study implied that the carbon tape might be an alternative candidate for practical applications of electrochemical detection.

  9. A modified laparoscopic hernioplasty (TAPP) is the standard procedure for inguinal and femoral hernias: a retrospective 17-year analysis with 1,123 hernia repairs.

    PubMed

    Peitsch, Werner K J

    2014-02-01

    Laparoscopic and endoscopic procedures generally are accepted for repair of primary and recurrent hernias that follow conventional (anterior) repair. This report discusses transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) for incarcerated hernias, scrotal hernias, and hernias after radical prostatectomy, as well as hernia recurrences after TAPP and totally extraperitoneal (TEP) procedures (complex hernias). Studies with long-term results of hernia recurrences are missing. This study aimed to determine hernia recurrence rates for adults after a modified TAPP procedure. The records of patients who had hernia repair surgery at a general hospital 2, 7, 12, and 17 years earlier were analyzed. Living patients were requested to complete a questionnaire to complement information from their hospital records. A retrospective analysis was undertaken that included 5,764 patients who had undergone hernia repair surgery 2-17 years earlier at a single large center. Between 1993 and 2009, a modified TAPP procedure was performed for 5,764 patients (median age, 59.1 years) to repair 6,776 hernias (93.9% of all hernia repairs), including 6,126 primary hernias (87.4%) and 884 recurrent hernias (12.6%). These included 994 complicated hernias (14.2%) closed by a modified TAPP (89.3% of all femoral hernias, 85.9% of scrotal hernias, 79.1% of incarcerated hernias, and 92.7% of hernias after radical prostatectomy). Limited financial and staff resources did not permit a quantitative follow-up study within a reasonable time of all 5,764 patients who had hernia surgery 2-18 years earlier. To obtain quantitative results of hernia recurrences after a modified TAPP, the patients were divided into four subgroups and requested to complete a questionnaire. These four patient subgroups whose surgeries had been performed 2 years earlier (241 patients with 277 hernias), 7 years earlier (285 patients with 376 hernias), 12 years earlier (401 patients with 544 hernias), and 17 years earlier (181 patients with 222

  10. An assessment of the barriers to the consumers' uptake of genetically modified foods: a neural network analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Entrena, Macario; Salazar-Ordóñez, Melania; Becerra-Alonso, David

    2016-03-30

    This paper studies which of the attitudinal, cognitive and socio-economic factors determine the willingness to purchase genetically modified (GM) food, enabling the forecasting of consumers' behaviour in Andalusia, southern Spain. This classification has been made by a standard multilayer perceptron neural network trained with extreme learning machine. Later, an ordered logistic regression was applied to determine whether the neural network can outperform this traditional econometric approach. The results show that the highest relative contributions lie in the variables related to perceived risks of GM food, while the perceived benefits have a lower influence. In addition, an innovative attitude towards food presents a strong link, as does the perception of food safety. The variables with the least relative contribution are subjective knowledge about GM food and the consumers' age. The neural network approach outperforms the correct classification percentage from the ordered logistic regression. The perceived risks must be considered as a critical factor. A strategy to improve the GM food acceptance is to develop a transparent and balanced information framework that makes the potential risk understandable by society, and make them aware of the risk assessments for GM food in the EU. For its success, it is essential to improve the trust in EU institutions and scientific regulatory authorities. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Direct extraction of genomic DNA from maize with aqueous ionic liquid buffer systems for applications in genetically modified organisms analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez García, Eric; Ressmann, Anna K; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Bica, Katharina; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    To date, the extraction of genomic DNA is considered a bottleneck in the process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Conventional DNA isolation methods are associated with long extraction times and multiple pipetting and centrifugation steps, which makes the entire procedure not only tedious and complicated but also prone to sample cross-contamination. In recent times, ionic liquids have emerged as innovative solvents for biomass processing, due to their outstanding properties for dissolution of biomass and biopolymers. In this study, a novel, easily applicable, and time-efficient method for the direct extraction of genomic DNA from biomass based on aqueous-ionic liquid solutions was developed. The straightforward protocol relies on extraction of maize in a 10 % solution of ionic liquids in aqueous phosphate buffer for 5 min at room temperature, followed by a denaturation step at 95 °C for 10 min and a simple filtration to remove residual biopolymers. A set of 22 ionic liquids was tested in a buffer system and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, as well as the environmentally benign choline formate, were identified as ideal candidates. With this strategy, the quality of the genomic DNA extracted was significantly improved and the extraction protocol was notably simplified compared with a well-established method.

  12. Ankle arthrodesis from lateral transfibular approach: analysis of treatment results of 23 feet treated by the modified Mann's technique.

    PubMed

    Napiontek, Marek; Jaszczak, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the results of treatment by ankle arthrodesis by modified Mann's technique. The study included 23 patients, and a total of 23 feet were treated. Stabilization of arthrodesis was performed by two screws going from the sinus tarsi to the talus and tibia. Lateral part of the fibula was fixed with one or two screws to the talus and tibia. No additional medial approach to the ankle was performed. In 16 feet, arthrodesis was done due to secondary posttraumatic osteoarthritis, in five due to paralytic drop foot and in two due to osteoarthritis of unknown etiology. In 18 patients, the purpose of arthrodesis was also to correct the malalignment. The average age at operation was 46 (range 19-74) years. The average follow-up was 32 (range 12-69) months. At follow-up, the average AOFAS score was 76 points and subjective scale result 7.9 points. The correct alignment was not achieved in three feet. In one foot, fusion was not achieved and the patient needed repeated operation. The study has confirmed the effectiveness of the technique.

  13. Quantitative analysis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in PEG-modified proteins/cytokines by aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Delgado, C; Malik, F; Selisko, B; Fisher, D; Francis, G E

    1994-12-01

    Covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to proteins produces conjugates with altered/improved physicochemical and biological properties which depend upon the number of PEG chains linked. Quantification of the attached PEG is however not a trivial issue. The partition coefficient, K, of the PEG-protein conjugate in PEG/dextran two-phase systems provides a quantitative measure for the degree of modification. A linear relationship between log K and the number of PEG chains was observed in fractionated PEG-modified-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor conjugates having 1 to 3 substitutions. Furthermore, in mixtures of PEG-bovine-serum-albumin conjugates with increasing degrees of modification, a linear relationship was found between log K and n, the average substitution. The increment in log K per PEG chain added is protein specific and this suggests that the interactions between the PEG-protein conjugate and the polymers in the phase system are more complex than just a simple affinity of the PEG for the PEG-rich top phase. Increasing the polymer concentration in the phase system produces larger increments in log K per PEG molecule attached and the proportionality between log K and number of PEG molecules is only compromised for conjugates with high degree of substitution when partitioned in biphasic systems of high concentration of polymers.

  14. A retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of a modified abdominal high uterosacral colpopexy in the treatment of uterine prolapse.

    PubMed

    Cunjian, Y; Li, L; Xiaowen, W; Shengrong, L; Hao, X; Xiangqiong, L

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of a novel method for high uterosacral colpopexy in the treatment of uterine prolapse. Thirty-one cases with severe pelvic organ prolapse diagnosed by pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) system received a novel high sacral colpopexy method. Clinical parameters associated perioperative period and 12 months after surgery and complications were analyzed. A questionnaire survey on pelvic floor distress inventory and pelvic organ prolapse/urinary incontinence and sexual function was implemented. Between January 2007 and June 2008, 31 patients successfully received a Modified Abdominal High Uterosacral Colpopexy. The mean operation time was 50 ± 15 min, and the average blood loss was 100 ± 20 mls. 28 Patients returned for a 1-year follow-up, and the average follow-up period was 14 ± 6 months. According to POP-Q system evaluation, the rate of operational success reached 100 %. There were no significant intraoperative and postoperative complications. A total of 31 responses on pelvic floor distress inventory short form questionnaire and 24 responses on pelvic organ prolapse/urinary incontinence sexual questionnaire showed that there was statistical significant difference before and after the procedure. This novel, high uterosacral colpopexy method is a safe and effective method for the treatment of uterine prolapse.

  15. Nano-EBIC analysis: An attempt to describe the surface recombination effects by the modified Donolato probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hdiy, Abdelillah

    2017-07-01

    Donolato minority carrier collection probability [Sol. Stat. Electron. 28, (1985) 1143-115] is used to describe the surface recombination effects between zero and infinite values of the surface recombination velocity. The probability function is modified for a nano-electrode. An opening angle and a ;specific; length are introduced. The opening angle leads to the emerged charge to ;see; the electrode, and the ;specific; length describes an average distance travelled by the charge at the surface sample before being collected by the nano-contact. Results show that both minority carrier effective diffusion length and collection efficiency maximum increase when the ;specific; length is increased. The effective diffusion length varies from 0.3 μm for infinite velocity to 0.9 μm for velocity zero. The latter is 10% smaller than the bulk diffusion Length because of both the nano-scale contact and the bi-dimensional diffusion space which affect the collection probability, and hence the collection efficiency profile.

  16. Experimental and numerical study of nanofluid in heat exchanger fitted by modified twisted tape: exergy analysis and ANN prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddah, Heydar; Ghasemi, Nahid; Keyvani, Bahram; Cheraghali, Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Present study provides an experimental investigation of the exergetic efficiency due to the flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in different geometries and flow regimes of the double pipe heat exchangers. The experiments with different Geometrical Progression Ratio (GPR) of twists as the new modified twisted tapes and different nanofluid concentration were performed under similar operation condition. Pitch length of the proposed twisted tapes and consequently the twist ratios changed along the twists with respect to the Geometrical Progression Ratio (GPR) whether reducer (RGPR < 1) or increaser (IGPR > 1). Regarding the experimental data, utilization of RGPR twists together with nanofluids tends to increase exergetic efficiency. Since the Prediction of exergetic efficiency from experimental process is complex and time consuming, artificial neural networks for identification of the relationship, which may exist between the thermal and flow parameters and exergetic efficiency, have been utilized. The network input consists of five parameters ({Re} ,\\Pr ,φ, Tr, GPR) that crucially dominate the heat transfer process. The results proved that the introduced ANN model is reliable and capable in proposing a proper development plan for a heat exchanger and/or to determine the optimal plan of operation for heat transfer process.

  17. Experimental and numerical study of nanofluid in heat exchanger fitted by modified twisted tape: exergy analysis and ANN prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddah, Heydar; Ghasemi, Nahid; Keyvani, Bahram; Cheraghali, Ramin

    2016-09-01

    Present study provides an experimental investigation of the exergetic efficiency due to the flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in different geometries and flow regimes of the double pipe heat exchangers. The experiments with different Geometrical Progression Ratio (GPR) of twists as the new modified twisted tapes and different nanofluid concentration were performed under similar operation condition. Pitch length of the proposed twisted tapes and consequently the twist ratios changed along the twists with respect to the Geometrical Progression Ratio (GPR) whether reducer (RGPR < 1) or increaser (IGPR > 1). Regarding the experimental data, utilization of RGPR twists together with nanofluids tends to increase exergetic efficiency. Since the Prediction of exergetic efficiency from experimental process is complex and time consuming, artificial neural networks for identification of the relationship, which may exist between the thermal and flow parameters and exergetic efficiency, have been utilized. The network input consists of five parameters (Re,Pr ,φ, Tr, GPR) that crucially dominate the heat transfer process. The results proved that the introduced ANN model is reliable and capable in proposing a proper development plan for a heat exchanger and/or to determine the optimal plan of operation for heat transfer process.

  18. Construction of measurement uncertainty profiles for quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms based on interlaboratory validation data.

    PubMed

    Macarthur, Roy; Feinberg, Max; Bertheau, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the size of uncertainty associated with the measurement of products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The method is based on the uncertainty profile, which is an extension, for the estimation of uncertainty, of a recent graphical statistical tool called an accuracy profile that was developed for the validation of quantitative analytical methods. The application of uncertainty profiles as an aid to decision making and assessment of fitness for purpose is also presented. Results of the measurement of the quantity of GMOs in flour by PCR-based methods collected through a number of interlaboratory studies followed the log-normal distribution. Uncertainty profiles built using the results generally give an expected range for measurement results of 50-200% of reference concentrations for materials that contain at least 1% GMO. This range is consistent with European Network of GM Laboratories and the European Union (EU) Community Reference Laboratory validation criteria and can be used as a fitness for purpose criterion for measurement methods. The effect on the enforcement of EU labeling regulations is that, in general, an individual analytical result needs to be < 0.45% to demonstrate compliance, and > 1.8% to demonstrate noncompliance with a labeling threshold of 0.9%.

  19. Vibration analysis of a rotating functionally graded tapered microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory by DQEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Shafiei, Navvab; Alireza Mousavi, S.

    2016-09-01

    Due to having difficulty in solving governing nonlinear differential equations of a non-uniform microbeam, a few numbers of authors have studied such fields. In the present study, for the first time, the size-dependent vibration behavior of a rotating functionally graded (FG) tapered microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory is investigated using differential quadrature element method (DQEM). It is assumed that physical and mechanical properties of the FG microbeam are varying along the thickness that will be defined as a power law equation. The governing equations are determined using Hamilton's principle, and DQEM is presented to obtain the results for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions. The accuracy and validity of the results are shown in several numerical examples. In order to display the influence of size on the first two natural frequencies and consequently changing of some important microbeam parameters such as material length scale, rate of cross section, angular velocity and gradient index of the FG material, several diagrams and tables are represented. The results of this article can be used in designing and optimizing elastic and rotary-type micro-electro-mechanical systems like micro-motors and micro-robots including rotating parts.

  20. Automation of a procedure to find the polynomial which best fits (kappa, c1, c2, T) data of electrolyte solutions by non-linear regression analysis using MATHEMATICA software.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, E; Usobiaga, A; Fernández, L A; de, Diego A; Madariaga, J M

    2002-02-01

    A MATHEMATICA package, 'CONDU.M', has been developed to find the polynomial in concentration and temperature which best fits conductimetric data of the type (kappa, c, T) or (kappa, c1, c2, T) of electrolyte solutions (kappa: specific conductivity; ci: concentration of component i; T: temperature). In addition, an interface, 'TKONDU', has been written in the TCL/Tk language to facilitate the use of CONDU.M by an operator not familiarised with MATHEMATICA. All this software is available on line (UPV/EHU, 2001). 'CONDU.M' has been programmed to: (i) select the optimum grade in c1 and/or c2; (ii) compare models with linear or quadratic terms in temperature; (iii) calculate the set of adjustable parameters which best fits data; (iv) simplify the model by elimination of 'a priori' included adjustable parameters which after the regression analysis result in low statistical significance; (v) facilitate the location of outlier data by graphical analysis of the residuals; and (vi) provide quantitative statistical information on the quality of the fit, allowing a critical comparison among different models. Due to the multiple options offered the software allows testing different conductivity models in a short time, even if a large set of conductivity data is being considered simultaneously. Then, the user can choose the best model making use of the graphical and statistical information provided in the output file. Although the program has been initially designed to treat conductimetric data, it can be also applied for processing data with similar structure, e.g. (P, c, T) or (P, c1, c2, T), being P any appropriate transport, physical or thermodynamic property.

  1. Cryptorchidism and testicular germ cell tumors: comprehensive meta-analysis reveals that association between these conditions diminished over time and is modified by clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Kimberly; Tuazon, Ellenie; Berhane, Kiros; Koh, Chester J.; De Filippo, Roger E.; Chang, Andy; Kim, Steve S.; Daneshmand, Siamak; Davis-Dao, Carol; Lewinger, Juan P.; Bernstein, Leslie; Cortessis, Victoria K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) is consistently associated with a history of cryptorchidism (CO) in epidemiologic studies. Factors modifying the association may provide insights regarding etiology of TGCT and suggest a basis for individualized care of CO. To identify modifiers of the CO-TGCT association, we conducted a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of epidemiologic data. Materials and Methods: Human studies cited in PubMed or ISI Web of Science indices through December 2011 and selected unpublished epidemiologic data were reviewed to identify 35 articles and one unpublished dataset with high-quality data on the CO-TGCT association. Association data were extracted as point and 95% confidence interval estimates of odds ratio (OR) or standardized incidence ratio (SIR), or as tabulated data. Values were recorded for each study population, and for subgroups defined by features of study design, CO and TGCT. Extracted data were used to estimate summary risk ratios (sRR) and evaluate heterogeneity of the CO-TGCT association between subgroups. Results: The overall meta-analysis showed that history of CO is associated with four-fold increased TGCT risk [RR = 4.1(95% CI = 3.6–4.7)]. Subgroup analyses identified five determinants of stronger association: bilateral CO, unilateral CO ipsilateral to TGCT, delayed CO treatment, TGCT diagnosed before 1970, and seminoma histology. Conclusions: Modifying factors may provide insight into TGCT etiology and suggest improved approaches to managing CO. Based on available data, CO patients and their parents or caregivers should be made aware of elevated TGCT risk following orchidopexy, regardless of age at repair, unilateral vs. bilateral non-descent, or position of undescended testes. PMID:23423470

  2. Investigation of continuous effect modifiers in a meta-analysis on higher versus lower PEEP in patients requiring mechanical ventilation - protocol of the ICEM study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Categorizing an inherently continuous predictor in prognostic analyses raises several critical methodological issues: dependence of the statistical significance on the number and position of the chosen cut-point(s), loss of statistical power, and faulty interpretation of the results if a non-linear association is incorrectly assumed to be linear. This also applies to a therapeutic context where investigators of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are interested in interactions between treatment assignment and one or more continuous predictors. Methods/Design Our goal is to apply the multivariable fractional polynomial interaction (MFPI) approach to investigate interactions between continuous patient baseline variables and the allocated treatment in an individual patient data meta-analysis of three RCTs (N = 2,299) from the intensive care field. For each study, MFPI will provide a continuous treatment effect function. Functions from each of the three studies will be averaged by a novel meta-analysis approach for functions. We will plot treatment effect functions separately for each study and also the averaged function. The averaged function with a related confidence interval will provide a suitable basis to assess whether a continuous patient characteristic modifies the treatment comparison and may be relevant for clinical decision-making. The compared interventions will be a higher or lower positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation strategy in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The continuous baseline variables body mass index, PaO2/FiO2, respiratory compliance, and oxygenation index will be the investigated potential effect modifiers. Clinical outcomes for this analysis will be in-hospital mortality, time to death, time to unassisted breathing, and pneumothorax. Discussion This project will be the first meta-analysis to combine continuous treatment effect functions derived by the MFPI procedure separately in each of several RCTs

  3. Does school social capital modify socioeconomic inequality in mental health? A multi-level analysis in Danish schools.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Bendtsen, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-09-01

    It seems that social capital in the neighbourhood has the potential to reduce socioeconomic differences in mental health among adolescents. Whether school social capital is a buffer in the association between socioeconomic position and mental health among adolescents remains uncertain. The aim of this study is therefore to examine if the association between socioeconomic position and emotional symptoms among adolescents is modified by school social capital. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Methodology Development Study 2012 provided data on 3549 adolescents aged 11-15 in two municipalities in Denmark. Trust in the school class was used as an indicator of school social capital. Prevalence of daily emotional symptoms in each socioeconomic group measured by parents' occupational class was calculated for each of the three categories of school classes: school classes with high trust, moderate trust and low trust. Multilevel logistic regression analyses with parents' occupational class as the independent variable and daily emotional symptoms as the dependent variable were conducted stratified by level of trust in the school class. The prevalence of emotional symptoms was higher among students in school classes with low trust (12.9%) compared to school classes with high trust (7.2%) (p < 0.01). In school classes with low level of trust, the odds ratio for daily emotional symptoms was 1.89 (95% CI 1.25-2.86) in the low socioeconomic group compared to the high socioeconomic group. In school classes characterised by high and moderate trust, there were no statistically significant differences in emotional symptoms between high and low socioeconomic groups. Although further studies are needed, this cross-sectional study suggests that school social capital may reduce mental health problems and diminish socioeconomic inequality in mental health among adolescents.

  4. A modified release analysis procedure using advanced froth flotation mechanisms. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that the optimum separation performances achieved by multiple stage cleaning using various column flotation technologies and single stage cleaning using a Packed-Flotation Column are superior to the performance achieved by the traditional release procedure, especially in terms of pyritic sulfur rejection. This superior performance is believed to be the result of the advanced flotation mechanisms provided by column flotation technologies. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a suitable process utilizing the advanced froth flotation mechanisms to characterize the true flotation response of a coal sample. This investigation resulted in the development of a modified coal flotation characterization procedure, termed as the Advanced Flotation Washability (AFW) technique. The apparatus used for this procedure is a batch operated Packed-Column device which provides enhanced selectivity due to a plug-flow environment and a deep froth zone. The separation performance achieved by the AFW procedure was found to be superior to those produced by the conventional tree and release procedures for three nominally -100 mesh coal samples and two micronized samples. The largest difference in separation performance was obtained on the basis of product pyritic sulfur content. A comparison conducted between the AFW and the release procedures at an 80% recovery value showed that the AFW technique provided a 19% improvement in the reduction of pyritic sulfur. For an Illinois No. 5 coal sample, this improvement corresponded to a reduction in pyritic sulfur content from 1.38% to 0.70% or a total rejection of 66%. Micronization of the sample improved the pyritic sulfur rejection to 85% while rejecting 92% of the ash-bearing material. In addition, the separation performance provided by the AFW procedure was superior to that obtained from multiple cleaning stages using a continuous Packed-Column under both kinetic and carrying-capacity limiting conditions.

  5. Modified Statistical Dynamical Diffraction Theory: A Novel Metrological Analysis Method for Partially Relaxed and Defective Carbon-doped Silicon and Silicon Germanium Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreeman, Paul K.

    The statistical dynamical diffraction theory, which has been initially developed by late Kato remained in obscurity for many years due to intense and difficult mathematical treatment that proved to be quite challenging to implement and apply. With assistance of many authors in past (including Bushuev, Pavlov, Pungeov, and among the others), it became possible to implement this unique x-ray diffraction theory that combines the kinematical (ideally imperfect) and dynamical (the characteristically perfect diffraction) into a single system of equations controlled by two factors determined by long range order and correlation function within the structure. The first stage is completed by the publication (Shreeman and Matyi, J. Appl. Cryst., 43, 550 (2010)) demonstrating the functionality of this theory with new modifications hence called modified statistical dynamical diffraction theory (mSDDT). The foundation of the theory is also incorporated into this dissertation, and the next stage of testing the model against several ion-implanted SiGe materials has been published: (Shreeman and Matyi, physica status solidi (a)208(11), 2533-2538, 2011). The dissertation with all the previous results summarized, dives into comprehensive analysis of HRXRD analyses complete with several different types of reflections (symmetrical, asymmetrical and skewed geometry). The dynamical results (with almost no defects) are compared with well-known commercial software. The defective materials, to which commercially available modeling software falls short, is then characterized and discussed in depth. The results will exemplify the power of the novel approach in the modified statistical dynamical diffraction theory: Ability to detect and measure defective structures qualitatively and quantitatively. The analysis will be compared alongside with TEM data analysis for verification and confirmation. The application of this theory will accelerate the ability to quickly characterize the relaxed

  6. Preparation of magnetic core-mesoporous shell microspheres with C8-modified interior pore-walls and their application in selective enrichment and analysis of mouse brain peptidome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Li, Yan; Deng, Chunhui; Mao, Yu; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yang, Pengyuan

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres with C8-modified interior pore-walls were prepared through a facile one-pot sol-gel coating strategy, and were successfully applied for selective enrichment of endogenous peptides in mouse brain for peptidome analysis. Through the one-pot sol-gel approach with surfactant (CTAB) as a template, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and n-ctyltriethoxysilane (C8TEOS) as the precursors, C8-modified magnetic mesoporous microspheres (C8-Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2)) consisting magnetic core and mesoporous silica shell with C8-groups exposed in the mesopore channels were synthesized. The obtained microspheres possess highly open mesopores of 3.4 nm, high surface area (162.5 m(2)/g), large pore volume (0.17 cm(3)/g), excellent magnetic responsivity (56.3 emu/g) and good dispersibility in aqueous solution. Based on the abundant surface silanol groups, functional C8 groups and the strong magnetic responsivity of the core-shell C8-Fe(3) O(4) @mSiO(2) microspheres, efficient and fast enrichment of peptides was achieved. Additionally, the C8-Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres exhibit excellent performance in selective enrichment of endogenous peptides from complex samples that are consist of peptides, large proteins and other compounds, including human serum and mouse brain followed by automated nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These results indicate C8-Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres would be a potential candidate for endogenous peptides enrichment and biomarkers discovery in peptidome analysis.

  7. Analysis of trace contamination of phthalate esters in ultrapure water using a modified solid-phase extraction procedure and automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsu-Chuan; Den, Walter; Chan, Shu-Fei; Kin, Kuan Tzu

    2008-04-25

    The present study was aimed to develop a procedure modified from the conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the analysis of trace concentration of phthalate esters in industrial ultrapure water (UPW). The proposed procedure allows UPW sample to be drawn through a sampling tube containing hydrophobic sorbent (Tenax TA) to concentrate the aqueous phthalate esters. The solid trap was then demoisturized by two-stage gas drying before subjecting to thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This process removes the solvent extraction procedure necessary for the conventional SPE method, and permits automation of the analytical procedure for high-volume analyses. Several important parameters, including desorption temperature and duration, packing quantity and demoisturizing procedure, were optimized in this study based on the analytical sensitivity for a standard mixture containing five different phthalate esters. The method detection limits for the five phthalate esters were between 36 ng l(-1) and 95 ng l(-1) and recovery rates between 15% and 101%. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) was not recovered adequately because the compound was both poorly adsorbed and desorbed on and off Tenax TA sorbents. Furthermore, analyses of material leaching from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) tubes as well as the actual water samples showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the common contaminants detected from PVC contaminated UPW and the actual UPW, as well as in tap water. The reduction of DEHP in the production processes of actual UPW was clearly observed, however a DEHP concentration of 0.20 microg l(-1) at the point of use was still being quantified, suggesting that the contamination of phthalate esters could present a barrier to the future cleanliness requirement of UPW. The work demonstrated that the proposed modified SPE procedure provided an effective method for rapid analysis and contamination

  8. Effect of Modified Otago Exercises on Postural Balance, Fear of Falling, and Fall Risk in Older Fallers with Knee Osteoarthritis and Impaired Gait and Balance: A Secondary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mat, Sumaiyah; Ng, Chin Teck; Tan, Pey June; Ramli, Norlisah; Fadzli, Farhana; Rozalli, Faizatul Izza; Mazlan, Mazlina; Hill, Keith D; Tan, Maw Pin

    2017-08-18

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is considered an established risk factor for falls. Published studies evaluating secondary falls prevention strategies among OA sufferers are limited. To evaluate the effect of a personalized home-based exercise program to improve postural balance, fear of falling and falls risk in older fallers with knee OA and gait and balance problems. Randomized controlled trial SETTING: University of Malaya Medical Centre PARTICIPANT: Fallers who had both radiological OA and a Timed Up and Go (TUG) score of over 13.5s. Postural sway (composite sway) was quantified with the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) under four different sensory conditions: eyes open on firm surface, eyes closed on firm surface, eyes open on unstable foam surface, and eyes closed on unstable foam surface. Participants were asked to stand upright and to attempt to hold their position for 10 seconds for each test condition. The average reading for all conditions were calculated. Participants randomized to the intervention arm received home-based modified Otago exercises (OEP) as part of a multifactorial intervention, while control participants received general health advice and conventional treatment. This was a secondary sub-group analysis from an original randomized controlled trial, the Malaysian Falls Assessment and Intervention Trial (MyFAIT) (trial registration number: ISRCTN11674947). Posturography using a long force plate balance platform (Balancemaster, Neurocom(TM), USA), the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Short Falls Efficacy Scare-International (FES-I) were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results of 41 fallers with radiological evidence of OA and impaired TUG (intervention = 17; control = 24) were available for final analysis. Between-group analysis revealed significant improvements in the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB), Limits of Stability (LOS) and short FES-I scores by the

  9. Free vibration and biaxial buckling analysis of magneto-electro-elastic microplate resting on visco-Pasternak substrate via modified strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalpoor, A.; Ahmadi-Savadkoohi, A.; Hosseini-Hashemi, Sh

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of free vibration and biaxial buckling of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) microplate resting on Kelvin-Voigt visco-Pasternak foundation and subjected to initial external electric and magnetic potentials, using modified strain gradient theory (MSGT). Kirchhoff plate model and Hamilton’s principle are employed to extract the governing equations of motion. Governing equations were analytically solved to obtain clear closed-form expression for complex natural frequencies and buckling loads using Navier’s approach. Numerical results are presented to reveal variations of natural frequency and buckling load ratio of MEE microplate against different amounts of the length scale parameter, initial external electric and magnetic potentials, aspect ratio, damping and transverse and shear stiffness parameters of the visco-Pasternak foundation, length to thickness ratio, microplate thickness and higher modes. Numerical results of this study illustrate that by increasing thickness-to-material length scale parameter ratio, both natural frequency and buckling load ratio predicted by MSGT and modified couple stress theory are reduced because the non-dimensional length scale parameter tends to decrease the stiffness of structures and make them more flexible. In addition, results show that initial external electric and initial external magnetic potentials have no considerable influence on the buckling load ratio and frequency of MEE microplate as the microplate thickness increases.

  10. Genetic analysis of genes involved in synthesis of modified 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose in flagellin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh Chi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Andi, Salamah; Taguchi, Fumiko; Iwaki, Masako; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Ishii, Tadashi; Konishi, Tomoyuki; Tsunemi, Kazuhiko; Ichinose, Yuki

    2009-12-01

    Glycosylation of flagellin contributes to swimming and swarming motilities, adhesion ability, and consequently virulence in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605. Glycans attached to six serine residues are located in the central region of the flagellin polypeptide. The glycan structure at position Ser 201 was recently revealed to consist of two L-rhamnoses and one modified 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose (viosamine). To clarify the mechanisms for glycosylation of modified viosamine, genes encoding dTDP-viosamine aminotransferase (vioA), dTDP-viosamine acetyltransferase (vioB), and viosamine-derivative transferase (vioT) were isolated and defective mutants were generated. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of a lysyl endopeptidase-digested peptide including all six glycosylation sites from each flagellin indicated that the molecular masses of the three flagellin mutants were reduced with highly heterogeneous patterns at regular intervals of 146 Da in the mass range from m/z 13,819 to 15,732. The data indicated that the glycopeptides obtained from mutants had glycans consisting only of deoxyhexose instead of the flagellin glycans including the viosamine derivatives determined previously. The motility and virulence on host tobacco leaves were strongly impaired in the Delta vioA mutant and were weakly reduced in the Delta vioB and Delta vioT mutant strains. These results suggest that the genes vioA, vioB, and vioT are essential for glycosylation of flagellin, and accordingly are required for bacterial virulence.

  11. Facile synthesis of Cu(2+)-modified mesoporous silica-coated magnetic graphene composite for enrichment of microcystin-LR followed by mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2016-07-01

    MCs is a group of potent hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacterial in eutrophic water, among which microcystin-LR is the most abundant and toxic. Long-time accumulation of even trace dosage from drinking water would cause significantly hepatic injury to animal and humans. Here we reported a novel Cu(2+)-modified mesoporous silica coated magnetic graphene composite (magG@mSiO2@-Cu(2+)) through mild sol-gel process and surface modification. Next, the composites were successfully applied for enrichment and separation of microcystin-LR followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis based on the virtues of excellent hydrophilicity, high surface area (261cm(2)g(-1)), sensitively magnetic separation property, accessible porosity (3.10nm) and large amount of modified Cu(2+) ions. Even performed in a lower concentration (0.5μg/L), at which microcystin-LR could not be detected directly, after treatment with the composites the S/N ratio could appear to be 82.93. Furthermore, the novel composites also exhibited high enrichment efficiency in real water sample. It provided a sensitive and efficient technique for enrichment and detection of microcystin-LR and developed a potent method for separation of pollutant in contaminated water.

  12. Bromination of Aromatic Compounds by Residual Bromide in Sodium Chloride Matrix Modifier Salt During Heated Headspace GC/MS Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation rea...

  13. Bromination of Aromatic Compounds by Residual Bromide in Sodium Chloride Matrix Modifier Salt During Heated Headspace GC/MS Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation rea...

  14. Modified first-order Horava-Lifshitz gravity: Hamiltonian analysis of the general theory and accelerating FRW cosmology in a power-law F(R) model

    SciTech Connect

    Carloni, Sante; Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Oksanen, Markku

    2010-09-15

    We propose the most general modified first-order Horava-Lifshitz gravity, whose action does not contain time derivatives higher than the second order. The Hamiltonian structure of this theory is studied in all the details in the case of the spatially-flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time, demonstrating many of the features of the general theory. It is shown that, with some plausible assumptions, including the projectability of the lapse function, this model is consistent. As a large class of such theories, the modified Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity is introduced. The study of its ultraviolet properties shows that its z=3 version seems to be renormalizable in the same way as the original Horava-Lifshitz proposal. The Hamiltonian analysis of the modified Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity shows that it is in general a consistent theory. The F(R) gravity action is also studied in the fixed-gauge form, where the appearance of a scalar field is particularly illustrative. Then the spatially-flat FRW cosmology for this F(R) gravity is investigated. It is shown that a special choice of parameters for this theory leads to the same equations of motion as in the case of traditional F(R) gravity. Nevertheless, the cosmological structure of the modified Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity turns out to be much richer than for its traditional counterpart. The emergence of multiple de Sitter solutions indicates the possibility of unification of early-time inflation with late-time acceleration within the same model. Power-law F(R) theories are also investigated in detail. It is analytically shown that they have a quite rich cosmological structure: early-/late-time cosmic acceleration of quintessence, as well as of phantom types. Also it is demonstrated that all the four known types of finite-time future singularities may occur in the power-law Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity. Finally, a covariant proposal for (renormalizable) F(R) gravity within the Horava-Lifshitz spirit is presented.

  15. Does a modified STarT Back Tool predict outcome with a broader group of musculoskeletal patients than back pain? A secondary analysis of cohort data

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J C; Afolabi, E K; Lewis, M; Roddy, E; van der Windt, D A; Foster, N E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The STarT Back Tool has good predictive performance for non-specific low back pain in primary care. We therefore aimed to investigate whether a modified STarT Back Tool predicted outcome with a broader group of musculoskeletal patients, and assessed the consequences of using existing risk-group cut-points across different pain regions. Setting Secondary analysis of prospective data from 2 cohorts: (1) outpatient musculoskeletal physiotherapy services (PhysioDirect trial n=1887) and (2) musculoskeletal primary–secondary care interface services (SAMBA study n=1082). Participants Patients with back, neck, upper limb, lower limb or multisite pain with a completed modified STarT Back Tool (baseline) and 6-month physical health outcome (Short Form 36 (SF-36)). Outcomes Area under the receiving operator curve (AUCs) tested discriminative abilities of the tool's baseline score for identifying poor 6-month outcome (SF-36 lower tertile Physical Component Score). Risk-group cut-points were tested using sensitivity and specificity for identifying poor outcome using (1) Youden's J statistic and (2) a clinically determined rule that specificity should not fall below 0.7 (false-positive rate <30%). Results In PhysioDirect and SAMBA, poor 6-month physical health was 18.5% and 28.2%, respectively. Modified STarT Back Tool score AUCs for predicting outcome in back pain were 0.72 and 0.79, neck 0.82 and 0.88, upper limb 0.79 and 0.86, lower limb 0.77 and 0.83, and multisite pain 0.83 and 0.82 in PhysioDirect and SAMBA, respectively. Differences between pain region AUCs were non-significant. Optimal cut-points to discriminate low-risk and medium-risk/high-risk groups depended on pain region and clinical services. Conclusions A modified STarT Back Tool similarly predicts 6-month physical health outcome across 5 musculoskeletal pain regions. However, the use of consistent risk-group cut-points was not possible and resulted in poor sensitivity (too many with long

  16. Psychometric analysis and critical appraisal of the original, revised, and modified versions of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Julio C; Catharine Craven, B

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of nontraumatic spinal cord impairment and disability in the world. Given that the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score is the most frequently used outcome measure in clinical research and practice for treating patients with CSM, this review was undertaken to comprehensively and critically evaluate the psychometric properties of the JOA score. METHODS The authors identified studies (published in the period of January 1975 to November 2015) on the psychometric properties of the original, revised, and modified versions of the JOA score in Medline, PsycINFO, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), American College of Physicians Journal Club, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Additional publications were captured in a secondary search of the bibliographies in both original research articles and literature reviews identified in the original search. The JOA scores were evaluated for item generation and reduction, internal consistency, reliability, validity, and responsiveness. This review included all those versions of the JOA score whose psychometric properties had been reported in at least 2 published studies. RESULTS The primary search strategy identified 59 studies, of which 9 fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. An additional 18 publications were captured in the secondary search and included in the analysis. The key findings from the 27 studies analyzed indicated the following: 1) the original JOA score (1975) was the source for the revised JOA score (1994) and 3 modified versions (1991, 1993, and 1999 JOA scores) reported or used in at least 2 published studies; 2) the revised and modified versions of the JOA score are markedly different from each other; 3) only the revised JOA score (1994) was validated with the original JOA score; and 4) the 1975 JOA score is the most appropriate instrument for assessing patients in Asian populations (especially from Japan) because

  17. A mathematical approach for the simultaneous in vitro spectrophotometric analysis of rifampicin and isoniazid from modified-release anti-TB drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Lisa; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya

    2010-01-01

    Dissolution testing with subsequent analysis is considered as an imperative tool for quality evaluation of the combination rifampicin-isoniazid (RIF-INH) combination. Partial least squares (PLS) regression has been successfully undertaken to select suitable predictor variables and to identify outliers for the generation of equations for RIF and INH determination in fixed-dose combinations (FDCs). The aim of this investigation was to ascertain the applicability of the described technique in testing a novel oral FDC anti-TB drug delivery system and currently available two-drug FDCs, in comparison to the United States Pharmacopeial method for analysis of RIF and INH Capsules with chromatographic determination of INH and colorimetric RIF determination. Regression equations generated employing the statistical coefficients satisfactorily predicted RIF release at each sampling point (R(2)>or=0.9350). There was an acceptable degree of correlation between the drug release data, as predicted by regressional analysis of UV spectrophotometric data, and chromatographic and colorimetric determination of INH (R(2)=0.9793 and R(2)=0.9739) and RIF (R(2)= 0.9976 and R(2)=0.9996) for the two-drug FDC and the novel oral anti-TB drug delivery system, respectively. Regressional analysis of UV spectrophotometric data for simultaneous RIF and INH prediction thus provides a simplified methodology for use in diverse research settings for the assurance of RIF bioavailability from FDC formulations, specifically modified-release forms.

  18. An exploration of self-management support in the context of palliative nursing: a modified concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of self-management is often ambiguous, yet, it is an important area in clinical practice for palliative nurses. A clear conceptual understanding, however, of what it represents is lacking. Method This paper reports an analysis of the concept of self-management support in palliative nursing. Avant and Walker’s method was used to guide this concept analysis. A search of electronic databases (1990–2013), use of internet search engines and supplementary hand searching produced an international data set of reviews, empirical research, editorials, protocols and guidelines. Results Based on the analysis self-management support in palliative nursing has been defined as assessing, planning, and implementing appropriate care to enable the patient to live until they die and supporting the patient to be given the means to master or deal with their illness or their effects of their illness themselves. Conclusions Clarity with the concept of self-management support and palliative nursing could enable nurses to provide more patient and family centred care to people facing life threatening illnesses. PMID:25120381

  19. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-70-35-5245 crossing Big Walnut Creek in Putnam County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sedimenttransport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-70-35-5245 on Interstate 70 crossing Big Walnut Creek in Pumam.County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Manhattan in the southwestern part of Putnam County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 17.0 feet for the modeled discharge of 29,200 cubic feet per second and approximately 30.9 feet for the modeled discharge of 49,600 cubic feet per second.

  20. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-69-87-4781 crossing Wabash River in Huntington County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-69-87-4781 on Interstate 69 crossing Wabash River in Huntington County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Markle in the eastern part of Huntington County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 13.1 feet for the modeled discharge of 10,600 cubic feet per second and approximately 14.6 feet for the modeled discharge of 17,000 cubic feet per second.

  1. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-69-76-4775 crossing Salamonie River in Huntington County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-69-76-4775 on Interstate 69 crossing Salamonie River in Huntington County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Warren in the southeastern part of Huntington County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 13.7 feet for the modeled discharge of 15,800 cubic feet per second and approximately 20.9 feet for the modeled discharge of 26,900 cubic feet per second.

  2. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-74-32-4946 crossing Sugar Creek in Montgomery County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sedient-transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Levell II analysis for structure I-74-32-4946 on Interstate 74 crossing Sugar Creek in Montgomery County, Indiana are presented. The site is near the town of Crawfordsville in the central part of Montgomery County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 13.0 feet for the modeled discharge of 3,000  cubic feet per second and approximately 15.1 feet for the modeled discharge of 41,900 cubic feet per second.

  3. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-65-85-5527 crossing Sugar Creek in Johnson County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-65-85-5527 on Interstate 65 crossing Sugar Creek in Johnson County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Amity in the southeastern part of Johnson County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 26.8 feet for the modeled discharge of 26,000 cubic feet per second and approximately 30.8 feet for the modeled discharge of 34,100 cubic feet per second

  4. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-70-141-4972 crossing Greens Fork in Wayne County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-70-141-4972 on Interstate 70 crossing Greens Fork in Wayne County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Jacksonburg in the west-central part of Wayne County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 23.0 feet for the modeled discharge of 8,900 cubic feet per second and approximately 28.1 feet for the modeled discharge of 11,500 cubic feet per second.

  5. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-70-104-5128 crossing Brandywine Creek in Hancock County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sedient-transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. the results of the modified Levell II analysis for structure I-70-104-5128 on Interstate 70 crossing Brandywine Creek in Hancock County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Greenfield in the central part of Hancock County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 6.5 feet for the modeled discharge of 6,900 cubic feet per second and approximately 8.0 feet for the modeled discharge of 9,140 cubic feet per second.

  6. Modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) for the analysis of centrifugally assisted TiC-Fe-Al2O3 combustion synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, M. A.; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, M.

    2014-01-01

    A modified smoothed particle hydrodynamic (MSPH) computational technique was utilized to simulate molten particle motion and infiltration speed on multi-scale analysis levels. The radial velocity and velocity gradient of molten alumina, iron infiltration in the TiC product and solidification rate, were predicted during centrifugal self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) simulation, which assisted the coating process by MSPH. The effects of particle size and temperature on infiltration and solidification of iron and alumina were mainly investigated. The obtained results were validated with experimental microstructure evidence. The simulation model successfully describes the magnitude of iron and alumina diffusion in a centrifugal thermite SHS and Ti + C hybrid reaction under centrifugal acceleration. PMID:24430621

  7. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-65-120-6016 crossing Little Eagle Creek and I-65 in Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sedient-transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. the results of the modified Levell II analysis for structure I-65-120-6016 on Georgetown Road crossing Little Eagle Creek and 1-65 in Marion County, Indiana, are presented. The site is in the city of Indianapolis in the northwestern part of Marion County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 5.2 feet for the modeled discharge of 3,450  cubic feet per second and approximately 5.6 feet for the modeled discharge of 5,210 cubic feet per second.

  8. Development of on-line monitoring system for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) using neuro-expert, noise analysis, and modified neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Subekti, M.; Ohno, T.; Kudo, K.; Nabeshima, K.; Takamatsu, K.

    2006-07-01

    The neuro-expert has been utilized in previous monitoring-system research of Pressure Water Reactor (PWR). The research improved the monitoring system by utilizing neuro-expert, conventional noise analysis and modified neural networks for capability extension. The parallel method applications required distributed architecture of computer-network for performing real-time tasks. The research aimed to improve the previous monitoring system, which could detect sensor degradation, and to perform the monitoring demonstration in High Temperature Engineering Tested Reactor (HTTR). The developing monitoring system based on some methods that have been tested using the data from online PWR simulator, as well as RSG-GAS (30 MW research reactor in Indonesia), will be applied in HTTR for more complex monitoring. (authors)

  9. Structures, spectroscopic analysis, herbicidal activities and enamine-aminone tautomerism of new β-diketone derivatives modified with glycylglycine methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hualing; Shi, Jun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Lv, Lijuan; Duan, Jiawei

    2015-06-01

    New β-diketone derivatives modified with glycylglycine methyl ester have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, the analytical results show that compound 1 and compound 2a exist in enamine form while compound 2b exists in aminone form. The optimized geometries and theoretical vibrational frequencies of the compounds calculated by using DFT/B3LYP with 6-31g (d, p) basis set in t