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Sample records for modified conductimetrical analysis

  1. Lipase assay in duodenal juice using a conductimetric method.

    PubMed

    Ballot, C; Favre-Bonvin, G; Wallach, J M

    1984-11-15

    Lipase activity in duodenal juice is known to undergo important variations in pathologic states, especially in cases of chronic pancreatitis. Almost all of the current assay methods are based on the measurement of hydrolysis of olive oil or triolein, mainly by potentiometry. As we have developed a conductimetric method for enzyme activity measurements, we have applied it to lipase assay. A higher experimental conductimetric sensitivity is obtained when liberated acids have a short chain (higher limiting equivalent conductivity). We have therefore used triacetin as a substrate and compared out method with potentiometry (pH-stat) and spectrophotometry. The correlation coefficients of both methods with conductimetry were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, indicating that the conductimetric method may be used for lipase assay in duodenal juice, using triacetin as a substrate.

  2. Ethanal assay, using an enzymo-conductimetric method

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, I.; Wallach, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    An enzymo-conductimetric method for the assay of ethanol is described. It is based on ethanol oxidation is presence of yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase. Experimental conditions compatible with conductimetry were optimized and kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction determined. Due to the low K{sub M} value of ethanol for the enzyme, an end-point assay was proposed. A linear relationship was demonstrated between experimental conductance changes and ethanol concentration up to 25 {mu}M. Validation of the assay was made on wines by comparison with a spectrophotometric method. Both methods gave similar results, but conductimetry avoids sample treatment if solutions are colored or turbid.

  3. Automated conductimetric assay of human serum cholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Duffy, P; Wallach, J M

    1989-01-01

    Serum cholinesterase activity was determined by conductimetry using samples in the microliter range. Butyrylcholine iodide was demonstrated to be a convenient substrate for the conductimetric assay. Validation of the microassay was made by using either purified enzyme or control serum. In the range of 0-60 U/l, a linear relationship was demonstrated. Correlation with a reference spectrophotometric method was obtained with a slope of 1.18. An explanation of this value is proposed, as different hydrolysis rates were obtained with human sera, depending on the substrate used (butyrylthio- or butyryl-choline ester).

  4. Systematic errors in conductimetric instrumentation due to bubble adhesions on the electrodes: An experimental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakantaswamy, P. S.; Rajaratnam, A.; Kisdnasamy, S.; Das, N. P.

    1985-02-01

    Systematic errors in conductimetric measurements are often encountered due to partial screening of interelectrode current paths resulting from adhesion of bubbles on the electrode surfaces of the cell. A method of assessing this error quantitatively by a simulated electrolytic tank technique is proposed here. The experimental setup simulates the bubble-curtain effect in the electrolytic tank by means of a pair of electrodes partially covered by a monolayer of small polystyrene-foam spheres representing the bubble adhesions. By varying the number of spheres stuck on the electrode surface, the fractional area covered by the bubbles is controlled; and by measuring the interelectrode impedance, the systematic error is determined as a function of the fractional area covered by the simulated bubbles. A theoretical model which depicts the interelectrode resistance and, hence, the systematic error caused by bubble adhesions is calculated by considering the random dispersal of bubbles on the electrodes. Relevant computed results are compared with the measured impedance data obtained from the electrolytic tank experiment. Results due to other models are also presented and discussed. A time-domain measurement on the simulated cell to study the capacitive effects of the bubble curtain is also explained.

  5. Conductimetric Biosensor for the Detection of Uric Acid by Immobilization Uricase on Nata de Coco Membrane—Pt Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Mulyasuryani, Ani; Srihardiastutie, Arie

    2011-01-01

    A conductimetric enzyme biosensor for uric acid detection has been developed. The uricase, as enzyme, is isolated from Candida utilis and immobilized on a nata de coco membrane-Pt electrode. The biosensor demonstrates a linear response to urate over the concentration range 1–6 ppm and has good selectivity properties. The response is affected by the membrane thickness and pH change in the range 7.5–9.5. The response time is three minutes in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. Application of the biosensor to the determination of uric acid in human serum gave results that compared favourably with those obtained by medical laboratory. The operational stability of the biosensor was not less than three days and the relative error is smaller than 10%. PMID:21792276

  6. Conductimetric biosensor for the detection of uric Acid by immobilization uricase on nata de coco membrane-pt electrode.

    PubMed

    Mulyasuryani, Ani; Srihardiastutie, Arie

    2011-01-01

    A conductimetric enzyme biosensor for uric acid detection has been developed. The uricase, as enzyme, is isolated from Candida utilis and immobilized on a nata de coco membrane-Pt electrode. The biosensor demonstrates a linear response to urate over the concentration range 1-6 ppm and has good selectivity properties. The response is affected by the membrane thickness and pH change in the range 7.5-9.5. The response time is three minutes in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. Application of the biosensor to the determination of uric acid in human serum gave results that compared favourably with those obtained by medical laboratory. The operational stability of the biosensor was not less than three days and the relative error is smaller than 10%.

  7. Error Analysis of Modified Langevin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redon, Stephane; Stoltz, Gabriel; Trstanova, Zofia

    2016-08-01

    We consider Langevin dynamics associated with a modified kinetic energy vanishing for small momenta. This allows us to freeze slow particles, and hence avoid the re-computation of inter-particle forces, which leads to computational gains. On the other hand, the statistical error may increase since there are a priori more correlations in time. The aim of this work is first to prove the ergodicity of the modified Langevin dynamics (which fails to be hypoelliptic), and next to analyze how the asymptotic variance on ergodic averages depends on the parameters of the modified kinetic energy. Numerical results illustrate the approach, both for low-dimensional systems where we resort to a Galerkin approximation of the generator, and for more realistic systems using Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Transactional Analysis Model: Modified and Extended.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Joseph J.

    This theoretical paper explores the implications of some modifications and extensions of the Transactional Analysis (TA) theory of personality and attempts to understand some specific aspects of human nature and behavior in evolutionary terms. "Ego State" as used in TA designates both a structural and functional unit of the personality. The term,…

  9. A Modified Content Analysis of Existing School Psychology Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallin, Barry; Schellenberg, Miriam E.; Smith, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Discrepancies between our university's training program's report-writing guidelines and common practice in Manitoba could not be resolved by reference to the literature. To inform the discussion, we collected a sample of local real world school psychology reports and undertook a modified content analysis to operationally define and measure…

  10. Modified shielding jet model for twin-jet shielding analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, C. H.; Gilbride, J.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model to estimate the shielding of noise emitted from a point noise source has been developed assuming the shielding jet to be a cylinder of constant radius with uniform flow across the cross section. Comparison to experiment indicated that the model overestimates diffraction of sound around the jet in the far downstream region. The shielding jet model is modified to include widening downstream of the nozzle exit. This not only represents a more realistic model of the jet, but is also expected to improve the shielding estimate downstream. The modified jet model incorporates a Mach number dependent widening rate, a corresponding decrease in flow velocity downstream and an equivalent slug flow evaluation to retain the locally parallel flow approximation of the model development. The shielding analysis with modified jet model is compared to measured data for a subsonic isothermal air jet and a simulated hot subsonic jet. Improvement of the shielding estimate is discussed.

  11. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

    2006-12-15

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products.

  12. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

    2006-12-15

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products. PMID:16860900

  13. Modified permutation-entropy analysis of heartbeat dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Chunhua; Qin, Chang; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Shen, Qinghong

    2012-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) contains important information about the modulation of the cardiovascular system. Various methods of nonlinear dynamics (e.g., estimating Lyapunov exponents) and complexity measures (e.g., correlation dimension or entropies) have been applied to HRV analysis. Permutation entropy, which was proposed recently, has been widely used in many fields due to its conceptual and computational simplicity. It maps a time series onto a symbolic sequence of permutation ranks. The original permutation entropy assumes the time series under study has a continuous distribution, thus equal values are rare and can be ignored by ranking them according to their order of emergence, or broken by adding small random perturbations to ensure every symbol in a sequence is different. However, when the observed time series is digitized with lower resolution leading to a greater number of equal values, or the equalities represent certain characteristic sequential patterns of the system, it may not be rational to simply ignore or break them. In the present paper, a modified permutation entropy is proposed that, by mapping the equal value onto the same symbol (rank), allows for a more accurate characterization of system states. The application of the modified permutation entropy to the analysis of HRV is investigated using clinically collected data. Results show that modified permutation entropy can greatly improve the ability to distinguish the HRV signals under different physiological and pathological conditions. It can characterize the complexity of HRV more effectively than the original permutation entropy.

  14. Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Soltani-Gordefaramarzi, Sajjad; Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Moosa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, copper ferrite nanoparticle (CFN) was synthesized, modified by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, and characterized. Dye removal ability of the surface modified copper ferrite nanoparticle (SMCFN) from single system was investigated. The physical characteristics of SMCFN were studied using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Acid Blue 92, Direct Green 6, Direct Red 23, and Direct Red 80 were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters (surfactant concentration, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and pH) on dye removal was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis of the dye removal data. The experimental checking in these optimal conditions confirms good agreements with RSM results. The results showed that the SMCFN being a magnetic adsorbent might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions. PMID:23852534

  15. Quantitative microstructure analysis of polymer-modified mortars.

    PubMed

    Jenni, A; Herwegh, M; Zurbriggen, R; Aberle, T; Holzer, L

    2003-11-01

    Digital light, fluorescence and electron microscopy in combination with wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy were used to visualize individual polymers, air voids, cement phases and filler minerals in a polymer-modified cementitious tile adhesive. In order to investigate the evolution and processes involved in formation of the mortar microstructure, quantifications of the phase distribution in the mortar were performed including phase-specific imaging and digital image analysis. The required sample preparation techniques and imaging related topics are discussed. As a form of case study, the different techniques were applied to obtain a quantitative characterization of a specific mortar mixture. The results indicate that the mortar fractionates during different stages ranging from the early fresh mortar until the final hardened mortar stage. This induces process-dependent enrichments of the phases at specific locations in the mortar. The approach presented provides important information for a comprehensive understanding of the functionality of polymer-modified mortars.

  16. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues.

  17. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; Titus, Peter

    2015-06-21

    The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagneticmore » simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.« less

  18. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    SciTech Connect

    Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; Titus, Peter

    2015-06-21

    The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagnetic simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Multifractal analysis of weighted networks by a modified sandbox algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu-Qin; Liu, Jin-Long; Yu, Zu-Guo; Li, Bao-Gen

    2015-12-01

    Complex networks have attracted growing attention in many fields. As a generalization of fractal analysis, multifractal analysis (MFA) is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns. Some algorithms for MFA of unweighted complex networks have been proposed in the past a few years, including the sandbox (SB) algorithm recently employed by our group. In this paper, a modified SB algorithm (we call it SBw algorithm) is proposed for MFA of weighted networks. First, we use the SBw algorithm to study the multifractal property of two families of weighted fractal networks (WFNs): “Sierpinski” WFNs and “Cantor dust” WFNs. We also discuss how the fractal dimension and generalized fractal dimensions change with the edge-weights of the WFN. From the comparison between the theoretical and numerical fractal dimensions of these networks, we can find that the proposed SBw algorithm is efficient and feasible for MFA of weighted networks. Then, we apply the SBw algorithm to study multifractal properties of some real weighted networks — collaboration networks. It is found that the multifractality exists in these weighted networks, and is affected by their edge-weights.

  20. Multifractal analysis of weighted networks by a modified sandbox algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yu-Qin; Liu, Jin-Long; Yu, Zu-Guo; Li, Bao-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks have attracted growing attention in many fields. As a generalization of fractal analysis, multifractal analysis (MFA) is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns. Some algorithms for MFA of unweighted complex networks have been proposed in the past a few years, including the sandbox (SB) algorithm recently employed by our group. In this paper, a modified SB algorithm (we call it SBw algorithm) is proposed for MFA of weighted networks. First, we use the SBw algorithm to study the multifractal property of two families of weighted fractal networks (WFNs): “Sierpinski” WFNs and “Cantor dust” WFNs. We also discuss how the fractal dimension and generalized fractal dimensions change with the edge-weights of the WFN. From the comparison between the theoretical and numerical fractal dimensions of these networks, we can find that the proposed SBw algorithm is efficient and feasible for MFA of weighted networks. Then, we apply the SBw algorithm to study multifractal properties of some real weighted networks — collaboration networks. It is found that the multifractality exists in these weighted networks, and is affected by their edge-weights. PMID:26634304

  1. Multifractal analysis of weighted networks by a modified sandbox algorithm.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Qin; Liu, Jin-Long; Yu, Zu-Guo; Li, Bao-Gen

    2015-12-04

    Complex networks have attracted growing attention in many fields. As a generalization of fractal analysis, multifractal analysis (MFA) is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns. Some algorithms for MFA of unweighted complex networks have been proposed in the past a few years, including the sandbox (SB) algorithm recently employed by our group. In this paper, a modified SB algorithm (we call it SBw algorithm) is proposed for MFA of weighted networks. First, we use the SBw algorithm to study the multifractal property of two families of weighted fractal networks (WFNs): "Sierpinski" WFNs and "Cantor dust" WFNs. We also discuss how the fractal dimension and generalized fractal dimensions change with the edge-weights of the WFN. From the comparison between the theoretical and numerical fractal dimensions of these networks, we can find that the proposed SBw algorithm is efficient and feasible for MFA of weighted networks. Then, we apply the SBw algorithm to study multifractal properties of some real weighted networks - collaboration networks. It is found that the multifractality exists in these weighted networks, and is affected by their edge-weights.

  2. The phase-space analysis of modified gravity (MOG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Sara; Roshan, Mahmood

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the cosmological consequences of a scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravity known as modified gravity (MOG). In MOG, in addition to metric tensor, there are two scalar fields G( x) and μ (x), and one vector field φ _{α }(x). Using the phase space analysis, we explore the cosmological consequences of a model of MOG and find some new interesting features which are absent in Λ CDM model. More specifically we study the possibility that if the extra fields of this theory behave like dark energy to explain the cosmic speedup. More interestingly, with or without cosmological constant, a strongly phantom crossing occurs. Also we find that this theory in its original form (Λ ≠ 0) possesses a true sequence of cosmological epochs. However, we show that, surprisingly, there are two radiation-dominated epochs, f_5 and f_6, two matter-dominated phases, f_3 and f_4, and two late time accelerated eras, f_{12} and f7. Depending on the initial conditions the universe will realize only three of these six eras. However, the matter-dominated phases are dramatically different from the standard matter-dominated epoch. In these phases the cosmic scale factor grows as a(t)˜ t^{0.46} and t^{0.52}, respectively, which are slower than the standard case, i.e. a(t)˜ t^{2/3}. Considering these results we discuss the cosmological viability of MOG.

  3. Modified effective range analysis of electron scattering from krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedus, Kamil

    2014-10-01

    The elastic cross sections for electron scattering on krypton from zero energy up to 10 eV have been analyzed by the modified effective range method. A simple model based on the analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation with the polarization potential using explicitly determined scattering phase shifts for the three lowest partial waves describes the elastic differential, integral and momentum transfer cross sections up to the energy threshold of the first inelastic process well. In detail, the contribution of the long-range polarization potential to the scattering phase shift is exactly expressed, while the contribution of the short-range effects is modelled by simple quadratic expressions (the effective range expansions). The effective range parameters are determined empirically by comparison with the latest experimental differential cross sections. Presently, the calculated integral and momentum transfer cross sections are validated against numerous electron scattering experiments and the most recent quantum-mechanical theories. To complete the picture, the two-term Boltzmann analysis is employed to determine the electron transport coefficients; the agreement with the electron swarm experimental data is found to be very good.

  4. Modified pulsar current analysis: probing magnetic field evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshev, A. P.; Popov, S. B.

    2014-10-01

    We use a modified pulsar current analysis to study magnetic field decay in radio pulsars. In our approach, we analyse the flow not along the spin period axis as has been performed in previous studies, but study the flow along the direction of growing characteristic age, τ =P/(2dot{P}). We perform extensive tests of the method and find that in most of the cases it is able to uncover non-negligible magnetic field decay (more than a few tens of per cent during the studied range of ages) in normal radio pulsars for realistic initial properties of neutron stars. However, precise determination of the magnetic field decay time-scale is not possible at present. The estimated time-scale may differ by a factor of few for different sets of initial distributions of neutron star parameters. In addition, some combinations of initial distributions and/or selection effects can also mimic enhanced field decay. We apply our method to the observed sample of radio pulsars at distances <10 kpc in the range of characteristic ages 8 × 104 < τ < 106 yr where, according to our study, selection effects are minimized. By analysing pulsars in the Parkes Multibeam and Swinburne surveys, we find that, in this range, the field decays roughly by a factor of 2. With an exponential fit, this corresponds to the decay time-scale ˜4 × 105 yr. With larger statistics and better knowledge of the initial distribution of spin periods and magnetic field strength, this method can be a powerful tool to probe magnetic field decay in neutron stars.

  5. Zinc electrowinning analysis in a modified Hull cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColm, Thomas Dean

    The Hull cell is an analytical cell designed with trapezoidal geometry to incorporate a range of current densities into a single experiment. It was conceived to examine electroplating processes rather than mass production processes. A modified analytical cell was designed, developed and applied to the diagnosis of zinc electrowinning. Emphasis was placed on obtaining the quantitative variation of current efficiency with current density and the associated microscopic variation in deposit morphology. Current density distributions came by placing an insulating baffle in between parallel electrodes. The baffle position and length were easily adjusted, allowing the generation of 12 different distributions for a single applied potential. Ten electrically isolated 1 cm2 segments comprised the cathode. Measurement of the potential drop across I ohm resistors in each of the ten isolated parallel branches permitted direct quantitative determination of current densities. The small segments permitted simple SEM and X-ray analysis of deposits. The cell was designed to allow the continual cycling of electrolyte. In conjunction with experimental analysis, a technique for the determination of current efficiency was tested and developed. The technique involved the comparison of charge passed for the electrodeposition and subsequent electrodissolution of a given mass of zinc and removed the necessity to determine the mass directly. In no prior studies on zinc electrowinning had current efficiencies been determined this way. The cell and technique were developed and verified by the correct diagnosis of industrial zinc electrowinning. Successful determination of the effects of key variables including temperature, acid to zinc ratio and impurity effects on current efficiency and deposit morphology was demonstrated. In parallel with experimental work, cell electrochemistry was modeled. Primary and secondary input parameters were those pertinent to zinc electrowinning. The resultant

  6. Chitosan-Modified Graphene Electrodes for DNA Mutation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alwarappan, Subbiah; Cissell, Kyle; Dixit, Suraj; Mohapatra, Shyam; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Graphene has remarkable electrochemical properties that make it an ideal material for constructing biosensors,however it has not been explored for DNA biosensing. Herein, we report on a chitosan-modified graphene platform for the electrochemical detection of changes in DNA sequences. For this purpose, graphene synthesized chemically and characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy, was covalently modified with positively charged chitosan to facilitate the immobilization of a single-stranded DNA `capture' oligonucleotide. The covalent attachment of chitosan to graphene was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and then the capture DNA was immobilized on to the chitosan modified graphene electrode. Then, the target DNA (complementary or mismatched `mutant' DNA) was applied to the electrode and cyclic voltammetry was performed. The results of the voltammetric experiments indicate that the chitosan modified graphene electrodes immobilized with ssDNA+complementary DNA exhibit a significantly higher magnitude of redox peak current than the chitosan modified graphene electrodes immobilized with the non-complementary mutant DNAs. Together, these results demonstrate that the chitosan-graphene platform provides a rapid, stable and sensitive detection of mismatched DNA and has the potential to be used for point-of-care diagnostic tests for specific DNA mutations associated with disease conditions. PMID:23472058

  7. ANALYSIS OF OUT OF DATE MCU MODIFIER LOCATED IN SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.

    2014-10-22

    SRNL recently completed density measurements and chemical analyses on modifier samples stored in drums within SRNL. The modifier samples date back to 2008 and are in various quantities up to 40 gallons. Vendor information on the original samples indicates a shelf life of 5 years. There is interest in determining if samples that have been stored for more than the 5 year shelf life are still acceptable for use. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent component Cs-7SB [(2,2,3,3- tetraflouropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, CAS #308362-88-1] is used as a diluent modifier to increase extractant solubility and provide physical characteristics necessary for diluent trimming.

  8. Erosion Modeling Analysis For Modified DWPF SME Tank

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, SI

    2004-05-03

    In support of an erosion evaluation for the modified cooling coil guide and its supporting structure in the DWPF SME vessel, a computational model was developed to identify potential sites of high erosion using the same methodology established by previous work. The erosion mechanism identified in the previous work was applied to the evaluation of high erosion locations representative of the actual flow process in the modified coil guide of the SME vessel, abrasive erosion which occurs by high wall shear of viscous liquid. The results show that primary locations of the highest erosion due to the abrasive wall erosion are at the leading edge of the guide, external surface of the insert plate, the tank floor next to the insert plate of the coil guide support, and the upstream lead-in plate. The present modeling results show a good comparison between the original and the modified cases in terms of high erosion sites, as well as the degree of erosion and the calculated shear stress. Wall she ar of the tank floor is reduced by about 30 per cent because of the new coil support plate. Calculations for the impeller speed lower than 103 rpm in the SME showed similar erosion patterns but significantly reduced wall shear stresses and reduced overall erosion. Comparisons of the 103 rpm results with SME measurements indicated that no significant erosion of the tank floor in the SME is to be expected. Thus, it is recommended that the agitator speed of SME does not exceed 103 rpm.

  9. The Use of a Modified Semantic Features Analysis Approach in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Frome, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported improved naming using the semantic feature analysis (SFA) approach in individuals with aphasia. Whether the SFA can be modified and still produce naming improvements in aphasia is unknown. The present study was designed to address this question by using a modified version of the SFA approach. Three, rather than the…

  10. Analysis of modified SMI method for adaptive array weight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dilsavor, R. L.; Moses, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive array is applied to the problem of receiving a desired signal in the presence of weak interference signals which need to be suppressed. A modification, suggested by Gupta, of the sample matrix inversion (SMI) algorithm controls the array weights. In the modified SMI algorithm, interference suppression is increased by subtracting a fraction F of the noise power from the diagonal elements of the estimated covariance matrix. Given the true covariance matrix and the desired signal direction, the modified algorithm is shown to maximize a well-defined, intuitive output power ratio criterion. Expressions are derived for the expected value and variance of the array weights and output powers as a function of the fraction F and the number of snapshots used in the covariance matrix estimate. These expressions are compared with computer simulation and good agreement is found. A trade-off is found to exist between the desired level of interference suppression and the number of snapshots required in order to achieve that level with some certainty. The removal of noise eigenvectors from the covariance matrix inverse is also discussed with respect to this application. Finally, the type and severity of errors which occur in the covariance matrix estimate are characterized through simulation.

  11. A Bootstrap Generalization of Modified Parallel Analysis for IRT Dimensionality Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Holmes; Monahan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a bootstrap generalization to the Modified Parallel Analysis (MPA) method of test dimensionality assessment using factor analysis. This methodology, based on the use of Marginal Maximum Likelihood nonlinear factor analysis, provides for the calculation of a test statistic based on a parametric bootstrap using the MPA…

  12. Ergonomic analysis of working posture in nursing personnel: example of modified Ovako Working Analysis System application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Chiou, W K

    1995-02-01

    A postural analysis system was developed using a biomechanical approach to identify low back pain related working postures of nursing personnel. The Ovako Working Analysis System (OWAS) was modified for doing postural recording. Chaffin's biomechanical model was used to calculate the associated work stress on the L5/S1. The system was applied to examine the working postures of 64 nurses of 16 departments. The frequency distribution of the trunk showed 15.9% of the 8,629 observed postures were bending more than 15 degrees. Based on the calculated stress, 17.0% of the observed postures generated forces higher than the recommended action limit of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). In addition to patient transfers, potentially health hazardous postures were identified in nursing tasks of inspection, nursing techniques, instrumentation, physical examination, taking inventory, and documentation.

  13. Modified generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis for stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Huang, Jingjing

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a modified method of generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis is proposed as a new measure to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. The method based on Hausdorff distance presents a different way of time series patterns match showing distinct behaviors of complexity. Simulations are conducted over synthetic and real-world data for providing the comparative study. Results show that the modified method is more sensitive to the change of dynamics and has richer information. In addition, exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the curves obtained from the modified method and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data.

  14. Computational analysis of a modified guarded hot plate experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Jerman, Miloš; Trník, Anton; Černý, Robert

    2012-09-01

    A combined experimental-numerical approach for determination of apparent thermal conductivity of nonhomogenous large blocks, such as hollow clay bricks, is presented. In the first part, the input parameters (temperatures, heat fluxes) are measured. In the subsequent numerical analysis, errors in measurement given by heat losses are corrected and apparent thermal conductivity is evaluated.

  15. Modified electrokinetic sample injection method in chromatography and electrophoresis analysis

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, J. Courtney; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    A sample injection method for horizontal configured multiple chromatography or electrophoresis units, each containing a number of separation/analysis channels, that enables efficient introduction of analyte samples. This method for loading when taken in conjunction with horizontal microchannels allows much reduced sample volumes and a means of sample stacking to greatly reduce the concentration of the sample. This reduction in the amount of sample can lead to great cost savings in sample preparation, particularly in massively parallel applications such as DNA sequencing. The essence of this method is in preparation of the input of the separation channel, the physical sample introduction, and subsequent removal of excess material. By this method, sample volumes of 100 nanoliter to 2 microliters have been used successfully, compared to the typical 5 microliters of sample required by the prior separation/analysis method.

  16. Reanalysis, compatibility and correlation in analysis of modified antenna structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1989-01-01

    A simple computational procedure is synthesized to process changes in the microwave-antenna pathlength-error measure when there are changes in the antenna structure model. The procedure employs structural modification reanalysis methods combined with new extensions of correlation analysis to provide the revised rms pathlength error. Mainframe finite-element-method processing of the structure model is required only for the initial unmodified structure, and elementary postprocessor computations develop and deal with the effects of the changes. Several illustrative computational examples are included. The procedure adapts readily to processing spectra of changes for parameter studies or sensitivity analyses.

  17. Blade design and analysis using a modified Euler solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, O.; Vandenbraembussche, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    An iterative method for blade design based on Euler solver and described in an earlier paper is used to design compressor and turbine blades providing shock free transonic flows. The method shows a rapid convergence, and indicates how much the flow is sensitive to small modifications of the blade geometry, that the classical iterative use of analysis methods might not be able to define. The relationship between the required Mach number distribution and the resulting geometry is discussed. Examples show how geometrical constraints imposed upon the blade shape can be respected by using free geometrical parameters or by relaxing the required Mach number distribution. The same code is used both for the design of the required geometry and for the off-design calculations. Examples illustrate the difficulty of designing blade shapes with optimal performance also outside of the design point.

  18. Modified method of analysis for surgical correction of facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Terpsithea; Kau, Chung How; Waite, Peter D.; Kheir, Nadia Abou; Mouritsen, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this article was to present a new method of analysis using a three dimensional (3D) model of an actual patient with facial asymmetry, for the assessment of her facial changes and the quantification of the deformity. This patient underwent orthodontic and surgical treatment to correct a severe facial asymmetry. Materials and Methods: The surgical procedure was complex and the case was challenging. The treatment procedure required an orthodontic approach followed by Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, septorhinoplasty and chin advancement. The imaging devices used in this paper is the 3dMDface system (Atlanta, GA) and the Kodak 9500 Cone Beam 3D system device (Atlanta, GA). 3D digital stereophotogrammetric cameras were used for image acquisition and a reverse modeling software package, the Rapidform 2006 Software (INUS Technology, Seoul, Korea) was applied for surface registration. The images were also combined and analyzed using the 3dMD vultus (Atlanta, GA) software and InVivoDental 5.2.3 (San Jose, CA). All data gathered from previously mentioned sources were adjusted to the patient's natural head position. Results: The 3D images of the patient were taken and analyzed in three time frames; before orthodontics and surgical treatment (T1), at the end of orthodontic therapy and before surgery (T2) and about 2 months after surgery (T3). The patient showed significant improvement of her skeletal discrepancy between T1 and T3. In addition, there were some dentoalveolar changes between T1 and T2 as expected. The 3D analysis of surgical changes on the 3D models correlated very well to the actual surgical movements. Conclusions: The use of these 3D imaging tools offer a reliable accuracy to accessing and quantifying changes that occur after surgery. This study shows supportive evidence for the use of 3D imaging techniques. PMID:24205481

  19. In Vitro Analysis of Fibronectin-Modified Titanium Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Haw-Ming; Lin, Che-Tong; Teng, Nai-Chia; Chang, Wei Jen

    2016-01-01

    Background Glow discharge plasma (GDP) procedure is an effective method for grafting various proteins, including albumin, type I collagen, and fibronectin, onto a titanium surface. However, the behavior and impact of titanium (Ti) surface modification is yet to be unraveled. Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the biological properties of fibronectin-grafted Ti surfaces treated by GDP. Materials and Methods Grade II Ti discs were initially cleaned and autoclaved to obtain original specimens. Subsequently, the specimens were GDP treated and grafted with fibronectin to form Ar-GDP (Argon GDP treatment only) and GDP-fib (fibronectin coating following GDP treatment) groups. Blood coagulation test and MG-63 cell culture were performed to evaluate the biological effects on the specimen. Results There was no significant difference between Ar-GDP and GDP-fib groups in blood compatibility analysis. While in the MTT test, cellular proliferation was benefited from the presence of fibronectin coating. The numbers of cells on Ar-GDP and GDP-fib specimens were greater than those in the original specimens after 24 h of culturing. Conclusions GDP treatment combined with fibronectin grafting favored MG-63 cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation on titanium surfaces, which could be attributed to the improved surface properties. PMID:26731536

  20. Failure Behavior Characterization of Mo-Modified Ti Surface by Impact Test and Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong; Qin, Jianfeng; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lin, Naiming; Huang, Xiaobo; Tang, Bin

    2015-07-01

    Using the impact test and finite element simulation, the failure behavior of the Mo-modified layer on pure Ti was investigated. In the impact test, four loads of 100, 300, 500, and 700 N and 104 impacts were adopted. The three-dimensional residual impact dents were examined using an optical microscope (Olympus-DSX500i), indicating that the impact resistance of the Ti surface was improved. Two failure modes cohesive and wearing were elucidated by electron backscatter diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometer performed in a field-emission scanning electron microscope. Through finite element forward analysis performed at a typical impact load of 300 N, stress-strain distributions in the Mo-modified Ti were quantitatively determined. In addition, the failure behavior of the Mo-modified layer was determined and an ideal failure model was proposed for high-load impact, based on the experimental and finite element forward analysis results.

  1. Comments on "A modified reachability tree approach to analysis of unbounded Petri nets".

    PubMed

    Ru, Yu; Wu, Weimin; Hadjicostis, Christoforos N

    2006-10-01

    The above paper introduced the construction of a modified reachability tree (MRT) for (unbounded) Petri nets and its application to reachability, liveness, and deadlock analysis. This note shows via a counterexample that some of the MRT properties claimed in the above paper are incorrect.

  2. Enhancing Classification by Combining Discriminant Analysis with a Modified AID Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Sam; Schmidt, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    A modified automatic interaction detector (MAID) was combined with discriminant analysis (DA) to form MAIDDA and to determine whether it might improve classification results over classical DA methods. Application of MAIDDA to the 1983 and 1984 Air Force Academy's graduating classes (N = 3,012) showed that it is a promising clustering technique.…

  3. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. PMID:24518318

  4. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis.

  5. Linear stability analysis and the speed of gravitational waves in dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Garfinkle, David; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolas

    2010-08-15

    We perform a linear stability analysis of dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity in the geometric optics approximation and find that it is linearly stable on the backgrounds considered. Our analysis also reveals that gravitational waves in the modified theory travel at the speed of light in Minkowski spacetime. However, on a Schwarzschild background the characteristic speed of propagation along a given direction splits into two modes, one subluminal and one superluminal. The width of the splitting depends on the azimuthal components of the propagation vector, is linearly proportional to the mass of the black hole, and decreases with the third inverse power of the distance from the black hole. Radial propagation is unaffected, implying that as probed by gravitational waves the location of the event horizon of the spacetime is unaltered. The analysis further reveals that when a high frequency, pure gravitational wave is scattered from a black hole, a scalar wave of comparable amplitude is excited, and vice versa.

  6. Matrix modifiers for feedstuff selenium analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.F.; Zeringue, L.K.

    1988-01-01

    Gallium, Co, Mn, Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn, dissolved in methanol, were evaluated for efficacy as an alternate volume matrix modifier in Se analysis of forages and concentrates. Gallium, Co, Mn, and Zn were unsuitable as modifiers. Nickel, Cd, Cu, and modifier M (Ni + Cd + Cu) were used to test recovery of Se addition (.025, .050, .100, .200, and .500 ..mu..g) in meat and bone meal, pelleted grain dust, dry milk replacer, whole soybeans, and alfalfa hay. Recovery of Se with Cu, Cd, and M had large and variable SD of means within Se concentrations across feedstuffs and within feedstuff across Se concentrations. Mean percent recoveries of Se with the Ni modifier for the five concentrations over all feedstuffs were 106.4, 102.4, 100.2, 97.5, and 97.4, respectively. Repeated analyses of these same five feedstuffs, plus National Bureau of Standards citrus leaves and corn stalk (recommended Se = .016 ..mu..g/g), gave Se concentration (means ..mu..g/g) of .423, .104, .168, .196, .624, .027, and .015, respectively. Results obtained with Cd, Cu, and M had larger SD than did results obtained with Ni. Nickel nitrate in methanol as an alternate volume matrix modifier for Se provided reliable and sensititive Se analyses for a variety of feedstuffs.

  7. Aeroelastic analysis and ground vibration survey of the NASA, Grumman American Yankee modified for spin testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A complete ground vibration and aeroelastic analysis was made of a modified version of the Grumman American Yankee. The aircraft had been modified for four empennage configurations, a wing boom was added, a spin chute installed and provisions included for large masses in the wing tip to vary the lateral and directional inertia. Other minor changes were made which have much less influence on the flutter and vibrations. Neither static divergence nor aileron reversal was considered since the wing structure was not sufficiently changed to affect its static aeroelastic qualities. The aircraft was found to be free from flutter in all of the normal modes explored in the ground shake test. The analysis demonstrated freedom from flutter up to 214 miles per hour.

  8. A modified code for R-mode correspondence analysis of large-scale problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Mingren; Carr, James R.

    2001-03-01

    A modified FORTRAN code for R-mode correspondence analysis is presented for large-scale digital image analysis problems. It reduces the required memory capacity by more than a factor of 4 M, where M is the number of variables considered per sample. The original code, CORSPOND, requires 4 NM memory, where N is the total number of samples that are considered. The modified code requires only an N-dimensional vector to form the matrix S. For a PC having 128 MB RAM, the code can be used for a problem with up to N=253,000 and M=30. The code automatically detects, then shifts negative values to zeros or positive values. Applications to grey-level co-occurrence matrix parameter data are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the code.

  9. Understanding Gas Phase Modifier Interactions in Rapid Analysis by Differential Mobility-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L.; Wong, Bryan M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Glick, James J.; Vouros, Paul

    2014-07-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas-phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using nucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes, and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 106 normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab initio thermochemical results, we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry, but at lower temperatures, multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects.

  10. Understanding gas phase modifier interactions in rapid analysis by Differential Mobility-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L.; Wong, Bryan M.; Fornace, Albert J.; Glick, James J.; Vouros, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility- mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using mucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 106 normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab-initio thermochemical results we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry in mobility differences, but at lower temperatures multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects. PMID:24452298

  11. Understanding gas phase modifier interactions in rapid analysis by differential mobility-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Amol; Coy, Stephen L; Wong, Bryan M; Fornace, Albert J; Glick, James J; Vouros, Paul

    2014-07-01

    A systematic study involving the use and optimization of gas-phase modifiers in quantitative differential mobility-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) analysis is presented using nucleoside-adduct biomarkers of DNA damage as an important reference point for analysis in complex matrices. Commonly used polar protic and polar aprotic modifiers have been screened for use against two deoxyguanosine adducts of DNA: N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4-ABP) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-y1)-2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP). Particular attention was paid to compensation voltage (CoV) shifts, peak shapes, and product ion signal intensities while optimizing the DMS-MS conditions. The optimized parameters were then applied to rapid quantitation of the DNA adducts in calf thymus DNA. After a protein precipitation step, adduct levels corresponding to less than one modification in 10(6) normal DNA bases were detected using the DMS-MS platform. Based on DMS fundamentals and ab initio thermochemical results, we interpret the complexity of DMS modifier responses in terms of thermal activation and the development of solvent shells. At very high bulk gas temperature, modifier dipole moment may be the most important factor in cluster formation and cluster geometry, but at lower temperatures, multi-neutral clusters are important and less predictable. This work provides a useful protocol for targeted DNA adduct quantitation and a basis for future work on DMS modifier effects.

  12. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790

  13. Individually modifiable risk factors to ameliorate cognitive aging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W

    2015-10-01

    A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging.

  14. Genome mining and genetic analysis of cypemycin biosynthesis reveal an unusual class of posttranslationally modified peptides.

    PubMed

    Claesen, Jan; Bibb, Mervyn

    2010-09-14

    Posttranslational modification of amino acids confers a range of structural features and activities on ribosomally synthesized peptides, many of which have potent antimicrobial or other biological activities. Cypemycin is an extensively modified linear peptide produced by Streptomyces sp. OH-4156 with potent in vitro activity against mouse leukemia cells. Cypemycin does not contain lanthionine bridges but exhibits some of the structural features of lantibiotics, notably dehydrated threonines (dehydrobutyrines) and a C-terminal S-[(Z)-2-aminovinyl]-D-cysteine. Consequently it was classified as a member of the lantibiotic family of posttranslationally modified peptides. Cypemycin also possesses two L-allo-isoleucine residues and an N-terminal N,N-dimethylalanine, both unique amino acid modifications. We identified and heterologously expressed the cypemycin biosynthetic gene cluster and performed a mutational analysis of each individual gene. We show that even the previously described modifications are carried out by unusual enzymes or via a modification pathway unrelated to lantibiotic biosynthesis. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the widespread occurrence of cypemycin-like gene clusters within the bacterial kingdom and in the Archaea. Cypemycin is the founding member of an unusual class of posttranslationally modified ribosomally synthesized peptides, the linaridins.

  15. Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Valentina; Parracino, Maria Antonietta; La Spina, Rita; Rossi, Francois; Ceccone, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP). The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules. Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behavior of the glucose-modified particles in the presence of the maltose binding protein. PMID:26973830

  16. Gene set analysis for GWAS: assessing the use of modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics.

    PubMed

    Debrabant, Birgit; Soerensen, Mette

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the use of modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics in the context of gene set analysis and review corresponding null and alternative hypotheses. Especially, we show that, when enhancing the impact of highly significant genes in the calculation of the test statistic, the corresponding test can be considered to infer the classical self-contained null hypothesis. We use simulations to estimate the power for different kinds of alternatives, and to assess the impact of the weight parameter of the modified KS statistic on the power. Finally, we show the analogy between the weight parameter and the genesis and distribution of the gene-level statistics, and illustrate the effects of differential weighting in a real-life example.

  17. Electrical Impedance Analysis of Mammalian Cells Cultured on Polypyrrole-modified Gold Microlectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo; Keese, Charles R.; Giaever, Ivar

    2003-03-01

    In the present study we describe an electrical impedance analysis of BSC cells cultured on gold electrodes (250 im in diameter) that were modified with polypyrrole/heparin composites using electrochemical deposition. Atomic force microscope images show that the composite layer has a porous bulk structure and a very rough surface topology. An electrical technique, referred to as ECIS, was used to measure the impedance of both the cell-covered and the cell-free microelectrodes at frequencies from 25 Hz to 60000 Hz. The electrical characteristics of the system can be modeled with 3 parameters, the intercellular resistance (R_b), the cellular membrane (C_m) and the cell-substrate separation (α). When cells are cultured on the polypyrrole-modified microelectrodes, the contribution to the total resistance from α is decreased, which opens a way to eliminate the contribution arising from α so that Rb and Cm can be directly measured.

  18. Dynamical analysis of modified gravity with nonminimal gravitational coupling to matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Rui; Xu, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Gong, Yungui

    2016-05-01

    We perform a phase space analysis of a generalized modified gravity theory with nonminimally coupling between geometry and matter. We apply the dynamical system approach to this generalized model and find that in the cosmological context, different choices of Lagrangian density will apparently result in different phases of the Universe. By carefully choosing the variables, we prove that there is an attractor solution to describe the late time accelerating universe when the modified gravity is chosen in a simple power-law form of the curvature scalar. We further examine the temperature evolution based on the thermodynamic understanding of the model. Confronting the model with supernova type Ia data sets, we find that the nonminimally coupled theory of gravity is a viable model to describe the late time Universe acceleration.

  19. Modified Involute Helical Gears: Computerized Design, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert (Technical Monitor); Litvin, Faydor L.; Gonzalez-Perez, Ignacio; Carnevali, Luca; Kawasaki, Kazumasa; Fuentes-Aznar, Alfonso

    2003-01-01

    The computerized design, methods for generation, simulation of meshing, and enhanced stress analysis of modified involute helical gears is presented. The approaches proposed for modification of conventional involute helical gears are based on conjugation of double-crowned pinion with a conventional helical involute gear. Double-crowning of the pinion means deviation of cross-profile from an involute one and deviation in longitudinal direction from a helicoid surface. Using the method developed, the pinion-gear tooth surfaces are in point-contact, the bearing contact is localized and oriented longitudinally, and edge contact is avoided. Also, the influence of errors of aligment on the shift of bearing contact, vibration, and noise are reduced substantially. The theory developed is illustrated with numerical examples that confirm the advantages of the gear drives of the modified geometry in comparison with conventional helical involute gears.

  20. Modified Involute Helical Gears: Computerized Design, Simulation of Meshing and Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The computerized design, methods for generation, simulation of meshing, and enhanced stress analysis of modified involute helical gears is presented. The approaches proposed for modification of conventional involute helical gears are based on conjugation of double-crowned pinion with a conventional helical involute gear. Double-crowning of the pinion means deviation of cross-profile from an involute one and deviation in longitudinal direction from a helicoid surface. Using the method developed, the pinion-gear tooth surfaces are in point-contact, the bearing contact is localized and oriented longitudinally, and edge contact is avoided. Also, the influence of errors of alignment on the shift of bearing contact, vibration, and noise are reduced substantially. The theory developed is illustrated with numerical examples that confirm the advantages of the gear drives of the modified geometry in comparison with conventional helical involute gears.

  1. A modified approach for change detection using change vector analysis in posterior probability space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, S. A.; Vidal, A.; Bentounes, H. A.

    2015-04-01

    The multispectral and multitemporal data coming from satellites allow us to extract valuable spatiotemporal change. Consequently, Earth surface change detection analysis has been used in the past to monitor land cover changes caused by different reasons. Several techniques have been used for that purpose and change vector analysis (CVA) has been frequently employed to carry out automatic spatiotemporal information extraction. This work describes a modified methodology based on Supervised Change Vector Analysis in Posterior probability Space (SCVAPS) with the final aim of obtaining a change detection map in Blida, Algeria. The proposed technique is a Modified version of Supervised Change Vector Analysis Posterior probability Space (MSCVAPS) and it is applied at the same region that the original technique studied in the literature. The classical Maximum Likelihood classifier is the selected method for supervised classification since it provides good properties in the posterior probability map. An improved method for threshold determination based on Double Flexible Pace Search (DFPS) is proposed in this work and it is employed to obtain the most adequate threshold value. Then, the MSCVAPS approach is evaluated by two cases study of the land cover change detection in the region of Blida, Algeria, and in the region of Shunyi District, Beijing, China, using a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper images and pair of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper images, respectively. The final evaluation is given by the overall accuracy of changed and unchanged pixels and the kappa coefficient. The results show that the modified approach gives excellent results using the same area of study that was selected in the literature.

  2. Determination of DNA adducts by combining acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chromatographic analysis of the carcinogen-modified nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Leung, Elvis M K; Deng, Kailin; Wong, Tin-Yan; Chan, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The commonly used method of analyzing carcinogen-induced DNA adducts involves the hydrolysis of carcinogen-modified DNA samples by using a mixture of enzymes, followed by (32)P-postlabeling or liquid chromatography (LC)-based analyses of carcinogen-modified mononucleotides/nucleosides. In the present study, we report the development and application of a new approach to DNA adduct analysis by combining the H(+)/heat-catalyzed release of carcinogen-modified nucleobases and the use of LC-based methods to analyze DNA adducts. Results showed that heating the carcinogen-modified DNA samples at 70 °C for an extended period of 4 to 6 h in the presence of 0.05% HCl can efficiently induce DNA depurination, releasing the intact carcinogen-modified nucleobases for LC analyses. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, DNA samples with C8- and N (2) -modified 2'-deoxyguanosine, as well as N (6) -modified 2'-deoxyadenosine, were synthesized by reacting DNA with 1-nitropyrene, acetaldehyde, and aristolochic acids, respectively. These samples were then hydrolyzed, and the released nucleobase adducts were analyzed using LC-based analytical methods. Analysis results demonstrated a dose-dependent release of target DNA adducts from carcinogen-modified DNA samples, indicating that the developed H(+)/heat-catalyzed hydrolysis method was quantitative. Comparative studies with enzymatic digestion method on carcinogen-modified DNA samples revealed that the two hydrolysis methods did not yield systematically different results.

  3. Learning representative features for facial images based on a modified principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averkin, Anton; Potapov, Alexey

    2013-05-01

    The paper is devoted to facial image analysis and particularly deals with the problem of automatic evaluation of the attractiveness of human faces. We propose a new approach for automatic construction of feature space based on a modified principal component analysis. Input data sets for the algorithm are the learning data sets of facial images, which are rated by one person. The proposed approach allows one to extract features of the individual subjective face beauty perception and to predict attractiveness values for new facial images, which were not included into a learning data set. The Pearson correlation coefficient between values predicted by our method for new facial images and personal attractiveness estimation values equals to 0.89. This means that the new approach proposed is promising and can be used for predicting subjective face attractiveness values in real systems of the facial images analysis.

  4. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ({minus}60{degrees}F) temperatures.

  5. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ([minus]60[degrees]F) temperatures.

  6. Modified optimal control pilot model for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development of a modified optimal control pilot model based upon the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison. This model is input compatible with the OCM and retains other key aspects of the OCM, such as a linear quadratic solution for the pilot gains with inclusion of control rate in the cost function, a Kalman estimator, and the ability to account for attention allocation and perception threshold effects. An algorithm designed for each implementation in current dynamic systems analysis and design software is presented. Example results based upon the analysis of a tracking task using three basic dynamic systems are compared with measured results and with similar analyses performed with the OCM and two previously proposed simplified optimal pilot models. The pilot frequency responses and error statistics obtained with this modified optimal control model are shown to compare more favorably to the measured experimental results than the other previously proposed simplified models evaluated.

  7. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities.

  8. A kinematic analysis of the modified flight telerobotic servicer manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Carl; Carnahan, Tim; Duffy, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A reverse kinematic analysis is presented of a six-DOF subchain of a modified seven-DOF flight telerobotic servicer manipulator system. The six-DOF subchain is designated as a TR-RT chain, which describes the sequence of manipulator joints beginning with the first grounded hook joint (universal joint) T, where the sequence R-R designates a pair of revolute joints with parallel axes. At the outset, it had been thought that the reverse kinematic analysis would be similar to a TTT manipulator previously analyzed, in which the third and fourth joints intersected at a finite point. However, this is shown not the case, and a 16th-degree tan-half-angle polynomial is derived for the TR-RT manipulator.

  9. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities. PMID:27006240

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

  11. Modified cross sample entropy and surrogate data analysis method for financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2015-09-01

    For researching multiscale behaviors from the angle of entropy, we propose a modified cross sample entropy (MCSE) and combine surrogate data analysis with it in order to compute entropy differences between original dynamics and surrogate series (MCSDiff). MCSDiff is applied to simulated signals to show accuracy and then employed to US and Chinese stock markets. We illustrate the presence of multiscale behavior in the MCSDiff results and reveal that there are synchrony containing in the original financial time series and they have some intrinsic relations, which are destroyed by surrogate data analysis. Furthermore, the multifractal behaviors of cross-correlations between these financial time series are investigated by multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method, since multifractal analysis is a multiscale analysis. We explore the multifractal properties of cross-correlation between these US and Chinese markets and show the distinctiveness of NQCI and HSI among the markets in their own region. It can be concluded that the weaker cross-correlation between US markets gives the evidence for the better inner mechanism in the US stock markets than that of Chinese stock markets. To study the multiscale features and properties of financial time series can provide valuable information for understanding the inner mechanism of financial markets.

  12. Drought in a human-modified world: reframing drought definitions, understanding, and analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, Anne F.; Stahl, Kerstin; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Clark, Julian; Rangecroft, Sally; Wanders, Niko; Gleeson, Tom; Van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Hannaford, Jamie; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Hannah, David M.; Sheffield, Justin; Svoboda, Mark; Verbeiren, Boud; Wagener, Thorsten; Van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2016-09-01

    In the current human-modified world, or Anthropocene, the state of water stores and fluxes has become dependent on human as well as natural processes. Water deficits (or droughts) are the result of a complex interaction between meteorological anomalies, land surface processes, and human inflows, outflows, and storage changes. Our current inability to adequately analyse and manage drought in many places points to gaps in our understanding and to inadequate data and tools. The Anthropocene requires a new framework for drought definitions and research. Drought definitions need to be revisited to explicitly include human processes driving and modifying soil moisture drought and hydrological drought development. We give recommendations for robust drought definitions to clarify timescales of drought and prevent confusion with related terms such as water scarcity and overexploitation. Additionally, our understanding and analysis of drought need to move from single driver to multiple drivers and from uni-directional to multi-directional. We identify research gaps and propose analysis approaches on (1) drivers, (2) modifiers, (3) impacts, (4) feedbacks, and (5) changing the baseline of drought in the Anthropocene. The most pressing research questions are related to the attribution of drought to its causes, to linking drought impacts to drought characteristics, and to societal adaptation and responses to drought. Example questions include

    • (i) What are the dominant drivers of drought in different parts of the world? (ii) How do human modifications of drought enhance or alleviate drought severity? (iii) How do impacts of drought depend on the physical characteristics of drought vs. the vulnerability of people or the environment? (iv) To what extent are physical and human drought processes coupled, and can feedback loops be identified and altered to lessen or mitigate drought? (v) How should we adapt our drought analysis to

    • Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Widiawati, Nina; Su'ud, Zaki

      2015-09-01

      Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from -0.6695443 % at BOC to -0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

    • Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser

      SciTech Connect

      Gupta, Rajkumar Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.

      2014-04-15

      Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50–360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90–180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%–60% in the wavelength range of 150–260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120–360 Å wavelength range.

    • Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

      SciTech Connect

      Widiawati, Nina Su’ud, Zaki

      2015-09-30

      Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from −0.6695443 % at BOC to −0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

    • CFD analysis of cloud cavitation on three tip-modified propellers with systematically varied tip geometry

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Shin, K. W.; Andersen, P.

      2015-12-01

      The blade tip loading is often reduced as an effort to restrain sheet and tip vortex cavitation in the design of marine propellers. This CFD analysis demonstrates that an excessive reduction of the tip loading can cause cloud cavitation responsible for much of noise and surface erosion. Detached eddy simulations (DES) are made for cavitating flows on three tip- modified propellers, of which one is a reference propeller having an experimental result from a cavitation tunnel test with a hull model, and the other two are modified from the reference propeller by altering the blade tip loading. DES results have been validated against the experiment in terms of sheet and cloud cavitation. In DES, non-uniform hull wake is modelled by using the inlet flow and momentum sources instead of including a hull model. A 4-bladed Kappel propeller with a smooth tip bending towards the suction side is used as the reference propeller. For the reference propeller, sheet cavitation extends over a whole chord length in the hull wake peak. As the blade gets out of the wake peak, the rear part of sheet cavity is detached in a form of cloud cavitation. For the reference propeller, the tip pitch reduction from the maximum is about 35%. When decreasing the tip pitch reduction to 10%, tip vortex cavitation is formed and cloud cavitation is significantly weakened. When increasing the tip pitch reduction to 60%, sheet cavitation slightly moves to inner radii and cloud cavitation grows larger.

    • Application of modified VICAR/IBIS GIS to analysis of July 1991 Flevoland AIRSAR data

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Norikane, L.; Broek, B.; Freeman, A.

      1992-01-01

      Three overflights of the Flevoland calibration/agricultural site were made by the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) on 3, 12, and 28 July 1991 as part of MAC-Europe '92. A polygon map was generated at TNO-FEL which overlayed the slant range projected July 3 data set. Each polygon was identified by a sequence of points and a crop label. The polygon map was composed of 452 uniquely identified polygons and 15 different crop types. Analysis of the data was done using our modified Video Image Communication and Retrieval/Image Based Information System Geographic Information System (VICAR/IBIS GIS). This GIS is an extension of the VICAR/IBIS GIS first developed by Bryant in the 1970's which is itself an extension of the VICAR image processing system also developed at JPL.

    • Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

      PubMed

      Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

      2013-12-01

      Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured.

    • Principal component analysis of modified gravity using weak lensing and peculiar velocity measurements

      SciTech Connect

      Asaba, Shinsuke; Hikage, Chiaki; Koyama, Kazuya; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Hojjati, Alireza; Pogosian, Levon E-mail: hikage@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk E-mail: levon@sfu.ca

      2013-08-01

      We perform a principal component analysis to assess ability of future observations to measure departures from General Relativity in predictions of the Poisson and anisotropy equations on linear scales. In particular, we focus on how the measurements of redshift-space distortions (RSD) observed from spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys will improve the constraints when combined with lensing tomographic surveys. Assuming a Euclid-like galaxy imaging and redshift survey, we find that adding the 3D information decreases the statistical uncertainty by a factor between 3 and 7 compared to the case when only observables from lensing tomographic surveys are used. We also find that the number of well-constrained modes increases by a factor between 3 and 6. Our study indicates the importance of joint galaxy imaging and redshift surveys such as SuMIRe and Euclid to give more stringent tests of the ΛCDM model and to distinguish between various modified gravity and dark energy models.

    • Assessment of facial form modifications in orthodontics: proposal of a modified computerized mesh diagram analysis.

      PubMed

      Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Dalloca, L L; DeFranco, D J

      1996-03-01

      A modified computerized mesh diagram analysis enables rapid, easy, and independent quantifications of facial size, shape, and head position. A lateral cephalometric radiograph is traced, positioned in natural head position (NHP) according to the NHP registered on a lateral photograph, and superimposed by the standard grid of rectangles determined by the patient's upper face height and face depth. The patient's tracing is compared with a reference tracing of a norm. The two tracings are registered at nasion in NHP, and the size difference of the patient's mesh rectangles from the norm is quantified by a size normalization. The shape discrepancies are evaluated by calculating relevant displacement vectors for each cephalometric landmark, and a global difference factor. This computerized method provides a rapid graphic evaluation of the patient's sagittal and vertical discrepancies and can also be applied to determine the effects of orthodontic therapy and/or growth on the skeletal and dental relationships in a single patient.

  1. The Role of Fluorinated Alcohols as Mobile Phase Modifiers for LC-MS Analysis of Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiri, Babak; van Hattum, Hilde; van Dongen, William D.; Murph, Mandi M.; Bartlett, Michael G.

    2016-09-01

    Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) has been widely used as an acidic modifier for mobile phases for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of oligonucleotides ever since the first report of its use for this purpose. This is not surprising, considering the exceptional performance of HFIP compared with carboxylic acids, which cause significant MS signal suppression in electrospray ionization. However, we have found that other fluorinated alcohols can also be utilized for mobile phase preparation and the choice of optimal fluorinated alcohol is determined by the ion-pairing (IP) agent. Although HFIP is a very good choice to be used alongside less hydrophobic IP agents, other fluorinated alcohols such as 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-methyl-2-propanol (HFMIP) can significantly outperform HFIP when used with more hydrophobic IP agents. We also found that more acidic fluorinated alcohols assist with the transfer of oligonucleotides with secondary structure (e.g., folded strands and hairpins) into the gas phase.

  2. Modified statistical dynamical diffraction theory: analysis of model SiGe heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Shreeman, P K; Dunn, K A; Novak, S W; Matyi, R J

    2013-08-01

    A modified version of the statistical dynamical diffraction theory (mSDDT) permits full-pattern fitting of high-resolution X-ray diffraction scans from thin-film systems across the entire range from fully dynamic to fully kinematic scattering. The mSDDT analysis has been applied to a set of model SiGe/Si thin-film samples in order to define the capabilities of this approach. For defect-free materials that diffract at the dynamic limit, mSDDT analyses return structural information that is consistent with commercial dynamical diffraction simulation software. As defect levels increase and the diffraction characteristics shift towards the kinematic limit, the mSDDT provides new insights into the structural characteristics of these materials. PMID:24046498

  3. An aeroelastic analysis of a flexible flapping wing using modified strip theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Kwan; Lee, Jun-Seong; Lee, Jin-Young; Han, Jae-Hung

    2008-03-01

    The present study proposed a coupling method for the fluid-structural interaction analysis of a flexible flapping wing. An efficient numerical aerodynamic model was suggested, which was based on the modified strip theory and further improved to take into account a high relative angle of attack and dynamic stall effects induced by pitching and plunging motions. The aerodynamic model was verified with experimental data of rigid wings. A reduced structural model of a rectangular flapping wing was also established by using flexible multibody dynamics and a modal approach technique, so as to consider large flapping motions and local elastic deformations. Then, the aeroelastic analysis method was developed by coupling these aerodynamic and structural modules. To measure the aerodynamic forces of the rectangular flapping wing, static and dynamic tests were performed in a low speed wind-tunnel for various flapping pitch angles, flapping frequencies and the airspeeds. Finally, the aerodynamic forces predicted by the aeroelastic analysis method showed good agreement with the experimental data of the rectangular flapping wing.

  4. Modified PCR methods for 3' end amplification from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tags.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Jie; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2009-05-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful technique to study gene expression at the genome level. However, a disadvantage of the shortness of SAGE tags is that it prevents further study of SAGE library data, thus limiting extensive application of the SAGE method in gene expression studies. However, this problem can be solved by extension of the SAGE tags to 3' cDNAs. Therefore, several methods based on PCR have been developed to generate a 3' longer fragment cDNA corresponding to a SAGE tag. The list of modified methods is extensive, and includes rapid RT-PCR analysis of unknown SAGE tags (RAST-PCR), generation of longer cDNA fragments from SAGE tags for gene identification (GLGI), a high-throughput GLGI procedure, reverse SAGE (rSAGE), two-step analysis of unknown SAGE tags (TSAT-PCR), etc. These procedures are constantly being updated because they have characteristics and advantages that can be shared. Development of these methods has promoted the widespread use of the SAGE technique, and has accelerated the speed of studies of large-scale gene expression.

  5. A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

  6. Description, Usage, and Validation of the MVL-15 Modified Vortex Lattice Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    MVL-15 is the most recent version of the Modified Vortex-Lattice (MVL) code developed within the Aerodynamics Systems Analysis Branch (ASAB) at NASA LaRC. The term "modified" refers to the primary modification of the core vortex-lattice methodology: inclusion of viscous aerodynamics tables that are linked to the linear solution via iterative processes. The inclusion of the viscous aerodynamics inherently converts the MVL-15 from a purely analytic linearized method to a semi-empirical blend which retains the rapid execution speed of the linearized method while empirically characterizing the section aerodynamics at all spanwise lattice points. The modification provides a means to assess non-linear effects on lift that occur at angles of attack near stall, and provides a means to determine the drag associated with the application of design strategies for lift augmentation such as the use of flaps or blowing. The MVL-15 code is applicable to the analyses of aircraft aerodynamics during cruise, but it is most advantageously applied to the analysis of aircraft operating in various high-lift configurations. The MVL methodology has been previously conceived and implemented; the initial concept version was delivered to the ASAB in 2001 (van Dam, C.), subsequently revised (Gelhausen, P. and Ozoroski, T. 2002 / AVID Inc., Gelhausen, P., and Roberts, M. 2004), and then overhauled (Ozoroski, T., Hahn, A. 2008). The latest version, MVL-15 has been refined to provide analysis transparency and enhanced to meet the analysis requirements of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Each revision has been implemented with reasonable success. Separate applications of the methodology are in use, including a similar in-house capability, developed by Olson, E. that is tailored for structural and acoustics analyses. A central premise of the methodology is that viscous aerodynamic data can be associated with analytic inviscid aerodynamic results at each spanwise wing section

  7. A Retrospective Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Incidence and Modified Braden Scale Score Risk Classifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lin; Cao, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jing; Huai, Bao-Sha

    2015-09-01

    The Braden Scale is the most widely used pressure ulcer risk assessment in the world, but the currently used 5 risk classification groups do not accurately discriminate among their risk categories. To optimize risk classification based on Braden Scale scores, a retrospective analysis of all consecutively admitted patients in an acute care facility who were at risk for pressure ulcer development was performed between January 2013 and December 2013. Predicted pressure ulcer incidence first was calculated by logistic regression model based on original Braden score. Risk classification then was modified based on the predicted pressure ulcer incidence and compared between different risk categories in the modified (3-group) classification and the traditional (5-group) classification using chi-square test. Two thousand, six hundred, twenty-five (2,625) patients (mean age 59.8 ± 16.5, range 1 month to 98 years, 1,601 of whom were men) were included in the study; 81 patients (3.1%) developed a pressure ulcer. The predicted pressure ulcer incidence ranged from 0.1% to 49.7%. When the predicted pressure ulcer incidence was greater than 10.0% (high risk), the corresponding Braden scores were less than 11; when the predicted incidence ranged from 1.0% to 10.0% (moderate risk), the corresponding Braden scores ranged from 12 to 16; and when the predicted incidence was less than 1.0% (mild risk), the corresponding Braden scores were greater than 17. In the modified classification, observed pressure ulcer incidence was significantly different between each of the 3 risk categories (P less than 0.05). However, in the traditional classification, the observed incidence was not significantly different between the high-risk category and moderate-risk category (P less than 0.05) and between the mild-risk category and no-risk category (P less than 0.05). If future studies confirm the validity of these findings, pressure ulcer prevention protocols of care based on Braden Scale scores can

  8. Computational Analysis and Predictive Cheminformatics Modeling of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Epigenetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Scaria, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    , this is the first and most comprehensive computational analysis towards understanding activities of small molecules inhibitors of epigenetic modifiers. PMID:27622288

  9. Microstructure of microemulsion modified with ionic liquids in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography and analysis of seven corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinjiong; Yu, Meijuan; Cao, Yuhua; Cao, Guangqun

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the influences of ionic liquid (IL) as a modifier on microemulsion microstructure and separation performance in MEEKC were investigated. Experimental results showed that synergetic effect between IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoro-borate (BmimBF4 ) and surfactant SDS gave a decreased CMC. With increment of IL in microemulsion, negative ζ potential of the microdroplets reduced gradually. The influence of IL on the dimensions of microdroplet was complicated. At BmimBF4 less than 8 mM, IL made microemulsion droplet smaller in size. While at BmimBF4 more than 10 mM, the size increased and reached to a maximum value at 12 mM, where the microdroplets were larger than that without IL. After that, the micreodroplet size decreased again. Relative fluorescence intensity of the first vibration band of pyrene to the third one (I1 /I3 ) enhanced as IL was added to microemulsion, which indicated that this addition increased environmental polarity in the inner core of microdroplets. Prednisone, hydrocortisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone acetate, cortisone acetate, prednisolone acetate, and triamcinolone acetonide were analyzed with MEEKC modified with IL to evaluate the separation performance. Cortisone acetate and prednisolone acetate could not be separated at all in typical microemulsion. The seven analytes could be separated by the addition of 10 mM BmimBF4 into the microemulsion system. The method has been used for analysis of corticosteroids in cosmetic samples with simple extraction; the recoveries for seven analytes were between 86 and 114%. This method provides accuracy, reproducibility, pretreatment simplicity, and could be applied to the quality control of cosmetics. PMID:23801369

  10. Epidemiologic studies of modifiable factors associated with cognition and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment, including dementia, is a major health concern with the increasing aging population. Preventive measures to delay cognitive decline are of utmost importance. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia, increasing in prevalence from <1% below the age of 60 years to >40% above 85 years of age. Methods We systematically reviewed selected modifiable factors such as education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, caffeine, antioxidants, homocysteine (Hcy), n-3 fatty acids that were studied in relation to various cognitive health outcomes, including incident AD. We searched MEDLINE for published literature (January 1990 through October 2012), including cross-sectional and cohort studies (sample sizes > 300). Analyses compared study finding consistency across factors, study designs and study-level characteristics. Selecting studies of incident AD, our meta-analysis estimated pooled risk ratios (RR), population attributable risk percent (PAR%) and assessed publication bias. Results In total, 247 studies were retrieved for systematic review. Consistency analysis for each risk factor suggested positive findings ranging from ~38.9% for caffeine to ~89% for physical activity. Education also had a significantly higher propensity for “a positive finding” compared to caffeine, smoking and antioxidant-related studies. Meta-analysis of 31 studies with incident AD yielded pooled RR for low education (RR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.30-3.04), high Hcy (RR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.50-2.49), and current/ever smoking status (RR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.23-1.52) while indicating protective effects of higher physical activity and n-3 fatty acids. Estimated PAR% were particularly high for physical activity (PAR% = 31.9; 95% CI: 22.7-41.2) and smoking (PAR%=31.09%; 95% CI: 17.9-44.3). Overall, no significant publication bias was found. Conclusions Higher Hcy levels, lower educational attainment, and decreased physical activity were

  11. Seismic Assessment of Buildings: Proposal of a New Modified Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jerez, Sandra; Mebarki, Ahmed

    2010-05-21

    This paper develops a new modified uncoupled modal response history analysis (M-UMRHA) in order to study the seismic behavior of structures. It aims to provide an acceptable accuracy with reduced calculation duration in comparison to complete analysis, i.e. the THA. The proposed method improves the existing UMRHA, developed by Chopra and Goel [1], by considering an energy based approach to build the capacity curve [2] and a pseudo-adaptive feature to account for changes in modal shapes after yielding, motivated by an adaptive method [3]. Validation is made by comparison with NLTHA as well as other simplified methods. Low and medium-rise RC buildings were analyzed under real ground motion records. Results show good estimates of structural parameters and give good correlation between damage and story displacements as well as drifts. Like other simplified methods, accuracy decreases in the inelastic domain. However, this procedure gives acceptable estimates of structural response with a few additional calculations and it has the potential to be used in large scale studies, and probabilistic approaches.

  12. A modified SUnSAL-TV algorithm for hyperspectral unmixing based on spatial homogeneity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuqian, Wang; Zhenfeng, Shao; Lei, Zhang; Weixun, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    The sparse regression framework has been introduced by many works to solve the linear spectral unmixing problem due to the knowledge that a pixel is usually mixed by less endmembers compared with the endmembers in spectral libraries or the entire hyperspectral data sets. Traditional sparse unmixing techniques focus on analyzing the spectral properties of hyperspectral imagery without incorporating spatial information. But the integration of spatial information would be beneficial to promote the performance of the linear unmixing process. An algorithm called sparse unmixing via variable splitting augmented Lagrangian and total variation (SUnSAL-TV) adds a total variation spatial regularizer besides the sparsity-inducing regularizer to the final unmixing objective function. The total variation spatial regularization is helpful to promote the fractional abundance smoothness. However, the abundance smoothness varies in the image. In this paper, the spatial smoothness is estimated through homogeneity analysis. Then the spatial regularizer is weighted for each pixel by a homogeneity index. The modified algorithm, called homogeneity analysis based SUnSAL-TV (SUnSAL-TVH), integrates the spatial information with finer modelling of spatial smoothness and is supposed insensitive to the noise and more stable. Experiments on synthetic data sets are taken and indicate the validity of our algorithm.

  13. Modified multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis for mapping impervious surfaces in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kun; Jin, Xiao; Du, Qian; Du, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    A modified multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MMESMA) approach is proposed for high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral imagery in the application of impervious surface mapping. Different from the original MESMA that usually selects one endmember spectral signature for each land-cover class, the proposed MMESMA allows the selection of multiple endmember signatures for each land-cover class. It is expected that the MMESMA can better accommodate within-class variations and yield better mapping results. Various unmixing models are compared, such as the linear mixing model, linear spectral mixture analysis using the original linear mixture model, original MESMA, and support vector machine using a nonlinear mixture model. Airborne 1-m resolution HySpex and ROSIS data are used in the experiments. For HySpex data, validation based on 25-cm synchronism aerial photography shows that MMESMA performs the best, with the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of the estimated abundance fractions being 13.20% and the correlation coefficient (R2) being 0.9656. For ROSIS data, validation based on simulation shows that MMESMA performs the best, with the RMSE of the estimated abundance fraction being 4.51% and R2 being 0.9878. These demonstrate that the proposed MMESMA can generate more reliable abundance fractions for high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral imagery, which tends to include strong within-class spectral variations.

  14. Factor analysis of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Huang; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    To assess the clustering of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among Taiwanese adults, we evaluated 579 healthy participants who underwent health examinations between May and December 2007. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine risk factor clustering. Smoking, alcohol intake, exercise habits, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, uric acid, serum hepatic enzymes, and mean arterial pressure were assessed. Separate factor analyses assessed total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Principal components analysis identified five factors for a model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and four factors for a model without total cholesterol. Four common factors in both models explained between 51.1 and 51.8% of variance in the original 14 factors. Metabolic factors, hematological factors (white blood cells and platelets), lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and exercise habits and fasting blood glucose explained about 20, 11, 10, 10% of total variance, respectively. In the model without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol factor explained 8.83% of variance. This study confirmed clustering of established metabolic syndrome components and revealed additional associated cardiovascular disease risk factors, including lifestyle factors, exercise and total cholesterol, which should be targeted in prevention efforts.

  15. Quantitative analysis of cefalexin based on artificial neural networks combined with modified genetic algorithm using short near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Yanfu; Feng, Guodong; Wang, Bin; Ren, Yulin; Fei, Qiang

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a novel chemometric method was developed for rapid, accurate, and quantitative analysis of cefalexin in samples. The experiments were carried out by using the short near-infrared spectroscopy coupled with artificial neural networks. In order to enhancing the predictive ability of artificial neural networks model, a modified genetic algorithm was used to select fixed number of wavelength.

  16. How Competency-Based Training Locks the Working Class out of Powerful Knowledge: A Modified Bernsteinian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that competency-based training in vocational education and training in Australia is one mechanism through which the working class is denied access to powerful knowledge represented by the academic disciplines. The paper presents a modified Bernsteinian analysis to argue that vocational education and training students need access…

  17. Cancelling ECG Artifacts in EEG Using a Modified Independent Component Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devuyst, Stéphanie; Dutoit, Thierry; Stenuit, Patricia; Kerkhofs, Myriam; Stanus, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    We introduce a new automatic method to eliminate electrocardiogram (ECG) noise in an electroencephalogram (EEG) or electrooculogram (EOG). It is based on a modification of the independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm which gives promising results while using only a single-channel electroencephalogram (or electrooculogram) and the ECG. To check the effectiveness of our approach, we compared it with other methods, that is, ensemble average subtraction (EAS) and adaptive filtering (AF). Tests were carried out on simulated data obtained by addition of a filtered ECG on a visually clean original EEG and on real data made up of 10 excerpts of polysomnographic (PSG) sleep recordings containing ECG artifacts and other typical artifacts (e.g., movement, sweat, respiration, etc.). We found that our modified ICA algorithm had the most promising performance on simulated data since it presented the minimal root mean-squared error. Furthermore, using real data, we noted that this algorithm was the most robust to various waveforms of cardiac interference and to the presence of other artifacts, with a correction rate of 91.0%, against 83.5% for EAS and 83.1% for AF.

  18. Laser Spot Tracking Based on Modified Circular Hough Transform and Motion Pattern Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krstinić, Damir; Skelin, Ana Kuzmanić; Milatić, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Laser pointers are one of the most widely used interactive and pointing devices in different human-computer interaction systems. Existing approaches to vision-based laser spot tracking are designed for controlled indoor environments with the main assumption that the laser spot is very bright, if not the brightest, spot in images. In this work, we are interested in developing a method for an outdoor, open-space environment, which could be implemented on embedded devices with limited computational resources. Under these circumstances, none of the assumptions of existing methods for laser spot tracking can be applied, yet a novel and fast method with robust performance is required. Throughout the paper, we will propose and evaluate an efficient method based on modified circular Hough transform and Lucas–Kanade motion analysis. Encouraging results on a representative dataset demonstrate the potential of our method in an uncontrolled outdoor environment, while achieving maximal accuracy indoors. Our dataset and ground truth data are made publicly available for further development. PMID:25350502

  19. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Triaxially Braided Composites Utilizing a Modified Subcell Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Triaxially Braided Composites Utilizing a Modified Subcell Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cater, Christopher; Xiao, Xinran; Goldberg, Robert K.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical approach was performed for characterizing and modeling triaxially braided composites with a modified subcell modeling strategy. Tensile coupon tests were conducted on a [0deg/60deg/-60deg] braided composite at angles [0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg and 90deg] relative to the axial tow of the braid. It was found that measured coupon strength varied significantly with the angle of the applied load and each coupon direction exhibited unique final failures. The subcell modeling approach implemented into the finite element software LS-DYNA was used to simulate the various tensile coupon test angles. The modeling approach was successful in predicting both the coupon strength and reported failure mode for the 0deg, 30deg and 60deg loading directions. The model over-predicted the strength in the 90deg direction; however, the experimental results show a strong influence of free edge effects on damage initiation and failure. In the absence of these local free edge effects, the subcell modeling approach showed promise as a viable and computationally efficient analysis tool for triaxially braided composite structures. Future work will focus on validation of the approach for predicting the impact response of the braided composite against flat panel impact tests.

  1. In silico analysis of ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like modifiers and their conjugating enzymes in Entamoeba species.

    PubMed

    Arya, Shweta; Sharma, Gaurav; Gupta, Preeti; Tiwari, Swati

    2012-07-01

    Covalent modification of proteins by ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like modifiers (Ubls) regulates many cellular functions in eukaryotes. These modifications are likely to be associated with pathogenesis, growth, and development of many protozoan parasites but molecular details about this pathway are unavailable for most protozoa. This study presents an analysis of the Ub pathway in three members of the Entamoeba species. Using bioinformatics tools we have identified all Ub and Ubl genes along with their corresponding activating, conjugating, and ligating enzymes (E1, E2s, and E3s) in three Entamoeba species, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba invadens. Phylogenetic trees were established for the identified E2s and RING finger E3s using maximum-likelihood method to infer the relationship among these proteins. In silico co-domain analysis of RING finger E3s implicates these proteins in a variety of functions. Several known and putative regulatory motifs were identified in the upstream regions of RING finger domain containing E3 genes. All E2 and E3 genes were analyzed in genomic context in E. histolytica and E. dispar. Most E2s and E3s were in syntenic positions in the two genomes. Association of these genes with transposable elements (TEs) was compared between E. histolytica and E. dispar. A closer association was found between RING finger E3s with TEs in E. histolytica. In summary, our analyses suggests that the complexity of the Ub pathway in Entamoeba species is close to that observed in higher eukaryotes. This study provides important data for further understanding the role of Ub pathway in the biology of these organisms.

  2. A Preliminary ZEUS Lightning Location Error Analysis Using a Modified Retrieval Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elander, Valjean; Koshak, William; Phanord, Dieudonne

    2004-01-01

    The ZEUS long-range VLF arrival time difference lightning detection network now covers both Europe and Africa, and there are plans for further expansion into the western hemisphere. In order to fully optimize and assess ZEUS lightning location retrieval errors and to determine the best placement of future receivers expected to be added to the network, a software package is being developed jointly between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV). The software package, called the ZEUS Error Analysis for Lightning (ZEAL), will be used to obtain global scale lightning location retrieval error maps using both a Monte Carlo approach and chi-squared curvature matrix theory. At the core of ZEAL will be an implementation of an Iterative Oblate (IO) lightning location retrieval method recently developed at MSFC. The IO method will be appropriately modified to account for variable wave propagation speed, and the new retrieval results will be compared with the current ZEUS retrieval algorithm to assess potential improvements. In this preliminary ZEAL work effort, we defined 5000 source locations evenly distributed across the Earth. We then used the existing (as well as potential future ZEUS sites) to simulate arrival time data between source and ZEUS site. A total of 100 sources were considered at each of the 5000 locations, and timing errors were selected from a normal distribution having a mean of 0 seconds and a standard deviation of 20 microseconds. This simulated "noisy" dataset was analyzed using the IO algorithm to estimate source locations. The exact locations were compared with the retrieved locations, and the results are summarized via several color-coded "error maps."

  3. Time series in analysis of yerba-mate biennial growth modified by environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakocevic, Miroslava; Martim, Simoni Fernanda

    2011-03-01

    To assess differences in the lag-effect pattern in the relationship between yerba-mate biennial growth and environmental factors, a time-series analysis was performed. A generalized Poisson regression model was used to control time trends, temperature, growing degree days (GDD), rainfalls and night length (NL). It was hypothesized that the active growth and growth pauses in yerba-mate are controlled endogenously and modified by environment, and that genders would respond differently to environmental modifications. The patterns in the lag effect from the distributed-lag models were similar to those of time-series models with meteorological data means with lag = 0. GDD and NL were principal factors affecting biennial yerba-mate shoot elongation and the number of green leaves of females grown in monoculture, besides their significant effects on metamer emission and leaf area in males grown in monoculture. NL also had a significant influence on shoot elongation and leaf area of both genders grown in forest understorey (FUS), indicating that yerba-mate growth is synchronized by an internal clock sensitive to temperature adjustments. The morphological plasticity and the adaptation efforts of yerba-mate were more pronounced in monoculture than in FUS. Sexual dimorphism was expressed—males were more sensitive to environmental changes than females, especially in monoculture. Growth modifications were much more intense when plants were grown in a cultivation system that is less like yerba-mate natural habitat (monoculture) than in one resembling its natural habitat (FUS). Our data support the ecological specialization theory.

  4. Time-frequency analysis of spike-wave discharges using a modified wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Bosnyakova, Daria; Gabova, Alexandra; Kuznetsova, Galina; Obukhov, Yuri; Midzyanovskaya, Inna; Salonin, Dmitrij; van Rijn, Clementina; Coenen, Anton; Tuomisto, Leene; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2006-06-30

    The continuous Morlet wavelet transform was used for the analysis of the time-frequency pattern of spike-wave discharges (SWD) as can be recorded in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy (rats of the WAG/Rij strain). We developed a new wavelet transform that allows to obtain the time-frequency dynamics of the dominating rhythm during the discharges. SWD were analyzed pre- and post-administration of certain drugs. SWD recorded predrug demonstrate quite uniform time-frequency dynamics of the dominant rhythm. The beginning of the discharge has a short period with the highest frequency value (up to 15 Hz). Then the frequency decreases to 7-9 Hz and frequency modulation occurs during the discharge in this range with a period of 0.5-0.7 s. Specific changes of SWD time-frequency dynamics were found after the administration of psychoactive drugs, addressing different brain mediator and modulator systems. Short multiple SWDs appeared under low (0.5 mg/kg) doses of haloperidol, they are characterized by a fast frequency decrease to 5-6 Hz at the end of every discharge. The frequency of the dominant frequency of SWD was not stable in long lasting SWD after 1.0 mg/kg or more haloperidol: then two periodicities were found. Long lasting SWD seen after the administration of vigabatrin showed a stable frequency of the discharge. The EEG after Ketamin showed a distinct 5 s quasiperiodicity. No clear changes of time-frequency dynamics of SWD were found after perilamine. It can be concluded that the use of the modified Morlet wavelet transform allows to describe significant parameters of the dynamics in the time-frequency domain of the dominant rhythm of SWD that were not previously detected.

  5. Establishment of Quantitative Analysis Method for Genetically Modified Maize Using a Reference Plasmid and Novel Primers

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

    2012-01-01

    For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×101~105 copies of pGMmaize and the R2 values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods. PMID:24471096

  6. Establishment of quantitative analysis method for genetically modified maize using a reference plasmid and novel primers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Gi-Seong; Shin, Weon-Sun

    2012-12-01

    For the quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) maize in processed foods, primer sets and probes based on the 35S promoter (p35S), nopaline synthase terminator (tNOS), p35S-hsp70 intron, and zSSIIb gene encoding starch synthase II for intrinsic control were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products (80~101 bp) were specifically amplified and the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) were more sensitive than those targeting the larger regions (94 or 101 bp). Particularly, the primer set 35F1-R1 for p35S targeting 81 bp of sequence was even more sensitive than that targeting 101 bp of sequence by a 3-log scale. The target DNA fragments were also specifically amplified from all GM labeled food samples except for one item we tested when 35F1-R1 primer set was applied. A reference plasmid pGMmaize (3 kb) including the smaller PCR products for p35S, tNOS, p35S-hsp70 intron, and the zSSIIb gene was constructed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The linearity of standard curves was confirmed by using diluents ranging from 2×10(1)~10(5) copies of pGMmaize and the R(2) values ranged from 0.999~1.000. In the RT-PCR, the detection limit using the novel primer/probe sets was 5 pg of genomic DNA from MON810 line indicating that the primer sets targeting the smaller regions (80 or 81 bp) could be used for highly sensitive detection of foreign DNA fragments from GM maize in processed foods.

  7. [Molecular and immunological approach to hematological disease: detection and analysis of intracellular modified nucleosides by flow cytometry].

    PubMed

    Hoshino, A; Honda, I; Ishimori, A; Itoh, K; Mizugaki, M; Nose, M

    1990-07-01

    Modified nucleosides are components of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA). 1-methyladenosine and pseudouridine are members of those modified nucleosides. The urinary concentration of 1-methyladenosine and pseudouridine of cancer patients are higher than that of healthy controls, and those compounds were reduced after effective chemotherapy. Thus those compounds might be expected to use as tumor markers. In this study cellular origin of 1-methyladenosine and pseudouridine were analysed about two tumor cell lines (HUT-102, THP-1), peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from healthy adult and PBL under the phytohemagglutinin stimulation, by flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescent staining of cellular RNA using monoclonal antibodies specific for 1-methyladenosine (AMA) and pseudouridine (APU). Both 1-methyladenosine and pseudouridine were detected in more than 90% of tumor cells above the thresholds of flow cytometric detection (Spectrum III, Ortho). The PBL under the PHA stimulation also tended to take the same way of the tumor cell lines, whereas few of the PBL contained 1-methyladenosine above the thresholds. According to the DNA analysis of those cell lines, high contents of the modified nucleosides in the cell might follow DNA synthesis, this leads to one reason for high levels of the urinary excretion of the modified nucleosides in cancer patient.

  8. Modified Electrodes Used for Electrochemical Detection of Metal Ions in Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    March, Gregory; Nguyen, Tuan Dung; Piro, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells. PMID:25938789

  9. Analysis of bit error rate for modified T-APPM under weak atmospheric turbulence channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yong-jun; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Li-jia; Wang, Kai-min; Xiao, Fei; Deng, Chao-gong

    2013-12-01

    T-APPM is combined of TCM (trellis-coded modulation) and APPM (Amplitude-Pulse-position modulation) and has broad application prospects in space optical communication. Set partitioning in standard T-APPM algorithm has the optimal performance in a multi-carrier system, but whether this method has the optimal performance in APPM which is a single-carrier system is unknown. To solve this problem, we first research the atmospheric channel model with weak turbulence; then a modified T-APPM algorithm was proposed, compared to the standard T-APPM algorithm, modified algorithm uses Gray code mapping instead of set partitioning mapping; finally, simulate the two algorithms with Monte-Carlo method. Simulation results showed that, when bit error rate at 10-4, the modified T-APPM algorithm achieved 0.4dB in SNR, effectively improve the system error performance.

  10. The analysis of MHD blood flows through porous arteries using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2016-05-12

    In this paper, magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries are numerically simulated using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid containing nanoparticles. In the modified nanofluids model, the viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids) which are commonly utilized as an effective value, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. The modified governing equations are solved numerically using Newton's method and a block tridiagonal matrix solver. The results are compared to the prevalent nanofluids single-phase model. In addition, the efficacies of important physical parameters such as pressure gradient, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, magnetic-field parameter, porosity parameter, and etc. on temperature, velocity and nanoparticles concentration profiles are examined.

  11. Modified Skvor/Starr approach in the mechanical-thermal noise analysis of condenser microphone.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee Wee; Miao, Jianmin

    2009-11-01

    Simple analytical expressions of mechanical resistance, such as those formulated by Skvor/Starr, are widely used to describe the mechanical-thermal noise performance of a condenser microphone. However, the Skvor/Starr approach does not consider the location effect of acoustic holes in the backplate and overestimates the total equivalent mechanical resistance and mechanical-thermal noise. In this paper, a modified form of the Skvor/Starr approach is proposed to address this hole location dependent effect. A mode shape factor, which consists of the zero order Bessel and modified Bessel functions, is included in Skvor's mechanical resistance formulation to consider the effect of the hole location in the backplate. With reference to two B&K microphones, the theoretical results of the A-weighted mechanical-thermal noise obtained by the modified Skvor/Starr approach are in good agreements with those reported experimental ones.

  12. The analysis of MHD blood flows through porous arteries using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2016-05-12

    In this paper, magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries are numerically simulated using a locally modified homogenous nanofluids model. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid containing nanoparticles. In the modified nanofluids model, the viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids) which are commonly utilized as an effective value, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. The modified governing equations are solved numerically using Newton's method and a block tridiagonal matrix solver. The results are compared to the prevalent nanofluids single-phase model. In addition, the efficacies of important physical parameters such as pressure gradient, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, magnetic-field parameter, porosity parameter, and etc. on temperature, velocity and nanoparticles concentration profiles are examined. PMID:27175464

  13. Modified Skvor/Starr approach in the mechanical-thermal noise analysis of condenser microphone.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee Wee; Miao, Jianmin

    2009-11-01

    Simple analytical expressions of mechanical resistance, such as those formulated by Skvor/Starr, are widely used to describe the mechanical-thermal noise performance of a condenser microphone. However, the Skvor/Starr approach does not consider the location effect of acoustic holes in the backplate and overestimates the total equivalent mechanical resistance and mechanical-thermal noise. In this paper, a modified form of the Skvor/Starr approach is proposed to address this hole location dependent effect. A mode shape factor, which consists of the zero order Bessel and modified Bessel functions, is included in Skvor's mechanical resistance formulation to consider the effect of the hole location in the backplate. With reference to two B&K microphones, the theoretical results of the A-weighted mechanical-thermal noise obtained by the modified Skvor/Starr approach are in good agreements with those reported experimental ones. PMID:19894812

  14. Surfactant Modified/Mediated Thin-Layer Chromatographic Systems for the Analysis of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Bhawani, Showkat A.; Albishri, Hassan M.; Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad N.; Mohammad, A.

    2013-01-01

    This review incorporates a large number of chromatographic systems modified by the surfactants. A large number of solvent systems and stationary phases are summarized in this paper. Three different kinds of surfactants (anionic, cationic, and nonionic) are used as modifiers for stationary phases as well as solvent systems. Surfactants are used at all the three different concentration levels (below, above, and at critical micelle concentration) where surfactants behave differently. Modifications of both stationary phases and solvent systems by surfactants produced a new generation of chromatographic systems. Microemulsion solvent systems are also incorporated in this paper. Microemulsion thin-layer chromatography is a new approach in the field of chromatography. PMID:24455427

  15. States' Accommodations Policies and Development of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Achievement Standards: A Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of a state's accommodations policy may affect a state's decision about whether to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). A very restrictive accommodations policy may make it more difficult for some students to participate in the state's regular assessment used for accountability…

  16. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Çırak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  17. Development and application of an analysis of axisymmetric body effects on helicopter rotor aerodynamics using modified slender body theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, G.; Johnson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A computationally efficient body analysis designed to couple with a comprehensive helicopter analysis is developed in order to calculate the body-induced aerodynamic effects on rotor performance and loads. A modified slender body theory is used as the body model. With the objective of demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and application of the method, the analysis at this stage is restricted to axisymmetric bodies at zero angle of attack. By comparing with results from an exact analysis for simple body shapes, it is found that the modified slender body theory provides an accurate potential flow solution for moderately thick bodies, with only a 10%-20% increase in computational effort over that of an isolated rotor analysis. The computational ease of this method provides a means for routine assessment of body-induced effects on a rotor. Results are given for several configurations that typify those being used in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and in the rotor-body aerodynamic interference tests being conducted at Ames. A rotor-hybrid airship configuration is also analyzed.

  18. Operant-based instrumental learning for analysis of genetically modified models of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Trueman, R C; Dunnett, S B; Brooks, S P

    2012-06-01

    Huntington's disease is the result of an expanded CAG repeat in the gene that codes for the protein huntingtin and results in a progressive sequelae of motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. The development of genetically modified rodent models of Huntington's disease has led to the need for sensitive behavioural phenotyping. Operant tests for rodents have been developed that can determine the functional deficits in these genetically modified models, from motor, cognitive and emotional domains. The current review discusses tests that employ operant equipment, an automated and highly flexible method for testing rodents. Different operant paradigms are examined in relation to their relevance to Huntington's disease symptomology, as well as summarising research to date on genetic models with these tests.

  19. Pepsin immobilization on an aldehyde-modified polymethacrylate monolith and its application for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenjuan; Yamauchi, Mika; Hasegawa, Urara; Noda, Masanori; Fukui, Kiichi; van der Vlies, André J; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Polymer-based monoliths with interconnected porous structure have attracted much attention as a high-performance stationary phase for online digestion liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) system. In this study, a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PGM) monolith prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was used as a solid support to covalently immobilize pepsin. The PGM monolith was modified with aminoacetal to yield an aldehyde-bearing (PGM-CHO) monolith. Pepsin was immobilized onto the PGM-CHO monolith via reductive amination. The immobilized pepsin showed better pH and thermal stability compared with free pepsin. Furthermore, the PGM-CHO monolith modified with pepsin was applied for online protein digestion followed by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses. As a result, a larger number of peptides are reproducibly identified compared to those by polystyrene/divinylbenzene particle (POROS)-based online pepsin column.

  20. Analysis of Modified SMI Method for Adaptive Array Weight Control. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dilsavor, Ronald Louis

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive array is used to receive a desired signal in the presence of weak interference signals which need to be suppressed. A modified sample matrix inversion (SMI) algorithm controls the array weights. The modification leads to increased interference suppression by subtracting a fraction of the noise power from the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix. The modified algorithm maximizes an intuitive power ratio criterion. The expected values and variances of the array weights, output powers, and power ratios as functions of the fraction and the number of snapshots are found and compared to computer simulation and real experimental array performance. Reduced-rank covariance approximations and errors in the estimated covariance are also described.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers immersed in liquids based on the modified couple stress theory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chang, Win-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The modified couple stress theory is adopted to study the sensitivity of a rectangular atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever immersed in acetone, water, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and 1-butanol. The theory contains a material length scale parameter and considers the size effect in the analysis. However, this parameter is difficult to obtain via experimental measurements. In this study, a conjugate gradient method for the parameter estimation of the frequency equation is presented. The optimal method provides a quantitative approach for estimating the material length scale parameter based on the modified couple stress theory. The results show that the material length scale parameter of the AFM cantilever immersed in acetone, CCl4, water, and 1-butanol is 0, 25, 116.3, and 471 nm, respectively. In addition, the vibration sensitivities of the AFM cantilever immersed in these liquids are investigated. The results are useful for the design of AFM cantilevers immersed in liquids.

  2. Analysis of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene as a modifier of the cerebral response to ischemia.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Ana Virginia; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Juo, Suh-Hang Hank; Boyadjis, Melanie; Moussouttas, Michael; Reddy, P Leema; Grewal, Raji Paul

    2006-01-01

    We studied the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS or NOS-3) gene as a potential modifier of the cerebral response to ischemia by investigating the association of two common polymorphisms with ischemic stroke volume. We genotyped an intronic variable number tandem repeat and a single nucleotide polymorphism, G894T, in 132 patients with nonlacunar ischemic strokes in whom clinical data and stroke lesion volume were recorded. Our results show that all genotypes are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. After adjustment of covariates, neither of the NOS-3 polymorphisms showed significant differences comparing the genotypes and mean stroke volume (analysis of variance). Our results do not suggest a major gene effect of the NOS-3 gene as a modifier of the cerebral response to ischemia. PMID:17904064

  3. Characterisation of volatile profile and sensory analysis of fresh-cut "Radicchio di Chioggia" stored in air or modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Martignetti, Antonella; Pellicano, Mario Paolo; Stocchero, Matteo; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    The volatile profile of two hybrids of "Radicchio di Chioggia", Corelli and Botticelli, stored in air or passive modified atmosphere (MAP) during 12 days of cold storage, was monitored by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS. Botticelli samples were also subjected to sensory analysis. Totally, 61 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of radicchio samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fresh product possessed a metabolic content similar to that of the MAP samples after 5 and 8 days of storage. Projection to latent structures by partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed the volatiles content of the samples varied depending only on the packaging conditions. Specifically, 12 metabolites describing the time evolution and explaining the effects of the different storage conditions were highlighted. Finally, a PCA analysis revealed that VOCs profile significantly correlated with sensory attributes.

  4. Hydrocode Simulation with Modified Johnson-Cook Model and Experimental Analysis of Explosively Formed Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, G.; Hameed, A.; Hetherington, J. G.; Barton, P. C.; Malik, A. Q.

    2013-04-01

    The formation of mild steel (MS) and copper (Cu) explosively formed projectiles (EFPs) was simulated in AUTODYN using both the Johnson-Cook (JC) and modified Johnson-Cook (JCM) constitutive models. The JC model was modified by increasing the hardening constant by 10%. The previously established semi-empirical equations for diameter, length, velocity, and depth of penetration were used to verify the design of the EFP. The length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio of the warhead used in the simulation varied between 1 < L/D < 2. To avoid projectile distortion or breakup for large standoff applications, the design of the EFP warhead was modified to obtain a lower L/D ratio. Simulations from the JC model underestimated the EFP diameter, resulting in an unrealistically elongated projectile. This shortcoming was resolved by employing the JCM model, giving good agreement with the experimental results. The projectile velocity and hole characteristics in 10-mm-thick aluminum target plates were studied for both models. The semi-empirical equations and the JC model overestimated the projectile velocity, whereas the JCM model underestimated the velocity slightly when compared to the experimental results. The depths of penetration calculated by the semi-empirical equations in the aluminum (Al) target plate were 55 and 52 mm for Cu and MS EFPs, respectively.

  5. Particle-by-Particle Charge Analysis of DNA-Modified Nanoparticles Using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Emma L C J; Vogel, Robert; Platt, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Resistive pulse sensors, RPS, are allowing the transport mechanism of molecules, proteins and even nanoparticles to be characterized as they traverse pores. Previous work using RPS has shown that the size, concentration and zeta potential of the analyte can be measured. Here we use tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) which utilizes a tunable pore to monitor the translocation times of nanoparticles with DNA modified surfaces. We start by demonstrating that the translocation times of particles can be used to infer the zeta potential of known standards and then apply the method to measure the change in zeta potential of DNA modified particles. By measuring the translocation times of DNA modified nanoparticles as a function of packing density, length, structure, and hybridization time, we observe a clear difference in zeta potential using both mean values and population distributions as a function of the DNA structure. We demonstrate the ability to resolve the signals for ssDNA, dsDNA, small changes in base length for nucleotides between 15 and 40 bases long, and even the discrimination between partial and fully complementary target sequences. Such a method has potential and applications in sensors for the monitoring of nanoparticles in both medical and environmental samples.

  6. Semisynthesis and analysis of lipophilically modified unfractionated and low molecular mass heparins.

    PubMed

    Malsch, R; Harenberg, J; Guerrini, M; Torri, G; Casu, B; Heene, D L

    1994-01-01

    Unfractionated heparin and LMMH were substituted with different lipophilic organic compounds. Specifically endpoint attached (LMMH-tyramine and LMMH-tyramine-FITC) and nonspecifically substituted heparins (acylated heparins, and LMMH-biotin and LMMH-cholesterol hemisuccinate) were obtained. The lipophilically substituted heparins were analysed by HPSEC and showed different retention times, high peak purity, different UV/VIS absorbances, and areas under the absorbance time curve. The determination of the average molecular mass Mn, Mm, and Mz and the polydispersity P was performed by PAGE. The substituted heparins showed an increase in their molecular mass Mm, ranging from 2.9 to 129.7% unfractionated heparin and 3.9 to 224.0% (LMMH) compared with the parent compounds (unfractionated heparin and LMMH). The anticoagulant activity was measured by anti-Factor Xa. Lipophilically modified heparin had an aXa activity ranging from 52 to 168 U/mg (unfractionated) and 60 to 108 U/mg (LMMH) and antithrombin activity ranging from 31 to 270 U/mg (unfractionated) and 5 to 15 U/mg (LMMH). The thrombin generation inhibition assay demonstrated an effective anticoagulant potency of the modified compounds. They were neutralized by different amounts (1.1 to 4.1, w/w) of protamin. 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed the specific endpoint attachment of tyramine to LMMH and FITC to LMMH-tyramine. The lipophilically modified heparins showed intact anticoagulant properties and are now used for pharmacokinetic investigations. PMID:7997890

  7. ANALYSIS ON THE MODIFIED LYSHOLM FUNCTIONAL PROTOCOL AMONG PATIENTS WITH NORMAL KNEES

    PubMed Central

    e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Calixto, Alexandre; Malzac, Felipe; Aguiar, Carlomã; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Pires

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the modified Lysholm protocol among patients with knees that were considered to be normal (without previous complaints or pathological conditions in this region). Method: Between January 2010 and March 2010, a prospective study was conducted on 300 patients with orthopedic complaints in other regions of the body who came to the emergency service of our hospital. The inclusion criterion among these patients was the absence of complaints or previous surgery in the knee that was considered to be dominant. The age range was from 16 to 40 years, with an average of 28.8 years. Our study group consisted of 153 males and 147 females. In the modified Lysholm system, the maximum score is 100 points and this includes functional and objective criteria. Altogether, 50% of the total score is based on symptoms of pain and instability. Results: The average score using the Lysholm protocol was 95 points in the knees that were considered normal. Males had higher scores than females. Conclusion: These patients with knees that were considered normal did not achieve the maximum score when evaluated using the modified Lysholm protocol. This study suggests that this line of research on functional evaluation systems for the knee is open for further evaluations. Moreover, creation and development of new forms of functional assessment for the knee should be investigated in order to achieve a worldwide consensus. PMID:27027071

  8. Bromination of aromatic compounds by residual bromide in sodium chloride matrix modifier salt during heated headspace GC/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Fine, Dennis D; Ko, Saebom; Huling, Scott

    2013-12-15

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation reactions and contained aromatic compounds, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferric sulfate. Prior to GC/MS headspace analysis, the samples were acidified (pH<2), and sodium chloride was amended to the headspace vial as a matrix modifier. The brominated artifacts were generated during heated headspace analysis. Further, when samples were spiked with a mixture of volatile chlorinated and aromatic compounds (50 µg/L), poor spike recoveries of toluene and xylenes occurred, and in some cases complete loss of trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene resulted. Where poor recovery of aromatic spike compounds occurred, brominated aromatic compounds were found. The only significant source of bromine in the reaction scheme is the bromide typically present (<0.01% w/w) in the sodium chloride amended to the samples. Conversely, brominated artifacts were absent when a buffered salt mixture composed of sodium chloride and potassium phosphate dibasic/monobasic was used as a matrix modifier and raised the sample pH (pH~6). This indicated that the brominated artifacts resulted from the reaction of the aromatic compounds with BrCl, which was formed by the reaction of H2O2, chloride, and bromide under acidic conditions. An alternative matrix modifier salt is recommended that prevents the bromination reaction and avoids these deleterious effects on sample integrity during headspace analysis.

  9. Validation of a low-cost modified technique for constructing tissue microarrays for canine mammary tumor analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Franciele Basso Fernandes; Leite, Juliana da Silva; de Mello, Marcela Freire Vallim; Ferreira, Ana Maria Reis

    2016-09-01

    Compared with conventional histological paraffin blocks, tissue microarray (TMA) represents a "high-throughput tool" that provides rapid results, a time- and cost-effective approach and simultaneous investigation of several tissue samples under the same conditions. Given the large number of cases of dogs affected with mammary tumors, the complexity of these tumors and their similarity with breast cancer in women, this study aimed to validate a low-cost modified method to construct TMAs for canine mammary tumor analysis using immunomarkers. Carcinoma cases were selected from canine mammary carcinomas in mixed tumors (CMT) because this tumor type is the most heterogeneous among the histopathological types of mammary tumors observed in female dogs. Through a histopathological examination, tumor representativity was compared between conventional sections and histological sections obtained from the TMA block; both were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. An immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to compare the percentages of immunoreactive cells obtained in whole tissue sections versus those obtained from sections from the TMA block. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex and anti-PCNA, anti-vimentin and anti-pancytokeratin antibodies were used. Statistical analysis consisted of the nonparametric Friedman's test (p≤0.05) and descriptive statistical analysis. Histopathological analysis showed tumor representativity in all TMA cores selected for the study. There was no difference between the immunohistochemical analysis of mammary tumors using conventional histological sections or sections obtained from a single 1-mm-diameter TMA core, regardless of the marker used: PCNA (p=0.279), pancytokeratin (p=0.243) and vimentin (p=0.967). The results did not change even when the means of any number of cores were compared among each other and with the conventional histological section: PCNA (p=0.413), pancytokeratin (p=0.177) and vimentin (p=1.0). Therefore, this study

  10. Therapeutic effect analysis on the treatment of congenital glaucoma through modified combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen-Kai; Wu, Jing; Tan, Qian; Jiang, Jian; Song, Wei-Tao; Xia, Xiao-Bo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the therapeutic effect and the safety of the treatment of congenital glaucoma through modified combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy. METHODS The clinical data of 27 cases (altogether 42 eyes), which included 7 cases of infants (10 eyes) and 20 cases of teenagers (32 eyes), of congenital glaucoma undertook modified combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy were analyzed retrospectively. The parameters evaluated included the post operation visual acuity, the anterior chamber, the filtering bleb, the intraocular pressure, the C/D ratio, visual field, the retinal nerve fiber layer changes and the complications. RESULTS The follow-up period was 1 to 29mo, averaging 13.3±7.7mo. Upon the last visit after the operation, functional filtering blebs developed in all the involved eyes. The intraocular pressure was controlled under 21 mm Hg, which was decreased by 60% when compared with that before the operation, without using any medication. There were no significant changes in the post operation visual acuity and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness before and after the operation in teenager group (P>0.05), and both the post operation C/D ratio and the visual field mean defect (MD) were reduced compared with those before the operation (P<0.05). There were no severe complications in any of the patients. CONCLUSION The modified combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy can effectively reduce the intraocular pressure and control the development of glaucoma in cases of congenital glaucoma. It is a safe and effective operative method for the treatment of congenital glaucoma. PMID:26949643

  11. Histopathological and Radiographic Analysis of Dental Follicle of Impacted Teeth Using Modified Gallego’s Stain

    PubMed Central

    Satheesan, Evie; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Periera, Treville

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the WHO classification of odontogenic tumours, hard tissue formation has been considered as a sub-classification however, this parameter has not been much explored in dental follicle in literature. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions play an important role in odontogenesis and its associated pathologies; therefore research on dental follicle should also include mesenchymal components along with epithelial components. Additionally, special stains to identify the nature of such depositions in dental follicle have been less explored. Modified Gallego’s stain is such an example which has not been tried in odontogenic lesions which makes this study unique. Aim Aim of this study was to study histopathological variations in dental follicle, the nature of calcification and depositions using Modified Gallego’s stain and to correlate histological features of dental follicle with pericoronal width radiographically. Materials and Methods A prospective histological study of the dental follicles of 50 impacted teeth was carried out to microscopically evaluate the dental follicular tissues for pathological changes, and to correlate it with pericoronal radiolucency. Impacted teeth with pericoronal radiographic width less than 3mm were included in the study and symptomatic teeth were excluded. Further Modified Gallego stain was used to differentiate the nature of hard tissue formation in dental follicle tissues. Results Dental follicle histologically showed pathological changes resembling dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic fibroma (Simple and WHO Type), clear cell odontogenic tumour, neurofibroma, neurilemmoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusion The dental follicle surrounding an impacted tooth has the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue types, and thus shows the potential for cyst and tumour development which was observed in this study in most of the specimens with normal follicular width radiographically. PMID:27437341

  12. A modified and cost-effective method for hair cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol may hold potential as a biomarker for assessment of chronic psychological stress. We report a modified and cost-effective method to prepare hair samples for cortisol assay. Hair samples were ground using an inexpensive ball grinder - ULTRA-TURRAX tube drive. Cortisol was extracted from the powder under various defined conditions. The data showed that the optimal conditions for this method include cortisol extraction at room temperature and evaporation using a stream of room air. These findings should allow more widespread research using economical technology to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a biomarker for assessing chronic stress status. PMID:26767335

  13. Modified iterative vector similarity measure for particle size analysis based on forward light scattering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian'en; Shen, Jianqi; Lin, Chengjun

    2016-08-10

    The vector similarity measure (VSM), originally applied to information retrieval, has been recently introduced to analyze particle size distribution (PSD) based on forward light scattering. The VSM technique can predict the PSD with low sensitivity to the experimental errors. However, the simulations and experiments of multi-modal distributed particle systems were not satisfying. In this paper, a modified inverse algorithm is presented to improve the VSM technique. Simulated results and experimental evidence show that with this modification the VSM technique can reconstruct the PSD more efficiently. PMID:27534458

  14. A modified and cost-effective method for hair cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol may hold potential as a biomarker for assessment of chronic psychological stress. We report a modified and cost-effective method to prepare hair samples for cortisol assay. Hair samples were ground using an inexpensive ball grinder - ULTRA-TURRAX tube drive. Cortisol was extracted from the powder under various defined conditions. The data showed that the optimal conditions for this method include cortisol extraction at room temperature and evaporation using a stream of room air. These findings should allow more widespread research using economical technology to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a biomarker for assessing chronic stress status.

  15. Image analysis of modified Hamming aperture: application on confocal microscopy and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, A. M.; Alsaeed, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Digital truncated and obstructed Hamming apertures are used in confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to improve the resolution. The resultant point spread function (RPSF) and the coherent transfer function of the defined microscope, using the modified Hamming apertures, are computed. The mammographic images are used in the CLSM to test resolution of the investigated apertures. The image is computed from the modulus square of the convolution product of the RPSF and the complex amplitude of the object. A comparison with the images obtained in case of circular uniform apertures is investigated. Another application on holography allows the recognition of the modulated Hamming apertures.

  16. Fine Mapping of a Dravet Syndrome Modifier Locus on Mouse Chromosome 5 and Candidate Gene Analysis by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Nicole A.; Zachwieja, Nicole J.; Miller, Alison R.; Anderson, Lyndsey L.; Kearney, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    A substantial number of mutations have been identified in voltage-gated sodium channel genes that result in various forms of human epilepsy. SCN1A mutations result in a spectrum of severity ranging from mild febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome, an infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Dravet syndrome patients experience multiple seizures types that are often refractory to treatment, developmental delays, and elevated risk for SUDEP. The same sodium channel mutation can produce epilepsy phenotypes of varying clinical severity. This suggests that other factors, including genetic, modify the primary mutation and change disease severity. Mouse models provide a useful tool in studying the genetic basis of epilepsy. The mouse strain background can alter phenotype severity, supporting a contribution of genetic modifiers in epilepsy. The Scn1a+/- mouse model has a strain-dependent epilepsy phenotype. Scn1a+/- mice on the 129S6/SvEvTac (129) strain have a normal phenotype and lifespan, while [129xC57BL/6J]F1-Scn1a+/- mice experience spontaneous seizures, hyperthermia-induced seizures and high rates of premature death. We hypothesize the phenotypic differences are due to strain-specific genetic modifiers that influence expressivity of the Scn1a+/- phenotype. Low resolution mapping of Scn1a+/- identified several Dravet syndrome modifier (Dsm) loci responsible for the strain-dependent difference in survival. One locus of interest, Dsm1 located on chromosome 5, was fine mapped to a 9 Mb region using interval specific congenics. RNA-Seq was then utilized to identify candidate modifier genes within this narrowed region. Three genes with significant total gene expression differences between 129S6/SvEvTac and [129xC57BL/6J]F1 were identified, including the GABAA receptor subunit, Gabra2. Further analysis of Gabra2 demonstrated allele-specific expression. Pharmological manipulation by clobazam, a common anticonvulsant with preferential affinity for the GABRA2 receptor, revealed

  17. Photoamperometric flow injection analysis of glucose based on dehydrogenase modified quantum dots-carbon nanotube nanocomposite electrode.

    PubMed

    Ertek, Bensu; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a core-shell quantum dot (QD, ZnS-CdS) was electrodeposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) and following glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was immobilized onto QD modified electrode. The proposed electrode (GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) was effectively used for the photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using a home-made flow cell. Results from cyclic voltammetric and FI amperometric measurements have revealed that GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE is capable of signaling photoelectrocatalytic activity toward NADH when the surface of enzyme modified electrode was irradiated with a light source (250W Halogen lamp). Thus, photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose was monitored by recording current-time curve of enzymatically produced NADH at optimized conditions. The biosensor response was found linear over the range 0.010-2.0mM glucose with detection limits of 6.0 and 4.0μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n=5) for 0.5mM glucose were 5.8% and 3.8% for photoamperometric and amperometric results, respectively. The photoelectrochemical biosensor was successfully applied to the real samples. The results with this biosensor showed good selectivity, repeatability and sensitivity for monitoring glucose in amperometric and photoamperometric FIA studies. PMID:26944347

  18. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Modified Hematite by Methane (CH{sub 4}) for Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Global Kinetics Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Miller, Duane D

    2013-10-01

    Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or in its natural form (hematite) is a potential material to capture CO{sub 2} through the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process. It is known that magnesium (Mg) is an effective methyl cleaving catalyst and as such it has been combined with hematite to assess any possible enhancement to the kinetic rate for the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. Therefore, in order to evaluate its effectiveness as a hematite additive, the behaviors of Mg-modified hematite samples (hematite –5% Mg(OH){sub 2}) have been analyzed with regard to assessing any enhancement to the kinetic rate process. The Mg-modified hematite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The reactivity experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) using continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (5, 10, and 20%) at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825 {degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2} and CO in the gaseous product. The kinetic data at reduction step obtained by isothermal experiments could be well fitted by two parallel rate equations. The modified hematite samples showed higher reactivity as compared to unmodified hematite samples during reduction at all investigated temperatures.

  19. Analysis of total polyphenols in wines by FIA with highly stable amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Martínez-Fernández, Marta; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2013-02-15

    The use of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) films for the continuous monitoring of polyphenols in flow systems has been examined. The performance of these modified electrodes was evaluated and compared to bare GCE by cyclic voltammetry experiments and by flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection monitoring the response of gallic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids in 0.050 M acetate buffer pH 4.5 containing 100 mM NaCl. The GCE modified with CNT dispersions in polyethyleneimine (PEI) provided lower overpotentials, higher sensitivity and much higher signal stability under a dynamic regime than bare GCEs. These properties allowed the estimation of the total polyphenol content in red and white wines with a remarkable long-term stability in the measurements despite the presence of potential fouling substances in the wine matrix. In addition, the versatility of the electrochemical methodology allowed the selective estimation of the easily oxidisable polyphenol fraction as well as the total polyphenol content just by tuning the detection potential at +0.30 or 0.70 V, respectively. The significance of the electrochemical results was demonstrated through correlation studies with the results obtained with conventional spectrophotometric assays for polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu, absorbance at 280 nm index and colour intensity index).

  20. Rapid analysis of genetically modified organisms by in-house developed capillary electrophoresis chip and laser-induced fluorescence system.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Pierre J; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Ioannou, Penelope C

    2004-03-01

    A microfabricated, inexpensive, reusable glass capillary electrophoresis chip and a laser-induced fluorescence system were developed in-house for the rapid DNA-based analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The 35S promoter sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus and the terminator of the nopaline synthase (NOS) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens were both detected since they are present in most genetically modified organisms. The detection of genetically modified soybean in the presence of unaltered soybean was chosen as a model. Lectin, a plant-specific gene, was also detected for confirmation of the integrity of extracted DNA. The chip was composed of two glass plates, each 25 x 76 mm, thermally bonded together to form a closed structure. Photomasks with cross-topology were prepared rapidly by using polymeric material instead of chrome plates. The widths of the injection and separation channels were 30 and 70 microm, respectively, the effective separation length 4.5 cm. The glass slide was etched to a depth of 30 microm for both the injection and separation channel. The cost of the chip was less than 1 $ and required 2 days for photomask preparation and microfabrication. The separation and detection of polymerase chain reaction-amplified NOS, 35S, and lectin sequences (180, 195, and 181 bp, respectively) was completed in less than 60 s. As low as 0.1% GMO content was detectable by the proposed system after 35 and 40 amplification cycles for 35S and NOS, respectively, using 25 ng of extracted DNA as starting material. This corresponds to only 20 genome copies of genetically modified soybean.

  1. Quantitative analysis of planar technetium-99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion images using modified background subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, K.; Wackers, F.J.; Mattera, J.A.; Fetterman, R.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Standard interpolative background subtraction, as used for thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl), may create artifacts when applied to planar technetium-99m-Sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi) images, apparently because of the oversubtraction of relatively high extra-cardiac activity. A modified background subtraction algorithm was developed and compared to standard background subtraction in 16 patients who had both exercise-delayed {sup 201}Tl and exercise-rest {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi imaging. Furthermore, a new normal data base was generated. Normal {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi distribution was slightly different compared to {sup 201}Tl. Using standard background subtraction, mean defect reversibility was significantly underestimated by {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi compared to {sup 201}Tl (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus -1.8 +/- 8.4, p less than 0.05). Using the modified background subtraction, mean defect reversibility on {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images was comparable (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus 1.7 +/- 5.2, p = NS). We conclude, that for quantification of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images a new normal data base, as well as a modification of the interpolative background subtraction method should be employed to obtain quantitative results comparable to those with {sup 201}Tl.

  2. An Analysis of Anthropometric Indicators and Modifiable Lifestyle Parameters Associated with Hypertensive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Laing, Edwin F.; Owusu, Isaac K.

    2016-01-01

    The surge in prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases like hypertension and chronic kidney disease has been linked with modifiable lifestyle practices and increased body fat. This study sought to compare the association between different modifiable lifestyle practices, adiposity indices, renal function parameters, and hypertension as well as the predictive implications for levels of these parameters in target cardiac organ damage among an urban Ghanaian hypertensive population. Using a hospital-based case-control study design, 241 Ghanaian indigenes from the Kumasi metropolis were recruited for this study. The case group was made up of 180 hypertensives and 61 normotensives served as controls. In addition to sociodemographic data, standard haemodynamic, anthropometric, renal function, and cardiac organ damage assessments were done. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) ranged from 13.3% to 16.6% depending on the equation used in estimating the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Percentage cluster distribution by chronic kidney disease was observed to be significantly tilted toward the upper quartiles (3rd and 4th) of the haemodynamic parameters measured. Chronic kidney disease was significantly higher among self-reported smokers and alcoholic hypertensives. In this urban population, adiposity was associated with hypertension and renal insufficiency. Chronic kidney disease was associated with hypertension and cardiac abnormalities. PMID:27774313

  3. Structural and Dynamic Analysis on IDPs by Modified AWSEM-MD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Papoian, Garegin; Papoian Theoretical Biophysics Group Team

    Unlike globular proteins, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) lack both secondary and tertiary structures and can play key roles in various biological processes, including transcriptional regulation, molecular recognition and cellular signaling. These functions can be potentially elucidated by structural heterogeneity of IDPs. Because of their flexibility and disordered nature, it has been difficult to investigate IDPs both computationally and experimentally. In particular, it is desirable to develop coarse-grained, yet accurate models of IDPs, such that simulations exploring sufficient conformational ensembles could be carried out within feasible times. To achieve this goal, we modified the associative memory, water mediated, structure and energy model (AWSEM-MD), which is typically used for folding of globular proteins or binding studies. We tested modified AWSEM-MD on several well-studied IDPs and found the transient secondary structure propensity is consistent with NMR experimental results. The rugged free energy landscapes obtained also show structural heterogeneity of these IDPs. Our proposed extension of AWSEM-MD may allow simulating a wider range of IDPs with high accuracy and computational efficiency.

  4. An analysis of variation in expression of neurofibromatosis (NF) type I (NFI): Evidence for modifying genes

    SciTech Connect

    Easton, D.F.; Ponder, B.A.J. ); Huson, S.M. ); Ponder, M.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 (NF1) is notable for its variable expression. To determine whether variation in expression has an inherited component, the authors examined 175 individuals in 48 NF families, including six MZ twin pairs. Three quantitative traits were scored - number of cafe-au-lait patches, number of cutaneous neurofibromas, and head circumference; and five binary traits were scored - the presence or absence of plexiform neurofibromas, optic gliomas, scoliosis, epilepsy, and referral for remedial education. For cafe-au-lait patches and neurofibromas, correlation was highest between MZ twins, less high between first-degree relatives, and lower still between more distant relatives. The high correlation between distant relatives suggests that the type of mutation at the NF1 locus itself plays only a minor role. All of the five binary traits, with the exception of plexiformneurofibromas, also showed significant familial clustering. The familial effects for these traits were consistent with polygenic effects, but there were insufficient data to rule out other models, including a significant effect of different NF1 mutations. There was no evidence of any association between the different traits in affected individuals. The authors conclude that the phenotypic expression of NF1 is to a large extent determined by the genotype at other [open quotes]modifying[close quotes] loci and that these modifying genes are trait specific. 22 refs., 8 tabs.

  5. Comparative analysis of cholinesterase activities in food animals using modified Ellman and Michel assays

    PubMed Central

    Askar, Kasim Abass; Kudi, A. Caleb; Moody, A. John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated correlations between modified Ellman and Michel assay methods for measuring cholinesterase (ChE) activities. It also established a foundation for the applicability of measuring ChE activities in food animal species as biochemical biomarkers for evaluating exposure to and effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Measuring ChE activities in blood and tissue is currently the most important method of confirming the diagnosis of such exposure. The study also characterized the level of ChE activity in the selected organs/tissues of these animals and determined the best organ/tissue in which to measure ChE activity. The ChE activities were found to be higher in cattle than in sheep and higher in erythrocytes than in plasma and serum. The anticoagulant heparin significantly affects AChE activity in plasma compared with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). Of the different tissues tested, the mean of ChE activities was found to be highest in tissue from liver, followed by lung, muscle, kidney, and heart for sheep and cattle. In pigs, the ChE activities tested higher in kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and heart. The highest activities of ChE were found in pigs, followed by cattle and sheep. There was no significant difference between the modified Ellman and Michel method, but the percentage coefficient of variance (%CV) values were higher when the Michel method was used. PMID:22468023

  6. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis for genetically modified canola T45.

    PubMed

    Yang, Litao; Pan, Aihu; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Yin, Changsong; Zhang, Dabing

    2006-12-27

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have been the main technical support for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). To date, GMO-specific PCR detection strategies have been developed basically at four different levels, such as screening-, gene-, construct-, and event-specific detection methods. Event-specific PCR detection method is the primary trend in GMO detection because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence of exogenous integrant. GM canola, event T45, with tolerance to glufosinate ammonium is one of the commercial genetically modified (GM) canola events approved in China. In this study, the 5'-integration junction sequence between host plant DNA and the integrated gene construct of T45 canola was cloned and revealed by means of TAIL-PCR. Specific PCR primers and TaqMan probes were designed based upon the revealed sequence, and qualitative and quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR detection assays employing these primers and probe were developed. In qualitative PCR, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1% for T45 canola in 100 ng of genomic DNA. The quantitative PCR assay showed limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) of 5 and 50 haploid genome copies, respectively. In addition, three mixed canola samples with known GM contents were detected employing the developed real-time PCR assay, and expected results were obtained. These results indicated that the developed event-specific PCR methods can be used for identification and quantification of T45 canola and its derivates.

  7. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis. A Systematic Review Literature

    PubMed Central

    Benucci, Maurizio; Saviola, Gianantonio; Manfredi, Mariangela; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of treatments that have changed the “natural history” of a chronic progressive disease needs to be evaluated over the long term. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the standard treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and should be started as early as possible. A number of studies have shown that they are effective in improving disease activity and function, and in joint damage. Our review was focused on revision and critical evaluation of the studies including the literature on cost effectiveness of DMARDs (cyclosporine A, sulphasalazine, leflunomide, and methotrexate). The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations showed that traditional DMARDs are cost effective at the time of disease onset. They are less expensive than biological DMARDs and can be useful in controlling disease activity in early RA. PMID:22162693

  9. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology.

  10. Pretreatment effects on the sorption of Cr(VI) onto surfactant-modified zeolite: Mechanism analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenzhe; Shi, Taihong; Yang, Di; Ye, Jinpeng; Zhou, Yi; Feng, Yuxiang

    2015-10-01

    Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto different pretreated zeolites modified with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is investigated using batch studies, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that acidification after alkalization is the most effective pretreatment method, and only alkalization would significantly reduce the sorption capability. This behavior is due to the precipitates, such as CaCO3 and MgCO3, generated after alkalization on zeolite surface interfere the formation of the CPC bilayer, which provides active sites for sorbing Cr(VI). The schematic of the adsorption mechanism is presented. The results indicate that developing a better understanding of the influence of different pretreatments is quite helpful and suggest that the content of Ca/Mg/Fe could be a good indication of the effectiveness of preprocessing.

  11. Analysis of dysphagia risk using the modified dysphagia risk assessment for the community-dwelling elderly

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The elderly are susceptible to dysphagia, and complications can be minimized if high-risk groups are screened in early stages and properly rehabilitated. This study provides basic material for the early detection and prevention of dysphagia by investigating the risks of dysphagia and related factors in community-dwelling elders. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 325 community-dwelling elderly people aged 65 or older. The modified dysphagia risk assessment for the community-dwelling elderly was used to assess dysphagia risk. [Results] Approximately 52.6% (n=171) of participants belonged to the high-risk group for dysphagia. After adjusting for confounding variables, people aged 75+, who used dentures, and who needed partial help in daily living had a significantly higher risk of dysphagia. [Conclusion] It is necessary to develop guidelines for dysphagia for early detection and rehabilitation. PMID:27799680

  12. A modified PN code tracking loop - Its performance analysis and comparative evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, R. A.; Boyd, R. W.

    1982-05-01

    A modified PN code tracking loop (MCTL) has been reported by Yost and Boyd (1980). The MCTL makes it possible to reduce the hardware complexity of a noncoherent delay lock loop in multiple data rate applications. The MCTL utilizes the on-time or data channel as the reference. This concept eliminates the need for the traditional loop's sum channel (early signal plus late signal) and, hence, the hardware associated with that channel. This saving may be substantial if the channel were to be optimized for a number of different data rates. With the elimination of an entire IF channel, the MCTL complexity is nearly equivalent to the dithering loop for PN code tracking considered by Hartmann (1974). However, the MCTL does not suffer the loss in tracking performance (with respect to the traditional loop) that the dithering loop experiences.

  13. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    PubMed

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology. PMID:24735210

  14. Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies five modifier loci of lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Corvol, Harriet; Blackman, Scott M; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Gallins, Paul J; Pace, Rhonda G; Stonebraker, Jaclyn R; Accurso, Frank J; Clement, Annick; Collaco, Joseph M; Dang, Hong; Dang, Anthony T; Franca, Arianna; Gong, Jiafen; Guillot, Loic; Keenan, Katherine; Li, Weili; Lin, Fan; Patrone, Michael V; Raraigh, Karen S; Sun, Lei; Zhou, Yi-Hui; O'Neal, Wanda K; Sontag, Marci K; Levy, Hara; Durie, Peter R; Rommens, Johanna M; Drumm, Mitchell L; Wright, Fred A; Strug, Lisa J; Cutting, Garry R; Knowles, Michael R

    2015-09-29

    The identification of small molecules that target specific CFTR variants has ushered in a new era of treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF), yet optimal, individualized treatment of CF will require identification and targeting of disease modifiers. Here we use genome-wide association analysis to identify genetic modifiers of CF lung disease, the primary cause of mortality. Meta-analysis of 6,365 CF patients identifies five loci that display significant association with variation in lung disease. Regions on chr3q29 (MUC4/MUC20; P=3.3 × 10(-11)), chr5p15.3 (SLC9A3; P=6.8 × 10(-12)), chr6p21.3 (HLA Class II; P=1.2 × 10(-8)) and chrXq22-q23 (AGTR2/SLC6A14; P=1.8 × 10(-9)) contain genes of high biological relevance to CF pathophysiology. The fifth locus, on chr11p12-p13 (EHF/APIP; P=1.9 × 10(-10)), was previously shown to be associated with lung disease. These results provide new insights into potential targets for modulating lung disease severity in CF.

  15. Top-Down Analysis of Highly Post-Translationally Modified Peptides by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Andres; Lerno, Larry; Barile, Daniela; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2015-03-01

    Bovine κ-caseinoglycomacropeptide (GMP) is a highly modified peptide from κ-casein produced during the cheese making process. The chemical nature of GMP makes analysis by traditional proteomic approaches difficult, as the peptide bears a strong net negative charge and a variety of post-translational modifications. In this work, we describe the use of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) for the top-down analysis of GMP. The method allows the simultaneous detection of different GMP forms that result from the combination of amino acid genetic variations and post-translational modifications, specifically phosphorylation and O-glycosylation. The different GMP forms were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode and confirmation was achieved by tandem MS. The results showed the predominance of two genetic variants of GMP that occur as either mono- or bi-phosphorylated species. Additionally, these four forms can be modified with up to two O-glycans generally sialylated. The results demonstrate the presence of glycosylated, bi-phosphorylated forms of GMP never described before.

  16. Free vibration analysis of embedded magneto-electro-thermo-elastic cylindrical nanoshell based on the modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Safarpour, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, size-dependent effect of an embedded magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) nanoshell subjected to thermo-electro-magnetic loadings on free vibration behavior is investigated. Also, the surrounding elastic medium has been considered as the model of Winkler characterized by the spring. The size-dependent MEE nanoshell is investigated on the basis of the modified couple stress theory. Taking attention to the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), the modeled nanoshell and its equations of motion are derived using principle of minimum potential energy. The accuracy of the presented model is validated with some cases in the literature. Finally, using the Navier-type method, an analytical solution of governing equations for vibration behavior of simply supported MEE cylindrical nanoshell under combined loadings is presented and the effects of material length scale parameter, temperature changes, external electric potential, external magnetic potential, circumferential wave numbers, constant of spring, shear correction factor and length-to-radius ratio of the nanoshell on natural frequency are identified. Since there has been no research about size-dependent analysis MEE cylindrical nanoshell under combined loadings based on FSDT, numerical results are presented to be served as benchmarks for future analysis of MEE nanoshells using the modified couple stress theory.

  17. High Content Analysis Provides Mechanistic Insights on the Pathways of Toxicity Induced by Amine-Modified Polystyrene Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Anguissola, Sergio; Garry, David; Salvati, Anna; O'Brien, Peter J.; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    The fast-paced development of nanotechnology needs the support of effective safety testing. We have developed a screening platform measuring simultaneously several cellular parameters for exposure to various concentrations of nanoparticles (NPs). Cell lines representative of different organ cell types, including lung, endothelium, liver, kidney, macrophages, glia, and neuronal cells were exposed to 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene (PS-NH2) NPs previously reported to induce apoptosis and to 50 nm sulphonated and carboxyl-modified polystyrene NPs that were reported to be silent. All cell lines apart from Raw 264.7 executed apoptosis in response to PS-NH2 NPs, showing specific sequences of EC50 thresholds; lysosomal acidification was the most sensitive parameter. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and plasma membrane integrity measured by High Content Analysis resulted comparably sensitive to the equivalent OECD-recommended assays, allowing increased output. Analysis of the acidic compartments revealed good cerrelation between size/fluorescence intensity and dose of PS-NH2 NPs applied; moreover steatosis and phospholipidosis were observed, consistent with the lysosomal alterations revealed by Lysotracker green; similar responses were observed when comparing astrocytoma cells with primary astrocytes. We have established a platform providing mechanistic insights on the response to exposure to nanoparticles. Such platform holds great potential for in vitro screening of nanomaterials in highthroughput format. PMID:25238162

  18. Using Decomposition Analysis to Identify Modifiable Racial Disparities in the Distribution of Blood Pressure in the United States.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Hong, Anthony; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2015-08-15

    To lower the prevalence of hypertension and racial disparities in hypertension, public health agencies have attempted to reduce modifiable risk factors for high blood pressure, such as excess sodium intake or high body mass index. In the present study, we used decomposition methods to identify how population-level reductions in key risk factors for hypertension could reshape entire population distributions of blood pressure and associated disparities among racial/ethnic groups. We compared blood pressure distributions among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American persons using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2010). When using standard adjusted logistic regression analysis, we found that differences in body mass index were the only significant explanatory correlate to racial disparities in blood pressure. By contrast, our decomposition approach provided more nuanced revelations; we found that disparities in hypertension related to tobacco use might be masked by differences in body mass index that significantly increase the disparities between black and white participants. Analysis of disparities between white and Mexican-American participants also reveal hidden relationships between tobacco use, body mass index, and blood pressure. Decomposition offers an approach to understand how modifying risk factors might alter population-level health disparities in overall outcome distributions that can be obscured by standard regression analyses.

  19. Systematic analysis of the in situ crosstalk of tyrosine modifications reveals no additional natural selection on multiply modified residues

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhicheng; Liu, Zexian; Cheng, Han; Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Tianshun; Ullah, Shahid; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that different post-translational modifications (PTMs) synergistically orchestrate specific biological processes by crosstalks. However, the preference of the crosstalk among different PTMs and the evolutionary constraint on the PTM crosstalk need further dissections. In this study, the in situ crosstalk at the same positions among three tyrosine PTMs including sulfation, nitration and phosphorylation were systematically analyzed. The experimentally identified sulfation, nitration and phosphorylation sites were collected and integrated with reliable predictions to perform large-scale analyses of in situ crosstalks. From the results, we observed that the in situ crosstalk between sulfation and nitration is significantly under-represented, whereas both sulfation and nitration prefer to co-occupy with phosphorylation at same tyrosines. Further analyses suggested that sulfation and nitration preferentially co-occur with phosphorylation at specific positions in proteins, and participate in distinct biological processes and functions. More interestingly, the long-term evolutionary analysis indicated that multi-PTM targeting tyrosines didn't show any higher conservation than singly modified ones. Also, the analysis of human genetic variations demonstrated that there is no additional functional constraint on inherited disease, cancer or rare mutations of multiply modified tyrosines. Taken together, our systematic analyses provided a better understanding of the in situ crosstalk among PTMs. PMID:25476580

  20. Analysis of the Modified Rankin Scale in Randomised Controlled Trials of Acute Ischaemic Stroke: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Aimie; Bath, Philip M.; Gray, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Historically, most acute stroke clinical trials were neutral statistically, with trials typically dichotomising ordinal scales, such as the modified Rankin Scale. Studies published before 2007 have shown that preserving the ordinal nature of these scales increased statistical power. A systematic review of trials published since 2007 was conducted to reevaluate statistical methods used and to assess whether practice has changed. Methods. A search of electronic databases identified RCTs published between January 2007 and July 2014 in acute ischaemic stroke using an ordinal dependency scale as the primary outcome. Findings. Forty-two RCTs were identified. The majority used a dichotomous analysis (25, 59.5%), eight (21.4%) retained the ordinal scale, and nine (19.0%) used another type of analysis. Conclusions. Trials published since 2007 still favoured dichotomous analyses over ordinal. Stroke trials, where appropriate, should consider retaining the ordinal nature of dependency scales. PMID:27088036

  1. Design, Generation and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) of Asymmetric Face Gear Drive With Modified Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Hawkins, J. M.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    A new type of face gear drive for application in transmissions, particularly in helicopters, has been developed. The new geometry differs from the existing geometry by application of asymmetric profiles and double-crowned pinion of the face gear mesh. The paper describes the computerized design, simulation of meshing and contact, and stress analysis by finite element method. Special purpose computer codes have been developed to conduct the analysis. The analysis of this new type of face gear is illustrated with a numerical example.

  2. Procedures for a modified tritium trick-helium doping and residual tritium analysis of vanadium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramey, D. W.; Braski, D. N.

    1985-05-01

    A modified tritium trick technique was used to implant three levels of 3He in V-15% Cr-5% Ti and Vanstar-7 specimens. The modifications include: (1) wrapping of the specimens with tantalum foil to minimize oxygen contamination and (2) tritiation treatment at 400°C to prevent vanadium tritide formation and to produce a 3He bubble distribution similar to that produced during elevated temperature irradiation. Preliminary results show that both modifications were successful. An electrochemical dissolution technique was developed to determine residual tritium levels in the vanadium alloys. Measured residual tritium levels after tritium removal were in the range of 500 to 1400 μCi/g (0.88 to 2.99 appm tritium in the alloy). Tritium solubilities in the alloys were calculated from the tritium decay time and the measured 3He content. Vanstar-7 specimens consistently absorbed about half as much tritium, and subsequently contained half as much 3He as V-15% Cr-5% Ti. Implanting 3He in vanadium alloys via the tritium trick offers a convenient technique to study the mechanism of helium embrittlement without irradiation and should provide a rapid screening method to help develop embrittlement-resistant vanadium alloys.

  3. Simulation and analysis of congestion risk during escalator transfers using a modified social force model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenhang; Gong, Jianhua; Yu, Ping; Shen, Shen; Li, Rong; Duan, Qishen

    2015-02-01

    The congestion risk during escalator transfers was simulated based on a modified social force model. A four-stage transfer model was proposed. A projection strategy was employed to calculate the social forces for inclined surfaces, and a schedule-line model was proposed to calculate the targets adaptively. Realistic simulations of escalator transfer activities were achieved. The results demonstrate that the spatial distribution of the congestion risks is inhomogeneous. A few areas contain clearly higher risks, and the congestion risk is higher in the transfer aisles than on the escalators. The congestion risk in the transfer aisle is influenced more by the average pedestrian speed than that of the escalators. Slower walkers in the transfer aisle may cause congestion, which is more serious when the escalator speed is faster than that of the pedestrians. Therefore, to reduce the congestion risk, the speed of the escalator should be set slower than the average speed of the pedestrians, and conductors can be employed to divert the traffic at the entrance, turns, and exit of the escalator.

  4. Phenylboronic acid modified silver nanoparticles for colorimetric dynamic analysis of glucose.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ke; Jiang, Xiaomei; Yan, Suting; Zhang, Laiying; Wu, Weitai

    2014-02-15

    The development of advanced nanostructures that allow dynamic quantification of glucose level can contribute to tight glucose control in diabetes management and other medical/biological fields. In this paper, we demonstrated that the assemblies of the 5-amino-2-fluorophenylboronic acid modified silver nanoparticles (FPBA-AgNPs) can be employed for highly modulating, sensitive, and selective colorimetric sensing of glucose over a physiologically important concentration range of 0-20mM at a physiological pH of 7.4. The glucose-modulated assembly of the FPBA-AgNPs occurred by the regulable formation of interparticle linkages via the bridged binding of 1,2-cis-diols and 5,6-cis-diols (for furanose form; or 4,6-cis-diols for pyranose form), respectively, of a glucose molecule to two FPBA-AgNPs. The detection limit was 89.0 μM. The mean error of glucose detection in a macro-bio-system, blood serum of adult, was smaller than 10%. Furthermore, we show that the glucose level variations associated with a model biological reaction process can be monitored by using the FPBA-AgNPs, whilst with the reaction mechanism remaining nearly unchanged. PMID:24055932

  5. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this. PMID:19602858

  6. Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-06-01

    A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this.

  7. Modified cyanobacteria

    DOEpatents

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  8. Analysis of catechins in Theobroma cacao beans by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gotti, Roberto; Furlanetto, Sandra; Pinzauti, Sergio; Cavrini, Vanni

    2006-04-21

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the quantitation of polyphenols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (catechin monomers) and the methylxanthine theobromine in Theobroma cacao beans. Owing to the poor stability of catechin monomers in alkaline conditions, a 50 mM Britton-Robinson buffer at a pH 2.50 was preferred as the background electrolyte. Under these conditions, the addition of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) at a concentration of 12 mM to the SDS micellar solution (90 mM), resulted in a cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) endowed with two peculiar advantages compare to the conventional MEKC: (i) strong improvement of separation of the most important phytomarkers of T. cacao and (ii) enantioselectivity toward (+/-)-catechin. In particular, separation of methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine), procyanidin dimers B1 and B2, and catechins (epicatechin and catechin) was obtained simultaneously to the enantioseparation of racemic catechin within 10min. The enantioselectivity of the method makes it suitable in evaluation of possible epimerisation at the C-2 position of epicatechin monomer potentially occurring during heat processing and storage of T. cacao beans. The extraction procedure of the phytomarkers from the beans was approached using ultrasonic bath under mild conditions optimized by a multivariate strategy. The method was validated for robustness, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, range, accuracy and precision and it was applied to T. cacao beans from different countries; interestingly, the native enantiomer (+)-catechin was found in the beans whereas, for the first time we reported that in chocolate, predominantly (-)-catechin is present, probably yielded by epimerisation of (-)-epicatechin occurred during the manufacture of chocolate.

  9. Proteomics analysis of cancer exosomes using a novel modified aptamer-based array (SOMAscan™) platform.

    PubMed

    Webber, Jason; Stone, Timothy C; Katilius, Evaldas; Smith, Breanna C; Gordon, Bridget; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Brewis, Ian A; Clayton, Aled

    2014-04-01

    We have used a novel affinity-based proteomics technology to examine the protein signature of small secreted extracellular vesicles called exosomes. The technology uses a new class of protein binding reagents called SOMAmers® (slow off-rate modified aptamers) and allows the simultaneous precise measurement of over 1000 proteins. Exosomes were highly purified from the Du145 prostate cancer cell line, by pooling selected fractions from a continuous sucrose gradient (within the density range of 1.1 to 1.2 g/ml), and examined under standard conditions or with additional detergent treatment by the SOMAscan™ array (version 3.0). Lysates of Du145 cells were also prepared, and the profiles were compared. Housekeeping proteins such as cyclophilin-A, LDH, and Hsp70 were present in exosomes, and we identified almost 100 proteins that were enriched in exosomes relative to cells. These included proteins of known association with cancer exosomes such as MFG-E8, integrins, and MET, and also those less widely reported as exosomally associated, such as ROR1 and ITIH4. Several proteins with no previously known exosomal association were confirmed as exosomally expressed in experiments using individual SOMAmer® reagents or antibodies in micro-plate assays. Western blotting confirmed the SOMAscan™-identified enrichment of exosomal NOTCH-3, L1CAM, RAC1, and ADAM9. In conclusion, we describe here over 300 proteins of hitherto unknown association with prostate cancer exosomes and suggest that the SOMAmer®-based assay technology is an effective proteomics platform for exosome-associated biomarker discovery in diverse clinical settings. PMID:24505114

  10. Reliable detection and identification of genetically modified maize, soybean, and canola by multiplex PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    James, Delano; Schmidt, Anna-Mary; Wall, Erika; Green, Margaret; Masri, Saad

    2003-09-24

    Multiplex PCR procedures were developed for simultaneously detecting multiple target sequences in genetically modified (GM) soybean (Roundup Ready), maize (event 176, Bt11, Mon810, T14/25), and canola (GT73, HCN92/28, MS8/RF3, Oxy 235). Internal control targets (invertase gene in corn, lectin and beta-actin genes in soybean, and cruciferin gene in canola) were included as appropriate to assess the efficiency of all reactions, thereby eliminating any false negatives. Primer combinations that allowed the identification of specific lines were used. In one system of identification, simultaneous amplification profiling (SAP), rather than target specific detection, was used for the identification of four GM maize lines. SAP is simple and has the potential to identify both approved and nonapproved GM lines. The template concentration was identified as a critical factor affecting efficient multiplex PCRs. In canola, 75 ng of DNA template was more effective than 50 ng of DNA for the simultaneous amplification of all targets in a reaction volume of 25 microL. Reliable identification of GM canola was achieved at a DNA concentration of 3 ng/microL, and at 0.1% for GM soybean, indicating high levels of sensitivity. Nonspecific amplification was utilized in this study as a tool for specific and reliable identification of one line of GM maize. The primer cry1A 4-3' (antisense primer) recognizes two sites on the DNA template extracted from GM transgenic maize containing event 176 (European corn borer resistant), resulting in the amplification of products of 152 bp (expected) and 485 bp (unexpected). The latter fragment was sequenced and confirmed to be Cry1A specific. The systems described herein represent simple, accurate, and sensitive GMO detection methods in which only one reaction is necessary to detect multiple GM target sequences that can be reliably used for the identification of specific lines of GMOs.

  11. Dynamic malware analysis using IntroVirt: a modified hypervisor-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joshua S.; Pape, Stephen R.; Meily, Adam T.; Gloo, Richard M.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a system for Dynamic Malware Analysis which incorporates the use of IntroVirt™. IntroVirt is an introspective hypervisor architecture and infrastructure that supports advanced analysis techniques for stealth-malwareanalysis. This system allows for complete guest monitoring and interaction, including the manipulation and blocking of system calls. IntroVirt is capable of bypassing virtual machine detection capabilities of even the most sophisticated malware, by spoofing returns to system call responses. Additional fuzzing capabilities can be employed to detect both malware vulnerabilities and polymorphism.

  12. Collaborative ring trial of the papaya endogenous reference gene and its polymerase chain reaction assays for genetically modified organism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Feiwu; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Junfeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-11-27

    The papaya (Carica papaya L.) Chymopapain (CHY) gene has been reported as a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) papaya detection in previous studies. Herein, we further validated the use of the CHY gene and its qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays through an interlaboratory collaborative ring trial. A total of 12 laboratories working on detection of genetically modified organisms participated in the ring trial and returned test results. Statistical analysis of the returned results confirmed the species specificity, low heterogeneity, and single-copy number of the CHY gene among different papaya varieties. The limit of detection of the CHY qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%, while the limit of quantification of the quantitative PCR assay was ∼25 copies of haploid papaya genome with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. The differences between the tested and true values of papaya content in 10 blind samples ranged from 0.84 to 6.58%. These results indicated that the CHY gene was suitable as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM papaya.

  13. Analysis of the effect of older drivers’ driving behaviors on traffic flow based on a modified CA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Mei-Ying; Shi, Jing; Liu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    As the global population ages, there are more and more older drivers on the road. The decline in driving performance of older drivers may influence the properties of traffic flow and safety. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of older drivers’ driving behaviors on traffic flow. A modified cellular automaton (CA) model which takes driving behaviors of older drivers into account is proposed. The simulation results indicate that older drivers’ driving behaviors induce a reduction in traffic flow especially when the density is higher than 15 vehicles per km per lane and an increase in Lane-changing frequency. The analysis of stability shows that a number of disturbances could frequently emerge, be propagated and eventually dissipate in this modified model. The results also reflect that with the increase of older drivers on the road, the probability of the occurrence of rear-end collisions increases greatly and obviously. Furthermore, the value of acceleration influences the traffic flow and safety significantly. These results provide the theoretical basis and reference for the traffic management departments to develop traffic management measure in the aging society.

  14. Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometric analysis of hexamethylenediamine-modified maltodextrin and dextran.

    PubMed

    Sisu, Eugen; Bosker, Wouter T E; Norde, Willem; Slaghek, Ted M; Timmermans, Johan W; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Cohen-Stuart, Martien A; Zamfir, Alina D

    2006-01-01

    A combined methodology for obtaining at the preparative scale and characterization by nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS (MS/MS) of linear polysaccharides modified at the reducing end is presented. Two polydisperse maltodextrins (1000 and 3000 Da) and a high molecular weight polydisperse dextran (6000 Da) were coupled with hexamethylenediamine (HMD). The coupling products were analyzed by nanoESI-QTOF-MS in the positive ion mode and MS/MS using collision-induced dissociation (CID) at low energies. In the HMD-M1000 mixture, the polysaccharide chains containing from 2 to 8 Glc residues were detected, while in HMD-M3000 we identified a complete series of chains containing from 8 to 21 Glc moieties. The employed ESI conditions enhanced the detection of chains with up to 46 Glc residues in the HMD-D6000 sample. By optimized MS/MS, HMD-modified polysaccharides of 3, 4, 5, 12 and 46 degrees of polymerization yielded product ion spectra exhibiting the whole set of Y- and B-fragment ions. The MS structural data were obtained within a few minutes of signal acquisition, with a sample consumption situating the analysis sensitivity in the picomolar range.

  15. Using multiple PCR and CE with chemiluminescence detection for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, an ultrasensitive CE-CL detection system coupled with a novel double-on-column coaxial flow detection interface was developed for the detection of PCR products. A reliable procedure based on this system had been demonstrated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism-the detection of Roundup Ready Soy (RRS) samples was presented as an example. The promoter, terminator, function and two reference genes of RRS were amplified with multiplex PCR simultaneously. After that, the multiplex PCR products were labeled with acridinium ester at the 5'-terminal through an amino modification and then analyzed by the proposed CE-CL system. Reproducibility of analysis times and peak heights for the CE-CL analysis were determined to be better than 0.91 and 3.07% (RSD, n=15), respectively, for three consecutive days. It was shown that this method could accurately and qualitatively detect RRS standards and the simulative samples. The evaluation in terms of quantitative analysis of RRS provided by this new method was confirmed by comparing our assay results with those of the standard real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) using SYBR Green I dyes. The results showed a good coherence between the two methods. This approach demonstrated the possibility for accurate qualitative and quantitative detection of GM plants in a single run.

  16. Design of Dual band Modified Inverted F-Antenna for Military and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Applications by Numerical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Robiul; Karmokar, Debabrata Kumar

    2012-11-01

    A design of single feed Dual Band Modified Inverted F-Antenna (IFA) operating at 4.45 GHz (4.4-4.7GHz) and 5.9 GHz (5.850-5.925 GHz) has been proposed in this paper. The design is initiated by trial and error method of Numerical Analysis and method of moments (MoMís) in Numerical Electromagnetic code (NEC) is used to design, simulate and analyze this antenna. The results exhibit a proper operation of the antenna in terms of return loss, bandwidth, efficiency, VSWR, and gain at both bands. Proposed antenna is designed to achieve multi-serving purposes. Military applications and applications in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are the most important applications within the above mentioned frequency bands respectively. The simulated results including performance parameters of antenna are presented and all are acceptable for the standard antennas.

  17. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-05-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  18. Harmonic analysis approach to the 'TunneLadder' - A modified Karp circuit for millimeter-wave TWTA's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G.; Palmer, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    A field approach to the summed harmonic analysis of the TunneLadder structure, or modified forward-wave Karp circuit, is developed by combining TM(01) and TE(11) modes. Results suggest the suitability of this structure as a high-impedance, about 1-% bandwidth circuit, millimeter-wave forward-wave-type amplifier that is voltage tunable over about a 5-% frequency range and has excellent power handling ability. Theory gives good agreement with experimental results obtained by Karp in omega-beta dispersion and predicts qualitatively the appearances of the antisymmetric mode discussed and of the so called Hightron mode that was discussed earlier in White, Enderby and Birdsall (1964), and Enderby (1964), in addition to the desired symmetric mode.

  19. Calculation of measurement uncertainty in quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms using intermediate precision--a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina; Cankar, Katarina; Stebih, Dejan; Blejec, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of nucleic acids is becoming a frequently used method in routine analysis of biological samples, one use being the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Measurement uncertainty is an important factor to be considered in these analyses, especially where precise thresholds are set in regulations. Intermediate precision, defined as a measure between repeatability and reproducibility, is a parameter describing the real situation in laboratories dealing with quantitative aspects of molecular biology methods. In this paper, we describe the top-down approach to calculating measurement uncertainty, using intermediate precision, in routine GMO testing of food and feed samples. We illustrate its practicability in defining compliance of results with regulations. The method described is also applicable to other molecular methods for a variety of laboratory diagnostics where quantitative characterization of nucleic acids is needed.

  20. [Estimation of water clarity in offshore marine areas based on modified semi-analysis spectra model].

    PubMed

    Han, Liu-Sheng; Chen, Shui-Sen; Chen, Xiu-Zhi; Li, Dan; Li, Yong; Sun, Lin; Lu, Chu-Qian; Chen, Wei-Qi

    2014-02-01

    The main objectives of the research described in the present paper are to develop a semi-analysis model of water clarity for case 2 waters without inputting the absorption and scattering coefficient, which are not easy to be obtained for offshore marine areas so far. Based on the Zsd (Secchi depth)inversion theory, a simple semi-analysis spectra model was established for offshore seawater clarity by analyzing the relationship between vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient K(d) (490) and the beam attenuation coefficient c(490) with remote sensing reflectance. This semi-analysis spectra model needed two band reflectance ratios on- ly, while tidal correction was produced for this model to improve the precision of the retrieving results. The semi-analysis spectra model was applied to ASD hyperspectral reflectance data measured in the Pearl River Estuary Ecological Zone (October 21, 23, 2012, November 2, 2012; N=20) and the Xuwen Coral Reef Protection Zone (January 13, 14, 2013, N=25) which covered different water body of tidal times and different pollution sources. The results indicated that the changing tendency of predicted values was consistent with the synchronous measurement values after comparing them. However, water clarity calculated by the ASD hyperspectral reflectance measured in spring tidal time, generated 0. 4 m deviation compared with in-situ water clarity, while water clarity calculated by the ASD hyperspectral reflectance measured in neap tidal time is close to the in-situ water clarity. So the tidal correction coefficient of 0.4 was further applied for the model. After modification, the coefficient of determination between the inversed and measured water clarity was 0. 663, the average absolute error was 0. 14 m and the average relative error was 19.5%. Research demonstrated that this semi-analysis inversion algorithm just needs two band reflectance ratio to complete the inversion of water clarity, which is simple and works relatively well for lower

  1. Development and application of a multi-targeting reference plasmid as calibrator for analysis of five genetically modified soybean events.

    PubMed

    Pi, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Cao, Yiwei; Wang, Canhua; Pan, Liangwen; Yang, Litao

    2015-04-01

    Reference materials are important in accurate analysis of genetically modified organism (GMO) contents in food/feeds, and development of novel reference plasmid is a new trend in the research of GMO reference materials. Herein, we constructed a novel multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, which contained seven event-specific sequences of five GM soybeans (MON89788-5', A2704-12-3', A5547-127-3', DP356043-5', DP305423-3', A2704-12-5', and A5547-127-5') and sequence of soybean endogenous reference gene Lectin. We evaluated the specificity, limit of detection and quantification, and applicability of pSOY in both qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses. The limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 20 copies in qualitative PCR, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) in quantitative PCR was 10 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and Lectin assays were higher than 90%, and the squared regression coefficients (R(2)) were more than 0.999. The quantification bias varied from 0.21% to 19.29%, and the relative standard deviations were from 1.08% to 9.84% in simulated samples analysis. All the results demonstrated that the developed multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, was a credible substitute of matrix reference materials, and could be used as a reliable reference calibrator in the identification and quantification of multiple GM soybean events. PMID:25673245

  2. Development and application of a multi-targeting reference plasmid as calibrator for analysis of five genetically modified soybean events.

    PubMed

    Pi, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Cao, Yiwei; Wang, Canhua; Pan, Liangwen; Yang, Litao

    2015-04-01

    Reference materials are important in accurate analysis of genetically modified organism (GMO) contents in food/feeds, and development of novel reference plasmid is a new trend in the research of GMO reference materials. Herein, we constructed a novel multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, which contained seven event-specific sequences of five GM soybeans (MON89788-5', A2704-12-3', A5547-127-3', DP356043-5', DP305423-3', A2704-12-5', and A5547-127-5') and sequence of soybean endogenous reference gene Lectin. We evaluated the specificity, limit of detection and quantification, and applicability of pSOY in both qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses. The limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 20 copies in qualitative PCR, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) in quantitative PCR was 10 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and Lectin assays were higher than 90%, and the squared regression coefficients (R(2)) were more than 0.999. The quantification bias varied from 0.21% to 19.29%, and the relative standard deviations were from 1.08% to 9.84% in simulated samples analysis. All the results demonstrated that the developed multi-targeting plasmid, pSOY, was a credible substitute of matrix reference materials, and could be used as a reliable reference calibrator in the identification and quantification of multiple GM soybean events.

  3. Quadrantal multi-scale distribution entropy analysis of heartbeat interval series based on a modified Poincaré plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Chengyu; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhuang, Jianjun; Hou, Fengzhen; Ni, Huangjing; Ning, Xinbao

    2013-09-01

    The Poincaré plot is one of the most important approaches in human cardiac rhythm analysis. However, further investigations are still needed to concentrate on techniques that can characterize the dispersion of the points displayed by a Poincaré plot. Based on a modified Poincaré plot, we provide a novel measurement named distribution entropy (DE) and propose a quadrantal multi-scale distribution entropy analysis (QMDE) for the quantitative descriptions of the scatter distribution patterns in various regions and temporal scales. We apply this method to the heartbeat interval series derived from healthy subjects and congestive heart failure (CHF) sufferers, respectively, and find that the discriminations between them are most significant in the first quadrant, which implies significant impacts on vagal regulation brought about by CHF. We also investigate the day-night differences of young healthy people, and it is shown that the results present a clearly circadian rhythm, especially in the first quadrant. In addition, the multi-scale analysis indicates that the results of healthy subjects and CHF sufferers fluctuate in different trends with variation of the scale factor. The same phenomenon also appears in circadian rhythm investigations of young healthy subjects, which implies that the cardiac dynamic system is affected differently in various temporal scales by physiological or pathological factors.

  4. Modified data analysis for thermal conductivity measurements of polycrystalline silicon microbridges using a steady state Joule heating technique.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Robert A; Piekos, Edward S; Phinney, Leslie M

    2012-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of thermophysical properties is needed to predict and optimize the thermal performance of microsystems. Thermal conductivity is experimentally determined by measuring quantities such as voltage or temperature and then inferring a thermal conductivity from a thermal model. Thermal models used for data analysis contain inherent assumptions, and the resultant thermal conductivity value is sensitive to how well the actual experimental conditions match the model assumptions. In this paper, a modified data analysis procedure for the steady state Joule heating technique is presented that accounts for bond pad effects including thermal resistance, electrical resistance, and Joule heating. This new data analysis method is used to determine the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) microbridges fabricated using the Sandia National Laboratories SUMMiT V™ micromachining process over the temperature range of 77-350 K, with the value at 300 K being 71.7 ± 1.5 W/(m K). It is shown that making measurements on beams of multiple lengths is useful, if not essential, for inferring the correct thermal conductivity from steady state Joule heating measurements.

  5. Two modified RNA extraction methods compatible with transcript profiling and gene expression analysis for cotton roots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chengjian; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Xiaokun; Yang, Xingyong

    2013-01-01

    Efficient isolation of high-quality RNA is of prime importance for optimal transcript profiling results and further gene expression analysis. However, it is difficult for cotton roots because of lower-than-average RNA content and high content of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and other secondary metabolites. To develop simple and reliable protocols for high-quality RNA extraction from cotton roots for transcript profiling and gene expression analysis, some modifications were introduced to a reported plant RNA isolation protocol and a reagent kit method. Using method A, we successfully extracted high-quality RNA for transcript profiling from cotton roots. Gel electrophoresis analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated that RNA had good integrity without protein and genomic DNA contamination. Furthermore, the A260/280 (1.9) and A260/230 (1.6) ratios indicated that the isolated RNA was of high purity. Using method B, about 7 µg total RNA of high quality could be obtained from 0.1 g samples from cotton roots, which can be used for reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The two RNA extraction methods were used to investigate different gene expression of cotton roots (Gossypium hirsutum) infected by weak pathogenic Verticillium dahliae and the results showed they can satisfy the transcript profiling and quantitative real-time RT-PCR requirements for RNA. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file.

  6. Bifurcation Analysis and Chaos Control in a Modified Finance System with Delayed Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jihua; Zhang, Erli; Liu, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect of delayed feedback on the finance system, which describes the time variation of the interest rate, for establishing the fiscal policy. By local stability analysis, we theoretically prove the existences of Hopf bifurcation and Hopf-zero bifurcation. By using the normal form method and center manifold theory, we determine the stability and direction of a bifurcating periodic solution. Finally, we give some numerical solutions, which indicate that when the delay passes through certain critical values, chaotic oscillation is converted into a stable equilibrium or periodic orbit.

  7. Topology of modified helical gears and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Jiao

    1989-01-01

    The contents of this report covers: (1) development of optimal geometries for crowned helical gears; (2) a method for their generation; (3) tooth contact analysis (TCA) computer programs for the analysis of meshing and bearing contact of the crowned helical gears; and (4) modelling and simulation of gear shaft deflection. The developed method for synthesis was used to determine the optimal geometry for a crowned helical pinion surface and was directed to localize the bearing contact and guarantee favorable shape and a low level of transmission errors. Two new methods for generation of the crowned helical pinion surface are proposed. One is based on the application of a tool with a surface of revolution that slightly deviates from a regular cone surface. The tool can be used as a grinding wheel or as a shaver. The other is based on a crowning pinion tooth surface with predesigned transmission errors. The pinion tooth surface can be generated by a computer-controlled automatic grinding machine. The TCA program simulates the meshing and bearing contact of the misaligned gears. The transmission errors are also determined. The gear shaft deformation was modelled and investigated. It was found that the deflection of gear shafts has the same effect as gear misalignment.

  8. Modifying Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heifetz, Louis J.; Farber, Barry A.

    1976-01-01

    An introductory framework for analyzing and modifying classroom behavior...is followed by presentation of illustrative case materials, discussion of philosophical and ethical issues, analysis of pitfalls to be avoided, and consideration of limitations inherent in behavioral approaches. (Author)

  9. RNA Expression Microarray Analysis in Mouse Prospermatogonia: Identification of Candidate Epigenetic Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Christophe; Mann, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian totipotent and pluripotent lineage exhibits genome-wide dynamics in respect to DNA methylation content. The first phase of global DNA demethylation and de novo remethylation occurs during preimplantation development and gastrulation, respectively, while the second phase occurs in primordial germ cells and primary oocytes/prospermatogonia, respectively. These dynamics are indicative of a comprehensive epigenetic resetting or reprogramming of the genome in preparation for major differentiation events. To gain further insight into the mechanisms driving DNA methylation dynamics and other types of epigenetic modification, we performed an RNA expression microarray analysis of fetal prospermatogonia at the stage when they are undergoing rapid de novo DNA remethylation. We have identified a number of highly or specifically expressed genes which could be important for determining epigenetic change in prospermatogonia. These data provide a useful resource in the discovery of molecular pathways involved in epigenetic reprogramming in the mammalian germ line. PMID:18330932

  10. Design, demonstration and analysis of a modified wavelength-correlating receiver for incoherent OCDMA system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng; Qiu, Kun; Wang, Leyang

    2011-03-28

    A novel wavelength-correlating receiver for incoherent Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. Enabled by the wavelength conversion based scheme, the proposed receiver can support various code types including one-dimensional optical codes and time-spreading/wavelength-hopping two dimensional codes. Also, a synchronous detection scheme with time-to- wavelength based code acquisition is proposed, by which code acquisition time can be substantially reduced. Moreover, a novel data-validation methodology based on all-optical pulse-width monitoring is introduced for the wavelength-correlating receiver. Experimental demonstration of the new proposed receiver is presented and low bit error rate data-receiving is achieved without optical hard limiting and electronic power thresholding. For the first time, a detailed theoretical performance analysis specialized for the wavelength-correlating receiver is presented. Numerical results show that the overall performance of the proposed receiver prevails over conventional OCDMA receivers.

  11. Employing a use-attainability analysis to modify NPDES permit provisions

    SciTech Connect

    Fiehweg, R.E.; McCarthy, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is a 6000-acre facility located 16 miles from the center of Denver, Colorado. Rocky Flats is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex, and was operated by its prime contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). The Site is currently undergoing extensive environmental restoration. To serve the Site population of 7,000 workers, Rocky Flats has an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant with tertiary treatment discharging 0.1 to 0.2 MGD. The WWTP discharges into the head waters of Big Dry Creek, which flows eastward to the South Platte River, the major drainage of northeastern Colorado. As a result of intense public scrutiny in 1989, the state of Colorado adopted the most stringent stream standards available based on use classification. These standards include 0.1 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for unionized ammonia, a standard used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to propose that the WWTP discharge no more than 1.0 mg/L total ammonia to meet the stream standard. This effluent limitation would require that DOE fund the installation of ammonia removal treatment at the WWTP, at high cost and with little improvement to the environment. In 1994, DOE and EG&G undertook a Use Attainability Analysis of Big Dry Creek in accordance with federal guidance. It was expected that the receiving waters would not demonstrate that they were meeting the aquatic life use classification assigned by the state, and that a request for the removal of that classification would be successful. Samples for water chemistry were collected beginning in the spring, and biological observations were made throughout the same period. Rather than impaired segments, the Use Attainability Analysis identified sensitive aquatic organisms, and found excellent water quality downstream from the Rocky Flats boundary. Also, ammonia does not persist in the segment at the current levels of discharge from the WWTP.

  12. Fatigue damage evaluation of plain woven carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) modified with MFC (micro-fibrillated cellulose) by thermo-elastic damage analysis (TDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Ryohei; Okubo, Kazuya; Fujii, Toru

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate characteristics of fatigue damage of CFRP modified with MFC by TDA under tensile cyclic loading. In this paper, fatigue life of CFRP modified with MFC was investigated under cyclic loading. Characteristics of fatigue damage of CFRP modified with MFC were evaluated by thermo-elastic damage analysis. Maximum improvement in fatigue life was also obtained under cyclic loading when epoxy matrix was enhanced with 0.3wt% of MFC as well as under static loading. Result of TDA showed same tendency as the result of fatigue test, and the result of TDA well expressed the fatigue damage behavior of plain woven CFRP plate. Eventually, TDA was effective for clear understanding the degree of fatigue damage progression of CFRP modified with MFC.

  13. Voltammetric analysis with the use of a novel electro-polymerised graphene-nafion film modified glassy carbon electrode: simultaneous analysis of noxious nitroaniline isomers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyun; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2012-12-01

    A new modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 7-[(2,4-dihydroxy-5-carboxybenzene)azo]-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (DHCBAQS) at a graphene-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The construction process was performed stepwise and at each step the electrochemical characteristics were investigated particularly with respect to the oxidation of the three noxious analytes, 2-nitroaniline (2-NA), 3-nitroaniline (3-NA), 4-nitroaniline (4-NA); the electrode treated with the fluorescence reagent DHCBAQS performed best. At this electrode, the differential pulse voltammetry peak currents of the three isomers increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 0.05-0.60 μg mL(-1), respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were all about 0.022 μg mL(-1). Furthermore, satisfactory results were obtained when this electrode was applied for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of the nitroaniline isomer mixtures by Principal component regression (PCR) and Partial least squares (PLS) as calibration methods (relative prediction error (PRE(T)) - 9.04% and 9.23%) and average recoveries (101.0% and 101.7%), respectively. The above novel poly-DHCBAQS/graphene-nafion/GCE was successfully employed for the simultaneous analysis of the three noxious nitroaniline isomers in water and sewage samples.

  14. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence attachment module modified for analysis in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.; Meirer, F.; Jokubonis, C.; Markowicz, A.; Wegrzynek, D.; Chinea-Cano, E.

    2008-12-01

    Based on the design of the low cost Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence attachment module available since 1986 from Atominstitut (WOBRAUSCHEK-module) which can be attached to existing X-ray equipment, a new version was developed which allows the analysis of samples in vacuum. This design was in particular possible as the Peltier cooled light weight Silicon Drift Detector is following all adjustment procedures for total reflection as angle rotation and linear motion. The detector is mounted through a vacuum feed and O-ring tightening to the small vacuum chamber. The standard 30 mm round quartz, Si-wafer or Plexiglas reflectors are used to carry the samples. The reflectors are placed on the reference plane with the dried sample down looking facing in about 0.5 mm distance the up looking detector window. The reflectors are resting on 3 steel balls defining precisely the reference plane for the adjustment procedure. As the rotation axis of the module is in the plane of the reflector surface, angle dependent experiments can be made to distinguish between film and particulate type contamination of samples. Operating with a Mo anode at 50 kV and 40 mA with a closely attached multilayer monochromator and using a 10 mm 2 KETEK silicon drift detector with 8 μm Be window, a sensitivity of 70 cps/ng for Rb was measured and detection limits of 2 pg were obtained.

  15. A modified analysis for thermal-mechanical properties of staggered structure in biomimetic materials.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yun-Fei; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2012-12-01

    The thermal-mechanical stress distributions and equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the staggered arrangement of mineral platelets wrapped by soft matrix are analyzed, which exist in numerous natural biological and biomimetic materials. Two analytical models, 'Stress model' and 'Displacement model', were established from the ways of stress and displacement solution based on the modification of classical shear-lag model. Complementary finite element analysis (FEA) was used to verify the analytical models. Results reveal that, compared to 'Displacement model', 'Stress model' gives a better prediction of the stress distributions within the staggered structure referring to FEA. The equivalent CTE predicted by both models reach constant as the aspect ratio and volume fraction of platelets exceeding the critical values. Nevertheless, the relative error between the results from different models increases with the increase of the ratio of overlap to length of platelets. These provide a benchmark to the optimum design of micro/nano-structure in bio-inspired materials suffering to temperature fluctuation and applied loading. PMID:23158216

  16. Compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops: key issues and future needs.

    PubMed

    Hoekenga, Owen A; Srinivasan, Jannavi; Barry, Gerard; Bartholomaeus, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Effective symposia need two strong legs to stand upon: informative presentations of recent research paired with lively discussion of these topics. Although it is easy for the organizers of a symposium to predict the usefulness of the former, as they select the speakers and their topic areas, guaranteeing productive discussion is a far more difficult task. For the Crop Composition Workshop sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute's Committee on Food and Biotechnology (ILSI IFBIC), the organizers scheduled four roundtable discussions with preselected questions and with rapporteurs drawn from governmental organizations and public-sector research institutes (the authors). It was also the organizers' intent to let these discussions flow on the basis of the experiences of the participants and pressing issues within the overall debate on the role of crop compositional analysis within safety assessment of biotechnology as it exists now and in the future. The goal of this perspective is to summarize the issues raised, providing references when possible, and to describe the consensus statements reached through the course of these discussions. PMID:23746303

  17. Compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops: key issues and future needs.

    PubMed

    Hoekenga, Owen A; Srinivasan, Jannavi; Barry, Gerard; Bartholomaeus, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Effective symposia need two strong legs to stand upon: informative presentations of recent research paired with lively discussion of these topics. Although it is easy for the organizers of a symposium to predict the usefulness of the former, as they select the speakers and their topic areas, guaranteeing productive discussion is a far more difficult task. For the Crop Composition Workshop sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute's Committee on Food and Biotechnology (ILSI IFBIC), the organizers scheduled four roundtable discussions with preselected questions and with rapporteurs drawn from governmental organizations and public-sector research institutes (the authors). It was also the organizers' intent to let these discussions flow on the basis of the experiences of the participants and pressing issues within the overall debate on the role of crop compositional analysis within safety assessment of biotechnology as it exists now and in the future. The goal of this perspective is to summarize the issues raised, providing references when possible, and to describe the consensus statements reached through the course of these discussions.

  18. The analysis of quartz c-axis fabrics using a modified optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C J L; Russell-Head, D S; Kunze, K; Viola, G

    2007-07-01

    A new fully automated microfabric analyzer (MiFA) is described that can be used for the fast collection of high-resolution spatial c-axis orientation data from a set of digital polarized light images. At the onset of an analysis the user is presented with an axial-distribution diagram (AVA -'Achsenverteilungsanalyse') of a thin section. It is then a simple matter to build-up c-axis pole figures from selected areas of interest. The c-axis inclination and colatitudes at any pixel site is immediately available to create bulk fabric diagrams or to select measurements in individual areas. The system supports both the interactive selection of c-axis measurement sites and grid array selection. A verification process allows the operator to exclude dubious measurements due to impurities, grain boundaries or bubbles. We present a comparison of bulk and individual c-axis MiFA measurements to pole figures measured with an X-ray texture goniometer and to data collected from a scanning electron microscope furnished with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) facility. A second sample, an experimentally deformed quartzite, illustrates that crystal orientations can be precisely linked to any location within an individual grain.

  19. Quantitative assessment of hyperspectral imaging in detection of plasmonic nanoparticles: a modified contrast-detail analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianting; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) is an emerging imaging modality being applied for clinical indications such as tissue oximetry, and cancer detection based on endogenous biological constituents including plasmonic nanoparticles. However, there is currently a lack of standardized test methods for objective, quantitative evaluation of HRI system performance. Contrast-detail analysis (CDA) is a phantom-based test method commonly used to evaluate medical imaging devices (e.g., mammography systems) in terms of their lower detection limit. We investigated a modified CDA (mCDA) method to quantify the detectability of gold nanoparticles by HRI systems. Silicone-based turbid phantoms containing micro-fluidic channels were developed for the mCDA tests. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantom materials were doped with chromophores and scatterers to achieve biologically relevant optical properties (OPs). Molds were used to produce cylindrical channels of diameters 0.3 to 1.65 mm and depths of 0.2 mm inside the phantoms. Channels were filled with a mixture of hemoglobin and concentrations of gold nanorods (GNR) and measured with our HRI system. The contrast of GNRs was solved with a spectral unmixing algorithm from the reflectance spectra. The lowest detectable concentration was determined as a function of inclusion size and depth and plotted as modified contrast detail curve (mCDC). mCDCs were used to compare the detectabilities of the HRI system with different data processing algorithms. It is demonstrated that our mCDA test method involving turbid microchannel phantoms can help to elucidate the combined performance of imaging devices and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast agents. This approach may be useful for performing clinical trial standardization and device re-calibration, thus ensuring quality control and clinical performance.

  20. Exercise and ankylosing spondylitis with New York modified criteria: a systematic review of controlled trials with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, N A; Furtado, Guilherme Eustáquio; Campos, Maria João; Leitão, José Carlos; Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, José Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a systemic rheumatic disease that affects the axial skeleton, causing inflammatory back pain, structural and functional changes which decrease quality of life. Several treatments for ankylosing spondylitis have been proposed and among them the use of exercise. The present study aims to synthesize information from the literature and identify the results of controlled clinical trials on exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis with the New York modified diagnostic criteria and to assess whether exercise is more effective than physical activity to reduce functional impairment. The sources of studies used were: LILACS, Pubmed, EBSCOhost, B-on, personal communication, manual research and lists of references. The criteria used for the studies selection was controlled clinical trials, participants with New York modified diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis, and with interventions through exercise. The variables studied were related to primary outcomes such as BASFI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index) as a functional index, BASDAI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index) as an index of intensity of disease activity and BASMI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index) as a metrological index assessing patient's limitation on movement. From the 603 studies identified after screening only 37 articles were selected for eligibility, from which 18 studies were included. The methodological quality was assessed to select those with an high methodological expressiveness using the PEDro scale. A cumulative meta-analysis was subsequently performed to compare exercise versus usual level of physical activity. Exercise shows significant statistical outcomes for the BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI, higher than those found for usual level of physical activity.

  1. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize.

  2. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize. PMID:21873818

  3. Quantitative analysis of immobilized penicillinase using enzyme-modified AlGaN/GaN field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Müntze, Gesche Mareike; Baur, Barbara; Schäfer, Wladimir; Sasse, Alexander; Howgate, John; Röth, Kai; Eickhoff, Martin

    2015-02-15

    Penicillinase-modified AlGaN/GaN field-effect transistors (PenFETs) are utilized to systematically investigate the covalently immobilized enzyme penicillinase under different experimental conditions. We demonstrate quantitative evaluation of covalently immobilized penicillinase layers on pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (FETs) using an analytical kinetic PenFET model. This kinetic model is explicitly suited for devices with thin enzyme layers that are not diffusion-limited, as it is the case for the PenFETs discussed here. By means of the kinetic model it was possible to extract the Michaelis constant of covalently immobilized penicillinase as well as relative transport coefficients of the different species associated with the enzymatic reaction which, exempli gratia, give information about the permeability of the enzymatic layer. Based on this analysis we quantify the reproducibility and the stability of the analyzed PenFETs over the course of 33 days as well as the influence of pH and buffer concentration on the properties of the enzymatic layer. Thereby the stability measurements reveal a Michalis constant KM of (67 ± 13)μM while the chronological development of the relative transport coefficients suggests a detachment of physisorbed penicillinase during the first two weeks since production. Our results show that AlGaN/GaN PenFETs prepared by covalent immobilization of a penicillinase enzyme layer present a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of enzyme functionality.

  4. Improved consistency in DNPH-mediated pyruvic acid analysis of onion juice by modifying the sample processing order.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-01

    Onion pungency is commonly measured on absorbency of the wine pink color that results from adding NaOH to the heated mixture of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and onion juice. However, significant variation exists among several modifications of the original Schwimmer and Weston (SW) method. We observed differences in pyruvic acid concentrations of 20%-30% between our automated method and a batch method with manual absorbency readings. To determine the source of the differences, we examined the heating time and waiting time of the sample-DNPH mixtures and found no differences. The differences were caused by differential color degradation between the pyruvic acid standards and onion juice samples. These differences could be minimized by reading the absorbency within 1 min of NaOH addition. Using this information, we devised the one-by-one method to control the reading time at 30 s. We compared 5 different analysis methods of 40 onion samples representing 4 onion colors. The automated, high-performance liquid chromatography, and SW methods had similar results, with only about a 5% difference. However, the batch method resulted in differences of approximately 24% as compared to the automated method. The one-by-one method produced very comparable results, within 5%, to the automated method. By modifying the procedure to ensure a uniform and fast reading time, we increased the consistency between the pungency analysis methods. Therefore, fast and uniform absorbency reading time is essential for an accurate measurement of pungency in undiluted onion juice.

  5. Phosphate analysis and dephosphorylation of modified tau associated with paired helical filaments.

    PubMed

    Ksiezak-Reding, H; Liu, W K; Yen, S H

    1992-12-01

    We performed phosphate analysis of tau proteins isolated from normal human brain, tau proteins associated with paired helical filaments (PHF-tau), and Alzheimer tau not associated with PHF. These tau fractions were of high purity. Normal and Alzheimer tau were purified by heat treatment, acid extraction and calmodulin-affinity chromatography with or without HPLC. Fractions containing primarily PHF-tau polypeptides of 60, 64 and 68 kDa and their degraded fragments were purified either on a sucrose density gradient as filaments (PHF) or by heat treatment and acid extraction as amorphous proteins (PHF-tau). PHF and PHF-tau were found to contain 6-8 mol phosphate/mol protein while normal and Alzheimer tau proteins contained 1.9 and 2.6 mol phosphate/mol protein, respectively. Upon 2-h incubation with alkaline phosphatase, PHF lost two of the phosphate groups without apparent changes in the stability and morphology of PHF. The released phosphate originated from the N-terminal half of PHF-tau as determined by immunoblotting with antibodies to epitopes blocked by phosphorylation. Tau-1 and E-2, and by a prominent shift in the electrophoretic mobility of some fragments of PHF-tau. The shift in mobility was not observed with the C-terminal fragments of 25-26 kDa, which retained the epitope to Tau 46. The results suggest that the phosphorylation sites not affected by phosphatase may be located in the 25-26 kDa C-terminal region of PHF-tau and may play a role in structural stability of PHF.

  6. The Effect of Disease-Modifying Drugs on Brain Atrophy in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Branger, Pierre; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Sormani, Maria Pia; Defer, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background The quantification of brain atrophy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) may serve as a marker of disease progression and treatment response. We compared the association between first-line (FL) or second-line (SL) disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) and brain volume changes over time in RRMS. Materials and Methods We reviewed clinical trials in RRMS between January 1, 1995 and June 1, 2014 that assessed the effect of DMDs and reported data on brain atrophy in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane database and meeting abstracts. First, we designed a meta-analysis to directly compare the percentage brain volume change (PBVC) between FLDMDs and SLDMDs at 24 months. Second, we conducted an observational and longitudinal linear regression analysis of a 48-month follow-up period. Sensitivity analyses considering PBVC between 12 and 48 months were also performed. Results Among the 272 studies identified, 117 were analyzed and 35 (18,140 patients) were included in the analysis. Based on the meta-analysis, atrophy was greater for the use of an FLDMD than that of an SLDMD at 24 months (primary endpoint mean difference, -0.86; 95% confidence interval: -1.57–-0.15; P = 0.02). Based on the linear regression analysis, the annual PBVC significantly differed between SLDMDs and placebo (-0.27%/y and -0.50%/y, respectively, P = 0.046) but not between FLDMDs (-0.33%/y) and placebo (P = 0.11) or between FLDMDs and SLDMDs (P = 0.49). Based on sensitivity analysis, the annual PBVC was reduced for SLDMDs compared with placebo (-0.14%/y and -0.56%/y, respectively, P<0.001) and FLDMDs (-0.46%/y, P<0.005), but no difference was detected between FLDMDs and placebo (P = 0.12). Conclusions SLDMDs were associated with reduced PBVC slope over time in RRMS, regardless of the period considered. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying atrophy progression in RRMS. PMID:26983008

  7. Genetic modifiers of neurofibromatosis type 1-associated café-au-lait macule count identified using multi-platform analysis.

    PubMed

    Pemov, Alexander; Sung, Heejong; Hyland, Paula L; Sloan, Jennifer L; Ruppert, Sarah L; Baldwin, Andrea M; Boland, Joseph F; Bass, Sara E; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jones, Kristine M; Zhang, Xijun; Mullikin, James C; Widemann, Brigitte C; Wilson, Alexander F; Stewart, Douglas R

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, monogenic disorder of dysregulated neurocutaneous tissue growth. Pleiotropy, variable expressivity and few NF1 genotype-phenotype correlates limit clinical prognostication in NF1. Phenotype complexity in NF1 is hypothesized to derive in part from genetic modifiers unlinked to the NF1 locus. In this study, we hypothesized that normal variation in germline gene expression confers risk for certain phenotypes in NF1. In a set of 79 individuals with NF1, we examined the association between gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines with NF1-associated phenotypes and sequenced select genes with significant phenotype/expression correlations. In a discovery cohort of 89 self-reported European-Americans with NF1 we examined the association between germline sequence variants of these genes with café-au-lait macule (CALM) count, a tractable, tumor-like phenotype in NF1. Two correlated, common SNPs (rs4660761 and rs7161) between DPH2 and ATP6V0B were significantly associated with the CALM count. Analysis with tiled regression also identified SNP rs4660761 as significantly associated with CALM count. SNP rs1800934 and 12 rare variants in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 were also associated with CALM count. Both SNPs rs7161 and rs4660761 (DPH2 and ATP6V0B) were highly significant in a mega-analysis in a combined cohort of 180 self-reported European-Americans; SNP rs1800934 (MSH6) was near-significant in a meta-analysis assuming dominant effect of the minor allele. SNP rs4660761 is predicted to regulate ATP6V0B, a gene associated with melanosome biology. Individuals with homozygous mutations in MSH6 can develop an NF1-like phenotype, including multiple CALMs. Through a multi-platform approach, we identified variants that influence NF1 CALM count.

  8. Sensitivity analysis in the context of regional safety modeling: identifying and assessing the modifiable areal unit problem.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengpeng; Huang, Helai; Dong, Ni; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    A wide array of spatial units has been explored in current regional safety analysis. Since traffic crashes exhibit extreme spatiotemporal heterogeneity which has rarely been a consideration in partitioning these zoning systems, research based on these areal units may be subjected to the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). This study attempted to conduct a sensitivity analysis to quantitatively investigate the MAUP effect in the context of regional safety modeling. The emerging regionalization method-RECDAP (regionalization with dynamically constrained agglomerative clustering and partitioning) was employed to aggregate 738 traffic analysis zones in the county of Hillsborough to 14 zoning schemes at an incremental step-size of 50 zones based on spatial homogeneity of crash risk. At each level of aggregation, a Bayesian Poisson lognormal model and a Bayesian spatial model were calibrated to explain observed variations in total/severe crash counts given a number of zone-level factors. Results revealed that as the number of zones increases, the spatial autocorrelation of crash data increases. The Bayesian spatial model outperforms the Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model in accurately accounting for spatial autocorrelation effects, unbiased parameter estimates, and model performance, especially in cases with higher disaggregated levels. Zoning schemes with higher number of zones tend to have increasing number of significant variables, more stable coefficient estimation, smaller standard error, whereas worse model performance. The variables of population density and median household income show consistently significant effects on crash risk and are robust to variation in data aggregation. The MAUP effects may be significantly reduced if we just maintain at about 50% of the original number of zones (350 or larger). The present study highlights MAUP that is generally ignored by transportation safety analysts, and provides insights into the nature of parameter sensitivity to

  9. Measurement of Trained Speech Patterns in Stuttering: Interjudge and Intrajudge Agreement of Experts by Means of Modified Time-Interval Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpermann, Anke; Huber, Walter; Natke, Ulrich; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Improved fluency after stuttering therapy is usually measured by the percentage of stuttered syllables. However, outcome studies rarely evaluate the use of trained speech patterns that speakers use to manage stuttering. This study investigated whether the modified time interval analysis can distinguish between trained speech patterns, fluent…

  10. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems. PMID:26592613

  11. Assessing Modifiable Areal Unit Problem in the Analysis of Deforestation Drivers Using Remote Sensing and Census Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, J. F.; Pérez Vega, A.; Andablo Reyes, A.; Castillo Santiago, M. A.; Flamenco Sandoval, A.

    2015-08-01

    In order to identify drivers of land use / land cover change (LUCC), the rate of change is often compared with environmental and socio-economic variables such as slope, soil suitability or population density. Socio-economic information is obtained from census data which are collected for individual households but are commonly presented in aggregate on the basis of geographical units as municipalities. However, a common problem, known as the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), is that the results of statistical analysis are not independent of the scale and the spatial configuration of the units used to aggregate the information. In this article, we evaluate how strong MAUP effects are for a study on the deforestation drivers in Mexico at municipality level. This was done by taking socio-economic variables from the 2010 Census of Mexico along with environmental variables and the rate of deforestation. As population census is given for each human settlement and environmental variables are obtained from high resolution spatial database, it was possible to aggregate the information using spatial units ("pseudo municipalities") with different sizes in order to observe the effect of scale and aggregation on the values of bivariate correlations (Pearsons r) between pairs of variables. We found that MAUP produces variations in the results, and we observed some variable pairs and some configurations of the spatial units where the effect was substantial.

  12. Improved production of genetically modified fetuses with homogeneous transgene expression after transgene integration site analysis and recloning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; Dos Santos Miranda, Moyses; Perecin, Felipe; De Bem, Tiago Henrique; Pereira, Flavia Thomaz Verechia; Russo-Carbolante, Elisa Maria; Alves, Daiani; Strauss, Bryan; Bajgelman, Marcio; Krieger, José Eduardo; Binelli, Mario; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira

    2011-02-01

    Animal cloning by nuclear transfer (NT) has made the production of transgenic animals using genetically modified donor cells possible and ensures the presence of the gene construct in the offspring. The identification of transgene insertion sites in donor cells before cloning may avoid the production of animals that carry undesirable characteristics due to positional effects. This article compares blastocyst development and competence to establish pregnancies of bovine cloned embryos reconstructed with lentivirus-mediated transgenic fibroblasts containing either random integration of a transgene (random integration group) or nuclear transfer derived transgenic fibroblasts with known transgene insertion sites submitted to recloning (recloned group). In the random integration group, eGFP-expressing bovine fetal fibroblasts were selected by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and used as nuclei donor cells for NT. In the recloned group, a fibroblast cell line derived from a transgenic cloned fetus was characterized regarding transgene insertion and submitted to recloning. The recloned group had higher blastocyst production (25.38 vs. 14.42%) and higher percentage of 30-day pregnancies (14.29 vs. 2.56%) when compared to the random integration group. Relative eGFP expression analysis in fibroblasts derived from each cloned embryo revealed more homogeneous expression in the recloned group. In conclusion, the use of cell lines recovered from transgenic fetuses after identification of the transgene integration site allowed for the production of cells and fetuses with stable transgene expression, and recloning may improve transgenic animal yields.

  13. Runners with patellofemoral pain have altered biomechanics which targeted interventions can modify: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neal, Bradley S; Barton, Christian J; Gallie, Rosa; O'Halloran, Patrick; Morrissey, Dylan

    2016-03-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most prevalent running pathology and associated with multi-level biomechanical factors. This systematic review aims to guide treatment and prevention of PFP by synthesising prospective, observational and intervention studies that measure clinical and biomechanical outcomes in symptomatic running populations. Medline, Web of Science and CINAHL were searched from inception to April 2015 for prospective, case-control or intervention studies in running-related PFP cohorts. Study methodological quality was scored by two independent raters using the modified Downs and Black or PEDro scales, with meta-analysis performed where appropriate. 28 studies were included. Very limited evidence indicates that increased peak hip adduction is a risk factor for PFP in female runners, supported by moderate evidence of a relationship between PFP and increased peak hip adduction, internal rotation and contralateral pelvic drop, as well as reduced peak hip flexion. Limited evidence was also identified that altered peak force and time to peak at foot level is a risk factor for PFP development. Limited evidence from intervention studies indicates that both running retraining and proximal strengthening exercise lead to favourable outcomes in both pain and function, but only running retraining significantly reduces peak hip adduction, suggesting a possible kinematic mechanism. Put together, these findings highlight limited but coherent evidence of altered biomechanics which interventions can alter with resultant symptom change in females with PFP. There is a clear need for high quality prospective studies of intervention efficacy with measurement of explanatory mechanisms. PMID:26979886

  14. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems.

  15. Displacement damage analysis and modified electrical equivalent circuit for electron and photon-irradiated silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjhangmehr, Afshin; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-10-01

    Solar modules and arrays are the conventional energy resources of space satellites. Outside the earth's atmosphere, solar panels experience abnormal radiation environments and because of incident particles, photovoltaic (PV) parameters degrade. This article tries to analyze the electrical performance of electron and photon-irradiated mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. PV cells are irradiated by mono-energetic electrons and poly-energetic photons and immediately characterized after the irradiation. The mean degradation of the maximum power (Pmax) of silicon solar cells is presented and correlated using the displacement damage dose (Dd) methodology. This method simplifies evaluation of cell performance in space radiation environments and produces a single characteristic curve for Pmax degradation. Furthermore, complete analysis of the results revealed that the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the filling factor of mono-Si cells did not significantly change during the irradiation and were independent of the radiation type and fluence. Moreover, a new technique is developed that adapts the irradiation-induced effects in a single-cell equivalent electrical circuit and adjusts its elements. The "modified circuit" is capable of modeling the "radiation damage" in the electrical behavior of mono-Si solar cells and simplifies the designing of the compensation circuits.

  16. Physical mapping of a pollen modifier locus controlling self-incompatibility in apricot and synteny analysis within the Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga, Elena; Molina, Laura; Badenes, María Luisa; Romero, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    S-locus products (S-RNase and F-box proteins) are essential for the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) specific recognition in Prunus. However, accumulated genetic evidence suggests that other S-locus unlinked factors are also required for GSI. For instance, GSI breakdown was associated with a pollen-part mutation unlinked to the S-locus in the apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. 'Canino'. Fine-mapping of this mutated modifier gene (M-locus) and the synteny analysis of the M-locus within the Rosaceae are here reported. A segregation distortion loci mapping strategy, based on a selectively genotyped population, was used to map the M-locus. In addition, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig was constructed for this region using overlapping oligonucleotides probes, and BAC-end sequences (BES) were blasted against Rosaceae genomes to perform micro-synteny analysis. The M-locus was mapped to the distal part of chr.3 flanked by two SSR markers within an interval of 1.8 cM corresponding to ~364 Kb in the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) genome. In the integrated genetic-physical map of this region, BES were mapped against the peach scaffold_3 and BACs were anchored to the apricot map. Micro-syntenic blocks were detected in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) LG17/9 and strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) FG6 chromosomes. The M-locus fine-scale mapping provides a solid basis for self-compatibility marker-assisted selection and for positional cloning of the underlying gene, a necessary goal to elucidate the pollen rejection mechanism in Prunus. In a wider context, the syntenic regions identified in peach, apple and strawberry might be useful to interpret GSI evolution in Rosaceae.

  17. A modified hybrid uncertain analysis method for dynamic response field of the LSOAAC with random and interval parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, Bin; Zhou, Bin

    2016-07-01

    For the prediction of dynamic response field of the luffing system of an automobile crane (LSOAAC) with random and interval parameters, a hybrid uncertain model is introduced. In the hybrid uncertain model, the parameters with certain probability distribution are modeled as random variables, whereas, the parameters with lower and upper bounds are modeled as interval variables instead of given precise values. Based on the hybrid uncertain model, the hybrid uncertain dynamic response equilibrium equation, in which different random and interval parameters are simultaneously included in input and output terms, is constructed. Then a modified hybrid uncertain analysis method (MHUAM) is proposed. In the MHUAM, based on random interval perturbation method, the first-order Taylor series expansion and the first-order Neumann series, the dynamic response expression of the LSOAAC is developed. Moreover, the mathematical characteristics of extrema of bounds of dynamic response are determined by random interval moment method and monotonic analysis technique. Compared with the hybrid Monte Carlo method (HMCM) and interval perturbation method (IPM), numerical results show the feasibility and efficiency of the MHUAM for solving the hybrid LSOAAC problems. The effects of different uncertain models and parameters on the LSOAAC response field are also investigated deeply, and numerical results indicate that the impact made by the randomness in the thrust of the luffing cylinder F is larger than that made by the gravity of the weight in suspension Q . In addition, the impact made by the uncertainty in the displacement between the lower end of the lifting arm and the luffing cylinder a is larger than that made by the length of the lifting arm L .

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) genes from grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Wei, Jingguang; Chen, Xiuli; Gao, Pin; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins binding to lysine residues of target proteins and thereby modifying their stability, activity and subcellular localization. In the present study, two SUMO homolog genes (EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were cloned and characterized. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO1 was 749 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 306 bp encoding 101 amino acids with a molecular mass of 11.34 kDa. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO2 was 822 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 291 bp encoding 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.88 kDa EcSUMO1 shares 44.55% identity with EcSUMO2. EcSUMO1 shares 99%, 90%, and 88% identity with those from Oreochromis niloticus, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, respectively. EcSUMO2 shares 98%, 93%, and 96% identity with those from Anoplopoma fimbria, D.rerio, and H. sapiens, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were constitutively expressed in all of the analyzed tissues in healthy grouper, but the expression of EcSUMO2 was higher than that of EcSUMO1. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were identified as a remarkably (P < 0.01) up-regulated responding to poly(I:C) and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation in head kidney of groupers. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus in GS cells. Over-expressed EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 enhanced SGIV and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) replication during viral infection in vitro. Our study was an important attempt to understand the SUMO pathway in fish, which may provide insights into the regulatory mechanism of viral infection in E.coioides under farmed conditions. PMID:26616235

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) genes from grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Wei, Jingguang; Chen, Xiuli; Gao, Pin; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins binding to lysine residues of target proteins and thereby modifying their stability, activity and subcellular localization. In the present study, two SUMO homolog genes (EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were cloned and characterized. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO1 was 749 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 306 bp encoding 101 amino acids with a molecular mass of 11.34 kDa. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO2 was 822 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 291 bp encoding 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.88 kDa EcSUMO1 shares 44.55% identity with EcSUMO2. EcSUMO1 shares 99%, 90%, and 88% identity with those from Oreochromis niloticus, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, respectively. EcSUMO2 shares 98%, 93%, and 96% identity with those from Anoplopoma fimbria, D.rerio, and H. sapiens, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were constitutively expressed in all of the analyzed tissues in healthy grouper, but the expression of EcSUMO2 was higher than that of EcSUMO1. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were identified as a remarkably (P < 0.01) up-regulated responding to poly(I:C) and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation in head kidney of groupers. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus in GS cells. Over-expressed EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 enhanced SGIV and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) replication during viral infection in vitro. Our study was an important attempt to understand the SUMO pathway in fish, which may provide insights into the regulatory mechanism of viral infection in E.coioides under farmed conditions.

  20. Study of the tornado event in Greece on March 25, 2009: Synoptic analysis and numerical modeling using modified topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research revealed that western Greece and NW Peloponnese are regions that favor prefrontal tornadic incidence. On March 25, 2009 a tornado developed approximately at 10:30 UTC near Varda village (NW Peloponnese). Tornado intensity was T4-T5 (TORRO scale) and consequently caused an economic impact of 350,000 € over the local society. The goals of this study are: (i) to analyze synoptic and remote sensing features regarding the tornado event over NW Peloponnese and (ii) to investigate the role of topography in tornadogenesis triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over that area. Synoptic analysis was based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data sets. The analysis of daily anomaly of synoptic conditions with respect to 30 years' climatology (1981-2010), was based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets. In addition, numerous remote sensing data sets were derived by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) weather station network in order to better interpret the examined tornado event. Finally, numerical modeling was performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized by ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso-scale. The two numerical experiments were performed on the basis of: (a) the presence and (b) the absence of topography (landscape), so as to determine whether the occurrence of a tornado - identified by diagnostic instability indices - could be indicated by modifying topography. The energy helicity index (EHI), the bulk Richardson number (BRN) shear, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH), and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcels with maximum θe) were considered as principal diagnostic instability variables and

  1. Calorimetric and Spectroscopic Analysis of the Thermal Stability of Short Duplex DNA-Containing Sugar and Base-Modified Nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Fakhfakh, Kareem; Hughesman, Curtis B; Louise Creagh, A; Kao, Vincent; Haynes, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Base- and sugar-modified analogs of DNA and RNA are finding ever expanding use in medicine and biotechnology as tools to better tailor structured oligonucleotides by altering their thermal stability, nuclease resistance, base-pairing specificity, antisense activity, or cellular uptake. Proper deployment of these chemical modifications generally requires knowledge of how each affects base-pairing properties and thermal stabilities. Here, we describe in detail how differential scanning calorimetry and UV spectroscopy may be used to quantify the melting thermodynamics of short dsDNA containing chemically modified nucleosides in one or both strands. Insights are provided into why and how the presence of highly stable base pairs containing modified nucleosides can alter the nature of calorimetry or melting spectroscopy data, and how each experiment must therefore be conducted to ensure high-quality melting thermodynamics data are obtained. Strengths and weaknesses of the two methods when applied to chemically modified duplexes are also addressed.

  2. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

    2007-05-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product. PMID:17356802

  3. Modified thermal-optical analysis using spectral absorption selectivity to distinguish black carbon from pyrolized organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Odelle; Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.

    2008-04-14

    Black carbon (BC), a main component of combustion-generated soot, is a strong absorber of sunlight and contributes to climate change. Measurement methods for BC are uncertain, however. This study presents a method for analyzing the BC mass loading on a quartz fiber filter using a modified thermal-optical analysis method, wherein light transmitted through the sample is measured over a spectral region instead of at a single wavelength as the sample is heated. Evolution of the spectral light transmission signal depends on the relative amounts of light-absorbing BC and char, the latter of which forms when organic carbon in the sample pyrolyzes during heating. Absorption selectivities of BC and char are found to be distinct and are used to apportion the amount of light attenuated by each component in the sample. Light attenuation is converted to mass concentration based on derived mass attenuation efficiencies (MAE) of BC and char. The fraction of attenuation due to each component are scaled by their individual MAE values and added together as the total mass of light absorbing carbon (LAC). An iterative algorithm is used to find the MAE values for both BC and char that provide the best fit to the carbon mass remaining on the filter (derived from direct measurements of thermally evolved CO{sub 2}) at temperatures higher than 480 C. This method was applied to measure the BC concentration in precipitation samples collected from coastal and mountain sites in Northern California. The uncertainty in measured BC concentration of samples that contained a high concentration of organics susceptible to char ranged from 12 to 100 percent, depending on the mass loading of BC on the filter. The lower detection limit for this method was approximately 0.35 {micro}g BC and uncertainty approached 20 percent for BC mass loading greater than 1.0 {micro}g BC.

  4. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

    2007-05-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product.

  5. Urinary thiosulfate determined by suppressed ion chromatography with conductimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Cole, D E; Evrovski, J; Pirone, R

    1995-10-01

    Thiosulfate is a naturally occurring product of sulfur metabolism. Assays of urinary thiosulfate have been based on the reaction with cyanide to form thiocyanate. However, matrix interferences and background variation in endogenous thiocyanate excretion place serious constraints on this method for determination of physiological amounts of thiosulfate in urine. We describe a column-switching ion chromatographic separation for urinary thiosulfate that allows for sensitive and accurate detection by ion conductimetry. In 20 adult volunteers, we found a lower urinary thiosulfate (8.50 +/- 7.39 mumol/24 h, mean +/- S.D.) than others have described, although the upward skew of the results (median, 6.90; range, 0.84-32 mumol/24 h) was similar. However, we have not observed any of the interferences and the sensitivity of our technique (< 0.2 mumol/24 h) allows for detection of thiosulfate in all control samples. This sort of methodological improvement will be essential for any study of physiological thiosulfate metabolism.

  6. Clinical evidence of growth hormone, glutamine and a modified diet for short bowel syndrome: meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Gang; Zhuang, Wen; Wei, Mao-ling

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the safety and efficacy of growth hormone (GH) and glutamine (GLN) combined with a modified (high-carbohydrate-low-fat, HCLF) diet in patients with short bowel syndrome. A meta-analysis of all the relevant clinical trials was performed. Clinical trials were identified from the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Chinese Bio-medicine Database. The search was undertaken in May 2004. Language was restricted to Chinese and English. Literature references were checked at the same time. Clinical trials were extracted and evaluated by two reviewers independently of each other. The statistical analysis was performed by RevMan4.2 software which was provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Thirteen trials involving 258 patients were included. The combined results showed that GH, GLN and HCLF diet had positive treatment effect on body weight (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 2.44, 95%CI [1.62, 3.27], P<0.00001), stool output (WMD = -376.49, 95%CI [-600.35, -152.63], P=0.001), lean body mass (WMD = 2.16, 95%CI [0.91, 3.41], P=0.0007), absorption of carbohydrates (WMD = 6.21, 95%CI [5.27, 7.15], P< 0.00001), absorption of nitrogen (WMD = 10.83, 95%CI [5.22, 16.44], P=0.0002), absorption of D-xylose (WMD = 0.37, 95%CI [0.29, 0.44], P<0.00001), and off TPN (total parenteral nutrition) (odds ratios [OR] = 64.63, 95%CI [15.51, 269.22], P<0.00001). But there were no improvements in fat mass (WMD = -1.50, 95%CI [-3.48, 0.48], P=0.14), absorption of energy (WMD = 7.48, 95%CI [-7.22, 22.17], P=0.32), and absorption of fat (WMD = 7.16, 95%CI [-2.95, 17.28], P=0.17). Most patients had side effects that are known to occur during treatment with high doses (0.14 mg/kg/day) of GH. No serious adverse effects occurred during active treatment with low doses (< or =0.1 mg/kg/day) of GH. Treatment with a combination of low-dose GH, GLN and HCLF diet is effective

  7. Performance analysis of an experimental field project utilizing asphalt modifiers. Final report. Report for August 1989-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-03-01

    Utilization of a mix design that will resist rutting and cracking is crucial to the life expectancy of a pavement. Drainage problems associated with these distresses contribute to safety problems and accelerated pavement deterioration. In an effort to combat rutting and cracking in Montana, a series of experimental test sections utilizing polymer modifiers were installed in 1991 along the I-94 Prairie County Line West Project, in eastern Montana. These sections were to be monitored for a period of five years by Montana State University - Bozeman. The report focuses on results of the five year monitoring of the polymer modified test sections. A summarization of the interim reports is included. The findings of the study indicate that utilization of polymer modifiers has quantifiable benefits. These benefits extend beyond improvements in resistance to rutting and cracking, and into resistance to raveling, weathering, and bleeding.

  8. Microchip capillary gel electrophoresis using programmed field strength gradients for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Jeong; Chae, Joon-Seok; Chang, Jun Keun; Kang, Seong Ho

    2005-08-12

    We have developed a novel method for the ultra-fast analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in soybeans by microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (MCGE) using programmed field strength gradients (PFSG) in a conventional glass double-T microchip. Under the programmed electric field strength and 0.3% poly(ethylene oxide) sieving matrix, the GMO in soybeans was analyzed within only 11 s of the microchip. The MCGE-PFSG method was a program that changes the electric field strength during GMO analysis, and was also applied to the ultra-fast analysis of PCR products. Compared to MCGE using a conventional and constantly applied electric field, the MCGE-PFSG analysis generated faster results without the loss of resolving power and reproducibility for specific DNA fragments (100- and 250-bp DNA) of GM-soybeans. The MCGE-PFSG technique may prove to be a new tool in the GMO analysis due to its speed, simplicity, and high efficiency.

  9. Flow injection analysis of phenolic compounds with carbon paste electrodes modified with tyrosinase purchased from different companies

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, A.; Emneus, J.; Csoeregi, E.; Gorton, L.; Marko-Varga, G.; Ruzgas, T.

    1996-05-01

    Tyrosinase-modified carbon paste electrodes were prepared using lyophilised powder of the enzyme purchased from different companies. The selectivity of these electrodes for nine phenolic compounds, including six substituted catechols, has been studied. The signals obtained for catechol were always higher than those found for other phenolic compounds. Cyclic voltammetry and flow injection measurements indicated that the response of the tyrosinase-modified carbon paste electrodes was limited by the rate of the enzymatic oxidation of catechols. Different approaches of past electrode preparation have been studied and compared. Direct mixing of enzyme into the graphite powder doped with the osmium based mediator, resulted in the highest sensitivity for the studied substrates. However, substrate selectivity was found to be dependent on the source of enzyme used for electrode preparation.

  10. Development and interlaboratory validation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for screening analysis of genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    A novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative screening method was developed for three genetically modified soybeans: RRS, A2704-12, and MON89788. The 35S promoter (P35S) of cauliflower mosaic virus is introduced into RRS and A2704-12 but not MON89788. We then designed a screening method comprised of the combination of the quantification of P35S and the event-specific quantification of MON89788. The conversion factor (Cf) required to convert the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO) from a copy number ratio to a weight ratio was determined experimentally. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDR), respectively. The determined RSDR values for the method were less than 25% for both targets. We consider that the developed method would be suitable for the simple detection and approximate quantification of GMO.

  11. Development and interlaboratory validation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for screening analysis of genetically modified soybeans.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    A novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative screening method was developed for three genetically modified soybeans: RRS, A2704-12, and MON89788. The 35S promoter (P35S) of cauliflower mosaic virus is introduced into RRS and A2704-12 but not MON89788. We then designed a screening method comprised of the combination of the quantification of P35S and the event-specific quantification of MON89788. The conversion factor (Cf) required to convert the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO) from a copy number ratio to a weight ratio was determined experimentally. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDR), respectively. The determined RSDR values for the method were less than 25% for both targets. We consider that the developed method would be suitable for the simple detection and approximate quantification of GMO. PMID:23302646

  12. Systematical analysis for the mixed couplings of two adjacent modified split ring resonators and the application to compact microstrip bandpass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjun; Wen, Guangjun; Li, Jian

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we synthesize a new kind of modified split ring resonator (SRR) and characterize its mixed couplings between two adjacent such SRRs with all the possible arrangements on one side of a conventional dielectric substrate. Based on the analysis of the mixed couplings, the compact microstrip bandpass filters composed of the proposed modified SRRs are systematically analyzed. We found that two designs out of all the cases have quite well bandpass filter characteristics, e.g., low insert loss within the wide passband, sharp reductions and transmission zeros out of the passband, and harmonic suppression characteristics for a wide frequency range. Both experimental demonstrations and numerical simulations are performed to verify the designed filters and the results agree well with each other. Such kind of filter design can be flexibly integrated in the miniaturized radio frequency/microwave circuits.

  13. Factor analysis of a modified version of the California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale with minority pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Margarita; Brookover, Cecile; Kennedy, Kathleen

    2011-12-01

    While most of the more frequently used self-report measures of cultural competence in health professionals are targeted to practicing physicians and mental health providers from the majority-white population, no measures have been specifically developed for minority pharmacy students. With the objective to find a suitable tool to be used for curriculum development in cultural competence, this study applied a modified version of the California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale (CBMCS) to 467 pharmacy students at the Xavier University of Louisiana, a Historically Black University. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to examine if the CBMCS factor structure was replicated using a modified tool and a different population and Cronbach alphas were calculated to determine internal consistency reliability. The CBMCS's original factor structure was not replicated, perhaps because of modifications introduced in the original tool or because of differences between the sample population in this study (minority pharmacy students) and the population used in the original CBMCS study (majority-white mental health providers). However, results show that a modified factor structure fits the data well. The primary difference between the factors found in this study and the CBMCS factors is the appearance of a new factor composed of three items related to interpersonal and racial dynamics, which includes racial discrimination, white privilege, and power imbalance. The significant relationships (p < 0.001) found between respondents' race and these three items suggest that the wording in these items should be modified when the respondents do not belong to the majority population. Results imply that racism, prejudice and bias are not just issues of the majority-white health providers and point to the need for more racially diverse samples. The unique results in this study advance research on racial dynamics and self-assessment of cultural competence of minority

  14. Comparison of Modified Cartilage Shield Tympanoplasty with Tympanoplasty Using Temporalis Fascia Only: Retrospective Analysis of 142 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vibhuti; Shah, Saumya; Pandya, Parita; Kansara, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    The current study compares outcomes of modified cartilage shield tympanoplasty (CST) with temporalis fascia tympanoplasty in type I procedures in Indian patients. Graft uptake rates are better with the CST technique and hearing results are almost equivalent with both techniques except at 8000 Hz where improvement in hearing was found better with the use of temporalis fascia alone. The CST technique used in the study is unique. PMID:27559489

  15. Electrochemical sensor for multiplex screening of genetically modified DNA: identification of biotech crops by logic-based biomolecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Ching; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Ho, Ja-An Annie

    2013-12-15

    Genetically modified (GM) technique, one of the modern biomolecular engineering technologies, has been deemed as profitable strategy to fight against global starvation. Yet rapid and reliable analytical method is deficient to evaluate the quality and potential risk of such resulting GM products. We herein present a biomolecular analytical system constructed with distinct biochemical activities to expedite the computational detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The computational mechanism provides an alternative to the complex procedures commonly involved in the screening of GMOs. Given that the bioanalytical system is capable of processing promoter, coding and species genes, affirmative interpretations succeed to identify specified GM event in terms of both electrochemical and optical fashions. The biomolecular computational assay exhibits detection capability of genetically modified DNA below sub-nanomolar level and is found interference-free by abundant coexistence of non-GM DNA. This bioanalytical system, furthermore, sophisticates in array fashion operating multiplex screening against variable GM events. Such a biomolecular computational assay and biosensor holds great promise for rapid, cost-effective, and high-fidelity screening of GMO. PMID:23893064

  16. Direct analysis of in-gel proteins by carbon nanotubes-modified paper spray ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Yang, Yuhan; Ouyang, Jin; Na, Na

    2015-02-01

    The in situ and direct extraction, desorption and ionization of in-gel intact proteins after electrophoresis has been achieved by carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-modified paper spray mass spectrometry at ambient conditions. Characteristics of CNTs (including larger surface area, smaller pore diameter and enhanced conductivity) were endowed to the porous filter paper substrate by uniformly dispersing the CNTs on the filter paper. Upon applying electric potential to the CNTs-modified paper, the in-gel proteins were extracted from the gel and subsequently migrated to the tip of the filter paper by electrophoresis-like behavior for paper spray ionization, which was monitored by extracted ion chronograms. The characterizations of modified filter papers and CNTs nanoparticles further confirmed the role of CNTs in in-gel protein extraction, protein migration as well as spray ionization at the paper tip. Under optimized conditions, a mixture of cytochrome c, lysozyme and myoglobin was successfully separated by native electrophoresis and subsequently analysed by the present method, showing a limit of detection of 10 ng per gel band. The present strategy offers a new pathway for the direct detection of in-gel intact proteins at ambient conditions without any pre-treatment (e.g. digestion, chemical extraction and desalting), which exhibits potential applications in top-down proteomics.

  17. Electrochemical sensor for multiplex screening of genetically modified DNA: identification of biotech crops by logic-based biomolecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Ching; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Ho, Ja-An Annie

    2013-12-15

    Genetically modified (GM) technique, one of the modern biomolecular engineering technologies, has been deemed as profitable strategy to fight against global starvation. Yet rapid and reliable analytical method is deficient to evaluate the quality and potential risk of such resulting GM products. We herein present a biomolecular analytical system constructed with distinct biochemical activities to expedite the computational detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The computational mechanism provides an alternative to the complex procedures commonly involved in the screening of GMOs. Given that the bioanalytical system is capable of processing promoter, coding and species genes, affirmative interpretations succeed to identify specified GM event in terms of both electrochemical and optical fashions. The biomolecular computational assay exhibits detection capability of genetically modified DNA below sub-nanomolar level and is found interference-free by abundant coexistence of non-GM DNA. This bioanalytical system, furthermore, sophisticates in array fashion operating multiplex screening against variable GM events. Such a biomolecular computational assay and biosensor holds great promise for rapid, cost-effective, and high-fidelity screening of GMO.

  18. In vitro analysis of riboflavin-modified, experimental, two-step etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman studies

    PubMed Central

    Daood, Umer; Swee Heng, Chan; Neo Chiew Lian, Jennifer; Fawzy, Amr S

    2015-01-01

    To modify two-step experimental etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive with different concentrations of riboflavin and to study its effect on the bond strength, degree of conversion, along with resin infiltration within the demineralized dentin substrate, an experimental adhesive-system was modified with different concentrations of riboflavin (m/m, 0, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10%). Dentin surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, bonded with respective adhesives, restored with restorative composite–resin, and sectioned into resin–dentin slabs and beams to be stored for 24 h or 9 months in artificial saliva. Micro-tensile bond testing was performed with scanning electron microscopy to analyse the failure of debonded beams. The degree of conversion was evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at different time points along with micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis. Data was analyzed with one-way and two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's for pair-wise comparison. Modification with 1% and 3% riboflavin increased the micro-tensile bond strength compared to the control at 24 h and 9-month storage with no significant differences in degree of conversion (P<0.05). The most predominant failure mode was the mixed fracture among all specimens except 10% riboflavin-modified adhesive specimens where cohesive failure was predominant. Raman analysis revealed that 1% and 3% riboflavin adhesives specimens showed relatively higher resin infiltration. The incorporation of riboflavin in the experimental two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive at 3% (m/m) improved the immediate bond strengths and bond durability after 9-month storage in artificial saliva without adversely affecting the degree of conversion of the adhesive monomers and resin infiltration. PMID:25257880

  19. In vitro analysis of riboflavin-modified, experimental, two-step etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-Raman studies.

    PubMed

    Daood, Umer; Swee Heng, Chan; Neo Chiew Lian, Jennifer; Fawzy, Amr S

    2015-06-26

    To modify two-step experimental etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive with different concentrations of riboflavin and to study its effect on the bond strength, degree of conversion, along with resin infiltration within the demineralized dentin substrate, an experimental adhesive-system was modified with different concentrations of riboflavin (m/m, 0, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10%). Dentin surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, bonded with respective adhesives, restored with restorative composite-resin, and sectioned into resin-dentin slabs and beams to be stored for 24 h or 9 months in artificial saliva. Micro-tensile bond testing was performed with scanning electron microscopy to analyse the failure of debonded beams. The degree of conversion was evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) at different time points along with micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis. Data was analyzed with one-way and two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's for pair-wise comparison. Modification with 1% and 3% riboflavin increased the micro-tensile bond strength compared to the control at 24 h and 9-month storage with no significant differences in degree of conversion (P<0.05). The most predominant failure mode was the mixed fracture among all specimens except 10% riboflavin-modified adhesive specimens where cohesive failure was predominant. Raman analysis revealed that 1% and 3% riboflavin adhesives specimens showed relatively higher resin infiltration. The incorporation of riboflavin in the experimental two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive at 3% (m/m) improved the immediate bond strengths and bond durability after 9-month storage in artificial saliva without adversely affecting the degree of conversion of the adhesive monomers and resin infiltration.

  20. Analysis of 136 pesticides in avocado using a modified QuEChERS method with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chamkasem, Narong; Ollis, Lisa W; Harmon, Tiffany; Lee, Sookwang; Mercer, Greg

    2013-03-13

    A simple and high-throughput screening method for the analysis of 136 pesticides in avocado ( Persea americana ) by LC-(+)-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS is presented. A modified QuEChERS sample preparation method was developed to improve the extraction recovery of highly lipophilic pesticides. Extracts from minced avocados after acetonitrile (MeCN) extraction were directly injected to LC-MS/MS, whereas other GC-amenable compounds were treated with the modified QuEChERS procedure for GC-MS/MS analysis. The average recoveries for 79 pesticides quantified by LC-MS/MS at 10, 50, and 200 ng/g fortifying levels were 86.1% or better (with maximum RSD at 9.2%), whereas GC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated 70.2% or better (RSD < 18%) for average recovery from 57 compounds at the same spike levels. The application of LC- and GC-MS/MS combined with the improved extraction procedures led to the current method, which can quantitate these pesticides even if they are present in avocados below the targeted action level by FDA. This method demonstrated the improved recovery of several challenging lipophilic pesticides in highly fat-rich avocados. PMID:23362971

  1. An enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot analysis for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein: cross-reactivity of curculin and miraculin to both antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, S; Akabane, T; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1992-02-01

    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay method for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein. This method can accurately quantify 0.05-20 ng of curculin, a sensitivity about 3000-times that of the psychometric method. The content of curculin in the fruit of Curculigo latifolia increased gradually until 3 weeks after artificial pollination and dramatically at 4 weeks, to finally reach 1.3 mg per fruit. Immunoblot analysis indicated that antiserum to curculin was faintly reactive with miraculin, but not with thaumatin or monellin. PMID:1737052

  2. Quantitative gait analysis as a method to assess mechanical hyperalgesia modulated by disease-modifying antirheumatoid drugs in the adjuvant-induced arthritic rat

    PubMed Central

    Simjee, Shabana Usman; Jawed, Huma; Quadri, Javeria; Saeed, Sheikh Arshad

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, azothioprine, chloroquine, D-penicillamine, methotrexate and sodium aurothiomalate (gold salt) were evaluated for possible disease-modifying effects in the adjuvant-induced arthritis model of human rheumatoid arthritis in rats. Gait analysis was used to examine the role of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in the development of pain. Body weights were also measured to monitor the progression of disease and the systemic antiarthritic effects of the test compounds used in this study, as well as their systemic toxicity. Our results showed that azothioprine (5 mg/kg/day), chloroquine (12.5 mg/kg/day), sodium aurothiomalate (2.5 mg/kg/day) and methotrexate (1 mg/kg/week) not only inhibited the macroscopic changes such as erythema and swelling of limbs, but also exhibited significant reversal of gait deficits seen in the untreated or saline-treated arthritic rats. No reduction in the body weights were observed in the arthritic rats treated with azothioprine, chloroquine, sodium aurothiomalate and methotrexate. D-Penicillamine (12.5 mg/kg/day), however, showed a significant reduction (P < 0.03) in the body weights of the arthritic rats over a period of 22 days; furthermore, it was unable to show any reduction in arthritic score (P < 0.1). In earlier experiments, chloroquine and methotrexate failed to suppress carageenan-induced edema, suggesting that the mode of antiarthritic action may be different from those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Since these disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are reported to have an immunomodulatory role, especially the gold salt, which influences the monocyte–macrophage system, it is suggested that the observed antiarthritic effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs may be partly attributed to their immunomodulatory activity. PMID:17848187

  3. Analysis of polyphenols in white wine by CZE with amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mónica; Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous detection of five polyphenols (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) by CZE with electrochemical detection was developed. Separation of these polyphenols was performed in a 100 mM borate buffer (pH 9.2) within 15 min. Under optimized separation conditions, the performance of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotube layer obtained from different dispersions was examined. GC electrode modified with a dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in polyethylenimine has proven to be the most suitable CNT-based electrode for its application as amperometric detector for the CZE separation of the studied compounds. The excellent electrochemical properties of this electrode allowed the detection of the selected polyphenols at +200 mV and improved the efficiency and the resolution of their CZE separation. Limits of detection below 3.1 μM were obtained with linear ranges covering the 10⁻⁵ to 10⁻⁴  M range. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the detection (ferulic, caffeic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) and the quantification (gallic acid and (+)-catechin) of polyphenols in two different white wines without any preconcentration step. A remarkable signal stability was observed on the electrode performance despite the presence of potential fouling substances in wine.

  4. A computational analysis of natural convection in a vertical channel with a modified power law non-Newtonian fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.; Irvine, T.F. Jr.; Greene, G.A.

    1998-04-01

    An implicit finite difference method was applied to analyze laminar natural convection in a vertical channel with a modified power law fluid. This fluid model was chosen because it describes the viscous properties of a pseudoplastic fluid over the entire shear rate range likely to be found in natural convection flows since it covers the shear rate range from Newtonian through transition to simple power law behavior. In addition, a dimensionless similarity parameter is identified which specifies in which of the three regions a particular system is operating. The results for the average channel velocity and average Nusselt number in the asymptotic Newtonian and power law regions are compared with numerical data in the literature. Also, graphical results are presented for the velocity and temperature fields and entrance lengths. The results of average channel velocity and Nusselt number are given in the three regions including developing and fully developed flows. As an example, a pseudoplastic fluid (carboxymethyl cellulose) was chosen to compare the different results of average channel velocity and Nusselt number between a modified power law fluid and the conventional power law model. The results show, depending upon the operating conditions, that if the correct model is not used, gross errors can result.

  5. Recombinant Expression of a Modified Shrimp Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor Gene in Pichia pastoris GS115 and Its Characteristic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Yu, Kuijie; Yang, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-01-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) with a LPS-binding domain (LBD) are considered to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and certain antiviral properties in crustaceans. FcALF2 was one isoform of ALFs isolated from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Our previous study showed that a modified LBD domain (named LBDv) of FcALF2 exhibited a highly enhanced antimicrobial activity. In the present study, a modified FcALF2 gene (mFcALF2), in which the LBD was substituted by LBDv, was designed and synthesized. This gene was successfully expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 eukaryotic expression system, and the characteristics of the recombinant protein mFcALF2 were analyzed. mFcALF2 exhibited apparent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus licheniformis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, mFcALF2 could reduce the propagation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in vivo by pre-incubation with virus. The present study paves the way for developing antimicrobial drugs in aquaculture. PMID:27517939

  6. Recombinant Expression of a Modified Shrimp Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor Gene in Pichia pastoris GS115 and Its Characteristic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Yu, Kuijie; Yang, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-01-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) with a LPS-binding domain (LBD) are considered to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and certain antiviral properties in crustaceans. FcALF2 was one isoform of ALFs isolated from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Our previous study showed that a modified LBD domain (named LBDv) of FcALF2 exhibited a highly enhanced antimicrobial activity. In the present study, a modified FcALF2 gene (mFcALF2), in which the LBD was substituted by LBDv, was designed and synthesized. This gene was successfully expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 eukaryotic expression system, and the characteristics of the recombinant protein mFcALF2 were analyzed. mFcALF2 exhibited apparent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus licheniformis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, mFcALF2 could reduce the propagation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in vivo by pre-incubation with virus. The present study paves the way for developing antimicrobial drugs in aquaculture. PMID:27517939

  7. A modified protocol for RNA extraction from different peach tissues suitable for gene isolation and real-time PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhaoguo; Qu, Shenchun; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Fei; Tao, Jianmin; Gao, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhen

    2012-03-01

    RNA extraction is the first step in the study of gene isolation and expression. However, it is difficult to extract high quantity and quality RNA from tissues containing large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenols. Peach (Prunus persica), in addition to containing high levels of polysaccharides and polyphenols, is a challenging starting material for RNA isolation using a single method because of different amounts of those substances in diverse tissues. Based on three reported methods, we developed a modified RNA isolation protocol to solve this problem, leading to high quality and quantity of total RNA from peach mesocarp tissues of fruits which were sampled from all developmental stages and different storage periods, as well as from other tissues including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots. With our modified method, 28-650 μg of total RNA was routinely obtained from per gram of fresh material, gave at least a 1.16-fold improvement by compared with those isolated by other seven methods. The RNA extracts were successfully used in downstream applications such as RT-PCR, RACE, and real-time PCR.

  8. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-01

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  9. Analysis of micro-structural relaxation phenomena in laser-modified fused silica using confocal Raman microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M; Vignes, R; Cooke, J; Yang, S; Stolken, J

    2009-12-15

    Fused silica micro-structural changes associated with localized 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser heating are reported. Spatially-resolved shifts in the high-frequency asymmetric stretch transverse-optic (TO) phonon mode of SiO{sub 2} were measured using confocal Raman microscopy, allowing construction of axial fictive temperature (T{sub f}) maps for various laser heating conditions. A Fourier conduction-based finite element model was employed to compute on-axis temperature-time histories, and, in conjunction with a Tool-Narayanaswamy form for structural relaxation, used to fit T{sub f}(z) profiles to extract relaxation parameters. Good agreement between the calculated and measured T{sub f} was found, yielding reasonable values for relaxation time and activation enthalpy in the laser-modified silica.

  10. A modified lead-matrix separation procedure shown for lead isotope analysis in Trojan silver artefacts as an example.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Jochen; Paz, Boaz; Koenig, Maren; Pritzkow, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    A modified Pb-matrix separation procedure using NH4HCO3 solution as eluent has been developed and validated for determination of Pb isotope amount ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The procedure is based on chromatographic separation using the Pb·Spec resin and an in-house-prepared NH4HCO3 solution serving as eluent. The advantages of this eluent are low Pb blanks (<40 pg mL(-1)) and the property that NH4HCO3 can be easily removed by use of a heating step (>60 °C). Pb recovery is >95 % for water samples. For archaeological silver samples, however, the Pb recovery is reduced to approximately 50 %, but causes no bias in the determination of Pb isotope amount ratios. The validated procedure was used to determine lead isotope amount ratios in Trojan silver artefacts with expanded uncertainties (k = 2) <0.09 %.

  11. Spacelab system analysis: The modified free access protocol: An access protocol for communication systems with periodic and Poisson traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, Frank; Owens, John; Daniel, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The protocol definition and terminal hardware for the modified free access protocol, a communications protocol similar to Ethernet, are developed. A MFA protocol simulator and a CSMA/CD math model are also developed. The protocol is tailored to communication systems where the total traffic may be divided into scheduled traffic and Poisson traffic. The scheduled traffic should occur on a periodic basis but may occur after a given event such as a request for data from a large number of stations. The Poisson traffic will include alarms and other random traffic. The purpose of the protocol is to guarantee that scheduled packets will be delivered without collision. This is required in many control and data collection systems. The protocol uses standard Ethernet hardware and software requiring minimum modifications to an existing system. The modification to the protocol only affects the Ethernet transmission privileges and does not effect the Ethernet receiver.

  12. [Characterization of the properties of differently modified titanium surfaces for dental implantology. 1: Methods for surface analysis].

    PubMed

    Liefeith, K; Säuberlich, S; Frant, M; Klee, D; Richter, E J; Höcker, H; Spiekermann, H

    1998-11-01

    Contact between the biological environment and biomaterials takes place at their surfaces. The biocompatibility of a material is determined by interactions at the interface between implant and biological system. The physicochemical surface properties of the materials used, for example, chemical composition, wettability, surface energy and electrical surface charge, therefore play an important role. Within the framework of the investigations described here, specific modifications of the surfaces properties of titanium are effected using various methods with the aim of achieving a positive influence on cell growth and cell attachment. To characterize the physicochemical surface properties, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used. In addition to the clearly altered chemical composition of the modified material surface, it proved possible to determine significant changes in the thermodynamic properties with the aid of contact angle measurements and the determination of surface energy. On the basis of these results, important information about possible interactions at the interface between implant and tissue can be obtained.

  13. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-30

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  14. Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, L.W.

    1993-07-01

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

  15. Congestion phenomenon analysis and delayed-feedback control in a modified coupled map traffic flow model containing the velocity difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ya-Ling; Shi, Zhong-Ke; Cao, Jin-Liang

    2015-06-01

    Based on the coupled map car-following model which was presented by Konishi et al. (1999), a modified coupled map car-following model is proposed. Specifically, the velocity difference between two successive vehicles is included in the model. The stability condition is given for the change of the speed of the preceding vehicle on the base of the control theory. We derive a condition under which the traffic jam never occurs in our model. Furthermore, in order to suppress traffic jams, we use static and dynamic version of decentralized delayed-feedback control for each vehicle, respectively, and provide a systematic procedure for designing the controller. In addition, the controller of each vehicle does not include any other vehicle information in real traffic flows.

  16. Short-term outcome comparison of Norwood procedures with right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit versus modified Blalock-Taussig shunt: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loomba, Rohit Seth; Shah, Parinda Haresh; Chandrasekar, Suraj

    2011-01-01

    A small number of nonrandomized and retrospective studies have compared outcomes of classical Norwood procedures for hypoplasticleft-heart syndrome and single ventricle lesions involving a Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt to the modified procedure using a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. Some of these studies reported data for the same outcomes and a meta-analysis was done to analyze pooled outcomes comparing in-hospital mortality, interstage mortality, cardiopulmonary bypass time, systolic and diastolic blood pressures 24 h postoperatively, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and need for postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit was associated with an insignificant reduction of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.674, 95% confidence interval, 0.367 to 1.238), and in the length of hospital stay. There were significant reductions in cardiopulmonary bypass time, length of intensive care unit stay, and need for postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, postoperative ventilation times, and interstage mortality (odds ratio, 0.191, confidence interval, 0.0620 to 0.587). There was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure and an insignificant increase in systolic blood pressure 24 h postoperatively. This pooled analysis demonstrates potential advantages associated with the right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit when compared to the modified BT shunt in palliation and demonstrates the need for large randomized controlled trials that compare a number of outcomes in both procedures. PMID:21976874

  17. Using nanostructured conductive carbon tape modified with bismuth as the disposable working electrode for stripping analysis in paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiu-Mei; Zhang, Qing; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Xu, Jing-Juan; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2013-10-15

    Low cost disposable working electrodes are specifically desired for practical applications of electrochemical detection considering maturity of electrochemical stations and data collection protocols. In this paper double-sided conductive adhesive carbon tape with nanostructure was applied to fabricate disposable working electrodes. Being supported by indium tin oxide glass, the prepared carbon tape electrodes were coated with bismuth film for stripping analysis of heavy metal ions. By integrating the bismuth modified electrodes with paper-based analytical devices, we were able to differentiate Zn, Cd and Pb ions with the sample volume of around 15 μL. After the optimization of parameters, including modification of bismuth film and the area of the electrodes, etc., Pb ions could be measured in the linear range from 10 to 500 μg/L with the detection limit of 2 μg/L. Our experimental results revealed that the disposable modified electrodes could be used to quantify migrated lead from toys with the results agreed well with that using atomic absorption spectrometry. Although bismuth modification and stripping analysis could be influenced by the low conductivity of the carbon tape, the low cost disposable carbon tape electrodes take the advantages of large-scaled produced double-sided carbon tape, including its reproducible nanostructure and scaled-up fabrication process. In addition, the preparation of disposable electrodes avoids time-consuming pretreatment and experienced operation. This study implied that the carbon tape might be an alternative candidate for practical applications of electrochemical detection. PMID:24054585

  18. Visualisation of the ingress of water and dispersion of drugs in a modified hydrosilanised silicone polymer using combined ion beam analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenneson, P. M.; Clough, A. S.; Riggs, P. D.; Sample, I. R.

    1998-08-01

    A combination of the ion beam analysis techniques Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) were used to image the ingress of heavy water into a modified hydrosilanised silicone polymer doped with the drug chlorhexidine diacetate. In the drug release system studied chlorine was a unique component of the drug, the polymeric matrix was identified by its silicon component and the diffusing water labelled with deuterium. Areal distribution plots are shown for differing exposure times of the polymer to D 2O. The plots are also statistically analysed to show trends of increasing chlorine/deuterium correlation, silicon/deuterium anti-correlation and a constant silicon/chlorine anti-correlation with respect to time.

  19. A cellular assay using metal-modified fluorescence lifetime analysis for high-content screening of protein internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cade, Nic; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Archibald, Stephen J.; Ng, Tony; Richards, David

    2010-04-01

    Current high-content screening (HCS) techniques involve the analysis of cellular assays using high-resolution imaging combined with sophisticated algorithms for automated image analysis. Commercially available platforms are invariably highly specialised and expensive. Here we present a novel assay utilising changes in fluorescence lifetime in the vicinity of a rough Au film. A mammary carcinoma cell line was created expressing EGFP in the membrane, and cells were plated onto multi-well slides covered with a 30 nm Au film. FLIM images show a large reduction in lifetime for membrane-bound GFP in close proximity to the Au surface. Addition of a suitable ligand leads to internalization of the GFP with a corresponding increase in lifetime. The degree of internalization can be very quickly and easily checked using standard lifetime analysis techniques, with no need for image analysis. We demonstrate the method by comparing the efficacies of two small molecule inhibitors interfering with the internalization process.

  20. Direct extraction of genomic DNA from maize with aqueous ionic liquid buffer systems for applications in genetically modified organisms analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez García, Eric; Ressmann, Anna K; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Bica, Katharina; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    To date, the extraction of genomic DNA is considered a bottleneck in the process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Conventional DNA isolation methods are associated with long extraction times and multiple pipetting and centrifugation steps, which makes the entire procedure not only tedious and complicated but also prone to sample cross-contamination. In recent times, ionic liquids have emerged as innovative solvents for biomass processing, due to their outstanding properties for dissolution of biomass and biopolymers. In this study, a novel, easily applicable, and time-efficient method for the direct extraction of genomic DNA from biomass based on aqueous-ionic liquid solutions was developed. The straightforward protocol relies on extraction of maize in a 10 % solution of ionic liquids in aqueous phosphate buffer for 5 min at room temperature, followed by a denaturation step at 95 °C for 10 min and a simple filtration to remove residual biopolymers. A set of 22 ionic liquids was tested in a buffer system and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, as well as the environmentally benign choline formate, were identified as ideal candidates. With this strategy, the quality of the genomic DNA extracted was significantly improved and the extraction protocol was notably simplified compared with a well-established method. PMID:25381609

  1. Construction of measurement uncertainty profiles for quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms based on interlaboratory validation data.

    PubMed

    Macarthur, Roy; Feinberg, Max; Bertheau, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the size of uncertainty associated with the measurement of products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The method is based on the uncertainty profile, which is an extension, for the estimation of uncertainty, of a recent graphical statistical tool called an accuracy profile that was developed for the validation of quantitative analytical methods. The application of uncertainty profiles as an aid to decision making and assessment of fitness for purpose is also presented. Results of the measurement of the quantity of GMOs in flour by PCR-based methods collected through a number of interlaboratory studies followed the log-normal distribution. Uncertainty profiles built using the results generally give an expected range for measurement results of 50-200% of reference concentrations for materials that contain at least 1% GMO. This range is consistent with European Network of GM Laboratories and the European Union (EU) Community Reference Laboratory validation criteria and can be used as a fitness for purpose criterion for measurement methods. The effect on the enforcement of EU labeling regulations is that, in general, an individual analytical result needs to be < 0.45% to demonstrate compliance, and > 1.8% to demonstrate noncompliance with a labeling threshold of 0.9%. PMID:20629412

  2. Volatile analysis of spoiled, artisan-type, modified-atmosphere-packaged cooked ham stored under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; Van Hemelryck, Steven; Falony, Gwen; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-02-01

    Metabolite production due to bacterial outgrowth and oxidation phenomena lead to spoilage development of cooked ham. Artisan-type products, with low salt concentrations and a minimum of additives, are particularly sensitive. Cold chain variations related to distribution and consumer habits have a negative influence on the shelf-life. In this study, sliced, modified atmosphere packaged artisan-type cooked ham was stored at different temperatures (4, 7, 12, and 26 degrees C). The evolution of volatiles over time for the different storage temperatures was monitored with static headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SH-GC-MS). The latter method was compared to solid phase microextraction (SPME). Several of the detected compounds could be ascribed to bacterial glucose and amino acid metabolism and their production was related to the storage temperature. The compounds 3-methyl butanol and ethanol were related with bacterial cell growth. Maillard-derived compounds, leading to the formation of furans, probably originated from endogenous reactions during cooking. Several detected aliphatic compounds probably originated from fatty acid oxidation reactions, including thermal fat degradation, chemical auto-oxidation, and enzymatic beta-oxidation. PMID:19028312

  3. Vibration analysis of rotating functionally graded Timoshenko microbeam based on modified couple stress theory under different temperature distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Shafiei, Navvab

    2016-04-01

    In this study, thermal vibration of rotary functionally graded Timoshenko microbeam has been analyzed based on modified couple stress theory considering temperature change in four types of temperature distribution on thermal environment. Material properties of FG microbeam are supposed to be temperature dependent and vary continuously along the thickness according to the power-law form. The axial forces are also included in the model as the thermal and true spatial variation due to the rotation. Governing equations and boundary conditions have been derived by employing Hamiltonian's principle. The differential quadrature method is employed to solve the governing equations for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions. Validations are done by comparing available literatures and obtained results which indicate accuracy of applied method. Results represent effects of temperature changes, different boundary conditions, nondimensional angular velocity, length scale parameter, different boundary conditions, FG index and beam thickness on fundamental, second and third nondimensional frequencies. Results determine critical values of temperature changes and other essential parameters which can be applicable to design micromachines like micromotor and microturbine.

  4. Fast analysis of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals using multi-walled nanotubes modified electrodes from recordable compact disc.

    PubMed

    Felix, Fabiana S; Daniel, Daniela; Matos, Jivaldo R; Lucio do Lago, Claudimir; Angnes, Lúcio

    2016-07-20

    In this study, homemade disposable gold electrodes made from recordable compact disks were modified with carbon nanotubes for amperometric quantification of terbutaline sulfate in pharmaceutical products. A flow cell using an impingent jet of solution on the electrode surface was build and used for amperometric detection, and a series of experiments were carried out to find the best experimental conditions for the new electrode in a specially designed cell. A linear response for terbutaline was obtained in the range from 3.0 × 10(-6) to 5.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) (at 0.63 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The limits of detection and quantification were calculated as 5.8 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3) and 1.9 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) (S/N = 10), respectively. A frequency of 30 injections h(-1) was attained. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analyses of commercial syrup samples, and all results were in good agreement with those obtained by using high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:27251854

  5. Analysis of the contributions of pollution to industrial discharge categories in Korea using the Modified Toxic Weighting Factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong-Jin; Yeom, Ick-Tae

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, 45,163 domestic industrial direct/indirect discharge sources were registered in Korea, which have been categorized into 82 divisions based on the characteristics of their products, raw materials and wastewaters. The purpose of this study was to set priorities using a risk assessment of pollutants toxic weighting for each industrial category with respect to pollution prevention and control. This study developed the upgraded Modified Toxic Weighting Factors (MTWFs) rather than the Toxic Weighting Factors (TWFs) suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) with respect to domestic environmental regulations, and the assessment of existing databases of domestic industrial wastewater characteristics for the 82 categorized industries in Korea. Finally, priority of industrial categories and pollutants were established to determine the target industries and pollutants requiring controls. High contributing categories in order of their pollution loads were pulp, paper and paper products manufacturing, dyeing and processing facilities, etc. The top 10 industrial category loads accounted for 76.0% of the total effluent equivalent kilograms of pollution. High contributing categories, in order of their toxic level were synthetic resins and other plastics manufacturing, leather and fur processing and manufacturing. PMID:22339020

  6. Experimental and numerical study of nanofluid in heat exchanger fitted by modified twisted tape: exergy analysis and ANN prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddah, Heydar; Ghasemi, Nahid; Keyvani, Bahram; Cheraghali, Ramin

    2016-09-01

    Present study provides an experimental investigation of the exergetic efficiency due to the flow and heat transfer of nanofluids in different geometries and flow regimes of the double pipe heat exchangers. The experiments with different Geometrical Progression Ratio (GPR) of twists as the new modified twisted tapes and different nanofluid concentration were performed under similar operation condition. Pitch length of the proposed twisted tapes and consequently the twist ratios changed along the twists with respect to the Geometrical Progression Ratio (GPR) whether reducer (RGPR < 1) or increaser (IGPR > 1). Regarding the experimental data, utilization of RGPR twists together with nanofluids tends to increase exergetic efficiency. Since the Prediction of exergetic efficiency from experimental process is complex and time consuming, artificial neural networks for identification of the relationship, which may exist between the thermal and flow parameters and exergetic efficiency, have been utilized. The network input consists of five parameters (Re,Pr ,φ, Tr, GPR) that crucially dominate the heat transfer process. The results proved that the introduced ANN model is reliable and capable in proposing a proper development plan for a heat exchanger and/or to determine the optimal plan of operation for heat transfer process.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of V-concentrating Phase Formation in V-bearing Steelmaking Slag Modified by MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liushun; Gao, Wei; Xie, Dawei; Li, Liaosha; Dong, Yuanchi

    2015-10-01

    In the study, magnesium oxide acting as modifier was added to V-bearing steelmaking slag to concentrate vanadium, and then the effect of magnesium oxide on the formation of V-concentrating phase during cooling was investigated. Experimental results show that, in the case of the original slag, di-calcium silicate along with most of vanadate and phosphate in the slag forms solid solution, calcium ferrite which contains small part of vanadium in the slag and matrix without vanadium in turn precipitate during slowly cooling; For the sample with 8% MgO addition, two new phases (merwinite and V-concentrating phase) generate during slowly cooling, and the amount of di-calcium silicate decreases. Merwinite phase doesn't contain vanadium, and V-concentrating phase (Ca3(V,P)2O8·nCa2SiO4) contains 17-19% V2O5 by mass; For the sample with 16% MgO addition, another new phase (monticellite) precipitates from liquid slag, the phase of di-calcium silicate disappears, and most of vanadium concentrates in V-concentrating phase-Ca3(V,P)2O8·nCa2SiO4 (18-21%V2O5).

  8. Vibration analysis of a rotating functionally graded tapered microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory by DQEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Shafiei, Navvab; Alireza Mousavi, S.

    2016-09-01

    Due to having difficulty in solving governing nonlinear differential equations of a non-uniform microbeam, a few numbers of authors have studied such fields. In the present study, for the first time, the size-dependent vibration behavior of a rotating functionally graded (FG) tapered microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory is investigated using differential quadrature element method (DQEM). It is assumed that physical and mechanical properties of the FG microbeam are varying along the thickness that will be defined as a power law equation. The governing equations are determined using Hamilton's principle, and DQEM is presented to obtain the results for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions. The accuracy and validity of the results are shown in several numerical examples. In order to display the influence of size on the first two natural frequencies and consequently changing of some important microbeam parameters such as material length scale, rate of cross section, angular velocity and gradient index of the FG material, several diagrams and tables are represented. The results of this article can be used in designing and optimizing elastic and rotary-type micro-electro-mechanical systems like micro-motors and micro-robots including rotating parts.

  9. Construction of measurement uncertainty profiles for quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms based on interlaboratory validation data.

    PubMed

    Macarthur, Roy; Feinberg, Max; Bertheau, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the size of uncertainty associated with the measurement of products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The method is based on the uncertainty profile, which is an extension, for the estimation of uncertainty, of a recent graphical statistical tool called an accuracy profile that was developed for the validation of quantitative analytical methods. The application of uncertainty profiles as an aid to decision making and assessment of fitness for purpose is also presented. Results of the measurement of the quantity of GMOs in flour by PCR-based methods collected through a number of interlaboratory studies followed the log-normal distribution. Uncertainty profiles built using the results generally give an expected range for measurement results of 50-200% of reference concentrations for materials that contain at least 1% GMO. This range is consistent with European Network of GM Laboratories and the European Union (EU) Community Reference Laboratory validation criteria and can be used as a fitness for purpose criterion for measurement methods. The effect on the enforcement of EU labeling regulations is that, in general, an individual analytical result needs to be < 0.45% to demonstrate compliance, and > 1.8% to demonstrate noncompliance with a labeling threshold of 0.9%.

  10. Modified serpinA1 as risk marker for Parkinson’s disease dementia: Analysis of baseline data

    PubMed Central

    Halbgebauer, Steffen; Nagl, Magdalena; Klafki, Hans; Haußmann, Ute; Steinacker, Petra; Oeckl, Patrick; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar; Ludolph, Albert C.; Soininen, Hilkka; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Wiltfang, Jens; Otto, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of dementia in Parkinson disease is a prerequisite for preventive therapeutic approaches. Modified serpinA1 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was suggested as an early biomarker for differentiation between Parkinson patients with (PDD) or without dementia (PD). Within this study we aimed to further explore the diagnostic value of serpinA1. We applied a newly developed nanoscale method for the detection of serpinA1 based on automated capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF). A clinical sample of 102 subjects including neurologically healthy controls (CON), PD and PDD patients was investigated. Seven serpinA1 isoforms of different charge were detected in CSF from all three diagnostic groups. The mean CSF signals of the most acidic serpinA1 isoform differed significantly (p < 0.01) between PDD (n = 29) and PD (n = 37) or CON (n = 36). Patients above the cut-off of 6.4 have a more than six times higher risk for an association with dementia compared to patients below the cut off. We propose this serpinA1 CIEF-immunoassay as a novel tool in predicting cognitive impairment in PD patients and therefore for patient stratification in therapeutic trials. PMID:27184740

  11. Analysis of caecal microbiota in rats fed with genetically modified rice by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Li, Liting; Lu, Jiao; Luo, YunBo; Shang, Ying; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of genetically modified rice (GMR) on bacterial communities in caecal content was analyzed in a 90-d feeding rat model. A total of 12 groups of rats, which included male and female, were fed with the basal diets containing 30%, 50%, 70% GMR (B(1), B(2), B(3)) or 30%, 50%, 70% non-GMR (D(1), D(2), D(3)). The structure of intestinal microflora was estimated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) based on genus-specific 16s rDNA primers. SYBR Green was used for accurate detection and quantification of 6 kinds of major bacteria shared by humans and rats. According to RQ-PCR, the genome copies of Lactobacillus group from the cecum of male rats fed with 70% non-GMR was higher than those fed with 70% GMR and the relative abundance of Lactobacillus group also higher for group D. This result was in contrast with the E. coli subgroup, which was more numerous in proportion of group B, except D(2) and B(2) for male rats. The Clostridium perfringens subgroup was numerically more abundant in group D than group B of the same level, also except D(2) and B(2) for male rats. These results suggested that GMR had a complex effect on caecal microflora that may be related to the health of the host.

  12. Direct extraction of genomic DNA from maize with aqueous ionic liquid buffer systems for applications in genetically modified organisms analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez García, Eric; Ressmann, Anna K; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Bica, Katharina; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    To date, the extraction of genomic DNA is considered a bottleneck in the process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Conventional DNA isolation methods are associated with long extraction times and multiple pipetting and centrifugation steps, which makes the entire procedure not only tedious and complicated but also prone to sample cross-contamination. In recent times, ionic liquids have emerged as innovative solvents for biomass processing, due to their outstanding properties for dissolution of biomass and biopolymers. In this study, a novel, easily applicable, and time-efficient method for the direct extraction of genomic DNA from biomass based on aqueous-ionic liquid solutions was developed. The straightforward protocol relies on extraction of maize in a 10 % solution of ionic liquids in aqueous phosphate buffer for 5 min at room temperature, followed by a denaturation step at 95 °C for 10 min and a simple filtration to remove residual biopolymers. A set of 22 ionic liquids was tested in a buffer system and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, as well as the environmentally benign choline formate, were identified as ideal candidates. With this strategy, the quality of the genomic DNA extracted was significantly improved and the extraction protocol was notably simplified compared with a well-established method.

  13. The effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on hydroxyapatite-coated implants and fluoride-modified TiO2-blasted implant surfaces: a microstructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung-Il; Lee, Eun-Kwon; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Herr, Yeek; Chung, Jong-Hyuk

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microscopic changes and surface roughness on hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated implants following exposure to different powers and durations of Er:YAG laser irradiation in order to determine the proper pulse energy level and irradiation time. Ten HA-coated implants and ten fluoride-modified TiO2 implants were used. The implants were divided into a control (one implant) and test group (nine implants) for each implant type. Implants in the test groups were sub-divided into three groups (three implants per group) based on the applied laser pulse energy and irradiation time. The measurement of surface roughness was performed on all implants in the test groups using a white light interferometer before and after laser irradiation. R a values were recorded and compared in order to evaluate changes in surface roughness. For HA-coated implants, the R a values increased in all test groups after laser irradiation. However, mean R a values in the fluoride-modified TiO2-blasted implant test group were decreased after irradiation. There was no statistical difference. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed surface alterations in both the HA-coated and fluoridated TiO2-blasted implants irradiated for 1.5 min at 100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz. When the pulse energy and irradiation time increased, greater surface alterations, including surface flattening and microfractures, were observed. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that no changes could be observed in both HA-coated implants and fluoride-modified TiO2-blasted implants after irradiation at an intensity of 100 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz for 1 min performed to achieve surface detoxification.

  14. Modified Statistical Dynamical Diffraction Theory: A Novel Metrological Analysis Method for Partially Relaxed and Defective Carbon-doped Silicon and Silicon Germanium Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreeman, Paul K.

    The statistical dynamical diffraction theory, which has been initially developed by late Kato remained in obscurity for many years due to intense and difficult mathematical treatment that proved to be quite challenging to implement and apply. With assistance of many authors in past (including Bushuev, Pavlov, Pungeov, and among the others), it became possible to implement this unique x-ray diffraction theory that combines the kinematical (ideally imperfect) and dynamical (the characteristically perfect diffraction) into a single system of equations controlled by two factors determined by long range order and correlation function within the structure. The first stage is completed by the publication (Shreeman and Matyi, J. Appl. Cryst., 43, 550 (2010)) demonstrating the functionality of this theory with new modifications hence called modified statistical dynamical diffraction theory (mSDDT). The foundation of the theory is also incorporated into this dissertation, and the next stage of testing the model against several ion-implanted SiGe materials has been published: (Shreeman and Matyi, physica status solidi (a)208(11), 2533-2538, 2011). The dissertation with all the previous results summarized, dives into comprehensive analysis of HRXRD analyses complete with several different types of reflections (symmetrical, asymmetrical and skewed geometry). The dynamical results (with almost no defects) are compared with well-known commercial software. The defective materials, to which commercially available modeling software falls short, is then characterized and discussed in depth. The results will exemplify the power of the novel approach in the modified statistical dynamical diffraction theory: Ability to detect and measure defective structures qualitatively and quantitatively. The analysis will be compared alongside with TEM data analysis for verification and confirmation. The application of this theory will accelerate the ability to quickly characterize the relaxed

  15. Analysis of trace contamination of phthalate esters in ultrapure water using a modified solid-phase extraction procedure and automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsu-Chuan; Den, Walter; Chan, Shu-Fei; Kin, Kuan Tzu

    2008-04-25

    The present study was aimed to develop a procedure modified from the conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the analysis of trace concentration of phthalate esters in industrial ultrapure water (UPW). The proposed procedure allows UPW sample to be drawn through a sampling tube containing hydrophobic sorbent (Tenax TA) to concentrate the aqueous phthalate esters. The solid trap was then demoisturized by two-stage gas drying before subjecting to thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This process removes the solvent extraction procedure necessary for the conventional SPE method, and permits automation of the analytical procedure for high-volume analyses. Several important parameters, including desorption temperature and duration, packing quantity and demoisturizing procedure, were optimized in this study based on the analytical sensitivity for a standard mixture containing five different phthalate esters. The method detection limits for the five phthalate esters were between 36 ng l(-1) and 95 ng l(-1) and recovery rates between 15% and 101%. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) was not recovered adequately because the compound was both poorly adsorbed and desorbed on and off Tenax TA sorbents. Furthermore, analyses of material leaching from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) tubes as well as the actual water samples showed that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the common contaminants detected from PVC contaminated UPW and the actual UPW, as well as in tap water. The reduction of DEHP in the production processes of actual UPW was clearly observed, however a DEHP concentration of 0.20 microg l(-1) at the point of use was still being quantified, suggesting that the contamination of phthalate esters could present a barrier to the future cleanliness requirement of UPW. The work demonstrated that the proposed modified SPE procedure provided an effective method for rapid analysis and contamination

  16. [Clinical application of reticulated platelet analysis using the matic-modified thiazole orange method and flow cytometry].

    PubMed

    Toba, K; Fuse, I; Koike, T; Tsuchiyama, J; Higuchi, W; Niikuni, K; Abe, T; Yano, T; Takahashi, M; Shibata, A; Aizawa, Y

    2000-11-01

    Reticulated platelet (RP) analysis using thiazole orange (TO) and a flow cytometer is a convenient and promising method for estimating platelet kinetics in patients with thrombocytopenia. Among many different modifications of the TO method, a novel protocol reported by Matic in 1998 seems to be superior because it allows RP analysis using a sample of whole blood very quickly and accurately. Therefore, we used this method to analyze platelet kinetics in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), as well as patients with hematopoietic malignancies (HM) after intensive chemotherapy. The proportion of RP was increased in the patients with ITP and HPS, and furthermore showed a negative linear correlation with the platelet count. The change in the proportion of RP occurred about one week before the change in the circulating platelet count in the patients with HM after chemotherapy. This modification of the TO method by Matic is expected to become a standard protocol for RP analysis.

  17. Does school social capital modify socioeconomic inequality in mental health? A multi-level analysis in Danish schools.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Bendtsen, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-09-01

    It seems that social capital in the neighbourhood has the potential to reduce socioeconomic differences in mental health among adolescents. Whether school social capital is a buffer in the association between socioeconomic position and mental health among adolescents remains uncertain. The aim of this study is therefore to examine if the association between socioeconomic position and emotional symptoms among adolescents is modified by school social capital. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Methodology Development Study 2012 provided data on 3549 adolescents aged 11-15 in two municipalities in Denmark. Trust in the school class was used as an indicator of school social capital. Prevalence of daily emotional symptoms in each socioeconomic group measured by parents' occupational class was calculated for each of the three categories of school classes: school classes with high trust, moderate trust and low trust. Multilevel logistic regression analyses with parents' occupational class as the independent variable and daily emotional symptoms as the dependent variable were conducted stratified by level of trust in the school class. The prevalence of emotional symptoms was higher among students in school classes with low trust (12.9%) compared to school classes with high trust (7.2%) (p < 0.01). In school classes with low level of trust, the odds ratio for daily emotional symptoms was 1.89 (95% CI 1.25-2.86) in the low socioeconomic group compared to the high socioeconomic group. In school classes characterised by high and moderate trust, there were no statistically significant differences in emotional symptoms between high and low socioeconomic groups. Although further studies are needed, this cross-sectional study suggests that school social capital may reduce mental health problems and diminish socioeconomic inequality in mental health among adolescents.

  18. Facile synthesis of Cu(2+)-modified mesoporous silica-coated magnetic graphene composite for enrichment of microcystin-LR followed by mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2016-07-01

    MCs is a group of potent hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacterial in eutrophic water, among which microcystin-LR is the most abundant and toxic. Long-time accumulation of even trace dosage from drinking water would cause significantly hepatic injury to animal and humans. Here we reported a novel Cu(2+)-modified mesoporous silica coated magnetic graphene composite (magG@mSiO2@-Cu(2+)) through mild sol-gel process and surface modification. Next, the composites were successfully applied for enrichment and separation of microcystin-LR followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis based on the virtues of excellent hydrophilicity, high surface area (261cm(2)g(-1)), sensitively magnetic separation property, accessible porosity (3.10nm) and large amount of modified Cu(2+) ions. Even performed in a lower concentration (0.5μg/L), at which microcystin-LR could not be detected directly, after treatment with the composites the S/N ratio could appear to be 82.93. Furthermore, the novel composites also exhibited high enrichment efficiency in real water sample. It provided a sensitive and efficient technique for enrichment and detection of microcystin-LR and developed a potent method for separation of pollutant in contaminated water. PMID:27154664

  19. Phenylboronic acid modified solid-phase extraction column: Preparation, characterization, and application to the analysis of amino acids in sepia capsule by removing the maltose.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengzhe; Yin, Dengyang; Han, Jie; Zhang, Liyan; Li, Xiao; He, Dandan; Du, Yan; Tang, Daoquan

    2016-09-01

    Maltose, a common auxiliary material of pharmaceutical preparation, may disturb the analysis of total amino acids in sepia capsule by aldolization. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the maltose through a convenient method. In this work, a phenylboronic acid modified solid-phase extraction column has been synthesized and used to remove the maltose. The materials were synthesized by one step "thiol-ene" reaction and the parameters of the column such as absorption capacity, recovery, and absorption specificity have been investigated. The results showed the column (0.5 cm of length × 0.5 cm of inner diameter) can absorb 4.6 mg maltose with a linear absorption and absorption specificity. Then this technique was applied in the quantification of amino acids in sepia capsule. After the optimization of the method, four kinds of amino acids, which were the most abundant, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The amounts of the four kinds of amino acids are 1.5∼2 times more than that without the treatment of solid-phase extraction column, which almost overcomes the influence of the maltose. All the results indicate that the phenylboronic acid modified solid-phase extraction column can successfully help to accurately quantify the total amino acids in sepia capsule.

  20. Free vibration and biaxial buckling analysis of magneto-electro-elastic microplate resting on visco-Pasternak substrate via modified strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalpoor, A.; Ahmadi-Savadkoohi, A.; Hosseini-Hashemi, Sh

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of free vibration and biaxial buckling of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) microplate resting on Kelvin-Voigt visco-Pasternak foundation and subjected to initial external electric and magnetic potentials, using modified strain gradient theory (MSGT). Kirchhoff plate model and Hamilton’s principle are employed to extract the governing equations of motion. Governing equations were analytically solved to obtain clear closed-form expression for complex natural frequencies and buckling loads using Navier’s approach. Numerical results are presented to reveal variations of natural frequency and buckling load ratio of MEE microplate against different amounts of the length scale parameter, initial external electric and magnetic potentials, aspect ratio, damping and transverse and shear stiffness parameters of the visco-Pasternak foundation, length to thickness ratio, microplate thickness and higher modes. Numerical results of this study illustrate that by increasing thickness-to-material length scale parameter ratio, both natural frequency and buckling load ratio predicted by MSGT and modified couple stress theory are reduced because the non-dimensional length scale parameter tends to decrease the stiffness of structures and make them more flexible. In addition, results show that initial external electric and initial external magnetic potentials have no considerable influence on the buckling load ratio and frequency of MEE microplate as the microplate thickness increases.

  1. Modified first-order Horava-Lifshitz gravity: Hamiltonian analysis of the general theory and accelerating FRW cosmology in a power-law F(R) model

    SciTech Connect

    Carloni, Sante; Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Oksanen, Markku

    2010-09-15

    We propose the most general modified first-order Horava-Lifshitz gravity, whose action does not contain time derivatives higher than the second order. The Hamiltonian structure of this theory is studied in all the details in the case of the spatially-flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time, demonstrating many of the features of the general theory. It is shown that, with some plausible assumptions, including the projectability of the lapse function, this model is consistent. As a large class of such theories, the modified Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity is introduced. The study of its ultraviolet properties shows that its z=3 version seems to be renormalizable in the same way as the original Horava-Lifshitz proposal. The Hamiltonian analysis of the modified Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity shows that it is in general a consistent theory. The F(R) gravity action is also studied in the fixed-gauge form, where the appearance of a scalar field is particularly illustrative. Then the spatially-flat FRW cosmology for this F(R) gravity is investigated. It is shown that a special choice of parameters for this theory leads to the same equations of motion as in the case of traditional F(R) gravity. Nevertheless, the cosmological structure of the modified Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity turns out to be much richer than for its traditional counterpart. The emergence of multiple de Sitter solutions indicates the possibility of unification of early-time inflation with late-time acceleration within the same model. Power-law F(R) theories are also investigated in detail. It is analytically shown that they have a quite rich cosmological structure: early-/late-time cosmic acceleration of quintessence, as well as of phantom types. Also it is demonstrated that all the four known types of finite-time future singularities may occur in the power-law Horava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity. Finally, a covariant proposal for (renormalizable) F(R) gravity within the Horava-Lifshitz spirit is presented.

  2. Bromination of Aromatic Compounds by Residual Bromide in Sodium Chloride Matrix Modifier Salt During Heated Headspace GC/MS Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation rea...

  3. Studies on chemically modified fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Kloczewiak, M; Wegrzynowicz, Z; Matthias, F R; Heene, D L; Zajdel, M

    1976-04-30

    Treatment of fibrinogen with maleic acid anhydride renders fibrinogen unclottable depending on the degree of modification of the molecule. According to radioactive studies the release of fibrinopeptides by thrombin or reptilase is undisturbed. The incoagulability is due to inhibition of the polymerization process of fibrinmonomers derived from modified fibronogen, mainly caused by the increase of electronegative charges upon the fibrogen molecule. According to discelectrophoretic analysis modified fibrinogen fails to produce fragments D and E following plasmic digestion, however, may be degraded to high molecular weight products. Modified fibrinogen reveals some similarities to abnormal fibrinogens in congenital dysfibrinogenemia with regard to its functional properties.

  4. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-70-35-5245 crossing Big Walnut Creek in Putnam County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sedimenttransport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-70-35-5245 on Interstate 70 crossing Big Walnut Creek in Pumam.County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Manhattan in the southwestern part of Putnam County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 17.0 feet for the modeled discharge of 29,200 cubic feet per second and approximately 30.9 feet for the modeled discharge of 49,600 cubic feet per second.

  5. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-69-87-4781 crossing Wabash River in Huntington County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-69-87-4781 on Interstate 69 crossing Wabash River in Huntington County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Markle in the eastern part of Huntington County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 13.1 feet for the modeled discharge of 10,600 cubic feet per second and approximately 14.6 feet for the modeled discharge of 17,000 cubic feet per second.

  6. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-69-76-4775 crossing Salamonie River in Huntington County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-69-76-4775 on Interstate 69 crossing Salamonie River in Huntington County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Warren in the southeastern part of Huntington County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 13.7 feet for the modeled discharge of 15,800 cubic feet per second and approximately 20.9 feet for the modeled discharge of 26,900 cubic feet per second.

  7. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-74-32-4946 crossing Sugar Creek in Montgomery County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sedient-transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Levell II analysis for structure I-74-32-4946 on Interstate 74 crossing Sugar Creek in Montgomery County, Indiana are presented. The site is near the town of Crawfordsville in the central part of Montgomery County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 13.0 feet for the modeled discharge of 3,000  cubic feet per second and approximately 15.1 feet for the modeled discharge of 41,900 cubic feet per second.

  8. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-65-85-5527 crossing Sugar Creek in Johnson County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-65-85-5527 on Interstate 65 crossing Sugar Creek in Johnson County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Amity in the southeastern part of Johnson County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 26.8 feet for the modeled discharge of 26,000 cubic feet per second and approximately 30.8 feet for the modeled discharge of 34,100 cubic feet per second

  9. Hormonally induced modulation in the phosphate metabolites of breast cancer: analysis of in vivo 31P MRS signals with a modified prony method.

    PubMed

    Viti, V; Ragona, R; Guidoni, L; Barone, P; Furman, E; Degani, H

    1997-08-01

    A modified Prony method (MPM) was applied to analyze the main signals present in spatially resolved 31P NMR spectra of MCF7 breast tumors implanted in nude mice. First, the method was tested on synthetic data to establish its limits of reliability. Its performance with respect to peak identification and quantification of signal intensities was then exploited on data from three implanted tumors during hormonal manipulation with estrogen and the antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen. The phosphomonoester peak was resolved into phosphocholine (PC) and phosphoethanolamine (PE). Treatment with tamoxifen led to a significant reduction in the PE to PE+PC peak amplitude ratio in the tumors under consideration. MPM analysis also revealed the presence of two different inorganic phosphate pools: a larger acidic pool and a smaller alkaline pool during estrogen-induced growth and the reverse during tumor regression.

  10. Modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) for the analysis of centrifugally assisted TiC-Fe-Al2O3 combustion synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M A; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, M

    2014-01-01

    A modified smoothed particle hydrodynamic (MSPH) computational technique was utilized to simulate molten particle motion and infiltration speed on multi-scale analysis levels. The radial velocity and velocity gradient of molten alumina, iron infiltration in the TiC product and solidification rate, were predicted during centrifugal self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) simulation, which assisted the coating process by MSPH. The effects of particle size and temperature on infiltration and solidification of iron and alumina were mainly investigated. The obtained results were validated with experimental microstructure evidence. The simulation model successfully describes the magnitude of iron and alumina diffusion in a centrifugal thermite SHS and Ti + C hybrid reaction under centrifugal acceleration. PMID:24430621

  11. Modified level II streambed-scour analysis for structure I-70-60-5180 crossing Branch of McCracken Creek in Hendricks County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.A.; Voelker, D.C.; Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Level II scour evaluations follow a process in which hydrologic, hydraulic, and sediment transport data are evaluated to calculate the depth of scour that may result when a given discharge is routed through a bridge opening. The results of the modified Level II analysis for structure 1-70-60-5180 on Interstate 70 crossing Branch of McCracken Creek in Hendricks County, Indiana, are presented. The site is near the town of Center Valley in the south-central part of Hendricks County. Scour depths were computed with the Water Surface PROfile model, version V050196, which incorporates the scour-calculation procedures outlined in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Total scour depths at the piers were approximately 12.4 feet for the modeled discharge of 1,200 cubic feet per second and approximately 24.8 feet for the modeled discharge of 2,040 cubic feet per second.

  12. Development of on-line monitoring system for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) using neuro-expert, noise analysis, and modified neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Subekti, M.; Ohno, T.; Kudo, K.; Nabeshima, K.; Takamatsu, K.

    2006-07-01

    The neuro-expert has been utilized in previous monitoring-system research of Pressure Water Reactor (PWR). The research improved the monitoring system by utilizing neuro-expert, conventional noise analysis and modified neural networks for capability extension. The parallel method applications required distributed architecture of computer-network for performing real-time tasks. The research aimed to improve the previous monitoring system, which could detect sensor degradation, and to perform the monitoring demonstration in High Temperature Engineering Tested Reactor (HTTR). The developing monitoring system based on some methods that have been tested using the data from online PWR simulator, as well as RSG-GAS (30 MW research reactor in Indonesia), will be applied in HTTR for more complex monitoring. (authors)

  13. Modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) for the analysis of centrifugally assisted TiC-Fe-Al2O3 combustion synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, M. A.; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, M.

    2014-01-01

    A modified smoothed particle hydrodynamic (MSPH) computational technique was utilized to simulate molten particle motion and infiltration speed on multi-scale analysis levels. The radial velocity and velocity gradient of molten alumina, iron infiltration in the TiC product and solidification rate, were predicted during centrifugal self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) simulation, which assisted the coating process by MSPH. The effects of particle size and temperature on infiltration and solidification of iron and alumina were mainly investigated. The obtained results were validated with experimental microstructure evidence. The simulation model successfully describes the magnitude of iron and alumina diffusion in a centrifugal thermite SHS and Ti + C hybrid reaction under centrifugal acceleration. PMID:24430621

  14. An exploration of self-management support in the context of palliative nursing: a modified concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of self-management is often ambiguous, yet, it is an important area in clinical practice for palliative nurses. A clear conceptual understanding, however, of what it represents is lacking. Method This paper reports an analysis of the concept of self-management support in palliative nursing. Avant and Walker’s method was used to guide this concept analysis. A search of electronic databases (1990–2013), use of internet search engines and supplementary hand searching produced an international data set of reviews, empirical research, editorials, protocols and guidelines. Results Based on the analysis self-management support in palliative nursing has been defined as assessing, planning, and implementing appropriate care to enable the patient to live until they die and supporting the patient to be given the means to master or deal with their illness or their effects of their illness themselves. Conclusions Clarity with the concept of self-management support and palliative nursing could enable nurses to provide more patient and family centred care to people facing life threatening illnesses. PMID:25120381

  15. A novel method for simultaneous analysis of three β2-agonists in foods with the use of a gold-nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyun; Ni, Yongnian; Li, Shuzhen; Kokot, Serge

    2012-05-01

    An electrochemical method involving a gold nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/GCE) was researched and developed for the simultaneous analysis of three β(2)-agonists, ractopamine (RAC), salbutamol (SAL) and clenbuterol (CLB). The three analytes were electrocatalytically oxidized at the AuNP/GCE, which enhanced the oxidation peak current and influenced the shift of the oxidation potentials to lower values in comparison with the analysis involving only the GCE. The differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) voltammograms from the drug mixture produced complex, overlapping profiles, and chemometrics methods were applied for calibration modeling. The peak currents associated with RAC, SAL and CLB measurements were linear as a function of their concentrations (ranges within 0.005-0.150 μg mL(-1)); the detection limits for RAC, SAL and CLB were 2.4, 5.8 and 2.6 ng mL(-1), respectively. It was shown that satisfactory quantitative results were obtained with the use of the MVC1 package of chemometrics methods e.g. the PLS1 calibration model produced a relative prediction error (RPE(T)) of 7.0% and an average recovery of 97.6%. The above AuNP/GCE was successfully employed for the simultaneous analysis of RAC, SAL and CLB in pork meat, liver and pig feed samples.

  16. Compositional analysis of genetically modified corn events (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared to conventional corn.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Ahmed M; Abbott, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    Compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops continues to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment for these materials. The present study was designed to detect the genetic modifications and investigate the compositional analysis of GM corn containing traits of multiple genes (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared with non-GM corn. Values for most biochemical components assessed for the GM corn samples were similar to those of the non-GM control or were within the literature range. Significant increases were observed in protein, fat, fiber and fatty acids of the GM corn samples. The observed increases may be due to the synergistic effect of new traits introduced into corn varieties. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis showed high similarity among the protein fractions of the investigated corn samples. These data indicate that GM corn samples were compositionally equivalent to, and as nutritious as, non-GM corn.

  17. A genetic variant in MiR-146a modifies digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Mao, Ying-Ying; Jin, Ming-Juan; Jing, Fang-Yuan; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Kun

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression and act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in oncogenesis. The association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miR-146a rs2910164 and susceptibility to digestive system cancers was inconsistent in previous studies. In this study, we conducted a literature search of PubMed to identify all relevant studies published before August 31, 2013. A total of 21 independent case-control studies were included in this updated meta-analysis with 9,558 cases and 10,614 controls. We found that the miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of digestive system cancers in an allele model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.87-0.94), homozygote model (OR=0.84, 95%CI 0.77-0.91), dominant model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.84-0.96), and recessive model (OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.79-0.91), while in a heterozygous model (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.89-1.11) the association showed marginal significance. Subgroup analysis by cancer site revealed decreased risk in colorectal cancer above allele model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.83- 0.97) and homozygote model (OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.72-1.00). Similarly, decreased cancer risk was observed when compared with allele model (OR=0.87, 95%CI 0.81-0.93) and recessive model (OR=0.81, 95%CI 0.72-0.90) in gastric cancer. When stratified by ethnicity, genotyping methods and quality score, decreased cancer risks were also observed. This current meta-analysis indicated that miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism may decrease the susceptibility to digestive system cancers, especially in Asian populations.

  18. Global transcriptomic analysis of model human cell lines exposed to surface-modified gold nanoparticles: the effect of surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grzincic, E M; Yang, J A; Drnevich, J; Falagan-Lotsch, P; Murphy, C J

    2015-01-28

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are attractive for biomedical applications not only for their remarkable physical properties, but also for the ease of which their surface chemistry can be manipulated. Many applications involve functionalization of the Au NP surface in order to improve biocompatibility, attach targeting ligands or carry drugs. However, changes in cells exposed to Au NPs of different surface chemistries have been observed, and little is known about how Au NPs and their surface coatings may impact cellular gene expression. The gene expression of two model human cell lines, human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and prostate cancer cells (PC3) was interrogated by microarray analysis of over 14,000 human genes. The cell lines were exposed to four differently functionalized Au NPs: citrate, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), and lipid coatings combined with alkanethiols or PAH. Gene functional annotation categories and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used in order to connect gene expression changes to common cellular functions and to elucidate expression patterns between Au NP samples. Coated Au NPs affect genes implicated in proliferation, angiogenesis, and metabolism in HDF cells, and inflammation, angiogenesis, proliferation apoptosis regulation, survival and invasion in PC3 cells. Subtle changes in surface chemistry, such as the initial net charge, lability of the ligand, and underlying layers greatly influence the degree of expression change and the type of cellular pathway affected.

  19. Efficiency of CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells for treatment of B cell malignancies in phase I clinical trials: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ni; Zhang, Zhen; Luo, Zhenzhen; Yue, Dongli; Zhang, Zimeng; Wang, Liping; Han, Weidong; Xu, Zhongwei; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells targeted CD19 showed promising clinical outcomes in treatment of B cell malignances such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and other indolent lymphomas. However, the clinical benefit varies tremendously among different trials. This meta-analysis investigated the efficacy (response rates and survival time) of CD19-CAR T cells in refractory B cell malignances in Phase I clinical trials. We searched publications between 1991 and 2014 from PubMed and Web of Science. Pooled response rates were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Fourteen clinical trials including 119 patients were eligible for response rate evaluation, 62 patients in 12 clinical trials were eligible for progression-free survival analysis. The overall pooled response rate of CD19-CAR T cells was 73% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 46-94%). Significant heterogeneity across estimates of response rates was observed (p < 0.001, I2=88.3%). ALL patients have higher response rate (93%, 95% CI: 65-100%) than CLL (62%, 95% CI: 27-93%) and lymphoma patients (36%, 95% CI: 1-83%). Meta-regression analysis identified lymphodepletion and no IL-2 administrated T cells as two key factors associated with better clinical response. Lymphodepletion and higher infused CAR T cell number were associated with better prognosis. In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed a high clinical response rate of CD19-CAR T cell-based immunotherapy in treatment of refractory B cell malignancies. Lymphodepletion and increasing number of infused CD19-CAR T cells have positive correlations with the clinical efficiency, on the contrary, IL-2 administration to T cells is not recommended. PMID:26376680

  20. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Some Structural Modified PC Sleeper with the Vibration Characteristics between Sleeper and Ballast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Hirotaka; Urakawa, Fumihiro; Aikawa, Akira; Namura, Akira

    The vibration of concrete sleepers is an important factor engendering track deterioration. In this paper, we created a three-dimensional finite element model to reproduce a prestressed concrete (PC) sleeper in detail, expressing influence of ballast layers with a 3D spring series and dampers to reproduce their vibration and dynamic characteristics. Determination of these parameters bases on the experimental modal analysis using an impact excitation technique for PC sleepers by adjusting the accelerance between the analytical results and experimental results. Furthermore, we compared the difference of these characteristics between normal sleepers and those with some structural modifications. Analytical results clarified that such means as sleeper width extension and increased sleeper thickness will influence the reduction of ballasted track vibration as improvements of PC sleepers.

  1. Modified methods for defining the chlorophyll concentration in the sea using submersible fluorimeters - Theoretical and quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowska, Mirosława; Stoń-Egiert, Joanna; Woźniak, Bogdan

    2015-10-01

    The paper analyses the reliability of fluorimetric methods for determining chlorophyll concentrations in the sea using a submersible fluorimeter. To this end, such concentrations were measured with a bbe FluoroProbe spectrofluorimeter as well as standard methods in a range of Baltic basins of different trophic index. This analysis shows that fluorimetrically determined chlorophyll concentrations are usually slightly lower than those obtained with standard methods and that the error increases with rising trophic index. Similar tendencies are observed in relation to measurements carried out with different types of fluorimeters and in different waters. Probably due to the nonlinearity of the relationship between the concentration of chlorophyll a and the intensity of its fluorescence, this can be explained by the changes in the fluorescence quantum yield and package effect function with trophic index. It is therefore recommended that the internal algorithms of fluorimeters be recalibrated in the manner suggested.

  2. Modified midi- and mini-multiplex PCR systems for mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analysis in degraded samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Young; Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Sun Joo; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2013-05-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems (Midiplex and Miniplex) were developed for the amplification of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and the efficiencies of the multiplexes for amplifying degraded DNA were validated using old skeletal remains. The Midiplex system consisted of two multiplex PCRs to amplify six overlapping amplicons ranging in length from 227 to 267 bp. The Miniplex system consisted of three multiplex PCRs to amplify 10 overlapping short amplicons ranging in length from 142 to 185 bp. Most mtDNA control region sequences of several 60-year-old and 400-500-year-old skeletal remains were successfully obtained using both PCR systems and consistent with those previously obtained by monoplex amplification. The multiplex system consisting of smaller amplicons is effective for mtDNA sequence analyses of ancient and forensic degraded samples, saving time, cost, and the amount of DNA sample consumed during analysis.

  3. Global transcriptomic analysis of model human cell lines exposed to surface-modified gold nanoparticles: the effect of surface chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzincic, E. M.; Yang, J. A.; Drnevich, J.; Falagan-Lotsch, P.; Murphy, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are attractive for biomedical applications not only for their remarkable physical properties, but also for the ease of which their surface chemistry can be manipulated. Many applications involve functionalization of the Au NP surface in order to improve biocompatibility, attach targeting ligands or carry drugs. However, changes in cells exposed to Au NPs of different surface chemistries have been observed, and little is known about how Au NPs and their surface coatings may impact cellular gene expression. The gene expression of two model human cell lines, human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and prostate cancer cells (PC3) was interrogated by microarray analysis of over 14 000 human genes. The cell lines were exposed to four differently functionalized Au NPs: citrate, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), and lipid coatings combined with alkanethiols or PAH. Gene functional annotation categories and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used in order to connect gene expression changes to common cellular functions and to elucidate expression patterns between Au NP samples. Coated Au NPs affect genes implicated in proliferation, angiogenesis, and metabolism in HDF cells, and inflammation, angiogenesis, proliferation apoptosis regulation, survival and invasion in PC3 cells. Subtle changes in surface chemistry, such as the initial net charge, lability of the ligand, and underlying layers greatly influence the degree of expression change and the type of cellular pathway affected.Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are attractive for biomedical applications not only for their remarkable physical properties, but also for the ease of which their surface chemistry can be manipulated. Many applications involve functionalization of the Au NP surface in order to improve biocompatibility, attach targeting ligands or carry drugs. However, changes in cells exposed to Au NPs of different surface chemistries have been observed, and little is known about how

  4. Scenario analysis and path selection of low-carbon transformation in China based on a modified IPAT model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a forecast and analysis of population, economic development, energy consumption and CO2 emissions variation in China in the short- and long-term steps before 2020 with 2007 as the base year. The widely applied IPAT model, which is the basis for calculations, projections, and scenarios of greenhouse gases (GHGs) reformulated as the Kaya equation, is extended to analyze and predict the relations between human activities and the environment. Four scenarios of CO2 emissions are used including business as usual (BAU), energy efficiency improvement scenario (EEI), low carbon scenario (LC) and enhanced low carbon scenario (ELC). The results show that carbon intensity will be reduced by 40-45% as scheduled and economic growth rate will be 6% in China under LC scenario by 2020. The LC scenario, as the most appropriate and the most feasible scheme for China's low-carbon development in the future, can maximize the harmonious development of economy, society, energy and environmental systems. Assuming China's development follows the LC scenario, the paper further gives four paths of low-carbon transformation in China: technological innovation, industrial structure optimization, energy structure optimization and policy guidance. PMID:24204922

  5. Scenario Analysis and Path Selection of Low-Carbon Transformation in China Based on a Modified IPAT Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a forecast and analysis of population, economic development, energy consumption and CO2 emissions variation in China in the short- and long-term steps before 2020 with 2007 as the base year. The widely applied IPAT model, which is the basis for calculations, projections, and scenarios of greenhouse gases (GHGs) reformulated as the Kaya equation, is extended to analyze and predict the relations between human activities and the environment. Four scenarios of CO2 emissions are used including business as usual (BAU), energy efficiency improvement scenario (EEI), low carbon scenario (LC) and enhanced low carbon scenario (ELC). The results show that carbon intensity will be reduced by 40–45% as scheduled and economic growth rate will be 6% in China under LC scenario by 2020. The LC scenario, as the most appropriate and the most feasible scheme for China’s low-carbon development in the future, can maximize the harmonious development of economy, society, energy and environmental systems. Assuming China's development follows the LC scenario, the paper further gives four paths of low-carbon transformation in China: technological innovation, industrial structure optimization, energy structure optimization and policy guidance. PMID:24204922

  6. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) in public catering services: a modified method, combined to bacteriologic assay.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, P

    1992-01-01

    During 1990 and 1991 the Veterinary and Public Health Services of USL 35 of Ravenna carried out a research programme aimed at the control of food-borne diseases in the sector of public catering services, in collaboration with the Public Health Laboratory (Presidio Multizonale di Prevenzione). The objectives were: obtaining sure information about health hazards in public catering services; checking structural characteristics and equipment of workrooms in restaurants, hotels and refectories; verifying food preparation and preservation methods; promoting health education to increase employees' awareness of hygiene-related problems. The first objective, evaluation of the level of the control of the workrooms exerted on the food contamination hazard by pathogenic or potentially pathogenic organisms, was carried out by allotting specific scores to several characteristics of laboratories or workers' habits, as suggested by the "Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point" (HACCP) method for butcher's shops and fish markets. Five hundred ninety-eight public catering service units have been inspected in restaurants, hotels, school-refectories, factories, hospitals and social houses; 2,097 bacteriological examinations by agar-contact plates and swabs were carried out; 118 preserved-food temperatures were measured, especially in deep-frozen and cooked food; 70 food specimens were tested to search for Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus and measure Total Aerobic Mesophilic Weight. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli was also tested.

  7. A modified cost benefit analysis of coastal development (tourism) with special reference to Longbay Beach--Negril, Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Hinds, P.W.; Ngandu, M.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the cost and benefits of the Tourist Industry in Negril over the period 1970-93, including its impact on the environment. Traditional cost benefit analysis will be used with appropriate modifications. The Long Bay stretch has been an area of rapid expansion over the last ten to twenty years. This expansion has rapidly outgrown infrastructure development and this, the potential environmental problems are already showing up in marine pollution and other forms of environmental degradation. Although there is numerous evidence of environmental impacts on tourism, there has not been a lot of work done on quantifying these impacts, and policy makers have not been ensuring that these externalities are internalized by these hotels, in an effort to make them better stewards of the environment. This study will not only look at the economic cost and benefit of the industry from the point of view of revenue and expenditure, but also the environment cost, benefit and policy recommendations necessary to accomplish this.

  8. Analysis of TOPAZ II and SPACE-R space nuclear power plants using a modified thermionic model. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Habedank, O.D.

    1993-03-01

    Models based on the TDS thermionic diode model were developed for TOPAZ II and SPACER nuclear power systems. Several parameter studies were conducted with the TOPAZ II model. These determined system performance and efficiency while varying the following: (1) Coolant flow inlet temperatures. (2) Rate of coolant temperature change. (3) Power profile of the core. (4) Cesium reservoir temperature. Analysis of results indicate the model accurately represented the TOPAZ II system, underestimating published data by 10%. Coolant flow studies indicate that raising coolant temperatures up to 100 K higher increases system power by up to 5%. Additional increases in temperature result in gradual performance degradation. Varying the axial power profile of the core from the actual peaked profile to a flat profile results in a negligible 0.3% change in system performance. The peaked profile used in TOPAZ II produces the highest system efficiency of all the profiles modeled. The cesium pressure study indicates the system is operating above optimum cesium pressure and system performance is strongly dependent on cesium pressure. Increasing cesium reservoir temperature above design temperature by 30 K decreases system efficiency by 30%.

  9. Analysis of TOPAZ II and SPACE-R space nuclear power plants using a modified thermionic model

    SciTech Connect

    Habedank, O.D.

    1993-03-01

    Models based on the TDS thermionic diode model were developed for the TOPAZ II and SPACE-R nuclear power systems. Due to computer code limitations inherent in the TDS model, only the TOPAZ II system model ran successfully. Several parameter studies were conducted on the TOPAZ II model. These studies determined system performance and efficiency while varying the following: (1) the coolant flow inlet temperatures; (2) the rate of coolant temperature change; (3) the power profile of the core; and (4) the cesium reservoir temperature. Analysis of the results indicate that the model accurately represented the TOPAZ II system, underestimating published data by 10%. Coolant flow parameter studies indicate that raising coolant flow temperatures up to 100 K higher increases system power by put to 5%. Additional increases in temperature result in gradual performance degradation. Varying the axial power profile of the core from the actual peaked profile to a flat profile results in a negligible 0.3% change in total system performance. The peaked profile used in TOPAZ II produces the highest system efficiency of all the profiles modeled. The cesium pressure study indicates that the system is operating above optimum cesium pressure and that system performance is strongly dependent on cesium pressure. Increasing cesium reservoir temperature above design temperature by 30 K decreases system efficiency by 30%.

  10. Cumulative second-harmonic analysis of ultrasonic Lamb waves for ageing behavior study of modified-HP austenite steel.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yanxun; Deng, Mingxi; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2011-12-01

    The cumulative second-harmonic analysis of ultrasonic Lamb wave has been performed to study the precipitation kinetics and microvoid initiation of ferritic Cr-Ni alloy steel during the ageing process. Ageing of ferritic Cr-Ni alloy materials have been done at 1223 K and 1173 K for different degradation time intervals and air cooled. The results show that the normalized acoustic nonlinearity of Lamb wave increases with the formation of fine precipitates at the early stage of ageing till about 1000 h and keeps as a plateau with the precipitates dynamic balance for a long-term ageing, and then decreases gradually at the final holding time with the coarsening of precipitates and initiation of microvoids. The results also show that the variation of nonlinear Lamb wave follows the same trend as that of hardness in materials. Therefore, the cumulative second-harmonic of ultrasonic Lamb waves has been found to be strongly sensitive to the precipitates behavior and microstructure evolution during the thermal ageing of ferritic Cr-Ni alloy steel.

  11. Analysis of TOPAZ 2 and SPACE-R space nuclear power plants using a modified thermionic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habedank, Otto D.

    1993-03-01

    Models based on the TDS thermionic diode model were developed for TOPAZ 2 and SPACE-R nuclear power systems. Several parameter studies were conducted with the TOPAZ 2 model. These determined system performance and efficiency while varying the following: (1) Coolant flow inlet temperatures. (2) Rate of coolant temperature change. (3) Power profile of the core. (4) Cesium reservoir temperature. Analysis of results indicate the model accurately represented the TOPAZ 2 system, underestimating published data by 10%. Coolant flow studies indicate that raising coolant temperatures up to 100 K higher increases system power by up to 5%. Additional increases in temperature result in gradual performance degradation. Varying the axial power profile of the core from the actual peaked profile to a flat profile results in a negligible 0.3% change in system performance. The peaked profile used in TOPAZ 2 produces the highest system efficiency of all the profiles modeled. The cesium pressure study indicates the system is operating above optimum cesium pressure and system performance is strongly dependent on cesium pressure. Increasing cesium reservoir temperature above design temperature by 30 K decreases system efficiency by 30%.

  12. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; use of a modified ultrasonic nebulizer for the analysis of low ionic-strength water by inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Carl M.; Litteral, Charles J.; Damrau, Donna L.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory has developed a method for the determination of dissolved calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, silica, and sodium using a modified ultrasonic nebulizer sample-introduction system to an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. The nebulizer's spray chamber has been modified to avoid carryover and memory effects common in some conventional ultrasonic designs. The modified ultrasonic nebulizer is equipped with a high-speed rinse cycle to remove previously analyzed samples from the spray chamber without excessive flush times. This new rinse cycle decreases sample washout times by reducing carryover and memory effects from salt or analytes in previously analyzed samples by as much as 45 percent. Plasma instability has been reduced by repositioning the argon carrier gas inlet on the spray chamber and by directly pumping waste from the chamber, instead of from open drain traps, thereby maintaining constant pressure to the plasma. The ultrasonic nebulizer improves signal intensities, which are 8 to 16 times greater than for a conventional cross-flow pneumatic nebulizer, without being sensitive to clogging from salt buildup as in cross-flow nebulizers. Detection limits for the ultrasonic nebulizer are 4 to 18 times less than detection limits achievable using a cross-flow pneumatic nebulizer, with equivalent sample analysis time.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Varieties of Genetically Modified (GM) Embrapa 5.1 Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Non-GM Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Balsamo, Geisi M; Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Mello, Carla S; Arisi, Ana C M

    2015-12-01

    The genetically modified (GM) common bean event Embrapa 5.1 was commercially approved in Brazil in 2011; it is resistant to golden mosaic virus infection. In the present work grain proteome profiles of two Embrapa 5.1 common bean varieties, Pérola and Pontal, and their non-GM counterparts were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). Analyses detected 23 spots differentially accumulated between GM Pérola and non-GM Pérola and 21 spots between GM Pontal and non-GM Pontal, although they were not the same proteins in Pérola and Pontal varieties, indicating that the variability observed may not be due to the genetic transformation. Among them, eight proteins were identified in Pérola varieties, and four proteins were identified in Pontal. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 2-DE data, and variation between varieties was explained in the first two principal components. This work provides a first 2-DE-MS/MS-based analysis of Embrapa 5.1 common bean grains.

  14. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Varieties of Genetically Modified (GM) Embrapa 5.1 Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Non-GM Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Balsamo, Geisi M; Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Mello, Carla S; Arisi, Ana C M

    2015-12-01

    The genetically modified (GM) common bean event Embrapa 5.1 was commercially approved in Brazil in 2011; it is resistant to golden mosaic virus infection. In the present work grain proteome profiles of two Embrapa 5.1 common bean varieties, Pérola and Pontal, and their non-GM counterparts were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). Analyses detected 23 spots differentially accumulated between GM Pérola and non-GM Pérola and 21 spots between GM Pontal and non-GM Pontal, although they were not the same proteins in Pérola and Pontal varieties, indicating that the variability observed may not be due to the genetic transformation. Among them, eight proteins were identified in Pérola varieties, and four proteins were identified in Pontal. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 2-DE data, and variation between varieties was explained in the first two principal components. This work provides a first 2-DE-MS/MS-based analysis of Embrapa 5.1 common bean grains. PMID:26575080

  15. Sulfonate group-modified FePtCu nanoparticles as a selective probe for LDI-MS analysis of oligopeptides from a peptide mixture and human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Hideya; Akira, Tarui; Watanabe, Takehiro; Nozaki, Kazuyoshi; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2009-11-01

    Bare FePtCu nanoparticles (NPs) are first prepared for laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy (LDI-MS) analysis as affinity probes to selectively trap oppositely charged analytes from a sample solution. Our present results demonstrate bare FePtCu NPs to be a potentially useful matrix for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy (SALDI-MS), for the analysis of small proteins and peptides. The upper detectable mass range of peptides was approximately 5 kDa, and the detection limit for peptides approximately 5 fmol. Sulfonate group-modified FePtCu nanoparticles (FePtCu-SO(3)(-) NPs), with ionization being independent of the solution pH, can interact with a positively charged analyte, and the analyte-bound NPs can be separated from the reaction supernatant by centrifugation or an external magnetic field. An oligopeptide, Gly-Gly-Tyr-Arg (GGYR) from an oligopeptide mixture containing Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp (DDDD), Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly (GGGG) and GGYR, was detected using SALDI-MS with FePtCu-SO(3)(-) NPs employing electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, FePtCu-SO(3)(-) NPs can detect lysozyme (Lyz) in human serum through the electrostatic attraction between positively charged Lyz and FePtCu-SO(3)(-) NPs at pH 8, while detection of negatively charged albumin in human serum is not possible.

  16. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO₂-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO₂ photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO₂@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO₂@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO₂@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO₄(3-) in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO₄(3-) and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO₂@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L(-1) to 2.30 μmol P L(-1). This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive. PMID:25319460

  17. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO₂-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO₂ photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO₂@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO₂@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO₂@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO₄(3-) in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO₄(3-) and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO₂@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L(-1) to 2.30 μmol P L(-1). This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.

  18. Analysis of biodistribution and engraftment into the liver of genetically modified mesenchymal stromal cells derived from adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Gentile, Antonietta; Antonini, Annalisa; Truffa, Silvia; Piaggio, Giulia; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Toietta, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Presently, orthotopic liver transplant is the major therapeutic option for patients affected by primary liver diseases. This procedure is characterized by major invasive surgery, scarcity of donor organs, high costs, and lifelong immunosuppressive treatment. Transplant of hepatic precursor cells represents an attractive alternative. These cells could be used either for allogeneic transplantation or for autologous transplant after ex vivo genetic modification. We used stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue (AT-SCs) as platforms for autologous cell-mediated gene therapy. AT-SCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing firefly luciferase, allowing for transplanted cell tracking by bioluminescent imaging (BLI). As a complementary approach, we followed circulating human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) levels after infusion of AT-SCs overexpressing hAAT. Cells were transplanted into syngeneic mice after CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury. Luciferase bioluminescence signals and serum hAAT levels were measured at different time points after transplantation and demonstrate persistence of transplanted cells for up to 2 months after administration. These data, along with immunohistochemical analysis, suggest engraftment and repopulation of injured livers by transplanted AT-SCs. Moreover, by transcriptional targeting using cellular tissue-specific regulatory sequences, we confirmed that AT-SCs differentiate towards a hepatogenic-like phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, in transplanted cells reisolated from recipient animals' livers, we detected activation of the α-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter. This promoter is normally transcriptionally silenced in adult tissues but can be reactivated during liver regeneration, suggesting commitment towards hepatogenic-like differentiation of engrafted cells in vivo. Our data support AT-SC-mediated gene therapy as an innovative therapeutic option for disorders of liver metabolism. PMID:22469297

  19. Modified Method of rRNA Structure Analysis Reveals Novel Characteristics of Box C/D RNA Analogues.

    PubMed

    Filippova, J A; Stepanov, G A; Semenov, D V; Koval, O A; Kuligina, E V; Rabinov, I V; Richter, V A

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) maturation is a complex process that involves chemical modifications of the bases or sugar residues of specific nucleotides. One of the most abundant types of rRNA modifications, ribose 2'-O-methylation, is guided by ribonucleoprotein complexes containing small nucleolar box C/D RNAs. Since the majority of 2'-O-methylated nucleotides are located in the most conserved regions of rRNA that comprise functionally important centers of the ribosome, an alteration in a 2'-O-methylation profile can affect ribosome assembly and function. One of the key approaches for localization of 2'-O-methylated nucleotides in long RNAs is a method based on the termination of reverse transcription. The current study presents an adaptation of this method for the use of fluorescently labeled primers and analysis of termination products by capillary gel electrophoresis on an automated genetic analyzer. The developed approach allowed us to analyze the influence of the synthetic analogues of box C/D RNAs on post-transcriptional modifications of human 28S rRNA in MCF-7 cells. It has been established that the transfection of MCF-7 cells with a box C/D RNA analogue leads to an enhanced modification level of certain native sites of 2'-O-methylation in the target rRNA. The observed effect of synthetic RNAs on the 2'-O-methylation of rRNA in human cells demonstrates a path towards targeted regulation of rRNA post-transcriptional maturation. The described approach can be applied in the development of novel diagnostic methods for detecting diseases in humans. PMID:26085946

  20. Quantification of landfill methane using modified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's waste model and error function analysis.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Siva Shangari; Agamuthu, P

    2014-10-01

    Waste management can be regarded as a cross-cutting environmental 'mega-issue'. Sound waste management practices support the provision of basic needs for general health, such as clean air, clean water and safe supply of food. In addition, climate change mitigation efforts can be achieved through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management operations, such as landfills. Landfills generate landfill gas, especially methane, as a result of anaerobic degradation of the degradable components of municipal solid waste. Evaluating the mode of generation and collection of landfill gas has posted a challenge over time. Scientifically, landfill gas generation rates are presently estimated using numerical models. In this study the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Waste Model is used to estimate the methane generated from a Malaysian sanitary landfill. Key parameters of the model, which are the decay rate and degradable organic carbon, are analysed in two different approaches; the bulk waste approach and waste composition approach. The model is later validated using error function analysis and optimum decay rate, and degradable organic carbon for both approaches were also obtained. The best fitting values for the bulk waste approach are a decay rate of 0.08 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.12; and for the waste composition approach the decay rate was found to be 0.09 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.08. From this validation exercise, the estimated error was reduced by 81% and 69% for the bulk waste and waste composition approach, respectively. In conclusion, this type of modelling could constitute a sensible starting point for landfills to introduce careful planning for efficient gas recovery in individual landfills.

  1. Fault diagnosis of nonlinear and large-scale processes using novel modified kernel Fisher discriminant analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huaitao; Liu, Jianchang; Wu, Yuhou; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Lixiu; Xue, Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is pretty significant for fault diagnosis timely and accurately to improve the dependability of industrial processes. In this study, fault diagnosis of nonlinear and large-scale processes by variable-weighted kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA) based on improved biogeography-based optimisation (IBBO) is proposed, referred to as IBBO-KFDA, where IBBO is used to determine the parameters of variable-weighted KFDA, and variable-weighted KFDA is used to solve the multi-classification overlapping problem. The main contributions of this work are four-fold to further improve the performance of KFDA for fault diagnosis. First, a nonlinear fault diagnosis approach with variable-weighted KFDA is developed for maximising separation between the overlapping fault samples. Second, kernel parameters and features selection of variable-weighted KFDA are simultaneously optimised using IBBO. Finally, a single fitness function that combines erroneous diagnosis rate with feature cost is created, a novel mixed kernel function is introduced to improve the classification capability in the feature space and diagnosis accuracy of the IBBO-KFDA, and serves as the target function in the optimisation problem. Moreover, an IBBO approach is developed to obtain the better quality of solution and faster convergence speed. On the one hand, the proposed IBBO-KFDA method is first used on Tennessee Eastman process benchmark data sets to validate the feasibility and efficiency. On the other hand, IBBO-KFDA is applied to diagnose faults of automation gauge control system. Simulation results demonstrate that IBBO-KFDA can obtain better kernel parameters and feature vectors with a lower computing cost, higher diagnosis accuracy and a better real-time capacity.

  2. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2) Techno-economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP) of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and calculated MESP for cellulosic

  3. The effect of disease-modifying therapies on brain atrophy in patients with clinically isolated syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Kilidireas, Constantinos; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Brain atrophy is associated with cognitive deficits in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and can predict conversion to clinical definite multiple sclerosis. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) on brain atrophy in patients with CIS. Methods: Eligible placebo-control randomized clinical trials of patients with CIS that had reported changes in brain volume during the study period were identified by searching the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases. This meta-analysis adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Results: Three eligible studies were identified, comprising 1362 patients. The mean percentage change in brain volume was found to be significantly lower in DMD-treated patients versus placebo-treated subgroups (standardized mean difference [SMD]: = −0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.25, 0.01; p = 0.04). In the subgroup analysis of the two studies that provided data on brain-volume changes for the first (0–12 months) and second (13–24 months) year of treatment, DMD attenuated brain-volume loss in comparison with placebo during the second year (SMD = −0.25; 95% CI: −0.43, −0.07; p < 0.001), but not during the first year of treatment (SMD = −0.01; 95% CI: −0.27, 0.24; p = 0.93). No evidence of heterogeneity was found between estimates, while funnel-plot inspection revealed no evidence of publication bias. Conclusions: DMDs appear to attenuate brain atrophy over time in patients with CIS. The effect of DMDs on brain-volume loss is evident after the first year of treatment. PMID:26557896

  4. Trait Specific Expression Profiling of Salt Stress Responsive Genes in Diverse Rice Genotypes as Determined by Modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad R.; Bassel, George W.; Pritchard, Jeremy; Sharma, Garima P.; Ford-Lloyd, Brian V.

    2016-01-01

    Stress responsive gene expression is commonly profiled in a comparative manner involving different stress conditions or genotypes with contrasting reputation of tolerance/resistance. In contrast, this research exploited a wide natural variation in terms of taxonomy, origin and salt sensitivity in eight genotypes of rice to identify the trait specific patterns of gene expression under salt stress. Genome wide transcptomic responses were interrogated by the weighted continuous morpho-physiological trait responses using modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays. More number of genes was found to be differentially expressed under salt stressed compared to that of under unstressed conditions. Higher numbers of genes were observed to be differentially expressed for the traits shoot Na+/K+, shoot Na+, root K+, biomass and shoot Cl−, respectively. The results identified around 60 genes to be involved in Na+, K+, and anion homeostasis, transport, and transmembrane activity under stressed conditions. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified 1.36% (578 genes) of the entire transcriptome to be involved in the major molecular functions such as signal transduction (>150 genes), transcription factor (81 genes), and translation factor activity (62 genes) etc., under salt stress. Chromosomal mapping of the genes suggests that majority of the genes are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. The gene network analysis showed that the transcription factors and translation initiation factors formed the major gene networks and are mostly active in nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria whereas the membrane and vesicle bound proteins formed a secondary network active in plasma membrane and vacuoles. The novel genes and the genes with unknown functions thus identified provide picture of a synergistic salinity response representing the potentially fundamental mechanisms that are active in the wide natural genetic background of rice and will be of greater use once their roles

  5. Contact Stress of Modified Curvilinear Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Gu, Ming-Lune

    2010-10-01

    The contact characteristics of a modified curvilinear gear set were investigated based on finite element analysis in this study. Firstly, the mathematical model of the modified curvilinear gears was developed based on the theory of gearing. Then a solid model of a modified curvilinear gear set was built by utilizing computer-aided design software. Finite element analysis enabled us to investigate the contact stress of a contact teeth pair. The variation and distribution of the contact stresses and bending stresses are also studied under different gear design parameters. Finally, illustrative examples were presented to demonstrate the contact characteristics of the modified curvilinear gears.

  6. The Changing Landscape of Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards: An Analysis of Early Adopters of AA-MASs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2009-01-01

    Several states had an assessment that they considered to be an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS) in place, or in development, when the April 2007 federal regulations on modified achievement standards were finalized. This article uses publicly available information collected by the National Center on…

  7. Mutation Scanning in a Single and a Stacked Genetically Modified (GM) Event by Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ali, Sina-Elisabeth; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G.; Brandes, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017 × MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found. PMID:25365178

  8. Mutation scanning in a single and a stacked genetically modified (GM) event by real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Ben Ali, Sina-Elisabeth; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G; Brandes, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017×MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found. PMID:25365178

  9. EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED RELIEF VALVE MAINTENANCE INTERVALS AND EXTENSION OF MAINTENANCE TIMES USING A WEIBULL ANALYSIS WITH MODIFIED BAYESIAN UPDATING

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Gross, R.; Mitchell, E.

    2011-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) spring operated pressure relief valve (SORV) maintenance intervals were evaluated using an approach provided by the American Petroleum Institute (API RP 581) for risk-based inspection technology (RBI). In addition, the impact of extending the inspection schedule was evaluated using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The API RP 581 approach is characterized as a Weibull analysis with modified Bayesian updating provided by SRS SORV proof testing experience. Initial Weibull parameter estimates were updated as per SRS's historical proof test records contained in the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) Process Equipment Reliability Database (PERD). The API RP 581 methodology was used to estimate the SORV's probability of failing on demand (PFD), and the annual expected risk. The API RP 581 methodology indicates that the current SRS maintenance plan is conservative. Cost savings may be attained in certain mild service applications that present low PFD and overall risk. Current practices are reviewed and recommendations are made for extending inspection intervals. The paper gives an illustration of the inspection costs versus the associated risks by using API RP 581 Risk Based Inspection (RBI) Technology. A cost effective maintenance frequency balancing both financial risk and inspection cost is demonstrated.

  10. Mutation scanning in a single and a stacked genetically modified (GM) event by real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Ben Ali, Sina-Elisabeth; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G; Brandes, Christian

    2014-10-31

    Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017×MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found.

  11. Multiresidue pesticides analysis in soils using modified QuEChERS with disposable pipette extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    QuEChERS original method was modified into a new version for pesticides determination in soils. The QuEChERS method is based on liquid-liquid portioning with ACN and was followed by cleanup step using dispersive SPE and disposable pipette tips. Gas chromatographic separation with MS detection was carried out for pesticides quantification. The method was validated using recovery experiments for 36 multiclass pesticides. Mean reco-veries of pesticides at each of the four spiking levels between 10-300 μg/kg of soil ranged from 70-120% for 26 pesticides with RSD values less than 15%. The method achieved low limit of detection less than 7.6 μg/kg. Matrix effects were observed for 13 pesticides. Matrix effects were compensated by using matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied successfully using d-SPE or DPX in the analysis of the pesticides in soils from organic farming and integrated pest management. PMID:23255298

  12. Modified Grey Model and its application to groundwater flow analysis with limited hydrogeological data: a case study of the Nubian Sandstone, Kharga Oasis, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mahmod, Wael Elham; Watanabe, Kunio

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater flow at Kharga Oasis, located in the western desert of Egypt, was previously analyzed using numerical models; however, the lack of basic data often limits the implementation of these models, as well as introducing a problem for model calibration and validation. The Grey Model (GM) was used to overcome these difficulties of data limitation and uncertainty of hydrogeological conditions. However, no clear theories exist for selecting the number of input model trends and the most suitable values of input parameters. Therefore, in the current study, a modification of the GM is newly proposed and called the Modified Grey Model (MGM) in an attempt to determine a process for selecting the best input models' trends with the appropriate values of input parameters to achieve acceptable fitting to observations. The sensitivity analysis results showed that the MGM produced more stable results than the GM using a wide range of values for input parameters. Moreover, the MGM reduced the calculation time required for fitting the measured piezometric level trends by 99.8%. Three development scenarios of groundwater withdrawal were proposed that involved either expanding the present extraction rate or redistributing the groundwater withdrawal over the recent working production wells (RWPWs). The results concluded that the groundwater table in the northern part of the oasis could be temporally recovered to an economical piezometric level; however, the table in the southern part is severely decreased. Therefore, new production wells are recommended to be constructed in the southern part far enough from the RWPWs.

  13. ANALYSIS OF DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH MODIFIED PROTEINS BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY: BINDING OF GLIBENCLAMIDE TO NORMAL AND GLYCATED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ryan; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Joseph, K.S.; Hage, David S.

    2012-01-01

    High-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was used to examine the changes in binding that occur for the sulfonylurea drug glibenclamide with human serum albumin (HSA) at various stages of glycation for HSA. Frontal analysis on columns containing normal HSA or glycated HSA indicated glibenclamide was interacting through both high affinity sites (association equilibrium constant, Ka, 1.4–1.9 × 106 M−1 at pH 7.4 and 37°C) and lower affinity sites (Ka, 4.4–7.2 × 104 M−1). Competition studies were used to examine the effect of glycation at specific binding sites of HSA. An increase in affinity of 1.7- to 1.9-fold was seen at Sudlow site I with moderate to high levels of glycation. An even larger increase of 4.3- to 6.0-fold in affinity was noted at Sudlow site II for all of the tested samples of glycated HSA. A slight decrease in affinity may have occurred at the digitoxin site, but this change was not significant for any individual glycated HSA sample. These results illustrate how HPAC can be used as tool for examining the interactions of relatively non-polar drugs like glibenclamide with modified proteins and should lead to a more complete understanding of how glycation can alter the binding of drugs in blood. PMID:23092871

  14. [Modified lateral condensation (microbiological analysis)].

    PubMed

    Jácome Musule, J L; Vázquez del Mercado, M A; Hernández, J L; Granillo, N E

    1989-05-01

    In order to ascertain the presence of endodontobacterial flora, an in vivo microbiological study on fifty human teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical bone destruction, is submitted. The study verifies elimination of bacteria through a technique for the preparation of root canals. Results of this research ratify the presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, as well as the means to inhibit them. That will allow performing obturation under optimal conditions, thus increasing assurance of success in the endodontic therapy.

  15. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO2@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO43- in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO43- and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO2@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L-1 to 2.30 μmol P L-1. This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated

  16. Symptom-Modifying Effect of Chondroitin Sulfate in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials Performed with Structum®

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heinz; Maheu, Emmanuel; Cucherat, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials to assess the efficacy of a specific chondroitin sulfate preparation (Structum®, Laboratoires Pierre Fabre, Castres; France) as a symptom-modifying drug in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods: A Medline search was conducted up to October 2010 and two articles reporting two trials were identified; one additional trial was identified through contacting the producer of Structum®. There was no evidence of heterogeneity across the trials and results were pooled using a fixed effects model. Results: Pooled results demonstrated a modest, but significant effect of Structum® (1 g daily) over placebo on the reduction of pain during activity following a treatment period of 3-6 months of 6 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) -9.50, -1.72, p=0.005) on the visual analog scale (VAS) and a reduction in the algo-functional Index (AFI) by a weighted mean difference of -0.73 (95% CI -1.28 to -0.18, p=0.01). In addition, the pooled analysis demonstrated a statistically significant increase in OMERACT-OARSI responders in the Structum®-treated patients by 20% (RR of 1.20 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.36, p=0.003)), compared to placebo. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that this chondroitin sulfate preparation (Structum®) is effective on symptoms in patients with OA of the knee compared to placebo, and may therefore have a role in the management of patients with knee osteoarthritis of Kellgren-Lawrence grades II and III. PMID:22870166

  17. Trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods with a modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhaobin; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-02-01

    A multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed and validated for the determination of three selected fungicides (propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, and isopyrazam) in seven animal origin foods. The overall recoveries at the three spiking levels of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) spanned between 72.3 and 101.4% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 0.7 and 14.9%. The method shows good linearity in the concentrations between 0.001 and 1 mg L(-1) with the coefficient of determination (R (2)) value >0.99 for each target analyte. The limit of detections (LODs) for target analytes were between 0.04 and 1.26 μg kg(-1), and the limit of quantifications (LOQs) were between 0.13 and 4.20 μg kg(-1). The matrix effect for each individual compound was evaluated through the study of ratios of the areas obtained in solvent and matrix standards. The optimized method provided a negligible matrix effect for propiconazole within 20%, whereas for pyraclostrobin and isopyrazam, the matrix effect was relatively significant with a maximum value of 49.8%. The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 210 animal origin samples obtained from 16 provinces of China. The results suggested that the developed method was satisfactory for trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods.

  18. Robust analysis of the hydrophobic basic analytes loratadine and desloratadine in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids by sweeping-cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    El-Awady, Mohamed; Belal, Fathalla; Pyell, Ute

    2013-09-27

    The analysis of hydrophobic basic analytes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) is usually challenging because of the tendency of these analytes to be adsorbed onto the inner capillary wall in addition to the difficulty to separate these compounds as they exhibit extremely high retention factors. A robust and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of loratadine (LOR) and its major metabolite desloratadine (DSL) is developed based on cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) with acidic sample matrix and basic background electrolyte (BGE). The influence of the sample matrix on the reachable focusing efficiency is studied. It is shown that the application of a low pH sample solution mitigates problems associated with the low solubility of the hydrophobic basic analytes in aqueous solution while having advantages with regard to on-line focusing. Moreover, the use of a basic BGE reduces the adsorption of these analytes in the separation compartment. The separation of the studied analytes is achieved in less than 7min using a BGE consisting of 10mmolL(-1) disodium tetraborate buffer, pH 9.30 containing 40mmolL(-1) SDS and 20mmolL(-1) hydroxypropyl-β-CD while the sample solution is composed of 10mmolL(-1) phosphoric acid, pH 2.15. A full validation study of the developed method based on the pharmacopeial guidelines is performed. The method is successfully applied to the analysis of the studied drugs in tablets without interference of tablet additives as well as the analysis of spiked human urine without any sample pretreatment. Furthermore, DSL can be detected as an impurity in LOR bulk powder at the stated pharmacopeial limit (0.1%, w/w). The selectivity of the developed method allows the analysis of LOR and DSL in combination with the co-formulated drug pseudoephedrine. It is shown that in CD-MEKC with basic BGE, solute-wall interactions are effectively suppressed allowing the development of efficient and precise

  19. Second malignancies after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation following modified BEAM conditioning regimen in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma – characteristics and risk factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Łojko-Dankowska, Anna; Matuszak, Magdalena; Dytfeld, Dominik; Kaźmierczak, Maciej; Komarnicki, Mieczysław

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of second malignancies among patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) following a modified BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan, dexamethasone) regimen between 1992 and 2012 at our department. We also intended to define the risk factors for the occurrence of second neoplasm after ASCT. Material and methods The long-term outcomes after transplant were evaluated in 170 patients, median age 31 years (range 17–61), who received a median of two pre-transplant chemotherapy lines (range 1–5). Results MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) or MOPP-type regimens were given to 12% of patients prior to ASCT. The median follow-up of the survivors was 73 (12–242) months. The 7-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 75% and 64%, respectively. Second malignancies occurred in 7 of the 170 patients, including 5 haematological malignancies, and 2 solid tumors. They developed at a median of 8 years (range 0.4–13.5) from ASCT. The 10-year and 15-year cumulative incidence of developing a second malignancy were 7% and 13%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age ≥ 40 years at transplant (HR = 8.8; p = 0.008) and pre-transplant MOPP-type chemotherapy (HR = 5.6; p = 0.030) were the only factors significant for developing a second malignancy. Conclusions Our results indicate that age of patient and the type of pre-transplant chemotherapy contribute to the risk of the development of a second neoplasm after ASCT in patients with HL. We believe that better characterization of second malignancies and associated risk factors may be useful for clinicians who care for these patients. PMID:23788991

  20. System-wide Analysis of SUMOylation Dynamics in Response to Replication Stress Reveals Novel Small Ubiquitin-like Modified Target Proteins and Acceptor Lysines Relevant for Genome Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhenyu; Chang, Jer-Gung; Hendriks, Ivo A.; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Olsen, Jesper V.; Vertegaal, Alfred C.O.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic agents can cause replication fork stalling in dividing cells because of DNA lesions, eventually leading to replication fork collapse when the damage is not repaired. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMOs) are known to counteract replication stress, nevertheless, only a small number of relevant SUMO target proteins are known. To address this, we have purified and identified SUMO-2 target proteins regulated by replication stress in human cells. The developed methodology enabled single step purification of His10-SUMO-2 conjugates under denaturing conditions with high yield and high purity. Following statistical analysis on five biological replicates, a total of 566 SUMO-2 targets were identified. After 2 h of hydroxyurea treatment, 10 proteins were up-regulated for SUMOylation and two proteins were down-regulated for SUMOylation, whereas after 24 h, 35 proteins were up-regulated for SUMOylation, and 13 proteins were down-regulated for SUMOylation. A site-specific approach was used to map over 1000 SUMO-2 acceptor lysines in target proteins. The methodology is generic and is widely applicable in the ubiquitin field. A large subset of these identified proteins function in one network that consists of interacting replication factors, transcriptional regulators, DNA damage response factors including MDC1, ATR-interacting protein ATRIP, the Bloom syndrome protein and the BLM-binding partner RMI1, the crossover junction endonuclease EME1, BRCA1, and CHAF1A. Furthermore, centromeric proteins and signal transducers were dynamically regulated by SUMOylation upon replication stress. Our results uncover a comprehensive network of SUMO target proteins dealing with replication damage and provide a framework for detailed understanding of the role of SUMOylation to counteract replication stress. Ultimately, our study reveals how a post-translational modification is able to orchestrate a large variety of different proteins to integrate different nuclear processes with the

  1. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticide residues in lotus seeds by a modified QuEChERS-based extraction and GC-ECD.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2013-05-01

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for rapid extraction and simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides in lotus seeds. The extraction solvent (acetone, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, n-hexane and n-hexane in combination with ethyl acetate) and purifying agent (neutral alumina, primary secondary amine, graphite carbon block and florisil) for QuEChERS extraction were optimized. The GC-ECD method was in-house validated in terms of linearity, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and recovery. The limits of detection (LODs) of the developed GC-ECD method for all investigated pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 3.0μgL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.05 to 10.0μgL(-1). The satisfactory data demonstrated the good reproducibility and stability of the method with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 15%. Recoveries for spiked lotus seed samples were from 60.84% to 119.91% with RSDs lower than 13.06%. Two out of 24 batches of lotus seeds collected in China were found to be contaminated with trans-chlordane, which were below LOQ. This is the first attempt in China using QuEChERS to GC-ECD to determine 36 major pesticides with differences in physio-chemical properties in lotus seeds. The method described here was found to be practicable in the routine residue analysis of pesticides in lotus seeds.

  2. HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY AND THE ANALYSIS OF DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH MODIFIED PROTEINS: BINDING OF GLICLAZIDE WITH GLYCATED HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ryan; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Joseph, K.S.; Hage, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study used high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) to examine the binding of gliclazide (i.e., a sulfonylurea drug used to treat diabetes) with the protein human serum albumin (HSA) at various stages of modification due to glycation. Frontal analysis conducted with small HPAC columns was first used to estimate the number of binding sites and association equilibrium constants (Ka) for gliclazide with normal HSA and glycated HSA. Both normal and glycated HSA interacted with gliclazide according to a two-site model, with a class of high affinity sites (average Ka, 7.1-10 × 104 M−1) and a group of lower affinity sites (average Ka, 5.7-8.9 × 103 M−1) at pH 7.4 and 37°C. Competition experiments indicated that Sudlow sites I and II of HSA were both involved in these interactions, with the Ka values for gliclazide at these sites being 1.9 × 104 M−1 and 6.0 × 104 M−1, respectively, for normal HSA. Two samples of glycated HSA had similar affinities to normal HSA for gliclazide at Sudlow site I, but one sample had a 1.9-fold increase in affinity at this site. All three glycated HSA samples differed from normal HSA in their affinity for gliclazide at Sudlow site II. This work illustrated how HPAC can be used to examine both the overall binding of a drug with normal or modified proteins and the site-specific changes that can occur in these interactions as a result of protein modification. PMID:21922305

  3. Preparation of sandwich-structured graphene/mesoporous silica composites with C8-modified pore wall for highly efficient selective enrichment of endogenous peptides for mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peng; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Yan; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yang, Pengyuan

    2012-09-01

    In this study, sandwich-structured graphene/mesoporous silica composites (C8-modified graphene@mSiO(2)) were synthesized by coating mesoporous silica onto hydrophilic graphene nanosheets through a surfactant-mediated cocondensation sol-gel process. The newly prepared C8-modified graphene@mSiO(2) nanocomposites possess unique properties of extended plate-like morphology, good water dispersibility, highly open pore structure, uniform pore size (2.8 nm), high surface area (632 m(2)/g), and C8-modified-interior pore walls. The unique structure of the C8-modified graphene@mSiO(2) composite nanosheets not only provide extended planes with hydrophilic surface that prevents aggregation in solution, but also offer a huge number of C8-modified mesopores with high surface area that can ensure an efficient adsorption of peptides through hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction between C8-moified pore walls and target molecules. The obtained C8-modified graphene@mSiO(2) materials were utilized for size selectively and specifically enriching peptides in standard peptide mixtures and endogenous peptides in real biological samples (mouse brain tissue). PMID:22837154

  4. Multivariable fractional polynomial interaction to investigate continuous effect modifiers in a meta-analysis on higher versus lower PEEP for patients with ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Kasenda, Benjamin; Sauerbrei, Willi; Royston, Patrick; Mercat, Alain; Slutsky, Arthur S; Cook, Deborah; Guyatt, Gordon H; Brochard, Laurent; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Stewart, Thomas E; Meade, Maureen; Briel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A recent individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis suggested that patients with moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) benefit from higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation strategies. However, thresholds for continuous variables (eg, hypoxaemia) are often arbitrary and linearity assumptions in regression approaches may not hold; the multivariable fractional polynomial interaction (MFPI) approach can address both problems. The objective of this study was to apply the MFPI approach to investigate interactions between four continuous patient baseline variables and higher versus lower PEEP on clinical outcomes. Setting Pooled data from three randomised trials in intensive care identified by a systematic review. Participants 2299 patients with acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation. Interventions Higher (N=1136) versus lower PEEP (N=1163) ventilation strategy. Outcome measures Prespecified outcomes included mortality, time to death and time-to-unassisted breathing. We examined the following continuous baseline characteristics as potential effect modifiers using MFPI: PaO2/FiO2 (arterial partial oxygen pressure/ fraction of inspired oxygen), oxygenation index, respiratory system compliance (tidal volume/(inspiratory plateau pressure−PEEP)) and body mass index (BMI). Results We found that for patients with PaO2/FiO2 below 150 mm Hg, but above 100 mm Hg or an oxygenation index above 12 (moderate ARDS), higher PEEP reduces hospital mortality, but the beneficial effect appears to level off for patients with very severe ARDS. Patients with mild ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 above 200 mm Hg or an oxygenation index below 10) do not seem to benefit from higher PEEP and might even be harmed. For patients with a respiratory system compliance above 40 mL/cm H2O or patients with a BMI above 35 kg/m2, we found a trend towards reduced mortality with higher PEEP, but there is very weak statistical confidence in

  5. Positive Mode LC-MS/MS Analysis of Chondroitin Sulfate Modified Glycopeptides Derived from Light and Heavy Chains of The Human Inter-α-Trypsin Inhibitor Complex.

    PubMed

    Gomez Toledo, Alejandro; Nilsson, Jonas; Noborn, Fredrik; Sihlbom, Carina; Larson, Göran

    2015-12-01

    The inter-α-trypsin inhibitor complex is a macromolecular arrangement of structurally related heavy chain proteins covalently cross-linked to the chondroitin sulfate (CS) chain of the proteoglycan bikunin. The inter-α-trypsin inhibitor complex is abundant in plasma and associated with inflammation, kidney diseases, cancer and diabetes. Bikunin is modified at Ser-10 by a single low-sulfated CS chain of 23-55 monosaccharides with 4-9 sulfate groups. The innermost four monosaccharides (GlcAβ3Galβ3Galβ4Xylβ-O-) compose the linkage region, believed to be uniform with a 4-O-sulfation to the outer Gal. The cross-linkage region of the bikunin CS chain is located in the nonsulfated nonreducing end, (GalNAcβ4GlcAβ3)(n), to which heavy chains (H1-H3) may be bound in GalNAc to Asp ester linkages. In this study we employed a glycoproteomics protocol to enrich and analyze light and heavy chain linkage and cross-linkage region CS glycopeptides derived from the IαI complex of human plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples. The samples were trypsinized, enriched by strong anion exchange chromatography, partially depolymerized with chondroitinase ABC and analyzed by LC-MS/MS using higher-energy collisional dissociation. The analyses demonstrated that the CS linkage region of bikunin is highly heterogeneous. In addition to sulfation of the Gal residue, Xyl phosphorylation was observed although exclusively in urinary samples. We also identified novel Neu5Ac and Fuc modifications of the linkage region as well as the presence of mono- and disialylated core 1 O-linked glycans on Thr-17. Heavy chains H1 and H2 were identified cross-linked to GalNAc residues one or two GlcA residues apart and H1 was found linked to either the terminal or subterminal GalNAc residues. The fragmentation behavior of CS glycopeptides under variable higher-energy collisional dissociation conditions displays an energy dependence that may be used to obtain complementary structural details. Finally

  6. Comparison of transport pathways and potential sources of PM10 in two cities around a large Chinese lake using the modified trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; He, Qishuang; Yang, Bin; Ouyang, Huiling; Wang, Qingmei; Xu, Fuliu

    2013-03-01

    Trajectory cluster analysis, including the two-stage cluster method based on Euclidean metrics and the one-stage clustering method based on Mahalanobis metrics and self-organizing maps (SOM), was applied and compared to identify the transport pathways of PM10 for the cities of Chaohu and Hefei, both located near Lake Chaohu in China. The two-stage cluster method was modified to further investigate the long trajectories in the second stage in order to eliminate the observed disaggregation among them. Twelve trajectory clusters were identified for both cities. The one-stage clustering method based on Mahalanobis metrics gives the best performance regarding the variances within clusters. The results showed that local PM10 emission was one of the most important sources in both cities and that the local emission in Hefei was higher than in Chaohu. In addition, Chaohu suffered greater effects from the eastern region (Yangtze River Delta, YRD) than Hefei. On the other hand, the long-range transportation from the northwestern pathway had a higher influence on the PM10 level in Hefei. Receptor models, including potential source contribution function (PSCF) and residence time weighted concentrations (RTWC), were utilized to identify the potential source locations of PM10 for both cities. However, the combined PSCF and RTWC results for the two cities provided PM10 source locations that were more consistent with the results of transport pathways and the total anthropogenic PM10 emission inventory. This indicates that the combined method's ability to identify the source regions is superior to that of the individual PSCF or RTWC methods. Henan and Shanxi Provinces and the YRD were important PM10 source regions for the two cities, but the Henan and Shanxi area was more important for Hefei than for Chaohu, while the YRD region was less important. In addition, the PSCF, RTWC and the combined results all had higher correlation coefficients with PM10 emission from traffic than from

  7. Methotrexate monotherapy and methotrexate combination therapy with traditional and biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis: abridged Cochrane systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barnabe, Cheryl; Tomlinson, George; Marshall, Deborah; Devoe, Dan; Bombardier, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare methotrexate based disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) treatments for rheumatoid arthritis in patients naive to or with an inadequate response to methotrexate. Design Systematic review and Bayesian random effects network meta-analysis of trials assessing methotrexate used alone or in combination with other conventional synthetic DMARDs, biologic drugs, or tofacitinib in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Data sources Trials were identified from Medline, Embase, and Central databases from inception to 19 January 2016; abstracts from two major rheumatology meetings from 2009 to 2015; two trial registers; and hand searches of Cochrane reviews. Study selection criteria Randomized or quasi-randomized trials that compared methotrexate with any other DMARD or combination of DMARDs and contributed to the network of evidence between the treatments of interest. Main outcomes American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 50 response (major clinical improvement), radiographic progression, and withdrawals due to adverse events. A comparison between two treatments was considered statistically significant if its credible interval excluded the null effect, indicating >97.5% probability that one treatment was superior. Results 158 trials were included, with between 10 and 53 trials available for each outcome. In methotrexate naive patients, several treatments were statistically superior to oral methotrexate for ACR50 response: sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine (“triple therapy”), several biologics (abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, rituximab, tocilizumab), and tofacitinib. The estimated probability of ACR50 response was similar between these treatments (range 56-67%), compared with 41% with methotrexate. Methotrexate combined with adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab, or infliximab was statistically superior to oral methotrexate for inhibiting radiographic progression, but the estimated mean change over one year with all

  8. Comparative analysis of the efficacy and safety of modified FOLFOX-6 and DCF regimens as first-line treatment in advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    HACIBEKIROGLU, ILHAN; KODAZ, HILMI; ERDOGAN, BULENT; TURKMEN, ESMA; ESENKAYA, ASIM; ONAL, YILMAZ; UZUNOGLU, SERNAZ; CICIN, IRFAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare the efficacy and toxicity of the oxaliplatin + 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) + leucovorin (LV) regimen [modified (m)FOLFOX-6] with that of the docetaxel + cisplatin + 5-FU regimen (DCF) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). A total of 72 patients received DCF (75 mg/m2 docetaxel and 75 mg/m2 cisplatin on day 1 and 750 mg/m2 5-FU on days 1–5) every 21 days, whereas 54 patients received mFOLFOX-6 (85 mg/m2 oxaliplatin and 400 mg/m2 LV as a 2-h infusion, followed by a 5-FU bolus of 400 mg/m2 and 2,400 mg/m2 5-FU as a 46-h continuous infusion) every 14 days. In the DCF arm, 55 (76.4%) of the patients received prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), 48–72 h following completion of chemotherapy. The median follow-up of the study was 12.1 months. The overall response rate (ORR) was 37.0% for mFOLFOX-6 and 40.3% for DCF (P=0.72). The median time to progression was 6.5 and 6.2 months in the mFOLFOX-6 and DCF arms, respectively (P=0.70). The median overall survival was 11.4 and 13.5 months in the mFOLFOX-6 and DCF arms, respectively (P=0.72). The rates of hematological toxicity did not differ between the two arms. However, in the subgroup analysis, grade 3–4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were significantly more common among patients who had not received G-CSF prophylaxis in the DCF arm. The incidence of grade 3–4 nausea/vomiting and diarrhea were significantly higher in the DCF arm. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the efficacy of the mFOLFOX-6 regimen was comparable to that of the DCF regimen in AGC patients. In addition, the benefit of G-CSF prophylaxis in conjunction with the DCF regimen was demonstrated. PMID:26623070

  9. Pesticide Multiresidue Analysis in Cereal Grains Using Modified QuEChERS Method Combined with Automated Direct Sample Introduction GC-TOFMS and UPLC-MS/MS Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation method was modified to accommodate various cereal grain matrices (corn, oat, rice and wheat) and provide good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSDs <20%) for the majority of the target pestici...

  10. Segregation between Schools and Levels of Analysis: The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. Measuring Markets: The Case of the ERA 1988. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Chris; Gorard, Stephen; Fitz, John

    This paper reviews the use of a segregation ratio in analyzing changes in the pattern of socioeconomic segregation between schools in England and Wales, addressing how the modifiable areal unit problem affects results. Researchers are developing methods for assessing socioeconomic stratification among school admissions and for comparing those…

  11. Analysis and evalaution in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project. [including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The manufacturing methods for photovoltaic solar energy utilization are assessed. Economic and technical data on the current front junction formation processes of gaseous diffusion and ion implantation are presented. Future proposals, including modifying gaseous diffusion and using ion implantation, to decrease the cost of junction formation are studied. Technology developments in current processes and an economic evaluation of the processes are included.

  12. Analysis of a Modified Version of the Work Values Inventory for Grades 3 and 5 Compared to Grades 8 and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowsesian, Richard; Liberty, Paul G., Jr.

    A modified version of Super's Work Values Inventory (WVI) was administered to third and fifth grade students in a medium-size industrial community. The original WVI was administered to 9th and 11th grade students in the same community. Internal consistency coefficients, construct validity and ordering of work values are reported by grade and sex.…

  13. A Modified Delphi Study to Identify the Significant Works Pertaining to the Understanding of Reading Comprehension and Content Analysis of the Identified Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Norma D.

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this study explored the significant works pertaining to the understanding of reading comprehension using a Modified Delphi Method. A panel of reading comprehension experts in the field of reading identified 20 works they considered to be significant to the understanding of reading comprehension. The panel of experts additionally…

  14. A Modified Delphi to Identify the Significant Works Pertaining to the Understanding of Reading Comprehension and Content Analysis of the Identified Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Norma D.; Pearce, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this study explored the significant works pertaining to the understanding of reading comprehension using a Modified Delphi Method. A panel of reading comprehension experts identified 19 works they considered to be significant to the understanding of reading comprehension. The panel of experts identified the reasons they…

  15. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  16. Analysis of low efficiency droop of semipolar InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes by modified rate equation with weak phase-space filling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Houqiang; Lu, Zhijian; Zhao, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    We study the low efficiency droop characteristics of semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using modified rate equation incoporating the phase-space filling (PSF) effect where the results on c-plane LEDs are also obtained and compared. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of LEDs was simulated using a modified ABC model with different PSF filling (n0), Shockley-Read-Hall (A), radiative (B), Auger (C) coefficients and different active layer thickness (d), where the PSF effect showed a strong impact on the simulated LED efficiency results. A weaker PSF effect was found for low-droop semipolar LEDs possibly due to small quantum confined Stark effect, short carrier lifetime, and small average carrier density. A very good agreement between experimental data and the theoretical modeling was obtained for low-droop semipolar LEDs with weak PSF effect. These results suggest the low droop performance may be explained by different mechanisms for semipolar LEDs.

  17. Cardiorespiratory treatments as modifiers of the relationship between particulate matter and health: a case-only analysis on hospitalized patients in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Sara; Lafranconi, Alessandra; Zanobetti, Antonella; Fornari, Carla; Madotto, Fabiana; Schwartz, Joel; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Background A few panel and toxicological studies suggest that health effects of particulate matter (PM) might be modified by medication intake, but whether this modification is confirmed in the general population or for more serious outcomes is still unknown. Objectives We carried out a population-based pilot study in order to assess how pre-hospitalization medical treatments modify the relationship between PM < 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and the risk of cardiorespiratory admission. Methods We gathered information on hospitalizations for cardiorespiratory causes, together with pre-admission pharmacological treatments, that occurred during 2005 in seven cities located in Lombardy (Northern Italy). City-specific PM10 concentrations were measured at fixed monitoring stations. Each treatment of interest was analyzed separately through a case-only approach, using generalized additive models accounting for sex, age, comorbidities, temperature and simultaneous intake of other drugs. Analyses were stratified by season and, if useful, by age and sex. Results Our results showed a higher effect size for PM10 on respiratory admissions in subjects treated with theophylline (Odds Ratio (OR) of treatment for an increment of 10 µg/m3 in PM10 concentration: 1.119; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.013 – 1.237), while for cardiovascular admissions treatment with cardiac therapy (OR: 0.967, 95% CI, 0.940 – 0.995) and lipid modifying agents (OR: 0.962, 95% CI, 0.931 – 0.995) emerged as a protective factor, especially during the warm season. Evidence of a protective effect against the pollutant was found for glucocorticoids and respiratory admissions. Conclusions Our study showed that the treatment with cardiac therapy and lipid modifying agents might mitigate the effect of PM10 on cardiovascular health, while the use of theophylline seems to enhance the effect of the pollutant, possibly due to confounding by indication. It is desirable to extend the analyses to a

  18. Phosphonium modified clay/polyimide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Hatice; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Vezir Kahraman, Memet

    2014-08-01

    In this study, octyltriphenylphosphonium bromide [OTPP-Br] was prepared from the reaction of triphenylphosphine and 1 -bromooctane. The modification of clay was done by ion exchange reaction using OTPP-Br in water medium. Poly(amic acid) was prepared from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-Oxydianiline (ODA). Polyimide(PI)/clay hybrids were prepared by blending of poly(amic acid) and organically modified clay as a type of layered clays. The morphology of the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structures of polyimide and Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the Polyimide/ phosphonium modified clay hybrids were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  19. Amine modified graphene as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction materials combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for pesticide multi-residue analysis in oil crops.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenbi; Li, Zhuonan; Zhang, Hongyan; Hong, Huijie; Rebeyev, Natalie; Ye, Yong; Ma, Yongqiang

    2013-04-19

    Amine modified graphene is successfully synthesized via a one-pot solvothermal reaction between graphene oxide and ammonia water, methylamine or n-butyl amine. The presence of amine groups in graphene is identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an X-ray diffractometer. The ability of amine modified graphene to cleanup fatty acids and other interfering substances from acetonitrile extracts of oil crops has been evaluated. It is found that the resulting CH3NH-G exhibits the best performance in interfering substances removal. Meanwhile, a multi-residue method is validated on 28 representative pesticide residues in four oil crops (rapeseed, peanut, sesame seeds and soybean). This method is based on modified QuEChERS sample preparation with CH3NH-G as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction material and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Use of matrix-matched standards provides acceptable results for most pesticides with overall average recoveries between 70.5 and 100% and consistent RSDs<13%, except for pymetrozine, thidiazuron and diuron. In any case, this method still meets the 0.1-8.3 μg/kg detection limit needs for most pesticides and may be used for qualitative screening applications, in which any identified pesticides can be quantified and confirmed by a more intensive method that achieves >70% recovery.

  20. X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) modified with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal

    SciTech Connect

    Hellberg, Kristina; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Banaszak, Leonard J.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Bernlohr, David A.

    2012-07-11

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) have been characterized as facilitating the intracellular solubilization and transport of long-chain fatty acyl carboxylates via noncovalent interactions. More recent work has shown that the adipocyte FABP is also covalently modified in vivo on Cys117 with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a bioactive aldehyde linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate 4-HNE binding and modification, the crystal structures of adipocyte FABP covalently and noncovalently bound to 4-HNE have been solved to 1.9 {angstrom} and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. While the 4-HNE in the noncovalently modified protein is coordinated similarly to a carboxylate of a fatty acid, the covalent form show a novel coordination through a water molecule at the polar end of the lipid. Other defining features between the two structures with 4-HNE and previously solved structures of the protein include a peptide flip between residues Ala36 and Lys37 and the rotation of the side chain of Phe57 into its closed conformation. Representing the first structure of an endogenous target protein covalently modified by 4-HNE, these results define a new class of in vivo ligands for FABPs and extend their physiological substrates to include bioactive aldehydes.

  1. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability ( R work = 16.2, R free = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  2. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A. Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability (R{sub work} = 16.2, R{sub free} = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  3. Investigation of chemical modifiers for sulfur determination in diesel fuel samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry using direct analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Charles S.; Vale, Maria Goreti R.; Welz, Bernhard; Andrade, Jailson B.; Dessuy, Morgana B.

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry has been applied for sulfur determination in diesel fuel. The sharp rotational lines of the carbon monosulfide molecule (formed during the vaporization step) were used to measure the absorbance. The analytical line at 258.056 nm was monitored using the sum of three pixels. Different chemical modifiers were investigated and the mixture of palladium and magnesium was used as chemical modifier in combination with iridium as permanent modifier. L-Cysteine was chosen as sulfur standard and the calibration was done against aqueous standard solutions. The proposed method was applied for the analyses of four diesel samples: two S10 samples and two S500 samples. The trueness of the method was checked with a certified reference material (CRM) of sulfur in diesel fuel (NIST 2724b). Accurate results, for samples and CRM, were achieved after a dilution with propan-1-ol. The following figures of merit were obtained: characteristic mass of 17 ± 3 ng, limit of detection and limit of quantification of 1.4 mg kg- 1 and 4.7 mg kg- 1, respectively.

  4. Technical Review Report for the Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessel (PCV)

    SciTech Connect

    West, M; Hafner, R

    2008-05-05

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessels (PCV). The waiver is to be used to support a limited number of shipments of fuel for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) Project in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Under the waiver, an inventory of existing national security PCVs will be converted to standard PCVs. Both types of PCVs are currently approved for use by the Office of Nuclear Energy. LLNL has previously reviewed the national security PCVs under Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Addendum No. 1, Revision c, dated June 2007 (Addendum 1). The safety analysis of the package is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Mound 1KW Package (i.e., the Mound 1KW SARP, or the SARP) where the standard PCVs have been reviewed by LLNL. The Mound 1KW Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) number USA/9516/B(U)F-85 for the transportation of Type B quantities of plutonium heat source material. The waiver requests an exemption, claiming safety equivalent to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.12, Specific Exemptions, and will lead to a letter amendment to the CoC. Under the waiver, the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems, NE-34, is seeking an exemption from 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1), Previously Approved Package,[5] which states: '(d) NRC will approve modifications to the design and authorized contents of a Type B package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided--(1) The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests specified in

  5. Systematic review and network meta-analysis of combination and monotherapy treatments in disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-experienced patients with rheumatoid arthritis: analysis of American College of Rheumatology criteria scores 20, 50, and 70

    PubMed Central

    Orme, Michelle E; MacGilchrist, Katherine S; Mitchell, Stephen; Spurden, Dean; Bird, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Background Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) extend the treatment choices for rheumatoid arthritis patients with suboptimal response or intolerance to conventional DMARDs. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the relative efficacy of EU-licensed bDMARD combination therapy or monotherapy for patients intolerant of or contraindicated to continued methotrexate. Methods Comprehensive, structured literature searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, as well as hand-searching of conference proceedings and reference lists. Phase II or III randomized controlled trials reporting American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria scores of 20, 50, and 70 between 12 and 30 weeks’ follow-up and enrolling adult patients meeting ACR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis previously treated with and with an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs were eligible. To estimate the relative efficacy of treatments whilst preserving the randomized comparisons within each trial, a Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted in WinBUGS using fixed and random-effects, logit-link models fitted to the binomial ACR 20/50/70 trial data. Results The systematic review identified 10,625 citations, and after a review of 2450 full-text papers, there were 29 and 14 eligible studies for the combination and monotherapy meta-analyses, respectively. In the combination analysis, all licensed bDMARD combinations had significantly higher odds of ACR 20/50/70 compared to DMARDs alone, except for the rituximab comparison, which did not reach significance for the ACR 70 outcome (based on the 95% credible interval). The etanercept combination was significantly better than the tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors adalimumab and infliximab in improving ACR 20/50/70 outcomes, with no significant differences between the etanercept combination and certolizumab pegol or tocilizumab. Licensed-dose etanercept, adalimumab

  6. Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

    2013-07-25

    Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. PMID:23768590

  7. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  8. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  9. RAD51 135G→C Modifies Breast Cancer Risk among BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from a Combined Analysis of 19 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Antonis C. ; Sinilnikova, Olga M. ; Simard, Jacques ; Léoné, Mélanie ; Dumont, Martine ; Neuhausen, Susan L. ; Struewing, Jeffery P. ; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique ; Barjhoux, Laure ; Hughes, David J. ; Coupier, Isabelle ; Belotti, Muriel ; Lasset, Christine ; Bonadona, Valérie ; Bignon, Yves-Jean ; Rebbeck, Timothy R. ; Wagner, Theresa ; Lynch, Henry T. ; Domchek, Susan M. ; Nathanson, Katherine L. ; Garber, Judy E. ; Weitzel, Jeffrey ; Narod, Steven A. ; Tomlinson, Gail ; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I. ; Godwin, Andrew ; Isaacs, Claudine ; Jakubowska, Anna ; Lubinski, Jan ; Gronwald, Jacek ; Górski, Bohdan ; Byrski, Tomasz ; Huzarski, Tomasz ; Peock, Susan ; Cook, Margaret ; Baynes, Caroline ; Murray, Alexandra ; Rogers, Mark ; Daly, Peter A. ; Dorkins, Huw ; Schmutzler, Rita K. ; Versmold, Beatrix ; Engel, Christoph ; Meindl, Alfons ; Arnold, Norbert ; Niederacher, Dieter ; Deissler, Helmut ; Spurdle, Amanda B. ; Chen, Xiaoqing ; Waddell, Nicola ; Cloonan, Nicole ; Kirchhoff, Tomas ; Offit, Kenneth ; Friedman, Eitan ; Kaufmann, Bella ; Laitman, Yael ; Galore, Gilli ; Rennert, Gad ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Raskin, Leon ; Andrulis, Irene L. ; Ilyushik, Eduard ; Ozcelik, Hilmi ; Devilee, Peter ; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G. ; Greene, Mark H. ; Prindiville, Sheila A. ; Osorio, Ana ; Benítez, Javier ; Zikan, Michal ; Szabo, Csilla I. ; Kilpivaara, Outi ; Nevanlinna, Heli ; Hamann, Ute ; Durocher, Francine ; Arason, Adalgeir ; Couch, Fergus J. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia 

    2007-01-01

    RAD51 is an important component of double-stranded DNA–repair mechanisms that interacts with both BRCA1 and BRCA2. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of RAD51, 135G→C, has been suggested as a possible modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We pooled genotype data for 8,512 female mutation carriers from 19 studies for the RAD51 135G→C SNP. We found evidence of an increased breast cancer risk in CC homozygotes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.92 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.25–2.94) but not in heterozygotes (HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.83–1.07]; P=.002, by heterogeneity test with 2 degrees of freedom [df]). When BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers were analyzed separately, the increased risk was statistically significant only among BRCA2 mutation carriers, in whom we observed HRs of 1.17 (95% CI 0.91–1.51) among heterozygotes and 3.18 (95% CI 1.39–7.27) among rare homozygotes (P=.0007, by heterogeneity test with 2 df). In addition, we determined that the 135G→C variant affects RAD51 splicing within the 5′ UTR. Thus, 135G→C may modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers by altering the expression of RAD51. RAD51 is the first gene to be reliably identified as a modifier of risk among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:17999359

  10. Analysis of clinical efficacy of interceptive treatment of Class II division 2 malocclusion in a pair of twins through the use of two modified removable appliances

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; BARTOLINO, M.; DOCIMO, R.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The interceptive therapeutic approach of a functional type is indicated for the treatment of Class II Division 2 mandibular retrusion with deep bite, where improvement is required not only in occlusal relationships but also in skeletal and aesthetic parameters. Purpose The aim of this study is to assess, in two identical twins suffering from the same malocclusion, the effectiveness and clinical stability of functional interceptive Class II division 2 treatment during puberty by mandibular retro-positioning associated with deep bite, and to compare skeletal changes and dental and dental-alveolar changes induced by the application of two different modified removable appliances: Clark’s Twin block and Bergersen’s Occlus-o-guide. Results The results show that both devices allowed for circumvention of the pre-functional therapy phase aimed at correcting the upper labial segment, and for the conversion of the Class II division 1 incisor relationship, they were able to promote significant and obvious clinical effects. Conclusions The study shows that Class II Division 2 functional type interceptive treatment of mandibular retrusion with deep bite conducted in the puberal phase through clinical use of modified Bergersen’s Occlus-o-guide® allowed for simultaneous resolution of the skeletal, dental-alveolar and dental problems in one step, while that using modified Clark’s Twin-block still requires a second phase of treatment necessary to resolve the alignment, levelling, inter-cuspidation of the arches, optimization of the dental overjet and overbite parameters and to the stabilization of the basal Class I. PMID:23285386

  11. Construction and Analysis of Novel 2-D Optical Orthogonal Codes Based on Extended Quadratic Congruence Codes and Modified One-Coincidence Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianhua; Li, Wenjun; Zheng, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    A new two-dimensional optical orthogonal code (OOC) named EQC/MOCS is constructed, using Extended Quadratic Congruence (EQC) code for time spreading and modified one-coincidence sequence (MOCS) for wavelength hopping. Compared with EQC/Prime code (PC), the number of wavelengths for EQC/MOCS is not limited to a prime number. Compared with EQC/OCS, the length of MOCS need not be expanded to the same length of EQC. EQC/MOCS can be constructed flexibly, and also has larger code cardinality.

  12. Three-layer structure graphene/mesoporous silica composites incorporated with C8-modified interior pore-walls for residue analysis of glucocorticoids in milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Jianan; Sun, Xueni; Li, Yan; Duan, Gengli

    2015-07-16

    Three-layer structure graphene/mesoporous silica composites incorporated with C8-modified interior pore-walls (graphene@mSiO2-C8) were prepared and applied for efficient extraction of glucocorticoid residuals in milk followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The graphene@mSiO2-C8 nanocomposites were synthesized by coating C8-modified mesoporous silica onto hydrophilic graphene nanosheets through a simple surfactant-mediated co-condensation sol-gel process. The obtained nanosheets possess unique properties of large surface area (632 m(2)/g), extended plate-like morphology in the exterior surface, highly open pore structure with uniform pore size (2.8 nm), numerous C8-modified interior pore-walls, as well as good water dispersibility. The performance of the prepared graphene@mSiO2-C8 materials for extracting small hydrophobic molecules directly from complex protein-rich samples was evaluated by analysis of glucocorticoids in milk. Extraction conditions such as sorbents amount, type and volume of eluting solvent, time of adsorption and desorption were investigated and optimized to achieve the best efficiency. Method validations including linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limit of detection (LOD) were also studied. The results indicated that this methodology provided low LOD (S/N=3, 0.0075-0.03 ng mL(-1)) and good linearity (0.03-60 ng mL(-1), R(2)>0.996) for glucocorticoids. Satisfactory reusability and stability were also obtained during the extraction. Finally, the graphene@mSiO2-C8 composites were successfully applied to the extraction and residue analysis of glucocorticoids in real milk samples. The experimental results showed that this novel approach offered an attractive choice for convenient, efficient and rapid solid-phase extraction of targeted hydrophobic compounds in biological samples.

  13. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified rice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingxi; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Mazzara, Marco; Van den Eede, Guy; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-05-13

    One rice ( Oryza sativa ) gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), has been proven to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) rice detection in a previous study. Herein are the reported results of an international collaborative ring trial for validation of the SPS gene as an endogenous reference gene and its optimized qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems. A total of 12 genetically modified organism (GMO) detection laboratories from seven countries participated in the ring trial and returned their results. The validated results confirmed the species specificity of the method through testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, low heterogeneity, and a stable single-copy number of the rice SPS gene among 7 indica varieties and 5 japonica varieties. The SPS qualitative PCR assay was validated with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%, which corresponded to about 230 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the quantitative PCR system was about 23 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Furthermore, the bias between the test and true values of eight blind samples ranged from 5.22 to 26.53%. Thus, we believe that the SPS gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM rice and its derivates.

  14. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    PubMed

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  15. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    PubMed

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  16. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  17. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant N-Terminally Pyroglutamate-Modified Amyloid-β Variants and Structural Analysis by Solution NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dammers, Christina; Gremer, Lothar; Neudecker, Philipp; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Schwarten, Melanie; Willbold, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. Pathological hallmark of AD brains are intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid plaques. The major component of these plaques is the highly heterogeneous amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, varying in length and modification. In recent years pyroglutamate-modified amyloid-β (pEAβ) peptides have increasingly moved into the focus since they have been described to be the predominant species of all N-terminally truncated Aβ. Compared to unmodified Aβ, pEAβ is known to show increased hydrophobicity, higher toxicity, faster aggregation and β-sheet stabilization and is more resistant to degradation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a particularly powerful method to investigate the conformations of pEAβ isoforms in solution and to study peptide/ligand interactions for drug development. However, biophysical characterization of pEAβ and comparison to its non-modified variant has so far been seriously hampered by the lack of highly pure recombinant and isotope-enriched protein. Here we present, to our knowledge, for the first time a reproducible protocol for the production of pEAβ from a recombinant precursor expressed in E. coli in natural isotope abundance as well as in uniformly [U-15N]- or [U-13C, 15N]-labeled form, with yields of up to 15 mg/l E. coli culture broth. The chemical state of the purified protein was evaluated by RP-HPLC and formation of pyroglutamate was verified by mass spectroscopy. The recombinant pyroglutamate-modified Aβ peptides showed characteristic sigmoidal aggregation kinetics as monitored by thioflavin-T assays. The quality and quantity of produced pEAβ40 and pEAβ42 allowed us to perform heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy in solution and to sequence-specifically assign the backbone resonances under near-physiological conditions. Our results suggest that the

  18. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant N-Terminally Pyroglutamate-Modified Amyloid-β Variants and Structural Analysis by Solution NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dammers, Christina; Gremer, Lothar; Neudecker, Philipp; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Schwarten, Melanie; Willbold, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. Pathological hallmark of AD brains are intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid plaques. The major component of these plaques is the highly heterogeneous amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, varying in length and modification. In recent years pyroglutamate-modified amyloid-β (pEAβ) peptides have increasingly moved into the focus since they have been described to be the predominant species of all N-terminally truncated Aβ. Compared to unmodified Aβ, pEAβ is known to show increased hydrophobicity, higher toxicity, faster aggregation and β-sheet stabilization and is more resistant to degradation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a particularly powerful method to investigate the conformations of pEAβ isoforms in solution and to study peptide/ligand interactions for drug development. However, biophysical characterization of pEAβ and comparison to its non-modified variant has so far been seriously hampered by the lack of highly pure recombinant and isotope-enriched protein. Here we present, to our knowledge, for the first time a reproducible protocol for the production of pEAβ from a recombinant precursor expressed in E. coli in natural isotope abundance as well as in uniformly [U-15N]- or [U-13C, 15N]-labeled form, with yields of up to 15 mg/l E. coli culture broth. The chemical state of the purified protein was evaluated by RP-HPLC and formation of pyroglutamate was verified by mass spectroscopy. The recombinant pyroglutamate-modified Aβ peptides showed characteristic sigmoidal aggregation kinetics as monitored by thioflavin-T assays. The quality and quantity of produced pEAβ40 and pEAβ42 allowed us to perform heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy in solution and to sequence-specifically assign the backbone resonances under near-physiological conditions. Our results suggest that the

  19. Quality and safety evaluation of genetically modified potatoes spunta with Cry V gene: compositional analysis, determination of some toxins, antinutrients compounds and feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    El Sanhoty, Rafaat; El-Rahman, Ahamed Ali Abd; Bögl, Klaus Werner

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition, nutritional and toxicology safety of GM potato Spunta lines compared to that of conventional potato Spunta. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure the proximate chemical composition with references to 14 components, total solid, protein, lipid, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate, starch, reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar, sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and ascorbic acid. Some toxins and anti-nutrients compounds were determined. Feeding study of GM potatoes line (G2 and G3) in rats were done for 30 days. Four groups of albino rats were used for studying the effect and the safety assessment of GM potatoes Spunta G2 and G3. Group (I) was fed on control basal diet, group (II) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried nongenetically modified potato Spunta, group (III) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta, and group (IV) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta GMO G3. There were no significant differences between GM potatoes G2, G3, and Spunta control potato line in the proximate chemical composition. The levels of glycoalkaloids in transgenic potato tubers and nontransgenic were determined and there were also no significant differences between the GM potatoes and conventional potato line, the levels were in agreement with a safety level recommended by FAO/WHO (200 mg/ kg) for acute toxicity. Protease inhibitor activity and total phenol were estimated and no significant differences between the GM potatoes line and conventional potato Spunta line were found. During the period tested, rats in each group (I, II, III, IV) grew well without marked differences in appearance. No statistical difference were found in food intake, daily body weight gain and feed efficiency. But there is a slightly significant difference in finally body weight between the control group and experimental groups. No significant difference were

  20. Performance of a full-scale modified anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process: High-throughput sequence analysis of its microbial structures and their community functions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yasong; Zhao, Zheng; Peng, Yuke; Li, Jie; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2016-11-01

    The average COD, TN, TP, and NH4(+)-N elimination rates in a new wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) based on a modified A2/O process were 83%, 72.4%, 93.5%, and 98.6%, respectively, even under conditions of a low C/N ratio and low temperature. Among the four potential denitrifying units, the post-anoxic unit was the least efficient with respect to the removal efficiency. However, the structures of the bacterial community among samples obtained from the treatment units were similar, as demonstrated using Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. Genera with nitrifying, denitrifying, hydrolyzing, and glycogen-accumulating activities were identified in all units, indicating that functional groups were highly enriched in the active sludges and thus enabled nitrogen removal. The key functional microorganisms responsible for nitrification-denitrification in the WWTP were species belonging to the genera Nitrospira, Hydrogenophilaceae, Comamonas, Dechloromonas, Thauera, Haliangium, and Halomonas. PMID:27573476

  1. Microstructural Analysis of Orientation-Dependent Recovery and Recrystallization in a Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Deformed by Compression at a High Strain Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Zhang, Yubin; Mishin, Oleg V.; Tao, Nairong; Pantleon, Wolfgang; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2016-09-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture during annealing of a modified ferritic/martensitic 9Cr-1Mo steel compressed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) to a strain of 2.3 has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. It is found that the duplex <111> + <100> fiber texture formed by DPD is transformed during annealing to a dominant <111> fiber texture, and that crystallites of the <111> component have an advantage during both nucleation and growth. Detailed characterization of the microstructural morphology, and estimation of the stored energies in <111>- and <100>-oriented regions in deformed and annealed samples, as well as investigations of the growth of recrystallizing grains, are used to analyze the annealing behavior. It is concluded that recrystallization in the given material occurs by a combination of oriented nucleation and oriented growth.

  2. A comparative analysis of media reporting of perceived risks and benefits of genetically modified crops and foods in Kenyan and international newspapers.

    PubMed

    DeRosier, Christopher; Sulemana, Iddisah; James, Harvey S; Valdivia, Corinne; Folk, William; Smith, Randall D

    2015-07-01

    We empirically examine the reporting on biotechnology in Kenyan and international newspapers between 2010 and early 2014. We identify news articles that reported on biotechnology and analyze their use of words to determine whether there is a balance in the reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We also consider how the sources used in news articles and how the publication of the Séralini study of rats fed genetically modified maize affect the balance of reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We find that in Kenyan news reporting, more articles mention perceived benefits than risks, but when risks are mentioned, new articles contain more references to risks than to benefits. We also find that sources affect the reporting of perceived risks and benefits and that the Séralini study increased the likelihood that perceived risks are reported in Kenyan news reporting, but not in international newspapers.

  3. Preparation of magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups for the extraction and analysis of lead in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Huanhuan; Tang, Jie; Ye, Guiqin; Ge, Huali; Hu, Xiaoya

    2015-08-15

    A novel magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups was synthesized and developed for extraction and spectrophotometric determination of trace lead. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results indicated the adsorbents exhibited high adsorption capacities for lead due to the chelation mechanism between metal cations and mercapto groups. Meanwhile, the lead sorption onto the adsorbents could be easily separated from aqueous solution using a magnetic separation method. Under the optimal conditions, a linear calibration curve in the range from 1 to 20 μg L(-1) was achieved with an enrichment factor of 100. The limits of detection and quantitation for lead were found to be 0.29 and 0.97 μg L(-1), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of lead in food samples and certified reference material with satisfactory results. PMID:25794739

  4. Analysis of Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier (SUMO) Targets Reflects the Essential Nature of Protein SUMOylation and Provides Insight to Elucidate the Role of SUMO in Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    Elrouby, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) has received much attention, reflected by a flood of recent studies implicating SUMO in a wide range of cellular and molecular activities, many of which are conserved throughout eukaryotes. Whereas most of these studies were performed in vitro or in single cells, plants provide an excellent system to study the role of SUMO at the developmental level. Consistent with its essential roles during plant development, mutations of the basic SUMOylation machinery in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cause embryo stage arrest or major developmental defects due to perturbation of the dynamics of target SUMOylation. Efforts to identify SUMO protein targets in Arabidopsis have been modest; however, recent success in identifying thousands of human SUMO targets using unique experimental designs can potentially help identify plant SUMO targets more efficiently. Here, known Arabidopsis SUMO targets are reevaluated, and potential approaches to dissect the roles of SUMO in plant development are discussed. PMID:26320229

  5. Analysis of 19 PCB congeners in catfish tissue using a modified QuEChERS method with GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chamkasem, Narong; Lee, Sookwang; Harmon, Tiffany

    2016-02-01

    A simple approach to determine 19 PCB congeners in catfish tissue was presented. A modified QuEChERS method employing high solvent to sample ratio 10:1 was used to improve the extraction recovery of 19 PCB congeners. After salting out by shaking with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, 1 mL of acetonitrile extract was pipetted into a 2-mL centrifuge tube containing anhydrous magnesium sulfate, primary secondary amine sorbent, and C-18 sorbent. The tube was then shaken and centrifuged to absorb fat and fatty acid residue present in the acetonitrile extract. The acetonitrile extract was analyzed by GC-MS/MS. The excellent sensitivity of GC-MS/MS allows for the direct injection of the samples to detect the low level of the PCB congeners. The method therefore is high throughput, uses fewer consumable lab supplies, and provides excellent sensitivity with an LOQ below 1 ng/g. PMID:26304427

  6. Preparation of magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups for the extraction and analysis of lead in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Huanhuan; Tang, Jie; Ye, Guiqin; Ge, Huali; Hu, Xiaoya

    2015-08-15

    A novel magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups was synthesized and developed for extraction and spectrophotometric determination of trace lead. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results indicated the adsorbents exhibited high adsorption capacities for lead due to the chelation mechanism between metal cations and mercapto groups. Meanwhile, the lead sorption onto the adsorbents could be easily separated from aqueous solution using a magnetic separation method. Under the optimal conditions, a linear calibration curve in the range from 1 to 20 μg L(-1) was achieved with an enrichment factor of 100. The limits of detection and quantitation for lead were found to be 0.29 and 0.97 μg L(-1), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of lead in food samples and certified reference material with satisfactory results.

  7. Stability analysis solutions for nonlinear three-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in a magnetized electron-positron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seadawy, Aly R.

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear three-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov ​(mKdV-ZK) equation governs the behavior of weakly nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma which consists of equal hot and cool components of each species. By using the reductive perturbation procedure leads to a mKdV-ZK equation governing the oblique propagation of nonlinear electrostatic modes. The stability of solitary traveling wave solutions of the mKdV-ZK equation to three-dimensional long-wavelength perturbations is investigated. We found the electrostatic field potential and electric field in form traveling wave solutions for three-dimensional mKdV-ZK equation. The solutions for the mKdV-ZK equation are obtained precisely and efficiency of the method can be demonstrated.

  8. Sutureless clear corneal DSAEK with a modified approach for preventing pupillary block and graft dislocation: case series with retrospective comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Tinwala, Sana I; Shekhar, Himanshu; Sinha, Rajesh

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a modified technique of sutureless DSAEK with continuous pressurized internal air tamponade. This was a prospective interventional case series, single-center, institutional study. Twenty-seven patients with corneal decompensation without scarring were included. Aphakic patients and patients with cataractous lens requiring IOL implantation surgery were excluded. Following preparation of the donor tissue, a corneal tunnel was made nasally with two side ports. All incisions were kept long enough to be overlapped by the peripheral part of the donor tissue. Descemet membrane scoring was done using a reverse Sinskey hook, following which it was removed with the same instrument or by forceps. The donor lenticule was then inserted using Busin's glide. Continuous pressurized internal air tamponade was achieved by means of a 30-gauge needle, inserted through the posterior limbus, for 12-14 min. At the end of the surgery, air was partially replaced with BSS, leaving a moderate-sized mobile air bubble in the anterior chamber. At the 6 month's follow-up, CDVA improved from counting fingers at half meter-6/24 preoperatively to 6/9-6/18 postoperatively, and the mean endothelial cell count decreased: to 1,800 from 2,200 cell/mm(2) preoperatively (18.19 % endothelial cell loss). Donor lenticule thickness as documented on AS-OCT was 70-110 µ on Day 1 and 50-80 µ at 6 months postoperative. None of the cases had flat AC or peripheral anterior synechiae formation. None of the patients required a second intervention. There were no cases of primary graft failure, pupillary block glaucomax or donor lenticule dislocation postoperatively. Our modified technique is simple and effective with reduction in postoperative complications associated with DSAEK, thereby maximizing anatomic and functional outcomes associated. PMID:24728534

  9. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.) Results Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference = -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors. Conclusion Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption. PMID:25083906

  10. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  11. Modifiable early-life risk factors for childhood adiposity and overweight: an analysis of their combined impact and potential for prevention1234

    PubMed Central

    Crozier, Sarah R; Harvey, Nicholas C; Barton, Benjamin D; Law, Catherine M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early life may be a “critical period” when appetite and regulation of energy balance are programmed, with lifelong consequences for obesity risk. Insight into the potential impact of modifying early-life risk factors on later obesity can be gained by evaluating their combined effects. Objective: The objective was to examine the relation between the number of early-life risk factors and obesity outcomes among children in a prospective birth cohort (Southampton Women's Survey). Design: Five risk factors were defined: maternal obesity [prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) >30], excess gestational weight gain (Institute of Medicine, 2009), smoking during pregnancy, low maternal vitamin D status (<64 nmol/L), and short duration of breastfeeding (none or <1 mo). Obesity outcomes examined when the children were aged 4 and 6 y were BMI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry–assessed fat mass, overweight, or obesity (International Obesity Task Force). Data were available for 991 mother-child pairs, with children born between 1998 and 2003. Results: Of the children, 148 (15%) had no early-life risk factors, 330 (33%) had 1, 296 (30%) had 2, 160 (16%) had 3, and 57 (6%) had 4 or 5. At both 4 and 6 y, there were positive graded associations between number of early-life risk factors and each obesity outcome (all P < 0.001). After taking account of confounders, the relative risk of being overweight or obese for children who had 4 or 5 risk factors was 3.99 (95% CI: 1.83, 8.67) at 4 y and 4.65 (95% CI: 2.29, 9.43) at 6 y compared with children who had none (both P < 0.001). Conclusions: Having a greater number of early-life risk factors was associated with large differences in adiposity and risk of overweight and obesity in later childhood. These findings suggest that early intervention to change these modifiable risk factors could make a significant contribution to the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:25646335

  12. Analysis of modified MYJ and YSU boundary layer schemes in WRF-Chem with respect to simulated boundary layer heights and pollutant concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Renate; Foreman, Richard; Emeis, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    To improve the performance of boundary layer schemes currently applied within WRF-Chem (Grell et al., 2005), the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) model (Mellor and Yamada 1982) and the Yonsei University (YSU) PBL scheme (Hong et al. 2006) have been updated using data from a 100 m high offshore measurement tower called FINO1. The turbulence intensity in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic model has been enhanced as described in Foreman and Emeis (2012). An alternative to the exchange coefficient for stable stratification in the YSU scheme is described in Foreman et al. (2014). These modifications to the two schemes have been applied and are compared with the existing schemes. For example, the updated MYJ scheme results in an improved representation of the turbulent kinetic energy throughout the boundary layer as compared with the measurements at FINO1. The modified MYJ and YSU schemes, which have been originally developed for wind energy applications, have been implemented into version 3.5 of the WRF model. Simulations with WRF-Chem were carried out for Europe and the region of Augsburg in order to evaluate the effect of the modified PBL schemes on simulated PBL heights, gas phase pollutant and aerosol concentrations. Foreman, R.J. and S. Emeis, 2012. A method for increasing the turbulent kinetic energy in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary layer parametrization. Boundary Layer Meteorology 145:329-349. Foreman, R.J. S. Emeis and B. Canadillas, 2014. Stable boundary layer parametrization without eddy viscosity or turbulent kinetic energy equation approaches. Submitted to Boundary Layer Meteorology 2014. Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S. A., Frost, G., Skamarock,W. C., and Eder, B., 2005. Fully Coupled Online Chemistry within the WRF Model. Atmospheric Environment 39, 6957-6975. Hong S, Noh Y, Dudhia J 2006. Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon Wea Rev 124:2322-2339. Mellor GL, Yamada T 1982. Development of a turbulence

  13. UHPLC/MS-MS Analysis of Six Neonicotinoids in Honey by Modified QuEChERS: Method Development, Validation, and Uncertainty Measurement.

    PubMed

    Proietto Galeano, Michele; Scordino, Monica; Sabatino, Leonardo; Pantò, Valentina; Morabito, Giovanni; Chiappara, Elena; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable multiresidue analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of 6 neonicotinoids pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in honey. A modified QuEChERS method has allowed a very rapid and efficient single-step extraction, while the detection was performed by UHPLC/MS-MS. The recovery studies were carried out by spiking the samples at two concentration levels (10 and 40 μg/kg). The methods were subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The mean recovery was in the range of 75 to 114% with repeatability below 20%. The limits of detection were below 2.5 μg/kg, while the limits of quantification did not exceed 4.0 μg/kg. The total uncertainty was evaluated taking the main independent uncertainty sources under consideration. The expanded uncertainty did not exceed 49% for the 10 μg/kg concentration level and was in the range of 16-19% for the 40 μg/kg fortification level. PMID:26904611

  14. Composition Dependent Analysis of Raman Spectra in the Modified Boroaluminosilicate System: Implications for Coupling Between Structural Resonance and Relaxation in the Glass Network

    SciTech Connect

    S. V. Raman; R. S. Czernuszewicz; A. A. Zareba

    2004-04-01

    The boroaluminosilicate system was systematically modified by addition of magnesium, sodium and zirconium oxides. Strong bridging silicate bands and narrow and intense nonbridging silicate bands compose the Raman spectra of glasses. The fundamental nonbridging molecular species bands are related to the bridged network bands by the first overtone and signify anharmonic oscillation. At a constant degree of depolymerisation, the nonbridging band intensity depends on the silica content. With decrease in silica content, the bridged network band frequency shifts to a higher value and simultaneously the nonbridging bands intensify. The sharp rise in intensity for the nonbridging bands is attributed to resonant oscillations between the bridged lattice network and nonbridging molecular species. The resonance between the two structural entities possibly occurs in response to relaxation of the bridged network with decrease in silica content. Contributions to enhancement of intensity also presumably arise from resonance in valency bonds and oscillations in the oxygen edge shared polyhedral (ESP) structure for the nonbridging molecular species. The force constant of the ESP species varies as a function of zirconium, sodium and magnesium coordination to apex nonbridging oxygens. The single ESP band transforms to Fermi doublet upon crystallisation to orthosilicate structures of zircon and forsterite. 32 refs.

  15. UHPLC/MS-MS Analysis of Six Neonicotinoids in Honey by Modified QuEChERS: Method Development, Validation, and Uncertainty Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Proietto Galeano, Michele; Scordino, Monica; Sabatino, Leonardo; Pantò, Valentina; Morabito, Giovanni; Chiappara, Elena; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable multiresidue analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of 6 neonicotinoids pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in honey. A modified QuEChERS method has allowed a very rapid and efficient single-step extraction, while the detection was performed by UHPLC/MS-MS. The recovery studies were carried out by spiking the samples at two concentration levels (10 and 40 μg/kg). The methods were subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The mean recovery was in the range of 75 to 114% with repeatability below 20%. The limits of detection were below 2.5 μg/kg, while the limits of quantification did not exceed 4.0 μg/kg. The total uncertainty was evaluated taking the main independent uncertainty sources under consideration. The expanded uncertainty did not exceed 49% for the 10 μg/kg concentration level and was in the range of 16–19% for the 40 μg/kg fortification level. PMID:26904611

  16. Analysis of the modifying effects of SAA1, SAA2 and TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms on development of amyloidosis in FMF patients.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Engin; Balci, Banu; Kutlay, Sim; Ozen, Seza; Ertürk, Sensuvar; Oner, Ayse; Beşbaş, Nesrin; Bakkaloğlu, Ayşin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether polymorphisms at serum amyloid A (SAA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) genes are associated with development of amyloidosis in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients. Seventy-three FMF patients with amyloidosis and 100 other FMF patients without amyloidosis of known genotypes and 100 healthy control subjects were analyzed. There was a significant difference in the frequency of alpha/alpha genotype at the SAA1 locus between FMF patients with amyloidosis and controls and FMF patients without amyloidosis. The frequencies of the alpha/alpha genotype and alpha alleles at SAA1 locus were significantly higher in the FMF patients with amyloidosis. The frequencies of the alpha allele at SAA1 locus in FMF patients with amyloidosis, without amyloidosis and controls were 85.6%, 49.5% and 42.5%, respectively. We demonstrated that alpha/alpha genotype at SAA1 gene might have modifying effects on the development of amyloidosis. Determination of genotypes at SAA1 locus can play a key role in conferring genetic susceptibility and patient's prognosis to renal amyloidosis.

  17. In vivo protein crystallization in combination with highly brilliant radiation sources offers novel opportunities for the structural analysis of post-translationally modified eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Duszenko, Michael; Redecke, Lars; Mudogo, Celestin Nzanzu; Sommer, Benjamin Philip; Mogk, Stefan; Oberthuer, Dominik; Betzel, Christian

    2015-08-01

    During the last decade, the number of three-dimensional structures solved by X-ray crystallography has increased dramatically. By 2014, it had crossed the landmark of 100 000 biomolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. This tremendous increase in successfully crystallized proteins is primarily owing to improvements in cloning strategies, the automation of the crystallization process and new innovative approaches to monitor crystallization. However, these improvements are mainly restricted to soluble proteins, while the crystallization and structural analysis of membrane proteins or proteins that undergo major post-translational modifications remains challenging. In addition, the need for relatively large crystals for conventional X-ray crystallography usually prevents the analysis of dynamic processes within cells. Thus, the advent of high-brilliance synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources and the establishment of serial crystallography (SFX) have opened new avenues in structural analysis using crystals that were formerly unusable. The successful structure elucidation of cathepsin B, accomplished by the use of microcrystals obtained by in vivo crystallization in baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells, clearly proved that crystals grown intracellularly are very well suited for X-ray analysis. Here, methods by which in vivo crystals can be obtained, isolated and used for structural analysis by novel highly brilliant XFEL and synchrotron-radiation sources are summarized and discussed.

  18. In vivo protein crystallization in combination with highly brilliant radiation sources offers novel opportunities for the structural analysis of post-translationally modified eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Duszenko, Michael; Redecke, Lars; Mudogo, Celestin Nzanzu; Sommer, Benjamin Philip; Mogk, Stefan; Oberthuer, Dominik; Betzel, Christian

    2015-08-01

    During the last decade, the number of three-dimensional structures solved by X-ray crystallography has increased dramatically. By 2014, it had crossed the landmark of 100 000 biomolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. This tremendous increase in successfully crystallized proteins is primarily owing to improvements in cloning strategies, the automation of the crystallization process and new innovative approaches to monitor crystallization. However, these improvements are mainly restricted to soluble proteins, while the crystallization and structural analysis of membrane proteins or proteins that undergo major post-translational modifications remains challenging. In addition, the need for relatively large crystals for conventional X-ray crystallography usually prevents the analysis of dynamic processes within cells. Thus, the advent of high-brilliance synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources and the establishment of serial crystallography (SFX) have opened new avenues in structural analysis using crystals that were formerly unusable. The successful structure elucidation of cathepsin B, accomplished by the use of microcrystals obtained by in vivo crystallization in baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells, clearly proved that crystals grown intracellularly are very well suited for X-ray analysis. Here, methods by which in vivo crystals can be obtained, isolated and used for structural analysis by novel highly brilliant XFEL and synchrotron-radiation sources are summarized and discussed. PMID:26249677

  19. Development of gold nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode for the analysis of thiram, disulfiram and their derivative in food using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Charoenkitamorn, Kanokwan; Chailapakul, Orawon; Siangproh, Weena

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was developed as working electrode in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrochemical detection (UHPLC-ED) for simultaneous determination of thiram, disulfiram, and N,N-diethyl-N',N'-dimethylthiuram disulfide, their derivative compound. The separation was performed in reversed-phase mode using C18 column, mobile phase consisting of 55:45 (v/v) ratio of 0.05 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 5) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). For the detection part, the amperometric detection was chosen with a detection potential of 1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under the optimal conditions, the good linear relationship was obtained in the range of 0.07-15, 0.07-12, and 0.5-15 µg mL(-1) (correlation coefficient more than 0.9900) for thiram, N,N-diethyl-N',N'-dimethylthiuram disulfide, and disulfiram, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of thiram, N,N-diethyl-N',N'-dimethylthiuram disulfide, and disulfiram were 0.022, 0.023, and 0.165 µg mL(-1), respectively. Moreover, this method was successfully applied for the detection of these compounds in real samples (apple, grape and lettuce) with the recoveries ranging from 94.3% to 108.8%. To validate this developed method, a highly quantitative agreement was clearly observed compared to standard UHPLC-UV system. Therefore, the proposed electrode can be effectively used as an alternative electrode in UHPLC-ED for rapid, selective, highly sensitive, and simultaneous determination of thiram, disulfiram, and N,N-diethyl-N',N'-dimethylthiuram disulfide.

  20. Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of specific flavors in enzyme modified and natural Cheddar cheese using factorial design and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, Julien; Sabik, Hassan; Azarnia, Sorayya; Lee, Byong

    2008-06-27

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed using experimental designs to quantify the flavor of commercial Cheddar cheese and enzyme-modified Cheddar cheese (EMCC). Seven target compounds (dimethyl disulfide, hexanal, hexanol, 2-heptanone, ethyl hexanoate, heptanoic acid, delta-decalactone) representative of different chemical families frequently present in Cheddar cheese were selected for this study. Three types of SPME fibres were tested: Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), polyacrylate (PA) and Carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB). NaCl concentration and temperature, as well as extraction time were tested for their effect on the HS-SPME process. Two series of two-level full factorial designs were carried out for each fibre to determine the factors which best support the extraction of target flavors. Therefore, central composite designs (CCDs) were performed and response surface models were derived. Optimal extraction conditions for all selected compounds, including internal standards, were: 50 min at 55 degrees C in 3M NaCl for CAR/PDMS, 64 min at 62 degrees C in 6M NaCl for PA, and 37 min at 67 degrees C in 6M NaCl for CW/DVB. Given its superior sensitivity, CAR/PDMS fibre was selected to evaluate the target analytes in commercial Cheddar cheese and EMCC. With this fibre, calibration curves were linear for all targeted compounds (from 0.5 to 6 microg g(-1)), except for heptanoic acid which only showed a linear response with PA fibres. Detection limits ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 microg g(-1) and quantification limits from 0.8 to 3.6 microg g(-1). The mean repeatability value for all flavor compounds was 8.8%. The method accuracy is satisfactory with recoveries ranging from 97 to 109%. Six of the targeted flavors were detected in commercial Cheddar cheese and EMCC. PMID:18495140

  1. Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Sode, Miki; Fuerst, Thomas; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System). Methods Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex. Results WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function. PMID:25670891

  2. Adopting a Patient-Centered Approach to Primary Outcome Analysis of Acute Stroke Trials by Use of a Utility-Weighted Modified Rankin Scale

    PubMed Central

    Chaisinanunkul, Napasri; Adeoye, Opeolu; Lewis, Roger J.; Grotta, James C.; Broderick, Joseph; Jovin, Tudor G.; Nogueira, Raul G.; Elm, Jordan; Graves, Todd; Berry, Scott; Lees, Kennedy R.; Barreto, Andrew D.; Saver, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) is the most commonly employed primary endpoint in acute stroke trials, its power is limited when analyzed in dichotomized fashion and its indication of effect size challenging to interpret when analyzed ordinally. Weighting the seven Rankin levels by utilities may improve scale interpretability while preserving statistical power. Methods A utility weighted mRS (UW-mRS) was derived by averaging values from time-tradeoff (patient centered) and person-tradeoff (clinician centered) studies. The UW-mRS, standard ordinal mRS, and dichotomized mRS were applied to 11 trials or meta-analyses of acute stroke treatments, including lytic, endovascular reperfusion, blood pressure moderation, and hemicraniectomy interventions. Results Utility values were: mRS 0–1.0; mRS 1 - 0.91; mRS 2 - 0.76; mRS 3 - 0.65; mRS 4 - 0.33; mRS 5 & 6 - 0. For trials with unidirectional treatment effects, the UW-mRS paralleled the ordinal mRS and outperformed dichotomous mRS analyses. Both the UW-mRS and the ordinal mRS were statistically significant in six of eight unidirectional effect trials, while dichotomous analyses were statistically significant in two to four of eight. In bidirectional effect trials, both the UW-mRS and ordinal tests captured the divergent treatment effects by showing neutral results whereas some dichotomized analyses showed positive results. Mean utility differences in trials with statistically significant positive results ranged from 0.026 to 0.249. Conclusion A utility-weighted mRS performs similarly to the standard ordinal mRS in detecting treatment effects in actual stroke trials and ensures the quantitative outcome is a valid reflection of patient-centered benefits. PMID:26138130

  3. Lack of Detectable Allergenicity in Genetically Modified Maize Containing “Cry” Proteins as Compared to Native Maize Based on In Silico & In Vitro Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Chandni; Kathuria, Pooran C.; Dahiya, Pushpa; Singh, Anand B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetically modified, (GM) crops with potential allergens must be evaluated for safety and endogenous IgE binding pattern compared to native variety, prior to market release. Objective To compare endogenous IgE binding proteins of three GM maize seeds containing Cry 1Ab,1Ac,1C transgenic proteins with non GM maize. Methods An integrated approach of in silico & in vitro methods was employed. Cry proteins were tested for presence of allergen sequence by FASTA in allergen databases. Biochemical assays for maize extracts were performed. Specific IgE (sIgE) and Immunoblot using food sensitized patients sera (n = 39) to non GM and GM maize antigens was performed. Results In silico approaches, confirmed for non sequence similarity of stated transgenic proteins in allergen databases. An insignificant (p> 0.05) variation in protein content between GM and non GM maize was observed. Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) revealed reduced number of stable protein fractions in GM then non GM maize which might be due to shift of constituent protein expression. Specific IgE values from patients showed insignificant difference in non GM and GM maize extracts. Five maize sensitized cases, recognized same 7 protein fractions of 88-28 kD as IgE bindng in both GM and non-GM maize, signifying absence of variation. Four of the reported IgE binding proteins were also found to be stable by SGF. Conclusion Cry proteins did not indicate any significant similarity of >35% in allergen databases. Immunoassays also did not identify appreciable differences in endogenous IgE binding in GM and non GM maize. PMID:25706412

  4. Design, synthesis, and analysis of a polyethelene glycol-modified (PEGylated) small molecule inhibitor of integrin {alpha}4{beta}1 with improved pharmaceutical properties.

    PubMed

    Pepinsky, R B; Lee, W-C; Cornebise, M; Gill, A; Wortham, K; Chen, L L; Leone, D R; Giza, K; Dolinski, B M; Perper, S; Nickerson-Nutter, C; Lepage, D; Chakraborty, A; Whalley, E T; Petter, R C; Adams, S P; Lobb, R R; Scott, D M

    2005-02-01

    Integrin alpha4beta1 plays an important role in inflammatory processes by regulating the migration of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. Previously, we identified BIO5192 [2(S)-{[1-(3,5-dichloro-benzenesulfonyl)-pyrrolidine-2(S)-carbonyl]-amino}-4-[4-methyl-2(S)-(methyl-{2-[4-(3-o-tolyl-ureido)-phenyl]-acetyl}-amino)-pentanoylamino]-butyric acid], a highly selective and potent (K(D) of 9 pM) small molecule inhibitor of alpha4beta1. Although BIO5192 is efficacious in various animal models of inflammatory disease, high doses and daily treatment of the compound are needed to achieve a therapeutic effect because of its relatively short serum half-life. To address this issue, polyethylene glycol modification (PEGylation) was used as an approach to improve systemic exposure. BIO5192 was PEGylated by a targeted approach in which derivatizable amino groups were incorporated into the molecule. Two sites were identified that could be modified, and from these, five PEGylated compounds were synthesized and characterized. One compound, 2a-PEG (K(D) of 19 pM), was selected for in vivo studies. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of 2a-PEG were dramatically improved relative to the unmodified compound. The PEGylated compound was efficacious in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis at a 30-fold lower molar dose than the parent compound and required only a once-a-week dosing regimen compared with a daily treatment for BIO5192. Compound 2a-PEG was highly selective for alpha4beta1. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of PEGylation of alpha4beta1-targeted small molecules with retention of activity in vitro and in vivo. 2a-PEG, and related compounds, will be valuable reagents for assessing alpha4beta1 biology and may provide a new therapeutic approach to treatment of human inflammatory diseases.

  5. Development of gold nanoparticles modified screen-printed carbon electrode for the analysis of thiram, disulfiram and their derivative in food using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Charoenkitamorn, Kanokwan; Chailapakul, Orawon; Siangproh, Weena

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was developed as working electrode in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrochemical detection (UHPLC-ED) for simultaneous determination of thiram, disulfiram, and N,N-diethyl-N',N'-dimethylthiuram disulfide, their derivative compound. The separation was performed in reversed-phase mode using C18 column, mobile phase consisting of 55:45 (v/v) ratio of 0.05 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 5) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). For the detection part, the amperometric detection was chosen with a detection potential of 1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under the optimal conditions, the good linear relationship was obtained in the range of 0.07-15, 0.07-12, and 0.5-15 µg mL(-1) (correlation coefficient more than 0.9900) for thiram, N,N-diethyl-N',N'-dimethylthiuram disulfide, and disulfiram, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of thiram, N,N-diethyl-N',N'-dimethylthiuram disulfide, and disulfiram were 0.022, 0.023, and 0.165 µg mL(-1), respectively. Moreover, this method was successfully applied for the detection of these compounds in real samples (apple, grape and lettuce) with the recoveries ranging from 94.3% to 108.8%. To validate this developed method, a highly quantitative agreement was clearly observed compared to standard UHPLC-UV system. Therefore, the proposed electrode can be effectively used as an alternative electrode in UHPLC-ED for rapid, selective, highly sensitive, and simultaneous determination of thiram, disulfiram, and N,N-diethyl-N',N'-dimethylthiuram disulfide. PMID:25476326

  6. Analysis of expression of chorionic gonadotrophin transcripts in prostate cancer by quantitative Taqman and a modified molecular beacon RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Span, P N; Thomas, C M G; Heuvel, J J; Bosch, R R; Schalken, J A; vd Locht, L; Mensink, E J B M; Sweep, C G J

    2002-03-01

    Expression of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is associated with trophoblastic, testicular and other malignancies such as bladder, pancreatic, cervical, breast and prostate cancer. In the prostate, however, hCG expression, associated with neuroendocrine cells, is also found in normal tissue. Of the six highly homologous genes that all encode the beta-subunit of hCG, the beta 7 gene is reportedly the only gene expressed in several non-transformed tissues. The beta 3, 5 and 8 genes would be variably expressed in malignant tissue and placenta, but not in normal tissue. To assess to what extent this expression difference can also be found in the prostate, we compared the levels of the different hCG beta transcripts in concurrent normal and cancerous prostate tissues obtained from 17 patients. To this end, we developed a Taqman real-time fluorescent RT-PCR assay for hCG beta, and a quantitative assay specific for the beta 3, 5 and 8 genes, modified from the molecular beacon principle. This latter assay proved highly specific and capable of reliably distinguishing between these hCG beta transcripts that differ in only one nucleotide. Surprisingly, median expression levels of hCG beta were lower in prostate cancer when compared with normal tissue from the same patient. In contrast, hCG beta 3, 5 and 8 transcripts were found in normal tissue and did not differ in prostate cancer, arguing against a specific role of these transcripts in the development of prostate cancer.

  7. Structural insight into DNA-assembled oligochromophores: crystallographic analysis of pyrene- and phenanthrene-modified DNA in complex with BpuJI endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Markus; Aeschimann, Walter; Chau, Thi T.H.; Langenegger, Simon M.; Stocker, Achim; Häner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The use of the DNA duplex as a supramolecular scaffold is an established approach for the assembly of chromophore aggregates. In the absence of detailed structural insight, the characterization of thus assembled oligochromophores is, today, largely based on solution-phase spectroscopy. Here, we describe the crystal structures of three DNA-organized chromophore aggregates. DNA hybrids containing non-nucleosidic pyrene and phenanthrene building blocks were co-crystallized with the recently described binding domain of the restriction enzyme BpuJI. Crystal structures of these complexes were determined at 2.7, 1.9 and 1.6 Å resolutions. The structures reveal aromatic stacking interactions between pyrene and/or phenanthrene units within the framework of the B-DNA duplex. In hybrids containing a single modification in each DNA strand near the end of the duplex, the two polyaromatic hydrocarbons are engaged in a face-to-face stacking orientation. Due to crystal packing and steric effects, the terminal GC base pair is disrupted in all three crystal structures, which results in a non-perfect stacking arrangement of the aromatic chromophores in two of the structures. In a hybrid containing a total of three pyrenes, crystal lattice induced end-to-end stacking of individual DNA duplexes leads to the formation of an extended aromatic π-stack containing four co-axially arranged pyrenes. The aromatic planes of the stacked pyrenes are oriented in a parallel way. The study demonstrates the value of co-crystallization of chemically modified DNA with the recombinant binding domain of the restriction enzyme BpuJI for obtaining detailed structural insight into DNA-assembled oligochromophores. PMID:27422870

  8. Modified Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of a rubber-modified experimental epoxy resin and a standard epoxy as composite matrices were studied. In addition, a brominated epoxy resin was used in varying quantities to improve the fire resistance of the composite. The experimental resin was tris-(hydroxyphenyl)methane triglycidyl ether, known as tris epoxy novolac (TEN). The standard epoxy resin used was tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM). The above resins were modified with carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber. It is concluded that: (1) modification of TEN resin with bromine gives better impact resistance than rubber modification alone; (2) 25% rubber addition is necessary to obtain significant improvement in impact resistance; (3) impact resistance increases with bromine content; (4) impact velocity does not significantly affect the energy absorbed by the test sample; (5) Tg did not decline with rubber modification; and (6) TEN resin had better hot/wet properties than TGDDM resin.

  9. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  10. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  11. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  12. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry. PMID:26906932

  13. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  14. RNA-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2003-02-01

    A bewildering number of post-transcriptional modifications are introduced into cellular RNAs by enzymes that are often conserved among archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. The modifications range from those with well-understood functions, such as tRNA aminoacylation, to widespread but more mysterious ones, such as pseudouridylation. Recent structure determinations have included two types of RNA nucleobase modifying enzyme: pseudouridine synthases and tRNA guanine transglycosylases.

  15. Modified entropic force

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun

    2010-04-15

    The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

  16. Conductimetric assays for the hydrolase and transferase activities of phospholipase D enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mezna, M; Lawrence, A J

    1994-05-01

    Measurement of solution electrical conductance (conductimetry) is a simple direct assay method for the protogenic, hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by all phospholipase enzymes. The technique is especially suitable for assay of phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes where cleavage of zwitterionic substrates reinforces the pH dependent conductance change and allows the method to be used over a much wider pH range than the equivalent titrimetric assay. The ability to detect zwitterion cleavage enables the method to assay reactions in which phospholipase D transfers neutral, or anionic, alcohol species to the zwitterionic substrates phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The method can follow the sequential attack by different phospholipases and provides a simple technique for investigating the effect of substrate structure on susceptibility to various phospholipase enzymes. The results confirm that PLD from Streptomyces chromofuscus can attack lysophospholipids, but cannot transfer primary alcohols to the phosphatidyl residue, while the PLD from savoy cabbage is an efficient transferase, but cannot attack lysophospholipids. The data suggest that the bacterial PLD fails to act as a transferase because it hydrolyzes the transphosphatidylation products. Some phosphatidyl alcohols are more highly susceptible to PLA2 attack than the parent phosphatidyl choline derivatives.

  17. Lake responses following lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock®) application: an analysis of water column lanthanum data from 16 case study lakes.

    PubMed

    Spears, Bryan M; Lürling, Miquel; Yasseri, Said; Castro-Castellon, Ana T; Gibbs, Max; Meis, Sebastian; McDonald, Claire; McIntosh, John; Sleep, Darren; Van Oosterhout, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Phoslock(®) is a lanthanum (La) modified bentonite clay that is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of legacy phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. This study investigates the potential for negative ecological impacts from elevated La concentrations associated with the use of Phoslock(®) across 16 case study lakes. Impact-recovery trajectories associated with total lanthanum (TLa) and filterable La (FLa) concentrations in surface and bottom waters were quantified over a period of up to 60 months following Phoslock(®) application. Both surface and bottom water TLa and FLa concentrations were <0.001 mg L(-1) in all lakes prior to the application of Phoslock(®). The effects of Phoslock(®) application were evident in the post-application maximum TLa and FLa concentrations reported for surface waters between 0.026 mg L(-1)-2.30 mg L(-1) and 0.002 mg L(-1) to 0.14 mg L(-1), respectively. Results of generalised additive modelling indicated that recovery trajectories for TLa and FLa in surface and bottom waters in lakes were represented by 2nd order decay relationships, with time, and that recovery reached an end-point between 3 and 12 months post-application. Recovery in bottom water was slower (11-12 months) than surface waters (3-8 months), most probably as a result of variation in physicochemical conditions of the receiving waters and associated effects on product settling rates and processes relating to the disturbance of bed sediments. CHEAQS PRO modelling was also undertaken on 11 of the treated lakes in order to predict concentrations of La(3+) ions and the potential for negative ecological impacts. This modelling indicated that the concentrations of La(3+) ions will be very low (<0.0004 mg L(-1)) in lakes of moderately low to high alkalinity (>0.8 mEq L(-1)), but higher (up to 0.12 mg L(-1)) in lakes characterised by very low alkalinity. The effects of elevated La(3+) concentrations following

  18. The Effect of Disease Modifying Therapies on Disease Progression in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H.; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Kilidireas, Constantinos; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Dardiotis, Efthimios

    2015-01-01

    Importance A number of officially approved disease-modifying drugs (DMD) are currently available for the early intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the effect of DMDs on disability progression in RRMS Methods We performed a systematic review on MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases to include all available placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of RRMS patients that reported absolute numbers or percentages of disability progression during each study period. Observational studies, case series, case reports, RCTs without placebo subgroups and studies reporting the use of RRMS therapies that are not still officially approved were excluded. Risk ratios (RRs) were calculated in each study protocol to express the comparison of disability progression in RRMS patients treated with a DMD and those RRMS patients receiving placebo. The mixed-effects model was used to calculate both the pooled point estimate in each subgroup and the overall estimates. Results DMDs for RRMS were found to have a significantly lower risk of disability progression compared to placebo (RR = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.66–0.79; p<0.001), with no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. In subsequent subgroup analyses, neither dichotomization of DMDs as “first” and “second” line RRMS therapies [(RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.65–0.80) vs. (RR = 0.72, 95% = 0.57–0.91); p = 0.96] nor the route of administration (injectable or oral) [RR = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64–0.87) vs. RR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.66–0.83); p = 0.92] had a differential effect on the risk of disability progression. Either considerable (5–20%) or significant (>20%) rates of loss to follow-up were reported in many study protocols, while financial and/or other support from pharmaceutical industries with a clear conflict of interest on the study outcomes was documented in all included studies. Conclusions Available DMD are effective in

  19. Estimation of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to modifiable risk factors and cost-effectiveness analysis of preventative interventions to reduce this burden in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in Argentina representing 34.2% of deaths and 12.6% of potential years of life lost (PYLL). The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of acute coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke and the cost-effectiveness of preventative population-based and clinical interventions. Methods An epidemiological model was built incorporating prevalence and distribution of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity, obtained from the Argentine Survey of Risk Factors dataset. Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) of each risk factor was estimated using relative risks from international sources. Total fatal and non-fatal events, PYLL and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) were estimated. Costs of event were calculated from local utilization databases and expressed in international dollars (I$). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were estimated for six interventions: reducing salt in bread, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation, pharmacological therapy of high blood pressure, pharmacological therapy of high cholesterol, tobacco cessation therapy with bupropion, and a multidrug strategy for people with an estimated absolute risk > 20% in 10 years. Results An estimated total of 611,635 DALY was lost due to acute CHD and stroke for 2005. Modifiable risk factors explained 71.1% of DALY and more than 80% of events. Two interventions were cost-saving: lowering salt intake in the population through reducing salt in bread and multidrug therapy targeted to persons with an absolute risk above 20% in 10 years; three interventions had very acceptable ICERs: drug therapy for high blood pressure in hypertensive patients not yet undergoing treatment (I$ 2,908 per DALY saved), mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation amongst smokers (I$ 3,186 per DALY saved), and lowering cholesterol with statin drug therapy

  20. Network Analysis of a Pkd1-Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Identifies HNF4α as a Disease Modifier

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Luis F.; Zhou, Fang; Patterson, Andrew D.; Piontek, Klaus B.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Germino, Gregory G.

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD; MIM ID's 173900, 601313, 613095) leads to end-stage kidney disease, caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2. Inactivation of Pkd1 before or after P13 in mice results in distinct early- or late-onset disease. Using a mouse model of ADPKD carrying floxed Pkd1 alleles and an inducible Cre recombinase, we intensively analyzed the relationship between renal maturation and cyst formation by applying transcriptomics and metabolomics to follow disease progression in a large number of animals induced before P10. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis suggests that Pkd1-cystogenesis does not cause developmental arrest and occurs in the context of gene networks similar to those that regulate/maintain normal kidney morphology/function. Knowledge-based Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software identifies HNF4α as a likely network node. These results are further supported by a meta-analysis of 1,114 published gene expression arrays in Pkd1 wild-type tissues. These analyses also predict that metabolic pathways are key elements in postnatal kidney maturation and early steps of cyst formation. Consistent with these findings, urinary metabolomic studies show that Pkd1 cystic mutants have a distinct profile of excreted metabolites, with pathway analysis suggesting altered activity in several metabolic pathways. To evaluate their role in disease, metabolic networks were perturbed by inactivating Hnf4α and Pkd1. The Pkd1/Hnf4α double mutants have significantly more cystic kidneys, thus indicating that metabolic pathways could play a role in Pkd1-cystogenesis. PMID:23209428

  1. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock(®)).

    PubMed

    Spears, Bryan M; Mackay, Eleanor B; Yasseri, Said; Gunn, Iain D M; Waters, Kate E; Andrews, Christopher; Cole, Stephanie; De Ville, Mitzi; Kelly, Andrea; Meis, Sebastian; Moore, Alanna L; Nürnberg, Gertrud K; van Oosterhout, Frank; Pitt, Jo-Anne; Madgwick, Genevieve; Woods, Helen J; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-06-15

    Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. However, little is known about its effectiveness in controlling P across a wide range of lake conditions or of its potential to promote rapid ecological recovery. We combined data from 18 treated lakes to examine the lake population responses in the 24 months following La-bentonite application (range of La-bentonite loads: 1.4-6.7 tonnes ha(-1)) in concentrations of surface water total phosphorus (TP; data available from 15 lakes), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP; 14 lakes), and chlorophyll a (15 lakes), and in Secchi disk depths (15 lakes), aquatic macrophyte species numbers (6 lakes) and aquatic macrophyte maximum colonisation depths (4 lakes) across the treated lakes. Data availability varied across the lakes and variables, and in general monitoring was more frequent closer to the application dates. Median annual TP concentrations decreased significantly across the lakes, following the La-bentonite applications (from 0.08 mg L(-1) in the 24 months pre-application to 0.03 mg L(-1) in the 24 months post-application), particularly in autumn (0.08 mg L(-1) to 0.03 mg L(-1)) and winter (0.08 mg L(-1) to 0.02 mg L(-1)). Significant decreases in SRP concentrations over annual (0.019 mg L(-1) to 0.005 mg L(-1)), summer (0.018 mg L(-1) to 0.004 mg L(-1)), autumn (0.019 mg L(-1) to 0.005 mg L(-1)) and winter (0.033 mg L(-1) to 0.005 mg L(-1)) periods were also reported. P concentrations following La-bentonite application varied across the lakes and were correlated positively with dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Relatively weak, but significant responses were reported for summer chlorophyll a concentrations and Secchi disk depths following La-bentonite applications, the 75th percentile values decreasing from 119 μg L(-1) to 74 μg L(-1) and increasing from

  2. 3D finite element analysis of electrostatic deflection of commercial and FIB-modified cantilevers for electric and Kelvin force microscopy: I. Triangular shaped cantilevers with symmetric pyramidal tips.

    PubMed

    Valdrè, Giovanni; Moro, Daniele

    2008-10-01

    The investigation of the nanoscale distribution of electrostatic forces on material surfaces is of paramount importance for the development of nanotechnology, since these confined forces govern many physical processes on which a large number of technological applications are based. For instance, electric force microscopy (EFM) and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) are technologies based on an electrostatic interaction between a cantilever and a specimen. In the present work we report on a 3D finite element analysis of the electrostatic deflection of cantilevers for electric and Kelvin force microscopy. A commercial triangular shaped cantilever with a symmetric pyramidal tip was modelled. In addition, the cantilever was modified by a focused ion beam (FIB) in order to reduce its parasitic electrostatic force, and its behaviour was studied by computation analysis. 3D modelling of the electrostatic deflection was realized by using a multiphysics finite element analysis software and it was applied to the real geometry of the cantilevers and probes obtained by using basic CAD tools. The results of the modelling are in good agreement with experimental data.

  3. Proof-of-Concept Studies for Marker-Based Ultrasound Doppler Analysis of Microvascular Anastomoses in a Modified Large Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Coon, Devin; Chen, Lei; Boctor, Emad M; Prince, Jerry L; Bojovic, Branko

    2016-05-01

    Background Despite attempts to solve the problem of flap monitoring, assessing the patency of vascular anastomoses postoperatively remains challenging. In addition, experimental data suggest that near-total vessel occlusion is necessary to produce significant changes in clinical appearance or monitoring devices. We sought to develop an ultrasound-based system that would provide definitive data on anastomotic function. Methods A system was developed consisting of a resorbable marker made from poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) implanted during the time of surgery coupled with ultrasound software to detect the anastomotic site and perform Doppler flow analysis. Surgical procedures consisting of microvascular free tissue transfer or femoral vessel cutdown were performed followed by marker placement, closure, and ultrasound monitoring. Transient vascular occlusion was produced via vessel-loop constriction. Permanent thrombosis was induced via an Arduino-controlled system applying current to the vessel intima. Results Four surgeries (one femoral vessel cutdown and three microvascular tissue transfer) were successfully performed in Yorkshire swine. The markers were readily visualized under ultrasound and provided a bounding area for Doppler analysis as well as orientation guidance. Transient spasm and partial occlusion were detected based on changes in Doppler data, while complete occlusion was evident as the total loss of color Doppler. Conclusion In this preliminary report, we have conceptualized and developed a novel system that enables the real-time visualization of vascular pedicle flow at the bedside using Doppler ultrasound and a surgically implanted marker. In a large animal model, use of the system allowed identification of the anastomosis, flow analysis, and real-time detection of flow loss. PMID:26645155

  4. Ethnicity modifies the association between functional microRNA polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a HuGE meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiao-Hui; Wang, Qing-Bing; Zhang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Common functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of microRNAs (miRNAs), based on multiple lines of evidence, might participate in transcriptional regulation and other biological processes, which interact to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Since 2005, many studies have investigated the association between breast cancer risk and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNAs. However, the findings of several meta-analyses are inconclusive or ambiguous. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology meta-analysis was to determine more precisely the relationship between common miRNA polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Twelve case-control studies with a total of 7,170 breast cancer patients and 8,783 healthy controls were included. Eight SNPs in miRNA genes were examined. When all eligible studies were pooled in the meta-analysis, the miR-196a-2 rs11614913*T, miR-499 rs3746444*T, and miR-605 rs2043556*A alleles predicted a decreased risk of breast cancer among Asians, while not Caucasians. In addition, the miR-27a rs895919*C allele might be a protective factor for breast cancer among Caucasians. However, for the miR-146a rs2910164 (G>C), miR-149 rs2292832 (G>T), miR-373 rs12983273 (C>T), and miR-423 rs6505162 (C>A) polymorphisms, we failed to find any significant association with the risk of breast cancer in any genetic model. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis supports that the miR-196a-2 rs11614913*T, miR-499 rs3746444*T, miR-605 rs2043556*A, and miR-27a rs895919*C alleles might be protective factors for breast cancer.

  5. A model of adsorption of albumin on the implant surface titanium and titanium modified carbon coatings (MWCNT-EPD). 2D correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Stodolak-Zych, Ewa; Piś, Wojciech; Długoń, Elżbieta; Benko, Aleksandra; Błażewicz, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Common materials used as orthopedic implants are titanium and its alloys. To improve its compatibility with the environment of a living organism titanium implant surfaces are covered with bioactive layers of MWCNT. During the insertion into a living organism such material is exposed to direct contact with the patient's blood, which includes proteins - eg. albumin. The adsorption of albumin may constitute one of the early stages of implant surface modification serving cell adhesion. An analysis of this phenomenon in terms of the kinetics of deposition of protein on the surface of the implant confirms its biocompatibility in vivo. The proposed working model of the adsorption of albumin allows for choosing the best of time for the protein to form a stable connection with the surface of the titanium implant. Traditional methods of materials engineering and chemistry allow for the obtaining of information about the presence of a protein on the surface (UV-Vis, the wettability). The application of 2D correlation analysis, in turn, gains insight into the dynamics of the changes associated with the deposition of protein (the formation of a uniform layer, the change in conformation). This analysis has allowed for the selection of an optimal time of protein adsorption to the surface of the implant. Better compatibility with the body of the implant provides its modification by introducing layers that accelerate the material-tissue interactions. Such a composition is a layer of carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) deposited on titanium by the electrophoretic (EPD) method. Using Raman spectroscopy and analyzing the spectra with the 2D correlation method it is possible to gain insight into the molecular structure of this layer. Our studies indicate that albumin in contact with the surface of titanium has obtained stable conformation after 30 min (confirmed by: UV-Vis, Raman). Shifts of the CH2, CH3 stretching bands position as well as an analysis of the amide I band confirms this

  6. Polysaccharide-Modified Synthetic Polymeric Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Aaron D.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. PMID:20091875

  7. Polysaccharide-modified synthetic polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Aaron D; Kiick, Kristi L

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. PMID:20091875

  8. [Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms].

    PubMed

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Dias, Aline Peçanha Muzy; Scheidegger, Erica Miranda Damasio; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-01-01

    Since the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM). Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene.

  9. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  10. Confidentiality: a modified value.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1988-01-01

    In its original expression as a medical value confidentiality may have been absolute; this concept has become eroded by patient consent, legal actions and change in the climate of public opinion. In particular requirements arising out of legal statutes and common law judgements have greatly modified the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship in societies deriving their law from English origins. Despite this, confidentiality remains a value which the physician must strive to preserve. He cannot however do this without considering its effect upon possible innocent third parties. PMID:3392723

  11. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  12. Measurement of migration of soft tissue by modified Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA): validation of a new technique to monitor rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Cashman, P M M; Baring, T; Reilly, P; Emery, R J H; Amis, A A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to use Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) to measure migration of soft-tissue structures after rotator cuff repair. RSA stereo films were obtained; images were analysed using a semi-automatic software program allowing 3D viewing of results. RSA imaging experiments were performed to validate the technique, using a glass phantom with implanted RSA beads and an animal model with steel sutures as RSA markers which were moved known distances. Repeated measurements allowed assessment of inter- and intra-observer variability at a maximum of 1.06 mm. RSA analysis of the phantom showed a variation up to 0.22 mm for static and 0.28 mm for dynamic studies. The ovine tissue specimen demonstrated that using steel sutures as RSA markers in soft tissue is feasible, although less accurate than when measuring bone motion. This novel application of RSA to measure soft tissue migration is practicable and can be extended to in vivo studies.

  13. Characterization of gold nanoparticles with different hydrophilic coatings via capillary electrophoresis and Taylor dispersion analysis. Part I: determination of the zeta potential employing a modified analytic approximation.

    PubMed

    Pyell, Ute; Jalil, Alaa H; Pfeiffer, Christian; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2015-07-15

    Taking gold nanoparticles with different hydrophilic coatings as an example, it is investigated whether capillary electrophoresis in combination with Taylor dispersion analysis allows for the precise determination of mean electrophoretic mobilities, electrophoretic mobility distributions, and zeta potentials in a matrix of exactly known composition and the calibration-free determination of number-weighted mean hydrodynamic radii. Our experimental data confirm that the calculation of the zeta potential for colloidal nanoparticles with ζ>25 mV requires to take the relaxation effect into account. Because of the requirement to avoid particle-wall interactions, a solution of disodiumtetraborate decahydrate (borax) in deionized water had been selected as suitable electrolyte. Measurements of the electrophoretic mobility at different ionic strength and application of the analytic approximation developed by Ohshima show that in the present case of a buffered solution with a weak electrolyte co-ion and a strong electrolyte counterion, the effective ionic drag coefficient should be approximated with the ionic drag coefficient of the counterion. The obtained results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations regarding the dependence of the zeta potential and the electrokinetic surface charge density on the ionic strength. We also show that Taylor dispersion analysis (besides estimation of the number-weighted mean hydrodynamic radius) provides additional information on the type and width of the number-weighted particle distribution. PMID:25828436

  14. Fast analysis of malachite green, leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet in fish tissue based on a modified QuEChERS procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengyun; Wei, Jie; Dong, Xuefang; Guo, Zhimou; Liu, Mingyang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    Triphenylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) have been used as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antiseptic agents in aquaculture. However, MG and CV, as well as their metabolites leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) are potential mutagens and carcinogens. Thus, the efficient determination of dye residues is of great concern. Considering the complexity of the aquatic products, the sample pretreatment is significant for decreasing matrix interference and improving detection sensitivity. In this study, a simple and rapid QuEChERS procedure was developed and combined with HPLC analysis for the simultaneous determination of the four dyes in fish tissue. An XCharge C18 column was applied in HPLC analysis to achieve good peak shape and selectivity. The pretreatment method involved the extraction of dyes from fish tissue and further clean-up with dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) material. The extraction volume, extraction time as well as d-SPE materials were systematically optimized. The results indicated that reversed-phase/strong anion exchange (C18SAX) adsorbent in the d-SPE procedure could effectively improve the recovery compared with conventional C18 or C18 incorporated with primary secondary amine (PSA) material. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 0.5-100 mg/L with R2 greater than 0. 998. The recoveries were 73%-91% and the precisions were 0.66%-5.41%. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of QuEChERS procedure incorporated with HPLC for dye monitoring.

  15. Population dynamics of the modified theta model: macroscopic phase reduction and bifurcation analysis link microscopic neuronal interactions to macroscopic gamma oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Ikuhiro; Yoshida, Lui; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Ermentrout, G. Bard

    2014-01-01

    Gamma oscillations of the local field potential are organized by collective dynamics of numerous neurons and have many functional roles in cognition and/or attention. To mathematically and physiologically analyse relationships between individual inhibitory neurons and macroscopic oscillations, we derive a modification of the theta model, which possesses voltage-dependent dynamics with appropriate synaptic interactions. Bifurcation analysis of the corresponding Fokker–Planck equation (FPE) enables us to consider how synaptic interactions organize collective oscillations. We also develop the adjoint method (infinitesimal phase resetting curve) for simultaneous equations consisting of ordinary differential equations representing synaptic dynamics and a partial differential equation for determining the probability distribution of the membrane potential. This method provides a macroscopic phase response function (PRF), which gives insights into how it is modulated by external perturbation or internal changes of parameters. We investigate the effects of synaptic time constants and shunting inhibition on these gamma oscillations. The sensitivity of rising and decaying time constants is analysed in the oscillatory parameter regions; we find that these sensitivities are not largely dependent on rate of synaptic coupling but, rather, on current and noise intensity. Analyses of shunting inhibition reveal that it can affect both promotion and elimination of gamma oscillations. When the macroscopic oscillation is far from the bifurcation, shunting promotes the gamma oscillations and the PRF becomes flatter as the reversal potential of the synapse increases, indicating the insensitivity of gamma oscillations to perturbations. By contrast, when the macroscopic oscillation is near the bifurcation, shunting eliminates gamma oscillations and a stable firing state appears. More interestingly, under appropriate balance of parameters, two branches of bifurcation are found in our

  16. Field confirmation of modified pressurized solvent extraction vessels for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in blood samples from Great Lakes Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Haskins, Stacey D; Kelly, David G; Weir, Ron D

    2013-06-01

    Miniaturized pressurized solvent extraction vessels were used to examine polychlorinated biphenyl congener (PCB) concentrations in 0.2 g sample sizes of whole blood, liver, heart and breast tissue sampled from twelve Great Lakes Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). This study successfully supported the blood extraction method, previously validated only using laboratory prepared blood samples, using field samples. In situ clean-up offered excellent sample throughput without degradation of GC-MS performance; using this method, extraction, instrument analysis and data interpretation for 100 samples could be accomplished within a one to two week time period. Results indicated contamination in the blood (∑PCB = 1.9-13 ng g(-1) ww), liver (∑PCB = 0.8-11 ng g(-1) ww), breast (∑PCB = <0.1-9 ng g(-1) ww) and heart tissue (∑PCB = <0.1-6 ng g(-1) ww). Quality control included the analysis of blank samples, NIST SRM 1589a and a duplicate of each sample type (blood or tissue). All blank samples were below the method detection limit, SRM values were within 70% of their certified values and duplicates were within 70% of each other. Correlations were examined for the suite of analysed congeners between blood and various tissues; within select individuals a strong and significant correlation was observed. TEQs were calculated and compared against known toxicity data for bird species. Based on the PCB levels found in this study, no adverse health effects are expected in the birds themselves. ∑PCB concentrations in the breast tissue were also compared against both the Canadian and American guidelines for the consumption of edible poultry and based on these values, the Mallards used in this research would be safe for human consumption.

  17. Fast analysis of malachite green, leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet in fish tissue based on a modified QuEChERS procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengyun; Wei, Jie; Dong, Xuefang; Guo, Zhimou; Liu, Mingyang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    Triphenylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) have been used as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antiseptic agents in aquaculture. However, MG and CV, as well as their metabolites leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) are potential mutagens and carcinogens. Thus, the efficient determination of dye residues is of great concern. Considering the complexity of the aquatic products, the sample pretreatment is significant for decreasing matrix interference and improving detection sensitivity. In this study, a simple and rapid QuEChERS procedure was developed and combined with HPLC analysis for the simultaneous determination of the four dyes in fish tissue. An XCharge C18 column was applied in HPLC analysis to achieve good peak shape and selectivity. The pretreatment method involved the extraction of dyes from fish tissue and further clean-up with dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) material. The extraction volume, extraction time as well as d-SPE materials were systematically optimized. The results indicated that reversed-phase/strong anion exchange (C18SAX) adsorbent in the d-SPE procedure could effectively improve the recovery compared with conventional C18 or C18 incorporated with primary secondary amine (PSA) material. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 0.5-100 mg/L with R2 greater than 0. 998. The recoveries were 73%-91% and the precisions were 0.66%-5.41%. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of QuEChERS procedure incorporated with HPLC for dye monitoring. PMID:25069333

  18. Large-scale proteomic analysis of the grapevine leaf apoplastic fluid reveals mainly stress-related proteins and cell wall modifying enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extracellular space or apoplast forms a path through the whole plant and acts as an interface with the environment. The apoplast is composed of plant cell wall and space within which apoplastic fluid provides a means of delivering molecules and facilitates intercellular communications. However, the apoplastic fluid extraction from in planta systems remains challenging and this is particularly true for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), a worldwide-cultivated fruit plant. Large-scale proteomic analysis reveals the protein content of the grapevine leaf apoplastic fluid and the free interactive proteome map considerably facilitates the study of the grapevine proteome. Results To obtain a snapshot of the grapevine apoplastic fluid proteome, a vacuum-infiltration-centrifugation method was optimized to collect the apoplastic fluid from non-challenged grapevine leaves. Soluble apoplastic protein patterns were then compared to whole leaf soluble protein profiles by 2D-PAGE analyses. Subsequent MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry of tryptically digested protein spots was used to identify proteins. This large-scale proteomic analysis established a well-defined proteomic map of whole leaf and leaf apoplastic soluble proteins, with 223 and 177 analyzed spots, respectively. All data arising from proteomic, MS and MS/MS analyses were deposited in the public database world-2DPAGE. Prediction tools revealed a high proportion of (i) classical secreted proteins but also of non-classical secreted proteins namely Leaderless Secreted Proteins (LSPs) in the apoplastic protein content and (ii) proteins potentially involved in stress reactions and/or in cell wall metabolism. Conclusions This approach provides free online interactive reference maps annotating a large number of soluble proteins of the whole leaf and the apoplastic fluid of grapevine leaf. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed proteome study of grapevine apoplastic fluid providing a comprehensive overview of

  19. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  20. Analysis of the impact of surface layer properties on evaporation from porous systems using column experiments and modified definition of characteristic length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir; Gherabli, Rivka; Lefort, Philippe; Prat, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The hydraulic properties of the layer at the vicinity of the soil surface have significant impact on evaporation and could be harnessed to reduce water losses. The effect of the properties of the upper layer on the evolution of phase distribution during the evaporation process is first illustrated from three-dimensional pore network simulations. This effect is then studied from experiments carried out on soil columns under laboratory conditions. Comparisons between homogeneous columns packed with coarse (sand) and fine (sandy loam) materials and heterogeneous columns packed with layers of fine overlying coarse material and coarse overlying fine material of different thicknesses are performed to assess the impact of upper layer properties on evaporation. Experiments are analyzed using the classical approach based on the numerical solution of Richards equation and semianalytical theoretical predictions. The theoretical analysis is based on the clear distinction between two drying regimes, namely, the capillary regime and the gravity-capillary regime, which are the prevailing regimes in our experiments. Simple relationships enabling to estimate the duration of stage 1 evaporation (S1) for both regimes are proposed. In particular, this led to defining the characteristic length for the gravity-capillary regime from the consideration of viscous effects at low water content differently from available expressions. The duration of S1, during which most of the water losses occur, for both the homogeneous and two-layer columns is presented and discussed. Finally, the impact of liquid films and its consequences on the soil hydraulic conductivity function are briefly discussed.

  1. TARV: Tree-based Analysis of Rare Variants Identifying Risk Modifying Variants in CTNNA2 and CNTNAP2 for Alcohol Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, researchers have been extending their efforts on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from common variants to rare variants to find the missing inheritance. Although various statistical methods have been proposed to analyze rare variants data, they generally face difficulties for complex disease models involving multiple genes. In this paper, we propose a Tree-based Analysis of Rare Variants (TARV) that adopts a non-parametric disease model and is capable of exploring gene-gene interactions. We found that TARV outperforms the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) in most of our simulation scenarios, and by notable margins in some cases. By applying TARV to the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) data, we successfully detected gene CTNNA2 and its 43 specific variants that increase the risk of alcoholism in women, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.94. This gene has not been detected in the SAGE data. Post hoc literature search also supports the role of CTNNA2 as a likely risk gene for alcohol addiction. In addition, we also detected a plausible protective gene CNTNAP2, whose 97 rare variants can reduce the risk of alcoholism in women, with an OR of 0.55. These findings suggest that TARV can be effective in dissecting genetic variants for complex diseases using rare variants data. PMID:25041903

  2. TARV: tree-based analysis of rare variants identifying risk modifying variants in CTNNA2 and CNTNAP2 for alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Song, Chi; Zhang, Heping

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, researchers have been extending their efforts on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from common variants to rare variants to find the missing inheritance. Although various statistical methods have been proposed to analyze rare variants data, they generally face difficulties for complex disease models involving multiple genes. In this paper, we propose a tree-based analysis of rare variants (TARV) that adopts a nonparametric disease model and is capable of exploring gene-gene interactions. We found that TARV outperforms the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) in most of our simulation scenarios, and by notable margins in some cases. By applying TARV to the study of addiction: genetics and environment (SAGE) data, we successfully detected gene CTNNA2 and its 43 specific variants that increase the risk of alcoholism in women, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.94. This gene has not been detected in the SAGE data. Post hoc literature search also supports the role of CTNNA2 as a likely risk gene for alcohol addiction. In addition, we also detected a plausible protective gene CNTNAP2, whose 97 rare variants can reduce the risk of alcoholism in women, with an OR of 0.55. These findings suggest that TARV can be effective in dissecting genetic variants for complex diseases using rare variants data.

  3. Educational attainment does not modify the effect of educational interventions on blood pressure control: a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Eastwood, Dan; Whittle, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To assess whether the effects of community-based educational interventions to improve blood pressure, weight and health behaviours benefit participants with lower educational levels more than those with higher educational levels. Design Secondary data analysis. Setting Two 12-month community-based educational interventions, one led by trained peers and one delivered by health professionals. Participants A total of 403 hypertensive individuals, grouped by education (high school or less; 1–3 years college; 4 + years college). Main outcome measures Blood pressure, weight, physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Results We found that changes in blood pressure, weight and physical activity were similar across education levels; college graduates consumed more daily servings of fruits and vegetables at baseline (3.7 versus 3.6 for those with 12–15 years and 3.1 for those with < 12 years, p = 0.0112), and increased intake more after the intervention (+0.4 versus −0.1 and −0.1, p = 0.0142). The two methods of delivery – peer-led versus professional – had similar effects on all measures. Conclusions We conclude that educational interventions, whether delivered by peers or professionals, may improve chronic disease self-management among participants but do not confer greater benefits on participants with lower educational levels. PMID:27540491

  4. Does weather confound or modify the association of particulate air pollution with mortality? An analysis of the Philadelphia data, 1973--1980

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.; Zeger, S.; Kelsall, J.; Xu, J.; Kalkstein, L.

    1998-04-01

    This report considers the consequences of using alternative approaches to controlling for weather and explores modification of air pollution effects by weather, as weather patterns could plausibly alter air pollution`s effect on health. The authors analyzed 1973--1980 total mortality data for Philadelphia using four weather models and compared estimates of the effects of TSP and SO{sub 2} on mortality using a Poisson regression model. Two synoptic categories developed by Kalkstein were selected--The Temporal Synoptic Index (TSI) and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC)--and compared with (1) descriptive models developed by Schwartz and Dockery (S-D); and (2) LOESS, a nonparametric function of the previous day`s temperature and dew point. The authors considered model fit using Akaike`s Information Criterion (AIC) and changes in the estimated effects of TSP and SO{sub 2}. In the full-year analysis, S-D is better than LOESS at predicting mortality, and S-D and LOESS are better than TSI, as measured by AIC. When TSP or SO{sub 2} was fit alone, the results were qualitatively similar, regardless of how weather was controlled; when TSP and SO{sub 2} were fit simultaneously, the S-D and LOESS models give qualitatively different results than TSI, which attributes more of the pollution effect to SO{sub 2} than to TSP. Model fit is substantially poorer with TSI.

  5. Modifying effect of COMT gene polymorphism and a predictive role for proteomics analysis in children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Hongliang; Qu, Weidong; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Jiang, Chunyang; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Aiguo

    2015-04-01

    Cumulative fluoride exposure has adverse influences on children's intelligence quotient (IQ). In addition, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with cognitive performance. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of COMT polymorphism and alterations of protein profiles with children's intelligence in endemic fluorosis area. We recruited 180 schoolchildren (10-12 years old) from high fluoride exposure (1.40 mg/l) and control areas (0.63 mg/l) in Tianjin City, China. The children's IQ, fluoride contents in drinking water (W-F), serum (S-F), and urine (U-F); serum thyroid hormone levels, COMT Val158Met polymorphism, and plasma proteomic profiling were determined. Significant high levels of W-F, S-F, U-F, along with poor IQ scores were observed in the high fluoride exposure group compared with those in control (all P < 0.05). S-F and U-F were inversely related with IQ (r(s) = -0.47, P < 0.01; r(s) = -0.45, P = 0.002). Importantly, higher fluoride exposure was associated with steeper cognitive decline among children with the reference allele Val compared with those homozygous or heterozygous for the variant allele Met (95% CI, -16.80 to 2.55; P interaction < 0.01). Additionally, 5 up-regulated protein spots related to cell immunity and metabolism were detected in children with high fluoride exposure compared with the control. In conclusion, fluoride exposure was adversely associated with children's intelligence, whereas the COMT polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to the deficits in IQ due to fluoride exposure. Moreover, the proteomic analysis can provide certain basis for identifying the early biological markers of fluorosis among children.

  6. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis of RuO2-Ta2O5 thick film pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Manjakkal, Libu; Cvejin, Katarina; Kulawik, Jan; Zaraska, Krzysztof; Socha, Robert P; Szwagierczak, Dorota

    2016-08-10

    The paper reports on investigation of the pH sensing mechanism of thick film RuO2-Ta2O5 sensors by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Interdigitated conductimetric pH sensors were screen printed on alumina substrates. The microstructure and elemental composition of the films were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The XPS studies revealed the presence of Ru ions at different oxidation states and the surface hydroxylation of the sensing layer increasing with increasing pH. The EIS analysis carried out in the frequency range 10 Hz-2 MHz showed that the electrical parameters of the sensitive electrodes in the low frequency range were distinctly dependent on pH. The charge transfer and ionic exchange occurring at metal oxide-solution interface were indicated as processes responsible for the sensing mechanism of thick film RuO2-Ta2O5 pH sensors.

  7. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  8. Chemically modified polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, T.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Y.; Samuelson, L.; Tripathy, S.

    1988-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) films have been systematically modified with electroactive groups in the ..beta..-position to design electrode materials with specific electrochemical and surface active properties. Electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole and 3-(6-ferrocenyl,6-hydroxyhexyl)pyrrole (P-6-Fc) yields a ferrocene functionalized polypyrrole with a controlled amount to ferrocene functionalization. And also, copolymers of pyrrole and 3-(4-(2,5- dimethoxyphenyl)butyl)pyrrole (P-MP) can be made by electrochemical polymerization and converted to the copolymers containing pH dependent electroactive hydroquinone moieties. Derivatized pyrroles have also been incorporated into Langmuir-Blodgett film structures. The surface pressure-area isotherms of 3-(13-ferrocenyl,13-hydroxytridecy)pyrrole (P-13-Fc) and the mixed monolayer of P-13-Fc and 3-n-hexadecylpyrrole (HDP) are shown. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  9. [Modified Takeuchi in adults].

    PubMed

    Jaurena, J M; Subirana, M; Montiel, J; Ruyra, X; Blasco, E; Torner, M; Caralps, J M

    1996-02-01

    Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly (0.25-0.46%). Mortality is high in the first months (65%). Paradoxically, some patients reach adulthood because of a net made of collaterals from the right coronary artery. Thus, we classify the entity in two ways of clinical onset: childhood and adulthood. Ideally, the best surgical approach is the arrangement of a double coronary system. The most well-known technique is the one described by Takeuchi, that links the aorta and the left coronary artery by a tunnel through the pulmonary artery, made from a pulmonary artery frontal wall flap (closing the defect with a pericardial patch). We present a case of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery in an adult, treated in our institution using a modified Takeuchi technique.

  10. Modified Composite Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

  11. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term.

  12. Long-term outcomes and prognostic analysis of modified open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screw fusion in treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Nan; Fei, Qi; Wang, Bingqiang; Li, Dong; Li, Jinjun; Meng, Hai; Yang, Yong; Guo, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to explore and analyze the long-term outcomes and factors that affect the prognosis of expansive open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screw fusion in treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients with multilevel CSM who had undergone expansive open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screws fixation and fusion in our hospital between February 2008 and February 2012. The average follow-up period was 4.6 years. The clinical data of patients, including age, sex, operation records, pre- and postoperation Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, cervical spine canal stenosis, and cervical curvature, were collected. Increased signal intensity (ISI) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament were also observed. Paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effectiveness and recovery of neuronal function. The prognostic factors were analyzed with multivariable linear regression model. Results Forty-nine patients with CSM with a mean age of 59.44 years were enrolled in this study. The average of preoperative JOA score was 9.14±2.25, and postoperative JOA score was 15.31±1.73. There was significant difference between the pre- and postoperative JOA scores. The clinical improvement rate was 80.27%. On follow-up, five patients had complaints of neck and shoulder pain, but no evidence of C5 nerve palsy was found. Developmental cervical spine canal stenosis was present in all patients before surgery. Before surgery, ISI was observed in eight patients, while ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was found in 12 patients. The average of preoperative cervical curvature was 21.27°±8.37° and postoperative cervical curvature was 20.09°±1.29°, and there was no significant difference between the pre- and postoperative cervical curvatures. Multivariable linear regression analysis results showed that

  13. Long-term outcomes and prognostic analysis of modified open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screw fusion in treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Nan; Fei, Qi; Wang, Bingqiang; Li, Dong; Li, Jinjun; Meng, Hai; Yang, Yong; Guo, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to explore and analyze the long-term outcomes and factors that affect the prognosis of expansive open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screw fusion in treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients with multilevel CSM who had undergone expansive open-door laminoplasty with lateral mass screws fixation and fusion in our hospital between February 2008 and February 2012. The average follow-up period was 4.6 years. The clinical data of patients, including age, sex, operation records, pre- and postoperation Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, cervical spine canal stenosis, and cervical curvature, were collected. Increased signal intensity (ISI) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament were also observed. Paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effectiveness and recovery of neuronal function. The prognostic factors were analyzed with multivariable linear regression model. Results Forty-nine patients with CSM with a mean age of 59.44 years were enrolled in this study. The average of preoperative JOA score was 9.14±2.25, and postoperative JOA score was 15.31±1.73. There was significant difference between the pre- and postoperative JOA scores. The clinical improvement rate was 80.27%. On follow-up, five patients had complaints of neck and shoulder pain, but no evidence of C5 nerve palsy was found. Developmental cervical spine canal stenosis was present in all patients before surgery. Before surgery, ISI was observed in eight patients, while ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was found in 12 patients. The average of preoperative cervical curvature was 21.27°±8.37° and postoperative cervical curvature was 20.09°±1.29°, and there was no significant difference between the pre- and postoperative cervical curvatures. Multivariable linear regression analysis results showed that

  14. CHROMIUM ELECTROANALYSIS AT SCREEN PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY THIN FILMS OF NICKEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and potentially cost-effective electrochemical method is reported for analysis of chromium (VI) and Chromium(III) using a nickel modified screen printed carbon ink electrode. Electrochemical characteristics of nickel modified electrode as well voltammetric behavior f...

  15. Distinguishing modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.

  16. The modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L

    2008-11-01

    In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50-90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed.

  17. [Biotechnology using modified microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Deshayes, A F

    1992-11-01

    Few microorganisms, as compare to their high diversity, are used for human needs. They can produce molecules of interest, process fermentation, protect crops, treat wastes or clean environment. Molecular technics and genetic engineering are new tools offer to geneticists which breed microorganisms for years. Using them, it is now possible, theoretically, to introduce any gene in any organism. Some examples are given concerning genetic modifications in yeasts and lactic acid bacteria to optimize agrofood processes and to improve nutritive and flavour characteristics of fermented products like bread, beer, wine, cheese, meat, vegetable juices... In spite of scientific and industrial interest of the new technologies, limiting factors can explain that genetically modified microorganisms are not routinely used in agrofood yet. First, risks assessment on human health and environment are still in debate, but their is a consensus, within the scientific community, to consider that new characteristics of improved microorganisms are more important than the technics used for their construction. Second, regulations turn out to impose constraints susceptible to discourage technological innovations. At least, the public perception about the new technologies appears, actually, as the major factor to limit their development.

  18. A screening method for the detection of the 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator in genetically modified organisms in a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction using high-resolution melting-curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Fumi; Yamada, Chihiro; Nakamura, Kosuke; Nakajima, Osamu; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Harikai, Naoki; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Teshima, Reiko

    2009-11-01

    To screen for unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the various crops, we developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction high-resolution melting-curve analysis method for the simultaneous qualitative detection of 35S promoter sequence of cauliflower mosaic virus (35SP) and the nopaline synthase terminator (NOST) in several crops. We selected suitable primer sets for the simultaneous detection of 35SP and NOST and designed the primer set for the detection of spiked ColE1 plasmid to evaluate the validity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. In addition, we optimized the multiplex PCR conditions using the designed primer sets and EvaGreen as an intercalating dye. The contamination of unauthorized GMO with single copy similar to NK603 maize can be detected as low as 0.1% in a maize sample. Furthermore, we showed that the present method would be applicable in identifying GMO in various crops and foods like authorized GM soybean, authorized GM potato, the biscuit which is contaminated with GM soybeans and the rice which is contaminated with unauthorized GM rice. We consider this method to be a simple and reliable assay for screening for unauthorized GMO in crops and the processing food products.

  19. On a modified electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Reiss, H R

    2012-09-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.

  20. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  1. Nonderivative modified gravity: a classification

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@irb.hr

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the theories of gravity modified by a generic nonderivative potential built from the metric, under the minimal requirement of unbroken spatial rotations. Using the canonical analysis, we classify the potentials V according to the number of degrees of freedom (DoF) that propagate at the nonperturbative level. We then compare the nonperturbative results with the perturbative DoF propagating around Minkowski and FRW backgrounds. A generic V implies 6 propagating DoF at the non-perturbative level, with a ghost on Minkowski background. There exist potentials which propagate 5 DoF, as already studied in previous works. Here, no V with unbroken rotational invariance admitting 4 DoF is found. Theories with 3 DoF turn out to be strongly coupled on Minkowski background. Finally, potentials with only the 2 DoF of a massive graviton exist. Their effect on cosmology is simply equivalent to a cosmological constant. Potentials with 2 or 5 DoF and explicit time dependence appear to be a further viable possibility.

  2. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment.

  3. Genetic modifiers and oligogenic inheritance.

    PubMed

    Kousi, Maria; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Despite remarkable progress in the identification of mutations that drive genetic disorders, progress in understanding the effect of genetic background on the penetrance and expressivity of causal alleles has been modest, in part because of the methodological challenges in identifying genetic modifiers. Nonetheless, the progressive discovery of modifier alleles has improved both our interpretative ability and our analytical tools to dissect such phenomena. In this review, we analyze the genetic properties and behaviors of modifiers as derived from studies in patient populations and model organisms and we highlight conceptual and technological tools used to overcome some of the challenges inherent in modifier mapping and cloning. Finally, we discuss how the identification of these modifiers has facilitated the elucidation of biological pathways and holds the potential to improve the clinical predictive value of primary causal mutations and to develop novel drug targets.

  4. Influence of concentration modifier on the structure and functional properties of aluminum oxyhydroxide modified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyan, L. N.; Gryaznova, E. N.; Galanov, S. I.; Sidorova, O. I.

    2016-02-01

    Studying the properties of nanomaterials is an important task, but nanomaterials with desired properties is a promising direction. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the value of the concentration of the modifier (ions Mn2+) on the structural and functional properties of modified aluminum oxyhydroxide. In this paper, using methods such as the X-ray diffraction studies, differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy, chromatography. The paper found that increasing the concentration of the modifier result in significant changes in the morphology, the appearance of metallic aluminum, which is well seen on X-ray data samples. The influence of thermal effects on a modified aluminum oxyhydroxide argon. Set the phase transition temperatures in the synthesized samples. It is shown that with increasing sodeozhaniya manganese in the composition of the synthesized samples decreases the value of specific surface area. Study of the functional properties showed that the synthesized material has catalytic properties in the oxidation of methane. It is shown that the effective sample is a sample with a manganese content of 2.7 wt. %. By XRD results calcined in air samples modified aluminum oxyhydroxide was shown that only in the sample with a manganese content of 2.7 wt. % MnAl2O4 phase is formed, which is catalytically active phase.

  5. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  6. Development of disposable bulk-modified screen-printed electrode based on bismuth oxide for stripping chronopotentiometric analysis of lead (II) and cadmium (II) in soil and water samples.

    PubMed

    Kadara, Rashid O; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2008-08-01

    A bulk-modified screen-printed carbon electrode characterised for metal ion detection is presented. Bismuth oxide (Bi(2)O(3)) was mixed with graphite-carbon ink to obtain the modified electrode. The best composition was 2% Bi(2)O(3) (wt%) in the graphite-carbon ink. The modified electrode with onboard screen-printed carbon counter and silver-silver chloride pseudo-reference electrodes exhibited good performance in the electrochemical measurement of lead (II) and cadmium (II). The electrode displayed excellent linear behaviour in the concentration range examined (20-300 microg L(-1)) with limits of detection of 8 and 16 microg L(-1) for both lead (II) and cadmium (II), respectively. The analytical utility of the modified electrode was illustrated by the stripping chronopotentiometric determinations of lead (II) in soil extracts and wastewater samples.

  7. Modifiers of the ash properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Vaclav; Najser, Jan; Pilat, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this article is to perform an experimental verification of the impact of added substances to limit or prevent sintering of solid fuel ash, which is formed during the thermochemical conversion of fuels. As a modifiers of ash sintering and melting temperature were used halloysite (aluminosilicate) and limestone, which has similar mechanism of action. Both of them act on the principle of a strong chemical adsorption of potassium ions, which largely cause a reduction of ash fusibility. Influence of the modifiers was observed after tests provided at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. Modifiers were dosed in amounts of 2, 5 and 10 wt.%.

  8. Gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates for specific extraction and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of malondialdehyde-modified low density lipoprotein as biomarker for cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Haller, Elisabeth; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDLs) like malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) play a major role in atherosclerosis and have been proposed as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress. In this study, gold-nanoparticles (GNPs) were functionalized via distinct chemistries with anti-MDA-LDL antibodies (Abs) for selective recognition and capture of MDA-LDL from biological matrices. The study focused on optimization of binding affinities and saturation capacities of the antiMDA-LDL-Ab-GNP bioconjugate by exploring distinct random and oriented immobilization approaches, such as (i) direct adsorptive attachment of Abs on the GNP surface, (ii) covalent bonding by amide coupling of Abs to carboxy-terminated-pegylated GNPs, (iii) oriented immobilization via oxidized carbohydrate moiety of the Ab on hydrazide-derivatized GNPs and (iv) cysteine-tagged protein A (cProtA)-bonded GNPs. Depending on immobilization chemistry, up to 3 antibodies per GNP could be immobilized as determined by ELISA. The highest binding capacity was achieved with the GNP-cProtA-Ab bioconjugate which yielded a saturation capacity of 2.24±0.04μgmL(-1) GNP suspension for MDA-LDL with an affinity Kd of 5.25±0.11×10(-10)M. The GNP-cProtA-antiMDA-LDL bioconjugate revealed high specificity for MDA-LDL over copper(II)-oxidized LDL as well as native human LDL. This clearly demonstrates the usefulness of the new GNP-Ab bioconjugates for specific extraction of MDA-LDL from plasma samples as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Their combination as specific immunoextraction nanomaterials with analysis by LC-MS/MS allows sensitive and selective detection of MDA-LDL in complex samples.

  9. What Glues a Homodimer Together: Systematic Analysis of the Stabilizing Effect of an Aromatic Hot Spot in the Protein-Protein Interface of the tRNA-Modifying Enzyme Tgt.

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Stephan; Nguyen, Phong T X; Debaene, François; Cianférani, Sarah; Reuter, Klaus; Klebe, Gerhard

    2015-08-21

    Shigella bacteria constitute the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, an acute inflammatory disease causing the death of more than one million humans per year. A null mutation in the tgt gene encoding the tRNA-modifying enzyme tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (Tgt) was found to drastically decrease the pathogenicity of Shigella bacteria, suggesting the use of Tgt as putative target for selective antibiotics. The enzyme is only functionally active as a homodimer; thus, interference with the formation of its protein-protein interface is an attractive opportunity for therapeutic intervention. To better understand the driving forces responsible for the assembly, stability, and formation of the homodimer, we studied the properties of the residues that establish the dimer interface in detail. We performed site-directed mutagenesis and controlled shifts in the monomer/dimer equilibrium ratio in solution in a concentration-dependent manner by native mass spectrometry and used crystal structure analysis to elucidate the geometrical modulations resulting from mutational variations. The wild-type enzyme exhibits nearly exclusive dimer geometry. A patch of four aromatic amino acids, embedded into a ring of hydrophobic residues and further stabilized by a network of H-bonds, is essential for the stability of the dimer's contact. Accordingly, any perturbance in the constitution of this aromatic patch by nonaromatic residues reduces dimer stability significantly, with some of these exchanges resulting in a nearly exclusively monomeric state. Apart from the aromatic hot spot, the interface comprises an extended loop-helix motif that exhibits remarkable flexibility. In the destabilized mutated variants, the loop-helix motif adopts deviating conformations in the interface region, and a number of water molecules, penetrating into the interface, are observed. PMID:25951081

  10. Modified polymers for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Christensen, W.; Mayer, L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric materials are modified to serve as stationary phase in chromatographic columns used for separation of atmospheric gases. Materials simplify and improve separation of atmospheric gases in terms of time, quantity of material needed, and sharpness of separation.

  11. Modified laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy.

    PubMed

    Sileri, P; Capuano, I; Franceschilli, L; Giorgi, F; Gaspari, A L

    2014-06-01

    We present a modified laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy procedure using biological mesh and bilateral anterior mesh fixation. The rectopexy is anterior with a minimal posterior mobilization. The rectum is symmetrically suspended to the sacral promontory through a mesorectal window.

  12. MS Disease-Modifying Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contents Injectable treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Oral treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Intravenous infusion treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Managing side effects of disease- modifying ... or subcutaneous), oral and intravenous (into the vein) infusion. INJECTABLE TREATMENTS Treatment (chemical name) Manufacturer Avonex ® (interferon ...

  13. Are You Morally Modified?

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Neil; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Terbeck, Sylvia; Cowen, Philip J.; Hewstone, Miles; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A number of concerns have been raised about the possible future use of pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive, affective, and motivational processes, particularly where the aim is to produce morally better decisions or behavior. In this article, we draw attention to what is arguably a more worrying possibility: that pharmaceuticals currently in widespread therapeutic use are already having unintended effects on these processes, and thus on moral decision making and morally significant behavior. We review current evidence on the moral effects of three widely used drugs or drug types: (i) propranolol, (ii) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and (iii) drugs that effect oxytocin physiology. This evidence suggests that the alterations to moral decision making and behavior caused by these agents may have important and difficult-to-evaluate consequences, at least at the population level. We argue that the moral effects of these and other widely used pharmaceuticals warrant further empirical research and ethical analysis. PMID:25892904

  14. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindgvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a methods for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  15. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  16. Genetically modified probiotics in foods.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farid E

    2003-11-01

    Probiotics have many potential therapeutic uses, but have not been universally accepted because of a lack of understanding of their action. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been modified by traditional and genetic engineering methods to produce new varieties. Modern techniques of molecular biology have facilitated the identification of probiotic LAB strains, but only a few LAB have been modified by recombinant-DNA technology because of consumer resistance to their introduction to markets, especially in Europe.

  17. X-0557 modified Steven tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Idar, D. J.; Mang, J. T.; Straight, J. W.; Schafstall, P.; Pacheco, A. H.; Osborn, M. A.; Coulter, W. L.; DeLuca, R. A.; Chavez, Peter J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). Various experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, have been used to investigate the potential conditions leading to a high explosive violent reaction (HEVR) for pristine as well as aged materials. PBX 9501, one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) HE formulations, is routinely evaluated for potential aging mechanisms that may influence performance and or safety criteria. Ultimately, the data derived from the aging analyses will be used to further advance 3-D finite element analysis predictive capability with improved bulk constitutive HE models for the assessment of HE response to mechanical insult. The Modified Steven test geometry was used to investigate the mechanical loading behavior and response of baseline and virtually-aged PBX 9501 lots. The PBX 9501 binder system is composed of nitroplasticized Estane 5703{trademark}, a polyester polyurethane copolymer. The nitroplasticizer (NP) can migrate out of the PBX 9501 as a function of time, resulting in increased brittle behavior and response. To mimic extreme NP depletion four lots of X-0557 were formulated with reduced NP concentrations for comparison to the baseline PBX 9501. Changes to the mechanical behavior response of the PBXs as a function of plasticizer loss may eventually affect the response of the HE to low amplitude impact. The threshold velocity to reaction, and energy release for the different lots are reported, compared and evaluated for trends as a function of NP weight percent.

  18. Evaluation of two modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation methods for the analysis of baclofen and gabapentin in feeds by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiao-Lin; Wu, Yin-Liang; Chen, Ruo-Xia; Zhu, Yong; Lv, Yan; Xu, Xiu-Qin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of baclofen and gabapentin in feeds based on two modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation methods and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For the two modified QuEChERS methods, samples were first extracted with acidified acetonitrile (5.0% acetic acid, v/v) without using acetonitrile salting-out extraction. Then, the first modified QuEChERS method was established according to the original QuEChERS cleanup procedure. For the second modified QuEChERS method, the extract was evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in acetonitrile. Subsequently, the analytes in the reconstituted solution were retained by primary secondary amine (PSA) and released from PSA with 1.0% formic acid in methanol. Finally, the eluate was evaporated and dissolved in 0.1% formic acid solution/methanol (v/v, 80:20). All of the samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with 0.1% formic acid in water/methanol as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The matrix effect, recovery, and repeatability, within laboratory reproducibility, and the LODs and LOQs of the two modified QuEChERS sample preparation methods were investigated and compared. Comparative results showed that the second method was obviously superior to the first method.

  19. Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, W.

    1996-12-31

    Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product for treating petroleum contaminated soils was investigated along with some commercially available microbial cultures in three different scales from a laboratory to pilot to case studies. The modified natural product is lignocellulosic in nature and proprietary product of a company in Iowa. The production process of this product involves mechanical size reduction, blending/coating, and aerobic digestion of hay, corn cob residue, straw or crop residue in presence of poultry manure. The degradation kinetics of the petroleum products in the contaminated soils were measured both directly and indirectly. Residual petroleum products in different soils (treated and untreated) at various time periods were quantified by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis on extracted samples. The indirect assessment of the kinetics of biological activity involved the measurement of CO{sub 2} evolved from flasks (250 ml capacity) containing contaminated soil (about 50 ml) with various treatments. The results indicated that the biodegradation kinetics of petroleum products in the contaminated soils were significantly improved by treatment with this modified natural product. In most cases tested, this product performed significantly better than the available commercial bacterial cultures for biological removal of petroleum products from contaminated soils. This study also demonstrated the significance of temperature and moisture content in biodegradation kinetics.

  20. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.

  1. Autoimmunity and oxidatively modified autoantigens

    PubMed Central

    Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative damage mediated by reactive oxygen species results in the generation of deleterious by-products. The oxidation process itself and the proteins modified by these molecules are important mediators of cell toxicity and disease pathogenesis. Aldehydic products, mainly the 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, form adducts with proteins and make them highly immunogenic. Proteins modified in this manner have been shown to induce pathogenic antibodies in a variety of diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), alcoholic liver disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 8-oxodeoxyguanine (oxidatively modified DNA) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) occur in SLE, a disease in which premature atherosclerosis is a serious problem. In addition, immunization with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) modified 60 kD Ro autoantigen induces an accelerated epitope spreading in an animal model of SLE. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and AGE modified IgG have been shown to correlate with RA disease activity. Oxidatively modified glutamic acid decarboxylase is important in type 1 DM, while autoantibodies against oxidized LDL are prevalent in Behcet’s disease. The fragmentation of scleroderma specific autoantigens occurs as a result of oxidative modification and is thought to be responsible for the production of autoantibodies through the release of cryptic epitopes. The administration of antioxidants is a viable untried alternative for preventing or ameliorating autoimmune disease, particularly on account of the overwhelming evidence for the involvement of oxidative damage in autoimmunity. However, this should be viewed in the light of disappointing results obtained with the use of antioxidants in cardiovascular disease. PMID:18625446

  2. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindqvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 2 figs.

  3. Synthesis of chemically modified DNA.

    PubMed

    Shivalingam, Arun; Brown, Tom

    2016-06-15

    Naturally occurring DNA is encoded by the four nucleobases adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. Yet minor chemical modifications to these bases, such as methylation, can significantly alter DNA function, and more drastic changes, such as replacement with unnatural base pairs, could expand its function. In order to realize the full potential of DNA in therapeutic and synthetic biology applications, our ability to 'write' long modified DNA in a controlled manner must be improved. This review highlights methods currently used for the synthesis of moderately long chemically modified nucleic acids (up to 1000 bp), their limitations and areas for future expansion. PMID:27284032

  4. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  5. Modifying Students' Tastes in Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, John Edward

    To test whether student tastes in poetry could be modified by a particular method of teaching it, the poetic preferences of 751 eighth grade students were pretested and compared with the poetic choices made by a panel of English educators, 35 student teachers in English, and the students' own English teachers. Consistently, poems selected by any…

  6. A modified chaotic cryptographic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wai-kit; Lee, Lap-piu; Wong, Kwok-wo

    2001-08-01

    We propose a modified version of the chaotic cryptographic method based on iterating a logistic map. Simulation results show that the distribution of the ciphertext is flatter and the encryption time is shorter. Moreover, the trade-off between the spread of the distribution of ciphertext and the encryption time can be controlled by a single parameter.

  7. Jogging Can Modify Disruptive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jill I.

    1980-01-01

    Jogging was used to modify disruptive behavior as part of the classroom routine for 12 learning disabled elementary-grade boys. The number of incidents of each of five negative behaviors were reduced by half following the 10-minute jogging routine. (SBH)

  8. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA.

  9. Hydroxyapatite growth on cotton fibers modified chemically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela Caselis, J. L.; Reyes Cervantes, E.; Landeta Cortés, G.; Agustín Serrano, R.; Rubio Rosas, E.

    2014-09-01

    We have prepared carboxymethyl cellulose fibers (CMC) by chemically modifying cotton cellulose with monochloroacetic acid and calcium chloride solution. This modification favored the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP) on the surface of the CMC fibers in contact with simulated body fluid solutions (SBF). After soaking in SBF for periods of 7, 14 and 21 days, formation of HAP was observed. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that crystallinity, crystallite size, and growth of HAP increased with the soaking time. The amount of HAP deposited on CMC fibers increased greatly after 21 days of immersion in the SBF, while the substrate surface was totally covered with hemispherical aggregates with the size of the order of 2 microns. Elemental analysis showed the presence of calcium and phosphate, with calcium/phosphate atomic ratio of 1.54. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy bands confirmed the presence of HAP. The results suggest that cotton modified by calcium treatment has a nucleating ability and can accelerate the nucleation of HAP crystals.

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  11. Testing and validating a modified CTAB DNA extraction method to enable molecular parentage analysis of fertilized eggs and larvae of an emerging South African aquaculture species, the dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the successful implementation of a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol to isolate genomic DNA and amplify 14 microsatellite markers from fertilized eggs and larvae of an emerging South African farmed marine fish species, the dusky kob Argyrosomus japonicus. To test and validate the efficiency of this method, genetic data were utilized to resolve parentage and kinship of first-generation (F1) offspring produced in mass-spawning events of wild broodstock fish in a commercial hatchery.

  12. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  13. Recent nanoarchitectures in metal nanoparticle-modified electrodes for electroanalysis.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Munetaka

    2010-01-01

    Increasing attention has been devoted to the use of metal nanoparticles (NPs) for electroanalysis. To make the best use of the electrocatalytic and electron-conducting characteristics of metal NPs, various nanoarchitectures have been developed for modifying metal NPs on electrode surfaces. In this review, at first recent nanoarchitectures with metal NPs for modifying electrodes are summarized together with the results of electrochemical analysis. Then, the progress of a seed-mediated growth method that we developed for modifying electrode surfaces is shown as an example that the nanoarchitectures of metal NPs are possible without using organic linker molecules. This approach should be effective for further functional modifications of the surfaces of metal NPs as well as the electrochemical analysis with lower charge-transfer resistance.

  14. Biocompatibility studies of polyacrylonitrile membranes modified with carboxylated polyetherimide.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, S; Rajesh, S; Jayalakshmi, A; Mohan, D

    2013-10-01

    Poly (ether-imide) (PEI) was carboxylated and used as the hydrophilic modification agent for the preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. Membranes were prepared with different blend compositions of PAN and CPEI by diffusion induced precipitation. The modified membranes were characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement to understand the influence of CPEI on the properties of the membranes. The biocompatibility studies exhibited reduced plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on the modified membrane surface. The complete blood count (CBC) results of CPEI incorporated membranes showed stable CBC values and significant decrease in the complement activation were also observed. In addition to good cytocompatibility, monocytes cultured on these modified membranes exhibited improved functional profiles in 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Thus it could be concluded that PAN/CPEI membranes with excellent biocompatibility can be useful for hemodialysis. PMID:23910257

  15. Fully automated DNA extraction from blood using magnetic particles modified with a hyperbranched polyamidoamine dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Yoza, Brandon; Arakaki, Atsushi; Maruyama, Kohei; Takeyama, Haruko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial and artificial magnetic particles were modified using a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and outer shell amines determined. Bacterial magnetic particles were the most consistently modified. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that the artificial magnetic particles were structurally damaged by the modification process including sonication. Furthermore, laser particle analysis of the magnetite also revealed damage. Small quantities of dendrimer-modified bacterial magnetic particles were used to extract DNA from blood. The efficiency of DNA recovery was consistently about 30 ng of DNA using 2-10 microg of dendrimer-modified bacterial magnetite. This technique was fully automated using newly developed liquid handling robots and bacterial magnetic particles.

  16. Perioperative pharmacology: blood coagulation modifiers.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Rodney W; Wanzer, Linda J; Goeckner, Bradlee

    2011-06-01

    Blood coagulation is the process that results in the formation of a blood clot to stop bleeding from a damaged blood vessel. Various pharmacologic agents can affect the coagulation process. The American College of Chest Physicians' evidence-based practice guidelines for perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy provide guidance for anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy and bridge therapy. Perioperative nurses must understand the pharmacologic principles of the most common blood coagulation modifiers related to perioperative use. The perioperative nurse's responsibilities regarding administration of blood coagulation modifiers include reviewing the patient's pertinent laboratory results (eg, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio), recognizing the underlying conditions that require blood coagulation therapy, and documenting all pertinent information. Perioperative nurses also should participate in development of detailed storage and retrieval policies related to heparin.

  17. Modified gravity inside astrophysical bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Ryo; Langlois, David; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Gleyzes, Jérôme E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr

    2015-06-01

    Many theories of modified gravity, including the well studied Horndeski models, are characterized by a screening mechanism that ensures that standard gravity is recovered near astrophysical bodies. In a recently introduced class of gravitational theories that goes beyond Horndeski, it has been found that new derivative interactions lead to a partial breaking of the Vainshtein screening mechanism inside any gravitational source, although not outside. We study the impact of this new type of deviation from standard gravity on the density profile of a spherically symmetric matter distribution, in the nonrelativistic limit. For simplicity, we consider a polytropic equation of state and derive the modifications to the standard Lane-Emden equations. We also show the existence of a universal upper bound on the amplitude of this type of modified gravity, independently of the details of the equation of state.

  18. Energy conditions in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, José P.

    2014-03-01

    We consider generalized energy conditions in modified theories of gravity by taking into account the further degrees of freedom related to scalar fields and curvature invariants. The latter are usually recast as generalized geometrical fluids that have different meanings with respect to the standard matter fluids generally adopted as sources of the field equations. More specifically, in modified gravity the curvature terms are grouped in a tensor H and a coupling g(Ψi) that can be reorganized in effective Einstein field equations, as corrections to the energy-momentum tensor of matter. The formal validity of such inequalities does not assure some basic requirements such as the attractive nature of gravity, so that the energy conditions have to be considered in a wider sense.

  19. Modified muscle sparing posterolateral thoracotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, M

    1990-01-01

    A modified posterolateral thoracotomy is described that combines the advantages of complete muscle sparing through a thoracolumbar fascial slide with excellent exposure. The technique is easy to perform. The procedure was associated with relatively little postoperative pain, coughing was effective, and early ambulation was achieved. Experience with this approach in the first 49 patients suggests that it offers an attractive alternative to the standard muscle cutting posterolateral thoracotomy approach for elective procedures. PMID:2281426

  20. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-04-18

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.