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Sample records for modified maize zea

  1. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weed (Avena fatua L.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatua L.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Frame, Bronwyn; Warnberg, Katey; Main, Marcy; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an effective method for introducing genes into maize. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of the maize genotype Hi II. Our starting plant material is immature embryos cocultivated with an Agrobacterium strain carrying a standard binary vector. In addition to step-by-step laboratory transformation procedures, we include extensive details in growing donor plants and caring for transgenic plants in the greenhouse.

  3. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.

  4. Absolute quantification of genetically modified MON810 maize (Zea mays L.) by digital polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Corbisier, Philippe; Bhat, Somanath; Partis, Lina; Xie, Vicki Rui Dan; Emslie, Kerry R

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of genetically modified (GM) foods requires estimation of the amount of the transgenic event relative to an endogenous gene. Regulatory authorities in the European Union (EU) have defined the labelling threshold for GM food on the copy number ratio between the transgenic event and an endogenous gene. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently being used for quantification of GM organisms (GMOs). Limitations in real-time PCR applications to detect very low number of DNA targets has led to new developments such as the digital PCR (dPCR) which allows accurate measurement of DNA copies without the need for a reference calibrator. In this paper, the amount of maize MON810 and hmg copies present in a DNA extract from seed powders certified for their mass content and for their copy number ratio was measured by dPCR. The ratio of these absolute copy numbers determined by dPCR was found to be identical to the ratios measured by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using a plasmid DNA calibrator. These results indicate that both methods could be applied to determine the copy number ratio in MON810. The reported values were in agreement with estimations from a model elaborated to convert mass fractions into copy number fractions in MON810 varieties. This model was challenged on two MON810 varieties used for the production of MON810 certified reference materials (CRMs) which differ in the parental origin of the introduced GM trait. We conclude that dPCR has a high metrological quality and can be used for certifying GM CRMs in terms of DNA copy number ratio.

  5. Pepsin degradation of Cry1A(b) protein purified from genetically modified maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    de Luis, Ruth; Lavilla, María; Sánchez, Lourdes; Calvo, Miguel; Pérez, María D

    2010-02-24

    The aim of this work was to study the in vitro digestion of Cry1A(b) protein by pepsin. To perform this work, a protein fraction purified from transgenic maize by immunoadsorption was employed. The undigested fraction showed several bands of molecular weight ranging between 14 and 70 kDa when assayed by SDS-PAGE. These bands were identified as corresponding to Cry1A(b) protein by immunochemical techniques and mass spectrometry. The rate of degradation of the purified fraction by pepsin estimated by ELISA was found to be about 75% within 30 min, and the protein concentration remained constant up to 4 h. In all treated samples, the full-length protein and fragments present in Cry1A(b) fraction were absent and peptides of less than 8.5 kDa were mainly found by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. These peptides did not react with antiserum against Cry1A(b) protein by Western blotting. These results suggest that Cry1A(b) fraction purified from transgenic maize is rapidly and extensively degraded by pepsin, giving peptides of low molecular mass.

  6. Randomly detected genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) near a transport route revealed a fragile 45S rDNA phenotype.

    PubMed

    Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a "beads-on-a-string" fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed.

  7. Randomly Detected Genetically Modified (GM) Maize (Zea mays L.) near a Transport Route Revealed a Fragile 45S rDNA Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Choi, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops has been emphasized to prevent their potential effects on the environment and human health. Monitoring of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenic maize in several fields and transport routes in Korea was carried out by qualitative multiplex PCR, and molecular analyses were conducted to identify the events of the collected GM maize. Cytogenetic investigations through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the GM maize were performed to check for possible changes in the 45S rDNA cluster because this cluster was reported to be sensitive to replication and transcription stress. Three GM maize kernels were collected from a transport route near Incheon port, Korea, and each was found to contain NK603, stacked MON863 x NK603, and stacked NK603 x MON810 inserts, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of the GM maize containing the stacked NK603 x MON810 insert revealed two normal compact 5S rDNA signals, but the 45S rDNA showed a fragile phenotype, demonstrating a “beads-on-a-string” fragmentation pattern, which seems to be a consequence of genetic modification. Implications of the 45S rDNA cluster fragility in GM maize are also discussed. PMID:24040165

  8. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP839) in the adh1 reference gene affects the quantitation of genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Schimmel, Heinz; Trapmann, Stefanie; Vincent, Sandra; Emons, Hendrik

    2008-10-08

    The real-time PCR methods recommended in the European Union for the quantitation of genetically modified (GM) maize events NK603, GA21, and MON 863 measure the number of copies of the GM event in relation to those of the maize-specific adh1 reference gene. The study reported here revealed that the targeted 70 base pair adh1 region exhibits a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP839) that hampers the binding of the reverse primer used in the adh1 detection method. Partial fragments of the adh1-A and adh1-F allele were cloned. By allele-specific real-time PCR, it was shown that SNP839 corresponds to a common allelic polymorphism in maize. As a result, the quantitation of the GM maize events mentioned is positively or negatively biased, depending on the adh1 genotype of sample and calibrant. Therefore, it is proposed to revise the quantitative detection methods for NK603, GA21, and MON 863 maize.

  9. Proteome Profile of the Developing Maize (Zea mays L.) Rachis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infection of the developing maize (Zea mays L.) ear with the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus, which produces the carcinogen aflatoxin, is a serious agricultural problem causing significant economic losses worldwide. The rachis (or cob) is an important structure that fungus uses to spread within...

  10. A major suppressor of cell death, slm1, modifies the expression of the maize (Zea mays L.) lesion mimic mutation les23.

    PubMed

    Penning, Bryan W; Johal, Gurmukh S; McMullen, Michael D

    2004-10-01

    Disease lesion mimics provide an excellent biological system to study the genetic basis of cell death in plants. Many lesion mimics show variation in phenotype expression in different genetic backgrounds. Our goal was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) modifying lesion mimic expression thereby identifying genetic modifiers of cell death. A recessive lesion mimic, les23, in a severe-expressing line was crossed to the maize inbred line Mo20W, a lesion-suppressing line, and an F(2) population was developed for QTL analysis. In addition to locating les23 to the short arm of chromosome 2, this analysis detected significant loci for modification of lesion expression. One highly significant locus was found on the long arm of chromosome 2. The Mo20W allele at this QTL significantly delayed initiation of the lesion phenotype and decreased the final lesion severity. Other QTL with lesser effect affected severity of lesion expression without affecting lesion initiation date. Our results demonstrate that dramatic change in lesion phenotype can be controlled by a single major QTL. The presumed function of this QTL in normal plants is to regulate some aspect of the cell death pathway underlying the les23 phenotype.

  11. Maize (Zea mays L.) genetic factors for preventing fumonisin contamination.

    PubMed

    Butrón, Ana; Santiago, Rogelio; Mansilla, Pedro; Pintos-Varela, Cristina; Ordas, Amando; Malvar, Rosa Ana

    2006-08-09

    Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum are the most frequently isolated fungi from maize (Zea mays L.) in Spain. Both Fusarium species produce toxins potentially dangerous for animals and humans, the fumonisins being the most significant of those toxins. White maize is preferred for human consumption, and extra care should be taken to avoid kernel mycotoxin contamination. The objectives of this study were to identify and quantify kernel infection by Fusarium spp. and contamination by fumonisin on white maize hybrids, to search for white maize sources of resistance to infection by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin contamination, and to preliminarily study the genetics involved in such resistances. Ten F(1) single crosses derived from a diallel mating design among five white maize inbreds were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2002 at two locations. Fusarium verticilloides and F. proliferatum were detected on kernels of white maize hybrids cultivated in northwestern Spain. No differences in fungal infection were found among maize genotypes, but differences in fumonisin contamination were significant and could be related, in part, to differences in husk tightness. Among the genotypes studied, general combining ability (GCA) effects were the most important for resistance to fumonisin contamination. Inbreds EP10 and EC22 showed the most favorable GCA effects for husk tightness and fumonisin content, and the cross between them, EP10 x EC22, had the most favorable specific combining ability (SCA) effect for husk tightness. Inbreds EP10 and EC22 showed favorable GCA effects for fumonisin contamination and husk tightness, and the cross EP10 x EC22 was the only one with an average fumonisin level below 1 mug/g. Although this should be confirmed with more extensive studies, white maize inbreds developed from white maize landraces could be sources of resistance to fumonisin contamination.

  12. Induced cytomictic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Girjesh; Tripathi, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been used for improving oligogenic and polygenic characters, disease resistance and quantitative characters including yielding ability. The cytological stability of maize inbred lines is an important consideration in view of their extensive use in genetics and plant breeding research. Investigation in Zea mays L. confirms that the migration of chromosomes is a real event that cannot be misunderstood as an artifact produced by fixation or mechanical injuries. During present investigation, we found that out of six inbred lines of Zea mays L. viz. CM-135, CM-136, CM-137, CM-138, CM-142 and CM-213 at various treatment doses of gamma irradiations viz. 200, 400 and 600 Gy, some of the plants of inbred line CM- 138 at 200 Gy dose displayed characteristic cytoplasmic connections during all the stages of meiosis. Four plants from this treatment set were found to be engaged in a rare phenomenon reported as "Cytomixis". It elucidates that in inbred of Zea mays L., induced cytomixis through gamma rays treatment may be considered to be a possible source of production of aneuploid and polyploid gametes. This phenomenon may have several applications in Zea mays L. improvement in the sense of diversity and ever yield potential.

  13. Arsenic accumulation in maize crop (Zea mays): a review.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Castor, J M; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Garza-González, M T; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that may represent a serious environmental threat, due to its wide abundance and the high toxicity particularly of its inorganic forms. The use of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for irrigation purposes in crop fields elevates the arsenic concentration in topsoil and its phytoavailability for crops. The transfer of arsenic through the crops-soil-water system is one of the more important pathways of human exposure. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, maize (Zea mays L.) is the most cultivated cereal in the world. This cereal constitutes a staple food for humans in the most of the developing countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Thus, this review summarizes the existing literature concerning the conditions involved in agricultural soil that leads to As influx into maize crops and the uptake mechanisms, metabolism and phytotoxicity of As in corn plants. Additionally, the studies of the As accumulation in raw corn grain and corn food are summarized, and the As biotransfer into the human diet is highlighted. Due to high As levels found in editable plant part for livestock and humans, the As uptake by corn crop through water-soil-maize system may represent an important pathway of As exposure in countries with high maize consumption.

  14. Fate of Cry1Ab protein in agricultural systems under slurry management of cows fed genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) MON810: a quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Helga; Paul, Vijay; Guertler, Patrick; Spiekers, Hubert; Tichopad, Ales; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Muller, Martin

    2011-07-13

    The objective of the study was to track the fate of recombinant Cry1Ab protein in a liquid manure field trial when feeding GM maize MON810 to dairy cows. A validated ELISA was applied for quantification of Cry1Ab in the agricultural chain from GM maize plants, feed, liquid manure and soil to crops grown on manured fields. Starting with 23.7 μg of Cry1Ab g(-1) dry weight GM maize material, a rapid decline of Cry1Ab levels was observed as 2.6% and 0.9% of Cry1Ab from the GM plant were detected in feed and liquid manure, respectively. Half of this residual Cry1Ab persisted during slurry storage for 25 weeks. After application to experimental fields, final degradation of Cry1Ab to below detectable levels in soil was reported. Cry1Ab exhibited a higher rate of degradation compared to total protein in the agricultural processes. Immunoblotting revealed a degradation of the 65 kDa Cry1Ab into immunoreactive fragments of lower size in all analyzed materials.

  15. Uncultured bacterial diversity in tropical maize (Zea mays L.) rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Mishra, Sandhya; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2011-02-01

    Structure of maize (Zea mays L.) rhizosphere bacteria was evaluated to explore the feasibility of identifying novel rhizosphere bacteria using culture-independent method based on direct amplification and analysis of 16S rRNA gene (rRNA) sequences and especially to obtain a better understanding of bacterial community structure and diversity from maize. A total of 274 sequences were analyzed and assigned 48.00% Proteobacteria, 10.30% Actinobacteria, 9.90% Bacteroidetes, 6.60% Verrucomicrobia, 4.80% Acidobacteria, 1.80% Firmicutes, 1.50% Chloroflexi, 1.50% TM7, 1.10% Deinococcus-Thermus, 0.70% Planctomycetes, 0.70% Gemmatimonadetes and 0.40% Cyanobacteria. Economically important phyla Actinobacteria was second most dominant group after Proteobacteria, in our clone library. It would be interesting to hypothesize that root exudates from maize rhizosphere favors growth of Actinobacteria like microbes to eliminate pathogenic bacteria and decompose plant matter, for enhanced plant and soil health. An additional 12.8% of clone library (35 operational taxonomical units (OTUs) from 43 clones) with less than 94% similarity to any GenBank sequence could not be assigned to any known phylum and may represent unidentified bacterial lineages and suggests that a large amount of the rhizobacterial diversity remains to be characterized by culturing.

  16. Biosorption of lead by maize (Zea mays) stalk sponge.

    PubMed

    García-Rosales, G; Colín-Cruz, A

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by a maize (Zea mays) stalk sponge. Equilibrium and kinetic models for Pb(II) sorption were developed by considering the effect of the contact time and concentration at the optimum pH of 6 +/- 0.2. The Freundlich model was found to describe the sorption energetics of Pb(II) by Z. mays stalk sponge, and a maximum Pb(II) loading capacity of 80 mg g(-1) was determined. The kinetic parameters were obtained by fitting data from experiments measuring the effect of contact time on adsorption capacity into pseudo-first and second-order equations. The kinetics of Pb(II) sorption onto Z. mays biosorbent were well defined using linearity coefficients (R(2)) by the pseudo-second-order equation (0.9998). The results obtained showed that Zea may stalk sponge was a useful biomaterial for Pb(II) sorption and that pH has an important effect on metal biosorption capacity.

  17. Ontogeny of the sheathing leaf base in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Robyn; Leiboff, Samuel; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Leaves develop from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) via recruitment of leaf founder cells. Unlike eudicots, most monocot leaves display parallel venation and sheathing bases wherein the margins overlap the stem. Here we utilized computed tomography (CT) imaging, localization of PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin transport proteins, and in situ hybridization of leaf developmental transcripts to analyze the ontogeny of monocot leaf morphology in maize (Zea mays). CT imaging of whole-mounted shoot apices illustrates the plastochron-specific stages during initiation of the basal sheath margins from the tubular disc of insertion (DOI). PIN1 localizations identify basipetal auxin transport in the SAM L1 layer at the site of leaf initiation, a process that continues reiteratively during later recruitment of lateral leaf domains. Refinement of these auxin transport domains results in multiple, parallel provascular strands within the initiating primordium. By contrast, auxin is transported from the L2 toward the L1 at the developing margins of the leaf sheath. Transcripts involved in organ boundary formation and dorsiventral patterning accumulate within the DOI, preceding the outgrowth of the overlapping margins of the sheathing leaf base. We suggest a model wherein sheathing bases and parallel veins are both patterned via the extended recruitment of lateral maize leaf domains from the SAM. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Antifungal-protein production in maize (Zea mays) suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Perri, Fabio; Della Penna, Serena; Rufini, Francesca; Patamia, Maria; Bonito, Mariantonietta; Angiolella, Letizia; Vitali, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    The growing emergency due to the phenomenon of drug resistance to micro-organisms has pushed forward the search for new potential drug alternatives to those already in use. Plants represent a suitable source of new antifungal molecules, as they produce a series of defensive proteins. Among them are the PRPs (pathogenesis-related proteins), shown to be effective in vitro against human pathogens. An optimized and established cell-suspension culture of maize (Zea mays) was shown to constitutively secrete in the medium a series of PRPs comprising the antifungal protein zeamatin (P33679) with a final yield of approx. 3 mg/litre. The in-vitro-produced zeamatin possessed antifungal activity towards a clinical strain of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, an activity comparable with the one reported for the same protein extracted from maize seeds. Along with zeamatin, other PRPs were expressed: a 9 kDa lipid-transfer protein, a 26 kDa xylanase inhibitor and a new antifungal protein, PR-5. A fast, two-step chromatographic procedure was set up allowing the complete purification of the proteins considered, making this cell line a valuable system for the production of potential antifungal agents in a reliable and easy way.

  19. Cloning and expression analysis of hemoglobin genes from maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis).

    PubMed

    Aréchaga-Ocampo, E; Saenz-Rivera, J; Sarath, G; Klucas, R V; Arredondo-Peter, R

    2001-11-11

    With the exception of barley and rice, little is known about the existence of hemoglobins (Hbs) in cereals. This work reports the cloning and analysis of hb genes from maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis). Coding sequences of maize and teosinte hb genes (hbm and hbt, respectively) are highly similar to each other and are interrupted by three introns located at identical positions as other plant hb genes. Sequences of predicted Hbm and Hbt proteins are identical. The hydropathic profile of Hbm and Hbt is highly similar to that of rice Hb1, suggesting that Hbm, Hbt and Hb1 have the same tertiary structure and biochemical properties. Expression analysis showed that low levels of Hb transcripts, but considerable levels of Hb proteins exist in maize embryonic organs. No Hb transcripts and proteins were detected in teosinte embryonic organs. Low levels of Hb proteins, but no Hb transcripts, were detected in maize and teosinte vegetative organs. These observations suggest that the regulation of hb genes is different in maize and teosinte embryonic organs, and that the expression of hb genes is down- or up-regulated in maize and teosinte, respectively, from germination to vegetative growing.

  20. Sugar transport by maize endosperm suspension cultures. [Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, F.C.; Goodwin, J.C.

    1987-08-01

    To determine the mechanism of sugar uptake by suspension cultures derived from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm, incorporation of radioactivity from /sup 14/C-sugars by the tissue in the mid-log phase of growth was examined. Among the sugars tested was l'-deoxy-l'-fluorosucrose (FS), a derivative not hydrolyzed by invertase but recognized by sucrose carriers in other systems. At 40 mM, uptake of label from FS was 23% of that from sucrose, while uptake of label from L-glucose (used as a control for medium carry-over and adsorption) was 16% of that from sucrose. Uptake of label from sucrose did not increase at concentrations above 50 mM, possibly due to a rate-limiting requirement for extracellular hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed both saturable and linear components of uptake for glucose and fructose. The rate of fructose uptake exceeded that of glucose at all concentrations. Fructose uptake at 20 mM was inhibited by NaN/sub 3/, HgCl/sub 2/, dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. Results suggest that sucrose is hydrolyzed prior to uptake, and that fructose is transported preferentially by a carrier sensitive to an external sulfhydryl group inhibitor. Metabolic activity is required for sugar uptake. The specificity of the hexose transporter is currently being investigated.

  1. A cellular study of teosinte Zea mays ssp. parviglumis (Poaceae) caryopsis development showing several processes conserved in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although recent molecular studies elucidate the genetic background leading to changed morphology of maize female inflorescence and the structure of the caryopsis during the domestication of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) from its wild progenitor teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the mechanisms under...

  2. A linkage map of maize x teosinte zea luxurians and identification of qtls controlling root aerenchyma formation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One-hundred and ninety five F2 individuals, derived from a cross between maize inbred line B73 x Zea luxurians, were subjected to a 107 SSR marker based QTL analysis for aerenchyma cell formation that covered 1,331 cM across all ten maize and Zea luxurians chromosomes. Composite interval mapping a...

  3. Ultrastructural studies on pollen embryogenesis in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Barnabas, B; Fransz, P F; Schel, J H

    1987-06-01

    Maize anthers have been induced on modified N6 medium to produce embryoids. Different stages from the cultures were sampled and prepared for microscopical examination. The microspores at the onset of culture were in an early developmental stage, with the nucleus and numerous organelles centred in the middle, surrounded by many small vacuoles with a lipid content. The binuclear pollen grains contained small vesicles and much starch. The partially condensed vegetative nucleus indicated participation of the vegetative component in the formation of multicellular pollen grains (MPGs). Several MPGs have been observed which differed in morphology. We suggest, on the basis of these ultrastructural observations, that in maize mainly the vegetative cell contributes to the MPG which further develops directly into embryoids.

  4. Use of Maize (Zea mays L.) for phytomanagement of Cd-contaminated soils: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Ok, Yong Sik; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Hannan, Fakhir

    2017-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) has been widely adopted for phytomanagement of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils due to its high biomass production and Cd accumulation capacity. This paper reviewed the toxic effects of Cd and its management by maize plants. Maize could tolerate a certain level of Cd in soil while higher Cd stress can decrease seed germination, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis and growth/yields. Toxicity response of maize to Cd varies with cultivar/varieties, growth medium and stress duration/extent. Exogenous application of organic and inorganic amendments has been used for enhancing Cd tolerance of maize. The selection of Cd-tolerant maize cultivar, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes is a representative agronomic practice to enhance Cd tolerance in maize. Proper selection of cultivar and agronomic practices combined with amendments might be successful for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils with maize. However, there might be the risk of food chain contamination by maize grains obtained from the Cd-contaminated soils. Thus, maize cultivation could be an option for the management of low- and medium-grade Cd-contaminated soils if grain yield is required. On the other hand, maize can be grown on Cd-polluted soils only if biomass is required for energy production purposes. Long-term field trials are required, including risks and benefit analysis for various management strategies aiming Cd phytomanagement with maize.

  5. Maize Seed Chitinase is Modified by a Protein Secreted by Bipolaris zeicola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants contain defense mechanisms that prevent infection by most fungi. Some specialized fungi have the ability to overcome plant defenses. The Zea mays (maize) seed chitinase ChitA has been previously reported as an antifungal protein. Here we report that ChitA is converted to a modified form by...

  6. Defining the role of the MADS-box gene, Zea agamous like1, in maize domestication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic scans for genes that show the signature of past selection have been widely applied to a number of species and have identified a large number of selection candidate genes. In cultivated maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) selection scans have identified several hundred candidate domestication genes...

  7. Isolation of EF1gamma from calli regenerating SSH library in Maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Xia, Y L; Ding, J; Zhang, Z M; Rong, T Z; Shi, L Y; Pan, G T

    2007-12-01

    18599Hong, a good Maize (Zea mays) inbred line as well as good transformation acceptor with high regeneration capacity, was used for isolating embryonic callus regeneration genes. Subtractive library was constructed by Suppression subtractive hybridization and screened by Reverse Northern Hybridization. The clones of No. 27 was randomly picked to sequence. NCBI blastx results showed the similarity to elongation factor 1gamma in rice.

  8. Root morphology and gene expression analysis in response to drought stress in maize (Zea mays)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water-deficit stress tolerance is a complex trait, and water deficit results in various physiological and chemical changes in maize (Zea mays L.) and exacerbates preharvest aflatoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to characterize the variations in morphology, physiology and gene expr...

  9. Identification of host kairomones from maize, Zea mays, for the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Ukeh, Donald A; Woodcock, Christine M; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, is an economically important pest of stored grains in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The behavioral responses of adult S. zeamais to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from maize seeds, Zea mays, were studied to identify semiochemicals used in host location and provide potential tools for managing this pest. VOCs released directly from crude seed extracts, vacuum distilled extracts, hexane and diethyl ether fractions from silica gel chromatography of the vacuum distillates, air entrainment samples, and identified volatile compounds were assayed using a Perspex four-arm olfactometer. Weevils spent significantly more time, and made a higher number of visits, to the region of the olfactometer where Z. mays volatiles were present than in control regions comprising solvent only. When white and yellow Z. mays VOCs were compared in a choice test, the mean time spent in the two olfactometer treatment arms was significantly greater than the mean time spent in the control arms. However, weevils did not show any preference for either of the two treatments, thus demonstrating that both varieties of maize have similar activity. Gas chromatography (GC), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC peak enhancement and electroantennography (EAG) identified hexanal, (E)-2-heptenal, and octanal as biologically active compounds in air entrainment samples and diethyl ether fractions of vacuum distillates. A 3-component synthetic blend of the identified compounds was significantly attractive to both sexes of the weevil. These host kairomones could be deployed in semiochemical based monitoring and management of S. zeamais in the tropics.

  10. Accumulation potentials of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Krippner, Johanna; Falk, Sandy; Brunn, Hubertus; Georgii, Sebastian; Schubert, Sven; Stahl, Thorsten

    2015-04-15

    Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) by maize represents a potential source of exposure for humans, either directly or indirectly via feed for animals raised for human consumption. The aim of the following study was, therefore, to determine the accumulation potential of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in maize (Zea mays). Two different concentrations of PFAAs were applied as aqueous solution to the soil to attain target concentrations of 0.25 mg or 1.00 mg of PFAA per kg of soil. Maize was grown in pots, and after harvesting, PFAA concentrations were measured in the straw and kernels of maize. PFCA and PFSA concentrations of straw decreased significantly with increasing chain length. In maize kernels, only PFCAs with a chain length ≤ C8 as well as perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) were detected. The highest soil-to-plant transfer for both straw and kernels was determined for short-chained PFCAs and PFSAs.

  11. Flooding tolerance in interspecific introgression lines containing chromosome segments from teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis) in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays)

    PubMed Central

    Mano, Y.; Omori, F.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Nicaraguan teosinte (Zea nicaraguensis), a species found in frequently flooded areas, provides useful germplasm for breeding flooding-tolerant maize (Z. mays subsp. mays). The objective of this study was to select flooding-tolerant lines using a library of introgression lines (ILs), each containing a chromosome segment from Z. nicaraguensis in the maize inbred line Mi29. Methods To produce the ILs, a single F1 plant derived from a cross between maize Mi29 and Z. nicaraguensis was backcrossed to Mi29 three times, self-pollinated four times and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers. Flooding tolerance was evaluated at the seedling stage under reducing soil conditions. Key Results By backcrossing and selfing, a series of 45 ILs were developed covering nearly the entire maize genome. Five flooding-tolerant lines were identified from among the ILs by evaluating leaf injury. Among these, line IL#18, containing a Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment on the long arm of chromosome 4, showed the greatest tolerance to flooding, suggesting the presence of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) in that region. The presence of the QTL was verified by examining flooding tolerance in a population segregating for the candidate region of chromosome 4. There was no significant relationship between the capacity to form constitutive aerenchyma and flooding tolerance in the ILs, indicating the presence of other factors related to flooding tolerance under reducing soil conditions. Conclusions A flooding-tolerant genotype, IL#18, was identified; this genotype should be useful for maize breeding. In addition, because the chromosome segments of Z. nicaraguensis in the ILs cover nearly the entire genome and Z. nicaraguensis possesses several unique traits related to flooding tolerance, the ILs should be valuable material for additional QTL detection and the development of flooding-tolerant maize lines. PMID:23877074

  12. Impact of genetic structures on haploid genome-based quantification of genetically modified DNA: theoretical considerations, experimental data in MON 810 maize kernels (Zea mays L.) and some practical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, David; Corlet, Aurélie; Fouilloux, Stephane

    2008-06-01

    Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assays are widely used to estimate the content of genetically modified (GM) materials in food, feed and seed. It has been known that the genetic structures of the analyte can significantly influence the GM content expressed by the haploid genome (HG) % estimated using real-time PCR assays; this kind of influence is also understood as the impact of biological factors. The influence was first simulated at theoretical level using maize as a model. We then experimentally assessed the impact of biological factors on quantitative results, analysing by quantitative real-time PCR six maize MON 810 hybrid kernels with different genetic structures: (1) hemizygous from transgenic male parent, (2) hemizygous from transgenic female parent and (3) homozygous at the transgenic locus. The results obtained in the present study showed clear influences of biological factors on GM DNA quantification: 1% of GM materials by weight (wt) for the three genetic structures contained 0.39, 0.55 and 1.0% of GM DNA by HG respectively, from quantitative real-time PCR analyses. The relationships between GM wt% and GM HG% can be empirically established as: (1) in the case of the presence of a single GM trait: GM HG% = GM wt% x (0.5 +/- 0.167Y), where Y is the endosperm DNA content (%) in the total DNA of a maize kernel, (2) in the case of the presence of multiple GM traits: GM HG% = N x GM wt% x (0.5 +/- 0.167Y), where N is the number of GM traits (stacked or not) present in an unknown sample. This finding can be used by stakeholders related to GMO for empirical prediction from one unit of expression to another in the monitoring of seed and grain production chains. Practical equations have also been suggested for haploid copy number calculations, using hemizygous GM materials for calibration curves.

  13. Positional cloning in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, Poaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Whipple, Clinton J.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Positional (or map-based) cloning is a common approach to identify the molecular lesions causing mutant phenotypes. Despite its large and complex genome, positional cloning has been recently shown to be feasible in maize, opening up a diverse collection of mutants to molecular characterization. • Methods and Results: Here we outline a general protocol for positional cloning in maize. While the general strategy is similar to that used in other plant species, we focus on the unique resources and approaches that should be considered when applied to maize mutants. • Conclusions: Positional cloning approaches are appropriate for maize mutants and quantitative traits, opening up to molecular characterization the large array of genetic diversity in this agronomically important species. The cloning approach described should be broadly applicable to other species as more plant genomes become available. PMID:25606355

  14. Morphological and physiological responses of maize (Zea mays) exposed to sand contaminated by phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Joan; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leglize, Pierre; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Phytoremediation is promising, but depends on clearly understanding contaminants' impact on plant functioning. We therefore focused on the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on cultivated plants and understanding the impact of phenanthrene (PHE) on maize functioning (Zea mays). Cultivation was conducted under controlled conditions on artificially contaminated sand with PHE levels increasing from 50 to 750 mg PHE kg(-1). After four weeks, plants exposed to levels above 50 mg PHE kg(-1) presented decreased biomasses and reduced photosynthetic activity. These modifications were associated with higher biomass allocations to roots and lower ones to stems. The leaf biomass proportion was similar, with thinner blades than controls. PHE-exposed plant showed modified root architecture, with fewer roots of 0.2 and 0.4 mm in diameter. Leaves were potassium-deplete, but calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and zinc-enriched. Their content in nitrogen, iron, sulfur and manganese was unaffected. These responses resembled those of water-stress, although water contents in plant organs were not affected by PHE and water supply was not limited. They also indicated a possible perturbation of both nutritional functioning and photosynthesis.

  15. Multiple Pesticides Detoxification Function of Maize (Zea mays) GST34.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongzhi; Xu, Li; Pang, Sen; Liu, Zhiqian; Zhao, Weisong; Wang, Chengju

    2017-03-08

    ZmGST34 is a maize Tau class GST gene and was found to be differently expressed between two maize cultivars differing in tolerance to herbicide metolachlor. To explore the possible role of ZmGST34 in maize development, the expression pattern and substrate specificity of ZmGST34 were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR and heterologous expression system, respectively. The results indicated that the expression level of ZmGST34 was increased ∼2-5-fold per day during the second-leaf stage of maize seedling. Chloroacetanilide herbicides or phytohormone treatments had no influence on the expression level of ZmGST34, suggesting that ZmGST34 is a constitutively expressed gene in maize seedling. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and in Arabidopsis thaliana proved that ZmGST34 can metabolize most chloroacetanilide herbicides and increase tolerance to these herbicides in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The constitutive expression pattern and broad substrate activity of ZmGST34 suggested that this gene may play an important role in maize development in addition to the detoxification of pesticides.

  16. Identification of Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) alleles for resistance to southern leaf blight in near isogenic maize lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern Leaf Blight [(SLB), causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O] is an important fungal disease of maize in the United States. Teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis), the wild progenitor of maize, offers a novel source of resistance alleles that may have been lost during domestication. T...

  17. The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: New accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications

    PubMed Central

    Piperno, D. R.; Flannery, K. V.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry age determinations of maize cobs (Zea mays L.) from Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, produced dates of 5,400 carbon-14 years before the present (about 6,250 calendar years ago), making those cobs the oldest in the Americas. Macrofossils and phytoliths characteristic of wild and domesticated Zea fruits are absent from older strata from the site, although Zea pollen has previously been identified from those levels. These results, together with the modern geographical distribution of wild Zea mays, suggest that the cultural practices that led to Zea domestication probably occurred elsewhere in Mexico. Guilá Naquitz Cave has now yielded the earliest macrofossil evidence for the domestication of two major American crop plants, squash (Cucurbita pepo) and maize. PMID:11172082

  18. The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: new accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications.

    PubMed

    Piperno, D R; Flannery, K V

    2001-02-13

    Accelerator mass spectrometry age determinations of maize cobs (Zea mays L.) from Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, produced dates of 5,400 carbon-14 years before the present (about 6,250 calendar years ago), making those cobs the oldest in the Americas. Macrofossils and phytoliths characteristic of wild and domesticated Zea fruits are absent from older strata from the site, although Zea pollen has previously been identified from those levels. These results, together with the modern geographical distribution of wild Zea mays, suggest that the cultural practices that led to Zea domestication probably occurred elsewhere in Mexico. Guilá Naquitz Cave has now yielded the earliest macrofossil evidence for the domestication of two major American crop plants, squash (Cucurbita pepo) and maize.

  19. Directly dated starch residues document early formative maize (Zea mays L.) in tropical Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Zarrillo, Sonia; Pearsall, Deborah M; Raymond, J Scott; Tisdale, Mary Ann; Quon, Dugane J

    2008-04-01

    The study of maize (Zea mays L.) domestication has advanced from questions of its origins to the study-and debate-of its dietary role and the timing of its dispersal from Mexico. Because the investigation of maize's spread is hampered by poor preservation of macrobotanical remains in the Neotropics, research has focused on microbotanical remains whose contexts are often dated by association, leading some to question the dates assigned. Furthermore, some scholars have argued that maize was not introduced to southwestern Ecuador until approximately 4150-3850 calendar years before the present (cal B.P.), that it was used first and foremost as a fermented beverage in ceremonial contexts, and that it was not important in everyday subsistence, challenging previous studies based on maize starch and phytoliths. To further investigate these questions, we analyzed every-day cooking vessels, food-processing implements, and sediments for starch and phytoliths from an archaeological site in southwestern Ecuador constituting a small Early Formative village. Employing a new technique to recover starch granules from charred cooking-pot residues we show that maize was present, cultivated, and consumed here in domestic contexts by at least 5300-4950 cal B.P. Directly dating the residues by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurement, our results represent the earliest direct dates for maize in Early Formative Ecuadorian sites and provide further support that, once domesticated approximately 9000 calendar years ago, maize spread rapidly from southwestern Mexico to northwestern South America.

  20. Accumulation of Hydrocarbons by Maize (Zea mays L.) in Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Liao, Changjun; Xu, Wending; Lu, Guining; Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chen; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    This study has investigated the use of screened maize for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil. Pots experiment was carried out for 60 days by transplanting maize seedlings into spiked soils. The results showed that certain amount of crude oil in soil (≤2 147 mg·kg(-1)) could enhance the production of shoot biomass of maize. Higher concentration (6 373 mg·kg(-1)) did not significantly inhibit the growth of plant maize (including shoot and root). Analysis of plant shoot by GC-MS showed that low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in maize tissues, but PAHs concentration in the plant did not increase with higher concentration of crude oil in soil. The reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon in planted soil was up to 52.21-72.84%, while that of the corresponding controls was only 25.85-34.22% in two months. In addition, data from physiological and biochemical indexes demonstrated a favorable adaptability of maize to crude oil pollution stress. This study suggested that the use of maize (Zea mays L.) was a good choice for remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum within a certain range of concentrations.

  1. Nearly Identical Paralogs: Implications for Maize (Zea mays L.) Genome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Emrich, Scott J.; Li, Li; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Fu, Yan; Guo, Ling; Chou, Hui-Hsien; Aluru, Srinivas; Ashlock, Daniel A.; Schnable, Patrick S.

    2007-01-01

    As an ancient segmental tetraploid, the maize (Zea mays L.) genome contains large numbers of paralogs that are expected to have diverged by a minimum of 10% over time. Nearly identical paralogs (NIPs) are defined as paralogous genes that exhibit ≥98% identity. Sequence analyses of the “gene space” of the maize inbred line B73 genome, coupled with wet lab validation, have revealed that, conservatively, at least ∼1% of maize genes have a NIP, a rate substantially higher than that in Arabidopsis. In most instances, both members of maize NIP pairs are expressed and are therefore at least potentially functional. Of evolutionary significance, members of many NIP families also exhibit differential expression. The finding that some families of maize NIPs are closely linked genetically while others are genetically unlinked is consistent with multiple modes of origin. NIPs provide a mechanism for the maize genome to circumvent the inherent limitation that diploid genomes can carry at most two “alleles” per “locus.” As such, NIPs may have played important roles during the evolution and domestication of maize and may contribute to the success of long-term selection experiments in this important crop species. PMID:17110490

  2. Directly dated starch residues document early formative maize (Zea mays L.) in tropical Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Zarrillo, Sonia; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Raymond, J. Scott; Tisdale, Mary Ann; Quon, Dugane J.

    2008-01-01

    The study of maize (Zea mays L.) domestication has advanced from questions of its origins to the study—and debate—of its dietary role and the timing of its dispersal from Mexico. Because the investigation of maize's spread is hampered by poor preservation of macrobotanical remains in the Neotropics, research has focused on microbotanical remains whose contexts are often dated by association, leading some to question the dates assigned. Furthermore, some scholars have argued that maize was not introduced to southwestern Ecuador until ≈4150–3850 calendar years before the present (cal B.P.), that it was used first and foremost as a fermented beverage in ceremonial contexts, and that it was not important in everyday subsistence, challenging previous studies based on maize starch and phytoliths. To further investigate these questions, we analyzed every-day cooking vessels, food-processing implements, and sediments for starch and phytoliths from an archaeological site in southwestern Ecuador constituting a small Early Formative village. Employing a new technique to recover starch granules from charred cooking-pot residues we show that maize was present, cultivated, and consumed here in domestic contexts by at least 5300–4950 cal B.P. Directly dating the residues by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurement, our results represent the earliest direct dates for maize in Early Formative Ecuadorian sites and provide further support that, once domesticated ≈9000 calendar years ago, maize spread rapidly from southwestern Mexico to northwestern South America. PMID:18362336

  3. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is one of the most efficient and simple gene delivery systems for genetic improvement and biology studies in maize. This system has become more widely used by both public and private laboratories. However, transformation efficiencies vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory for the same genotype. Here, we illustrate our advanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method in Hi-II maize using simple binary vectors. The protocol utilizes immature embryos as starting explants and the bar gene as a selectable marker coupled with bialaphos as a selective agent. The protocol offers efficient transformation results with high reproducibility, provided that some experimental conditions are well controlled. This transformation method, with minor modifications, can be also employed to transform certain maize inbreds.

  5. Evaluation of analytical methods for carotenoid extraction from biofortified maize (Zea mays sp.).

    PubMed

    Howe, Julie A; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2006-10-18

    Biofortification of maize with beta-carotene has the potential to improve vitamin A status in vitamin A deficient populations where maize is a staple crop. Accurate assessment of provitamin A carotenoids in maize must be performed to direct breeding efforts. The objective was to evaluate carotenoid extraction methods and determine essential steps for use in countries growing biofortified maize. The most reproducible method based on coefficient of variation and extraction efficiency was a modification of Kurilich and Juvik (1999). Heat and saponification are required to release carotenoids from biofortified maize and remove oils interfering with chromatographic analysis. For maize samples with high oil content, additional base may be added to ensure complete saponification without compromising results. Degradation of internal standard before carotenoids were released from the maize matrix required the addition of internal standard after heating to prevent overestimation of carotenoids. This modified method works well for lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene.

  6. Salmon silk genes contribute to the elucidation of the flavone pathway in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    McMullen, M D; Kross, H; Snook, M E; Cortés-Cruz, M; Houchins, K E; Musket, T A; Coe, E H

    2004-01-01

    We utilized maize (Zea mays L.) lines expressing the salmon silk (sm) phenotype, quantitative trait locus analysis, and analytical chemistry of flavone compounds to establish the order of undefined steps in the synthesis of the flavone maysin in maize silks. In addition to the previously described sm1 gene, we identified a second sm locus, which we designate sm2, located on the long arm of maize chromosome 2. Our data indicate that the sm1 gene encodes or controls a glucose modification enzyme and sm2 encodes or controls a rhamnosyl transferase. The order of intermediates in the late steps of maysin synthesis was established as luteolin --> isoorientin --> rhamnosylisoorientin --> maysin. Copyright 2004 The American Genetic Association

  7. Genetic dissection of the maize (Zea mays L.) MAMP response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinye; Valdés-López, Oswaldo; Arellano, Consuelo; Stacey, Gary; Balint-Kurti, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Loci associated with variation in maize responses to two microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) were identified. MAMP responses were correlated. No relationship between MAMP responses and quantitative disease resistance was identified. Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are highly conserved molecules commonly found in microbes which can be recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors. Recognition triggers a suite of responses including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and expression changes of defense-related genes. In this study, we used two well-studied MAMPs (flg22 and chitooctaose) to challenge different maize lines to determine whether there was variation in the level of responses to these MAMPs, to dissect the genetic basis underlying that variation and to understand the relationship between MAMP response and quantitative disease resistance (QDR). Naturally occurring quantitative variation in ROS, NO production, and defense genes expression levels triggered by MAMPs was observed. A major quantitative traits locus (QTL) associated with variation in the ROS production response to both flg22 and chitooctaose was identified on chromosome 2 in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the maize inbred lines B73 and CML228. Minor QTL associated with variation in the flg22 ROS response was identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. Comparison of these results with data previously obtained for variation in QDR and the defense response in the same RIL population did not provide any evidence for a common genetic basis controlling variation in these traits.

  8. Bacterial Communities in the Rhizosphere of Amilaceous Maize (Zea mays L.) as Assessed by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J.; Fernández-González, Antonio J.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Arone, Gregorio J.

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the staple diet of the native peasants in the Quechua region of the Peruvian Andes who continue growing it in small plots called chacras following ancestral traditions. The abundance and structure of bacterial communities associated with the roots of amilaceous maize has not been studied in Andean chacras. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to describe the rhizospheric bacterial diversity of amilaceous maize grown either in the presence or the absence of bur clover cultivated in soils from the Quechua maize belt. Three 16S rRNA gene libraries, one corresponding to sequences of bacteria from bulk soil of a chacra maintained under fallow conditions, the second from the rhizosphere of maize-cultivated soils, and the third prepared from rhizospheric soil of maize cultivated in intercropping with bur clover were examined using pyrosequencing tags spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the gene. A total of 26031 sequences were found that grouped into 5955 distinct operational taxonomic units which distributed in 309 genera. The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from bulk soil. One hundred ninety seven genera were found in the bulk soil library and 234 and 203 were in those from the maize and maize/bur clover-cultivated soils. Sixteen out of the 309 genera had a relative abundance higher than 0.5% and the were (in decreasing order of abundance) Gp4, Gp6, Flavobacterium, Subdivision3 genera incertae sedis of the Verrucomicrobia phylum, Gemmatimonas, Dechloromonas, Ohtaekwangia, Rhodoferax, Gaiella, Opitutus, Gp7, Spartobacteria genera incertae sedis, Terrimonas, Gp5, Steroidobacter and Parcubacteria genera incertae sedis. Genera Gp4 and Gp6 of the Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonas and Rhodoferax were the most abundant in bulk soil, whereas Flavobacterium, Dechloromonas and Ohtaekwangia were the main genera in the rhizosphere of maize

  9. Bacterial Communities in the Rhizosphere of Amilaceous Maize (Zea mays L.) as Assessed by Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Fernández-González, Antonio J; Fernández-López, Manuel; Arone, Gregorio J

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the staple diet of the native peasants in the Quechua region of the Peruvian Andes who continue growing it in small plots called chacras following ancestral traditions. The abundance and structure of bacterial communities associated with the roots of amilaceous maize has not been studied in Andean chacras. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to describe the rhizospheric bacterial diversity of amilaceous maize grown either in the presence or the absence of bur clover cultivated in soils from the Quechua maize belt. Three 16S rRNA gene libraries, one corresponding to sequences of bacteria from bulk soil of a chacra maintained under fallow conditions, the second from the rhizosphere of maize-cultivated soils, and the third prepared from rhizospheric soil of maize cultivated in intercropping with bur clover were examined using pyrosequencing tags spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the gene. A total of 26031 sequences were found that grouped into 5955 distinct operational taxonomic units which distributed in 309 genera. The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from bulk soil. One hundred ninety seven genera were found in the bulk soil library and 234 and 203 were in those from the maize and maize/bur clover-cultivated soils. Sixteen out of the 309 genera had a relative abundance higher than 0.5% and the were (in decreasing order of abundance) Gp4, Gp6, Flavobacterium, Subdivision3 genera incertae sedis of the Verrucomicrobia phylum, Gemmatimonas, Dechloromonas, Ohtaekwangia, Rhodoferax, Gaiella, Opitutus, Gp7, Spartobacteria genera incertae sedis, Terrimonas, Gp5, Steroidobacter and Parcubacteria genera incertae sedis. Genera Gp4 and Gp6 of the Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonas and Rhodoferax were the most abundant in bulk soil, whereas Flavobacterium, Dechloromonas and Ohtaekwangia were the main genera in the rhizosphere of maize

  10. Natural endophytic association between Rhizobium etli and maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Zamora, M L; Martínez-Romero, E

    2001-10-04

    Maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) have been traditionally grown in association for thousands of years in Mesoamerica. From surface sterilized maize roots, we have isolated over 60 Rhizobium strains that correspond to Rhizobium etli bv. phaseoli (the main symbiont of bean) on the basis of 16S rRNA gene restriction patterns, metabolic enzyme electropherotypes, organization of nif genes, and the ability to nodulate beans. The colonization capacity of some of the isolates was tested with an unimproved maize cultivar and with 30 maize land races. Increases in plant dry weight upon R. etli inoculation were recorded with some of the land races, and these increases may be related to plant growth promotion effects. Additionally, from within maize grown in monoculture we have also recovered R. etli isolates recognizable by their 16S rRNA gene types, which lack nif genes and are incapable of nodulating bean. These strains are presumed to correspond to the earlier described non-symbiotic R. etli obtained from bean rhizosphere.

  11. Xylem- and phloem-based transport of CuO nanoparticles in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Xie, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Xiaoyun; Feng, Wenqiang; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2012-04-17

    This work reports on the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) to maize (Zea mays L.) and their transport and redistribution in the plant. CuO NPs (100 mg L(-1)) had no effect on germination, but inhibited the growth of maize seedlings; in comparison the dissolved Cu(2+) ions and CuO bulk particles had no obvious effect on maize growth. CuO NPs were present in xylem sap as examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), showing that CuO NPs were transported from roots to shoots via xylem. Split-root experiments and high-resolution TEM observation further showed that CuO NPs could translocate from shoots back to roots via phloem. During this translocation, CuO NPs could be reduced from Cu (II) to Cu (I). To our knowledge, this is the first report of root-shoot-root redistribution of CuO NPs within maize. The current study provides direct evidence for the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of CuO NPs (20-40 nm) in maize, which has significant implications on the potential risk of NPs and food safety.

  12. Crop nutrition through distillery spentwash in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Bhukia, Tara Devi; Patil, S G; Angadi, S S

    2009-04-01

    Agronomic evaluation of fertilizing efficiency of the spentwash was carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad in 2006. Initial chemical analysis confirmed its usefulness as a source of fertilizer as it consists most essential plant nutrients. Application of spentwash at the recommended level of nitrogen significantly affected both maize growth (plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, chlorophyll etc.) and yield (cob characteristics, test weight etc.) parameters. Spentwash is useful not only in meeting the crop N requirement but also other plant nutrients besides decreasing the current environmental problems faced by the industries. A highest maize yield (81.2 q/ha) was obtained when chemical fertilizer was replaced by the spentwash at the recommended nitrogen level. There was no advantage of applying spentwash higher than the recommended level in view of loading of soils with potassium. Application limited to the recommended level not only supplied N but also other essential plant nutrients. Spentwash substitution directly reduced fertilizer cost and thus benefited farmers by decreasing the cost with no adverse effect on soil's physical, chemical and biological properties when applied at the level recommended.

  13. Genetic properties of the MAGIC maize population: a new platform for high definition QTL mapping in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Dell'Acqua, Matteo; Gatti, Daniel M; Pea, Giorgio; Cattonaro, Federica; Coppens, Frederik; Magris, Gabriele; Hlaing, Aye L; Aung, Htay H; Nelissen, Hilde; Baute, Joke; Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Churchill, Gary A; Inzé, Dirk; Morgante, Michele; Pè, Mario Enrico

    2015-09-11

    Maize (Zea mays) is a globally produced crop with broad genetic and phenotypic variation. New tools that improve our understanding of the genetic basis of quantitative traits are needed to guide predictive crop breeding. We have produced the first balanced multi-parental population in maize, a tool that provides high diversity and dense recombination events to allow routine quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in maize. We produced 1,636 MAGIC maize recombinant inbred lines derived from eight genetically diverse founder lines. The characterization of 529 MAGIC maize lines shows that the population is a balanced, evenly differentiated mosaic of the eight founders, with mapping power and resolution strengthened by high minor allele frequencies and a fast decay of linkage disequilibrium. We show how MAGIC maize may find strong candidate genes by incorporating genome sequencing and transcriptomics data. We discuss three QTL for grain yield and three for flowering time, reporting candidate genes. Power simulations show that subsets of MAGIC maize might achieve high-power and high-definition QTL mapping. We demonstrate MAGIC maize's value in identifying the genetic bases of complex traits of agronomic relevance. The design of MAGIC maize allows the accumulation of sequencing and transcriptomics layers to guide the identification of candidate genes for a number of maize traits at different developmental stages. The characterization of the full MAGIC maize population will lead to higher power and definition in QTL mapping, and lay the basis for improved understanding of maize phenotypes, heterosis included. MAGIC maize is available to researchers.

  14. Bioavailability and toxicity of arsenic in maize (Zea mays L.) grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Drličková, Gabriela; Vaculík, Marek; Matejkovič, Peter; Lux, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    The growth of maize (Zea mays L.), hybrid Valentina, was compared in two types of contaminated soil substrates (Ochre and Heap) with different arsenic (As) concentration originating from an old mining area in Slovakia. Although the total As concentration in Heap soil was 2.6 times lower than in Ochre soil (90 and 237 mg kg⁻¹, respectively), plants grown in Heap soil accumulated more As in their tissues (shoot and root As concentration being 4 and 5.5 times higher, respectively) and were markedly smaller, which produced significantly less biomass and flowered later in comparison with Ochre soil grown plants.

  15. Effect of zinc on antioxidant response in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pandey, N; Singh, A K; Pathak, G C; Sharma, C P

    2002-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L. cv kanaujia) plants grown with Zn [10 (control), 0.1 (low) and 20 microM (high)], were investigated for concentration of antioxidants and activities of antioxidative enzymes in leaves. Young leaves of low Zn plants developed whitish-necrotic spots. Leaves of both low and high Zn plants showed decrease in chlorophyll concentration and accumulation of lipid peroxides, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, associated with a decrease in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Low and high Zn, however, showed diverse effect on glutathione reductase. While low Zn increased the activity of glutathione reductase, high Zn decreased its activity. Zinc effect on antioxidative constituents suggested Zn involvement in sustaining the antioxidative defense system in maize leaves.

  16. Biochemical characterization of a new maize (Zea mays L.) peptide growth factor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Cesar David; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela; Aguilar, Raúl; de Jiménez, Estela Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Coordination of cell growth and cell division is very important for living organisms in order for these to develop harmonically. The present research is concerned with the purification and characterization of a new peptide hormone, namely ZmIGF (Zea mays insulin-like growth factor), which regulates growth and cell division in maize tissues. ZmIGF is a peptide of 5.7 kDa, as determined by mass spectroscopy. It was isolated either from maize embryonic axes of 48-h germinated seeds or from embryogenic callus and purified through several chromatographic procedures to obtain a single peak as shown by Reverse Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). This peptide exhibits a well defined α-helix structure by circular dichroism analysis, similar to that reported for Insulin or for Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Further, ZmIGF seems to perform, in maize, a similar function to that reported for insulin or peptides from the IGF family in animals. Indeed, maize tissues stimulated either by ZmIGF or insulin showed to induce selective synthesis of ribosomal proteins as well as of DNA. Taken together, the previously mentioned data strongly suggest that plants contain a peptide hormone of the IGF family, highly conserved through evolution that regulates growth and development.

  17. Effect of biochar on reclaimed tidal land soil properties and maize (Zea mays L.) response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuck-Soo; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik; Owens, Gary; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd; Kim, Kye-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Reclaimed tidal land soil (RTLS) often contains high levels of soluble salts and exchangeable Na that can adversely affect plant growth. The current study examined the effect of biochar on the physicochemical properties of RTLS and subsequently the influence on plant growth performance. Rice hull derived biochar (BC) was applied to RTLS at three different rates (1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w)) and maize (Zea mays L.) subsequently cultivated for 6weeks. While maize was cultivated, 0.1% NaCl solution was supplied from the bottom of the pots to simulate the natural RTLS conditions. Biochar induced changes in soil properties were evaluated by the water stable aggregate (WSA) percentage, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), soil organic carbon contents, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable cations. Plant response was measured by growth rate, nutrient contents, and antioxidant enzyme activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Application of rice hull derived biochar increased the soil organic carbon content and the percentage of WSA by 36-69%, while decreasing the ESP. The highest dry weight maize yield was observed from soil which received 5% BC (w/w), which was attributed to increased stability of water-stable aggregates and elevated levels of phosphate in BC incorporated soils. Moreover, increased potassium, sourced from the BC, induced mitigation of Na uptake by maize and consequently, reduced the impact of salt stress as evidenced by overall declines in the antioxidant activities of APX and GR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative Trait Loci for Mercury Accumulation in Maize (Zea mays L.) Identified Using a RIL Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinbin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Song, Guiliang; Fu, Zhiyuan; Ding, Dong; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the genetic mechanism of mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.), a population of 194 recombinant inbred lines derived from an elite hybrid Yuyu 22, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for mercury accumulation at two locations. The results showed that the average Hg concentration in the different tissues of maize followed the order: leaves > bracts > stems > axis > kernels. Twenty-three QTLs for mercury accumulation in five tissues were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which explained 6.44% to 26.60% of the phenotype variance. The QTLs included five QTLs for Hg concentration in kernels, three QTLs for Hg concentration in the axis, six QTLs for Hg concentration in stems, four QTLs for Hg concentration in bracts and five QTLs for Hg concentration in leaves. Interestingly, three QTLs, qKHC9a, qKHC9b, and qBHC9 were in linkage with two QTLs for drought tolerance. In addition, qLHC1 was in linkage with two QTLs for arsenic accumulation. The study demonstrated the concentration of Hg in Hg-contaminated paddy soil could be reduced, and maize production maintained simultaneously by selecting and breeding maize Hg pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs). PMID:25210737

  19. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene confers drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Jiachang; Xiao, Yitao; Yue, Yuesen; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key component of the signaling system that integrates plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene (LOS5) in maize markedly enhanced the expression of ZmAO and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity, leading to ABA accumulation and increased drought tolerance. Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) exhibited the expected reductions in stomatal aperture, which led to decreased water loss and maintenance of higher relative water content (RWC) and leaf water potential. Also, transgenic maize subjected to drought treatment exhibited lower leaf wilting, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) content, and higher activities of antioxidative enzymes and proline content compared to wild-type (WT) maize. Moreover, overexpression of LOS5 enhanced the expression of stress-regulated genes such as Rad 17, NCED1, CAT1, and ZmP5CS1 under drought stress conditions, and increased root system development and biomass yield after re-watering. The increased drought tolerance in transgenic plants was associated with ABA accumulation via activated AO and expression of stress-related gene via ABA induction, which sequentially induced a set of favorable stress-related physiological and biochemical responses.

  20. Overexpression of Arabidopsis Molybdenum Cofactor Sulfurase Gene Confers Drought Tolerance in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachang; Xiao, Yitao; Yue, Yuesen; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key component of the signaling system that integrates plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene (LOS5) in maize markedly enhanced the expression of ZmAO and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity, leading to ABA accumulation and increased drought tolerance. Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) exhibited the expected reductions in stomatal aperture, which led to decreased water loss and maintenance of higher relative water content (RWC) and leaf water potential. Also, transgenic maize subjected to drought treatment exhibited lower leaf wilting, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 content, and higher activities of antioxidative enzymes and proline content compared to wild-type (WT) maize. Moreover, overexpression of LOS5 enhanced the expression of stress-regulated genes such as Rad 17, NCED1, CAT1, and ZmP5CS1 under drought stress conditions, and increased root system development and biomass yield after re-watering. The increased drought tolerance in transgenic plants was associated with ABA accumulation via activated AO and expression of stress-related gene via ABA induction, which sequentially induced a set of favorable stress-related physiological and biochemical responses. PMID:23326325

  1. Quantitative trait loci for mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) identified using a RIL population.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhongjun; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Qinbin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Song, Guiliang; Fu, Zhiyuan; Ding, Dong; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the genetic mechanism of mercury accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.), a population of 194 recombinant inbred lines derived from an elite hybrid Yuyu 22, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for mercury accumulation at two locations. The results showed that the average Hg concentration in the different tissues of maize followed the order: leaves > bracts > stems > axis > kernels. Twenty-three QTLs for mercury accumulation in five tissues were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 9 and 10, which explained 6.44% to 26.60% of the phenotype variance. The QTLs included five QTLs for Hg concentration in kernels, three QTLs for Hg concentration in the axis, six QTLs for Hg concentration in stems, four QTLs for Hg concentration in bracts and five QTLs for Hg concentration in leaves. Interestingly, three QTLs, qKHC9a, qKHC9b, and qBHC9 were in linkage with two QTLs for drought tolerance. In addition, qLHC1 was in linkage with two QTLs for arsenic accumulation. The study demonstrated the concentration of Hg in Hg-contaminated paddy soil could be reduced, and maize production maintained simultaneously by selecting and breeding maize Hg pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs).

  2. Zea mays iRS1563: A Comprehensive Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction of Maize Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Rajib; Suthers, Patrick F.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2011-01-01

    The scope and breadth of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions have continued to expand over the last decade. Herein, we introduce a genome-scale model for a plant with direct applications to food and bioenergy production (i.e., maize). Maize annotation is still underway, which introduces significant challenges in the association of metabolic functions to genes. The developed model is designed to meet rigorous standards on gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations, elementally and charged balanced reactions and a biomass reaction abstracting the relative contribution of all biomass constituents. The metabolic network contains 1,563 genes and 1,825 metabolites involved in 1,985 reactions from primary and secondary maize metabolism. For approximately 42% of the reactions direct literature evidence for the participation of the reaction in maize was found. As many as 445 reactions and 369 metabolites are unique to the maize model compared to the AraGEM model for A. thaliana. 674 metabolites and 893 reactions are present in Zea mays iRS1563 that are not accounted for in maize C4GEM. All reactions are elementally and charged balanced and localized into six different compartments (i.e., cytoplasm, mitochondrion, plastid, peroxisome, vacuole and extracellular). GPR associations are also established based on the functional annotation information and homology prediction accounting for monofunctional, multifunctional and multimeric proteins, isozymes and protein complexes. We describe results from performing flux balance analysis under different physiological conditions, (i.e., photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration) of a C4 plant and also explore model predictions against experimental observations for two naturally occurring mutants (i.e., bm1 and bm3). The developed model corresponds to the largest and more complete to-date effort at cataloguing metabolism for a plant species. PMID:21755001

  3. Zea mays iRS1563: a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize metabolism.

    PubMed

    Saha, Rajib; Suthers, Patrick F; Maranas, Costas D

    2011-01-01

    The scope and breadth of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions have continued to expand over the last decade. Herein, we introduce a genome-scale model for a plant with direct applications to food and bioenergy production (i.e., maize). Maize annotation is still underway, which introduces significant challenges in the association of metabolic functions to genes. The developed model is designed to meet rigorous standards on gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations, elementally and charged balanced reactions and a biomass reaction abstracting the relative contribution of all biomass constituents. The metabolic network contains 1,563 genes and 1,825 metabolites involved in 1,985 reactions from primary and secondary maize metabolism. For approximately 42% of the reactions direct literature evidence for the participation of the reaction in maize was found. As many as 445 reactions and 369 metabolites are unique to the maize model compared to the AraGEM model for A. thaliana. 674 metabolites and 893 reactions are present in Zea mays iRS1563 that are not accounted for in maize C4GEM. All reactions are elementally and charged balanced and localized into six different compartments (i.e., cytoplasm, mitochondrion, plastid, peroxisome, vacuole and extracellular). GPR associations are also established based on the functional annotation information and homology prediction accounting for monofunctional, multifunctional and multimeric proteins, isozymes and protein complexes. We describe results from performing flux balance analysis under different physiological conditions, (i.e., photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration) of a C4 plant and also explore model predictions against experimental observations for two naturally occurring mutants (i.e., bm1 and bm3). The developed model corresponds to the largest and more complete to-date effort at cataloguing metabolism for a plant species.

  4. Study of effects of Bt maize (Zea mays) events on Lepidoptera Ostrinia nubilalis, Sesamia nonagrioidesin southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M

    2006-01-01

    Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context.

  5. Gibberella Ear Rot of Maize (Zea mays) in Nepal: Distribution of the Mycotoxins Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum (sexual stage Gibberella zeae) causes ear rot of maize (Zea mays) and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol (NIV) or 4-deoxynivalenol (DON), depending on diversity of the fungal population for the 4-oxygenase gene (TRI13). To determine the importance ...

  6. The effect and fate of water-soluble carbon nanodots in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Dou, Runzhi; Yang, Zhongzhou; Wang, Xiaoping; Mao, Chuanbin; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Li

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the toxicity of water-soluble carbon nanodots (C-dots) to maize (Zea mays L.) and their uptake and transport in plants were investigated. After exposed in sand matrix amended with 0-2000 mg/L C-dots for 4 weeks, we found that the phytotoxicity of C-dots was concentration-dependent. C-dots at 250 and 500 mg/L showed no toxicity to maize. However, 1000 and 2000 mg/L C-dots significantly reduced the fresh weight of root by 57% and 68%, and decreased the shoot fresh weight by 38% and 72%, respectively. Moreover, in maize roots, the exposure of C-dots at 2000 mg/L significantly increased the H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation (6.5 and 1.65 times higher, respectively), as well as, the antioxidant enzymes activities, up to 2, 1.5, 1.9 and 1.9 times higher for catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. On the other hand, C-dots were observed in detached root-cap cells, cortex and vascular bundle of roots and mesophyll cells of leaves through fluorescence microscopy analysis, suggesting that C-dots were absorbed and translocated systemically in maize. Remarkably, a certain amount of C-dots were excreted out from leaf blade. To our knowledge, this is the first study combined phenotypic observation with physiologic responses and bioaccumulation and translocation analysis of C-dots to investigate their effect and fate in maize.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide enhances nitric oxide-induced tolerance of hypoxia in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Peng, Renyi; Bian, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Lina; Cheng, Wei; Hai, Na; Yang, Changquan; Yang, Tao; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2016-11-01

    Our data present H 2 S in a new role, serving as a multi-faceted transducer to different response mechanisms during NO-induced acquisition of tolerance to flooding-induced hypoxia in maize seedling roots. Nitric oxide (NO), serving as a secondary messenger, modulates physiological processes in plants. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to have similar signaling functions. This study focused on the effects of treatment with H2S on NO-induced hypoxia tolerance in maize seedlings. The results showed that treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced survival rate of submerged maize roots through induced accumulation of endogenous H2S. The induced H2S then enhanced endogenous Ca(2+) levels as well as the Ca(2+)-dependent activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), improving the capacity for antioxidant defense and, ultimately, the hypoxia tolerance in maize seedlings. In addition, NO induced the activities of key enzymes in H2S biosynthesis, such as L-cysteine desulfhydrases (L-CDs), O-acetyl-L-serine (thiol)lyase (OAS-TL), and β-Cyanoalanine Synthase (CAS). SNP-induced hypoxia tolerance was enhanced by the application of NaHS, but was eliminated by the H2S-synthesis inhibitor hydroxylamine (HA) and the H2S-scavenger hypotaurine (HT). H2S concurrently enhanced the transcriptional levels of relative hypoxia-induced genes. Together, our findings indicated that H2S serves as a multi-faceted transducer that enhances the nitric oxide-induced hypoxia tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.).

  8. Effects silver nanoparticles and magnetic field on growth of fodder maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Berahmand, Ali Asghar; Ghafariyan Panahi, Ali; Sahabi, Hossein; Feizi, Hassan; Rezvani Moghaddam, Parviz; Shahtahmassebi, Nasser; Fotovat, Amir; Karimpour, Hossein; Gallehgir, Omran

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were done in 2008 and 2009 to study the effects of magnetic field and silver nanoparticles on fodder maize (Zea mays L.). These experiments were done with seven treatments based on a randomized complete block design in four replications. The treatments were as follows: magnetic field and silver nanoparticles + Kemira fertilizer (T1), magnetic field and silver nanoparticles + Humax fertilizer (T2), magnetic field and silver nanoparticles (T3), Kemira fertilizer (T4), Librel fertilizer (T5), Humax fertilizer (T6), and a control (T7). Results showed that fresh yield was higher in treatments T3 and T4. Treatments T3 and T4 had increased maize fresh yields of 35 and 17.5 % in comparison to the control, respectively. The dry matter yield of those plants exposed to magnetic field and silver nanoparticles was significantly higher than that from any of the other treatments. Magnetic field and silver nanoparticle treatments (T3 and T1) showed higher percentages for ears, and the lowest percentages were found in treatments T7 and T5. In general, the soil conditions for crop growth were more favorable in 2009 than in 2008, which caused the maize to respond better to treatments tested in the study; therefore, treatments had more significant effects on studied traits in 2008 than in 2009.

  9. Patterns of diversity and recombination along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.).

    PubMed Central

    Tenaillon, Maud I; Sawkins, Mark C; Anderson, Lorinda K; Stack, Stephen M; Doebley, John; Gaut, Brandon S

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between genetic diversity and recombination in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Genetic diversity was measured in three types of markers: single-nucleotide polymorphisms, indels, and microsatellites. All three were examined in a sample of previously published DNA sequences from 21 loci on maize chromosome 1. Small indels (1-5 bp) were numerous and far more common than large indels. Furthermore, large indels (>100 bp) were infrequent in the population sample, suggesting they are slightly deleterious. The 21 loci also contained 47 microsatellites, of which 33 were polymorphic. Diversity in SNPs, indels, and microsatellites was compared to two measures of recombination: C (=4Nc) estimated from DNA sequence data and R based on a quantitative recombination nodule map of maize synaptonemal complex 1. SNP diversity was correlated with C (r = 0.65; P = 0.007) but not with R (r = -0.10; P = 0.69). Given the lack of correlation between R and SNP diversity, the correlation between SNP diversity and C may be driven by demography. In contrast to SNP diversity, microsatellite diversity was correlated with R (r = 0.45; P = 0.004) but not C (r = -0.025; P = 0.55). The correlation could arise if recombination is mutagenic for microsatellites, or it may be consistent with background selection that is apparent only in this class of rapidly evolving markers. PMID:12454083

  10. [Evaluation of a methodology to determine texture characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) tortilla].

    PubMed

    Arámbula-Villa, Gerónimo; Méndez-Albores, J Abraham; González-Hernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Arias, Edmundo; Moreno-Martínez, Ernesto

    2004-06-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) tortilla is the primary staple food of the Mexican people, with annual consumption estimated at 12 millions tons. Despite this huge volume of consumption, tortillas are commercially produced with inconsistent quality, mainly in terms of texture characteristics. Different methods to evaluate the texture of maize tortillas have been reported, but the values obtained and their parameters have not yielded reliable results, largely because the methods used do not reflect homogeneous elements for comparison. In addition, evaluation of the reliability of methods for comparing tortilla texture as well as the equipment used has been difficult, as such information perhaps remains largely unpublished. In this study, the reliability of two tortilla sample shapes (rectangle and briquet) and some of the quality parameters (maximum force, total area under curve, area to reach maximum force, elasticity and elongation) from tensile and cut force tested with a texture meter were evaluated. According to the results, the briquet shape of the tortilla samples was better (than the rectangle shape) for determining tensile and elasticity. In regard to cutting force, both the rectangle and the briquet shape presented good repeatability. For tensile and cutting-force curves, the maximum force was the parameter with the highest reliability, 0.95 and 0.99, respectively. The elasticity showed an adequate reliability with the tortilla briquet shape (0.94). The evaluated parameters with the texture meter and the sample shape type briquet, showed a high reliability degree what makes possible the comparison of maize tortilla texture data.

  11. Response of maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Sturt) to different concentration treatments of deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ragbet Ezgi; Kilic, Semra; Coskun, Yasemin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the deltamethrin pesticide on the biological properties of maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Sturt). Maize seeds were exposed to environmentally relevant dosages (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 ppm) of deltamethrin. On the 7th day of germination, morphological, anatomical and physiological responses were determined. All seedling growth characters were decreased with increasing deltamethrin levels. The most negative effect on the radicle length of maize was observed by the highest deltamethrin concentration with a 61% decrease (P <0.05). Both stomatal density and stomatal dimension reduction were caused by increasing concentrations of deltamethrin. Moreover, the pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and caretonoids decreased with the increase in deltamethrin concentration. Conversely, anthocyanin and proline content increased in parallel with deltamethrin concentration. As a result, all morphological traits and pigments except for proline and anthocyanin were significantly reduced with an increase in pesticide concentration, compared to control (P <0.05). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard; Darnhofer, Birte; Eder, Joachim; Ouzunova, Milena; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2008-01-03

    Forage quality of maize is influenced by both the content and structure of lignins in the cell wall. Biosynthesis of monolignols, constituting the complex structure of lignins, is catalyzed by enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. In the present study we have amplified partial genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) possibly reflecting different levels of selection. Associations with forage quality traits were identified for several individual polymorphisms within the 4CL1, C3H, and F5H genomic fragments when controlling for both overall population structure and relative kinship. A 1-bp indel in 4CL1 was associated with in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVDOM), a non-synonymous SNP in C3H was associated with IVDOM, and an intron SNP in F5H was associated with neutral detergent fiber. However, the C3H and F5H associations did not remain significant when controlling for multiple testing. While the number of lines included in this study limit the power of the association analysis, our results imply that genetic variation for forage quality traits can be mined in phenylpropanoid pathway genes of elite breeding lines of maize.

  13. Characterization of phenylpropanoid pathway genes within European maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Zein, Imad; Wenzel, Gerhard; Darnhofer, Birte; Eder, Joachim; Ouzunova, Milena; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Forage quality of maize is influenced by both the content and structure of lignins in the cell wall. Biosynthesis of monolignols, constituting the complex structure of lignins, is catalyzed by enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Results In the present study we have amplified partial genomic fragments of six putative phenylpropanoid pathway genes in a panel of elite European inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) contrasting in forage quality traits. Six loci, encoding C4H, 4CL1, 4CL2, C3H, F5H, and CAD, displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) possibly reflecting different levels of selection. Associations with forage quality traits were identified for several individual polymorphisms within the 4CL1, C3H, and F5H genomic fragments when controlling for both overall population structure and relative kinship. A 1-bp indel in 4CL1 was associated with in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVDOM), a non-synonymous SNP in C3H was associated with IVDOM, and an intron SNP in F5H was associated with neutral detergent fiber. However, the C3H and F5H associations did not remain significant when controlling for multiple testing. Conclusion While the number of lines included in this study limit the power of the association analysis, our results imply that genetic variation for forage quality traits can be mined in phenylpropanoid pathway genes of elite breeding lines of maize. PMID:18173847

  14. Involvement of an antioxidant defense system in the adaptive response to cadmium in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianghua; Liu, Cuiying; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Renying; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were used to investigate the growth response and antioxidant defense mechanism of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) grown in soils with 0-100 mg kg(-1) Cd. Results showed that maize seedlings have strong abilities to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd. For soil with 50 mg kg(-1) Cd, the Cd contents in roots and shoots of maize seedlings are as large as 295.6 and 153.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, without visible symptoms of toxicity. Lower soil Cd concentrations lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of maize seedlings, whereas higher soil Cd concentrations resulted in an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Maize seedlings have strong capacities to adapt to low concentrations of Cd by consuming GSH and to develop an antioxidative enzyme system to defend against high-Cd stress.

  15. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins induced by auxins in maize embryonic tissues. [Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, L.; Aguilar, R.; Mendez, A.P.; de Jimenez, E.S.

    1990-11-01

    The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of ({sup 32}P) ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of {sup 32}P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on {sup 32}P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent K{sub m} values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins.

  16. A developmentally regulated hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein in maize pericarp cell walls. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, E.E.; Shen, Q.X.; Varner, J.E. )

    1988-05-01

    We have studied the accumulation of peptidyl hydroxyproline in the pericarp of developing maize (Zea mays L., Golden cross Bantam sweet corn) kernels. Although this hydroxyproline accumulates throughout development, it is most soluble and its content per milligram dry weight greatest at midmaturation stages of development. Salt-soluble proteins containing this hydroxyproline from isolated cell walls of developing kernels were fractionated on a CsCl density gradient and on a Chromatofocusing column, resulting in the purification of an hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein, PC-1. PC-1 is a basic protein of approximately 65 to 70 kilodaltons in molecular weight with an isoelectric point of at least 10.2 and a density of 1.38 to 1.39 in CsCl. Amino acid composition data indicate that it is rich in hydroxyproline, threonine, proline, lysine, and glycine. Its relation to dicot extension is discussed.

  17. Differentiation of the properties of the branching isozymes from maize (Zea mays)

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, H.P.; Preiss, J. )

    1993-08-01

    The multiple forms of branching enzyme (BE) from developing maize (Zea mays) endosperm were purified by modification of previous procedures such that amylase activity could be eliminated completely from the BE preparation. Three distinct assays for BE activity (phosphorylase a stimulation assay, BE linkage assay, and iodine stain assay) were used to characterize and differentiate that properties of the BE isoforms. This study present s the first evidence that the BE isoforms differ in their action on amylopectin. BEI has the highest activity in branching amylose, but its rate of branching amylopectin was less than 5% of that of branching amylose. Conversely, BEII isoforms had lower rates in branching amylose (about 9--12% of that of BEI) and had higher rates of branching amylopectin (about 6-fold) than BEI. The implication of these findings to the mechanism of amylopectin synthesis in vivo are discussed. 21 refs., 1 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Four β-Expansins (Zea m 1 Isoforms) from Maize Pollen1[w

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian-Chao; Bedinger, Patricia A.; Volk, Carol; Jones, A. Daniel; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Four proteins with wall extension activity on grass cell walls were purified from maize (Zea mays) pollen by conventional column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Each is a basic glycoprotein (isoelectric point = 9.1–9.5) of approximately 28 kD and was identified by immunoblot analysis as an isoform of Zea m 1, the major group 1 allergen of maize pollen and member of the β-expansin family. Four distinctive cDNAs for Zea m 1 were identified by cDNA library screening and by GenBank analysis. One pair (GenBank accession nos. AY104999 and AY104125) was much closer in sequence to well-characterized allergens such as Lol p 1 and Phl p 1 from ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Phleum pretense, whereas a second pair was much more divergent. The N-terminal sequence and mass spectrometry fingerprint of the most abundant isoform (Zea m 1d) matched that predicted for AY197353, whereas N-terminal sequences of the other isoforms matched or nearly matched AY104999 and AY104125. Highly purified Zea m 1d induced extension of a variety of grass walls but not dicot walls. Wall extension activity of Zea m 1d was biphasic with respect to protein concentration, had a broad pH optimum between 5 and 6, required more than 50 μg mL-1 for high activity, and led to cell wall breakage after only approximately 10% extension. These characteristics differ from those of α-expansins. Some of the distinctive properties of Zea m 1 may not be typical of β-expansins as a class but may relate to the specialized function of this β-expansin in pollen function. PMID:12913162

  19. Reproduction of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) B biotype in maize fields (Zea mays L.) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quintela, Eliane D; Abreu, Aluana G; Lima, Julyana F Dos S; Mascarin, Gabriel M; Santos, Jardel B Dos; Brown, Judith K

    2016-11-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was observed to have completed its reproductive cycle from the egg to the adult on maize (Zea mays L.). Field and screenhouse studies were carried out to investigate the durability of this putative and unprecedented adaptation to a grass host. Analysis of the mitochondrial COI gene sequence identified the maize-associated B. tabaci as the exotic B biotype (major clade North Africa-Mediterranean-Middle East). Results showed that whiteflies migrated from soybean crops and successfully established in maize plants. Females exhibited a preference for oviposition primarily on the first and second leaves of maize, but were also able to colonise developing leaves. A high, natural infestation on maize (193.3 individuals, all developmental stages) was observed within a 7.1 cm(2) designated 'observation area'. Whiteflies collected from naturally infested maize leaves and allowed to oviposit on maize seedlings grown in a screenhouse developed from egg to adulthood in 28.6 ± 0.2 days. This is the first report of the B biotype completing its development on maize plants. This surprising anomaly indicates that the B biotype is capable of adapting to monocotyledonous host plants, and importantly, broadens the host range to include at least one species in the Poaceae. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Hi-II maize (Zea mays) using standard binary vectors.

    PubMed

    Vega, Juan M; Yu, Weichang; Kennon, Angela R; Chen, Xinlu; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2008-02-01

    High-frequency transformation of maize (Zea mays L.) using standard binary vectors is advantageous for functional genomics and other genetic engineering studies. Recent advances in Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of maize have made it possible for the public to transform maize using standard binary vectors without a need of the superbinary vector. While maize Hi-II has been a preferred maize genotype to use in various maize transformation efforts, there is still potential and need in further improving its transformation frequency. Here we report the enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of immature zygotic embryos of maize Hi-II using standard binary vectors. This improved transformation process employs low-salt media in combined use with antioxidant L-cysteine alone or L-cysteine and dithiothreitol (DTT) during the Agrobacterium infection stage. Three levels of N6 medium salts, 10, 50, and 100%, were tested. Both 10 and 50% salts were found to enhance the T-DNA transfer in Hi-II. Addition of DTT to the cocultivation medium also improves the T-DNA transformation. About 12% overall and the highest average of 18% transformation frequencies were achieved from a large number of experiments using immature embryos grown in various seasons. The enhanced transformation protocol established here will be advantageous for maize genetic engineering studies including transformation-based functional genomics.

  1. [Cloning and characterization of a transcription factor ZmNAC1 in maize (Zea mays)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan-Ji; Shao, Feng-Xia; Tang, Gui-Ying; Shan, Lei; Bi, Yu-Ping

    2009-02-01

    NAC transcription factors are a family of functionally diverse proteins. They are unique to plants and play an important role in regulation of plant growth and development, hormone regulation and responses to various stresses. A cDNA encoding the NAC-like gene homologue was isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) by RT-PCR and designated ZmNAC1 (GenBank Accession No. EU224278). Sequence analysis showed that cDNA of ZmNAC1 was 1,029 bp long and contained a single open reading frame (ORF, 26 to approximately 907 bp). The predicted ZmNAC1 protein has 293 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 32.3 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.65. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of ZmNAC1 was induced by low temperature, PEG, salt, and ABA, respectively. These results suggest that ZmNAC1 may play important roles in biotic and abiotic resistance pathways. This is the first NAC-like gene reported in maize.

  2. Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu; Berman, Judit; Sheng, Yanmin; Wang, Yingdian; Capell, Teresa; Shi, Lianxuan; Ni, Xiuzhen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2015-01-01

    The assignment of functions to genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is necessary to understand how the pathway is regulated and to obtain the basic information required for metabolic engineering. Few carotenoid ε-hydroxylases have been functionally characterized in plants although this would provide insight into the hydroxylation steps in the pathway. We therefore isolated mRNA from the endosperm of maize (Zea mays L., inbred line B73) and cloned a full-length cDNA encoding CYP97C19, a putative heme-containing carotenoid ε hydroxylase and member of the cytochrome P450 family. The corresponding CYP97C19 genomic locus on chromosome 1 was found to comprise a single-copy gene with nine introns. We expressed CYP97C19 cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut1 knockout mutant, which lacks a functional CYP97C1 (LUT1) gene. The analysis of carotenoid levels and composition showed that lutein accumulated to high levels in the rosette leaves of the transgenic lines but not in the untransformed lut1 mutants. These results allowed the unambiguous functional annotation of maize CYP97C19 as an enzyme with strong zeinoxanthin ε-ring hydroxylation activity.

  3. Non-destructive leaf area measurement in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Sezer, Ismail; Oner, Fatih; Mut, Zeki

    2009-09-01

    In this research, leaf area prediction model was developed for some leaf-used maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars namely Coluna, Luce, Maveric, Ranchero, TTM-813, Zamora and RX-788 grown in Black Sea region of Turkey. Lamina width, length and leaf area were measured without destroying the leaf to develop the models. The actual leaf areas of the plants were measured by PLACOM Digital Planimeter and multiple regression analysis with Excel 2003 computer package program was performed for the plants separately. The produced leaf area prediction models in the present study were formulized as LA = a - (b x W2) + [c x (W x L)] where LA is leaf area, W is leaf width, L is leaf length and a, b, c are coefficiencies. R2 values for maize cultivars tested varied with species from 0.95 in Luce to 0.98 in Maveric. All R2 values and standard errors were found to be significant at the p < 0.001 level.

  4. Proteome Changes in Maize Embryo (Zea mays L) Induced by Ion Beam Implantation Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongliang; Tang, Jihua; Qin, Guangyong; Huo, Yuping; Tian, Shuangqi

    2009-08-01

    Low energy ion beam implantation was applied to the maize (Zea mays L) embryo proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein profile analysis detected more than 1100 protein spots, 72 of which were determined to be expressed differently in the treated and control (not exposed to ion beam implantation) embryos. Of the 72 protein spots, 53 were up-regulated in the control and 19 were more abundantly expressed in the ion beam-treated embryos. The spots of up- or down-regulated proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among the identified proteins, 11 were up-regulated in the treated embryos. Four of these up-regulated proteins were antioxidant molecules, three were related to stress response, two to sugar metabolism and two were associated with heat shock response. Of the five proteins up-regulated in the control embryos, three were functionally related to carbohydrate metabolism; the functions of the remaining two proteins were unknown. The data collected during this study indicate that treatment of maize embryos with low energy ion beam implantation induces changes in stress tolerance enzymes/proteins, possibly as a result of alterations in metabolism.

  5. Determination of stress responses induced by aluminum in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Vardar, Filiz; Ismailoğlu, Işil; Inan, Deniz; Unal, Meral

    2011-06-01

    To assess the alternative responses to aluminum toxicity, maize (Zea mays L. cv Karadeniz yıldızı) roots were exposed to different concentrations of AlCl3 (150, 300 and 450 μM). Aluminum reduced the root elongation by 39.6% in 150 μM, 44.1% in 300 μM, 50.1% in 450 μM AlCl3 after 96 h period. To correlate the root elongation with the alternative stress responses including aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, mitotic abnormalities, reduction of starch content, intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, callose formation, lignin deposition and peroxidase activity, cytochemical and biochemical tests were performed. The results indicated that aluminum accumulation and lipid peroxidation were observed more densely on the root cap and the outer cortex cells. In addition to morphological deformations, cytochemical analysis displayed cellular deformations. Furthermore, mitotic abnormalities were observed such as c-mitosis, micronuclei, bi- and trinucleated cells in aluminum treated root tips. Aluminum treatment induced starch reduction, callose formation, lignin accumulation and intracellular Ca2+ increase. Moreover, the peroxidase activity increased significantly by 3, 4.4 and 7.7 times higher than in that of control after 96 h, respectively. In conclusion, aluminum is significantly stressful in maize culminating in morphological and cellular alterations.

  6. Quantitative trait loci mapping of leaf angle and leaf orientation value in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Ku, L X; Zhao, W M; Zhang, J; Wu, L C; Wang, C L; Wang, P A; Zhang, W Q; Chen, Y H

    2010-09-01

    A major limiting factor for high productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) in dense planting is light penetration through the canopy. Plant architecture with a narrower leaf angle (LA) and an optimum leaf orientation value (LOV) is desirable to increase light capture for photosynthesis and production per unit area. However, the genetic control of the plant architecture traits remains poorly understood in maize. In this study, QTL for LA, LOV, and related traits were mapped using a set of 229 F(2:3) families derived from the cross between compact and expanded inbred lines, evaluated in three environments. Twenty-five QTL were detected in total. Three of the QTL explained 37.4% and five of the QTL explained 53.9% of the phenotypic variance for LA and LOV, respectively. Two key genome regions controlling leaf angle and leaf orientation were identified. qLA1 and qLOV1 at nearest marker umc2226 on chromosome 1.02 accounted for 20.4 and 23.2% of the phenotypic variance, respectively; qLA5 and qLOV5 at nearest bnlg1287 on chromosome 5 accounted for 9.7 and 9.8% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. These QTL could provide useful information for marker-assisted selection in improving performance of plant architecture with regard to leaf angle and orientation.

  7. Enhanced plastochromanol-8 accumulation during reiterated drought in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Fleta-Soriano, Eva; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2017-03-01

    Plastochromanol-8 (PC-8) belongs to the group of tocochromanols, and together with tocopherols and carotenoids, might help protect photosystem II from photoinhibition during environmental stresses. Here, we aimed to unravel the time course evolution of PC-8 together with that of vitamin E compounds, in maize (Zea mays L.) plants exposed to reiterated drought. Measurements were performed in plants grown in a greenhouse subjected to two consecutive cycles of drought-recovery. PC-8 contents, which accounted for more than 25% of tocochromanols in maize leaves, increased progressively in response to reiterated drought stress. PC-8 contents paralleled with those of vitamin E, particularly α-tocopherol. Profiling of the stress-related phytohormones (ABA, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) was consistent with a role of ABA in the regulation of PC-8 and vitamin E biosynthesis during drought stress. Results also suggest that PC-8 may help tocopherols prevent damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. A better knowledge of the ABA-dependent regulation of PC-8 may help us manipulate the contents of this important antioxidant in crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yanmin; Wang, Yingdian; Capell, Teresa; Shi, Lianxuan; Ni, Xiuzhen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2015-01-01

    The assignment of functions to genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is necessary to understand how the pathway is regulated and to obtain the basic information required for metabolic engineering. Few carotenoid ε-hydroxylases have been functionally characterized in plants although this would provide insight into the hydroxylation steps in the pathway. We therefore isolated mRNA from the endosperm of maize (Zea mays L., inbred line B73) and cloned a full-length cDNA encoding CYP97C19, a putative heme-containing carotenoid ε hydroxylase and member of the cytochrome P450 family. The corresponding CYP97C19 genomic locus on chromosome 1 was found to comprise a single-copy gene with nine introns. We expressed CYP97C19 cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut1 knockout mutant, which lacks a functional CYP97C1 (LUT1) gene. The analysis of carotenoid levels and composition showed that lutein accumulated to high levels in the rosette leaves of the transgenic lines but not in the untransformed lut1 mutants. These results allowed the unambiguous functional annotation of maize CYP97C19 as an enzyme with strong zeinoxanthin ε-ring hydroxylation activity. PMID:26030746

  9. Allocation and source attribution of lead and cadmium in maize (Zea mays L.) impacted by smelting emissions.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiangyang; Feng, Xinbin; Yang, Yuangen; Li, Xiangdong; Shin, Grace P Y; Li, Feili; Qiu, Guangle; Li, Guanghui; Liu, Taoze; Fu, Zhiyou

    2009-03-01

    Plants grown in contaminated areas may accumulate trace metals to a toxic level via their roots and/or leaves. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and sources of Pb and Cd in maize plants (Zea mays L.) grown in a typical zinc smelting impacted area of southwestern China. Results showed that the smelting activities caused significantly elevated concentrations of Pb and Cd in the surrounding soils and maize plants. Pb isotope data revealed that the foliar uptake of atmospheric Pb was the dominant pathway for Pb to the leaf and grain tissues of maize, while Pb in the stalk and root tissues was mainly derived from root uptake. The ratio of Pb to Cd concentrations in the plants indicated that Cd had a different behavior from Pb, with most Cd in the maize plants coming from the soil via root uptake.

  10. Effect of Cadmium Stress on Non-enzymatic Antioxidant and Nitric Oxide Levels in Two Varieties of Maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Faboya, Oluwabamise Lekan; Olayide, Israel; Faboya, Opeyemi Ayodeji; Ijabadeniyi, Tosin

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals that inhibit physiological processes of plants. Hence, the present study sought to investigate the effect of cadmium-contaminated seeds from two varieties of maize (Zea mays) on non-enzymatic antioxidant and nitric oxide levels. Seeds of yellow and white maize were exposed to different concentrations of Cd (0, 1, 3 and 5 ppm) for two weeks. The results from this study revealed that both varieties of maize bio-accumulate Cd in leaves in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Cd exposure caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in total phenolic, GSH and nitric oxide (NO) levels at the highest concentration tested when compared with control. Therefore, the observed decrease in NO and endogenous antioxidant status by Cd treatment in maize plants could suggest some possible mechanism of action for Cd-induced oxidative stress and counteracting effect of the plants against Cd toxicity.

  11. Usefulness of multiparental populations of maize (Zea mays L.) for genome-based prediction.

    PubMed

    Lehermeier, Christina; Krämer, Nicole; Bauer, Eva; Bauland, Cyril; Camisan, Christian; Campo, Laura; Flament, Pascal; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Menz, Monica; Meyer, Nina; Moreau, Laurence; Moreno-González, Jesús; Ouzunova, Milena; Pausch, Hubert; Ranc, Nicolas; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Schönleben, Manfred; Walter, Hildrun; Charcosset, Alain; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of marker-assisted prediction of phenotypes has been studied intensively for different types of plant breeding populations. However, one remaining question is how to incorporate and counterbalance information from biparental and multiparental populations into model training for genome-wide prediction. To address this question, we evaluated testcross performance of 1652 doubled-haploid maize (Zea mays L.) lines that were genotyped with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phenotyped for five agronomic traits in four to six European environments. The lines are arranged in two diverse half-sib panels representing two major European heterotic germplasm pools. The data set contains 10 related biparental dent families and 11 related biparental flint families generated from crosses of maize lines important for European maize breeding. With this new data set we analyzed genome-based best linear unbiased prediction in different validation schemes and compositions of estimation and test sets. Further, we theoretically and empirically investigated marker linkage phases across multiparental populations. In general, predictive abilities similar to or higher than those within biparental families could be achieved by combining several half-sib families in the estimation set. For the majority of families, 375 half-sib lines in the estimation set were sufficient to reach the same predictive performance of biomass yield as an estimation set of 50 full-sib lines. In contrast, prediction across heterotic pools was not possible for most cases. Our findings are important for experimental design in genome-based prediction as they provide guidelines for the genetic structure and required sample size of data sets used for model training.

  12. Purification and characterization of a glutathione S-transferase from benoxacor-treated maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed Central

    Irzyk, G P; Fuerst, E P

    1993-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozyme from maize (Zea mays Pioneer hybrid 3906) treated with the dichloroacetamide herbicide safener benoxacor (CGA-154281) was purified to homogeneity and partially characterized. The enzyme, assayed with metolachlor as a substrate, was purified approximately 200-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography on Mono Q resins, and affinity chromatography on S-hexylglutathione agarose from total GST activity present in etiolated shoots. The purified protein migrated during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) as a single band with a molecular mass of 27 kD. Using nondenaturing PAGE, we determined that the native protein has a molecular mass of about 57 kD and that the protein exists as a dimer. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed only a single protein with an isoelectric point of 5.75 and molecular mass of 27 kD. These results further suggest that the protein exists as a homodimer of two identical 27-kD subunits. The enzyme was most active with substrates possessing a chloroacetamide structure. trans-Cinnamic acid and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene were not effective substrates. Apparent Km values for the enzyme were 10.8 microM for the chloroacetamide metolachlor and 292 microM for glutathione. The enzyme was active from pH 6 to 9, with a pH optimum between 7.5 and 8. An apparently blocked amino terminus of the intact protein prevented direct amino acid sequencing. The enzyme was digested with trypsin, and the amino acid sequences of several peptide fragments were obtained. The sequence information for the isolated GST we have designated "GST IV" indicates that the enzyme is a unique maize GST but shares some homology with maize GSTs I and III. PMID:8278534

  13. Global gene expression analysis of the shoot apical meristem of maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Smith, Marianne B; Emrich, Scott J; Borsuk, Lisa A; Zhou, Ruilian; Chen, Tianle; Zhang, Xiaolan; Timmermans, Marja C P; Beck, Jon; Buckner, Brent; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J; Schnable, Patrick S

    2007-01-01

    All above-ground plant organs are derived from shoot apical meristems (SAMs). Global analyses of gene expression were conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) SAMs to identify genes preferentially expressed in the SAM. The SAMs were collected from 14-day-old B73 seedlings via laser capture microdissection (LCM). The RNA samples extracted from LCM-collected SAMs and from seedlings were hybridized to microarrays spotted with 37 660 maize cDNAs. Approximately 30% (10 816) of these cDNAs were prepared as part of this study from manually dissected B73 maize apices. Over 5000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (about 13% of the total) were differentially expressed (P<0.0001) between SAMs and seedlings. Of these, 2783 and 2248 ESTs were up- and down-regulated in the SAM, respectively. The expression in the SAM of several of the differentially expressed ESTs was validated via quantitative RT-PCR and/or in situ hybridization. The up-regulated ESTs included many regulatory genes including transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors and components of the gene-silencing machinery, as well as about 900 genes with unknown functions. Surprisingly, transcripts that hybridized to 62 retrotransposon-related cDNAs were also substantially up-regulated in the SAM. Complementary DNAs derived from the LCM-collected SAMs were sequenced to identify additional genes that are expressed in the SAM. This generated around 550 000 ESTs (454-SAM ESTs) from two genotypes. Consistent with the microarray results, approximately 14% of the 454-SAM ESTs from B73 were retrotransposon-related. Possible roles of genes that are preferentially expressed in the SAM are discussed. PMID:17764504

  14. Global gene expression analysis of the shoot apical meristem of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Smith, Marianne B; Emrich, Scott J; Borsuk, Lisa A; Zhou, Ruilian; Chen, Tianle; Zhang, Xiaolan; Timmermans, Marja C P; Beck, Jon; Buckner, Brent; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J; Schnable, Patrick S

    2007-11-01

    All above-ground plant organs are derived from shoot apical meristems (SAMs). Global analyses of gene expression were conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) SAMs to identify genes preferentially expressed in the SAM. The SAMs were collected from 14-day-old B73 seedlings via laser capture microdissection (LCM). The RNA samples extracted from LCM-collected SAMs and from seedlings were hybridized to microarrays spotted with 37 660 maize cDNAs. Approximately 30% (10 816) of these cDNAs were prepared as part of this study from manually dissected B73 maize apices. Over 5000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (about 13% of the total) were differentially expressed (P < 0.0001) between SAMs and seedlings. Of these, 2783 and 2248 ESTs were up- and down-regulated in the SAM, respectively. The expression in the SAM of several of the differentially expressed ESTs was validated via quantitative RT-PCR and/or in situ hybridization. The up-regulated ESTs included many regulatory genes including transcription factors, chromatin remodeling factors and components of the gene-silencing machinery, as well as about 900 genes with unknown functions. Surprisingly, transcripts that hybridized to 62 retrotransposon-related cDNAs were also substantially up-regulated in the SAM. Complementary DNAs derived from the LCM-collected SAMs were sequenced to identify additional genes that are expressed in the SAM. This generated around 550 000 ESTs (454-SAM ESTs) from two genotypes. Consistent with the microarray results, approximately 14% of the 454-SAM ESTs from B73 were retrotransposon-related. Possible roles of genes that are preferentially expressed in the SAM are discussed.

  15. An evaluation of water-yield relations in maize (Zea mays L.) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mengü, Gülay Pamuk; Ozgürel, Mustafa

    2008-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to deficit irrigation. A field experiment was conducted during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons in western Turkey. Irrigation treatments were tested with 100, 70, 50, 30 and 0% replenishment of water depleted at 120 cm soil profile from 100% replenishment treatment at ten days intervals. The irrigation amount ranged between 0 and 323.20 mm in the first year and 0-466.61 mm in the second year of the experiment. Seasonal crop water use values were between 142.19 and 481.91 mm in 1999 and 136.25-599.45 mm in 2000. Average maximum and minimum yields were 10639-10383 kg ha(-1) for full irrigated treatment (I100) and 3750-2136 kg ha(-1) for non-irrigated treatment (I0) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Water deficit significantly affected maize yield. In both years, yield increased linearly with irrigation applied but the relationship varied from one year to the other. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 1.49 to 2.71 kg m(-3), while Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE) varied from 1.44 to 2.55 kg m(-3) in both years. The yield response factor (ky) relating relative yield decrease to relative evapotranspiration deficit was found to be 0.99 for the data of the two experiments combined. Also, dry matter yields (DM) and leaf area index (LAI) were markedly affected by the irrigation treatments. The finding of this work showed that well-irrigated treatment should be used for maize grown in semi arid regions under no water scarcity.

  16. Usefulness of Multiparental Populations of Maize (Zea mays L.) for Genome-Based Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Lehermeier, Christina; Krämer, Nicole; Bauer, Eva; Bauland, Cyril; Camisan, Christian; Campo, Laura; Flament, Pascal; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Menz, Monica; Meyer, Nina; Moreau, Laurence; Moreno-González, Jesús; Ouzunova, Milena; Pausch, Hubert; Ranc, Nicolas; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Schönleben, Manfred; Walter, Hildrun; Charcosset, Alain; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of marker-assisted prediction of phenotypes has been studied intensively for different types of plant breeding populations. However, one remaining question is how to incorporate and counterbalance information from biparental and multiparental populations into model training for genome-wide prediction. To address this question, we evaluated testcross performance of 1652 doubled-haploid maize (Zea mays L.) lines that were genotyped with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phenotyped for five agronomic traits in four to six European environments. The lines are arranged in two diverse half-sib panels representing two major European heterotic germplasm pools. The data set contains 10 related biparental dent families and 11 related biparental flint families generated from crosses of maize lines important for European maize breeding. With this new data set we analyzed genome-based best linear unbiased prediction in different validation schemes and compositions of estimation and test sets. Further, we theoretically and empirically investigated marker linkage phases across multiparental populations. In general, predictive abilities similar to or higher than those within biparental families could be achieved by combining several half-sib families in the estimation set. For the majority of families, 375 half-sib lines in the estimation set were sufficient to reach the same predictive performance of biomass yield as an estimation set of 50 full-sib lines. In contrast, prediction across heterotic pools was not possible for most cases. Our findings are important for experimental design in genome-based prediction as they provide guidelines for the genetic structure and required sample size of data sets used for model training. PMID:25236445

  17. Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry of Seabird Guano Fertilization: Results from Growth Chamber Studies with Maize (Zea Mays)

    PubMed Central

    Szpak, Paul; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Millaire, Jean-François; White, Christine D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stable isotope analysis is being utilized with increasing regularity to examine a wide range of issues (diet, habitat use, migration) in ecology, geology, archaeology, and related disciplines. A crucial component to these studies is a thorough understanding of the range and causes of baseline isotopic variation, which is relatively poorly understood for nitrogen (δ15N). Animal excrement is known to impact plant δ15N values, but the effects of seabird guano have not been systematically studied from an agricultural or horticultural standpoint. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) and vital data for maize (Zea mays) fertilized with Peruvian seabird guano under controlled conditions. The level of 15N enrichment in fertilized plants is very large, with δ15N values ranging between 25.5 and 44.7‰ depending on the tissue and amount of fertilizer applied; comparatively, control plant δ15N values ranged between −0.3 and 5.7‰. Intraplant and temporal variability in δ15N values were large, particularly for the guano-fertilized plants, which can be attributed to changes in the availability of guano-derived N over time, and the reliance of stored vs. absorbed N. Plant δ13C values were not significantly impacted by guano fertilization. High concentrations of seabird guano inhibited maize germination and maize growth. Moreover, high levels of seabird guano greatly impacted the N metabolism of the plants, resulting in significantly higher tissue N content, particularly in the stalk. Conclusions/Significance The results presented in this study demonstrate the very large impact of seabird guano on maize δ15N values. The use of seabird guano as a fertilizer can thus be traced using stable isotope analysis in food chemistry applications (certification of organic inputs). Furthermore, the fertilization of maize with seabird guano creates an isotopic signature very similar to a high-trophic level marine resource, which must

  18. Maize (Zea mays): allergen or toleragen? Participation of the cereal in allergic disease and positivity incidence in cutaneous tests.

    PubMed

    Valencia Zavala, Martha Patricia; Vega Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Sánchez Olivas, Manuel A; Duarte Diaz, Rosa Janet; Oviedo, Cristóbal León

    2006-01-01

    The maize (zea mays) is considered one of the fundamental nutrients in the diet of the Mexican population. It can cause allergic reactions, according to reports from countries other than Mexico. To know the participation of maize in the etiology of allergic disease and the incidence of positivity to its antigens by cutaneous tests, in Mexican patients. Six hundred sixty-one patients were studied. There were obtained a complete clinical history and samples for laboratory tests, as well as the results of cutaneous tests. Of 661 patients, 56 (8.5%) manifested allergic symptoms attributable to maize, which correlated (p < 0.0001) with a positive cutaneous response to its antigens. Fifty (88%) of them worked with maize and had a significant relative risk value (RR=102). The remaining six patients did not work with maize, four of them were included in the group who had a positive response for both allergens (n = 25), and two in that one with positive response for only one of these allergens (n = 100). The low frequency (8.5%) to which the allergic disease was attributed to maize, and the strong association (88%) with workers of maize induce us to consider the influence of some differences concerning to the cereal, such as physical characteristics, years and frequency to contact with, and specially to its entrance route. In fact, it plays an important role in the development of either toleragenic or immunogenic response to an antigen.

  19. Uptake and accumulation of copper by roots and shoots of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, D H; Jiang, W S; Hou, W Q

    2001-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of copper sulfate on root and shoot growth of maize(Zea mays L.) and the uptake and accumulation of Cu2+ by its roots and shoots were investigated in the present study. The concentrations of copper sulfate (CuSO4 x 5H2O) used were in the range of 10(-5)-10(-3) mol/L. Root growth decreased progressively with increasing concentration of Cu2+ in solution. The seedlings exposed to 10(-3) mol/L Cu2+ exhibited substantial growth reduction, yielding only 68% of the root length of the control. The shoot growth of the seedlings grown at 10(-5)-10(-4) mol/L Cu2+ were more or less the same as the control seedlings. The leaves treated with 10(-3) mol/L Cu2+ were obviously inhibited in shoot growth. The fresh and dry weights both in roots and shots decreased progressively with increasing Cu2+ concentration. This fits well with the above mentioned effects of copper sulfate on root growth. Zea mays has considerable ability to remove Cu from solutions and accumulate it. The Cu content in roots of Z. mays increased with increasing solution concentration of Cu2+. The amount of Cu in roots of plants treated with 10(-3), 10(-4) and 10(-5) mol/L Cu2+ were 10, 8 and 1.5 fold, respectively, greater than that of roots of control plant. However, the plants transported and concentrated only a small amount of Cu in their shoots.

  20. Root-type-specific plasticity in response to localized high nitrate supply in maize (Zea mays)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peng; Hochholdinger, Frank; Li, Chunjian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Shoot-borne roots contribute to most of the nutrient uptake throughout the life cycle of maize (Zea mays). Compared with numerous studies with embryonic roots, detailed information on the phenotypic plasticity of shoot-borne roots in response to a heterogeneous nitrogen supply is scarce. The present study therefore provides a comprehensive profile of fine-scale plastic responses of distinct root types to localized high nitrate supply. Methods Seedlings of the maize inbred line B73 were grown in split-root systems. The anatomy and morphological plasticity of the primary root and the roots initiated from the 2nd, 5th and 7th shoot nodes, and their lateral roots, were studied in response to local high nitrate supply to one side of the root system. Key Results In contrast to the insensitivity of axial roots, local high nitrate supply increased the length of 1st-order lateral roots on the primary root and the three whorls of shoot-borne roots at different growth stages, and increased the density of 1st-order lateral roots on the 7th shoot-borne root after silking. The length and density of 2nd-order lateral roots on the three whorls of shoot-borne roots displayed a more flexible response to local high nitrate than 1st-order lateral roots. Root diameter and number, and total area and diameter of metaxylem vessels increased from the primary root to early and then later developed shoot-borne roots, which showed a positive relationship with shoot growth and N accumulation. Conclusions Maize axial roots and lateral roots responded differently to local high nitrate, and this was related to their function. The extent of morphological plasticity of lateral roots in response to local high nitrate depended on the initiation time of the shoot-borne roots on which the lateral roots developed. Morphological plasticity was higher on 2nd-order than on 1st-order lateral roots. The results suggest that higher order lateral root branching might be a potential target

  1. Root-type-specific plasticity in response to localized high nitrate supply in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Hochholdinger, Frank; Li, Chunjian

    2015-10-01

    Shoot-borne roots contribute to most of the nutrient uptake throughout the life cycle of maize (Zea mays). Compared with numerous studies with embryonic roots, detailed information on the phenotypic plasticity of shoot-borne roots in response to a heterogeneous nitrogen supply is scarce. The present study therefore provides a comprehensive profile of fine-scale plastic responses of distinct root types to localized high nitrate supply. Seedlings of the maize inbred line B73 were grown in split-root systems. The anatomy and morphological plasticity of the primary root and the roots initiated from the 2nd, 5th and 7th shoot nodes, and their lateral roots, were studied in response to local high nitrate supply to one side of the root system. In contrast to the insensitivity of axial roots, local high nitrate supply increased the length of 1st-order lateral roots on the primary root and the three whorls of shoot-borne roots at different growth stages, and increased the density of 1st-order lateral roots on the 7th shoot-borne root after silking. The length and density of 2nd-order lateral roots on the three whorls of shoot-borne roots displayed a more flexible response to local high nitrate than 1st-order lateral roots. Root diameter and number, and total area and diameter of metaxylem vessels increased from the primary root to early and then later developed shoot-borne roots, which showed a positive relationship with shoot growth and N accumulation. Maize axial roots and lateral roots responded differently to local high nitrate, and this was related to their function. The extent of morphological plasticity of lateral roots in response to local high nitrate depended on the initiation time of the shoot-borne roots on which the lateral roots developed. Morphological plasticity was higher on 2nd-order than on 1st-order lateral roots. The results suggest that higher order lateral root branching might be a potential target for genetic improvement in future maize breeding.

  2. Zea mI, the maize homolog of the allergen-encoding Lol pI gene of rye grass.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, A H; Rubinstein, A L; Chay, C H; Klapper, D G; Bedinger, P A

    1993-09-15

    Sequence analysis of a pollen-specific cDNA from maize has identified a homolog (Zea mI) of the gene (Lol pI) encoding the major allergen of rye-grass pollen. The protein encoded by the partial cDNA sequence is 59.3% identical and 72.7% similar to the comparable region of the reported amino acid sequence of Lol pIA. Southern analysis indicates that this cDNA represents a member of a small multigene family in maize. Northern analysis shows expression only in pollen, not in vegetative or female floral tissues. The timing of expression is developmentally regulated, occurring at a low level prior to the first pollen mitosis and at a high level after this postmeiotic division. Western analysis detects a protein in maize pollen lysates using polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies directed against purified Lolium perenne allergen.

  3. Fungal-fungal associations affect the assembly of endophyte communities in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Pan, Jean J; May, Georgiana

    2009-10-01

    Many factors can affect the assembly of communities, ranging from species pools to habitat effects to interspecific interactions. In microbial communities, the predominant focus has been on the well-touted ability of microbes to disperse and the environment acting as a selective filter to determine which species are present. In this study, we investigated the role of biotic interactions (e.g., competition, facilitation) in fungal endophyte community assembly by examining endophyte species co-occurrences within communities using null models. We used recombinant inbred lines (genotypes) of maize (Zea mays) to examine community assembly at multiple habitat levels, at the individual plant and host genotype levels. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to assess endophyte communities. Communities were analyzed using the complete fungal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) dataset or only the dominant (most abundant) OTUs in order to ascertain whether species co-occurrences were different for dominant members compared to when all members were included. In the culture-dependent approach, we found that for both datasets, OTUs co-occurred on maize genotypes more frequently than expected under the null model of random species co-occurrences. In the culture-independent approach, we found that OTUs negatively co-occurred at the individual plant level but were not significantly different from random at the genotype level for either the dominant or complete datasets. Our results showed that interspecific interactions can affect endophyte community assembly, but the effects can be complex and depend on host habitat level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine endophyte community assembly in the same host species at multiple habitat levels. Understanding the processes and mechanisms that shape microbial communities will provide important insights into microbial community structure and the maintenance of microbial biodiversity.

  4. Epigenetic variation, inheritance, and parent-of-origin effects of cytosine methylation in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Lauria, Massimiliano; Piccinini, Sara; Pirona, Raul; Lund, Gertrud; Viotti, Angelo; Motto, Mario

    2014-03-01

    Pure epigenetic variation, or epigenetic variation that is independent of genetic context, may provide a mechanism for phenotypic variation in the absence of DNA mutations. To estimate the extent of pure epigenetic variation within and across generations and to identify the DNA regions targeted, a group of eight plants derived from a highly inbred line of maize (Zea mays) was analyzed by the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. We found that cytosine methylation (mC) differences among individuals accounted for up to 7.4% of CCGG sites investigated by MSAP. Of the differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) identified in the S0 generation, ∼12% were meiotically inherited for at least six generations. We show that meiotically heritable mC variation was consistently generated for an average of 0.5% CCGG sites per generation and that it largely occurred somatically. We provide evidence that mC variation can be established and inherited in a parent-of-origin manner, given that the paternal lineage is more prone to both forward and reverse mC changes. The molecular characterization of selected DMFs revealed that the variation was largely determined by CG methylation changes that map within gene regions. The expression analysis of genes overlapping with DMFs did not reveal an obvious correlation between mC variation and transcription, reinforcing the idea that the primary function of gene-body methylation is not to control gene expression. Because this study focuses on epigenetic variation in field-grown plants, the data presented herein pertain to spontaneous epigenetic changes of the maize genome in a natural context.

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaves to Long Photoperiod Condition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liuji; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ping; Tian, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.), an important industrial material and food source, shows an astonishing environmental adaptation. A remarkable feature of its post-domestication adaptation from tropical to temperate environments is adaptation to a long photoperiod (LP). Many photoperiod-related genes have been identified in previous transcriptomics analysis, but proteomics shows less evidence for this mechanism of photoperiod response. In this study, we sampled newly expanded leaves of maize at the three- and six-leaf stages from an LP-sensitive introgression line H496, the donor CML288, LP-insensitive inbred line, and recurrent parent Huangzao4 (HZ4) grown under long days (15 h light and 9 h dark). To characterize the proteomic changes in response to LP, the iTRAQ-labeling method was used to determine the proteome profiles of plants exposed to LP. A total of 943 proteins differentially expressed at the three- and six-leaf stages in HZ4 and H496 were identified. Functional analysis was performed by which the proteins were classified into stress defense, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, energy production, and transport functional groups using the WEGO online tool. The enriched gene ontology categories among the identified proteins were identified statistically with the Cytoscape plugin ClueGO + Cluepedia. Twenty Gene Ontology terms showed the highest significance, including those associated with protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, splicesome, ribosome, glyoxylate, dicarboxylate metabolism, L-malate dehydrogenase activity, and RNA transport. In addition, for subcellular location, all proteins showed significant enrichment of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The sugars producted by photosynthesis in plants are also a pivotal metabolic output in the circadian regulation. The results permit the prediction of several crucial proteins to photoperiod response and provide a foundation for further study of the influence of LP treatments on

  6. Epigenetic Variation, Inheritance, and Parent-of-Origin Effects of Cytosine Methylation in Maize (Zea mays)

    PubMed Central

    Lauria, Massimiliano; Piccinini, Sara; Pirona, Raul; Lund, Gertrud; Viotti, Angelo; Motto, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Pure epigenetic variation, or epigenetic variation that is independent of genetic context, may provide a mechanism for phenotypic variation in the absence of DNA mutations. To estimate the extent of pure epigenetic variation within and across generations and to identify the DNA regions targeted, a group of eight plants derived from a highly inbred line of maize (Zea mays) was analyzed by the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. We found that cytosine methylation (mC) differences among individuals accounted for up to 7.4% of CCGG sites investigated by MSAP. Of the differentially methylated fragments (DMFs) identified in the S0 generation, ∼12% were meiotically inherited for at least six generations. We show that meiotically heritable mC variation was consistently generated for an average of 0.5% CCGG sites per generation and that it largely occurred somatically. We provide evidence that mC variation can be established and inherited in a parent-of-origin manner, given that the paternal lineage is more prone to both forward and reverse mC changes. The molecular characterization of selected DMFs revealed that the variation was largely determined by CG methylation changes that map within gene regions. The expression analysis of genes overlapping with DMFs did not reveal an obvious correlation between mC variation and transcription, reinforcing the idea that the primary function of gene-body methylation is not to control gene expression. Because this study focuses on epigenetic variation in field-grown plants, the data presented herein pertain to spontaneous epigenetic changes of the maize genome in a natural context. PMID:24374354

  7. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response.

  8. Maize (Zea mays L.) performance in organically amended mine site soils.

    PubMed

    Oladipo, Oluwatosin Gbemisola; Olayinka, Akinyemi; Awotoye, Olusegun Olufemi

    2016-10-01

    Organic amendments play an important role in the eco-friendly remediation of degraded mine site soils. This study investigated the quality (essential nutrients and heavy metal content) of maize grown on organically amended soils from three active mines in Nigeria. Soil samples were collected randomly at 0-15 cm depth, air-dried and sieved. Five kg of soil were amended with poultry manure and sawdust (poultry manure only, sawdust only, poultry manure-sawdust mixtures in 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 ratios) at 10 g kg(-1). Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds were planted and watered for two consecutive periods of 8 weeks, with the control and treatment experiments set up in the screenhouse in quadruples. Harvested tissues were weighed, dried, ground and digested. Chemical properties were determined using standard methods while atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine total metal concentrations (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu). ANOVA was used to test for significant differences among treatment groups in the various parameters. Application of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced tissue dry matter yield, as well as N, P, K, and Na contents while Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb were immobilized to approximately 50-100%. Treatment with sawdust alone reduced tissue nutrient content resulting in depressed plant yield while poultry manure only though enhanced crop yield, contained higher heavy metal contents. Soil amendments comprised of poultry manure-sawdust mixtures can be effective remediation strategy for mine site soils, as these organic materials help replenish soil nutrients, immobilize heavy metals, and enhance food productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Complementation contributes to transcriptome complexity in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids relative to their inbred parents

    PubMed Central

    Paschold, Anja; Jia, Yi; Marcon, Caroline; Lund, Steve; Larson, Nick B.; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Ossowski, Stephan; Lanz, Christa; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Typically, F1-hybrids are more vigorous than their homozygous, genetically distinct parents, a phenomenon known as heterosis. In the present study, the transcriptomes of the reciprocal maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids B73×Mo17 and Mo17×B73 and their parental inbred lines B73 and Mo17 were surveyed in primary roots, early in the developmental manifestation of heterotic root traits. The application of statistical methods and a suitable experimental design established that 34,233 (i.e., 86%) of all high-confidence maize genes were expressed in at least one genotype. Nearly 70% of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two parents and 42%–55% of expressed genes were differentially expressed between one of the parents and one of the hybrids. In both hybrids, ∼10% of expressed genes exhibited nonadditive gene expression. Consistent with the dominance model (i.e., complementation) for heterosis, 1124 genes that were expressed in the hybrids were expressed in only one of the two parents. For 65 genes, it could be shown that this was a consequence of complementation of genomic presence/absence variation. For dozens of other genes, alleles from the inactive inbred were activated in the hybrid, presumably via interactions with regulatory factors from the active inbred. As a consequence of these types of complementation, both hybrids expressed more genes than did either parental inbred. Finally, in hybrids, ∼14% of expressed genes exhibited allele-specific expression (ASE) levels that differed significantly from the parental-inbred expression ratios, providing further evidence for interactions of regulatory factors from one parental genome with target genes from the other parental genome. PMID:23086286

  10. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  11. Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil-polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Amadi, A. ) Ue Bari, Y. )

    1992-01-01

    The use of poultry manure for amelioration of oil-polluted soil was investigated by growing maize (Zea mays L.) under two experimental conditions: increasing the poultry manure rate from 0-20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} at 0.03 L/kg oil treatment level; and increasing the rate of oil treatment from 0-0.2 between the rate of poultry manure added and the enhancement of maize growth. But only a 16-kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure rate and above exerted some beneficial effects on the maize growth relative to the unpolluted, unamended soil. Conversely, increasing oil concentration, regardless of the poultry manure level added, depressed maize growth, but only at oil levels of 0.03 L/kg. A positive correlation was recorded between maize height and leaf area growing in oil-treated soil amended with different poultry manure rates and growing in oil-treated amended with 20 kg ha{sup {minus}1} poultry manure. Amending oil-contaminated soils with poultry manure, should possibly improve soil fertility and maize production.

  12. Improved tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) to heavy metals by colonization of a dark septate endophyte (DSE) Exophiala pisciphila.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Liu, M J; Zhang, X T; Zhang, H B; Sha, T; Zhao, Z W

    2011-02-15

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous and abundant in stressful environments including heavy metal (HM) stress. However, our knowledge about the roles of DSE in improving HM tolerance of their host plants is poor. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) was inoculated with a HM tolerant DSE strain Exophiala pisciphila H93 in lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils. E. pisciphila H93 successfully colonized and formed typical DSE structures in the inoculated maize roots. Colonization of E. pisciphila H93 alleviated the deleterious effects of excessive HM supplements and promoted the growth of maize (roots and shoots) under HM stress conditions, though it significantly decreased the biomass of inoculated maize under no HM stress. Further analysis showed that the colonization of E. pisciphila H93 improved the tolerance of maize to HM by restricting the translocation of HM ions from roots to shoots. This study demonstrated that under higher HM stress, such a mutual symbiosis between E. pisciphila and its host (maize) may be an efficient strategy to survive in the stressful environments.

  13. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  14. Diverted secondary metabolism and improved resistance to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) in maize (Zea mays L.) transformed with wheat oxalate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jingqin; Burt, Andrew J; Ramputh, Al-I; Simmonds, John; Cass, Leslie; Hubbard, Keith; Miller, Shea; Altosaar, Illimar; Arnason, John T

    2007-04-04

    An alteration in the secondary metabolism of maize (Zea mays L.) genetically modified with the wheat oxalate oxidase (OxO) gene was observed using HPLC and fluorescence microscopy. Phenolic concentrations in the OxO lines were significantly increased, but DIMBOA synthesis was reduced due to a diversion in the shikimate pathway leading to phenolic and hydroxamic acids. Ferulic acid exhibited the largest increase and accounted for 80.4% of the total soluble phenolics. Transcription of a 13-lipoxygenase gene, coding for a key enzyme involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism, was substantially higher in the OxO line than in the null line. To test whether the high levels of soluble phenolic acids, in particular ferulic acid, contributed to the insect resistance in the OxO maize, ferulic acid was administered in meridic diets to European corn borer (ECB). A significant negative correlation between ferulic acid concentration and ECB larval growth rate was found. Field testing during 2001 showed that OxO maize was more resistant to ECB, with leaf consumption and stalk-tunneling damage significantly reduced by 28-34 and 37-39%, respectively, on all of the OxO lines tested and confirming published 2000 findings.

  15. Differential Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Aphid-Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:24722734

  16. Azospirillum brasilense does not affect population structure of specific rhizobacterial communities of inoculated maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Herschkovitz, Yoav; Lerner, Anat; Davidov, Yaacov; Okon, Yaacov; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2005-11-01

    Positive response of plant species to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria have led to an increased interest in their use as bacterial inoculants. However, the introduction of exogenous bacteria into natural ecosystems may perturb bacterial populations within the microbial community and lead to the disruption of indigenous populations performing key functional roles. In this study the effect of Azospirillum brasilense inoculation on maize (Zea mays) rhizosphere Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, alpha-Proteobacteria, Pseudomonas and Bdellovibrio spp. was assessed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach in conjunction with group-specific primers. The DGGE fingerprints analysis revealed that the introduction of A. brasilense did not alter or disrupt the microbial system at the group-specific level. However, some communities such as the alpha-Proteobacteria and Bdellovibrio were influenced by plant age while the other bacterial groups remained unaffected. Based on these as well as previous data, it can be inferred that inoculation with A. brasilense does not perturb the natural bacterial populations investigated.

  17. Depth Profiles in Maize ( Zea mays L.) Seeds Studied by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Zepeda-Bautista, R.

    2015-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) has been used to analyze agricultural seeds and can be applied to the study of seed depth profiles of these complex samples composed of different structures. The sample depth profile can be obtained through the photoacoustic (PA) signal, amplitude, and phase at different light modulation frequencies. The PA signal phase is more sensitive to changes of thermal properties in layered samples than the PA signal amplitude. Hence, the PA signal phase can also be used to characterize layers at different depths. Thus, the objective of the present study was to obtain the optical absorption spectra of maize seeds ( Zea mays L.) by means of PAS at different light modulation frequencies (17 Hz, 30 Hz, and 50 Hz) and comparing these spectra with the ones obtained from the phase-resolved method in order to separate the optical absorption spectra of seed pericarp and endosperm. The results suggest the possibility of using the phase-resolved method to obtain optical absorption spectra of different seed structures, at different depths, without damaging the seed. Thus, PAS could be a nondestructive method for characterization of agricultural seeds and thus improve quality control in the food industry.

  18. Fine scale genetic structure in the wild ancestor of maize (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis).

    PubMed

    Van Heerwaarden, Joost; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Doebley, John; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; González, Jose De Jesús Sánchez; Gaut, Brandon S; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of fine scale genetic structure in continuous populations of outcrossing plant species has traditionally been limited by the availability of sufficient markers. We used a set of 468 SNPs to characterize fine-scale genetic structure within and between two dense stands of the wild ancestor of maize, teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis). Our analyses confirmed that teosinte is highly outcrossing and showed little population structure over short distances. We found that the two populations were clearly genetically differentiated, although the actual level of differentiation was low. Spatial autocorrelation of relatedness was observed within both sites but was somewhat stronger in one of the populations. Using principal component analysis, we found evidence for significant local differentiation in the population with stronger spatial autocorrelation. This differentiation was associated with pronounced shifts in the first two principal components along the field. These shifts corresponded to changes in allele frequencies, potentially due to local topographical features. There was little evidence for selection at individual loci as a contributing factor to differentiation. Our results demonstrate that significant local differentiation may, but need not, co-occur with spatial autocorrelation of relatedness. The present study represents one of the most detailed analyses of local genetic structure to date and provides a benchmark for future studies dealing with fine scale patterns of genetic diversity in natural plant populations.

  19. Characterization of two membrane-associated beta-glucosidases from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles.

    PubMed Central

    Feldwisch, J; Vente, A; Zettl, R; Bako, L; Campos, N; Palme, K

    1994-01-01

    We isolated membrane vesicles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles and identified in these vesicles a 58 kDa (pm58) and a 60 kDa (pm60) protein by photoaffinity labelling with 5-azido-[7-3H]indole-3-acetic acid ([3H]N3IAA). Photoaffinity labelling was effectively competed for by auxins as well as by flavonoids. The labelled proteins were solubilized by Triton X-114 from the vesicles and partially purified. Microsequence analysis revealed that pm60 is a beta-glucosidase. This was confirmed by biochemical and immunological analysis. We show that pm60 has a beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.21) activity. It uses p-nitro-phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as a substrate, with a pH optimum of 5.0. The Km for PNPG is 0.652 mM and the Vmax. 6.24 mumol.min-1.mg-1. The beta-glucosidase activity of pm60 was competitively inhibited by IAA and 1-naphthylacetic acid as well as by gluconolactam and glucose. N-terminal amino-acid-sequence analysis of pm58 revealed similarity to pm60, suggesting that both proteins are encoded by different members of a gene family. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8068000

  20. Genetic mechanisms underlying apimaysin and maysin synthesis and corn earworm antibiosis in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed Central

    Lee, E A; Byrne, P F; McMullen, M D; Snook, M E; Wiseman, B R; Widstrom, N W; Coe, E H

    1998-01-01

    C-glycosyl flavones in maize silks confer resistance (i.e., antibiosis) to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea [Boddie]) larvae and are distinguished by their B-ring substitutions, with maysin and apimaysin being the di- and monohydroxy B-ring forms, respectively. Herein, we examine the genetic mechanisms underlying the synthesis of maysin and apimaysin and the corresponding effects on corn earworm larval growth. Using an F2 population, we found a quantitative trait locus (QTL), rem1, which accounted for 55.3% of the phenotypic variance for maysin, and a QTL, pr1, which explained 64.7% of the phenotypic variance for apimaysin. The maysin QTL did not affect apimaysin synthesis, and the apimaysin QTL did not affect maysin synthesis, suggesting that the synthesis of these closely related compounds occurs independently. The two QTLs, rem1 and pr1, were involved in a significant epistatic interaction for total flavones, suggesting that a ceiling exists governing the total possible amount of C-glycosyl flavone. The maysin and apimaysin QTLs were significant QTLs for corn earworm antibiosis, accounting for 14. 1% (rem1) and 14.7% (pr1) of the phenotypic variation. An additional QTL, represented by umc85 on the short arm of chromosome 6, affected antibiosis (R2 = 15.2%), but did not affect the synthesis of the C-glycosyl flavones. PMID:9691053

  1. Effects of experimental warming on stomatal traits in leaves of maize (Zea may L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yunpu; Xu, Ming; Hou, Ruixing; Shen, Ruichang; Qiu, Shuai; Ouyang, Zhu

    2013-09-01

    We examined the warming effects on the stomatal frequency, stomatal aperture size and shape, and their spatial distribution pattern of maize (Zea may L.) leaves using a light microscope, an electron scanning microscope, and geostatistic techniques. A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate canopy temperature by 2.08°C, on average. We found that experimental warming had little effect on stomatal density, but significantly increased stomatal index due to the reduction in the number of epidermal cells under the warming treatment. Warming also significantly decreased stomatal aperture length and increased stomatal aperture width. As a result, warming significantly increased the average stomatal aperture area and stomatal aperture circumference. In addition, warming dramatically changed the stomatal spatial distribution pattern with a substantial increase in the average nearest neighbor distance between stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The spatial distribution pattern of stomata was scale dependent with regular patterns at small scales and random patterns at larger scales on both leaf surfaces. Warming caused the stomatal distribution to become more regular on both leaf surfaces with smaller L(t) values (Ripley's K-function, L(t) is an expectation of zero for any value of t) in the warming plots than the control plots.

  2. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Root cortical aerenchyma inhibits radial nutrient transport in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Henry, Amelia; Brown, Kathleen M; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Formation of root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) can be induced by nutrient deficiency. In species adapted to aerobic soil conditions, this response is adaptive by reducing root maintenance requirements, thereby permitting greater soil exploration. One trade-off of RCA formation may be reduced radial transport of nutrients due to reduction in living cortical tissue. To test this hypothesis, radial nutrient transport in intact roots of maize (Zea mays) was investigated in two radiolabelling experiments employing genotypes with contrasting RCA. In the first experiment, time-course dynamics of phosphate loading into the xylem were measured from excised nodal roots that varied in RCA formation. In the second experiment, uptake of phosphate, calcium and sulphate was measured in seminal roots of intact young plants in which variation in RCA was induced by treatments altering ethylene action or genetic differences. In each of three paired genotype comparisons, the rate of phosphate exudation of high-RCA genotypes was significantly less than that of low-RCA genotypes. In the second experiment, radial nutrient transport of phosphate and calcium was negatively correlated with the extent of RCA for some genotypes. The results support the hypothesis that RCA can reduce radial transport of some nutrients in some genotypes, which could be an important trade-off of this trait.

  4. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants.

  5. Safe use of metal-contaminated agricultural land by cultivation of energy maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Van Slycken, S; Witters, N; Meers, E; Peene, A; Michels, E; Adriaensen, K; Ruttens, A; Vangronsveld, J; Du Laing, G; Wierinck, I; Van Dael, M; Van Passel, S; Tack, F M G

    2013-07-01

    Production of food crops on trace element-contaminated agricultural lands in the Campine region (Belgium) can be problematic as legal threshold values for safe use of these crops can be exceeded. Conventional sanitation of vast areas is too expensive and alternatives need to be investigated. Zea mays on a trace element-contaminated soil in the region showed an average yield of 53 ± 10 Mg fresh or 20 ± 3 Mg dry biomass ha(-1). Whole plant Cd concentrations complied with legal threshold values for animal feed. Moreover, threshold values for use in anaerobic digestion were met. Biogas production potential did not differ between maize grown on contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Results suggested favorable perspectives for farmers to generate non-food crops profitably, although effective soil cleaning would be very slow. This demonstrates that a valuable and sustainable alternative use can be generated for moderately contaminated soils on which conventional agriculture is impaired.

  6. Effects of experimental warming on stomatal traits in leaves of maize (Zea may L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunpu; Xu, Ming; Hou, Ruixing; Shen, Ruichang; Qiu, Shuai; Ouyang, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    We examined the warming effects on the stomatal frequency, stomatal aperture size and shape, and their spatial distribution pattern of maize (Zea may L.) leaves using a light microscope, an electron scanning microscope, and geostatistic techniques. A field manipulative experiment was conducted to elevate canopy temperature by 2.08°C, on average. We found that experimental warming had little effect on stomatal density, but significantly increased stomatal index due to the reduction in the number of epidermal cells under the warming treatment. Warming also significantly decreased stomatal aperture length and increased stomatal aperture width. As a result, warming significantly increased the average stomatal aperture area and stomatal aperture circumference. In addition, warming dramatically changed the stomatal spatial distribution pattern with a substantial increase in the average nearest neighbor distance between stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The spatial distribution pattern of stomata was scale dependent with regular patterns at small scales and random patterns at larger scales on both leaf surfaces. Warming caused the stomatal distribution to become more regular on both leaf surfaces with smaller L(t) values (Ripley's K-function, L(t) is an expectation of zero for any value of t) in the warming plots than the control plots. PMID:24101997

  7. Selection of inbred maize (Zea mays L.) progenies by topcrosses conducted in contrasting environments.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, C S; Pacheco, C A P; Guedes, M L; Pinho, R G V; Castro, C R

    2016-09-23

    The aim of this study was to identify inbred progenies of S0:1 maize (Zea mays L.) plants that were efficient at a low level of technology and responsive at a high level of technology through the use of topcrosses. Two contrasting environments were created using two levels of base fertilization and topdressing, so that the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were applied four times higher in one environment than in the other. We used S0:1 progenies derived from commercial hybrids in topcrosses with two testers (an elite line from the flint heterotic group and an elite line from the dent heterotic group). The progenies and three controls were evaluated in an augmented block design in Nossa Senhora das Dores, SE, Brazil in the 2010 crop season. The average grain yield in the high-technological level was 21.44% greater than that in the low-technological level. There were no changes in progeny behavior in the two technological levels for grain yield. The testers did not differ in the average grain yield of the progenies at the two technological levels. Therefore, it is possible to select progenies derived from commercial hybrids that have an efficient response to fertilization.

  8. Bayesian Networks Illustrate Genomic and Residual Trait Connections in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Töpner, Katrin; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Gianola, Daniel; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2017-01-01

    Relationships among traits were investigated on the genomic and residual levels using novel methodology. This included inference on these relationships via Bayesian networks and an assessment of the networks with structural equation models. The methodology employed three steps. First, a Bayesian multiple-trait Gaussian model was fitted to the data to decompose phenotypic values into their genomic and residual components. Second, genomic and residual network structures among traits were learned from estimates of these two components. Network learning was performed using six different algorithmic settings for comparison, of which two were score-based and four were constraint-based approaches. Third, structural equation model analyses ranked the networks in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability, and compared them with the standard multiple-trait fully recursive network. The methodology was applied to experimental data representing the European heterotic maize pools Dent and Flint (Zea mays L.). Inferences on genomic and residual trait connections were depicted separately as directed acyclic graphs. These graphs provide information beyond mere pairwise genetic or residual associations between traits, illustrating for example conditional independencies and hinting at potential causal links among traits. Network analysis suggested some genetic correlations as potentially spurious. Genomic and residual networks were compared between Dent and Flint. PMID:28637811

  9. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize.

    PubMed

    Silva, Natália Carolina de Almeida; Vidal, Rafael; Costa, Flaviane Malaquias; Vaio, Magdalena; Ogliari, Juliana Bernardi

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4-18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians.

  10. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577

  11. Identification of Immune Related LRR-Containing Genes in Maize (Zea mays L.) by Genome-Wide Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei; Wang, Baoqiang; Li, Xinghua; Wei, Jianfen; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Dongmin; Zhang, Wenying; Li, Ronggai

    2015-01-01

    A large number of immune receptors consist of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins and leucine rich repeat-receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLK) that play a crucial role in plant disease resistance. Although many NBS-LRR genes have been previously identified in Zea mays, there are no reports on identifying NBS-LRR genes encoded in the N-terminal Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) motif and identifying genome-wide LRR-RLK genes. In the present study, 151 NBS-LRR genes and 226 LRR-RLK genes were identified after performing bioinformatics analysis of the entire maize genome. Of these identified genes, 64 NBS-LRR genes and four TIR-NBS-LRR genes were identified for the first time. The NBS-LRR genes are unevenly distributed on each chromosome with gene clusters located at the distal end of each chromosome, while LRR-RLK genes have a random chromosomal distribution with more paired genes. Additionally, six LRR-RLK/RLPs including FLS2, PSY1R, PSKR1, BIR1, SERK3, and Cf5 were characterized in Zea mays for the first time. Their predicted amino acid sequences have similar protein structures with their respective homologues in other plants, indicating that these maize LRR-RLK/RLPs have the same functions as their homologues act as immune receptors. The identified gene sequences would assist in the study of their functions in maize. PMID:26609518

  12. Transcriptomic Profiling of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaf Response to Abiotic Stresses at the Seedling Stage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengcheng; Cao, Wei; Fang, Huimin; Xu, Shuhui; Yin, Shuangyi; Zhang, Yingying; Lin, Dezhou; Wang, Jianan; Chen, Yufei; Xu, Chenwu; Yang, Zefeng

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, heat, and cold, negatively affect maize (Zea mays L.) development and productivity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to abiotic stresses in maize, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of B73 seedling leaves exposed to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stress. A total of 5,330 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in differential comparisons between the control and each stressed sample, with 1,661, 2,019, 2,346, and 1,841 DEGs being identified in comparisons of the control with salinity, drought, heat, and cold stress, respectively. Functional annotations of DEGs suggested that the stress response was mediated by pathways involving hormone metabolism and signaling, transcription factors (TFs), very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid signaling, among others. Of the obtained DEGs (5,330), 167 genes are common to these four abiotic stresses, including 10 up-regulated TFs (five ERFs, two NACs, one ARF, one MYB, and one HD-ZIP) and two down-regulated TFs (one b-ZIP and one MYB-related), which suggested that common mechanisms may be initiated in response to different abiotic stresses in maize. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of maize leaf responses to abiotic stresses and could be useful for developing maize cultivars resistant to abiotic stresses. PMID:28298920

  13. Accumulation of 5-hydroxynorvaline in maize (Zea mays) leaves is induced by insect feeding and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jian; Lipka, Alexander E.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Buckler, Edward S.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of defensive metabolites to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens. Non-protein amino acids, which are present in many plant species, can have a defensive function through their mis-incorporation during protein synthesis and/or inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in primary metabolism. 5-Hydroxynorvaline was identified in a targeted search for previously unknown non-protein amino acids in the leaves of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73. Accumulation of this compound increases during herbivory by aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis, corn leaf aphid) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua, beet armyworm), as well as in response to treatment with the plant signalling molecules methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. In contrast, ethylene signalling reduced 5-hydroxynorvaline abundance. Drought stress induced 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to a higher level than insect feeding or treatment with defence signalling molecules. In field-grown plants, the 5-hydroxynorvaline concentration was highest in above-ground vegetative tissue, but it was also detectable in roots and dry seeds. When 5-hydroxynorvaline was added to aphid artificial diet at concentrations similar to those found in maize leaves and stems, R. maidis reproduction was reduced, indicating that this maize metabolite may have a defensive function. Among 27 tested maize inbred lines there was a greater than 10-fold range in the accumulation of foliar 5-hydroxynorvaline. Genetic mapping populations derived from a subset of these inbred lines were used to map quantitative trait loci for 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to maize chromosomes 5 and 7. PMID:25271262

  14. Growth, cadmium uptake and accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.) under the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingzhi; Gong, Zongqiang; Zhang, Yulong; Li, Peijun

    2014-12-01

    The effects of three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates on Cd uptake and accumulation by maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated in a planted pot experiment. Plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices, Glomus constrictum and Glomus mosseae at three different Cd concentrations. The results showed that root colonization increased with Cd addition during a 6-week growth period, however, the fungal density on roots decreased after 9-week growth in the treatments with G. constrictum and G. mosseae isolates. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization by the three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates ranged from 22.7 to 72.3%. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculations decreased maize biomass especially during the first 6-week growth before Cd addition, and this inhibitory effect was less significant with Cd addition and growth time. Cd concentrations and uptake in maize plants increased with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization at low Cd concentration (0.02 mM): nonetheless, it decreased at high Cd concentration (0.20 mM) after 6-week growth period. Inoculation with G. constrictum isolates enhanced the root Cd concentrations and uptake, but G. mosseae isolates showed the opposite results at high Cd concentration level after 9 week growth period, as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. In conclusion, maize plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were less sensitive to Cd stress than uninoculated plants. G. constrictum isolates enhanced Cd phytostabilization and G. mosseae isolates reduced Cd uptake in maize (Z. mays L.).

  15. Effects of host plant environment and Ustilago maydis infection on the fungal endophyte community of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Pan, Jean J; Baumgarten, Andrew M; May, Georgiana

    2008-01-01

    The focus of many fungal endophyte studies has been how plants benefit from endophyte infection. Few studies have investigated the role of the host plant as an environment in shaping endophyte community diversity and composition. The effects that different attributes of the host plant, that is, host genetic variation, host variation in resistance to the fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis and U. maydis infection, have on the fungal endophyte communities in maize (Zea mays) was examined. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA was sequenced to identify fungi and the endophyte communities were compared in six maize lines that varied in their resistance to U. maydis. It was found that host genetic variation, as determined by maize line, had significant effects on species richness, while the interactions between line and U. maydis infection and line and field plot had significant effects on endophyte community composition. However, the effects of maize line were not dependent on whether lines were resistant or susceptible to U. maydis. Almost 3000 clones obtained from 58 plants were sequenced to characterize the maize endophyte community. These results suggest that the endophyte community is shaped by complex interactions and factors, such as inoculum pool and microclimate, may be important.

  16. Transcriptomic Profiling of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaf Response to Abiotic Stresses at the Seedling Stage.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengcheng; Cao, Wei; Fang, Huimin; Xu, Shuhui; Yin, Shuangyi; Zhang, Yingying; Lin, Dezhou; Wang, Jianan; Chen, Yufei; Xu, Chenwu; Yang, Zefeng

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, heat, and cold, negatively affect maize (Zea mays L.) development and productivity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to abiotic stresses in maize, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of B73 seedling leaves exposed to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stress. A total of 5,330 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in differential comparisons between the control and each stressed sample, with 1,661, 2,019, 2,346, and 1,841 DEGs being identified in comparisons of the control with salinity, drought, heat, and cold stress, respectively. Functional annotations of DEGs suggested that the stress response was mediated by pathways involving hormone metabolism and signaling, transcription factors (TFs), very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid signaling, among others. Of the obtained DEGs (5,330), 167 genes are common to these four abiotic stresses, including 10 up-regulated TFs (five ERFs, two NACs, one ARF, one MYB, and one HD-ZIP) and two down-regulated TFs (one b-ZIP and one MYB-related), which suggested that common mechanisms may be initiated in response to different abiotic stresses in maize. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of maize leaf responses to abiotic stresses and could be useful for developing maize cultivars resistant to abiotic stresses.

  17. Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.

    PubMed

    Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

    2009-12-09

    The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed.

  18. Evaluating the physiological state of maize (Zea mays L.) plants by direct-injection electrospray mass spectrometry (DIESI-MS).

    PubMed

    García-Flores, Martín; Juárez-Colunga, Sheila; Montero-Vargas, Josaphat Miguel; López-Arciniega, Janet Ana Isabel; Chagolla, Alicia; Tiessen, Axel; Winkler, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Climatic change is an increasing challenge for agriculture that is driving the development of suitable crops in order to ensure supply for both human nutrition and animal feed. In this context, it is increasingly important to understand the biochemical responses of cells to environmental cues at the whole system level, an aim that is being brought closer by advances in high throughput, cost-efficient plant metabolomics. To support molecular breeding activities, we have assessed the economic, technical and statistical feasibility of using direct mass spectrometry methods to evaluate the physiological state of maize (Zea mays L.) plants grown under different stress conditions.

  19. Genome-wide identification, splicing, and expression analysis of the myosin gene family in maize (Zea mays)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifeng; Zhong, Mingyu; Wang, Gang; Song, Rentao

    2014-01-01

    The actin-based myosin system is essential for the organization and dynamics of the endomembrane system and transport network in plant cells. Plants harbour two unique myosin groups, class VIII and class XI, and the latter is structurally and functionally analogous to the animal and fungal class V myosin. Little is known about myosins in grass, even though grass includes several agronomically important cereal crops. Here, we identified 14 myosin genes from the genome of maize (Zea mays). The relatively larger sizes of maize myosin genes are due to their much longer introns, which are abundant in transposable elements. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that maize myosin genes could be classified into class VIII and class XI, with three and 11 members, respectively. Apart from subgroup XI-F, the remaining subgroups were duplicated at least in one analysed lineage, and the duplication events occurred more extensively in Arabidopsis than in maize. Only two pairs of maize myosins were generated from segmental duplication. Expression analysis revealed that most maize myosin genes were expressed universally, whereas a few members (XI-1, -6, and -11) showed an anther-specific pattern, and many underwent extensive alternative splicing. We also found a short transcript at the O1 locus, which conceptually encoded a headless myosin that most likely functions at the transcriptional level rather than via a dominant-negative mechanism at the translational level. Together, these data provide significant insights into the evolutionary and functional characterization of maize myosin genes that could transfer to the identification and application of homologous myosins of other grasses. PMID:24363426

  20. Genome-wide identification, splicing, and expression analysis of the myosin gene family in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Zhong, Mingyu; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Jushan; Tang, Yuanping; Wang, Gang; Song, Rentao

    2014-03-01

    The actin-based myosin system is essential for the organization and dynamics of the endomembrane system and transport network in plant cells. Plants harbour two unique myosin groups, class VIII and class XI, and the latter is structurally and functionally analogous to the animal and fungal class V myosin. Little is known about myosins in grass, even though grass includes several agronomically important cereal crops. Here, we identified 14 myosin genes from the genome of maize (Zea mays). The relatively larger sizes of maize myosin genes are due to their much longer introns, which are abundant in transposable elements. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that maize myosin genes could be classified into class VIII and class XI, with three and 11 members, respectively. Apart from subgroup XI-F, the remaining subgroups were duplicated at least in one analysed lineage, and the duplication events occurred more extensively in Arabidopsis than in maize. Only two pairs of maize myosins were generated from segmental duplication. Expression analysis revealed that most maize myosin genes were expressed universally, whereas a few members (XI-1, -6, and -11) showed an anther-specific pattern, and many underwent extensive alternative splicing. We also found a short transcript at the O1 locus, which conceptually encoded a headless myosin that most likely functions at the transcriptional level rather than via a dominant-negative mechanism at the translational level. Together, these data provide significant insights into the evolutionary and functional characterization of maize myosin genes that could transfer to the identification and application of homologous myosins of other grasses.

  1. Purification and Partial Characterization of Maize (Zea mays L.) β-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Asim

    1992-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) β-glucosidase (β-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) was extracted from the coleoptiles of 5- to 6-day-old maize seedlings with 50 millimolar sodium acetate, pH 5.0. The pH of the extract was adjusted to 4.6, and most of the contaminating proteins were cryoprecipitated at 0°C for 24 hours. The pH 4.6 supernatant from cryoprecipitation was further fractionated by chromatography on an Accell CM column using a 4.8 to 6.8 pH gradient of 50 millimolar sodium acetate, which yielded the enzyme in two homogeneous, chromatographically different fractions. Purified enzyme was characterized with respect to subunit molecular weight, isoelectric point, amino acid composition, NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, pH and temperature optima, thermostability, and activity and stability in the presence of selected reducing agents, metal ions, and alkylating agents. The purified enzyme has an estimated subunit molecular mass of 60 kilodaltons, isoelectric point at pH 5.2, and pH and temperature optima at 5.8 and 50°C, respectively. The amino acid composition data indicate that the enzyme is rich in Glx and Asx, the sum of which approaches 25%. The sequence of the first 20 amino acids in the N-terminal region was H2N-Ser-Ala-Arg-Val-Gly-Ser-Gln-Asn-Gly-Val-Gln-Met-Leu-Ser-Pro-(Ser?) -Glu-Ile-Pro-Gln, and it shows no significant similarity to other proteins with known sequence. The enzyme is extremely stable at 0 to 4°C up to 1 year but loses activity completely at and above 55°C in 10 minutes. Likewise, the enzyme is stable in the presence of or after treatment with 500 millimolar 2-mercaptoethanol, and it is totally inactivated at 2000 millimolar 2-mercaptoethanol. Such metal ions as Hg2+ and Ag+ reversibly inhibit the enzyme at micromolar concentrations, and inhibition could be completely overcome by adding 2-mercaptoethanol at molar excess of the inhibitory metal ion. The alkylating agents iodoacetic acid and iodoacetamide irreversibly inactivate the

  2. Ethylene Evolution from Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedling Roots and Shoots in Response to Mechanical Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Sarquis, Jorge I.; Jordan, Wayne R.; Morgan, Page W.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of mechanical impedance on ethylene evolution and growth of preemergent maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings was investigated by pressurizing the growth medium in triaxial cells in a controlled environment. Pressure increased the bulk density of the medium and thus the resistance to growth. The elongation of maize primary roots and preemergent shoots was severely hindered by applied pressures as low as 10 kilopascals. Following a steep decline in elongation at low pressures, both shoots and roots responded to additional pressure in a linear manner, but shoots were more severely affected than roots at higher pressures. Radial expansion was promoted in both organs by mechanical impedance. Primary roots typically became thinner during the experimental period when grown unimpeded. In contrast, pressures as low as 25 kilopascals caused a 25% increase in root tip diameter. Shoots showed a slight enhancement of radial expansion; however, in contrast to roots, the shoots increased in diameter even when growing unimpeded. Such morphological changes were not evident until at least 3 hours after initiation of treatment. All levels of applied pressure promoted ethylene evolution as early as 1 hour after application of pressure. After 1 hour, ethylene evolution rates had increased 10, 32, 70, and 255% at 25, 50, 75, and 100 kilopascals respectively, and continued to increase linearly for at least 10 hours. When intact corn seedlings were subjected to a series of hourly cycles of pressure, followed by relaxation, ethylene production rates increased or decreased rapidly, illustrating tight coupling between mechanical impedance and tissue response. Seedlings exposed to 1 microliter of ethylene per liter showed symptoms similar to those shown by plants grown under mechanical impedance. Root diameter increased 5 times as much as the shoot diameter. Pretreatment with 10 micromolar aminoethoxyvinyl glycine plus 1 micromolar silver thiosulfate maintained ethylene production rates

  3. Concurrent Measurements of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange during Lightflecks in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed Central

    Krall, J. P.; Pearcy, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) were enclosed in a temperature-controlled cuvette under 35 Pa (350 [mu]bars) CO2 and 0.2 kPa (0.2%)O2 and exposed to short periods (1-30 s) of illumination (light-flecks). The rate and total amount of CO2 assimilated and O2 evolved were measured. The O2 evolution rate was taken as an indicator of the rate of photosynthetic noncyclic electron transport (NCET). In this C4 species, the response of electron transport during the lightflecks qualitatively mimicked that of C3 species previously tested, whereas the response of CO2 assimilation differed. Under short-duration lightflecks at high photon flux density (PFD), the mean rate of O2 evolution was greater than the steady-state rate of O2 evolution under the same PFD due to a burst of O2 evolution at the beginning of the lightfleck. This O2 burst was taken as indicating a high level of NCET involved in the buildup of assimilatory charge via ATP, NADPH, and reduced or phosphorylated metabolites. However, as lightfleck duration decreased, the amount of CO2 assimilated per unit time of the lightfleck (the mean rate of CO2 assimilation) decreased. There was also a burst of CO2 from the leaf at the beginning of low-PFD lightflecks that further reduced the assimilation during these lightflecks. The results are discussed in terms of the buildup of assimilatory charge through the synthesis of high-energy metabolites specific to C4 metabolism. It is speculated that the inefficiency of carbon uptake during brief light transients in the C4 species, relative to C3 species, is due to the futile synthesis of C4 cycle intermediates. PMID:12231981

  4. Characterization and Transposon Mutagenesis of the Maize (Zea mays) Pho1 Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Vidal, M. Nancy; Acosta-Segovia, Edith; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Ahern, Kevin R.; Brutnell, Thomas P.; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all plants, but also one of the least mobile, and consequently least available, in the soil. Plants have evolved a series of molecular, metabolic and developmental adaptations to increase the acquisition of phosphorus and to maximize the efficiency of use within the plant. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the AtPHO1 protein regulates and facilitates the distribution of phosphorus. To investigate the role of PHO1 proteins in maize (Zea mays), the B73 reference genome was searched for homologous sequences, and four genes identified that were designated ZmPho1;1, ZmPho1;2a, ZmPho1;2b and ZmPho1;3. ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b are the most similar to AtPHO1, and represent candidate co-orthologs that we hypothesize to have been retained following whole genome duplication. Evidence was obtained for the production of natural anti-sense transcripts associated with both ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, suggesting the possibility of regulatory crosstalk between paralogs. To characterize functional divergence between ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, a program of transposon mutagenesis was initiated using the Ac/Ds system, and, here, we report the generation of novel alleles of ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b. PMID:27648940

  5. Paenibacillus zeae sp. nov., isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Lei; Wang, Ronghuan; Zhao, Ran; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Chuanyong; Cao, Yu; Cao, Yanhua; Xu, Tianjun; Ge, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Jiuran; Cheng, Chi

    2015-12-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive bacterial strains, designated 6R2T, 6R18, 3T2 and 3T10, isolated from seeds of hybrid maize (Zea mays L., Jingke 968) were investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells were aerobic, motile, spore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates may represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, the four closest neighbours being Paenibacillus lautus NRRL NRS-666T (97.1 % similarity), Paenibacillus glucanolyticus DSM 5162T (97.0 %), Paenibacillus lactis MB 1871T (97.0 %) and Paenibacillus chibensis JCM 9905T (96.8 %). The DNA G+C content of strain 6R2T was 51.8 mol%. Its polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. Strains 6R2T, 6R18, 3T2 and 3T10 were clearly distinguished from the above type strains using phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics. It is evident from the genotypic and phenotypic data that strains 6R2T, 6R18, 3T2 and 3T10 represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus zeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 6R2T ( = KCTC 33674T = CICC 23860T).

  6. Leucobacter zeae sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-An; Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Hsu, Yi-Han; Liu, You-Cheng; Huang, Hsuan-Ru; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-12-01

    A novel yellow-pigmented, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain CCMF41T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of maize (Zea mays) collected in Wufeng District, Taichung, Taiwan. Strain CC-MF41T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.5, 97.3, 97.2 and 97.1% to Leucobacter chironomi MM2LBT (and ‘Leucobacter kyeonggiensis’F3-P9 and ‘L. humi’ Re-6, the names of which have not been validly published), Leucobactertardus K70/01T, L. komagatae IFO 15245T and ‘Leucobacter margaritiformis’ A23. However,CC-MF41T and ‘L. margaritiformis’ A23 formed a loosely bound phylogenetic lineage (with alow bootstrap value) associated with species of the genus Leucobacter. In DNA–DNA reassociation experiments, the relatedness of strain CC-MF41T to L. chironomi DSM 19883T was 57.1% (reciprocal value 29.1 %). The DNA G+C content of strain CC-MF41T was 72.1 mol% and the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, alanine, glycine,glutamic acid and threonine. The major menaquinone was MK-11 and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain CCMF41T contained major amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol followed by an unidentified glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown phospholipid. Based on its phylogenetic,phenotypic and chemotaxonomic distinctiveness, strain CC-MF41T represents a novel species of Leucobacter, for which the name Leucobacter zeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain isCC-MF41T (=BCRC 80515T=LMG 27265T).

  7. Paenibacillus chinensis sp. nov., isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhao, Ran; Wang, Ronghuan; Yao, Su; Zhai, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Chuanyong; Cao, Yanhua; Xu, Tianjun; Ge, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Jiuran; Cheng, Chi

    2016-02-01

    Four Gram-stain positive bacterial strains, designated as 4R1(T), 4R9, 4L13 and 4L18, isolated from seeds of hybrid maize (Zea mays L., Jingke 968), were investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The cells were found to be facultatively aerobic, motile, spore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates should be recognised as a species of the genus Paenibacillus, with two close neighbours being Paenibacillus nicotianae YIM h-19(T) (98.41 % similarity) and Paenibacillus hordei RH-N24(T) (98.37 %). The DNA G+C content of strain 4R1(T) was determined to be 51.6 mol %. Its polar lipid profile was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified lipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7 and the major fatty acids were found to be anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C12:0, anteiso-C13:0 and anteiso-C11:0. Strains 4R1(T), 4R9, 4L13 and 4L18 were clearly distinguished from the reference type strains using phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics. It is evident from the genotypic and phenotypic data that strains 4R1(T), 4R9, 4L13 and 4L18 represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus chinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 4R1(T) (=KCTC 33672(T) = CICC 23864(T)).

  8. Proliferation of maize (Zea mays L.) roots in response to localized supply of nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granato, T. C.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plants with two primary nodal root axes were grown for 8 d in flowing nutrient culture with each axis independently supplied with NO3-. Dry matter accumulation by roots was similar whether 1.0 mol m-3 NO3- was supplied to one or both axes. When NO3- was supplied to only one axis, however, accumulation of dry matter within the root system was significantly greater in the axis supplied with NO3-. The increased dry matter accumulation by the +N-treated axis was attributable entirely to increased density and growth of lateral branches and not to a difference in growth of the primary axis. Proliferation of lateral branches for the +N axis was associated with the capacity for in situ reduction and utilization of a portion of the absorbed NO3-, especially in the apical region where lateral primordia are initiated. Although reduced nitrogen was translocated to the -N axis, concentrations in the -N axis remained significantly lower than in the +N axis. The concentration of reduced nitrogen, as well as in vitro NO3- reductase activity, was greater in apical than in more basal regions of the +N axis. The enhanced proliferation of lateral branches in the +N axis was accompanied by an increase in total respiration rate of the axis. Part of the increased respiration was attributable to increased mass of roots. The specific respiration rate (micromoles CO2 evolved per hour per gram root dry weight) was also greater for the +N than for the -N axis. If respiration rate is taken as representative of sink demand, stimulation of initiation and growth of laterals by in situ utilization of a localized exogenous supply of NO3- establishes an increased sink demand through enhanced metabolic activity and the increased partitioning of assimilates to the +N axis responds to the difference in sink demand between +N and -N axes.

  9. Proliferation of maize (Zea mays L.) roots in response to localized supply of nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granato, T. C.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plants with two primary nodal root axes were grown for 8 d in flowing nutrient culture with each axis independently supplied with NO3-. Dry matter accumulation by roots was similar whether 1.0 mol m-3 NO3- was supplied to one or both axes. When NO3- was supplied to only one axis, however, accumulation of dry matter within the root system was significantly greater in the axis supplied with NO3-. The increased dry matter accumulation by the +N-treated axis was attributable entirely to increased density and growth of lateral branches and not to a difference in growth of the primary axis. Proliferation of lateral branches for the +N axis was associated with the capacity for in situ reduction and utilization of a portion of the absorbed NO3-, especially in the apical region where lateral primordia are initiated. Although reduced nitrogen was translocated to the -N axis, concentrations in the -N axis remained significantly lower than in the +N axis. The concentration of reduced nitrogen, as well as in vitro NO3- reductase activity, was greater in apical than in more basal regions of the +N axis. The enhanced proliferation of lateral branches in the +N axis was accompanied by an increase in total respiration rate of the axis. Part of the increased respiration was attributable to increased mass of roots. The specific respiration rate (micromoles CO2 evolved per hour per gram root dry weight) was also greater for the +N than for the -N axis. If respiration rate is taken as representative of sink demand, stimulation of initiation and growth of laterals by in situ utilization of a localized exogenous supply of NO3- establishes an increased sink demand through enhanced metabolic activity and the increased partitioning of assimilates to the +N axis responds to the difference in sink demand between +N and -N axes.

  10. Optimum prediction of three-way crosses from single crosses in forage maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Melchinger, A E; Geiger, H H; Seitz, G; Schmidt, G A

    1987-07-01

    Three-way cross means were predicted with formulae involving linear functions of general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects estimated from single-cross factorials between genetically divergent populations. Data from an experiment with 66 single-cross and 66 three-way cross forage maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids was used for comparing the prediction formulae. The genotypic correlation (r) between observed and predicted three-way crosses increased with increasing χ, the weighting factor of SCA effects, for plant height and ear dry matter (DM) content. It displayed slightly convex curves for total and stover DM yield, ear percentage, and metabolizable energy content of stover. For Jenkins' method B, r was considerably less than 1.0 for all traits, indicating the presence of epistasis. The square root of heritability (hĜ) of the predicted means decreased with increasing χ, the reduction being small with a greater number of test environments. Using the product r·hĜ as a criterion of efficiency, none of the prediction methods was consistently superior and the differences among them were rather small (< 7.5%) for all traits, irrespective of the number of test environments. We recommend evaluating the GCA of a greater number of lines from each parent population in testcrosses with a small number of elite lines from the opposite population. All possible three-way or double crosses between both sets of lines should be predicted by Jenkins's method C. This procedure allows one to select with a higher intensity among the predicted hybrids and thus should increase the genetic gain.

  11. QTL Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis of Telomere Length Control Factors in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amber N.; Lauter, Nick; Vera, Daniel L.; McLaughlin-Large, Karen A.; Steele, Tace M.; Fredette, Natalie C.; Bass, Hank W.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere length is a quantitative trait important for many cellular functions. Failure to regulate telomere length contributes to genomic instability, cellular senescence, cancer, and apoptosis in humans, but the functional significance of telomere regulation in plants is much less well understood. To gain a better understanding of telomere biology in plants, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to identify genetic elements that control telomere length variation in maize (Zea mays L.). For this purpose, we measured the median and mean telomere lengths from 178 recombinant inbred lines of the IBM mapping population and found multiple regions that collectively accounted for 33–38% of the variation in telomere length. Two-way analysis of variance revealed interaction between the quantitative trait loci at genetic bin positions 2.09 and 5.04. Candidate genes within these and other significant QTL intervals, along with select genes known a priori to regulate telomere length, were tested for correlations between expression levels and telomere length in the IBM population and diverse inbred lines by quantitative real-time PCR. A slight but significant positive correlation between expression levels and telomere length was observed for many of the candidate genes, but Ibp2 was a notable exception, showing instead a negative correlation. A rad51-like protein (TEL-MD_5.04) was strongly supported as a candidate gene by several lines of evidence. Our results highlight the value of QTL mapping plus candidate gene expression analysis in a genetically diverse model system for telomere research. PMID:22384354

  12. Effect of selenite and selenate on plant uptake of cadmium by maize (zea mays)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, K.; Mishra, S.; Srivastava, S.

    1996-03-01

    Selenium has been reported to confer tolerance to toxicity of heavy metals including cadmium, a highly toxic and non essential heavy metal, which enters the food chain via plant uptake from soils. Selenium reduces availability of cadmium to plants along with other aspects of its toxicokinetics. When plants are supplied with selenite, selenium concentrations in the xylem exudate are lower than selenate. Most of the selenate was transported as selenate and unidentified organic Se compounds. In contrast, Se distribution among various Se fractions within plants does not depend significantly on whether selenite or selenate was used. Selenium has a strong tendency to form complexes with heavy metals like Cd, Hg, Ag and Tl. It has been suggested that the protective effects of selenium are due to the formation of non toxic Se-metal complexes, although the mechanism by which this protective effect is exerted remains unclear. Studies on the effect of selenium (selenite) and cadmium additions to the soil on their concentrations in lettuce and wheat has indicated the role of selenite in reduction of cadmium uptake. The cletoxifying effect of sodium selenite on cadmium ion in the freshwater fish Potyacuthus cupanus has been reported. The discovery that an element like selenium counteracts the toxicity, chemical carcinogenesis and reduces the plant uptake of other toxic metals, highlights the possibility of existence of a Se-metal interaction mechanism in soil plant systems. The uptake and translocation of root-absorbed chromium supplied through irrigation in the trivalent and hexavalant states in various parts of the onion plant (Allium cepa) grown in soil and sand culture has been recently reported by us. In continuation of that, this preliminary report describes the effect of selenite and selenate pretreatment on the uptake of cadmium in the maize plant (Zea mays).

  13. Characterization and Transposon Mutagenesis of the Maize (Zea mays) Pho1 Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vidal, M Nancy; Acosta-Segovia, Edith; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Ahern, Kevin R; Brutnell, Thomas P; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all plants, but also one of the least mobile, and consequently least available, in the soil. Plants have evolved a series of molecular, metabolic and developmental adaptations to increase the acquisition of phosphorus and to maximize the efficiency of use within the plant. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the AtPHO1 protein regulates and facilitates the distribution of phosphorus. To investigate the role of PHO1 proteins in maize (Zea mays), the B73 reference genome was searched for homologous sequences, and four genes identified that were designated ZmPho1;1, ZmPho1;2a, ZmPho1;2b and ZmPho1;3. ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b are the most similar to AtPHO1, and represent candidate co-orthologs that we hypothesize to have been retained following whole genome duplication. Evidence was obtained for the production of natural anti-sense transcripts associated with both ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, suggesting the possibility of regulatory crosstalk between paralogs. To characterize functional divergence between ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b, a program of transposon mutagenesis was initiated using the Ac/Ds system, and, here, we report the generation of novel alleles of ZmPho1;2a and ZmPho1;2b.

  14. Phosphorus and Compost Management Influence Maize (Zea mays) Productivity Under Semiarid Condition with and without Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) unavailability and lack of organic matter in the soils under semiarid climates are the two major constraints for low crop productivity. Field trial was conducted to study the effects of P levels, compost application times and seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam). The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during summer 2014. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement using three replications. The two PSB levels [(1) inoculated seed with PSB (+) and (2) seed not inoculated with PSB (- or control)] and three compost application times (30, 15, and 0 days before sowing) combination (six treatments) were used as main plot factor, while four P levels (25, 50, 75, and 100 kg P ha-1) used as subplot factor. The results confirmed that compost applied at sowing time and P applied at the two higher rates (75 and 100 kg P ha-1) had significantly increased yield and yield components of maize under semiarid condition. Maize seed inoculated with PSB (+) had tremendously increased yield and yield components of maize over PSB-control plots (-) under semiarid condition. PMID:26697038

  15. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Reduced forms of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are among the most important non-enzymatic foliar antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.). The survey was aimed to evaluate impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) herbivory on expression of genes related to ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in seedlings of six maize varieties (Ambrozja, Nana, Tasty Sweet, Touran, Waza, Złota Karłowa), differing in resistance to the cereal aphids. Relative expression of sixteen maize genes encoding isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase (APX1, APX2, APX3, APX4, APX5, APX6, APX7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR1, MDHAR2, MDHAR3, MDHAR4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1, DHAR2, DHAR3) and glutathione reductase (GR1, GR2) was quantified. Furthermore, effect of hemipterans’ attack on activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and the content of reduced and oxidized ascorbate and glutathione in maize plants were assessed. Seedling leaves of more resistant Z. mays varieties responded higher elevations in abundance of target transcripts. In addition, earlier and stronger aphid-triggered changes in activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and greater modulations in amount of the analyzed antioxidative metabolites were detected in foliar tissues of highly resistant Ambrozja genotype in relation to susceptible Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:26907270

  16. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd.

  17. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-02-23

    Reduced forms of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are among the most important non-enzymatic foliar antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.). The survey was aimed to evaluate impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) herbivory on expression of genes related to ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in seedlings of six maize varieties (Ambrozja, Nana, Tasty Sweet, Touran, Waza, Złota Karłowa), differing in resistance to the cereal aphids. Relative expression of sixteen maize genes encoding isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase (APX1, APX2, APX3, APX4, APX5, APX6, APX7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR1, MDHAR2, MDHAR3, MDHAR4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1, DHAR2, DHAR3) and glutathione reductase (GR1, GR2) was quantified. Furthermore, effect of hemipterans' attack on activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and the content of reduced and oxidized ascorbate and glutathione in maize plants were assessed. Seedling leaves of more resistant Z. mays varieties responded higher elevations in abundance of target transcripts. In addition, earlier and stronger aphid-triggered changes in activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and greater modulations in amount of the analyzed antioxidative metabolites were detected in foliar tissues of highly resistant Ambrozja genotype in relation to susceptible Tasty Sweet plants.

  18. Genetic engineering of maize (Zea mays) for high-level tolerance to treatment with the herbicide dicamba.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingxia; Sato, Shirley J; Behrens, Mark; Jiang, Wen Z; Clemente, Thomas E; Weeks, Donald P

    2011-06-08

    Herbicide-tolerant crops have been widely and rapidly adopted by farmers in several countries due to enhanced weed control, lower labor and production costs, increased environmental benefits, and gains in profitability. Soon to be introduced transgenic soybean and cotton varieties tolerant to treatments with the herbicide dicamba offer prospects for excellent broadleaf weed control in these broadleaf crops. Because monocots such as maize (Zea mays) can be treated with dicamba only during a limited window of crop development and because crop injury is sometimes observed when conditions are unfavorable, transgenic maize plants have been produced and tested for higher levels of tolerance to treatment with dicamba. Maize plants expressing the gene encoding dicamba monooxygenase (DMO) linked with an upstream chloroplast transit peptide (CTP) display greatly enhanced tolerance to dicamba applied either pre-emergence or postemergence. Comparisons of DMO coupled to CTPs derived from the Rubisco small subunit from either Arabidopsis thaliana or Z. mays showed that both allowed production of transgenic maize plants tolerant to treatment with levels of dicamba (i.e., 27 kg/ha) greatly exceeding the highest recommended rate of 0.56 kg/ha.

  19. Utilization of maize husk (Zea mays L.) as low-cost adsorbent in removal of iron from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Indah, S; Helard, D; Sasmita, A

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of iron from aqueous solution by using maize husk (Zea mays L.) as a low-cost adsorbent was studied. Batch experiments were carried out at ambient temperature, 0.075-0.250 mm of particle size and 100 rpm of agitation speed to determine the influence of initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration and contact time on the removal of iron. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherm of iron by maize husk. The results showed that optimum condition of iron removal were 4 of pH solution, 20 g/L of adsorbent dose, 10 mg/L of Fe concentration and 15 min of contact time of adsorption with 0.499 mg Fe/g maize husk of adsorption capacity. Experimental data fitted well to Langmuir's adsorption equilibrium isotherm within the concentration range studied. This study demonstrated that maize husk, which is an agricultural waste, has potential for iron removal from groundwater or other polluted waters.

  20. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  1. Responses of Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Seed Yield Traits to Seed Pretreatment in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method. PMID:25093210

  2. Potassium Management for Improving Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Moisture Stress Condition.

    PubMed

    Amanullah; Iqbal, Asif; Irfanullah; Hidayat, Zeeshan

    2016-10-03

    Potassium (K) fertilizer management is beneficial for improving growth, yield and yield components of field crops under moisture stress condition in semiarid climates. Field experiments were conducted to study the response of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam) to foliar and soil applied K during summer 2013 and 2014. The experiments were carried out at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Northwest Pakistan under limited irrigation (moisture stress) condition. It was concluded from the results that application of foliar K at the rate of 1-3% and foliar Zn at the rate of 0.1-0.2% was more beneficial in terms of better growth, higher yield and yield components of maize under moisture stress condition. Early spray (vegetative stage) resulted in better growth and higher yield than late spray (reproductive stage). Soil K treated plots (rest) plots performed better than control (K not applied) in terms of improved growth, higher yield and yield components of maize crop. The results further demonstrated that increasing the rate of soil applied K up to 90 kg P ha(-1) in two equal splits (50% each at sowing and knee height) improve growth and maize productivity under semiarid climates.

  3. Potassium Management for Improving Growth and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Moisture Stress Condition

    PubMed Central

    Amanullah; Iqbal, Asif; Irfanullah; Hidayat, Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) fertilizer management is beneficial for improving growth, yield and yield components of field crops under moisture stress condition in semiarid climates. Field experiments were conducted to study the response of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam) to foliar and soil applied K during summer 2013 and 2014. The experiments were carried out at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Northwest Pakistan under limited irrigation (moisture stress) condition. It was concluded from the results that application of foliar K at the rate of 1–3% and foliar Zn at the rate of 0.1–0.2% was more beneficial in terms of better growth, higher yield and yield components of maize under moisture stress condition. Early spray (vegetative stage) resulted in better growth and higher yield than late spray (reproductive stage). Soil K treated plots (rest) plots performed better than control (K not applied) in terms of improved growth, higher yield and yield components of maize crop. The results further demonstrated that increasing the rate of soil applied K up to 90 kg P ha−1 in two equal splits (50% each at sowing and knee height) improve growth and maize productivity under semiarid climates. PMID:27694964

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a gene for a sucrose transporter in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Aoki, N; Hirose, T; Takahashi, S; Ono, K; Ishimaru, K; Ohsugi, R

    1999-10-01

    Here we report the cloning of a sucrose transporter cDNA from maize (Zea mays L.) and an analysis of the expression of the gene. A cDNA clone (ZmSUT1) was identified as a sucrose transporter cDNA from its sequence homology at the amino acid level to sucrose transporters that have been cloned from other higher plant species. Based on the results of genomic Southern hybridization, ZmSUT1 appears to be a single copy gene. A Northern blot analysis of seedlings and leaf blades suggests that the sucrose transporter is involved in the export of accumulated carbohydrates from source leaf blades. From the measurements of transcript levels and carbohydrate contents in mature leaf blades, we propose that the expression of the gene for the maize sucrose transporter is positively regulated by the amounts of soluble sugars such as sucrose and glucose in source leaves of maize. In addition, based on the tissue specificity of the expression of the gene in maize plants at the reproductive stage, it is possible that the sucrose transporter acts in sink tissues such as pedicles as well as in source tissues such as leaf blades.

  5. Phosphorus and Compost Management Influence Maize (Zea mays) Productivity Under Semiarid Condition with and without Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Amanullah; Khan, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) unavailability and lack of organic matter in the soils under semiarid climates are the two major constraints for low crop productivity. Field trial was conducted to study the effects of P levels, compost application times and seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Azam). The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during summer 2014. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement using three replications. The two PSB levels [(1) inoculated seed with PSB (+) and (2) seed not inoculated with PSB (- or control)] and three compost application times (30, 15, and 0 days before sowing) combination (six treatments) were used as main plot factor, while four P levels (25, 50, 75, and 100 kg P ha(-1)) used as subplot factor. The results confirmed that compost applied at sowing time and P applied at the two higher rates (75 and 100 kg P ha(-1)) had significantly increased yield and yield components of maize under semiarid condition. Maize seed inoculated with PSB (+) had tremendously increased yield and yield components of maize over PSB-control plots (-) under semiarid condition.

  6. The genetic basis of C-glycosyl flavone B-ring modification in maize (Zea mays L.) silks.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Cruz, Moisés; Snook, Maurice; McMullen, Michael D

    2003-04-01

    Resistance to corn earworm (CEW) (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) has been attributed to high concentrations of C-glycosyl flavones and chlorogenic acid in maize (Zea mays L.) silks. The most common C-glycosyl flavones isolated from maize silks are maysin, apimaysin, and methoxymaysin, which are distinguished by their B-ring substitutions. For a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the synthesis of these compounds, we conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) study with two populations: (Tx501 x NC7A)F2 and (Tx501 x Mp708)F2. For chlorogenic acid, maysin, and methoxymaysin concentration, the major QTL for both populations was located on chromosome 4 near umc1963. For apimaysin, the major QTL in both populations was located at the position of the pr1 locus on chromosome 5. The QTL alleles on chromosome 4 that increased the synthesis of methoxymaysin significantly decreased the synthesis of maysin and chlorogenic acid. This decrease in maysin concentration was four-fold greater than the increase in methoxymaysin. Our results indicate that the QTL on chromosome 4, responsible for the increase in methoxymaysin synthesis, alters the dynamics of both the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways.

  7. DNA content in embryo and endosperm of maize kernel (Zea mays L.): impact on GMO quantification.

    PubMed

    Trifa, Youssef; Zhang, David

    2004-03-10

    PCR-based techniques are the most widely used methods for the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) through the determination of the ratio of transgenic DNA to total DNA. It is shown that the DNA content per mass unit is significantly different among 10 maize cultivars. The DNA contents of endosperms, embryos, and teguments of individual kernels from 10 maize cultivars were determined. According to our results, the tegument's DNA ratio reaches at maximum 3.5% of the total kernel's DNA, whereas the endosperm's and the embryo's DNA ratios are nearly equal to 50%. The embryo cells are diploid and made of one paternal and one maternal haploid genome, whereas the endosperm is constituted of triploid cells made of two maternal haploid genomes and one paternal haploid genome. Therefore, it is shown, in this study, that the accuracy of the GMO quantification depends on the reference material used as well as on the category of the transgenic kernels present in the mixture.

  8. Genome size and transposable element content as determined by high-throughput sequencing in maize and Zea luxurians.

    PubMed

    Tenaillon, Maud I; Hufford, Matthew B; Gaut, Brandon S; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The genome of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) consists mostly of transposable elements (TEs) and varies in size among lines. This variation extends to other species in the genus Zea: although maize and Zea luxurians diverged only ∼140,000 years ago, their genomes differ in size by ∼50%. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing to evaluate the potential contribution of TEs to the genome size difference between these two species. We aligned the reads both to a filtered gene set and to an exemplar database of unique repeats representing 1,514 TE families; ∼85% of reads mapped against TE repeats in both species. The relative contribution of TE families to the B73 genome was highly correlated with previous estimates, suggesting that reliable estimates of TE content can be obtained from short high-throughput sequencing reads, even at low coverage. Because we used paired-end reads, we could assess whether a TE was near a gene by determining if one paired read mapped to a TE and the second read mapped to a gene. Using this method, Class 2 DNA elements were found significantly more often in genic regions than Class 1 RNA elements, but Class 1 elements were found more often near other TEs. Overall, we found that both Class 1 and 2 TE families account for ∼70% of the genome size difference between B73 and luxurians. Interestingly, the relative abundance of TE families was conserved between species (r = 0.97), suggesting genome-wide control of TE content rather than family-specific effects.

  9. Fine mapping of a quantitative resistance gene for gray leaf spot of maize (Zea mays L.) derived from teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In previous work, using near isogenic line (NIL) populations in which segments of the tesosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) genome had been introgressed into the background of the maize line B73, we had identified a QTL on chromosome 8, here called Qgls8, for gray leaf spot resistance. We identified...

  10. Responses of Maize (Zea mays L.) near isogenic lines carrying Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3 to three viruses in the Potyviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three independent genes controlling resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; family Potyviridae; genus Tritimovirus) were previously identified on chromosomes six (Wsm1), three (Wsm2) and ten (Wsm3) in the resistant maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Pa405. Near isogenic lines (NIL) carrying eac...

  11. Cadmium accumulation and its effects on metal uptake in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zou, Jinhua; Duan, Xuchuan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of Cd on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and metal uptake were investigated. Cd accumulations in roots and shoots and the interactions among other metals (Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2).2.5H2O) used ranged from 10(-4) M to 10(-6) M. Cd had stimulatory effects during the first 5 days on root length of Nongda No. 108 at 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M Cd concentrations. Seedlings exposed to 10(-4) M Cd solution exhibited substantial growth reduction, and root growth even stopped. Root growth of Liyu No. 6 was stimulated at concentrations of 10(-5) M and 10(-6) M Cd during the entire experiment (15 days). Cadmium inhibited root growth of Liyu No. 6 at 10(-4) M Cd after 10 days of treatment. The Cd accumulation in roots and shoots of the two cultivars increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing Cd concentration and duration of treatment. Cadmium concentrated mainly in the roots, and small amounts were transferred to shoots. The proportion of Cd in the roots of Nongda No. 108 decreased with increases in Cd concentrations and duration of treatment, except for the group exposed to 10(-4) M Cd. In Liyu No. 6, the proportion of Cd in the root decreased progressively with an increase in Cd concentrations. Liyu No. 6 has a greater ability to remove Cd from solution and accumulate it when compared with Nongda No. 108. Liyu No. 6 can be considered a Cd-hyperaccumulator, according to the current accepted shoot concentration that defines hyperaccumulation as 0.01% (w/w) for cadmium. This cultivar, producing many roots and a high biomass and with great ability to accumulate Cd can play an important role in the treatment of soils stressed by Cd.

  12. Ligand binding on to maize (Zea mays) malate synthase: a structural study.

    PubMed

    Beeckmans, S; Khan, A S; Kanarek, L; Van Driessche, E

    1994-10-15

    A kinetic and ligand binding study on maize (Zea mays) malate synthase is presented. It is concluded from kinetic measurements that the enzyme proceeds through a ternary-complex mechanism. Michaelis constants (Km,glyoxylate and Km,acetyl-CoA) were determined to be 104 microM and 20 microM respectively. C.d. measurements in the near u.v.-region indicate that a conformational change is induced in the enzyme by its substrate, glyoxylate. From these studies we are able to calculate the affinity for the substrate (Kd,glyoxylate) as 100 microM. A number of inhibitors apparently trigger the same conformational change in the enzyme, i.e. pyruvate, glycollate and fluoroacetate. Another series of inhibitors bearing more bulky groups and/or an extra carboxylic acid also induce a conformational change, which is, however, clearly different from the former one. Limited proteolysis with trypsin results in cleavage of malate synthase into two fragments of respectively 45 and 19 kDa. Even when no more intact malate synthase chains are present, the final enzymic activity still amounts to 30% of the original activity. If trypsinolysis is performed in the presence of acetyl-CoA, the cleavage reaction is appreciably slowed down. The dissociation constant for acetyl-CoA (Kd,acetyl-CoA) was calculated to be 14.8 microM when the glyoxylate subsite is fully occupied by pyruvate and 950 microM (= 50 x Km) when the second subsite is empty. It is concluded that malate synthase follows a compulsory-order mechanism, glyoxylate being the first-binding substrate. Glyoxylate triggers a conformational change in the enzyme and, as a consequence, the correctly shaped binding site for acetyl-CoA is created. Demetallization of malate synthase has no effect on the c.d. spectrum in the near u.v.-region. Moreover, glyoxylate induces the same spectral change in the absence of Mg2+ as in its presence. Nevertheless, malate synthase shows no activity in the absence of the cation. We conclude that Mg2+ is

  13. The characterization of ligand-specific maize (Zea mays) profilin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Kovar, D R; Drøbak, B K; Collings, D A; Staiger, C J

    2001-01-01

    Profilins are low-molecular-mass (12-15 kDa) cytosolic proteins that are major regulators of actin assembly in all eukaryotic cells. In general, profilins from evolutionarily diverse organisms share the ability to bind to G-actin, poly-(L-proline) (PLP) and proline-rich proteins, and polyphosphoinositides. However, the functional importance of each of these interactions remains unclear and might differ between organisms. We investigated the importance of profilin's interaction with its various ligands in plant cells by characterizing four maize (Zea mays) profilin 5 (ZmPRO5) mutants that had single amino acid substitutions in the presumed sites of ligand interaction. Comparisons in vitro with wild-type ZmPRO5 showed that these mutations altered ligand association specifically. ZmPRO5-Y6F had a 3-fold increased affinity for PLP, ZmPRO5-Y6Q had a 5-fold decreased affinity for PLP, ZmPRO5-D8A had a 2-fold increased affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and ZmPRO5-K86A had a 35-fold decreased affinity for G-actin. When the profilins were microinjected into Tradescantia stamen hair cells, ZmPRO5-Y6F increased the rate of nuclear displacement in stamen hairs, whereas ZmPRO5-K86A decreased the rate. Mutants with a decreased affinity for PLP (ZmPRO5-Y6Q) or an enhanced affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P(2) (ZmPRO5-D8A) were not significantly different from wild-type ZmPRO5 in affecting nuclear position. These results indicate that plant profilin's association with G-actin is extremely important and further substantiate the simple model that profilin acts primarily as a G-actin-sequestering protein in plant cells. Furthermore, interaction with proline-rich binding partners might also contribute to regulating profilin's effect on actin assembly in plant cells. PMID:11485551

  14. Nastic response of maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles during clinostat rotation.

    PubMed

    Nick, P; Schafer, E

    1989-08-01

    Rotation of unstimulated maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings on a horizontal clinostat is accompanied by a strong bending response of the coleoptiles towards the caryopsis, yielding curvatures exceding 100 degrees. The corresponding azimuthal distribution shows two peaks, each of which is displayed by 30 degrees from the symmetry axis connecting the shortest coleoptile and caryopsis cross sections. It is argued that this spatial pattern is not the result of two independent bending preferences, but caused by a one-peaked distribution encountering an obstacle in its central part and thus being split into the two subpeaks. The existence of one preferential direction justifies considering this response to be a nastic movement. Its time course consists of an early negative phase (coleoptiles bend away from the caryopsis) followed 2 h later by a long-lasting positive bending towards the caryopsis. In light-interaction experiments, fluence-response curves for different angles between blue light and the direction of the nastic response were measured. These experiments indicate that blue light interacts with the nastic response at two levels: (i) phototonic inhibition, and (ii) addition of nastic and phototropic curvatures. It is concluded that phototropic and phototonic transduction bifurcate before the formation of phototropic transverse polarity. The additivity of nastic and phototropic responses was followed at the population level. At the level of the individual seedling, one observes, in the case of phototropic induction opposing nastic movement, three distinct responses: either strong phototropism, or nastic bending, or an "avoidance" response which involves strong curvature perpendicular to the stimulation plane. With time the nastic bending becomes increasingly stable against opposing phototropic stimulation. This can be seen from a growing proportion of seedlings exhibiting nastic bending when light is applied at variable intervals after the onset of clinostat rotation

  15. Responses to Hypoxia and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Discriminate the Development of Vitreous and Floury Endosperms of Conventional Maize (Zea mays) Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gayral, Mathieu; Elmorjani, Khalil; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Balzergue, Sandrine M.; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Brunet, Sylvie; Linossier, Laurent; Delluc, Caroline; Bakan, Bénédicte; Marion, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Major nutritional and agronomical issues relating to maize (Zea mays) grains depend on the vitreousness/hardness of its endosperm. To identify the corresponding molecular and cellular mechanisms, most studies have been conducted on opaque/floury mutants, and recently on Quality Protein Maize, a reversion of an opaque2 mutation by modifier genes. These mutant lines are far from conventional maize crops. Therefore, a dent and a flint inbred line were chosen for analysis of the transcriptome, amino acid, and sugar metabolites of developing central and peripheral endosperm that is, the forthcoming floury and vitreous regions of mature seeds, respectively. The results suggested that the formation of endosperm vitreousness is clearly associated with significant differences in the responses of the endosperm to hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This occurs through a coordinated regulation of energy metabolism and storage protein (i.e., zein) biosynthesis during the grain-filling period. Indeed, genes involved in the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle are up-regulated in the periphery, while genes involved in alanine, sorbitol, and fermentative metabolisms are up-regulated in the endosperm center. This spatial metabolic regulation allows the production of ATP needed for the significant zein synthesis that occurs at the endosperm periphery; this finding agrees with the zein-decreasing gradient previously observed from the sub-aleurone layer to the endosperm center. The massive synthesis of proteins transiting through endoplasmic reticulum elicits the unfolded protein responses, as indicated by the splicing of bZip60 transcription factor. This splicing is relatively higher at the center of the endosperm than at its periphery. The biological responses associated with this developmental stress, which control the starch/protein balance, leading ultimately to the formation of the vitreous and floury regions of mature endosperm, are discussed. PMID:28450877

  16. Responses to Hypoxia and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Discriminate the Development of Vitreous and Floury Endosperms of Conventional Maize (Zea mays) Inbred Lines.

    PubMed

    Gayral, Mathieu; Elmorjani, Khalil; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Balzergue, Sandrine M; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Brunet, Sylvie; Linossier, Laurent; Delluc, Caroline; Bakan, Bénédicte; Marion, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Major nutritional and agronomical issues relating to maize (Zea mays) grains depend on the vitreousness/hardness of its endosperm. To identify the corresponding molecular and cellular mechanisms, most studies have been conducted on opaque/floury mutants, and recently on Quality Protein Maize, a reversion of an opaque2 mutation by modifier genes. These mutant lines are far from conventional maize crops. Therefore, a dent and a flint inbred line were chosen for analysis of the transcriptome, amino acid, and sugar metabolites of developing central and peripheral endosperm that is, the forthcoming floury and vitreous regions of mature seeds, respectively. The results suggested that the formation of endosperm vitreousness is clearly associated with significant differences in the responses of the endosperm to hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This occurs through a coordinated regulation of energy metabolism and storage protein (i.e., zein) biosynthesis during the grain-filling period. Indeed, genes involved in the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle are up-regulated in the periphery, while genes involved in alanine, sorbitol, and fermentative metabolisms are up-regulated in the endosperm center. This spatial metabolic regulation allows the production of ATP needed for the significant zein synthesis that occurs at the endosperm periphery; this finding agrees with the zein-decreasing gradient previously observed from the sub-aleurone layer to the endosperm center. The massive synthesis of proteins transiting through endoplasmic reticulum elicits the unfolded protein responses, as indicated by the splicing of bZip60 transcription factor. This splicing is relatively higher at the center of the endosperm than at its periphery. The biological responses associated with this developmental stress, which control the starch/protein balance, leading ultimately to the formation of the vitreous and floury regions of mature endosperm, are discussed.

  17. B chromosome contains active genes and impacts the transcription of A chromosomes in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Du, Yan; Zhao, Xin; Jin, Weiwei

    2016-04-16

    The dispensable maize (Zea mays L.) B chromosome is highly heterochromatic and widely believed to be devoid of functional genes. Although low-copy B chromosome causes no obvious phenotype variation, its existence might influence A genome gene expression. Previous studies suggested that B chromosomes are evolved from standard chromosomes; therefore, they might contain genic regions showing homology with A chromosome sequences. Our data suggested that maize B chromosome influences the A-genome transcription with stronger effect associated with an increase in copy number of B chromosome. In total 130 differently expressed genes were detected in comparison between with and without B chromosome lines. These differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in cell metabolism and nucleotide binding. Using Starter + B, we amplified ten B chromosome loci with high sequence similarity to A-genome genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed that at least four ~5 kb-sized genes are located on the B chromosome. In addition, through de novo assembly of the reads not unmapped to maize B73 reference genome together with PCR validation, we found three B-located LTR; in particular, one of them, the 3.2 kb comp75688, is expressed in a B-dosage dependent manner. We found that in the presence of maize B chromosome, the transcription of A genome genes was altered, with more impact by the increase of the B chromosome number. The B-located transcriptionally active genes showed high similarity to their A-genome homologues, and retrotransposons on B chromosome also have partial homologous to A genome sequences. Our data shed more lights on the genome structure and evolution of the maize B chromosome.

  18. A guanylyl cyclase-like gene is associated with Gibberella ear rot resistance in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, J; Liakat Ali, M; Taylor, J; Liu, J; Sun, G; Liu, W; Masilimany, P; Gulati-Sakhuja, A; Pauls, K P

    2008-02-01

    Gibberella ear rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in northern climates. The infected maize grain contains toxins that are very harmful to livestock and humans. A maize gene that encodes a putative 267-amino acid guanylyl cyclase-like protein (ZmGC1) was characterized and shown to be associated with resistance to this disease. The putative ZmGC1 amino acid sequence is 53% identical and 65% similar to AtGC1, an Arabidopsis guanylyl cyclase. The Zmgc1 coding sequence is nearly identical in a Gibberella ear rot-resistant line (CO387) and a susceptible line (CG62) but several nucleotide sequence differences were observed in the UTRs and introns of the two alleles. Using a 463 bp probe derived from the CG62 allele of Zmgc1 and a recombinant inbred (RI) mapping population developed from a CG62 x CO387 cross, six Zmgc1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fragments (ER1_1, ER1_2, ER1_3, ER1_4, ER1_5, and ER5_1) were mapped on maize chromosomes 2, 3, 7, and 8. Markers ER1_1 and ER5_1 on chromosomes 7 and 8, respectively, were significantly associated with Gibberella ear rot resistance, each in three different environments. The amount of Zmgc1 transcript in ear tissues increased more quickly and to a greater extent in the resistant genotype compared to the susceptible genotype after inoculation with F. graminearum. Zmgc1 is the first guanylyl cyclase gene characterized in maize and the first gene found to be associated with Gibberella ear rot resistance in this plant.

  19. Effects of crude oil spillage on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in soils of midwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekundayo, E O; Emede, T O; Osayande, D I

    2001-01-01

    The effect of crude oil spillage on growth, productivity and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) was assessed in a pot experiment using an Evwreni manifold sample of a petroleum development company, which had a specific gravity of 0.8778. The Suwan 1 variety of maize was used in the experiment. In crude oil polluted soils, germination was delayed and the germination percentage was significantly affected by oil pollution. Growth was poor in polluted soils using parameters such as plant height, stem girth, ear height, leaf area at four weeks after planting, leaf area at maturity and average length of primary roots as growth indicators. Grain yield was significantly reduced at 95% level of probability with yield (when compared with the control) reduced by as much as 98.6%, 96.5% and 58.3% for preplant, five weeks after planting (5 WAP) and seven weeks after planting (7 WAP) treatments, respectively. Leaf analysis of the maize plants grown in soils contaminated with crude oil a week before planting (preplant treatment) revealed mean levels of heavy metals (6.18 ppm Zn2+, 0.62 ppm Cu2+, 26.24 ppm Fe2+, 10.84 ppm Mn2+, 2.96 ppm Pb2+ and 3.88 ppm Co2+) which are higher than the maximum permissible levels (MPL) for maize in tropical soils. Maize plants that were polluted at other time intervals showed no significant (p > 0.05) variation in heavy metal concentrations when compared with the control, and were considered potentially safe for human consumption.

  20. Identification and Validation of miRNAs Associated with the Resistance of Maize (Zea mays L.) to Exserohilum turcicum

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Northern leaf blight, caused by the fungus Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.), is a major disease of maize (Zea mays L.). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently reported as gene expression regulators related to several stress responses; however, evidence of the role of miRNAs in plant response to biotic stresses is limited. In this study, the miRNA expression patterns in maize in response to E. turcicum stress were investigated using a plant miRNA microarray platform. A total of 118 miRNAs were detected in mock- and E. turcicum-inoculated leaves. Among these miRNAs, miR530, miR811, miR829, and miR845 were identified as new miRNAs in maize through a homology-based approach. The secondary structures and putative targets of these miRNAs were also predicted. In addition, four miRNAs were differentially regulated in response to E. turcicum: miR811, miR829, miR845, and miR408. The functional annotation of the predicted targets indicated that these stress-responsive miRNAs regulate metabolic, morphologic, and physiologic adaptations in maize seedlings at the post-transcriptional level. Four targets were negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs (miR811, miR829, and miR408). Furthermore, we have demonstrated for the first time that miR811 and miR829 confers a high degree of resistance to E. turcicum, which can be used in maize breeding programs. PMID:24489881

  1. Accumulation of 5-hydroxynorvaline in maize (Zea mays) leaves is induced by insect feeding and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Lipka, Alexander E; Schmelz, Eric A; Buckler, Edward S; Jander, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of defensive metabolites to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens. Non-protein amino acids, which are present in many plant species, can have a defensive function through their mis-incorporation during protein synthesis and/or inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in primary metabolism. 5-Hydroxynorvaline was identified in a targeted search for previously unknown non-protein amino acids in the leaves of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73. Accumulation of this compound increases during herbivory by aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis, corn leaf aphid) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua, beet armyworm), as well as in response to treatment with the plant signalling molecules methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. In contrast, ethylene signalling reduced 5-hydroxynorvaline abundance. Drought stress induced 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to a higher level than insect feeding or treatment with defence signalling molecules. In field-grown plants, the 5-hydroxynorvaline concentration was highest in above-ground vegetative tissue, but it was also detectable in roots and dry seeds. When 5-hydroxynorvaline was added to aphid artificial diet at concentrations similar to those found in maize leaves and stems, R. maidis reproduction was reduced, indicating that this maize metabolite may have a defensive function. Among 27 tested maize inbred lines there was a greater than 10-fold range in the accumulation of foliar 5-hydroxynorvaline. Genetic mapping populations derived from a subset of these inbred lines were used to map quantitative trait loci for 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to maize chromosomes 5 and 7. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Effect of minimum tillage and mulching on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and water content of clayey and sandy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve; Walker, Sue; Hove, Lewis

    Rainfed smallholder agriculture in semi-arid areas of southern Africa is subject to numerous constraints. These include low rainfall with high spatial and temporal variability, and significant loss of soil water through evaporation. An experiment was established at Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe, to determine the effect of mulching and minimum tillage on maize ( Zea mays L.) yield and soil water content. The experiment was run for two years at two sites: clay (Matopos Research Station fields) and sand (Lucydale fields) soils, in a 7 × 3 factorial combination of mulch rates (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 t ha -1) and tillage methods (planting basins, ripper tine and conventional plough). Each treatment was replicated three times at each site in a split plot design. Maize residue was applied as mulch before tillage operations. Two maize varieties, a hybrid (SC 403) and an open pollinated variety (ZM 421), were planted. Maize yield and soil water content (0-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were measured under each treatment. On both soil types, neither mulching nor tillage method had a significant effect on maize grain yield. Tillage methods significantly influenced stover production with planting basins giving the highest stover yield (1.1 t ha -1) on sandy soil and conventional ploughing giving 3.6 t ha -1 on clay soil during the first season. The three tillage methods had no significant effect on seasonal soil water content, although planting basins collected more rainwater during the first half of the cropping period. Mulching improved soil water content in both soil types with maximum benefits observed at 4 t ha -1 of mulch. We conclude that, in the short term, minimum tillage on its own, or in combination with mulching, performs as well as the farmers’ traditional practices of overall ploughing.

  3. Identification and validation of miRNAs associated with the resistance of maize (Zea mays L.) to Exserohilum turcicum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fangli; Shu, Jianhong; Jin, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Northern leaf blight, caused by the fungus Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.), is a major disease of maize (Zea mays L.). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently reported as gene expression regulators related to several stress responses; however, evidence of the role of miRNAs in plant response to biotic stresses is limited. In this study, the miRNA expression patterns in maize in response to E. turcicum stress were investigated using a plant miRNA microarray platform. A total of 118 miRNAs were detected in mock- and E. turcicum-inoculated leaves. Among these miRNAs, miR530, miR811, miR829, and miR845 were identified as new miRNAs in maize through a homology-based approach. The secondary structures and putative targets of these miRNAs were also predicted. In addition, four miRNAs were differentially regulated in response to E. turcicum: miR811, miR829, miR845, and miR408. The functional annotation of the predicted targets indicated that these stress-responsive miRNAs regulate metabolic, morphologic, and physiologic adaptations in maize seedlings at the post-transcriptional level. Four targets were negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs (miR811, miR829, and miR408). Furthermore, we have demonstrated for the first time that miR811 and miR829 confers a high degree of resistance to E. turcicum, which can be used in maize breeding programs.

  4. Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan’s markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

  5. Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats.

    PubMed

    Chrenková, Mária; Sommer, A; Ceresnáková, Zuzana; Nitrayová, Sona; Prostredná, Miroslava

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and nutritional value of conventional and transgenic, so-called Roundup Ready (RR) maize with an introduced gene of glyphosate resistance. Crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, starch, sugar, amino acids, fatty acid and macroelement levels were determined by chemical analysis. In both maize lines a low level of Ca (0.15 g.kg-1 DM) and of the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan (2.6 and 1.7 g.kg-1 DM, respectively) were observed. In the biological experiment carried out on rats the tested maize lines were the only dietary sources of nitrogen, thus, the experimental diets contained 9% CP in dietary dry matter. In the feeding experiment no significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed between groups receiving conventional or transgenic maize (1.51 and 1.41, respectively). Also almost equal results were obtained in the balance experiments. Both maize lines revealed a high nitrogen digestibility (84.9 and 84.5%, respectively) and the net protein utilization amounted to 63.5 and 63.2%, respectively. From these results can be concluded that regarding nutrient composition and utilisation, genetically modified (RR) maize is equivalent to isogenic maize.

  6. Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012.

  7. Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Emdadull H; Mikami, Osamu; Murata, Hideo; Sultana, Parvin; Shimada, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Miyako; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Yamanaka, Noriko; Nakajima, Yasuyuki

    2004-02-01

    The presence of maize intrinsic and recombinant cry1Ab genes in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and visceral organs of calves fed genetically modified Bt11 maize was examined by PCR in a subchronic 90-day performance study. Samples were collected from six Japanese Black/Holstein calves fed Bt11 maize and from six calves fed non-Bt maize. Fragments of maize zein (Ze1), invertase, chloroplast, and cry1Ab were detected inconsistently in the rumen fluid and rectal contents 5 and 18 h after feeding. The chloroplast DNA fragments of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and tRNA were detected inconsistently in the PBMC, the visceral organs, and the longissimus muscle, while the cry1Ab gene was never detected in PBMC or in the visceral organs. These results suggest that feed-derived maize DNA was mostly degraded in the GI tract but that fragmented DNA was detectable in the GI contents as a possible source of transfer to calf tissues. These results also suggest that the recombinant cry1Ab genes were not transferred to the PBMC and tissues of calves fed Bt11 maize.

  8. Evaluating the accumulation of arsenic in maize (Zea mays L.) plants from its growing media by cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel Ahmad; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Naeemullah; Soomro, Abdul Sattar

    2010-11-01

    A cloud point extraction has been developed for the determination of As in maize (Zea mays L.) and adjoining agriculture soil. The different parts of maize (grains, shoots and roots) and soil were subjected to microwave assisted digestion in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (2:1 ratio). The trace amounts of As was pre-concentrated by cloud point extraction, as prior step to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of sample solution, concentration of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and Triton X-114, equilibration temperature and time period for shaking were investigated in detail. For validation of proposed method a certified reference material of whole meal flour BCR 189 was used. No significant difference p>0.05 was observed between the experimental results and the certified values of CRM (paired t-test). The translocation of total As in different parts of maize were found in the order of, Root>Shoot>Grain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods for four genetically modified maize varieties and maize DNA content in food.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Peter D; Ilg, Evelyn C; Berthoud, Hélène; Herrmann, Andre

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative detection methods are needed for enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients. This labeling threshold, which is set to 1% in the European Union and Switzerland, must be applied to all approved GMOs. Four different varieties of maize are approved in the European Union: the insect-resistant Bt176 maize (Maximizer), Btl 1 maize, Mon810 (YieldGard) maize, and the herbicide-tolerant T25 (Liberty Link) maize. Because the labeling must be considered individually for each ingredient, a quantitation system for the endogenous maize content is needed in addition to the GMO-specific detection systems. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection methods were developed for the 4 approved genetically modified maize varieties and for an endogenous maize (invertase) gene system.

  10. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts.

  11. Enhanced formation of aerenchyma and induction of a barrier to radial oxygen loss in adventitious roots of Zea nicaraguensis contribute to its waterlogging tolerance as compared with maize (Zea mays ssp. mays).

    PubMed

    Abiko, Tomomi; Kotula, Lukasz; Shiono, Katsuhiro; Malik, Al Imran; Colmer, Timothy David; Nakazono, Mikio

    2012-09-01

    Enhancement of oxygen transport from shoot to root tip by the formation of aerenchyma and also a barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL) in roots is common in waterlogging-tolerant plants. Zea nicaraguensis (teosinte), a wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), grows in waterlogged soils. We investigated the formation of aerenchyma and ROL barrier induction in roots of Z. nicaraguensis, in comparison with roots of maize (inbred line Mi29), in a pot soil system and in hydroponics. Furthermore, depositions of suberin in the exodermis/hypodermis and lignin in the epidermis of adventitious roots of Z. nicaraguensis and maize grown in aerated or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution were studied. Growth of maize was more adversely affected by low oxygen in the root zone (waterlogged soil or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution) compared with Z. nicaraguensis. In stagnant deoxygenated solution, Z. nicaraguensis was superior to maize in transporting oxygen from shoot base to root tip due to formation of larger aerenchyma and a stronger barrier to ROL in adventitious roots. The relationships between the ROL barrier formation and suberin and lignin depositions in roots are discussed. The ROL barrier, in addition to aerenchyma, would contribute to the waterlogging tolerance of Z. nicaraguensis.

  12. Phytotoxic cyanamide affects maize (Zea mays) root growth and root tip function: from structure to gene expression.

    PubMed

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Szajko, Katarzyna; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    Cyanamide (CA) is a phytotoxic compound produced by four Fabaceae species: hairy vetch, bird vetch, purple vetch and black locust. Its toxicity is due to complex activity that involves the modification of both cellular structures and physiological processes. To date, CA has been investigated mainly in dicot plants. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of CA in the restriction of the root growth of maize (Zea mays), representing the monocot species. CA (3mM) reduced the number of border cells in the root tips of maize seedlings and degraded their protoplasts. However, CA did not induce any significant changes in the organelle structure of other root cells, apart from increased vacuolization. CA toxicity was also demonstrated by its effect on cell cycle activity, endoreduplication intensity, and modifications of cyclins CycA2, CycD2, and histone HisH3 gene expression. In contrast, the arrangement of microtubules was not altered by CA. Treatment of maize seedlings with CA did not completely arrest mitotic activity, although the frequency of dividing cells was reduced. Furthermore, prolonged CA treatment increased the proportion of endopolyploid cells in the root tip. Cytological malformations were accompanied by an induction of oxidative stress in root cells, which manifested as enhanced accumulation of H2O2. Exposure of maize seedlings to CA resulted in an increased concentration of auxin and stimulated ethylene emission. Taken together, these findings suggested that the inhibition of root growth by CA may be a consequence of stress-induced morphogenic responses. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Deciphering the role of NADPH oxidase in complex interactions between maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes and cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-07-22

    Plant NADPH oxidases (NOXs) encompass a group of membrane-bound enzymes participating in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions as well as in response to environmental stressors. The purpose of the survey was to unveil the role of NADPH oxidase in pro-oxidative responses of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling leaves exposed to cereal aphids' infestation. The impact of apteral females of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) feeding on expression levels of all four NADPH oxidase genes (rbohA, rbohB, rbohC, rbohD) and total activity of NOX enzyme in maize plants were investigated. In addition, inhibitory effect of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) pre-treatment on NOX activity and hydrogen peroxide content in aphid-stressed maize seedlings was studied. Leaf infestation biotests were accomplished on 14-day-old seedlings representing two aphid-resistant varieties (Ambrozja and Waza) and two aphid-susceptible ones (Tasty Sweet and Złota Karłowa). Insects' attack led to profound upregulation of rbohA and rbohD genes in tested host plants, lower elevations were noted in level of rbohB mRNA, whereas abundance of rbohC transcript was not significantly altered. It was uncovered aphid-induced enhancement of NOX activity in examined plants. Higher increases in expression of all investigated rboh genes and activity of NADPH oxidase occurred in tissues of more resistant maize cultivars than in susceptible ones. Furthermore, DPI treatment resulted in strong reduction of NOX activity and H2O2 accumulation in aphid-infested Z. mays plants, thus evidencing circumstantial role of the enzyme in insect-elicited ROS generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and characterization of two members of the FtsH gene family in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Yue, Guidong; Hu, Xiaorui; He, Ying; Yang, Aifang; Zhang, Juren

    2010-02-01

    Two full-length cDNAs, designated as ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B, were isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization coupled with in silico cloning approach. The predicted proteins of ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B both consisted of 677 amino acid residues and displayed high similarity to FtsH2 protease of Arabidopsis thaliana. DNA gel blotting analysis indicated that AtFtsH2-like genes exist as two copies in maize genome. The genomic sequences of ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B were cloned and the main difference was that the first intron of ZmFtsH2B was much longer than that of ZmFtsH2A. RT-PCR analysis revealed that both genes were constitutively expressed in all examined tissues and the expression level of ZmFtsH2B transcripts was higher than that of ZmFtsH2A. The responses of the two genes in maize seedlings to PEG, cold, high salt, and ABA treatments were compared, and the results showed that ZmFtsH2B transcription in leaves was markedly up-regulated by water deficit stress and ABA treatments while ZmFtsH2A constitutively expressed both in leaves and roots under all tested stressful conditions. Drought tolerance of transgenic tobaccos overexpressing ZmFtsH2A and ZmFtsH2B weren't improved compared to wild-type controls, which indicated that two genes might not be directly involved in plant drought tolerance or the number of functional FtsH heterocomplex might not be increased in this condition. Our current study provides fundamental information for the further investigation of the maize FtsH proteins.

  15. A metabonomic study of transgenic maize (Zea mays) seeds revealed variations in osmolytes and branched amino acids.

    PubMed

    Manetti, Cesare; Bianchetti, Cristiano; Casciani, Lorena; Castro, Cecilia; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Miccheli, Alfredo; Motto, Mario; Conti, Filippo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate metabolic variations associated with genetic modifications in the grains of Zea mays using metabonomic techniques. With this in mind, the non-targeted characteristic of the technique is useful to identify metabolites peculiar to the genetic modification and initially undefined. The results obtained showed that the genetic modification, introducing Cry1Ab gene expression, induces metabolic variations involving the primary nitrogen pathway. Concerning the methodological aspects, the experimental protocol used has been applied in this field for the first time. It consists of a combination of partial least square-discriminant analysis and principal component analysis. The most important metabolites for discrimination were selected and the metabolic correlations linking them are identified. Principal component analysis on selected signals confirms metabolic variations, highlighting important details about the changes induced on the metabolic network by the presence of a Bt transgene in the maize genome.

  16. Maize (Zea mays)-derived bovine trypsin: characterization of the first large-scale, commercial protein product from transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Susan L; Mayor, Jocelyne M; Bailey, Michele R; Barker, Donna K; Love, Robert T; Lane, Jeffrey R; Delaney, Donna E; McComas-Wagner, Janet M; Mallubhotla, Hanuman D; Hood, Elizabeth E; Dangott, Lawrence J; Tichy, Shane E; Howard, John A

    2003-10-01

    Bovine trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) is an enzyme that is widely used for commercial purposes to digest or process other proteins, including some therapeutic proteins. The biopharmaceutical industry is trying to eliminate animal-derived proteins from manufacturing processes due to the possible contamination of these products by human pathogens. Recombinant trypsin has been produced in a number of systems, including cell culture, bacteria and yeast. To date, these expression systems have not produced trypsin on a scale sufficient to fulfill the need of biopharmaceutical manufacturers where kilogram quantities are often required. The present paper describes commercial-level production of trypsin in transgenic maize (Zea mays) and its physical and functional characterization. This protease, the first enzyme to be produced on a large-scale using transgenic plant technology, is functionally equivalent to native bovine pancreatic trypsin. The availability of this reagent should allow for the replacement of animal-derived trypsin in the processing of pharmaceutical proteins.

  17. Individual detection of genetically modified maize varieties in non-identity-preserved maize samples.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Kondo, Kazunari; Tanaka, Asako; Liu, Ming S; Oguchi, Taichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Hino, Akihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2008-03-26

    In many countries, the labeling of grains and feed- and foodstuffs is mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds a certain level of approved GM varieties. The GMO content in a maize sample containing the combined-trait (stacked) GM maize as determined by the currently available methodology is likely to be overestimated. However, there has been little information in the literature on the mixing level and varieties of stacked GM maize in real sample grains. For the first time, the GMO content of non-identity-preserved (non-IP) maize samples imported from the United States has been successfully determined by using a previously developed individual kernel detection system coupled to a multiplex qualitative PCR method followed by multichannel capillary gel electrophoresis system analysis. To clarify the GMO content in the maize samples imported from the United States, determine how many stacked GM traits are contained therein, and which GM trait varieties frequently appeared in 2005, the GMO content (percent) on a kernel basis and the varieties of the GM kernels in the non-IP maize samples imported from the United States were investigated using the individual kernel analysis system. The average (+/-standard deviation) of the GMO contents on a kernel basis in five non-IP sample lots was determined to be 51.0+/-21.6%, the percentage of a single GM trait grains was 39%, and the percentage of the stacked GM trait grains was 12%. The MON810 grains and NK603 grains were the most frequent varieties in the single GM traits. The most frequent stacked GM traits were the MON810xNK603 grains. In addition, the present study would provide the answer and impact for the quantification of GM maize content in the GM maize kernels on labeling regulation.

  18. QTL controlling masculinization of ear tips in a maize (Zea mays L.) intraspecific cross

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize is unique among cereal grasses because of its monoecious flowering habit. Male flowers are normally restricted to the tassel that terminates the primary shoot, whereas female flowers occur as ears at the terminal nodes of lateral branches. We observed a tropical maize inbred, Ki14, that produc...

  19. Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin control of seedling traits in maize (Zea mays L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs) are two major plant hormones regulating various plant developmental processes. In maize, BRs and GAs have been shown to regulate field traits such as plant height and sex determination. This study used 207 doubled haploid maize lines and measured respons...

  20. The circadian clock-associated gene zea mays gigantea1 affects maize developmental transitions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The circadian clock is the internal timing mechanism that allows plants to make developmental decisions in accordance with environmental conditions. The genes of the maize circadian clock are not well defined. Gigantea (gi) genes are conserved across flowering plants, including maize. In model plant...

  1. Comparative analysis of maize (Zea mays) crop performance: natural variation, incremental improvements and economic impacts.

    PubMed

    Leibman, Mark; Shryock, Jereme J; Clements, Michael J; Hall, Michael A; Loida, Paul J; McClerren, Amanda L; McKiness, Zoe P; Phillips, Jonathan R; Rice, Elena A; Stark, Steven B

    2014-09-01

    Grain yield from maize hybrids continues to improve through advances in breeding and biotechnology. Despite genetic improvements to hybrid maize, grain yield from distinct maize hybrids is expected to vary across growing locations due to numerous environmental factors. In this study, we examine across-location variation in grain yield among maize hybrids in three case studies. The three case studies examine hybrid improvement through breeding, introduction of an insect protection trait or introduction of a transcription factor trait associated with increased yield. In all cases, grain yield from each hybrid population had a Gaussian distribution. Across-location distributions of grain yield from each hybrid partially overlapped. The hybrid with a higher mean grain yield typically outperformed its comparator at most, but not all, of the growing locations (a 'win rate'). These results suggest that a broad set of environmental factors similarly impacts grain yields from both conventional- and biotechnology-derived maize hybrids and that grain yields among two or more hybrids should be compared with consideration given to both mean yield performance and the frequency of locations at which each hybrid 'wins' against its comparators. From an economic standpoint, growers recognize the value of genetically improved maize hybrids that outperform comparators in the majority of locations. Grower adoption of improved maize hybrids drives increases in average U.S. maize grain yields and contributes significant value to the economy. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Investigating the response of tropical maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars against elevated levels of O3 at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-10-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are rising in Indo-Gangetic plains of India, causing potential threat to agricultural productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important staple crop at global level after rice and wheat. Two high yielding cultivars of Indian maize (HQPM1-quality protein maize and DHM117-normal/non quality protein maize) were exposed to two levels of elevated O3 above the ambient level (NFC) viz. NFC + 15 ppb O3 (NFC + 15) and NFC + 30 ppb O3 (NFC + 30) using open top chambers under field conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical responses of two cultivars at different developmental stages leading to change in yield responses. Initially at lower O3 dose, photosynthetic pigments showed an increase but reduction at later stage, while higher dose caused a decline at both the stages of sampling. Levels of superoxide radical (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly increased and contributed to lipid peroxidation at elevated O3. Histochemical localization assay of O2 (-) and H2O2 showed that guard cells of stomata and cells around trichomes took deeper stain at elevated O3 reflecting more formation of reactive oxygen species. Secondary metabolites like total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments also increased in plants under O3 stress. Enzymatic antioxidants were triggered in both the cultivars due to elevated O3, while induction of non-enzymatic antioxidants was more in HQPM1. Native PAGE analysis also showed that SOD, POX, CAT, APX and GPX were stimulated at elevated O3 concentrations compared to NFC. SDS-PAGE showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins with higher decrease in DHM117. Principal Component Analysis showed that both the cultivars showed differential response against O3 at two developmental stages. HQPM1 maintained the analogous defense strategy at both the sampling stages while DHM117 showed variable response. Overall metabolic induction of antioxidants related to defense was

  3. The Effect of Pollination on Cd Phytoextraction From Soil by Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Wending; Lu, Guining; Wang, Rui; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Yi, Xiaoyun; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of pollination on cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction from soil by mature maize plants. The results showed that the unpollinated maize plants accumulated 50% more Cd than that of the pollinated plants, even though the dry weight of the former plants was 15% less than that of the latter plants. The Cd accumulation in root and leaf of the unpollinated maize plant was 0.47 and 0.89 times higher than that of the pollinated plant, respectively. The Cd concentration in the cob was significantly decreased because of pollination. Preventing pollination is a promising approach for enhancing the effectiveness of phytoextraction in Cd-contaminated soils by maize. This study suggested that in low Cd-contaminated soil pollination should be encouraged because accumulation of Cd in maize grains is very little and maize seeds can bring farmers economic benefits, while in high Cd-contaminated soil, inhibition of pollination can be applied to enhance phytoextraction of Cd from soil by maize plant.

  4. The maize milkweed pod1 mutant reveals a mechanism to modify organ morphology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Robyn; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah; Foster, Toshi

    2010-07-01

    Plant lateral organs, such as leaves, have three primary axes of growth-proximal-distal, medial--lateral and adaxial-abaxial (dorsal-ventral). Although most leaves are planar, modified leaf forms, such as the bikeeled grass prophyll, can be found in nature. A detailed examination of normal prophyll development indicates that polarity is established differently in the keels than in other parts of the prophyll. Analysis of the maize HD-ZIPIII gene rolled leaf1 (rld1) suggests that altered expression patterns are responsible for keel outgrowth. Recessive mutations in the maize (Zea mays) KANADI (KAN) gene milkweed pod1 (mwp1), which promotes abaxial cell identity, strongly affect development of the prophyll and silks (fused carpels). The prophyll is reduced to two unfused midribs and the silks are narrow and misshapen. Our data indicate that the prophyll and other fused organs are particularly sensitive to disruptions in adaxial-abaxial polarity. In addition, lateral and proximal-distal growth of most lateral organs is reduced in the mwp1-R mutant, supporting a role for the adaxial-abaxial boundary in promoting growth along both axes. We propose that the adaxial-abaxial patterning mechanism has been co-opted during evolution to generate diverse organ morphologies. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Molecular determination of genotoxic effects of cobalt and nickel on maize (Zea mays L.) by RAPD and protein analyses.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Ay, Hilal; Nardemir, Gokce; Agar, Guleray

    2013-08-01

    Assessment of DNA damages stemming from toxic chemicals is an important issue in terms of genotoxicology. In this study, maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings were used for screening the genotoxic effects of cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) treatments at various concentrations (5 mM, 10 mM, 20 mM and 40 mM). For this purpose, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to genomic DNA extracted from metal-exposed and unexposed plant materials. Besides, changes in total protein contents were screened by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. For RAPD analysis, 16 RAPD primers were found to produce unique polymorphic band profiles on different concentrations of Co-/Ni-treated maize seedlings. Increased polymorphism resulting from the appearance of new bands or disappearance of normal bands was observed with increasing concentration of Co and Ni treatments. Genomic template stability, a qualitative measurement of changes in RAPD patterns of genomic DNA, decreased with increasing metal concentration. In SDS-PAGE analysis, it was observed that the total soluble protein content decreased by Co treatment, while it increased by Ni treatment. The results obtained from this study revealed that RAPD profiles and total soluble protein levels can be applied to detect genotoxicity, and these analyses can offer useful biomarker assays for the evaluation of genotoxic effects on Co- and Ni-polluted plants.

  6. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to detect genotoxic effect of trifluralin on maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Bozari, Sedat; Aksakal, Ozkan

    2013-04-01

    Trifluralin is a widely used dinitroaniline herbicide throughout the world. However, limited efforts have been made to study its genotoxic effects on different plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the herbicide's genotoxic potential on maize (Zea mays) by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. For this purpose, maize seedlings were treated with aqueous solutions of trifluralin at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3 ppm for 7 days. In the RAPD analyses, 15 primers were used and 91 bands were obtained, with an average of 6.06 bands per primer in the control seedlings. After trifluralin treatment, significant changes were observed in RAPD profiles. These changes included loss of normal bands and appearance of new bands, in comparison to the control group, and they were dose dependent. In addition, root growth and total soluble protein level in trifluralin-treated seedlings were analyzed and compared for genomic template stability (GTS), which was performed for the qualitative measurement of changes in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles. The results showed that GTS, root growth, and total soluble protein content of the seedlings gradually decreased with an increase in trifluralin concentration. These findings suggest that the RAPD technique is a useful biomarker assay to evaluate the genotoxic effects of herbicides on plants.

  7. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg−1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels. PMID:26911444

  8. Influence of the input system (conventional versus organic farming) on metabolite profiles of maize ( Zea mays ) kernels.

    PubMed

    Röhlig, Richard M; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2010-03-10

    Maize ( Zea mays ) kernels grown conventionally and organically, respectively, were investigated using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolite profiling methodology. By analysis of three cultivars grown at two locations with different input systems and at a third location where both organic and conventional farming were applied, the impact of the growing regime on the metabolite spectrum should be put into the context of natural variability. The applied analytical approach involved consecutive extraction of freeze-dried maize flour and subsequent subfractionation. Approximately 300 compounds from a broad spectrum of chemical classes were detected, of which 167 were identified. The metabolite profiling data were statistically assessed via principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The PCA demonstrated that the observed separations were mainly due to genetic differences (cultivars) and environmental influences. The different input systems (conventional/organic) only led to minor differentiations. ANOVA and quantification of selected constituents confirmed these observations. Only three metabolites (malic acid, myo-inositol, and phosphate) were consistently different because of the employed input system if samples from all field trials were considered.

  9. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-02-25

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  10. Observation of cytoplasmic and vacuolar malate in maize root tips by sup 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, K.; Roberts, J.K.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The accumulation of malate by maize (Zea mays L.) root tips perfused with KH{sup 13}CO{sub 3} was followed by {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectra contained distinct signals from two pools of malate in maize root tips, one at a pH {approximately}5.3 (assigned to the vacuole) and one at a pH > 6.5 (assigned to the cytoplasm). The ratio of cytoplasmic to vacuolar malate was lower in 12 millimeter long root tips than in 2 millimeter root tips. The relatively broad width of the signals from C1- and C4-labeled vacuolar malate indicated heterogeneity in vacuolar pH. During the 3 hour KH{sup 13}CO{sub 3} treatment, {sup 13}C-malate accumulated first primarily in the cytoplasm, increasing to a fairly constant level of {approximately}6 millimolar by 1 hour. After a lag, vacuolar malate increased throughout the experiment.

  11. Chromosome elimination and in vivo haploid production induced by Stock 6-derived inducer line in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zili; Qiu, Fazhan; Liu, Yongzhong; Ma, Kejun; Li, Zaiyun; Xu, Shangzhong

    2008-12-01

    In vivo haploid production induced by inducer lines derived from Stock 6 is widely used in breeding program of maize (Zea mays L.), but the mechanisms behind have not yet been fully understood. In this study, average frequency of haploid induction in four inbred lines by Stock 6-derived inducer line HZI1 was above 10%. About 0.2% kernels from the cross Hua24 x HZI1 had mosaic endosperm showing yellow shrunken parts from Hua24 to normal parts with purple aleurone from HZI1. Individual lagged chromosomes and micronuclei were observed in mitotic cells of ovules pollinated by HZI1. Above 56.4% of the radicles from the kernels with purple aleurone and colorless embryos were mixoploid (2n = 9-21), and more than 45.22% cells were haploid cells (2n = 10) in three crosses. More than 62.5% of the radicles from the kernels with purple aleurone and purple embryos were mixoploid (2n = 9-21) having 54.27% cells with 2n = 20. SSR analysis showed that all haploids from the cross Hua24 x HZI1 shared the same genomic compositions as Hua24 except for plants Nos. 862 and 857 with some polymorphic DNA bands. The results revealed that chromosome elimination after fertilization caused the haploid production in maize.

  12. Relationship between genetic parameters in maize (Zea mays) with seedling growth parameters under 40-100% soil moisture conditions.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, R W; Qayyum, A

    2013-10-18

    We estimated the association of genetic parameters with production characters in 64 maize (Zea mays) genotypes in a green house in soil with 40-100% moisture levels (percent of soil moisture capacity). To identify the major parameters that account for variation among the genotypes, we used single linkage cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Ten plant characters were measured. The first two, four, three, and again three components, with eigen values > 1 contributed 75.05, 80.11, 68.67, and 75.87% of the variability among the genotypes under the different moisture levels, i.e., 40, 60, 80, and 100%, respectively. Other principal components (3-10, 5-10, and 4-10) had eigen values less than 1. The highest estimates of heritability were found for root fresh weight, root volume (0.99), and shoot fresh weight (0.995) in 40% soil moisture. Values of genetic advance ranged from 23.4024 for SR at 40% soil moisture to 0.2538 for shoot dry weight in 60% soil moisture. The high magnitude of broad sense heritability provides evidence that these plant characters are under the control of additive genetic effects. This indicates that selection should lead to fast genetic improvement of the material. The superior agronomic types that we identified may be exploited for genetic potential to improve yield potential of the maize crop.

  13. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-Yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg‑1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  14. Uptake of atrazine and cadmium from soil by maize (Zea mays L.) in association with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Honglin; Zhang, Shuzhen; Chen, Bao-Dong; Wu, Naiying; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Christy, Peter

    2006-12-13

    A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum on the uptake of atrazine (ATR) and cadmium (Cd) from soil by maize (Zea mays L.). Mycorrhizal colonization led to an increase in the accumulation of Cd and ATR in maize roots but a decrease in the shoots. Atrazine alleviated the adverse effects of Cd on maize growth, and this was more pronounced in the inoculated plants. An increase in Cd accumulation by maize roots was observed when ATR was also present. After harvest, the residual ATR concentration in the soil decreased markedly. With mycorrhizal inoculation the amount of residual ATR decreased more in the bulk soil but less in the rhizosphere soil compared to the noninoculated controls. Cadmium application significantly decreased the ATR residual concentrations in both the rhizosphere and bulk soils irrespective of inoculation treatment.

  15. Evidence for maize (Zea mays) in the Late Archaic (3000-1800 B.C.) in the Norte Chico region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred; Huamán Mesía, Luis; Goldstein, David; Reinhard, Karl; Rodríguez, Cindy Vergel

    2013-03-26

    For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000-1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological testing at a number of sites in the Norte Chico region of the north central coast provides a broad range of empirical data on the production, processing, and consumption of maize. New data drawn from coprolites, pollen records, and stone tool residues, combined with 126 radiocarbon dates, demonstrate that maize was widely grown, intensively processed, and constituted a primary component of the diet throughout the period from 3000 to 1800 B.C.

  16. Evidence for maize (Zea mays) in the Late Archaic (3000–1800 B.C.) in the Norte Chico region of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred; Huamán Mesía, Luis; Goldstein, David; Reinhard, Karl; Rodríguez, Cindy Vergel

    2013-01-01

    For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000–1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological testing at a number of sites in the Norte Chico region of the north central coast provides a broad range of empirical data on the production, processing, and consumption of maize. New data drawn from coprolites, pollen records, and stone tool residues, combined with 126 radiocarbon dates, demonstrate that maize was widely grown, intensively processed, and constituted a primary component of the diet throughout the period from 3000 to 1800 B.C. PMID:23440194

  17. Small kernel 1 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for mitochondrial nad7 transcript editing and seed development in maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hou, Mingming; Sun, Feng; Shen, Yun; Xiu, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Zong-Liang; Sun, Samuel S M; Small, Ian; Tan, Bao-Cai

    2014-09-01

    RNA editing modifies cytidines (C) to uridines (U) at specific sites in the transcripts of mitochondria and plastids, altering the amino acid specified by the DNA sequence. Here we report the identification of a critical editing factor of mitochondrial nad7 transcript via molecular characterization of a small kernel 1 (smk1) mutant in Zea mays (maize). Mutations in Smk1 arrest both the embryo and endosperm development. Cloning of Smk1 indicates that it encodes an E-subclass pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein that is targeted to mitochondria. Loss of SMK1 function abolishes the C → U editing at the nad7-836 site, leading to the retention of a proline codon that is edited to encode leucine in the wild type. The smk1 mutant showed dramatically reduced complex-I assembly and NADH dehydrogenase activity, and abnormal biogenesis of the mitochondria. Analysis of the ortholog in Oryza sativa (rice) reveals that rice SMK1 has a conserved function in C → U editing of the mitochondrial nad7-836 site. T-DNA knock-out mutants showed abnormal embryo and endosperm development, resulting in embryo or seedling lethality. The leucine at NAD7-279 is highly conserved from bacteria to flowering plants, and analysis of genome sequences from many plants revealed a molecular coevolution between the requirement for C → U editing at this site and the existence of an SMK1 homolog. These results demonstrate that Smk1 encodes a PPR-E protein that is required for nad7-836 editing, and this editing is critical to NAD7 function in complex-I assembly in mitochondria, and hence to embryo and endosperm development in maize and rice. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  19. Cloning and expression analysis of some genes involved in the phosphoinositide and phospholipid signaling pathways from maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhenhua; Niu, Linyuan; Yue, Guidong; Yang, Aifang; Zhang, Juren

    2008-12-15

    Previous studies have indicated the phosphoinositide and phospholipid signaling pathways play a key role in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. However, little is known about the phosphoinositide and phospholipid signaling pathways in maize (Zea mays L.). To better understand the function of genes involved in the phosphoinositide and phospholipid signaling pathways in maize, the cDNA sequences of ZmPIS2, ZmPLC2, ZmDGK1, ZmDGK2 and ZmDGK3 were obtained by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) or in silico cloning combined with PCR. RT-PCR analysis of cDNA from five tissues (roots, stems, leaves, tassels, and ears) indicated that the expression patterns of the five cDNAs we isolated as well as ZmPIS, ZmPLC, ZmPLD varied in different tissues. To determine the effects of different environmental conditions such as cold, drought and various phytohormones (abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid) on gene expression, we analyzed expression by Real-Time (RT-PCR), and found that the different isoforms of these gene families involved in the phosphoinositide and phospholipid signaling pathways have specific expression patterns. Our results suggested that these genes may be involved in the responses to environmental stresses, but have different functions. The isolation and analysis of expression patterns of genes involved in the phosphoinositide and phospholipid signaling pathways provides a good basis for further research of the phosphoinositide and phospholipid signaling pathways in maize and is a novel supplement to our comprehension of these pathways in plants.

  20. Effect of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under water deficit stress.

    PubMed

    Ehteshami, S M R; Aghaalikhani, M; Khavazi, K; Chaichi, M R

    2007-10-15

    The effect of seed inoculation by phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L. SC. 704) was studied in a field experiment. Positive effect on plant growth, nutrient uptake, grain yield and yield components in maize plants was recorded in the treatment receiving mixed inoculum of Glomus intraradices (AM) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf). Co-inoculation treatment significantly increased grain yield, yield components, harvest index, grain N and P, soil available P, root colonization percentage and crop WUE under water deficit stress. In some of investigated characteristics under well-watered conditions, chemical fertilizer treatment was higher than double inoculated treatments, but this difference was not significant. Seed inoculation only with AM positively affected the measured parameters as amount as co-inoculated treatments. According to the results showed in contrast to the inoculated treatments with AM+Pf and AM, the application of alone Pf caused a comparatively poor response. Therefore, this microorganism needs to a complement for its activity in soil. All of measured parameters in inoculated treatments were higher than uninoculated treatments under water deficit stress conditions. Furthermore, the investigated characteristics of co-inoculated plants under severe water deficit stress conditions were significantly lower than co-inoculated plants under well-watered and moderate-stressed conditions. Therefore it could be stated, these microorganisms need more time to fix and establishing themselves in soil. The present finding showed that phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms can interact positively in promoting plant growth as well as P uptake of maize plants, leading to plant tolerance improving under water deficit stress conditions.

  1. Impacts of industrial waste resources on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield, nutrients uptake and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satnam; Young, Li-Sen; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-10-01

    Discharging untreated highly acidic (pH<4.0), organic and nutrients rich monosodium glutamate wastewater (MW), and highly alkaline (pH>10.0) paper-mill wastewater (PW) causes environmental pollution. When acidity of MW neutralized (pH 6.5±0.1) with PW and lime (treatments represented as MW+PW and MW+Lime), then MW may be utilized as a potential source of nutrients and organic carbon for sustainable food production. Objectives of this study were to compare the effects of PW and lime neutralized MW and chemical fertilizers on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Snow Jean) plant growth, yield, nutrients uptake, soil organic matter and humic substances. The field experiment was carried out on maize using MW at 6000 L ha(-1). Impacts of the MW application on maize crop and soil properties were evaluated at different stages. At harvest, plant height, and plant N and K uptake were higher in MW treatment. Leaf area index at 60 days after sowing, plant dry matter accumulation at harvest, and kernels ear(-1) and 100-kernel weight were higher in MW+Lime treatment. Kernel N, P, K, Mn, Fe and Zn, and plant Zn uptake were highest in MW+Lime. Plant Fe uptake, and soil organic matter and humic substances were highest in MW+PW. The MW+PW and MW+Lime treatments exhibited comparable results with chemically fertilized treatment. The MW acidity neutralized with lime showed positive impacts on growth, yield and nutrients uptake; nevertheless, when MW pH neutralized with PW has an additional benefit on increase in soil organic matter and humic substances. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  3. Global and grain-specific accumulation of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases in transgenic maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin N; Bougri, Oleg; Carlson, Alvar R; Meissner, Judy; Pan, Shihao; Parker, Matthew H; Zhang, Dongcheng; Samoylov, Vladimir; Ekborg, Nathan A; Michael Raab, R

    2011-12-01

    In planta expression of cell wall degrading enzymes is a promising approach for developing optimized biomass feedstocks that enable low-cost cellulosic biofuels production. Transgenic plants could serve as either an enzyme source for the hydrolysis of pretreated biomass or as the primary biomass feedstock in an autohydrolysis process. In this study, two xylanase genes, Bacillus sp. NG-27 bsx and Clostridium stercorarium xynB, were expressed in maize (Zea mays) under the control of two different promoters. Severe phenotypic effects were associated with xylanase accumulation in maize, including stunted plants and sterile grains. Global expression of these xylanases from the rice ubiquitin 3 promoter (rubi3) resulted in enzyme accumulation of approximately 0.01 mg enzyme per gram dry weight, or approximately 0.1% of total soluble protein (TSP). Grain-specific expression of these enzymes from the rice glutelin 4 promoter (GluB-4) resulted in higher-level accumulation of active enzyme, with BSX and XynB accumulating up to 4.0% TSP and 16.4% TSP, respectively, in shriveled grains from selected T0 plants. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the GluB-4 promoter for biotechnological applications. The phenotypic effects of xylanase expression in maize presented here demonstrate the difficulties of hemicellulase expression in an important crop for cellulosic biofuels production. Potential alternate approaches to achieve xylanase accumulation in planta without the accompanying negative phenotypes are discussed. © 2011 Agrivida Inc. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A novel beta-glucosidase from the cell wall of maize (Zea mays L.): rapid purification and partial characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nematollahi, W. P.; Roux, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Plants have a variety of glycosidic conjugates of hormones, defense compounds, and other molecules that are hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidases (beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolases, E.C. 3.2.1.21). Workers have reported several beta-glucosidases from maize (Zea mays L.; Poaceae), but have localized them mostly by indirect means. We have purified and partly characterized a 58-Ku beta-glucosidase from maize, which we conclude from a partial sequence analysis, from kinetic data, and from its localization is not identical to any of those already reported. A monoclonal antibody, mWP 19, binds this enzyme, and localizes it in the cell walls of maize coleoptiles. An earlier report showed that mWP19 inhibits peroxidase activity in crude cell wall extracts and can immunoprecipitate peroxidase activity from these extracts, yet purified preparations of the 58 Ku protein had little or no peroxidase activity. The level of sequence similarity between beta-glucosidases and peroxidases makes it unlikely that these enzymes share epitopes in common. Contrary to a previous conclusion, these results suggest that the enzyme recognized by mWP19 is not a peroxidase, but there is a wall peroxidase closely associated with the 58 Ku beta-glucosidase in crude preparations. Other workers also have co-purified distinct proteins with beta-glucosidases. We found no significant charge in the level of immunodetectable beta-glucosidase in mesocotyls or coleoptiles that precedes the red light-induced changes in the growth rate of these tissues.

  5. A novel beta-glucosidase from the cell wall of maize (Zea mays L.): rapid purification and partial characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nematollahi, W. P.; Roux, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Plants have a variety of glycosidic conjugates of hormones, defense compounds, and other molecules that are hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidases (beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolases, E.C. 3.2.1.21). Workers have reported several beta-glucosidases from maize (Zea mays L.; Poaceae), but have localized them mostly by indirect means. We have purified and partly characterized a 58-Ku beta-glucosidase from maize, which we conclude from a partial sequence analysis, from kinetic data, and from its localization is not identical to any of those already reported. A monoclonal antibody, mWP 19, binds this enzyme, and localizes it in the cell walls of maize coleoptiles. An earlier report showed that mWP19 inhibits peroxidase activity in crude cell wall extracts and can immunoprecipitate peroxidase activity from these extracts, yet purified preparations of the 58 Ku protein had little or no peroxidase activity. The level of sequence similarity between beta-glucosidases and peroxidases makes it unlikely that these enzymes share epitopes in common. Contrary to a previous conclusion, these results suggest that the enzyme recognized by mWP19 is not a peroxidase, but there is a wall peroxidase closely associated with the 58 Ku beta-glucosidase in crude preparations. Other workers also have co-purified distinct proteins with beta-glucosidases. We found no significant charge in the level of immunodetectable beta-glucosidase in mesocotyls or coleoptiles that precedes the red light-induced changes in the growth rate of these tissues.

  6. Abscisic acid refines the synthesis of chloroplast proteins in maize (Zea mays) in response to drought and light.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuli; Wu, Xiaolin; Li, Chaohai; Lu, Minghui; Liu, Tianxue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    To better understand abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of the synthesis of chloroplast proteins in maize (Zea mays L.) in response to drought and light, we compared leaf proteome differences between maize ABA-deficient mutant vp5 and corresponding wild-type Vp5 green and etiolated seedlings exposed to drought stress. Proteins extracted from the leaves of Vp5 and vp5 seedlings were used for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). After Coomassie brilliant blue staining, approximately 450 protein spots were reproducibly detected on 2-DE gels. A total of 36 differentially expressed protein spots in response to drought and light were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and their subcellular localization was determined based on the annotation of reviewed accession in UniProt Knowledgebase and the software prediction. As a result, corresponding 13 proteins of the 24 differentially expressed protein spots were definitely localized in chloroplasts and their expression was in an ABA-dependent way, including 6 up-regulated by both drought and light, 5 up-regulated by drought but down-regulated by light, 5 up-regulated by light but down-regulated by drought; 5 proteins down-regulated by drought were mainly those involved in photosynthesis and ATP synthesis. Thus, the results in the present study supported the vital role of ABA in regulating the synthesis of drought- and/or light-induced proteins in maize chloroplasts and would facilitate the functional characterization of ABA-induced chloroplast proteins in C(4) plants.

  7. Abscisic Acid Refines the Synthesis of Chloroplast Proteins in Maize (Zea mays) in Response to Drought and Light

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiuli; Wu, Xiaolin; Li, Chaohai; Lu, Minghui; Liu, Tianxue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    To better understand abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of the synthesis of chloroplast proteins in maize (Zea mays L.) in response to drought and light, we compared leaf proteome differences between maize ABA-deficient mutant vp5 and corresponding wild-type Vp5 green and etiolated seedlings exposed to drought stress. Proteins extracted from the leaves of Vp5 and vp5 seedlings were used for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). After Coomassie brilliant blue staining, approximately 450 protein spots were reproducibly detected on 2-DE gels. A total of 36 differentially expressed protein spots in response to drought and light were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and their subcellular localization was determined based on the annotation of reviewed accession in UniProt Knowledgebase and the software prediction. As a result, corresponding 13 proteins of the 24 differentially expressed protein spots were definitely localized in chloroplasts and their expression was in an ABA-dependent way, including 6 up-regulated by both drought and light, 5 up-regulated by drought but down-regulated by light, 5 up-regulated by light but down-regulated by drought; 5 proteins down-regulated by drought were mainly those involved in photosynthesis and ATP synthesis. Thus, the results in the present study supported the vital role of ABA in regulating the synthesis of drought- and/or light-induced proteins in maize chloroplasts and would facilitate the functional characterization of ABA-induced chloroplast proteins in C4 plants. PMID:23152915

  8. Cadmium toxicity in Maize (Zea mays L.): consequences on antioxidative systems, reactive oxygen species and cadmium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Bao, Mingchen; Wang, Longchang; Khan, Imran; Ullah, Ehsan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Samad, Rana Abdul; Shahzad, Babar

    2015-11-01

    Increased cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils has led to tremendous environmental problems, with pronounced effects on agricultural productivity. Present study investigated the effects of Cd stress imposed at various concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 μM) on antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Cd accumulation, and productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Run Nong 35 and Wan Dan 13. Considerable variations in Cd accumulation and in behavior of antioxidants and ROS were observed under Cd stress in both maize cultivars, and such variations governed by Cd were concentration dependent. Exposure of plant to Cd stress considerably increased Cd concentration in all plant parts particularly in roots. Wan Dan 13 accumulated relatively higher Cd in root, stem, and leaves than Run Nong 35; however, in seeds, Run Nong 35 recorded higher Cd accumulation. All the Cd toxicity levels starting from 75 μM enhanced H2O2 and MDA concentrations and triggered electrolyte leakage in leaves of both cultivars, and such an increment was more in Run Nong 35. The ROS were scavenged by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase in response to Cd stress, and these antioxidant activities were higher in Wan Dan 13 compared with Run Nong 35 at all Cd toxicity levels. The grain yield of maize was considerably reduced particularly for Run Nong 35 under different Cd toxicity levels as compared with control. The Wan Dan 13 was better able to alleviate Cd-induced oxidative damage which was attributed to more Cd accumulation in roots and higher antioxidant activities in this cultivar, suggesting that manipulation of these antioxidants and enhancing Cd accumulation in roots may lead to improvement in Cd stress tolerance.

  9. Cadmium inhibits the induction of high-affinity nitrate uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Rizzardo, Cecilia; Tomasi, Nicola; Monte, Rossella; Varanini, Zeno; Nocito, Fabio F; Cesco, Stefano; Pinton, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) detoxification involves glutathione and phytochelatins biosynthesis: the higher need of nitrogen should require increased nitrate (NO(3)(-)) uptake and metabolism. We investigated inducible high-affinity NO(3)(-) uptake across the plasma membrane (PM) in maize seedlings roots upon short exposure (10 min to 24 h) to low Cd concentrations (0, 1 or 10 μM): the activity and gene transcript abundance of high-affinity NO(3)(-) transporters, NO(3)(-) reductases and PM H(+)-ATPases were analyzed. Exposure to 1 mM NO(3)(-) led to a peak in high-affinity (0.2 mM) NO(3)(-) uptake rate (induction), which was markedly lowered in Cd-treated roots. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity was also strongly limited, while internal NO(3)(-) accumulation and NO(3)(-) reductase activity in extracts of Cd treated roots were only slightly lowered. Kinetics of high- and low-affinity NO(3)(-) uptake showed that Cd rapidly (10 min) blocked the inducible high-affinity transport system; the constitutive high-affinity transport system appeared not vulnerable to Cd and the low-affinity transport system appeared to be less affected and only after a prolonged exposure (12 h). Cd-treatment also modified transcript levels of genes encoding high-affinity NO(3)(-) transporters (ZmNTR2.1, ZmNRT2.2), PM H(+)-ATPases (ZmMHA3, ZmMHA4) and NO(3)(-) reductases (ZmNR1, ZmNADH:NR). Despite an expectable increase in NO(3)(-) demand, a negative effect of Cd on NO(3)(-) nutrition is reported. Cd effect results in alterations at the physiological and transcriptional levels of NO(3)(-) uptake from the external solution and it is particularly severe on the inducible high-affinity anion transport system. Furthermore, Cd would limit the capacity of the plant to respond to changes in NO(3) (-) availability.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Cadmium-Treated Roots in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Runqing; Lu, Caixia; Qi, Jianshuang; Han, Xiaohua; Yan, Shufeng; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Lu; Fu, Xiaolei; Chen, Nana; Yin, Haiyan; Chi, Haifeng; Tie, Shuanggui

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and is highly toxic to all plant species. However, the underlying molecular mechanism controlling the effects of auxin on the Cd stress response in maize is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptome produced by maize ‘Zheng 58’ root responses to Cd stress was sequenced using Illumina sequencing technology. In our study, six RNA-seq libraries yielded a total of 244 million clean short reads and 30.37 Gb of sequence data. A total of 6342 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were grouped into 908 Gene Ontology (GO) categories and 198 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes terms. GO term enrichment analysis indicated that various auxin signaling pathway-related GO terms were significantly enriched in DEGs. Comparison of the transcript abundances for auxin biosynthesis, transport, and downstream response genes revealed a universal expression response under Cd treatment. Furthermore, our data showed that free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were significantly reduced; but IAA oxidase activity was up-regulated after Cd treatment in maize roots. The analysis of Cd activity in maize roots under different Cd and auxin conditions confirmed that auxin affected Cd accumulation in maize seedlings. These results will improve our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the response to Cd stress in maize roots. PMID:27630647

  11. Early maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation in Mexico: Dating sedimentary pollen records and its implications

    PubMed Central

    Sluyter, Andrew; Dominguez, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    A sedimentary pollen sequence from the coastal plain of Veracruz, Mexico, demonstrates maize cultivation by 5,000 years ago, refining understanding of the geography of early maize cultivation. Methodological issues related to bioturbation involved in dating that record combine with its similarity to a pollen sequence from the coastal plain of Tabasco, Mexico, to suggest that the inception of maize cultivation in that record occurred as much as 1,000–2,000 years more recently than the previously accepted 7,000 years ago. Our analysis thereby has substantive, theoretical, and methodological implications for understanding the complex process of maize domestication. Substantively, it demonstrates that the earliest securely dated evidence of maize comes from macrofossils excavated near Oaxaca and Tehuacán, Mexico, and not from the coastal plain along the southern Gulf of Mexico. Theoretically, that evidence best supports the hypothesis that people in the Southern Highlands domesticated this important crop plant. Methodologically, sedimentary pollen and other microfossil sequences can make valuable contributions to reconstructing the geography of early maize cultivation, but we must acknowledge the limits to precision that bioturbation in coastal lagoons imposes on the dating of such records. PMID:16418287

  12. Early maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation in Mexico: dating sedimentary pollen records and its implications.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, Andrew; Dominguez, Gabriela

    2006-01-24

    A sedimentary pollen sequence from the coastal plain of Veracruz, Mexico, demonstrates maize cultivation by 5,000 years ago, refining understanding of the geography of early maize cultivation. Methodological issues related to bioturbation involved in dating that record combine with its similarity to a pollen sequence from the coastal plain of Tabasco, Mexico, to suggest that the inception of maize cultivation in that record occurred as much as 1,000-2,000 years more recently than the previously accepted 7,000 years ago. Our analysis thereby has substantive, theoretical, and methodological implications for understanding the complex process of maize domestication. Substantively, it demonstrates that the earliest securely dated evidence of maize comes from macrofossils excavated near Oaxaca and Tehuacán, Mexico, and not from the coastal plain along the southern Gulf of Mexico. Theoretically, that evidence best supports the hypothesis that people in the Southern Highlands domesticated this important crop plant. Methodologically, sedimentary pollen and other microfossil sequences can make valuable contributions to reconstructing the geography of early maize cultivation, but we must acknowledge the limits to precision that bioturbation in coastal lagoons imposes on the dating of such records.

  13. Fungal growth and fusarium mycotoxin content in isogenic traditional maize and genetically modified maize grown in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Bakan, B; Melcion, D; Richard-Molard, D; Cahagnier, B

    2002-02-13

    Fungi of the genus Fusarium are common fungal contaminants of maize and are also known to produce mycotoxins. Maize that has been genetically modified to express a Bt endotoxin has been used to study the effect of insect resistance on fungal infection of maize grains by Fusarium species and their related mycotoxins. Maize grain from Bt hybrids and near-isogenic traditional hybrids was collected in France and Spain from the 1999 crop, which was grown under natural conditions. According to the ergosterol level, the fungal biomass formed on Bt maize grain was 4-18 times lower than that on isogenic maize. Fumonisin B(1) grain concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 0.3 ppm for Bt maize and from 0.4 to 9 ppm for isogenic maize. Moderate to low concentrations of trichothecenes and zearalenone were measured on transgenic as well as on non-transgenic maize. Nevertheless, significant differences were obtained in certain regions. The protection of maize plants against insect damage (European corn borer and pink stem borer) through the use of Bt technology seems to be a way to reduce the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and the resultant fumonisins in maize grain grown in France and Spain.

  14. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E; Archibald, Rayeann L; Drummond, Bruce J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Williams, Robert W; Lafitte, H Renee; Weers, Ben P

    2015-09-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions.

  15. Phytoremediation potential of maize (Zea mays L.) in co-contaminated soils with pentachlorophenol and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Hechmi, Nejla; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Abdennaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous coexistence of heavy metals and organic contaminants was increased in the polluted soil and phytoremediation as a remedial technology and management option is recommended to solve the problems of co-contamination. Growth of Zea mays L and pollutant removal ability may be influenced by interactions among mixed pollutants. Pot-culture experiments were conduced to investigate the single and interactive effect of cadmium (Cd) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) on growth of Zea mays L, PCP, and Cd removal from soil. Growth response of Zea mays L is considerably influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP, significantly declining with either Cd or PCP additions. The dissipation of PCP in soils was notably affected by interactions of Cd, PCP, and plant presence or absence. At the Pentachlorophenol in both planted and non-planted soil was greatly decreased at the end of the 10-week culture, accounting for 16-20% of initial extractable concentrations in non-planted soil and 9-14% in planted soil. With the increment of Cd level, residual pentachlorophenol in the planted soil tended to increase. The pentachlorophenol residual in the presence of high concentration of Cd was even higher in the planted soil than that in the non-planted soil.

  16. Effects of Silicon on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Maize (Zea mays L.) on Alluvial Soil

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Ri

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on alluvial soil, including total chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (P n), stomatal conductance (g s), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i) using the method of field experiment, in which there were five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg·ha−1) of silicon supplying. The results showed that certain doses of silicon fertilizers can be used successfully in increasing the values of total chlorophyll contents, P n, and g s and decreasing the values of E and C i of maize leaves, which meant that photosynthetic efficiency of maize was significantly increased in different growth stages by proper doses of Si application on alluvial soil, and the optimal dose of Si application was 150 kg·ha−1. Our results indicated that silicon in proper amounts can be beneficial in increasing the photosynthetic ability of maize, which would be helpful for the grain yield and growth of maize. PMID:24982984

  17. Effect of surfactant amendment to PAHs-contaminated soil for phytoremediation by maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Liao, Changjun; Liang, Xujun; Lu, Guining; Thai, Truonggiang; Xu, Wending; Dang, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the uptake of organic pollutants by plants is an important part of the assessment of risks from crops grown on contaminated soils. This study was an investigation of the effects of surfactants added to PAHs-contaminated soil on the uptake and accumulation of PAHs in maize tissues during phytoremediation. The accumulation of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) by maize plant was not influenced significantly by the surfactant amendment to the soil. The distribution of PHE and PYR in maize tissues was not positively correlated with the corresponding lipid contents. Remarkably, the concentrations of PHE (20.9 ng g(-1)) and PYR (0.9 ng g(-1)) in maize grain were similar to or even much lower than those in some foods. Moreover, surfactants could enhance the removal of pollutants from contaminated soil during phytoremediation, which might be due to surfactant desorption ability and microbial activity in soil. The study suggests that use of maize plant with surfactant is an alternative technology for remediation of PAHs-contaminated soils.

  18. Maize (Zea mays L.) transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of pollinated ovules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Cong, Yuanyuan; He, Hongxia; Yu, Ying

    2014-02-10

    A novel transformation system was established for maize using Agrobacterium infection of in vitro cultured ovules. The maize ovules were isolated 24h after pollination and infected with Agrobacterium. The embryos were isolated from the pollinated ovules 2-3 weeks after Agrobacterium infection, regenerated to plantlets and investigated for transgene expression and inheritance. Experimental evaluations were focused on the four main aspects. Firstly, through the introduction of gus gene for monitoring transformation and development of embryo, it was confirmed that transgenic plants can be generated from in vitro cultured maize ovules infected with Agrobacterium. Secondly, in order to standardize the transformation protocol, several important factors that affected transformation efficiency were optimized. They included Agrobacterium delivery approach, surfactant, AS concentration, and cocultivation duration. Thirdly, stable expression and Mendelian inheritance of the introduced genes were analyzed in independent lines over two generations. Fourthly, the pollinated ovule culture-regeneration potential and transformation efficiency of five maize inbred lines were investigated to confirm the genotype independence of this transformation system. We conclude that the transformation system established in this study can be used to generate high-quality transgenic maize plants rapidly and directly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) on alluvial soil.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Ri

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on alluvial soil, including total chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (P n), stomatal conductance (g s), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i ) using the method of field experiment, in which there were five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg · ha(-1)) of silicon supplying. The results showed that certain doses of silicon fertilizers can be used successfully in increasing the values of total chlorophyll contents, P n, and g s and decreasing the values of E and C i of maize leaves, which meant that photosynthetic efficiency of maize was significantly increased in different growth stages by proper doses of Si application on alluvial soil, and the optimal dose of Si application was 150 kg · ha(-1). Our results indicated that silicon in proper amounts can be beneficial in increasing the photosynthetic ability of maize, which would be helpful for the grain yield and growth of maize.

  20. Gibberellins Promote Brassinosteroids Action and Both Increase Heterosis for Plant Height in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Songlin; Wang, Cuiling; Sanchez, Darlene L.; Lipka, Alexander E.; Liu, Peng; Yin, Yanhai; Blanco, Michael; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and Gibberellins (GAs) are two classes of plant hormones affecting plant height (PHT). Thus, manipulation of BR and GA levels or signaling enables optimization of crop grain and biomass yields. We established backcross (BC) families, selected for increased PHT, in two elite maize inbred backgrounds. Various exotic accessions used in the germplasm enhancement in maize project served as donors. BC1-derived doubled haploid lines in the same two elite maize inbred backgrounds established without selection for plant height were included for comparison. We conducted genome-wide association studies to explore the genetic control of PHT by BR and GA. In addition, we used BR and GA inhibitors to compare the relationship between PHT, BR, and GA in inbred lines and heterozygotes from a physiological and biological perspective. A total of 73 genomic loci were discovered to be associated with PHT, with seven co-localized with GA, and two co-localized with BR candidate genes. PHT determined in field trials was significantly correlated with seedling stage BR and GA inhibitor responses. However, this observation was only true for maize heterozygotes, not for inbred lines. Path analysis results suggest that heterozygosity increases GA levels, which in turn promote BR levels. Thus, at least part of heterosis for PHT in maize can be explained by increased GA and BR levels, and seedling stage hormone inhibitor response is promising to predict heterosis for PHT. PMID:28676808

  1. Assessment of growth and yield losses in two Zea mays L. cultivars (quality protein maize and nonquality protein maize) under projected levels of ozone.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-02-01

    Rapid industrialization and economic developments have increased the tropospheric ozone (O3) budget since preindustrial times, and presently, it is supposed to be a major threat to crop productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.), a C4 plant is the third most important staple crop at global level with a great deal of economic importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two maize cultivars [HQPM1: quality protein maize (QPM)] and [DHM117: nonquality protein maize (NQPM)] to variable O3 doses. Experimental setup included filtered chambers, nonfiltered chambers (NFC), and two elevated doses of O3 viz. NFC+15 ppb O3 (NFC+15) and NFC+30 ppb O3 (NFC+30). During initial growth period, both QPM and NQPM plants showed hormetic effect that is beneficial due to exposure of low doses of a toxicant (NFC and NFC+15 ppb O3), but at later stages, growth attributes were negatively affected by O3. Growth indices showed the variable pattern of photosynthate translocation under O3 stress. Foliar injury in the form of interveinal chlorosis and reddening of leaves due to increased production of anthocyanin pigments was observed at higher concentrations of O3. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of leaves taken from NFC+30 showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins, and differential response was observed between the two test cultivars. Decline in the number of male flowers at elevated O3 doses suggested damaging effect of O3 on reproductive structures which might be a cause of productivity losses. Variable carbon allocation pattern particularly to husk leaves, foliar injury, and damage of photosynthetic proteins led to significant reductions in economic yield at higher O3 doses. PCA showed that both the cultivars responded more or less similarly to O3 stress in their respective groupings of growth and yield parameters, but magnitude of their response was variable. It is further supported by difference in the significance of correlations between variables of

  2. Brassinosteroids are inherently biosynthesized in the primary roots of maize, Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kim, Seong-Ki

    2005-05-01

    GC-MS analysis revealed that primary roots of maize contain 6-deoxocathasterone, 6-deoxoteasterone and 6-deoxotyphasterol. These brassinosteroids, and the previously identified campesterol, campestanol, 6-deoxocastasterone and castasterone, in the roots are members of a biosynthetic pathway to castasterone, namely the late C-6 oxidation pathway, suggesting that its biosynthetic pathway is operative in the roots. To verify this, a cell-free enzyme extract was prepared from maize roots, and enzymatic conversions from campesterol to castasterone through the aforementioned sterols and brassinosteroids were examined. The presence for the biosynthetic sequences, campesterol-->24-methylcholest-4-en-3beta-ol-->24-methylcholest-4-en-3-one-->24-methylcholest-5 alpha-cholestan-3-one-->campestanol and 6-deoxoteasterone-->6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasterone-->6-deoxotyphasterol-->6-deoxocastasterone-->castasterone were demonstrated. These results indicate that maize roots contain a complete set of enzymes involved in the late C-6 oxidation pathway, thereby demonstrating that endogenous brassinosteroids are biosynthesized in the roots.

  3. Conserved and unique features of the maize (Zea mays L.) root hair proteome.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Josefine; Schütz, Wolfgang; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2011-05-06

    Root hairs are unicellular extensions of specialized epidermis cells. Under limiting conditions, they significantly increase the water and nutrient uptake capacity of plants by enlarging their root surface. Thus far, little is known about the initiation and growth of root hairs in the monocot model species maize. To gain a first insight into the protein composition of these specialized cells, the 2573 most abundant proteins of maize root hairs attached to four-day-old primary roots of the inbred line B73 were identified by combining 1DE with nanoLC-MS/MS in a shotgun proteomic experiment. Among the identified proteins, homologues of 252 proteins have been previously associated with root hair formation and development in other species. Comparison of the root hair reference proteome of the monocot species maize with the previously published root hair proteome of the dicot species soybean revealed conserved, but also unique, protein functions in root hairs of these two major groups of flowering plants.

  4. Genetic analysis of maturity and flowering characteristics in maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Hassan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Khan, Kiramat; yasir, Muhammad; Hameed-ur-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the pattern of inheritance and determine the relative magnitude of various genetic effects for maturity and flowering attributes in subtropical maize. Methods Four white grain maize inbred lines from flint group of corn, two with late maturity and two with early maturity, were used. These contrasting inbred lines were crossed to form four crosses. Six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2) were developed for each individual cross. These were evaluated in triplicate trial for two consecutive years. Results Both dominance gene action and epistatic interaction played major role in governing inheritance of days to pollen shedding, 50% silking, anthesis silking interval and maturity. Conclusions Preponderance of dominance gene action for these traits indicated their usefulness in hybrid programs of subtropical maize. PMID:23569982

  5. [Genetic diversity of starch synthesis genes of Chinese maize (Zea mays L.) with SNAPs].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wen-Bo; Zheng, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Zheng-Feng; Li, Xue-Bao

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of genetic diversity in maize populations is a very important step for understanding genetic structure and subsequently for genetic manipulations in maize breeding. Sh2, Bt2, Sh1, Wx1, Ae1 and Su1 involved in starch biosynthesis are important genes associated with yield and quality traits in maize breeding programs. In this study, genetic diversity of these six genes in 67 Chinese elite maize inbred lines was measured using single-nucleotide amplified polymorphisms (SNAPs). The results indicated that the number of haplotypes of each gene and population was far less than theoretically expected 2(n) (n = the number of the SNAPs). Phenetic clustering analysis showed that the kernel phonetic (semi-) dent and (semi-) flint lines were belong to distinct subclusters based on haplotypes of SNAPs, with a few exceptions. In addition, the genetic origin of these maize inbred lines was associated with the clustered subgroups. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in some of the SNAPs in Bt2, Sh1 and Ae1, while intergenic LD was observed in some of the SNAPs in Bt2, Sh1 and Su1. Association study of kernel phenotypes and SNAP haplotypes showed that the (semi-) dent and (semi-) flint lines had the common haplotype of TA and CC at two SNAP sites in Bt2 (Bt2-2 and Bt2-5), respectively. Two haplotypes of ATGT and GTGC at four SNAP sites in Sh1 (Sh1-2, Sh1-3, Sh1-4 and Sh1-5) were associated with temperature and tropical origin of the maize inbred lines, respectively.

  6. Nixtamalized flour from quality protein maize (Zea mays L). optimization of alkaline processing.

    PubMed

    Milán-Carrillo, J; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Cuevas-Rodríguez, E O; Garzón-Tiznado, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2004-01-01

    Quality of maize proteins is poor, they are deficient in the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan. Recently, in Mexico were successfully developed nutritionally improved 26 new hybrids and cultivars called quality protein maize (QPM) which contain greater amounts of lysine and tryptophan. Alkaline cooking of maize with lime (nixtamalization) is the first step for producing several maize products (masa, tortillas, flours, snacks). Processors adjust nixtamalization variables based on experience. The objective of this work was to determine the best combination of nixtamalization process variables for producing nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from QPM V-537 variety. Nixtamalization conditions were selected from factorial combinations of process variables: nixtamalization time (NT, 20-85 min), lime concentration (LC, 3.3-6.7 g Ca(OH)2/l, in distilled water), and steep time (ST, 8-16 hours). Nixtamalization temperature and ratio of grain to cooking medium were 85 degrees C and 1:3 (w/v), respectively. At the end of each cooking treatment the steeping started for the required time. Steeping was finished by draining the cooking liquor (nejayote). Nixtamal (alkaline-cooked maize kernels) was washed with running tap water. Wet nixtamal was dried (24 hours, 55 degrees C) and milled to pass through 80-US mesh screen to obtain NMF. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied as optimization technique, over four response variables: In vitro protein digestibility (PD), total color difference (deltaE), water absorption index (WAI), and pH. Predictive models for response variables were developed as a function of process variables. Conventional graphical method was applied to obtain maximum PD, WAI and minimum deltaE, pH. Contour plots of each of the response variables were utilized applying superposition surface methodology, to obtain three contour plots for observation and selection of best combination of NT (31 min), LC (5.4 g Ca(OH)2/l), and ST (8.1 hours) for producing

  7. Genetic Architecture of Ear Fasciation in Maize (Zea mays) under QTL Scrutiny

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Moreira, Pedro; Alves, Mara L.; Satovic, Zlatko; dos Santos, João Pacheco; Santos, João Nina; Souza, João Cândido; Pêgo, Silas E.; Hallauer, Arnel R.; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2015-01-01

    Maize ear fasciation Knowledge of the genes affecting maize ear inflorescence may lead to better grain yield modeling. Maize ear fasciation, defined as abnormal flattened ears with high kernel row number, is a quantitative trait widely present in Portuguese maize landraces. Material and Methods Using a segregating population derived from an ear fasciation contrasting cross (consisting of 149 F2:3 families) we established a two location field trial using a complete randomized block design. Correlations and heritabilities for several ear fasciation-related traits and yield were determined. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) involved in the inheritance of those traits were identified and candidate genes for these QTL proposed. Results and Discussion Ear fasciation broad-sense heritability was 0.73. Highly significant correlations were found between ear fasciation and some ear and cob diameters and row number traits. For the 23 yield and ear fasciation-related traits, 65 QTL were identified, out of which 11 were detected in both environments, while for the three principal components, five to six QTL were detected per environment. Detected QTL were distributed across 17 genomic regions and explained individually, 8.7% to 22.4% of the individual traits or principal components phenotypic variance. Several candidate genes for these QTL regions were proposed, such as bearded-ear1, branched silkless1, compact plant1, ramosa2, ramosa3, tasselseed4 and terminal ear1. However, many QTL mapped to regions without known candidate genes, indicating potential chromosomal regions not yet targeted for maize ear traits selection. Conclusions Portuguese maize germplasm represents a valuable source of genes or allelic variants for yield improvement and elucidation of the genetic basis of ear fasciation traits. Future studies should focus on fine mapping of the identified genomic regions with the aim of map-based cloning. PMID:25923975

  8. Closure of plasmodesmata in maize (Zea mays) at low temperature: a new mechanism for inhibition of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bilska, Anna; Sowinski, Pawel

    2010-11-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the processes most susceptible to low-temperature inhibition in maize, a tropical C4 crop not yet fully adapted to a temperate climate. C4 photosynthesis relies on symplasmic exchange of large amounts of photosynthetic intermediates between Kranz mesophyll (KMS) and bundle sheath (BS) cells. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the slowing of maize photosynthesis at low temperature is related to ultrastructural changes in the plasmodesmata between KM and BS as well as BS and vascular parenchyma (VP) cells. Chilling-tolerant (CT) KW 1074 and chilling-sensitive (CS) CM 109 maize (Zea mays) lines were studied. The effect of moderate chilling (14 °C) on the rate of photosynthesis, photosynthate transport kinetics, and the ultrastructure of plasmodesmata linking the KMS, BS and VP cells were analysed. Additionally, the accumulation of callose and calreticulin was studied by the immunogold method. Chilling inhibited photosynthesis, photosynthate transfer to the phloem and photosynthate export from leaves in both lines. This inhibition was reversible upon cessation of chilling in the CT line but irreversible in the CS line. Simultaneously to physiological changes, chilling induced swelling of the sphincters of plasmodesmata linking KMS and BS cells and a decreased lumen of the cytoplasmic sleeve of plasmodesmata at the BS/VP interface in the CS line but not in the CT line. Accumulation of calreticulin, which occurred near the neck region of the closed plasmodesmata was observed after just 4 h of chilling and over-accumulation of callose at the KMS/BS and BS/VP interfaces occurred after 28 h of chilling. Stronger chilling sensitivity of the CM 109 maize line compared with the KW 1074 line, shown by decreased photosynthesis and assimilate export from a leaf, is related to changes in the ultrastructure of leaf plasmodesmata at low temperature. The chain of reactions to chilling is likely to include calreticulin action resulting in

  9. New isozyme systems for maize (Zea mays L.): aconitate hydratase, adenylate kinase, NADH dehydrogenase, and shikimate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wendel, J F; Goodman, M M; Stuber, C W; Beckett, J B

    1988-06-01

    Electrophoretic variation and inheritance of four novel enzyme systems were studied in maize (Zea mays L.). A minimum of 10 genetic loci collectively encodes isozymes of aconitate hydratase (ACO; EC 4.2.1.3.), adenylate kinase (ADK; EC 2.7.4.3), NADH dehydrogenase (DIA; EC 1.6.99.-), and shikimate dehydrogenase (SAD; EC 1.1.1.25). At least four loci are responsible for the genetic control of ACO. Genetic data for two of the encoding loci, Aco1 and Aco4, demonstrated that at least two maize ACOs are active as monomers. Analysis of organellar preparations suggests that ACO1 and ACO4 are localized in the cytosolic and mitochondrial subcellular fractions, respectively. Maize ADK is encoded by a single nuclear locus, Adk1, governing monomeric enzymes that are located in the chloroplasts. Two cytosolic and two mitochondrial forms of DIA were electrophoretically resolved. Segregation analyses demonstrated that the two cytosolic isozymes are controlled by separate loci, Dia1 and Dia2, coding for products that are functional as monomers (DIA1) and dimers (DIA2). The major isozyme of SAD is apparently cytosolic, although an additional faintly staining plastid form may be present. Alleles at Sad1 are each associated with two bands that cosegregate in controlled crosses. Linkage analyses and crosses with B-A translocation stocks were effective in determining the map locations of six loci, including the previously described but unmapped locus Acp4. Several of these loci were localized to sparsely mapped regions of the genome. Dia2 and Acp4 were placed on the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 1, 12.6 map units apart. Dia1 was localized to chromosome 2, 22.2 centimorgans (cM) from B1. Aco1 was mapped to chromosome 4, 6.2 cM from su1. Adk1 was placed on the poorly marked short arm of chromosome 6, 8.1 map units from rgd1. Less than 1% recombination was observed between Glu1 (on chromosome 10) and Sad1. In contrast to many other maize isozyme systems, there was little

  10. Interactive studies of potassium and copper with cadmium on seed germination and early seedling growth in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Shikha; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

    2009-05-01

    In the present study a novel approach has been made to evaluate the toxicity of cadmium in maize (Zea mays L. cv KJ9451) in terms of germination, seedling growth, pigment development and relevant enzyme activity and the possible remedial approach using potassium and copper to reduce cadmium toxicity. For the present investigations maize seeds were sown in petridishes on filter paper in triplicate containing different doses of cadmium viz. 0.05, 0. 10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mM and for interactive studies maize seeds sown in 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 mM Cd concentration were subjected to 0.50 and 1.00 mM concentration of potassium and copper respectively. At the high cadmium concentrations, germination percentage was decreased. I also showed considerable reduction in plumule length, radicle length and number of lateral roots while the potassium and copper combination with cadmium increased the seedling growth. The calculated values of SVI were found to be decreased with increase in the concentration of cadmium. Decreased GRI values were observed in maize treated with three higher concentrations of cadmium but the combination of potassium and copper showed recovery in GRI values. The fresh weight, dry weight and moisture contents were also found reduced with higher cadmium concentrations but the potassium and copper combination showed recovery when used with higher concentration of cadmium. Declined chlorophyll contents were noticed under the influence of higher cadmium concentrations. Both the combination of potassium and copper used with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 mM cadmium concentrations resulted in increased chlorophyll and pheophytin contents and decreased in Cu combination respectively. The potassium and copper (both 0.50 and 1.00 mM) with 0.75 and 1.00 mM cadmium increased the carotenoid contents although lone cadmium decreased it. Amylase activity was found to be gradually reduced at all concentrations of cadmium. The 0.50 mM and 1.00mM potassium combination improved

  11. Closure of plasmodesmata in maize (Zea mays) at low temperature: a new mechanism for inhibition of photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bilska, Anna; Sowiński, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Photosynthesis is one of the processes most susceptible to low-temperature inhibition in maize, a tropical C4 crop not yet fully adapted to a temperate climate. C4 photosynthesis relies on symplasmic exchange of large amounts of photosynthetic intermediates between Kranz mesophyll (KMS) and bundle sheath (BS) cells. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the slowing of maize photosynthesis at low temperature is related to ultrastructural changes in the plasmodesmata between KM and BS as well as BS and vascular parenchyma (VP) cells. Methods Chilling-tolerant (CT) KW 1074 and chilling-sensitive (CS) CM 109 maize (Zea mays) lines were studied. The effect of moderate chilling (14 °C) on the rate of photosynthesis, photosynthate transport kinetics, and the ultrastructure of plasmodesmata linking the KMS, BS and VP cells were analysed. Additionally, the accumulation of callose and calreticulin was studied by the immunogold method. Key Results Chilling inhibited photosynthesis, photosynthate transfer to the phloem and photosynthate export from leaves in both lines. This inhibition was reversible upon cessation of chilling in the CT line but irreversible in the CS line. Simultaneously to physiological changes, chilling induced swelling of the sphincters of plasmodesmata linking KMS and BS cells and a decreased lumen of the cytoplasmic sleeve of plasmodesmata at the BS/VP interface in the CS line but not in the CT line. Accumulation of calreticulin, which occurred near the neck region of the closed plasmodesmata was observed after just 4 h of chilling and over-accumulation of callose at the KMS/BS and BS/VP interfaces occurred after 28 h of chilling. Conclusions Stronger chilling sensitivity of the CM 109 maize line compared with the KW 1074 line, shown by decreased photosynthesis and assimilate export from a leaf, is related to changes in the ultrastructure of leaf plasmodesmata at low temperature. The chain of reactions to chilling is

  12. Impact of rock materials and biofertilizations on P and K availability for maize (Zea Maize) under calcareous soil conditions

    PubMed Central

    Abou-el-Seoud, I.I.; Abdel-Megeed, A.

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluated the synergistic effects of soil fertilization with rock P and K materials and co-inoculation with P and K-dissolving bacteria [PDB (Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum) and KDB (Bacillus mucilaginosus and B. subtilis)] on the improvement of P and K uptake, P and K availability and growth of maize plant grown under limited P and K soil conditions (calcareous soil). The experiment was establishment with eight treatments: without rock P and K materials or bacteria inoculation (control), rock P (RP), rock K (RK), RP + PDB, RK + KDB and R(P + K)+(P + K)DB. Under the same conditions of this study, co-inoculation of PDB and KDB in conjunction with direct application of rock P and K materials (R(P + K)) into the soil increased P and K availability and uptake, and the plant growth (shoot and root growth) of maize plants grown on P and K limited soils. PMID:23961162

  13. Marker assisted selection of low phytic acid trait in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, S; Tamilkumar, P; Senthil, N; Nagarajan, P; Thangavelu, A U; Raveendran, M; Vellaikumar, S; Ganesan, K N; Balagopal, R; Vijayalakshmi, G; Shobana, V

    2014-02-01

    Maize is the third important major food crop. Breeding for low phytate maize genotypes is an effective strategy for decreasing the content of kernel phytic acid (a chelator of cations such as Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) ) and thereby increasing the bioavailability of nutritive minerals in human diet and animal feed. Previous studies have established that a mutant plant with a lpa2-2 allele accumulates less phytic acid in seeds. Therefore, the marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB), which involves introgression of lpa2-2 recessive allele (which confer low phytate trait) from a lpa2-2 mutant line into a well-adapted line using backcrosses and selection of lines possessing lpa2-2 allele in each backcross population using molecular markers, is an effective strategy for developing low phytate maize. So far, no studies have developed any lpa2-2 allele specific molecular markers for this purpose. Here, using backcross and selfed progenies, obtained by crossing low phytate mutant line 'EC 659418' (i.e. donor of lpa2-2 allele) into agronomically superior line 'UMI395', we have validated that a SSR marker 'umc2230', located 0.4 cM downstream of lpa2-2, cosegregate, in a Mendelian fashion, with low phytic acid trait. Therefore umc2230 can be dependably used in MABB for the development of low phytate maize.

  14. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L.) and screening for protease activity

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; de Souza Motta, Cristina Maria

    2008-01-01

    Mucorales were isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity. PMID:24031292

  15. Climatic Adaptation and Ecological Descriptors of 42 Mexican Maize (Zea Mays L.) Races

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mexico is the center of diversity of maize. Thousands of collections of farmer varieties have been made in Mexico and these have been grouped into 42 races. We evaluated the ecological adaptation of these races by compiling information on the geography, altitude, temperatures, daylength, and annua...

  16. Growth and physiological responses of maize ( Zea mays L.) to porous silica nanoparticles in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Karunakaran, G.; Yuvakkumar, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kannan, N.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to explore the effect of high surface area (360.85 m2 g-1) silica nanoparticles (SNPs) (20-40 nm) extracted from rice husk on the physiological and anatomical changes during maize growth in sandy loam soil at four concentrations (5-20 kg ha-1) in comparison with bulk silica (15-20 kg ha-1). The plant responses to nano and bulk silica treatments were analyzed in terms of growth characteristics, phyto compounds such as total protein, chlorophyll, and other organic compounds (gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy), and silica accumulation (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy). Growth characteristics were much influenced with increasing concentration of SNPs up to 15 kg ha-1 whereas at 20 kg ha-1, no significant increments were noticed. Silica accumulation in leaves was high at 10 and 15 kg ha-1 (0.57 and 0.82 %) concentrations of SNPs. The observed physiological changes show that the expression of organic compounds such as proteins, chlorophyll, and phenols favored to maize treated with nanosilica especially at 15 kg ha-1 compared with bulk silica and control. Nanoscale silica regimes at 15 kg ha-1 has a positive response of maize than bulk silica which help to improve the sustainable farming of maize crop as an alternative source of silica fertilizer.

  17. Development of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers for Use in Commercial Maize (Zea Mays L.) Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in maize offer the opportunity to utilize DNA markers in many new areas of population genetics, gene discovery, plant breeding, and germplasm identification. However, the steps from sequencing and SNP discovery to SNP marker design and ...

  18. Perceptual distinctiveness in Native American maize (Zea mays L.) landraces has practical implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The large variation in the multifactorial and seemingly non-adaptive kernel color trait displayed by Native American maize landraces is an evidence of recurring selection for perceptual distinctiveness. Native American farmers selected for color traits that allowed them to distinguish between and ma...

  19. Maize (Zea mays L) cultivars nutrients concentration in leaves and stalks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is pressure for crop residue removal for use as biofuel, animal feed, animal bedding and many other functions which may increase nutrient export. However, there is little information about nutritional composition of maize stover considering the wide variability of cultivars used. The aim of th...

  20. Role of polyamines and phospholipase D in maize (Zea mays L.) response to drought stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to elucidate the role of polyamines and phospholipase D (PLD) in regulating response of maize plants to drought stress (DS). During the early stage of DS, an increase in PLD activity, independent of polyamines contents, was mainly responsible for stomatal closure...

  1. Isolation, structural analysis, and expression characteristics of the maize (Zea mays L.) hexokinase gene family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongbao; Zhang, Jiewei; Chen, Yajuan; Li, Ruifen; Wang, Hongzhi; Ding, Liping; Wei, Jianhua

    2014-09-01

    Hexokinases (HXKs, EC 2.7.1.1) play important roles in metabolism, glucose (Glc) signaling, and phosphorylation of Glc and fructose and are ubiquitous in all organisms. Despite their physiological importance, the maize HXK (ZmHXK) genes have not been analyzed systematically. We isolated and characterized nine members of the ZmHXK gene family which were distributed on 3 of the 10 maize chromosomes. A multiple sequence alignment and motif analysis revealed that the maize ZmHXK proteins share three conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ZmHXK family can be divided into four subfamilies. We identified putative cis-elements in the ZmHXK promoter sequences potentially involved in phytohormone and abiotic stress responses, sugar repression, light and circadian rhythm regulation, Ca(2+) responses, seed development and germination, and CO2-responsive transcriptional activation. To study the functions of maize HXK isoforms, we characterized the expression of the ZmHXK5 and ZmHXK6 genes, which are evolutionarily related to the OsHXK5 and OsHXK6 genes from rice. Analysis of tissue-specific expression patterns using quantitative real time-PCR showed that ZmHXK5 was highly expressed in tassels, while ZmHXK6 was expressed in both tassels and leaves. ZmHXK5 and ZmHXK6 expression levels were upregulated by phytohormones and by abiotic stress.

  2. Production of Feruloyated Arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides from Maize (Zea mays) Bran by Microwave-Assisted Autohydrolysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize bran was treated with microwave irradiation (160 – 200 °C for 2 – 20 min) to release feruolyated arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS). Lower temperatures and shorter treatment times were consistent with low AXOS yields, while higher temperatures and longer reaction times also resulted in low y...

  3. Effect on soil chemistry of genetically modified (GM) vs. non-GM maize.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Kang, Lingsheng; Gao, Hongjun; Clarke, Nicholas J; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2010-01-01

    The effects of genetically modified (GM) maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Cry1Fa2 protein (Bt) and phosphinothricin or glyphosate herbicide tolerance on soil chemistry (organic matter, N, P, K and pH), compared with non-GM controls, were assessed in field and pot experiments. In the field experiment, NH(4)(+) was significantly higher in soil under the crop modified for herbicide tolerance compared to the control (mean values of 11 and 9.6 mg N/kg respectively) while P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 6.9 and 6.4 dg P/kg, respectively). No significant differences were found as a result of growing Bt/herbicide tolerant maize. In the pot experiment, using soils from three sites (Gongzhuling, Dehui and Huadian), significant effects of using Bt maize instead of conventional maize were found for all three soils. In the Gongzhuling soil, P was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values of 4.8 and 4.0 dg P/kg, respectively). For the Dehui soil, the pH was significantly higher in soil under the control compared to under the GM crop (mean values for {H(+)} of 1.1 and 2.4 μM for the control and the GM crop respectively). In the Huadian soil, organic matter and total N were both higher in soil under the GM crop than under the control. For organic matter, the mean values were 3.0 and 2.9% for the GM crop and the control, respectively, while for total nitrogen the mean values were 2.02 and 1.96% for the GM crop and the control respectively. Our results indicate that growing GM crops instead of conventional crops may alter soil chemistry, but not greatly, and that effects will vary with both the specific genetic modification and the soil. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  4. Construction and evaluation of a maize (Zea mays) chimaeric promoter with activity in kernel endosperm and embryo.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Colin T; Scott, M Paul

    2009-03-01

    Chimaeric promoters contain DNA sequences from different promoters. Chimaeric promoters are developed to increase the level of recombinant protein expression, to precisely control transgene activity or to combat homology-based gene silencing. Sets of chimaeric promoters, each containing different lengths of DNA from maize (Zea mays) 27zn (27 kDa gamma-zein) endosperm-specific promoter and the Glb1 (Globulin-1) embryo-specific promoter were created and tested in a transient expression assay of GFP (green fluorescent protein). Promoter fragments with the highest activity were combined to create the chimaeric promoter A27znGlb1. In the context of the chimaeric promoter, the selected Glb1 promoter fragment was necessary and sufficient to activate expression in embryo tissue and was functionally equivalent to the native Glb1 promoter. Similarly, the selected 27zn promoter fragment in the chimaeric promoter was necessary and sufficient to activate expression in endosperm tissue and was functionally equivalent to the native 27zn promoter. Maize transgenic plants containing the A27znGlb1 chimaeric promoter fused to GFP were produced to characterize this promoter in vivo. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to determine that the promoter was active in the embryo, endosperm, pericarp and immature leaf tissues. GFP activity in plants containing the chimaeric promoter was not significantly different in endosperm than the activity of GFP fused to the full-length 27zn promoter, nor was it different in embryo from the activity of GFP fused to the full-length Glb1 promoter. Transgene copy numbers were shown to be between 4 and 12 copies in different events.

  5. Pre-treatment of seeds with static magnetic field ameliorates soil water stress in seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Anand, Anjali; Nagarajan, Shantha; Verma, A P S; Joshi, D K; Pathak, P C; Bhardwaj, Jyotsna

    2012-02-01

    The effect of magnetic field (MF) treatments of maize (Zea mays L.) var. Ganga Safed 2 seeds on the growth, leaf water status, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme system under soil water stress was investigated under greenhouse conditions. The seeds were exposed to static MFs of 100 and 200 mT for 2 and 1 h, respectively. The treated seeds were sown in sand beds for seven days and transplanted in pots that were maintained at -0.03, -0.2 and -0.4 MPa soil water potentials under greenhouse conditions. MF exposure of seeds significantly enhanced all growth parameters, compared to the control seedlings. The significant increase in root parameters in seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds resulted in maintenance of better leaf water status in terms of increase in leaf water potential, turgor potential and relative water content. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content increased in plants from treated seeds, compared to control under irrigated and mild stress condition. Leaves from plants of magnetically-treated seeds showed decreased levels of hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant defense system enzymes (peroxidases, catalase and superoxide dismutase) under moisture stress conditions, when compared with untreated controls. Mild stress of -0.2 MPa induced a stimulating effect on functional root parameters, especially in 200 mT treated seedlings which can be exploited profitably for rain fed conditions. Our results suggested that MF treatment (100 mT for 2 h and 200 for 1 h) of maize seeds enhanced the seedling growth, leaf water status, photosynthesis rate and lowered the antioxidant defense system of seedlings under soil water stress. Thus, pre sowing static magnetic field treatment of seeds can be effectively used for improving growth under water stress.

  6. Nitrogen transporter and assimilation genes exhibit developmental stage-selective expression in maize (Zea mays L.) associated with distinct cis-acting promoter motifs.

    PubMed

    Liseron-Monfils, Christophe; Bi, Yong-Mei; Downs, Gregory S; Wu, Wenqing; Signorelli, Tara; Lu, Guangwen; Chen, Xi; Bondo, Eddie; Zhu, Tong; Lukens, Lewis N; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for maize (Zea mays L.), but there is limited understanding of the regulation of nitrogen-related genes during maize development. An Affymetrix 82K maize array was used to analyze the expression of ≤ 46 unique nitrogen uptake and assimilation probes in 50 maize tissues from seedling emergence to 31 d after pollination. Four nitrogen-related expression clusters were identified in roots and shoots corresponding to, or overlapping, juvenile, adult, and reproductive phases of development. Quantitative real time PCR data was consistent with the existence of these distinct expression clusters. Promoters corresponding to each cluster were screened for over-represented cis-acting elements. The 8-bp distal motif of the Arabidopsis 43-bp nitrogen response element (NRE) was over-represented in nitrogen-related maize gene promoters. This conserved motif, referred to here as NRE43-d8, was previously shown to be critical for nitrate-activated transcription of nitrate reductase (NIA1) and nitrite reductase (NIR1) by the NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6 (NLP6) in Arabidopsis. Here, NRE43-d8 was over-represented in the promoters of maize nitrate and ammonium transporter genes, specifically those that showed peak expression during early-stage vegetative development. This result predicts an expansion of the NRE-NLP6 regulon and suggests that it may have a developmental component in maize. We also report leaf expression of putative orthologs of nitrite transporters (NiTR1), a transporter not previously reported in maize. We conclude by discussing how each of the four transcriptional modules may be responsible for the different nitrogen uptake and assimilation requirements of leaves and roots at different stages of maize development.

  7. Genome-wide identification, expression analysis of auxin-responsive GH3 family genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shangguo; Yue, Runqing; Tao, Sun; Yang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Mingfeng; Wang, Huizhong; Shen, Chenjia

    2015-09-01

    Auxin is involved in different aspects of plant growth and development by regulating the expression of auxin-responsive family genes. As one of the three major auxin-responsive families, GH3 (Gretchen Hagen3) genes participate in auxin homeostasis by catalyzing auxin conjugation and bounding free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids. However, how GH3 genes function in responses to abiotic stresses and various hormones in maize is largely unknown. Here, the latest updated maize (Zea mays L.) reference genome sequence was used to characterize and analyze the ZmGH3 family genes from maize. The results showed that 13 ZmGH3 genes were mapped on five maize chromosomes (total 10 chromosomes). Highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested the possibility of function diversification for these genes in response to environmental stresses and hormone stimuli. The expression patterns of ZmGH3 genes are responsive to several abiotic stresses (salt, drought and cadmium) and major stress-related hormones (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid). Various environmental factors suppress auxin free IAA contents in maize roots suggesting that these abiotic stresses and hormones might alter GH3-mediated auxin levels. The responsiveness of ZmGH3 genes to a wide range of abiotic stresses and stress-related hormones suggested that ZmGH3s are involved in maize tolerance to environmental stresses. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Effect of feeding cows genetically modified maize on the bacterial community in the bovine rumen.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, S; Gürtler, P; Albrecht, C

    2007-12-01

    Rumen-cannulated cows (n = 4) were fed successively silage made from either conventional or genetically modified (GM) maize. Results revealed no effects of GM maize on the dynamics of six ruminal bacterial strains (investigated by real-time PCR) compared to the conventional maize silage.

  9. A two-dimensional microscale model of gas exchange during photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Retta, Moges; Ho, Quang Tri; Yin, Xinyou; Verboven, Pieter; Berghuijs, Herman N C; Struik, Paul C; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2016-05-01

    CO2 exchange in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined using a microscale model of combined gas diffusion and C4 photosynthesis kinetics at the leaf tissue level. Based on a generalized scheme of photosynthesis in NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plants, the model accounted for CO2 diffusion in a leaf tissue, CO2 hydration and assimilation in mesophyll cells, CO2 release from decarboxylation of C4 acids, CO2 fixation in bundle sheath cells and CO2 retro-diffusion from bundle sheath cells. The transport equations were solved over a realistic 2-D geometry of the Kranz anatomy obtained from light microscopy images. The predicted responses of photosynthesis rate to changes in ambient CO2 and irradiance compared well with those obtained from gas exchange measurements. A sensitivity analysis showed that the CO2 permeability of the mesophyll-bundle sheath and airspace-mesophyll interfaces strongly affected the rate of photosynthesis and bundle sheath conductance. Carbonic anhydrase influenced the rate of photosynthesis, especially at low intercellular CO2 levels. In addition, the suberin layer at the exposed surface of the bundle sheath cells was found beneficial in reducing the retro-diffusion. The model may serve as a tool to investigate CO2 diffusion further in relation to the Kranz anatomy in C4 plants.

  10. Enhancing the urea-N use efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on acid soils amended with zeolite and TSP.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osumanu H; Hussin, Aminuddin; Ahmad, Husni M H; Rahim, Anuar A; Majid, Nik Muhamad Abd

    2008-04-20

    Ammonia loss significantly reduces the urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce this problem are mostly laboratory oriented. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP) and zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on soil pH, nitrate, exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production, and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions. Urea-amended TSP and zeolite treatments and urea only (urea without additives) did not have long-term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf) production of Swan (test crop). All the treatments had no significant effect on urea-N concentration in the leaf and stem of the test crop. In terms of urea-N uptake in the leaf and stem tissues of Swan, only the treatment with the highest amount of TSP and zeolite significantly increased urea-N uptake in the leaf of the test crop. Irrespective of treatment, fresh cob production was statistically not different. However, all the treatments with additives improved urea-N uptake efficiency compared to urea without additives or amendment. This suggests that urea amended with TSP and zeolite has a potential of reducing ammonia loss from surface-applied urea.

  11. Effects of IDSA, EDDS and EDTA on heavy metals accumulation in hydroponically grown maize (Zea mays, L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Xi, Meizhu; Jiang, Guangyu; Liu, Xiaona; Bai, Zhongke; Huang, Yizong

    2010-09-15

    Heavy metals contamination of soil is a widespread global problem. Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to improve the efficiency of phytoextraction which involves three subsequent levels: transfer of metals from the bulk soil to the root surfaces, uptake into the roots and translocation to the shoots. However, most studies focused on the first level. A hydroponic experiment, which addresses the latter two levels, was conducted to study the effects of EDTA, EDDS and IDSA on the uptake and the distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in the apoplast and the symplast of roots of maize (Zea mays, L.). The concentrations of the metals (with exception of Zn) in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all the chelants. EDTA was most effective for Pb uptake and IDSA was interestingly most effective for Cd uptake. Pb in the roots with EDTA was mostly distributed in the apoplast, while Zn, especially with IDSA, was mostly located in the symplast. The results indicated that, the capacity of chelant to enhance the nonselective apoplastic transport of metal may be most important for chelant enhanced phytoextraction.

  12. Purification and Identification of a Plasma Membrane Associated Electron Transport Protein from Maize (Zea mays L.) Roots

    PubMed Central

    Luster, Douglas G.; Buckhout, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membranes isolated from three-day-old maize (Zea mays L.) roots by aqueous two-phase partitioning were used as starting material for the purification of a novel electron transport enzyme. The detergent-solubilized enzyme was purified by dyeligand affinity chromatography on Cibacron blue 3G-A-agarose. Elution was achieved with a gradient of 0 to 30 micromolar NADH. The purified protein fraction exhibited a single 27 kilodalton silver nitrate-stained band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretograms. Staining intensity correlated with the enzyme activity profile when analyzed in affinity chromatography column fractions. The enzyme was capable of accepting electrons from NADPH or NADH to reduce either ferricyanide, juglone, duroquinone, or cytochrome c, but did not transfer electrons to ascorbate free-radical or nitrate. The high degree of purity of plasma membranes used as starting material as well as the demonstrated insensitivity to mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors confirmed the plasma membrane origin of this enzyme. The purified reductase was stimulated upon prolonged incubation with flavin mononucleotide suggesting that the enzyme may be a flavoprotein. Established effectors of plasma membrane electron transport systems had little effect on the purified enzyme, with the exception of the sulfhydryl inhibitor p-chloromercuriphenyl-sulfonate, which was a strong inhibitor of ferricyanide reducing activity. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667103

  13. Occultifur kilbournensis f.a. sp. nov., a new member of the Cystobasidiales associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2015-05-01

    During a study of microorganisms associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation, yeasts were isolated from overwintered stalks, cobs and surrounding soil, which were collected from an agricultural field in south-central Illinois, USA. Predominant among isolates were two species of Cryptococcus (Cr. flavescens, Cr. magnus) and a red yeast that D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene sequences revealed to be a new species of the basidiomycete yeast genus Occultifur. The species, which was not detected in the same field during the growing season, is described here as Occultifur kilbournensis (MycoBank number MB 811259; type strain NRRL Y-63695, CBS 13982, GenBank numbers, D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene, KP413160, ITS, KP413162; allotype strain NRRL Y-63699, CBS 13983). Mixture of the type and allotype strains resulted in formation of hyphae with clamp connections and a small number of apparent basidia following incubation on 5% malt extract agar at 15 °C for 2 months. In view of the uncertainty of the life cycle, the new species is being designated as forma asexualis. From analysis of D1/D2 and ITS nucleotide sequences, the new species is most closely related to Occultifur externus.

  14. Influence of temperature stress on in vitro fertilization and heat shock protein synthesis in maize (Zea mays L. ) reproductive tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, I.; Dumas, C. )

    1990-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the response of maize (Zea mays) male and female mature reproductive tissues to temperature stress. We have tested the fertilization abilities of the stressed spikelets and pollen using in vitro pollination-fertilization to determine their respective tolerance to stress. The synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) was also analyzed in male and female tissues using electrophoresis of {sup 35}S-labeled proteins and fluorography, to establish a relationship between the physiological and molecular responses. Pollen, spikelets, and pollinated spikelets were exposed to selected temperatures (4, 28, 32, 36, or 40{degree}C) and tested using an in vitro fertilization system. The fertilization rate is highly reduced when pollinated spikelets are exposed to temperatures over 36{degree}C. When pollen and spikelets are exposed separately to temperature stress, the female tissues appear resistant to 4 hours of cold stress (4{degree}C) or heat stress (40{degree}C). Under heat shock conditions, the synthesis of a typical set of HSPs is induced in the female tissues. In contrast, the mature pollen is sensitive to heat stress and is responsible for the failure of fertilization at high temperatures. At the molecular level, no heat shock response is detected in the mature pollen.

  15. Effects of treated municipal wastewater on fluctuation trend of leaf area index and quality of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Sayed Roholla; Galavi, Mohammad; Eskandari, Hamdollah

    2013-01-01

    The effect of primary-treated municipal wastewater (TMWW) on the leaf area index (LAI) and quality of maize (Zea mays) was studied in comparison to the clean irrigation water (control). The experiment was based on a randomized block design with four replicates, and it was conducted in a field experiment in Aligoudarz (Iran). Irrigation was applied with five different methods as treatments: T1: irrigation with clean water during whole growing period (control); T2: 75% clean water and 25% TMWW; T3: 50% clean water and 50% TMWW; T4: 25% clean water and 75% TMWW; T5: irrigation with TMWW during whole growing period. Results showed that irrigation with TMWW had a significant positive impact on all characters compared with the control. Maximum LAI was yielded on the 80th day after emergence in T4. Use of TMWW increased seed oil to 5.85%, which was 29.2% more than that in the control. Maximum values for percentage of protein, total dry matter and phosphorus concentration were obtained in T5. Maximum zinc concentration (15.93 mg kg(-1)) was obtained in T4; it was 8% more than the control. According to the results there was no significant difference in treatment T4 and T5.

  16. Arsenic uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal maize (Zea mays L.) grown in an arsenic-contaminated soil with added phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun-sheng; Chen, Bao-dong; Christie, Peter; Smith, F Andrew; Wang, You-shan; Li, Xiao-lin

    2007-01-01

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) and phosphorus (P) addition (100 mg/kg soil) on arsenic (As) uptake by maize plants (Zea mays L.) from an As-contaminated soil were examined in a glasshouse experiment. Non-mycorrhizal and zero-P addition controls were included. Plant biomass and concentrations and uptake of As, P, and other nutrients, AM colonization, root lengths, and hyphal length densities were determined. The results indicated that addition of P significantly inhibited root colonization and development of extraradical mycelium. Root length and dry weight both increased markedly with mycorrhizal colonization under the zero-P treatments, but shoot and root biomass of AM plants was depressed by P application. AM fungal inoculation decreased shoot As concentrations when no P was added, and shoot and root As concentrations of AM plants increased 2.6 and 1.4 times with P addition, respectively. Shoot and root uptake of P, Mn, Cu, and Zn increased, but shoot Fe uptake decreased by 44.6%, with inoculation, when P was added. P addition reduced shoot P, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn uptake of AM plants, but increased root Fe and Mn uptake of the nonmycorrhizal ones. AM colonization therefore appeared to enhance plant tolerance to As in low P soil, and have some potential for the phytostabilization of As-contaminated soil, however, P application may introduce additional environmental risk by increasing soil As mobility.

  17. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2016-06-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  18. Recovery of maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and hybrids from chilling stress of various duration: photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Holá, Dana; Kocová, Marie; Rothová, Olga; Wilhelmová, Nad'a; Benesová, Monika

    2007-07-01

    The differences between two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their F1 hybrids in their response to chilling periods of various duration (1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks) and subsequent return to optimum temperatures were analysed by the measurement of the photosystem (PS) 1 and 2 activity, the photosynthetic pigments' content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The PS2 activity and the chlorophyll content decreased in plants subjected to 3 or 4 weeks of chilling, but not in those subjected to 1 or 2 weeks of chilling. This decrease was more pronounced in inbreds compared to their hybrids. The activity of superoxide dismutase did not much change with the increasing length of chilling period in the inbreds but decreased in the hybrids, the glutathione reductase activity increased in both types of genotypes but more in the inbred lines, while for ascorbate peroxidase and catalase the changes in parents-hybrids relationship did not show any specific trend. The PS1 activity and the carotenoids' content was not much affected.

  19. A size-mediated effect can compensate for transient chilling stress affecting maize (Zea mays) leaf extension.

    PubMed

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Andrieu, Bruno; Giauffret, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    *In this study, we examined the impact of transient chilling in maize (Zea mays). We investigated the respective roles of the direct effects of stressing temperatures and indirect whorl size-mediated effects on the growth of leaves chilled at various stages of development. *Cell production, individual leaf extension and final leaf size of plants grown in a glasshouse under three temperature regimes (a control and two short chilling transfers) were studied using two genotypes contrasting in terms of their architecture. *The kinetics of all the leaves emerging after the stress were affected, but not all final leaf lengths were affected. No size-mediated propagation of an initial growth reduction was observed, but a size-mediated effect was associated with a longer duration of leaf elongation which compensated for reduced leaf elongation rates when leaves were stressed during their early growth. Both cell division and cell expansion contributed to explaining cold-induced responses at the leaf level. *These results demonstrate that leaf elongation kinetics and final leaf length are under the control of processes at the n - 1 (cell proliferation and expansion) and n + 1 (whorl size signal) scales. Both levels may respond to chilling stress with different time lags, making it possible to buffer short-term responses.

  20. Genetic diversity of improved salt tolerant calli of maize (Zea mays L.) using RAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputro, Triono Bagus; Dianawati, Siti; Sholihah, Nur Fadlillatus; Ermavitalini, Dini

    2017-06-01

    Maize is one of important cultivated plants in the world, in terms of production rates, utilization rates and demands. Unfortunately, the increment of demands were not followed by the increase of production rates since the cultivation area were significantly decrease. Coastal area is the marginal land that have a good potential to extend the cultivation area. The main challenge of this area is the high content of salt. The aims of this research were try to induce a new varian of local maize through in vitro culture and observe its genetic variation using RAPD. Bluto variety from Madura island was used as an explant in callus induction. Induction of callus were conducted using MS basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of 2,4 D under dark condition. While the selection stage was conducted using MS basal medium supplemented with 3 mg/L of 2,4 D with the addition of various concentration of NaCl (0 mg/L; 2500 mg/L; 5000 mg/L; and 7500 mg/L). The research were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. The exposion of NaCl were significantly decrease the mass of maize callus. The highest addition of callus weight was 210 mgs in control treatment, while the lowest is in 7500 mg/L with 3 mgs. The RAPD technique was utilized to characterize the genotype of maize callus. Out of five primers, only three primers can produce polymorphic bands named OPA10, OPB07 and OPC02. Taken together, the surviving callus of Bluto varians can be further developed as potential somaclone that has high tolerance to salt stress.

  1. Identification of QTLs for Arsenic Accumulation in Maize (Zea mays L.) Using a RIL Population

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Song, Guiliang; Qi, Hongyuan; Liu, Jingbao; Tang, Jihua

    2011-01-01

    The Arsenic (As) concentration in different tissues of maize was analyzed using a set of RIL populations derived from an elite hybrid, Nongda108. The results showed that the trend of As concentration in the four measured tissues was leaves>stems>bracts>kernels. Eleven QTLs for As concentration were detected in the four tissues. Three QTLs for As concentration in leaves were mapped on chromosomes 1, 5, and 8, respectively. For As concentration in the bracts, two QTLs were identified, with 9.61% and 10.03% phenotypic variance. For As concentration in the stems, three QTLs were detected with 8.24%, 14.86%, and 15.23% phenotypic variance. Three QTLs were identified for kernels on chromosomes 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with 10.73%, 8.52%, and 9.10% phenotypic variance. Only one common chromosomal region between SSR marker bnlg1811 and umc1243 was detected for QTLs qLAV1 and qSAC1. The results implied that the As accumulation in different tissues in maize was controlled by different molecular mechanism. The study demonstrated that maize could be a useful plant for phytoremediation of As-contaminated paddy soil, and the QTLs will be useful for selecting inbred lines and hybrids with low As concentration in their kernels. PMID:22028786

  2. Identification of QTLs for arsenic accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) using a RIL population.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dong; Li, Weihua; Song, Guiliang; Qi, Hongyuan; Liu, Jingbao; Tang, Jihua

    2011-01-01

    The Arsenic (As) concentration in different tissues of maize was analyzed using a set of RIL populations derived from an elite hybrid, Nongda108. The results showed that the trend of As concentration in the four measured tissues was leaves>stems>bracts>kernels. Eleven QTLs for As concentration were detected in the four tissues. Three QTLs for As concentration in leaves were mapped on chromosomes 1, 5, and 8, respectively. For As concentration in the bracts, two QTLs were identified, with 9.61% and 10.03% phenotypic variance. For As concentration in the stems, three QTLs were detected with 8.24%, 14.86%, and 15.23% phenotypic variance. Three QTLs were identified for kernels on chromosomes 3, 5, and 7, respectively, with 10.73%, 8.52%, and 9.10% phenotypic variance. Only one common chromosomal region between SSR marker bnlg1811 and umc1243 was detected for QTLs qLAV1 and qSAC1. The results implied that the As accumulation in different tissues in maize was controlled by different molecular mechanism. The study demonstrated that maize could be a useful plant for phytoremediation of As-contaminated paddy soil, and the QTLs will be useful for selecting inbred lines and hybrids with low As concentration in their kernels.

  3. Tissue culture characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) haploid coleoptile sections.

    PubMed

    Jiang, L; Jing, G X; Li, X Y; Wang, X Q; Xing, Z; Deng, P K; Zhao, R G

    2015-12-08

    Doubled haploid (DH) technology, which is used for rapidly purifying genetic resources, is a key technology in modern maize breeding. The present study evaluated the tissue culture characteristics of maize haploid coleoptile sections, in order to provide a new way of haploid doubling. With 20 combinations of haploid coleoptile sections, obtained by hybridization within Reid, Tangsipingtou, and Term-tropical groups, as explants, we analyzed the induction and differentiation rate of callus, observed the number of root tip chromosomes in regenerated plants, and analyzed the pollen fertility. In addition, we used 47 SSR markers to analyze the genotypes of regenerated plants. The Reid and Tangsipingtou groups had significantly higher induction rates of haploid coleoptile callus compared to the Term-tropical group. Fifteen haploid plants were obtained which had 10 chromosomes in the root tips as assessed by I-KI staining. It was also noticed that the pollen of pollinated anthers were partially fertile. The haploid plants had genetic stability and showed no variation. The Reid and Tangsipingtou groups had good culture characteristics of haploid coleoptile sections, while the Term-tropical group had poor culture characteristics. Genotypes of haploid plants generated by tissue culture were evidenced to come from recombinant types of parents. Thus, this study established a tissue culture system of maize haploid coleoptile.

  4. Leaf physico-chemical and physiological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) populations from different origins.

    PubMed

    Revilla, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Álvarez-Iglesias, Lorena; Medina, Eva T; Cavero, José

    2016-10-01

    In this study we evaluated the leaf surface properties of maize populations native to different water availability environments. Leaf surface topography, wettability and gas exchange performance of five maize populations from the Sahara desert, dry (south) and humid (north-western) areas of Spain were analysed. Differences in wettability, stomatal and trichome densities, surface free energy and solubility parameter values were recorded between populations and leaf sides. Leaves from the humid Spanish population with special regard to the abaxial side, were less wettable and less susceptible to polar interactions. The higher wettability and hydrophilicity of Sahara populations with emphasis on the abaxial leaf surfaces, may favour dew deposition and foliar water absorption, hence improving water use efficiency under extremely dry conditions. Compared to the other Saharan populations, the dwarf one had a higher photosynthesis rate suggesting that dwarfism may be a strategy for improving plant tolerance to arid conditions. The results obtained for different maize populations suggest that leaf surfaces may vary in response to drought, but further studies will be required to examine the potential relationship between leaf surface properties and plant stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Maize (Zea mays) seeds can detect above-ground weeds; thiamethoxam alters the view.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Maha; Lee, Elizabeth; Lukens, Lewis; Swanton, Clarence

    2015-09-01

    Far red light is known to penetrate soil and delay seed germination. Thiamethoxam as a seed treatment has been observed to enhance seed germination. No previous work has explored the effect of thiamethoxam on the physiological response of buried maize seed when germinating in the presence of above-ground weeds. We hypothesised that the changes in red:far red reflected from above-ground weeds would be detected by maize seed phytochrome and delay seed germination by decreasing the level of GA and increasing ABA. We further hypothesised that thiamethoxam would overcome this delay in germination. Thiamethoxam enhanced seed germination in the presence of above-ground weeds by increasing GA signalling and downregulating DELLA protein and ABA signalling genes. An increase in amylase activity and a degradation of starch were also observed. Far red reflected from the above-ground weeds was capable of penetrating below the soil surface and was detected by maize seed phytochrome. Thiamethoxam altered the effect of far red on seed germination by stimulating GA and inhibiting ABA synthesis. This is the first study to suggest that the mode of action of thiamethoxam involves both GA synthesis and ABA inhibition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of electric arc furnace slag on growth and physiology of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Sandev, Dubravka; Jelić, Sonja; Sedlar, Zorana; Glavaš, Katarina; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka

    2013-12-01

    Basic slag, used in this study as a potential source of certain nutrients, is a byproduct of the production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF). A pot experiment with two nutrient-poor substrates was conducted to investigate to compare the effect of EAF steel slag and fertilizers NPK + F e on growth and availability of specific nutrients to maize. Mineral content of both substrate and plant leaves, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments were measured following six weeks of cultivation. As steel slag also contains trace amounts of heavy metals, certain oxidative parameters (antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation) were evaluated as well. The steel slag improved soil mineral composition, increased above ground maize biomass by providing Fe, Mn, Mg, K and partly P and improved photosynthetic parameters. The potential phytotoxicity of EAF slag containing substrates was not determined as evaluated by MDA (malondialdehyde), GR (glutathione reductase) and APX (ascorbate peroxidase) levels. The obtained results show that EAF steel slag is comparable to NPK + F e in supplying nutrients for maize growth, indicating the potential of EAF steel slag as an inexpensive and non-phytotoxic nutrient supplier especially in poor soils.

  7. High molecular size humic substances enhance phenylpropanoid metabolism in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Michela; Pizzeghello, Diego; Muscolo, Adele; Vaccaro, Silvia; Francioso, Ornella; Nardi, Serenella

    2010-06-01

    A high molecular weight humic fraction (>3,500 Da) was characterized chemically by DRIFT and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and was applied to Zea mays L. plants to evaluate its effect on phenylpropanoid metabolism. The activity and gene expression of phenylalanine (tyrosine) ammonia-lyase (PAL/TAL), and the concentrations of phenolics and their amino acid precursors phenylalanine and tyrosine were assayed. Maximum induction of PAL/TAL activity and expression was obtained when the concentration of added humic substance was 1 mg C/l hydroponic solution. Phenylalanine and tyrosine significantly decreased (-16% and -22%, respectively), and phenolic compounds increased in treated plants. The effects of the humic substance could be ascribed partly to indoleacetic acid (27 nmol/mg C) in the humic fraction. Our results suggest that this humic fraction induces changes in phenylpropanoid metabolism. This is the first study that shows a relationship between humic substances and the phenylpropanoid pathway.

  8. [Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].

    PubMed

    Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize.

  9. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with degree of substitution of 0.018 (OS-S-L) and 0.092 (OS-S-H) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in an aqueous slurry system. The substitution distribution of OS groups was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatogr...

  10. Maize (Zea mays L.) genome diversity as revealed by RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hansey, Candice N; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Sekhon, Rajandeep S; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Buell, C Robin

    2012-01-01

    Maize is rich in genetic and phenotypic diversity. Understanding the sequence, structural, and expression variation that contributes to phenotypic diversity would facilitate more efficient varietal improvement. RNA based sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful approach for transcriptional analysis, assessing sequence variation, and identifying novel transcript sequences, particularly in large, complex, repetitive genomes such as maize. In this study, we sequenced RNA from whole seedlings of 21 maize inbred lines representing diverse North American and exotic germplasm. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection identified 351,710 polymorphic loci distributed throughout the genome covering 22,830 annotated genes. Tight clustering of two distinct heterotic groups and exotic lines was evident using these SNPs as genetic markers. Transcript abundance analysis revealed minimal variation in the total number of genes expressed across these 21 lines (57.1% to 66.0%). However, the transcribed gene set among the 21 lines varied, with 48.7% expressed in all of the lines, 27.9% expressed in one to 20 lines, and 23.4% expressed in none of the lines. De novo assembly of RNA-seq reads that did not map to the reference B73 genome sequence revealed 1,321 high confidence novel transcripts, of which, 564 loci were present in all 21 lines, including B73, and 757 loci were restricted to a subset of the lines. RT-PCR validation demonstrated 87.5% concordance with the computational prediction of these expressed novel transcripts. Intriguingly, 145 of the novel de novo assembled loci were present in lines from only one of the two heterotic groups consistent with the hypothesis that, in addition to sequence polymorphisms and transcript abundance, transcript presence/absence variation is present and, thereby, may be a mechanism contributing to the genetic basis of heterosis.

  11. Occurrence of aflatoxin in three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids over 5 years in Northern Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Leigh K; Windham, Gary L; Williams, W Paul

    2008-03-01

    Aflatoxins are produced as secondary metabolites under conducive climatic conditions by Aspergillus flavus. The incidence of aflatoxin varies with environmental conditions, genotype, and location. An expanded understanding of the interaction of the plant, fungus, and weather conditions is needed to further elucidate the field infection process of maize by A. flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. One of the problems in evaluating maize hybrids for resistance to kernel infection and aflatoxin contamination is identifying a time period and environmental conditions that are most advantageous. Three maize genotypes (Pioneer Brand 3223, Mo18W x Mp313E, and Mp313E x Mp420) were evaluated from 1998 to 2002 in response to A. flavus inoculation and aflatoxin contamination and weather conditions favorable for aflatoxin contamination were identified. The highest aflatoxin levels were observed in 1998 and 2000 (1186 and 901 ng g(-1); P < 0.0001); while the lowest levels were detected in 1999 (39 ng g(-1)). Pioneer 3223 had significantly higher levels (1198 ng g(-1)) than Mp313E x Mp420 (205 ng g(-1)), and Mo18W xMp313E (161 ng g(-1); P < 0.0001). The hybrids had six weather-related variables in common that were positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation. Four of these occurred during 65-85 days after planting and were temperature-related. These results suggest that regardless of the hybrid's maturity or physiological development, the time from 65 to 85 days after planting may be indicative of a period of stress which leads to greater aflatoxin accumulation at harvest.

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing for the monitoring of plant parameters of Maize (Zea Mays)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppelt, Natascha; Mauser, Wolfram

    2003-03-01

    Biochemical components of vegetation canopies, such as chlorophyll and nitrogen, are among the parameters controlling physiological processes and therefore essential for the characterization of these processes and their integration in hydrological or vegetation modeling. AVIS (Airborne Visible/near Infrared imaging Spectrometer), built at the department for environmental sciences of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, is a cost-effective tool for environmental monitoring. Its spectral range lies between 550 and 1000nm and its multitemporal application enables observation of the development of chlorophyll and nitrogen content of plants throughout a vegetation period. Twelve and nine airborne data sets were gathered between April and September 1999 and 2000 respectively from three maize fields in a test site south-west of Munich in the Bavarian Alpine foothills, Germany (48° 6", 11° 17" E). Weekly ground-based measurements of plant parameters (plant height, phenology, biomass, nitrogen content, chlorophyll content) during the vegetation periods provided data validation. The chlorophyll and nitrogen content of the maize canopies were derived using the Chlorophyll Absorption Integral (CAI), which exhibited a high correlation with the chlorophyll content per area and the nitrogen content, both per area (g/m2) and in percentage of dry matter (nitrogen=%DM; chlorophyll=mg/g), during vegetative growth before emergence of the ear. The chlorophyll content per mass cannot be derived with the CAI, due to distinct variations of the chlorophyll per mass during plant growth caused by the low chilling tolerance of maize. The mean field values and the spatial distribution of parameter values within one of the fields will be presented, demonstrating the capabilities of AVIS.

  13. Maize (Zea mays L.) Genome Diversity as Revealed by RNA-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hansey, Candice N.; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Buell, C. Robin

    2012-01-01

    Maize is rich in genetic and phenotypic diversity. Understanding the sequence, structural, and expression variation that contributes to phenotypic diversity would facilitate more efficient varietal improvement. RNA based sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful approach for transcriptional analysis, assessing sequence variation, and identifying novel transcript sequences, particularly in large, complex, repetitive genomes such as maize. In this study, we sequenced RNA from whole seedlings of 21 maize inbred lines representing diverse North American and exotic germplasm. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection identified 351,710 polymorphic loci distributed throughout the genome covering 22,830 annotated genes. Tight clustering of two distinct heterotic groups and exotic lines was evident using these SNPs as genetic markers. Transcript abundance analysis revealed minimal variation in the total number of genes expressed across these 21 lines (57.1% to 66.0%). However, the transcribed gene set among the 21 lines varied, with 48.7% expressed in all of the lines, 27.9% expressed in one to 20 lines, and 23.4% expressed in none of the lines. De novo assembly of RNA-seq reads that did not map to the reference B73 genome sequence revealed 1,321 high confidence novel transcripts, of which, 564 loci were present in all 21 lines, including B73, and 757 loci were restricted to a subset of the lines. RT-PCR validation demonstrated 87.5% concordance with the computational prediction of these expressed novel transcripts. Intriguingly, 145 of the novel de novo assembled loci were present in lines from only one of the two heterotic groups consistent with the hypothesis that, in addition to sequence polymorphisms and transcript abundance, transcript presence/absence variation is present and, thereby, may be a mechanism contributing to the genetic basis of heterosis. PMID:22438891

  14. Quantitative detection system for maize sample containing combined-trait genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Wakabayashi, Kaoru; Nakade, Shinsuke; Yasui, Shuji; Sakata, Kozue; Chiba, Ryoko; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Hino, Akihiro; Maitani, Tamio

    2005-11-15

    Various countries have established regulations that stipulate the labeling of agricultural commodities, feed, and food products that contain or are made from genetically modified (GM) material or that contain adventitious GM material in amounts that exceed certain threshold levels. While regulations in some countries refer to GM material on a weight per weight (w/w) percentage, the currently applied detection methods do not directly measure the w/w percentage of the GM material. Depending on the particular method and the sample matrix it is applied to, the conversion of analytical results to a w/w percentage is challenging or not possible. The first rapid PCR system for GM maize detection on a single kernel basis has been developed. The equipment for the grinding of individual kernels and a silica membrane-based 96-well DNA extraction kit were both significantly revised and optimized for this particular purpose, respectively. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR method for the rapid quantification of GM DNA sequences in the obtained DNA solutions. In addition, a multiplex qualitative PCR detection method allows for the simultaneous detection of different GM maize traits in each kernel and thereby for identification of individual kernels that contain a combination of two or more GM traits. Especially for grain samples that potentially contain combined-trait GM maize kernels, the proposed methods can deliver informative results in a rapid, precise, and reliable manner.

  15. Susceptibilities of Different Test Systems from Maize (Zea mays), Poa annua, and Festuca rubra to Herbicides That Inhibit the Enzyme Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase

    PubMed

    Herbert; Cole; Pallett; Harwood

    1996-06-01

    The susceptibilities of maize (Zea mays cv. Champ) and two graminicide-resistant grass species, Poa annua (annual meadow grass) and Festuca rubra (red fescue), to two aryloxyphenoxypropionates (quizalofop and fluazifop) and a cyclohexanedione (sethoxydim) graminicide were evaluated in leaf blades and isolated chloroplasts, and by assaying acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) in desalted leaf homogenates. The graminicide resistance of P. annua and F. rubra appeared to be at the level of ACCase. Festuca rubra ACCase was highly insensitive and P. annua ACCase was partially insensitive to the graminicides that were tested. Fatty acid synthesis in isolated maize chloroplasts was more susceptible to inhibition than was ACCase activity from whole leaves. There was a smaller difference in graminicide sensitivity between these two test systems in P. annua. The developmental pattern of ACCase specific activity and its inhibition by quizalofop was measured in maize and P. annua leaf blades. There was an age-dependent increase in the sensitivity of maize leaf ACCase activity to inhibition by quizalofop. Together with the greater susceptibility of chloroplasts compared with leaf homogenates this could imply that a graminicide-insensitive (extrachloroplastic) ACCase isoform is less highly expressed in older leaves. Poa annua ACCase did not significantly alter in sensitivity as leaves aged, consistent with the smaller difference in the level of inhibition between chloroplasts and leaf homogenates in this species. A small pyruvate carboxylase activity was detected in maize leaves after 9 days. By 38 days, when leaves were senescing, pyruvate carboxylase activity predominated over ACCase.

  16. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes.

  17. Lignification of developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm transfer cells and starchy endosperm cells

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Sara; Monjardino, Paulo; Mendonça, Duarte; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Fernandes, Rui; Sampaio, Paula; Salema, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm transfer cells in maize have extensive cell wall ingrowths that play a key role in kernel development. Although the incorporation of lignin would support this process, its presence in these structures has not been reported in previous studies. We used potassium permanganate staining combined with transmission electron microscopy – energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry as well as acriflavine staining combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine whether the most basal endosperm transfer cells (MBETCs) contain lignified cell walls, using starchy endosperm cells for comparison. We investigated the lignin content of ultrathin sections of MBETCs treated with hydrogen peroxide. The lignin content of transfer and starchy cell walls was also determined by the acetyl bromide method. Finally, the relationship between cell wall lignification and MBETC growth/flange ingrowth orientation was evaluated. MBETC walls and ingrowths contained lignin throughout the period of cell growth we monitored. The same was true of the starchy cells, but those underwent an even more extensive growth period than the transfer cells. Both the reticulate and flange ingrowths were also lignified early in development. The significance of the lignification of maize endosperm cell walls is discussed in terms of its impact on cell growth and flange ingrowth orientation. PMID:24688487

  18. Cu-chitosan nanoparticle boost defense responses and plant growth in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ram Chandra; Kumaraswamy, R V; Kumari, Sarita; Sharma, S S; Pal, Ajay; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim; Saharan, Vinod

    2017-08-29

    In agriculture, search for biopolymer derived materials are in high demand to replace the synthetic agrochemicals. In the present investigation, the efficacy of Cu-chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) to boost defense responses against Curvularia leaf spot (CLS) disease of maize and plant growth promotry activity were evaluated. Cu-chitosan NPs treated plants showed significant defense response through higher activities of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) and defense enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase). Significant control of CLS disease of maize was recorded at 0.04 to 0.16% of Cu-chitosan NPs treatments in pot and 0.12 to 0.16% of NPs treatments in field condition. Further, NPs treatments exhibited growth promotry effect in terms of plant height, stem diameter, root length, root number and chlorophyll content in pot experiments. In field experiment, plant height, ear length, ear weight/plot, grain yield/plot and 100 grain weight were enhanced in NPs treatments. Disease control and enhancement of plant growth was further enlightened through Cu release profile of Cu-chitosan NPs. This is an important development in agriculture nanomaterial research where biodegradable Cu-chitosan NPs are better compatible with biological control as NPs "mimic" the natural elicitation of the plant defense and antioxidant system for disease protection and sustainable growth.

  19. Characterization of maize (Zea mays L.) Wee1 and its activity in developing endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuejin; Dilkes, Brian P.; Zhang, Chunsheng; Dante, Ricardo A.; Carneiro, Newton P.; Lowe, Keith S.; Jung, Rudolf; Gordon-Kamm, William J.; Larkins, Brian A.

    1999-01-01

    We report the characterization of a maize Wee1 homologue and its expression in developing endosperm. Using a 0.8-kb cDNA from an expressed sequence tag project, we isolated a 1.6-kb cDNA (ZmWee1), which encodes a protein of 403 aa with a calculated molecular size of 45.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 50% identity to the protein kinase domain of human Wee1. Overexpression of ZmWee1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe inhibited cell division and caused the cells to enlarge significantly. Recombinant ZmWee1 obtained from Escherichia coli is able to inhibit the activity of p13suc1-adsorbed cyclin-dependent kinase from maize. ZmWee1 is encoded by a single gene at a locus on the long arm of chromosome 4. RNA gel blots showed the ZmWee1 transcript is about 2.4 kb in length and that its abundance reaches a maximum 15 days after pollination in endosperm tissue. High levels of expression of ZmWee1 at this stage of endosperm development imply that ZmWee1 plays a role in endoreduplication. Our results show that control of cyclin-dependent kinase activity by Wee1 is conserved among eukaryotes, from fungi to animals and plants. PMID:10097184

  20. Photosynthesis and growth response of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids exposed to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tasneem; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Naeem, Asif; Nawaz, Rab; Ali, Shafaqat; Murtaza, Ghulam; Maqsood, Muhammad Aamer; Azhar, Muhammad; Khalid, Hinnan; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a biologically non-essential heavy metal while the cultivation of Cd-tolerant varieties/hybrids (V) seems the most promising strategy for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. For this, 24-day-old seedlings of seven maize hybrids, DKC 65-25, DKC 61-25, DKC 919, 23-T-16, 32-B-33, 31-P-41, and Syn hybrid, were grown in hydroponic conditions for 21 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15 μM). Effects of variety, Cd, and their interaction were highly significant (p ≤ 0.05) for studied plant agronomic and physiological traits except the V × Cd interaction for leaf chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and root dry weight. The Cd accumulation in root and shoot increased gradually with increasing Cd treatments while copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) uptake was decreased in all hybrids. The reduction in root and shoot biomass and Cd uptake was lower in 32-B-33 and 23-T-16 compared to other hybrids. The highest accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Mn was observed in 32-B-33, DK C65-25, and 31-P-41, respectively. The differential uptake and accumulation of Cd by maize hybrids may be useful in selection and breeding for Cd-tolerant genotypes.

  1. Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in elongating internodes Zea mays (maize): The 3. beta. -hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, C.R.; Phinney, B.O. ); Gaskin, P.; MacMillan, J. )

    1989-04-01

    The early-13-hydroxylation pathway for GA biosynthesis in maize leads to GA{sub 1}, the main GA responsible for shoot elongation. Growth response data, double-labeled feeding studies and endogenous GA levels suggest that the dwarf-1 mutant blocks the step GA{sub 20}to GA{sub 1}. We are screening for a system from maize from which we can purify the 3{beta}-hydroxylase and study its physical and biological properties. We find that diced internodal tissues will metabolize ({sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)-GA{sub 20} to ({sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)-GA{sub 1} and ({sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)-GA{sub 29} with metabolism as high as 80%. A cell free system from this material will give 5% metabolism. In a typical experiment 1g of internodal tissue is frozen in liquid nitrogen and macerated in 0.1M Tris plus cofactors. The homogenate is centrifuged at 15000 x g for 30 min at 4{degrees}C and the supernatant used for metabolic studies.

  2. Exploration of methods used to describe bacterial communities in silage of maize (Zea mays) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Brusetti, Lorenzo; Borin, Sara; Rizzi, Aurora; Mora, Diego; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    Different techniques to assess bacterial community structure and diversity were evaluated in silages prepared with four different maize cultivars, three conventional and one transgenic (cv. Tundra, event Bt-176). Plants were cultivated in the greenhouse and harvested after 30 days of growth. Silage samples were collected at successive times during fermentation and analyzed for bacterial counts and by various DNA-based fingerprinting techniques. Bacterial counts were similar between cultivars for the total culturable bacteria, sporeforming, and mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Further analysis of the species composition of 388 LAB strains by intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR followed by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene did not reveal differences between cultivars. In contrast, molecular fingerprinting methods targeting whole bacterial communities, such as automated ribosomal intergenic spacers analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR), indicated that different maize silage batches or cultivars hosted different bacterial communities. Thus, ARISA and LH-PCR fingerprinting techniques offer a fast and sensitive method to compare bacterial communities, and to detect differences in silage bacterial communities.

  3. Lignification of developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm transfer cells and starchy endosperm cells.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sara; Monjardino, Paulo; Mendonça, Duarte; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Fernandes, Rui; Sampaio, Paula; Salema, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm transfer cells in maize have extensive cell wall ingrowths that play a key role in kernel development. Although the incorporation of lignin would support this process, its presence in these structures has not been reported in previous studies. We used potassium permanganate staining combined with transmission electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry as well as acriflavine staining combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine whether the most basal endosperm transfer cells (MBETCs) contain lignified cell walls, using starchy endosperm cells for comparison. We investigated the lignin content of ultrathin sections of MBETCs treated with hydrogen peroxide. The lignin content of transfer and starchy cell walls was also determined by the acetyl bromide method. Finally, the relationship between cell wall lignification and MBETC growth/flange ingrowth orientation was evaluated. MBETC walls and ingrowths contained lignin throughout the period of cell growth we monitored. The same was true of the starchy cells, but those underwent an even more extensive growth period than the transfer cells. Both the reticulate and flange ingrowths were also lignified early in development. The significance of the lignification of maize endosperm cell walls is discussed in terms of its impact on cell growth and flange ingrowth orientation.

  4. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lumi Abe, Camila Agnes; Bertechini Faria, Carla; Fernandes de Castro, Fausto; de Souza, Sandra Regina; dos Santos, Fabiane Cristina; Novais da Silva, Cleiltan; Tessmann, Dauri José; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases. PMID:26198227

  5. Characterization and expression analysis of six MADS-box genes in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongbao; Li, Huiyong; Zhang, Dengfeng; Liu, Yinghui; Fu, Jing; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

    2012-05-15

    MADS-box genes encode a family of transcription factors, which control diverse developmental processes in flowering plants, with organs ranging from roots, flowers and fruits. In this study, six maize cDNAs encoding MADS-box proteins were isolated. BLASTX searches and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the six MADS-box genes belonging to the AGL2-like clade. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that these genes had differential expression patterns in different organs in maize. The results of yeast one-hybrid system indicated that the protein ZMM3-1, ZMM3-2, ZMM6, ZMM7-L, ZMM8-L and ZMM14-L had transcriptional activation activity. Subcellular localization of ZMM7-L demonstrated that the fluorescence of ZMM7-L-GFP was mainly detected in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells. qRT-PCR analysis for expression pattern of ZMM7-L showed that the gene was up-regulated by abiotic stresses and down-regulated by exogenous ABA. The germination rates of over-expression transgenic lines were lower than that of the wild type on medium with 150 mM NaCl, 350 mM mannitol. These results indicated that ZMM7-L might be a negative transcription factor responsive to abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced crown root number improves water acquisition under water deficit stress in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yingzhi; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2016-08-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that maize genotypes with reduced crown root number (CN) will have greater root depth and improved water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting CN were evaluated under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms and field rainout shelters. CN varied from 25 to 62 among genotypes. Under water stress in the mesocosms, genotypes with low CN had 31% fewer crown roots, 30% deeper rooting, 56% greater stomatal conductance, 45% greater leaf CO2 assimilation, 61% net canopy CO2 assimilation, and 55% greater shoot biomass than genotypes with high CN at 35 days after planting. Under water stress in the field, genotypes with low CN had 21% fewer crown roots, 41% deeper rooting, 48% lighter stem water oxygen isotope enrichment (δ(18)O) signature signifying deeper water capture, 13% greater leaf relative water content, 33% greater shoot biomass at anthesis, and 57% greater yield than genotypes with high CN. These results support the hypothesis that low CN improves drought tolerance by increasing rooting depth and water acquisition from the subsoil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Reduced crown root number improves water acquisition under water deficit stress in maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yingzhi; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that maize genotypes with reduced crown root number (CN) will have greater root depth and improved water acquisition from drying soil. Maize recombinant inbred lines with contrasting CN were evaluated under water stress in greenhouse mesocosms and field rainout shelters. CN varied from 25 to 62 among genotypes. Under water stress in the mesocosms, genotypes with low CN had 31% fewer crown roots, 30% deeper rooting, 56% greater stomatal conductance, 45% greater leaf CO2 assimilation, 61% net canopy CO2 assimilation, and 55% greater shoot biomass than genotypes with high CN at 35 days after planting. Under water stress in the field, genotypes with low CN had 21% fewer crown roots, 41% deeper rooting, 48% lighter stem water oxygen isotope enrichment (δ18O) signature signifying deeper water capture, 13% greater leaf relative water content, 33% greater shoot biomass at anthesis, and 57% greater yield than genotypes with high CN. These results support the hypothesis that low CN improves drought tolerance by increasing rooting depth and water acquisition from the subsoil. PMID:27401910

  8. Independent genetic control of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight determination and its phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Prado, Santiago; Sadras, Víctor O; Borrás, Lucas

    2014-08-01

    Maize kernel weight (KW) is associated with the duration of the grain-filling period (GFD) and the rate of kernel biomass accumulation (KGR). It is also related to the dynamics of water and hence is physiologically linked to the maximum kernel water content (MWC), kernel desiccation rate (KDR), and moisture concentration at physiological maturity (MCPM). This work proposed that principles of phenotypic plasticity can help to consolidated the understanding of the environmental modulation and genetic control of these traits. For that purpose, a maize population of 245 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was grown under different environmental conditions. Trait plasticity was calculated as the ratio of the variance of each RIL to the overall phenotypic variance of the population of RILs. This work found a hierarchy of plasticities: KDR ≈ GFD > MCPM > KGR > KW > MWC. There was no phenotypic and genetic correlation between traits per se and trait plasticities. MWC, the trait with the lowest plasticity, was the exception because common quantitative trait loci were found for the trait and its plasticity. Independent genetic control of a trait per se and genetic control of its plasticity is a condition for the independent evolution of traits and their plasticities. This allows breeders potentially to select for high or low plasticity in combination with high or low values of economically relevant traits.

  9. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities.

    PubMed

    Abe, Camila Agnes Lumi; Faria, Carla Bertechini; de Castro, Fausto Fernandes; de Souza, Sandra Regina; dos Santos, Fabiane Cristina; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri José; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2015-07-07

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases.

  10. [Extraction and use of pigments from maize grains (Zea mays L) as colorants in yogur].

    PubMed

    Salinas Moreno, Yolanda; Rubio Hernández, David; Díaz Velázquez, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the potential use of anthocyanins from maize grains as colorants in yogurt. Pigments were extracted from four native maize varieties (Arrocillo, Peruano, Purepecha and Cónico), which possess a high anthocyanin concentration in the pericarp. Pericarp and aleurone layer were mechanicallly removed from grain using a Strong-Scott barley pearled. Yields of pericarp and aleurone layer fraction (PALF) were evaluated. Total anthocyanin content in this fraction was determined by a conventional spectrophotometric method and the anthocyanin profile was obtained by HPLC. One mg of anthocyanin extracts from the PALF was added to 100 g of a commercial plain yogurt. Yogurt samples were kept under refrigerated conditions and color and pH were monitored every 5 days interval, during three weeks. The yields of PALF were 48.4%, 55.1%, 40.2%, and 40.0% for Arrocillo, Peruano, Cónico and Purepecha varieties, respectivelly. The highest total anthocyanin content (259.4 mg of anthocyanins/100 g sample) was observed in Peruano PALF. The color of yogurts dyed with each of the four extracts was different. Yogurts dyed with Peruano and Arrocillo extracts showed a more intense reddish tone than those dyed with Cónico and Purepecha. After 5 to 10 days under refrigerated storage, the color of all yogurt samples changed to a slight yellowish tone according to the Hue values, Nevertheless, these changes were not visually evident.

  11. Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L.) stover

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Aaron J; Anex, Rob P; Isci, Asli; Coors, James G; de Leon, Natalia; Weimer, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Background Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assay. Twelve maize varieties selected to be diverse for stover digestibility and composition were evaluated. Results Variation in ethanol yield was driven by glucan convertibility rather than by glucan content. Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between structural carbohydrate content (glucan and neutral detergent fiber) and ethanol yield. However, when these variables were included in multiple regression equations including convertibility or neutral detergent fiber digestibility, their partial regression coefficients were significant and positive. A regression model including both neutral detergent fiber and its ruminal digestibility explained 95% of the variation in ethanol yield. Conclusion Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding. PMID:19272154

  12. Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L.) stover.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Aaron J; Anex, Rob P; Isci, Asli; Coors, James G; de Leon, Natalia; Weimer, Paul J

    2009-03-09

    Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assay. Twelve maize varieties selected to be diverse for stover digestibility and composition were evaluated. Variation in ethanol yield was driven by glucan convertibility rather than by glucan content. Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between structural carbohydrate content (glucan and neutral detergent fiber) and ethanol yield. However, when these variables were included in multiple regression equations including convertibility or neutral detergent fiber digestibility, their partial regression coefficients were significant and positive. A regression model including both neutral detergent fiber and its ruminal digestibility explained 95% of the variation in ethanol yield. Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding.

  13. Colchicine-mediated chromosome doubling during anther culture of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Saisingtong, S; Schmid, J E; Stamp, P; Büter, B

    1996-06-01

    Efficient methods of chromosome doubling are critical for the production of microspore-derived, doubled-haploid (=DH) plants, especially if, as in maize anther culture, spontaneous chromosome doubling occurs infrequently. In the present study, colchicine (5-1000 mg/l) was added to the induction medium and maize anthers were incubated in the colchicine-containing medium for different durations (1-7 days). In order to improve overall anther culture response, the culture temperature was adjusted to 14°C during the first 7 days. Colchicine applied at low concentration, i.e. 5 mg/l (7 days), or for short duration, i.e. 1-3 days (250 mg/l), showed beneficial effects on the formation of embryolike structures (=ES) and thus led to increased plant production, but was comparatively ineffective regarding chromosome doubling. Optimal doubling effects were observed when anthers had been exposed to culture medium containing 250 and 1000 mg/l of colchicine (7 days); in these treatments the doubling index (=DI), defined as the quotient of the number of DH plants and the number of totally regenerated plants in a specific treatment, rose to 0.56 and 0.53, respectively, compared to 0.20 in the untreated control. However, colchicine administered at concentrations higher than 250 mg/l seemed to be detrimental to general plant production; thus, in spite of a high DI, the overall DH plant production was even lower than in the control treatment. Maximum DH plant production for three different genotypes was accomplished with culture medium containing 250 mg/l of colchicine (7 days). With the best-responding genotype (ETH-M 36) a DH plant production of 9.9 DH plants/100 anthers was accomplished, i.e. a 7-fold increase compared to the non-treated anthers. This is the first report on efficient chromosome doubling in anther culture by subjecting anthers to colchicinecontaining induction medium during a post-plating cold treatment. Chromosome doubling as described here becomes an integral part

  14. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L.) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos, eastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mungai, D N; Stigter, C J; Coulson, C L; Ng'Ang'A, J K; Netondo, G W; Umaya, G O

    2001-07-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped "replacement" agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area "lost" to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  15. Extensive genomic characterization of a set of near-isogenic lines for heterotic QTL in maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the crucial role that heterosis has played in crop improvement, its genetic and molecular bases are still elusive. Several types of structured populations were used to discover the genetic architecture underlying complex phenotypes, and several QTL related to heterosis were detected. However, such analyses generally lacked the statistical power required for the detailed characterization of individual QTL. Currently, QTL introgression into near-isogenic materials is considered the most effective strategy to this end, despite such materials inevitably contain a variable, unknown and undesired proportion of non-isogenic genome. An introgression program based on residual heterozygous lines allowed us to develop five pairs of maize (Zea mays L.) near-isogenic lines (NILs) suitable for the fine characterization of three major heterotic QTL previously detected. Here we describe the results of the detailed genomic characterization of these NILs that we undertook to establish their genotypic structure, to verify the presence of the expected genotypes within target QTL regions, and to determine the extent and location of residual non-isogenic genomic regions. Results The SNP genotyping approach allowed us to determine the parent-of-origin allele for 14,937 polymorphic SNPs and to describe in detail the genotypic structure of all NILs. The correct introgression was confirmed for all target QTL in the respective NIL and several non-isogenic regions were detected genome-wide. Possible linkage drag effects associated to the specific introgressed regions were observed. The extent and position of other non-isogenic regions varied among NIL pairs, probably deriving from random segregating sections still present at the separation of lineages within pairs. Conclusions The results of this work strongly suggest that the actual isogenicity and the genotypic architecture of near-isogenic materials should be monitored both during the introgression procedure and on the

  16. Functional and structural roles of the glutathione-binding residues in maize (Zea mays) glutathione S-transferase I.

    PubMed Central

    Labrou, N E; Mello, L V; Clonis, Y D

    2001-01-01

    The isoenzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) I from maize (Zea mays) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and its catalytic mechanism was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and dynamic studies. The results showed that the enzyme promotes proton dissociation from the GSH thiol and creates a thiolate anion with high nucleophilic reactivity by lowering the pK(a) of the thiol from 8.7 to 6.2. Steady-state kinetics fit well to a rapid equilibrium, random sequential Bi Bi mechanism, with intrasubunit modulation between the GSH binding site (G-site) and the electrophile binding site (H-site). The rate-limiting step of the reaction is viscosity-dependent, and thermodynamic data suggest that product release is rate-limiting. Five residues of GST I (Ser(11), His(40), Lys(41), Gln(53) and Ser(67)), which are located in the G-site, were individually replaced with alanine and their structural and functional roles in the 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) conjugation reaction were investigated. On the basis of steady-state kinetics, difference spectroscopy and limited proteolysis studies it is concluded that these residues: (1) contribute to the affinity of the G-site for GSH, as they are involved in side-chain interaction with GSH; (2) influence GSH thiol ionization, and thus its reactivity; (3) participate in k(cat) regulation by affecting the rate-limiting step of the reaction; and (4) in the cases of His(40), Lys(41) and Gln(53) play an important role in the structural integrity of, and probably in the flexibility of, the highly mobile short 3(10)-helical segment of alpha-helix 2 (residues 35-46), as shown by limited proteolysis experiments. These structural perturbations are probably transmitted to the H-site through changes in Phe(35) conformation. This accounts for the modulation of K(CDNB)(m) by His(40), Lys(41) and Gln(53), and also for the intrasubunit communication between the G- and H-sites. Computer simulations using CONCOORD were applied to maize

  17. Mapping the anther culture response genes in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Beaumont, V H; Rocheford, T R; Widholm, J M

    1995-10-01

    In order to map the genes conditioning the induction of embryos during our anther culture process, we evaluated F2 plants from three different crosses for their anther culture ability and also performed RFLP analysis on these plants. The results showed that six chromosomal regions appear to be associated with the ability to induce embryo-like structures from maize microspores. These regions are located on chromosomes 1 (two regions), 3, 5, 7, and 8. Some of these chromosomes are identical to those found in previous studies and we have localized the regions more precisely. Notably, all chromosome regions identified, except one, are near viviparous mutant loci. Since the viviparous mutations are known to involve the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), these results suggest that ABA or its antagonist, gibberellic acid (GA3), might somehow be related to anther culture ability. We also propose some combinations of probes to screen for anther culture ability in the three genotypes studied.

  18. Diversity of Slovenian maize (Zea mays) populations by Hbr (MITE) markers and morphological traits.

    PubMed

    Kavar, T; Meglic, V; Rozman, L

    2007-09-01

    Hbr markers are based on location presence/absence of the Heartbreaker family of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs). Together with the cost-effective technique--Hbr display were developed in 2000. We chose 15 populations from the Slovenian maize germplasm bank and described ten individual samples per each population by 268 Hbr markers and 35 morphological traits (IPGRI descriptors). Samples from the same population had highly similar DNA fingerprints, while the between populations differences were very high. Therefore, only a minor part of the total genetic variance existed within populations (23.3%), and the major part among populations (76.7%). Beli zob (the only dent type population) and stajerski dvanajsterec were the most divergent populations, others were closely related. They shared the majority of bands in the way that each band was shared by different set of populations. This is suggesting the origin from the common gene pool and the high extent of migrations.

  19. Lipid partitioning in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm highlights relationships among starch lipids, amylose, and vitreousness.

    PubMed

    Gayral, Mathieu; Bakan, Bénédicte; Dalgalarrondo, Michele; Elmorjani, Khalil; Delluc, Caroline; Brunet, Sylvie; Linossier, Laurent; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Marion, Didier

    2015-04-08

    Content and composition of maize endosperm lipids and their partition in the floury and vitreous regions were determined for a set of inbred lines. Neutral lipids, i.e., triglycerides and free fatty acids, accounted for more than 80% of endosperm lipids and are almost 2 times higher in the floury than in the vitreous regions. The composition of endosperm lipids, including their fatty acid unsaturation levels, as well as their distribution may be related to metabolic specificities of the floury and vitreous regions in carbon and nitrogen storage and to the management of stress responses during endosperm cell development. Remarkably, the highest contents of starch lipids were observed systematically within the vitreous endosperm. These high amounts of starch lipids were mainly due to lysophosphatidylcholine and were tightly linked to the highest amylose content. Consequently, the formation of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexes has to be considered as an outstanding mechanism affecting endosperm vitreousness.

  20. Influence of salt tolerant Trichoderma spp. on growth of maize (Zea mays) under different salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishna; Manigundan, K; Amaresan, Natarajan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, a total of 70 Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of vegetable and spice crops that were grown in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Initial screening of Trichoderma spp. for salt tolerant properties showed 32 isolates were able to tolerate 10% NaCl. Furthermore, these isolates were screened for their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics such as IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Among 32 isolates, nine isolates were able to produce IAA, siderophore, and solubilize phosphate. Jar trial was carried out on maize under axenic conditions at 1.67, 6.25, 11.25, 17.2, and 22.9 dS m(-1) salt stress using the best nine isolates. Three isolates (TRC3, NRT2, and THB3) were effective in improving germination percentage, reducing reduction percentage of germination (RPG) and also in increasing the shoot and root length under axenic conditions. These three isolates were further tested under pot trial at 52 (sea water), 27, 15, 7, and 1.67 dS m(-1) . TRC3 was found to be the most effective isolate compared to the other isolates and significantly increased the physiological parameters like shoot, root length, leaf area, total biomass, and stem and leaf fresh weight at all stress levels. Similarly, total chlorophyll content also increased by TRC3 over control. All three isolates, NRT2, TRC3, and THB3 showed lower accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content whereas, proline and phenol content were higher than the uninoculated control plants under both normal and saline conditions. The results suggest that these isolates could be utilized for the alleviation of salinity stress in maize. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. [Effects of shade-humid environment on the growth characteristics of different maize (Zea mays) hybrids].

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing-Jiu; Huo, Shi-Ping; Zhang, Fang-Kui; Zhang, Xing-Duan; Zhang, Jian; Xiang, Zhen-Fan; Yu, Zhi-Jiang; Feng, Yun-Chao

    2013-12-01

    The growth traits of 18 maize hybrids were studied in natural and artificial simulation shade-humid environments. Significant differences were observed between the natural and shade-humid environments, and the air relative humidity in the shade-humid environment increased 15.0%-16.4%, the soil moisture increased 27.0%-78.4%, the illumination intensity decreased 72.9%-77.9%, and the quantum decreased 72.8%-79.6%. Shade did not affect the ambient temperature. The 7th leaf width, effective functional leaves, plant total leaves, tassel branch number, stem diameter, plant height, ear height, ear length, ear diameter, rows per ear, kernels per row, 100-grain mass and grain yield per plant under the shade-humid environment showed negative variations (reduction in phenotypic values), with the grain yield per plant and plant height being reduced by 72.3% and 7.1% respectively, and the declining changes of the remaining traits ranging from 14.8%-53.8%. However, the 7th leaf length, 7th leaf length-width ratio, anthesis to silking (ASI) duration, southern leaf blight (SLB) index and sheath blight index showed positive variations (increase in phenotypic values), with increases by 39.8%, 80.5%, 114.3%, 73.0% and 54.8%, respectively. The comprehensive shade-humid-tolerant coefficient calculated from the seven traits of ASI, tassel branches, plant total leaves, plant height, individual grain yield, southern leaf blight and sheath blight index could be easily and reliably used to evaluate the shade-humid-tolerant ability of the maize hybrids. According to this coefficient, the 18 hybrids could be classified into three categories, strongly-resistant, moderately-resistant and weakly-resistant to the shade-humid environment.

  2. QTL mapping and phenotypic variation of root anatomical traits in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Burton, Amy L; Johnson, James; Foerster, Jillian; Hanlon, Meredith T; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Lynch, Jonathan P; Brown, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Root anatomical trait variation is described for three maize RIL populations. Six quantitative trait loci (QTL) are presented for anatomical traits: root cross-sectional area, % living cortical area, aerenchyma area, and stele area. Root anatomy is directly related to plant performance, influencing resource acquisition and transport, the metabolic cost of growth, and the mechanical strength of the root system. Ten root anatomical traits were measured in greenhouse-grown plants from three recombinant inbred populations of maize [intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM), Oh43 × W64a (OhW), and Ny821 × H99 (NyH)]. Traits included areas of cross section, stele, cortex, aerenchyma, and cortical cells, percentages of the cortex occupied by aerenchyma, and cortical cell file number. Significant phenotypic variation was observed for each of the traits, with maximum values typically seven to ten times greater than minimum values. Means and ranges were similar for the OhW and NyH populations for all traits, while the IBM population had lower mean values for the majority of traits, but a 50% greater range of variation for aerenchyma area. A principal component analysis showed a similar trait structure for the three families, with clustering of area and count traits. Strong correlations were observed among area traits in the cortex, stele, and cross-section. The aerenchyma and percent living cortical area traits were independent of other traits. Six QTL were identified for four of the traits. The phenotypic variation explained by the QTL ranged from 4.7% (root cross-sectional area, OhW population) to 12.0% (percent living cortical area, IBM population). Genetic variation for root anatomical traits can be harnessed to increase abiotic stress tolerance and provide insights into mechanisms controlling phenotypic variation for root anatomy.

  3. QTL mapping and phenotypic variation for root architectural traits in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Burton, Amy L; Johnson, James M; Foerster, Jillian M; Hirsch, Candice N; Buell, C R; Hanlon, Meredith T; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Brown, Kathleen M; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2014-11-01

    QTL were identified for root architectural traits in maize. Root architectural traits, including the number, length, orientation, and branching of the principal root classes, influence plant function by determining the spatial and temporal domains of soil exploration. To characterize phenotypic patterns and their genetic control, three recombinant inbred populations of maize were grown for 28 days in solid media in a greenhouse and evaluated for 21 root architectural traits, including length, number, diameter, and branching of seminal, primary and nodal roots, dry weight of embryonic and nodal systems, and diameter of the nodal root system. Significant phenotypic variation was observed for all traits. Strong correlations were observed among traits in the same root class, particularly for the length of the main root axis and the length of lateral roots. In a principal component analysis, relationships among traits differed slightly for the three families, though vectors grouped together for traits within a given root class, indicating opportunities for more efficient phenotyping. Allometric analysis showed that trajectories of growth for specific traits differ in the three populations. In total, 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified. QTL are reported for length in multiple root classes, diameter and number of seminal roots, and dry weight of the embryonic and nodal root systems. Phenotypic variation explained by individual QTL ranged from 0.44% (number of seminal roots, NyH population) to 13.5% (shoot dry weight, OhW population). Identification of QTL for root architectural traits may be useful for developing genotypes that are better suited to specific soil environments.

  4. New insights into trophic aerenchyma formation strategy in maize (Zea mays L.) organs during sulfate deprivation.

    PubMed

    Maniou, Filippa; Chorianopoulou, Styliani N; Bouranis, Dimitris L

    2014-01-01

    Aerenchyma attributes plant tissues that contain enlarged spaces exceeding those commonly found as intracellular spaces. It is known that sulfur (S) deficiency leads to formation of aerenchyma in maize adventitious roots by lysis of cortical cells. Seven-day-old maize plants were grown in a hydroponics setup for 19 days under S deprivation against full nutrition. At day 17 and 26 from sowing (d10 and d19 of the deprivation, respectively), a detailed analysis of the total sulfur and sulfate allocation among organs as well as a morphometric characterization were performed. Apart from roots, in S-deprived plants aerenchyma formation was additionally found in the second leaf and in the mesocotyl, too. The lamina (LA) of this leaf showed enlarged gas spaces between the intermediate and small vascular bundles by lysis of mesophyll cells and to a greater extent on the d10 compared to d19. Aerenchymatous spaces were mainly distributed along the middle region of leaf axis. At d10, -S leaves invested less dry mass with more surface area, whilst lesser dry mass was invested per unit surface area in -S LAs. In the mesocotyl, aerenchyma was located near the scutelar node, where mesocotyl roots were developing. In -S roots, more dry mass was invested per unit length. Our data suggest that trying to utilize the available scarce sulfur in an optimal way, the S-deprived plant fine tunes the existing roots with the same length or leaves with more surface area per unit of dry mass. Aerenchyma was not found in the scutelar node and the bases of the attached roots. The sheaths, the LAs' bases and the crown did not form aerenchyma. This trophic aerenchyma is a localized one, presumably to support new developing tissues nearby, by induced cell death and recycling of the released material. Reduced sulfur allocation among organs followed that of dry mass in a proportional fashion.

  5. Rapid transcriptome responses of maize (Zea mays) to UV-B in irradiated and shielded tissues

    PubMed Central

    Casati, Paula; Walbot, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    Background Depletion of stratospheric ozone has raised terrestrial levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), an environmental change linked to an increased risk of skin cancer and with potentially deleterious consequences for plants. To better understand the processes of UV-B acclimation that result in altered plant morphology and physiology, we investigated gene expression in different organs of maize at several UV-B fluence rates and exposure times. Results Microarray hybridization was used to assess UV-B responses in directly exposed maize organs and organs shielded by a plastic that absorbs UV-B. After 8 hours of high UV-B, the abundance of 347 transcripts was altered: 285 were increased significantly in at least one organ and 80 were downregulated. More transcript changes occurred in directly exposed than in shielded organs, and the levels of more transcripts were changed in adult compared to seedling tissues. The time course of transcript abundance changes indicated that the response kinetics to UV-B is very rapid, as some transcript levels were altered within 1 hour of exposure. Conclusions Most of the UV-B regulated genes are organ-specific. Because shielded tissues, including roots, immature ears, and leaves, displayed altered transcriptome profiles after exposure of the plant to UV-B, some signal(s) must be transmitted from irradiated to shielded tissues. These results indicate that there are integrated responses to UV-B radiation above normal levels. As the same total UV-B irradiation dose applied at three intensities elicited different transcript profiles, the transcriptome changes exhibit threshold effects rather than a reciprocal dose-effect response. Transcriptome profiling highlights possible signaling pathways and molecules for future research. PMID:15003119

  6. Location of transported auxin in etiolated maize shoots using 5-azidoindole-3-acetic acid. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.M. )

    1990-07-01

    A study was undertaken using the photoaffinity labeling agent, tritiated 5-azidoindole-3-acetic acid (({sup 3}H),5-N{sub 3}IAA), to identify cells in the etiolated maize (Zea mays L.) shoot which transport auxin. Transport of ({sup 3}H),5-N{sub 3}IAA was shown to be polar, inhibited by 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and essentially freely mobile. There was no detectable radiodecomposition of ({sup 3}H),5-N{sub 3}IAA within tissue kept in darkness for 4 hours. Shoot tissue which had taken up ({sup 3}H),5-N{sub 3}IAA was irradiated with ultraviolet light to covalently fix the photoaffinity labeling agent within cells that contained it at the time of photolysis. Subsequent microautoradiography showed that all cells contained radioactivity; however, the amount of radioactivity varied among different cell types. Epidermal cells contained the most radioactivity per area, approximately twofold more than other cells. Parenchyma cells in the mature stelar region contained the next largest amount and cortical cells, sieve tube cells, tracheary cells, and all cells in the leaf base contained the least amount of the radioactive label. Two observations suggest that the auxin within the epidermal cells is transported in a polar manner: (a) the amount of auxin in the epidermal cells is greatly reduced in the presence of TIBA, and (b) auxin accumulates on the apical side of a wound in the epidermis and is absent on the basal side. While these results indicate that auxin in the epidermis is polarly transported, this tissue cannot be the only pathway since the epidermis is only a small fraction of the shoot volume.

  7. Alterations in Carbohydrate Intermediates in the Endosperm of Starch-Deficient Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes 1

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Rowel B.; Boyer, Charles D.; Shannon, Jack C.

    1992-01-01

    Metabolite levels in kernels of selected starch-deficient mutants of maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated to gain insight into partitioning of carbohydrate metabolism during kernel development. Several free sugars, hexose phosphates, triose phosphates, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, and pyrophosphate were measured in normal, shrunken, shrunken-2, amylose extender dull waxy, and brittle genotypes, which were in a near-isogenic W64A background. These mutants were selected to include at least one lesion in both the cytosolic (shrunken) and amyloplastic (shrunken-2) compartments. All the starch-deficient genotypes contained elevated levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and triose phosphates but reduced levels of pyrophosphate, indicating an enhanced glycolytic utilization of carbohydrates in response to the reduced utilization of sugars for starch synthesis. The shrunken kernels (sucrose synthase deficient) contained reduced levels of glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate, and this reduction paralleled the reduction in starch accumulation, but levels of triose phosphates were elevated. In shrunken-2 kernels, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate were increased, but fructose-1,6-bisphosphate was lower. These findings support the view that hexose phosphate transport across the amyloplast envelope is more important for starch biosynthesis than transport of triose phosphates. The amylose extender dull waxy mutation showed less dramatic effects on hexose phosphates, but the triose phosphates were greatly increased. The brittle mutation, which has an unknown lesion, showed distinctly similar changes in metabolite levels with shrunken-2, suggesting that the lesion may be associated with the amyloplast. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668842

  8. Salt stress differentially affects growth-mediating β-expansins in resistant and sensitive maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Zörb, Christian; Mühling, Karl H

    2010-12-01

    Salinity mainly reduces shoot growth by the inhibition of cell division and elongation. Expansins loosen plant cell walls. Moreover, the expression of some isoforms is clearly correlated with growth. Effects of salinity on β-expansin transcripts protein abundance were recently reported for different crop species. This study provides a broad analysis of the impact of an 8-day 100mM NaCl stress treatment on the mRNA expression of different maize (Zea mays L.) β-Expansin isoforms using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The composite β-expansin protein expression was analyzed by western blotting using an anti-peptide antibody raised against a conserved 15-amino-acid region shared by vegetatively expressed β-expansin isoforms. For the first time, changes in β-expansin transcript and protein abundance have been analyzed together with the salinity-induced inhibition of shoot growth. A salt-resistant and a salt-sensitive cultivar were compared in order to elucidate physiological changes. Genotypic differences in the relative concentration of six β-expansin transcripts together with differences in the abundance β-expansin protein are shown in response NaCl stress. In salt-sensitive Lector, reduced β-expansin protein expression was found to correlate positively with reduced shoot growth under stress. A down-regulation of ZmExpB2, ZmExpB6, and ZmExpB8 transcripts possibly contribute to this decrease in protein abundance. In contrast, the maintenance of shoot growth in salt-resistant SR03 might be related to an unaffected abundance of growth-mediating β-expansin proteins in the shoot. Our data suggest that the up-regulation of ZmExpB2, ZmExpB6, and ZmExpB8 may sustain the stable expression of β-expansin protein under conditions of salt stress.

  9. Expression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in maize (Zea mays L.) grain and source leaf during grain filling.

    PubMed Central

    Prioul, J L; Jeannette, E; Reyss, A; Grégory, N; Giroux, M; Hannah, L C; Causse, M

    1994-01-01

    The time course of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity and of starch accumulation rate measured in grain, from pollination to maturity, in Zea mays L. plants grown outdoors, was coincident for 2 years. No such correlation was observed in the adjacent leaf, which, furthermore, presented large year-to-year differences in starch accumulation pattern. Analysis of the expression of ADP-glucose synthase at the protein levels, using antibodies directed against the Bt2 or Sh2 subunits, established that the variation of activity in the grain was explained by parallel changes in the content of both subunits. The cDNA for Bt2 and Sh2 subunits were used as probes to quantify the corresponding messenger. In grain, the time course of Bt2 and Sh2 mRNA accumulation anticipated, with a similar pattern, the specific peptide variations, which suggests a transcriptional control of expression. By contrast, the control of leaf activity by protein content was less obvious than in the grain, and changes in leaf enzyme specific activity were suggested during the first 20 d after pollination. A clone homologous to the grain Bt2 subunit cDNA was isolated from a maize leaf cDNA library, and a sequence comparison showed that the leaf clone (L2) was a partial cDNA representing one-third of the mature peptide. A 97% homology was observed between Bt2 and L2 in their coding region, but homology was poor in the 3' noncoding border. This result demonstrates that Bt2 and L2 arise from different genes presenting a tissue-specific expression pattern and provides an explanation for the earlier reported differences between leaf and grain in the size of peptide and mRNA for the Bt2-homologous subunit. PMID:8115545

  10. Observation of silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings via LED-induced chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A.; da Silva, Airon José; do Nascimento, Clístenes W. A.

    2013-02-01

    LED-induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is exploited to observe, and monitor the time evolution of silicon-induced alleviation of toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings in cadmium contaminated soil. Red, and far-red emissions were examined as a function of cadmium-silicon concentrations, during the 20 days period of the seedlings growing process under stress. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectral analysis provided detection, and evaluation of the damage imposed by the metal stress in the early stages of the plant growing process. The technique also provided the time evolution evaluation of the silicon-induced tolerance enhancement of maize plants to cadmium, which is not viable using conventional in vitro spectral analysis techniques

  11. Fine mapping of a quantitative resistance gene for gray leaf spot of maize (Zea mays L.) derived from teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinye; Yang, Qin; Rucker, Elizabeth; Thomason, Wade; Balint-Kurti, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In this study we mapped the QTL Qgls8 for gray leaf spot (GLS) resistance in maize to a ~130 kb region on chromosome 8 including five predicted genes. In previous work, using near isogenic line (NIL) populations in which segments of the teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) genome had been introgressed into the background of the maize line B73, we had identified a QTL on chromosome 8, here called Qgls8, for gray leaf spot (GLS) resistance. We identified alternate teosinte alleles at this QTL, one conferring increased GLS resistance and one increased susceptibility relative to the B73 allele. Using segregating populations derived from NIL parents carrying these contrasting alleles, we were able to delimit the QTL region to a ~130 kb (based on the B73 genome) which encompassed five predicted genes.

  12. Rhizobium zeae sp. nov., isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Celador-Lera, Lorena; Menéndez, Esther; Peix, Alvaro; Igual, José M; Velázquez, Encarna; Rivas, Raúl

    2017-07-01

    A bacterial strain designated CRZM18RT was isolated from a root of Zea mays in Spain. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that this strain belongs to the genus Rhizobium, with Rhizobium cellulosilyticum ALA10B2T and Rhizobium yantingense H66T being the most closely related species with 98.3 and 97.9 % sequence similarity, respectively. The analysis of the concatenated recA and atpD genes showed that strain CRZM18RT forms a cluster with these species and also with Rhizobiumsmilacinae PTYR-5T, but the recA and atpD genes of strain CRZM18RT were phylogenetically distant, with identities lower than 90 and 96 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis showed mean relatedness of 43, 22 and 38 % with respect to R. cellulosilyticum ALA10B2T, R. yantingense LMG 28229T and R. smilacinae LMG 27604T. Phenotypic characteristics also differed from those of the most closely related species of the genus Rhizobium. The major fatty acids were those from summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω6c/C18 : 1ω7c) and C16 : 0. Based on the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify strain CRZM18RT in a novel species named Rhizobium zeae sp. nov. (type strain CRZM18RT=LMG 29735T=CECT 9169T).

  13. Genomic Regions Associated with Root Traits under Drought Stress in Tropical Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, P. H.; Krishna, Girish; Krishnamurthy, L.; Gajanan, S.; Babu, Raman; Zerka, M.; Vinayan, M. T.; Vivek, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    An association mapping panel, named as CIMMYT Asia association mapping (CAAM) panel, involving 396 diverse tropical maize lines were phenotyped for various structural and functional traits of roots under drought and well-watered conditions. The experiment was conducted during Kharif (summer-rainy) season of 2012 and 2013 in root phenotyping facility at CIMMYT-Hyderabad, India. The CAAM panel was genotyped to generate 955, 690 SNPs through GBS v2.7 using Illumina Hi-seq 2000/2500 at Institute for Genomic Diversity, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. GWAS analysis was carried out using 331,390 SNPs filtered from the entire set of SNPs revealed a total of 50 and 67 SNPs significantly associated for root functional (transpiration efficiency, flowering period water use) and structural traits (rooting depth, root dry weight, root length, root volume, root surface area and root length density), respectively. In addition to this, 37 SNPs were identified for grain yield and shoot biomass under well-watered and drought stress. Though many SNPs were found to have significant association with the traits under study, SNPs that were common for more than one trait were discussed in detail. A total 18 SNPs were found to have common association with more than one trait, out of which 12 SNPs were found within or near the various gene functional regions. In this study we attempted to identify the trait specific maize lines based on the presence of favorable alleles for the SNPs associated with multiple traits. Two SNPs S3_128533512 and S7_151238865 were associated with transpiration efficiency, shoot biomass and grain yield under well-watered condition. Based on favorable allele for these SNPs seven inbred lines were identified. Similarly, four lines were identified for transpiration efficiency and shoot biomass under drought stress based on the presence of favorable allele for the common SNPs S1_211520521, S2_20017716, S3_57210184 and S7_130878458 and three lines were identified

  14. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of maize (Zea mays L.) stalk rot resistant gene Rfg1.

    PubMed

    Yang, D E; Zhang, C L; Zhang, D S; Jin, D M; Weng, M L; Chen, S J; Nguyen, H; Wang, B

    2004-02-01

    One single pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schw. was inoculated to maize inbred lines 1,145 (Resistant) and Y331 (Susceptive), and their progenies of F(1), F(2) and BC(1)F(1) populations. Field statistical data revealed that all of the F(1) individuals were resistant to the disease and that the ratio of resistant plants to susceptive plants was 3:1 in the F(2) population, and 1:1 in the BC(1)F(1 )population. The results revealed that a single dominant gene controls the resistance to F. graminearum Schw. The resistant gene to F. graminearum Schw. was denominated as Rfg1 according to the standard principle of the nomenclature of the plant disease resistant genes. RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) combined with BSA (bulked segregant analysis) analysis was carried out in the developed F(2) and BC(1)F(1 )populations, respectively. Three RAPD products screened from the RAPD analysis with 820 Operon 10-mer primers showed the linkage relation with the resistant gene Rfg1. The three RAPD amplification products (OPD-20(1000), OPA-04(1100) and OPY-04(900)) were cloned and their copy numbers were determined. The results indicated that only OPY-04(900) was a single-copy sequence. Then, OPY-04(900) was used as a probe to map the Rfg1 gene with a RIL F(7) mapping population provided by Henry Nguyen, which was developed from the cross "S3xMo17". Rfg1 was primarily mapped on chromosome 6 between the two linked markers OPY-04(900) and umc21 (Bin 6.04-6.05). In order to confirm the primary mapping result, 25 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and six RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers in the Rfg1 gene-encompassing region were selected, and their linkage relation with Rfg1 was analyzed in our F(2) population. Results indicated that SSR marker mmc0241 and RFLP marker bnl3.03 are flanking the Rfg1 gene with a genetic distance of 3.0 cM and 2.0 cM, respectively. This is the first time to name and to map a single resistant gene of maize stalk rot through a

  15. High bioavailablilty iron maize (Zea mays L.) developed through molecular breeding provides more absorbable iron in vitro (Caco-2 model) and in vivo (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Iron biofortification is a preventative strategy that alleviates Fe deficiency by improving the amount of absorbable Fe in crops. In the present study, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco 2 cell culture model as the guiding tool for breeding and development of two maize (Zea mays L.) lines with contrasting Fe bioavailability (ie. Low and High). Our objective was to confirm and validate the in vitro results and approach. Also, to compare the capacities of our two maize hybrid varieties to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis and to improve the Fe status of Fe deficient broiler chickens. Methods We compared the Fe-bioavailability between these two maize varieties with the presence or absence of added Fe in the maize based-diets. Diets were made with 75% (w/w) maize of either low or high Fe-bioavailability maize, with or without Fe (ferric citrate). Chicks (Gallus gallus) were fed the diets for 6 wk. Hb, liver ferritin and Fe related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin maintenance efficiency (HME) and total body Hb Fe values were used to estimate Fe bioavailability from the diets. Results DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin expressions were higher (P < 0.05) in the "Low Fe" group than in the "High Fe" group (no added Fe), indicating lower Fe status and adaptation to less Fe-bioavailability. At times, Hb concentrations (d 21,28,35), HME (d 21), Hb-Fe (as from d 14) and liver ferritin were higher in the "High Fe" than in the "Low Fe" groups (P < 0.05), indicating greater Fe absorption from the diet and improved Fe status. Conclusions We conclude that the High Fe-bioavailability maize contains more bioavailable Fe than the Low Fe-bioavailability maize, presumably due to a more favorable matrix for absorption. Maize shows promise for Fe biofortification; therefore, human trials should be conducted to determine the efficacy of consuming the high bioavailable

  16. Extract from Maize (Zea mays L.): Antibacterial Activity of DIMBOA and Its Derivatives against Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bing; Zhang, Yongqiang; Li, Shili; Lai, Ting; Yang, Liang; Chen, Juanni; Ding, Wei

    2016-10-19

    Many cereals accumulate hydroxamic acids involved in defense of plant against various fungi, bacteria, and insects. 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazine-3-one, commonly known as DIMBOA, is one of the principal cyclic hydroxamic acids in aqueous extracts of maize. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the isolated DIMBOA and its derivatives 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA), 6-chloro-2-benzoxazolinone (CDHB), and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) against Ralstonia solanacearum. MBT showed the strongest antibacterial activity, followed by CDHB and DIMBOA, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 50, 100 and 200 mg/L, respectively, better than the BOA with 300 mg/L. These compounds also significantly affect bacterial growth, reduce biofilm formation, and inhibit swarming motility within 24 h. This paper is the first to report the anti-R. solanacearum activity of DIMBOA from Z. mays. The bioassay and pot experiment results suggested that DIMBOA and its derivatives exhibit potential as a new matrix structure of designing target bactericide or elicitor for controlling tobacco bacterial wilt. Further studies must evaluate the efficacy of DIMBOA and its derivatives in controlling bacterial wilt under natural field conditions where low inoculum concentrations exist.

  17. Molecular analysis of endophytic bacteria from the genus Bacillus isolated from tropical maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, José Edson Fontes; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; Guimarães, Claudia Teixeira; de Paula Lana, Ubiraci Gomes; Teixeira, Marta Aparecida; Lima, Guilherme Vitor Corrêa; Bressan, Wellington

    2009-07-01

    Endophytic bacteria play an important role in agriculture by improving plant performance and adaptation against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study molecular methods were used for identifying Bacillus endophytic bacteria isolated from Brazilian sweet corn. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell protein extract of forty-two isolates revealed a high number of scrutinable bands. Twenty-four isolates were identified in nine different groups of duplicated bacteria and eighteen were identified as unique. Some high-accumulated polipeptides with variable length were observed in almost isolates. Partial sequencing of 16S ribosomal gene revealed that all isolates are Bacillus sp. and among thirteen isolates with similar protein profiles, two were different strains. Among the forty-two isolates identified by rDNA sequencing, Bacillus subitilis and B. pumilus were the most frequenty species (15 and 12 isolates, respectively) followed by B. licheniformes (7 isolates), B. cereus (5 isolates) and B. amiloliquefascens (3 isolates). According to present results, SDS-PAGE technique could be used as a fast and cheap first tool for identifying inter-specific variation in maize endophytic bacterial collections while rDNA sequencing could be applied for analyzing intra-specific variation among isolates with similar protein profile as well as for taxonomic studies.

  18. Prospective Zinc Solubilising Bacteria for Enhanced Nutrient Uptake and Growth Promotion in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Goteti, Praveen Kumar; Emmanuel, Leo Daniel Amalraj; Desai, Suseelendra; Shaik, Mir Hassan Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the essential micronutrients required for optimum plant growth. Substantial quantity of applied inorganic zinc in soil is converted into unavailable form. Zinc solubilising bacteria are potential alternates for zinc supplement. Among 10 strains screened for Zn solubilisation, P29, P33, and B40 produced 22.0 mm clear haloes on solid medium amended with ZnCO3. Similarly, P17 and B40 showed 31.0 mm zone in ZnO incorporated medium. P29 and B40 showed significant release of Zn in broth amended with ZnCO3 (17 and 16.8 ppm) and ZnO (18 and 17 ppm), respectively. The pH of the broth was almost acidic in all the cases ranging from 3.9 to 6.1 in ZnCO3 and from 4.1 to 6.4 in ZnO added medium. Short term pot culture experiment with maize revealed that seed bacterization with P29 @ 10 g·kg(-1) significantly enhanced total dry mass (12.96 g) and uptake of N (2.268%), K (2.0%), Mn (60 ppm), and Zn (278.8 ppm).

  19. Preparation of cross-linked maize (Zea mays L.) starch in different reaction media.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung Sun; Gomand, Sara V; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-06-25

    Granular normal maize starch was reacted with sodium trimetaphosphate in deionized water ( [Formula: see text] ), aqueous sodium sulfate solution ( [Formula: see text] ), aqueous ethanol (MSethanol) or aqueous acetone (MSacetone) under otherwise identical reaction conditions. Analysis of the resultant starches by Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) showed that the starch was cross-linked to a higher degree in aqueous ethanol or aqueous acetone than in water or sodium sulfate solution, and with minimal starch leaching. While MSacetone and MSethanol had incorporated similar levels of phosphorous, RVA analysis and microscopic analysis showed that MSacetone granules were more effectively stabilized by cross-linking than MSethanol granules. Cross-linking in aqueous acetone is believed to either contain the greater numbers of distarch monophosphate (versus monostarch monophosphate), or occur more intensively at the granule outer layers than that in aqueous ethanol and, at the same time, to account for the greater granular strength of MSethanol than that of MSacetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospective Zinc Solubilising Bacteria for Enhanced Nutrient Uptake and Growth Promotion in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Goteti, Praveen Kumar; Emmanuel, Leo Daniel Amalraj; Desai, Suseelendra; Shaik, Mir Hassan Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the essential micronutrients required for optimum plant growth. Substantial quantity of applied inorganic zinc in soil is converted into unavailable form. Zinc solubilising bacteria are potential alternates for zinc supplement. Among 10 strains screened for Zn solubilisation, P29, P33, and B40 produced 22.0 mm clear haloes on solid medium amended with ZnCO3. Similarly, P17 and B40 showed 31.0 mm zone in ZnO incorporated medium. P29 and B40 showed significant release of Zn in broth amended with ZnCO3 (17 and 16.8 ppm) and ZnO (18 and 17 ppm), respectively. The pH of the broth was almost acidic in all the cases ranging from 3.9 to 6.1 in ZnCO3 and from 4.1 to 6.4 in ZnO added medium. Short term pot culture experiment with maize revealed that seed bacterization with P29 @ 10 g·kg−1 significantly enhanced total dry mass (12.96 g) and uptake of N (2.268%), K (2.0%), Mn (60 ppm), and Zn (278.8 ppm). PMID:24489550

  1. Purification and characterization of cytosolic and microsomal cyclophilins from maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Sheldon, P S; Venis, M A

    1996-05-01

    Methods for the purification and separation of peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPI) from cytosolic and microsomal fractions of etiolated maize are described. On SDS/PAGE, the purified preparations appears as single polypeptides with molecular masses of 17.5 kDa and 17.7 kDa respectively. Instead of using immobilized cyclosporin A derivatives as affinity adsorbents, our methods employ conventional techniques enabling purification of the proteins on a much larger scale than previously described. An antiserum raised against the cytosolic PPI recognizes polypeptides of similar molecular mass from a wide range of plant species on an immunoblot. There is virtually no recognition of the microsomal PPI. The cytosolic and microsomal PPIs are inhibited by cyclosporin A (Ki = 6 nM in both cases), indicating that they are cyclophilins. The cytosolic enzyme is inactivated by 5 mM N-ethylmaleimide and 2 mM phenylglyoxal. N-terminal sequencing of the microsomal PPI indicates a high level of sequence similarity with the N-terminal sequence of mature animal s-cyclophilin (cyclophilin B).

  2. Molecular analysis of endophytic bacteria from the genus Bacillus isolated from tropical maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, José Edson Fontes; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; Guimarães, Claudia Teixeira; de Paula Lana, Ubiraci Gomes; Teixeira, Marta Aparecida; Lima, Guilherme Vitor Corrêa; Bressan, Wellington

    2009-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria play an important role in agriculture by improving plant performance and adaptation against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study molecular methods were used for identifying Bacillus endophytic bacteria isolated from Brazilian sweet corn. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell protein extract of forty-two isolates revealed a high number of scrutinable bands. Twenty-four isolates were identified in nine different groups of duplicated bacteria and eighteen were identified as unique. Some high-accumulated polipeptides with variable length were observed in almost isolates. Partial sequencing of 16S ribosomal gene revealed that all isolates are Bacillus sp. and among thirteen isolates with similar protein profiles, two were different strains. Among the forty-two isolates identified by rDNA sequencing, Bacillus subitilis and B. pumilus were the most frequenty species (15 and 12 isolates, respectively) followed by B. licheniformes (7 isolates), B. cereus (5 isolates) and B. amiloliquefascens (3 isolates). According to present results, SDS-PAGE technique could be used as a fast and cheap first tool for identifying inter-specific variation in maize endophytic bacterial collections while rDNA sequencing could be applied for analyzing intra-specific variation among isolates with similar protein profile as well as for taxonomic studies. PMID:24031395

  3. Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain <3 % of genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.

  4. Role of microbial inoculation and industrial by-product phosphogypsum in growth and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Al-Enazy, Abdul-Aziz R; Al-Oud, Saud S; Al-Barakah, Fahad N; Usman, Adel Ra

    2017-08-01

    Alkaline soils with high calcium carbonate and low organic matter are deficient in plant nutrient availability. Use of organic and bio-fertilizers has been suggested to improve their properties. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrative role of phosphogypsum (PG; added at 0.0, 10, 30, and 50 g PG kg(-1) ), cow manure (CM; added at 50 g kg(-1) ) and mixed microbial inoculation (Incl.; Azotobacter chroococcum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) on growth and nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) in calcareous soil. Treatment effects on soil chemical and biological properties and the Cd and Pb availability to maize plants were also investigated. Applying PG decreased soil pH. The soil available P increased when soil was inoculated and/or treated with CM, especially with PG. The total microbial count and dehydrogenase activity were enhanced with PG+CM+Incl. Inoculated soils treated with PG showed significant increases in NPK uptake and maize plant growth. However, the most investigated treatments showed significant decreases in shoot micronutrients. Cd and Pb were not detected in maize shoots. Applying PG with microbial inoculation improved macronutrient uptake and plant growth. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  6. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize ( Zea mays L.) lines

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.; Williams, Daniel L.; Magee, Timothy D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B.

    2015-02-20

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Also, another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. In conclusion, this indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment

  7. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize ( Zea mays L.) lines

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.; ...

    2015-02-20

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA)more » content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Also, another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. In conclusion, this indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment« less

  8. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D; Williams, Daniel L; Magee, Timothy D; Kaeppler, Shawn M; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B

    2015-07-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment.

  9. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.; Williams, Daniel L.; Magee, Timothy D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B.

    2015-01-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment. PMID:25871649

  10. Comparison of two methods of reciprocal recurrent selection in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Ordas, B; Butron, A; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Malvar, R A

    2012-05-01

    Reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS) was proposed for simultaneously improving two populations and their cross. A modification of the classical full-sib RRS (FS-RRS) was proposed in which the performance of full-sibs and S(2) families is combined in a selection index (FS-S(2)-RRS). The Mediterranean corn borer (MCB) is the main corn borer species in the Mediterranean and adjacent areas and produces important yield losses. We started two RRS programs (FS-RRS and FS-S(2)-RRS) from the same maize population in which the selection criterion was grain yield under artificial infestation with MCB eggs. Original populations, two cycles of selection derived from them by both RRS methods, and population crosses were evaluated under MCB attack and under insecticide treatment in three different environments. The objective was to compare the efficiency of the FS-RRS and the FS-S(2)-RRS methods for improving grain yield. We found that the FS-S(2)-RRS method was successful for improving the yield of the population cross under optimum conditions (the regression coefficient over cycles was b = 0.87** Mg ha(-1) cycle(-1)) without losing yield under high pressure of MCB attack (b = 0.07). On the contrary, FS-RRS failed to improve the yield of the population cross under optimum conditions (b = 0.65) and tended to decrease the yield under high levels of MCB attack (b = -0.26). We conclude that for developing high yielding and stable varieties, FS-S(2)-RRS is more efficient than the classical FS-RRS method.

  11. Photocontrol of gibberellin metabolism in situ in maize. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, S.B.; Beall, F.D.; Pharis, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Mature maize seeds were labeled with 10 to 100 pg per seed of (/sup 3/H) gibberellins (GA) and (/sup 3/H)GA glucosyl conjugate-like substances by feeding (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 20/ of high specific activity (2.3 Curies per millimole) during seed maturation. The dry seeds, which contained 14% (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 20/, 7% putative (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 1/ and 78% (/sup 3/H)GA glucosyl conjugate-like metabolites, were imbibed and germinated in the dark and under incandescent light. In both light and dark the proportion of (/sup 3/H)GA conjugate-like metabolities declined (relative to that in the mature dry seeds) during imbibition and up to germination at hour 36. This decline was accompanied by increases in the proportions of (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 20/ and putative (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 1/ thereby indicating hydrolysis, which was greater in the dark than in the light. The proportions of (/sup 3/H)GA conjugate-like substances in light-grown germinants were higher (121 and 141% of dark-grown) at 24 and 48 hour harvests and this statistically significant pattern was sustained up to 120 hours after imbibition. Conversely, the proportions of (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 20/ and putative (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 1/ were lower in the light-grown seedlings. Thus, during imbibition, hydrolysis (de-conjugation) of (/sup 3/H)GA glucosyl conjugate-like substances apparently occurred, and occurred more rapidly in the dark than in the light. Subsequently, during germination the reformation of (/sup 3/H)GA conjugate-like substances was less rapid in the dark than in the light.

  12. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms.

  13. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  14. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  15. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  16. The Genetic Architecture of Maize (Zea mays L.) Kernel Weight Determination

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Santiago Alvarez; López, César G.; Senior, M. Lynn; Borrás, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Individual kernel weight is an important trait for maize yield determination. We have identified genomic regions controlling this trait by using the B73xMo17 population; however, the effect of genetic background on control of this complex trait and its physiological components is not yet known. The objective of this study was to understand how genetic background affected our previous results. Two nested stable recombinant inbred line populations (N209xMo17 and R18xMo17) were designed for this purpose. A total of 408 recombinant inbred lines were genotyped and phenotyped at two environments for kernel weight and five other traits related to kernel growth and development. All traits showed very high and significant (P < 0.001) phenotypic variability and medium-to-high heritability (0.60−0.90). When N209xMo17 and R18xMo17 were analyzed separately, a total of 23 environmentally stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) and five epistatic interactions were detected for N209xMo17. For R18xMo17, 59 environmentally stable QTL and 17 epistatic interactions were detected. A joint analysis detected 14 stable QTL regardless of the genetic background. Between 57 and 83% of detected QTL were population specific, denoting medium-to-high genetic background effects. This percentage was dependent on the trait. A meta-analysis including our previous B73xMo17 results identified five relevant genomic regions deserving further characterization. In summary, our grain filling traits were dominated by small additive QTL with several epistatic and few environmental interactions and medium-to-high genetic background effects. This study demonstrates that the number of detected QTL and additive effects for different physiologically related grain filling traits need to be understood relative to the specific germplasm. PMID:25237113

  17. Low temperature stress in maize (Zea mays L.) induces genes involved in photosynthesis and signal transduction as studied by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha Thuy; Leipner, Jörg; Stamp, Peter; Guerra-Peraza, Orlene

    2009-02-01

    Unfavourable environmental conditions such as cold induce the transcription of a range of genes in plants in order to acclimate to these growth conditions. To better understand the cold acclimation of maize (Zea mays L.) it is important to identify components of the cold stress response. For this purpose, cold-induced genes were analysed using the PCR-select cDNA subtraction method. We identified several novel genes isolated from maize seedling exposed for 48h to 6 degrees C. Of 18 Zea mays cold-induced genes (ZmCOI genes) characterized, the majority share similarities with proteins with known function in signal transduction and photosynthesis regulation. RT-PCR was conducted for a selected group of genes, namely ZmCOI6.1, ZmACA1, ZmDREB2A and ZmERF3, confirming the induction by low temperature. In addition, it was found that their expression was strongly induced by other abiotic stresses such as drought and high salt concentration, by stress signalling molecules such as jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and abscisic acid, and by membrane rigidification. These results suggest that this group of genes is involved in a general response to abiotic stresses.

  18. Novel Effects of Nanoparticulate Delivery of Zinc on Growth, Productivity, and Zinc Biofortification in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Layam Venkata; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Krishna, Thimmavajjula Giridhara; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Reddy, Balam Ravindra; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-05-18

    In the present investigation, nanoscale zinc oxide particulates (ZnO-nanoparticulates) were prepared using a modified oxalate decomposition method. Prepared ZnO-nanoparticulates (mean size = 25 nm) were characterized using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and zeta potential analyzer. Different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates were examined to reveal their effects on maize crop on overall growth and translocation of zinc along with bulk ZnSO4 and control. Highest germination percentage (80%) and seedling vigor index (1923.20) were observed at 1500 ppm of ZnO-nanoparticulates. The yield was 42% more compared to control and 15% higher compared to 2000 ppm of ZnSO4. Higher accumulation of zinc (35.96 ppm) in grains was recorded with application of 100 ppm followed by 400 ppm (31.05 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates. These results indicate that ZnO-nanoparticulates have significant effects on growth, yield, and zinc content of maize grains, which is an important feature in terms of human health.

  19. Silicon modifies root anatomy, and uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in young maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Vaculík, Marek; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria; Luxová, Miroslava; Stoláriková, Miroslava; Lux, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Silicon (Si) has been shown to ameliorate the negative influence of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth and development. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood. Here we describe the effect of Si on growth, and uptake and subcellular distribution of Cd in maize plants in relation to the development of root tissues. Methods Young maize plants (Zea mays) were cultivated for 10 d hydroponically with 5 or 50 µm Cd and/or 5 mm Si. Growth parameters and the concentrations of Cd and Si were determined in root and shoot by atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The development of apoplasmic barriers (Casparian bands and suberin lamellae) and vascular tissues in roots were analysed, and the influence of Si on apoplasmic and symplasmic distribution of 109Cd applied at 34 nm was investigated between root and shoot. Key Results Si stimulated the growth of young maize plants exposed to Cd and influenced the development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae as well as vascular tissues in root. Si did not affect the distribution of apoplasmic and symplasmic Cd in maize roots, but considerably decreased symplasmic and increased apoplasmic concentration of Cd in maize shoots. Conclusions Differences in Cd uptake of roots and shoots are probably related to the development of apoplasmic barriers and maturation of vascular tissues in roots. Alleviation of Cd toxicity by Si might be attributed to enhanced binding of Cd to the apoplasmic fraction in maize shoots. PMID:22455991

  20. Silicon modifies root anatomy, and uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in young maize plants.

    PubMed

    Vaculík, Marek; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria; Luxová, Miroslava; Stoláriková, Miroslava; Lux, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Silicon (Si) has been shown to ameliorate the negative influence of cadmium (Cd) on plant growth and development. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood. Here we describe the effect of Si on growth, and uptake and subcellular distribution of Cd in maize plants in relation to the development of root tissues. Young maize plants (Zea mays) were cultivated for 10 d hydroponically with 5 or 50 µm Cd and/or 5 mm Si. Growth parameters and the concentrations of Cd and Si were determined in root and shoot by atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The development of apoplasmic barriers (Casparian bands and suberin lamellae) and vascular tissues in roots were analysed, and the influence of Si on apoplasmic and symplasmic distribution of (109)Cd applied at 34 nm was investigated between root and shoot. Si stimulated the growth of young maize plants exposed to Cd and influenced the development of Casparian bands and suberin lamellae as well as vascular tissues in root. Si did not affect the distribution of apoplasmic and symplasmic Cd in maize roots, but considerably decreased symplasmic and increased apoplasmic concentration of Cd in maize shoots. Differences in Cd uptake of roots and shoots are probably related to the development of apoplasmic barriers and maturation of vascular tissues in roots. Alleviation of Cd toxicity by Si might be attributed to enhanced binding of Cd to the apoplasmic fraction in maize shoots.

  1. Risks and benefits of genetically modified maize donations to southern Africa: views from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Muula, Adamson S; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph M

    2003-02-01

    In 2001 and 2002, many countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have suffered from severe food shortages resulting in an estimated 14 million people facing starvation due to inadequate quantities of the staple maize. The international community's response has been the donation of foodstuffs, including genetically modified maize. Reactions of the recipient countries of Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi have been different. Zambia appealed to the donors not to send genetically modified maize, whereas Malawi accepted the maize donations. Malawi is currently facing many public health challenges because 10% of its 10-million population is HIV-positive, maternal mortality rate has almost doubled between 1992 and 2000, and there are also an estimated 1 million orphans due to HIV/AIDS. In the European Union, genetically modified maize falls under "Novel Foods" and its marketing and distribution are strictly regulated by law. This has never been the case in the southern African countries. In this article, we discuss the ethical challenges associated with genetically modified maize donations to southern Africa. Although genetically modified food offers a way to avoid many adverse effects of food shortages, we believe that some of the ethical questions of genetically modified food donations should be solved first, under the leadership of the donor countries and partnership of the developing countries. There are fears that consummation of genetically modified maize could have adverse health effects. These fears must be addressed if the confidence of developing countries in the donor community is to be maintained.

  2. Comparative study of transgenic and non-transgenic maize (Zea mays) flours commercialized in Brazil, focussing on proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Nádia; Barbosa, Herbert; Jacob, Silvana; Arruda, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Genetically modified foods are a major concern around the world due to the lack of information concerning their safety and health effects. This work evaluates differences, at the proteomic level, between two types of crop samples: transgenic (MON810 event with the Cry1Ab gene, which confers resistance to insects) and non-transgenic maize flour commercialized in Brazil. The 2-D DIGE technique revealed 99 differentially expressed spots, which were collected in 2-D PAGE gels and identified via mass spectrometry (nESI-QTOF MS/MS). The abundance of protein differences between the transgenic and non-transgenic samples could arise from genetic modification or as a result of an environmental influence pertaining to the commercial sample. The major functional category of proteins identified was related to disease/defense and, although differences were observed between samples, no toxins or allergenic proteins were found.

  3. High temperature effects on photosynthate partitioning and sugar metabolism during ear expansion in maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Ryuichi; Hakata, Hiroaki; Hara, Hiromichi; El-Shemy, Hany A; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph J; Nguyen, Nguyen Tran; Kanai, Synsuke; Lightfoot, David A; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2010-01-01

    Short hot and dry spells before, or during, silking have an inordinately large effect on maize (Zea mays L.; corn) grain yield. New high yielding genotypes could be developed if the mechanism of yield loss were more fully understood and new assays developed. The aim here was to determine the effects of high temperature (35/27 degrees C) compared to cooler (25/18 degrees C) temperatures (day/night). Stress was applied for a 14 d-period during reproductive stages prior to silking. Effects on whole plant biomass, ear development, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism were measured in both dent and sweet corn genotypes. Results showed that the whole plant biomass was increased by the high temperature. However, the response varied among plant parts; in leaves and culms weights were slightly increased or stable; cob weights decreased; and other ear parts of dent corn also decreased by high temperature. Photosynthetic activity was not affected by the treatments. The (13)C export rate from an ear leaf was decreased by the high temperature treatment. The amount of (13)C partitioning to the ears decreased more than to other plant parts by the high temperature. Within the ear decreases were greatest in the cob than the shank within an ear. Sugar concentrations in both hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of cobs in sweet corn were decreased by high temperature, and the hemicellulose fraction in the shank also decreased. In dent corn there was no reduction of sugar concentration except in the in cellulose fraction, suggesting that synthesis of cell-wall components is impaired by high temperatures. The high temperature treatment promoted the growth of vegetative plant parts but reduced ear expansion, particularly suppression of cob extensibility by impairing hemicellulose and cellulose synthesis through reduction of photosynthate supply. Therefore, plant biomass production was enhanced and grain yield reduced by the high temperature treatment due to effects on sink

  4. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, L. C.; Justino, F.; Oliveira, L. J. C.; Sediyama, G. C.; Ferreira, W. P. M.; Lemos, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  5. Field controlled experiments on the physiological responses of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves to low-level air and soil mercury exposures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Yi; Ci, Zhijia

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of tons of mercury (Hg) are released from anthropogenic and natural sources to the atmosphere in a gaseous elemental form per year, yet little is known regarding the influence of airborne Hg on the physiological activities of plant leaves. In the present study, the effects of low-level air and soil Hg exposures on the gas exchange parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves and their accumulation of Hg, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined via field open-top chamber and Hg-enriched soil experiments, respectively. Low-level air Hg exposures (<50 ng m(-3)) had little effects on the gas exchange parameters of maize leaves during most of the daytime (p > 0.05). However, both the net photosynthesis rate and carboxylation efficiency of maize leaves exposed to 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly lower than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg in late morning (p < 0.05). Additionally, the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves exposed to 20 and 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly higher than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the increase in airborne Hg potentially damaged functional photosynthetic apparatus in plant leaves, inducing free proline accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation. Due to minor translocation of soil Hg to the leaves, low-level soil Hg exposures (<1,000 ng g(-1)) had no significant influences on the gas exchange parameters, or the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves (p > 0.05). Compared to soil Hg, airborne Hg easily caused physiological stress to plant leaves. The effects of increasing atmospheric Hg concentration on plant physiology should be of concern.

  6. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E.; Archibald, Rayeann L.; Drummond, Bruce J.; Chamberlin, Mark A.; Williams, Robert W.; Lafitte, H. Renee; Weers, Ben P.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions. PMID:26220950

  7. Modification of nitrogen remobilization, grain fill and leaf senescence in maize (Zea mays) by transposon insertional mutagenesis in a protease gene.

    PubMed

    Donnison, Iain S; Gay, Alan P; Thomas, Howard; Edwards, Keith J; Edwards, David; James, Caron L; Thomas, Ann M; Ougham, Helen J

    2007-01-01

    A maize (Zea mays) senescence-associated legumain gene, See2beta, was characterized at the physiological and molecular levels to determine its role in senescence and resource allocation. A reverse-genetics screen of a maize Mutator (Mu) population identified a Mu insertion in See2beta. Maize plants homozygous for the insertion were produced. These See2 mutant and sibling wild-type plants were grown under high or low quantities of nitrogen (N). The early development of both genotypes was similar; however, tassel tip and collar emergence occurred earlier in the mutant. Senescence of the mutant leaves followed a similar pattern to that of wild-type leaves, but at later sampling points mutant plants contained more chlorophyll than wild-type plants and showed a small extension in photosynthetic activity. Total plant weight was higher in the wild-type than in the mutant, and there was a genotype x N interaction. Mutant plants under low N maintained cob weight, in contrast to wild-type plants under the same treatment. It is concluded, on the basis of transposon mutagenesis, that See2beta has an important role in N-use and resource allocation under N-limited conditions, and a minor but significant function in the later stages of senescence.

  8. The maize (Zea mays L.) roothairless3 gene encodes a putative GPI-anchored, monocot-specific, COBRA-like protein that significantly affects grain yield

    PubMed Central

    Hochholdinger, Frank; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Zimmermann, Roman; Chimot-Marolle, Patricia; da Costa e Silva, Oswaldo; Bruce, Wesley; Lamkey, Kendall R; Wienand, Udo; Schnable, Patrick S

    2008-01-01

    Summary The rth3 (roothairless 3) mutant is specifically affected in root hair elongation. We report here the cloning of the rth3 gene via a PCR-based strategy (amplification of insertion mutagenized sites) and demonstrate that it encodes a COBRA-like protein that displays all the structural features of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Genes of the COBRA family are involved in various types of cell expansion and cell wall biosynthesis. The rth3 gene belongs to a monocot-specific clade of the COBRA gene family comprising two maize and two rice genes. While the rice (Oryza sativa) gene OsBC1L1 appears to be orthologous to rth3 based on sequence similarity (86% identity at the protein level) and maize/rice synteny, the maize (Zea mays L.) rth3-like gene does not appear to be a functional homolog of rth3 based on their distinct expression profiles. Massively parallel signature sequencing analysis detected rth3 expression in all analyzed tissues, but at relatively low levels, with the most abundant expression in primary roots where the root hair phenotype is manifested. In situ hybridization experiments confine rth3 expression to root hair-forming epidermal cells and lateral root primordia. Remarkably, in replicated field trials involving near-isogenic lines, the rth3 mutant conferred significant losses in grain yield. PMID:18298667

  9. Iron Inefficiency in Maize Mutant ys1 (Zea mays L. cv Yellow-Stripe) Is Caused by a Defect in Uptake of Iron Phytosiderophores.

    PubMed Central

    Von Wiren, N.; Mori, S.; Marschner, H.; Romheld, V.

    1994-01-01

    To determine the Fe inefficiency factors in the maize mutant ys1 (Zea mays L. cv Yellow Stripe), root exudates of Fe-inefficient ys1 and of two Fe-efficient maize cultivars (Alice, WF9) were collected in axenic nutrient solution cultures. Analysis by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that under Fe deficiency ys1 released the phytosiderophore 2[prime]-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) in quantities similar to those of Alice and WF9. Under nonaxenic conditions, DMA released by plants of all three cultivars was rapidly decomposed by microorganisms in the nutrient solution. Uptake experiments with 59Fe-labeled DMA, purified from root exudates of either Fe-deficient Alice or ys1 plants, showed up to 20 times lower uptake and translocation of 59Fe in ys1 than in Alice or WF9 plants. The presence of microorganisms during preculture and short-term uptake experiments had no significant effect on uptake and translocation rates of 59Fe in Alice and ys1 plants. We conclude that Fe inefficiency in the maize mutant ys1 is the result of a defect in the uptake system for Fe-phytosiderophores. PMID:12232304

  10. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the development of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Renxin; Fu, Ruiying; Bi, Na; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Wenjing; Guo, Jiangyuan; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Coal mine spoils are usually unfavorable for plant growth and have different properties according to dumping years, weathering degree, and the occurrence of spontaneous combustion. The establishment of plant cover in mine spoils can be facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the importance of AMF in plant adaptation to different mine spoils and the potential role of AMF for revegetation practices. We investigated the effects of Glomus aggregatum, Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices), and Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) on the growth, nutritional status, and metal uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in recent discharged (S1), weathered (S2), and spontaneous combusted (S3) coal mine spoils. Symbiotic associations were successfully established between AMF and maize in three substrates. Mycorrhizal colonization effectively promoted plant growth by significantly increasing the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), adjusting C:N:P stoichiometry and alleviating toxic effects of heavy metals. G. aggregatum, R. intraradices, and F. mosseae exhibited different mycorrhizal effects in response to mine spoil types. F. mosseae was the most effective in the development of maize in S1 and may be the most appropriate for revegetation of this substrate, while R. intraradices played the most beneficial role in S2 and S3. Our results suggest that inoculation with AMF can enhance plant adaptation to different types of coal mine spoils and play a positive role in the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks.

  11. A multiplex PCR method of detecting recombinant DNAs from five lines of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Kuribara, H; Akiyama, H; Miura, H; Goda, Y; Kusakabe, Y; Isshiki, K; Toyoda, M; Hino, A

    2001-02-01

    Seven lines of genetically modified (GM) maize have been authorized in Japan as foods and feeds imported from the USA. We improved a multiplex PCR method described in the previous report in order to distinguish the five lines of GM maize. Genomic DNA was extracted from GM maize with a silica spin column kit, which could reduce experimental time and improve safety in the laboratory and potentially in the environment. We sequenced recombinant DNA (r-DNA) introduced into GM maize, and re-designed new primer pairs to increase the specificity of PCR to distinguish five lines of GM maize by multiplex PCR. A primer pair for the maize intrinsic zein gene (Ze1) was also designed to confirm the presence of amplifiable maize DNA. The lengths of PCR products using these six primer pairs were different. The Ze1 and the r-DNAs from the five lines of GM maize were qualitatively detected in one tube. The specific PCR bands were distinguishable from each other on the basis of the expected length. The r-DNA could be detected from maize samples containing 0.5% of each of the five lines of GM maize. The sensitivity would be acceptable to secure the verification of non-GMO materials and to monitor the reliability of the labeling system.

  12. Maize plants infestation by Fusarium spp. and deoxynivalenol in genetically modified corn hybrid and traditional maize cultivars.

    PubMed

    Selwet, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the performed investigations was to isolate pathogenic fungi from contaminated maize cobs, to assess the appearance of maize cob fusariosis and to determine grain contamination with deoxynivalenol in the cultivation of genetically modified maize containing a gene resistance against European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn) as well as selected non-modified cultivars. The plant material comprised the following genetically modified maize cultivar: DKC 3421 YG (MON 810) and non-modified cultivars obtained from Smolice Plant Breeding Ltd., IHAR Group: Junak (FAO 210-220), Prosna (FAO 220), SMH (FAO 230), Baca (FAO 220). Prior to harvesting, the occurrence of maize cob fusariosis was determined in the 89 (BBCH) developmental ripening stage. Microbiological assessment was carried out on grains selected from cobs characterized by various pathological symptoms. In 2008, a total of 133 isolates was obtained from the examined samples of infected maize plants, of which 51 isolates were species-identified, while in 2009, the total of 123 isolates were determined, of which 63 were species-identified. In both experimental years, the majority of isolates contained fungi from the Fusarium genus. The performed analysis of mean levels of cob contamination by fusarioses revealed that DKC 3421 YG (MON 810) and SMH (FAO 230) cultivars showed the smallest levels of contamination as well as the lowest percent of cob contamination per plant, while Junak (FAO 210-220) and Baca (FAO 220) cultivars were characterized by the highest degree of contamination. The lowest deoxynivalenol concentrations were determined in years 2008 and 2009 in the case of the DKC 3421 YG (MON 810) cultivar, whereas Prosna (FAO 220) cultivar was characterized by the highest deoxynivalenol concentration.

  13. Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-09-18

    A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods.

  14. Identification and expression profiling analysis of calmodulin-binding transcription activator genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic and biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Yue, Runqing; Lu, Caixia; Sun, Tao; Peng, Tingting; Han, Xiaohua; Qi, Jianshuang; Yan, Shufeng; Tie, Shuanggui

    2015-01-01

    The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTA) play critical roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stimuli. However, how CAMTAs function in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in maize (Zea mays L.) is largely unknown. In this study, we first identified all the CAMTA homologous genes in the whole genome of maize. The results showed that nine ZmCAMTA genes showed highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns. Many ZmCAMTA genes displayed high expression levels in the roots. We then surveyed the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in the -1.5 kb promoter regions of ZmCAMTA genes. Notably, a large number of stress-related elements present in the promoter regions of some ZmCAMTA genes, indicating a genetic basis of stress expression regulation of these genes. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression of ZmCAMTA genes under several abiotic stresses (drought, salt, and cold), various stress-related hormones [abscisic acid, auxin, salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid] and biotic stress [rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) infection]. Furthermore, the expression pattern of ZmCAMTA genes under RBSDV infection was analyzed to investigate their potential roles in responses of different maize cultivated varieties to RBSDV. The expression of most ZmCAMTA genes responded to both abiotic and biotic stresses. The data will help us to understand the roles of CAMTA-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in maize tolerance to environmental stresses.

  15. Identification and expression profiling analysis of calmodulin-binding transcription activator genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic and biotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Runqing; Lu, Caixia; Sun, Tao; Peng, Tingting; Han, Xiaohua; Qi, Jianshuang; Yan, Shufeng; Tie, Shuanggui

    2015-01-01

    The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTA) play critical roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stimuli. However, how CAMTAs function in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in maize (Zea mays L.) is largely unknown. In this study, we first identified all the CAMTA homologous genes in the whole genome of maize. The results showed that nine ZmCAMTA genes showed highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns. Many ZmCAMTA genes displayed high expression levels in the roots. We then surveyed the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in the −1.5 kb promoter regions of ZmCAMTA genes. Notably, a large number of stress-related elements present in the promoter regions of some ZmCAMTA genes, indicating a genetic basis of stress expression regulation of these genes. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression of ZmCAMTA genes under several abiotic stresses (drought, salt, and cold), various stress-related hormones [abscisic acid, auxin, salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid] and biotic stress [rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) infection]. Furthermore, the expression pattern of ZmCAMTA genes under RBSDV infection was analyzed to investigate their potential roles in responses of different maize cultivated varieties to RBSDV. The expression of most ZmCAMTA genes responded to both abiotic and biotic stresses. The data will help us to understand the roles of CAMTA-mediated Ca2+ signaling in maize tolerance to environmental stresses. PMID:26284092

  16. The Aux/IAA gene rum1 involved in seminal and lateral root formation controls vascular patterning in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Liu, Sanzhen; Tai, Huanhuan; Nestler, Josefine; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Opitz, Nina; Lanz, Christa; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEMS 1) controls seminal and lateral root initiation. To identify RUM1-dependent gene expression patterns, RNA-Seq of the differentiation zone of primary roots of rum1 mutants and the wild type was performed in four biological replicates. In total, 2 801 high-confidence maize genes displayed differential gene expression with Fc ≥2 and FDR ≤1%. The auxin signalling-related genes rum1, like-auxin1 (lax1), lax2, (nam ataf cuc 1 nac1), the plethora genes plt1 (plethora 1), bbm1 (baby boom 1), and hscf1 (heat shock complementing factor 1) and the auxin response factors arf8 and arf37 were down-regulated in the mutant rum1. All of these genes except nac1 were auxin-inducible. The maize arf8 and arf37 genes are orthologues of Arabidopsis MP/ARF5 (MONOPTEROS/ARF5), which controls the differentiation of vascular cells. Histological analyses of mutant rum1 roots revealed defects in xylem organization and the differentiation of pith cells around the xylem. Moreover, histochemical staining of enlarged pith cells surrounding late metaxylem elements demonstrated that their thickened cell walls displayed excessive lignin deposition. In line with this phenotype, rum1-dependent mis-expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes was observed. In summary, RNA-Seq of RUM1-dependent gene expression in maize primary roots, in combination with histological and histochemical analyses, revealed the specific regulation of auxin signal transduction components by RUM1 and novel functions of RUM1 in vascular development. PMID:24928984

  17. The Aux/IAA gene rum1 involved in seminal and lateral root formation controls vascular patterning in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Liu, Sanzhen; Tai, Huanhuan; Nestler, Josefine; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Opitz, Nina; Lanz, Christa; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEMS 1) controls seminal and lateral root initiation. To identify RUM1-dependent gene expression patterns, RNA-Seq of the differentiation zone of primary roots of rum1 mutants and the wild type was performed in four biological replicates. In total, 2 801 high-confidence maize genes displayed differential gene expression with Fc ≥2 and FDR ≤1%. The auxin signalling-related genes rum1, like-auxin1 (lax1), lax2, (nam ataf cuc 1 nac1), the plethora genes plt1 (plethora 1), bbm1 (baby boom 1), and hscf1 (heat shock complementing factor 1) and the auxin response factors arf8 and arf37 were down-regulated in the mutant rum1. All of these genes except nac1 were auxin-inducible. The maize arf8 and arf37 genes are orthologues of Arabidopsis MP/ARF5 (MONOPTEROS/ARF5), which controls the differentiation of vascular cells. Histological analyses of mutant rum1 roots revealed defects in xylem organization and the differentiation of pith cells around the xylem. Moreover, histochemical staining of enlarged pith cells surrounding late metaxylem elements demonstrated that their thickened cell walls displayed excessive lignin deposition. In line with this phenotype, rum1-dependent mis-expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes was observed. In summary, RNA-Seq of RUM1-dependent gene expression in maize primary roots, in combination with histological and histochemical analyses, revealed the specific regulation of auxin signal transduction components by RUM1 and novel functions of RUM1 in vascular development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Ozone and aging up-regulate type II metacaspase gene expression and global metacaspase activity in the leaves of field-grown maize (Zea mays L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Passaquet, Chantal; Bethenod, Olivier; Roche, Romain; Repellin, Anne

    2012-05-01

    Maize plants (Zea mays L. cv. NK Perform) were exposed to O(3)-enriched air, using a new field fumigation system. Transcriptional changes for three type II-metacaspase genes were studied in the leaves (ranks 10 and 12), using quantitative real-time PCR. Global metacaspase activity was measured using metacaspase-specific synthetic tripeptide Boc-GRR-AMC. Aging had little effect on mRNA accumulation whereas four to six-fold increases were observed for the most O(3)-responsive type II metacaspase genes, in the older leaves 10. Global metacaspase activity increased by 257% and 333% in leaves 12 and 10, respectively, in response to the highest cumulated concentration. In non-fumigated plants, metacaspase activity progressively increased over the course of the experiment and always was higher in the older leaves 10. Together, these results suggest that metacaspase-mediated proteolysis is a crucial step in leaf responses to both O(3) and age-mediated senescence.

  19. The initiation of lateral roots in the primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) implies a reactivation of cell proliferation in a group of founder pericycle cells.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Salguero, Julio

    2016-03-15

    The initiation of lateral roots (LRs) has generally been viewed as a reactivation of proliferative activity in pericycle cells that are committed to initiate primordia. However, it is also possible that pericycle founder cells that initiate LRs never cease proliferative activity but rather are displaced to the most distal root zones while undertaking successive stages of LR initiation. In this study, we tested these two alternative hypotheses by examining the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) into the DNA of meristematic root cells of Zea mays. According to the values for the length of the cell cycle and values for cell displacement along the maize root, our results strongly suggest that pericycle cells that initiate LR primordia ceased proliferative activity upon exiting the meristematic zone. This finding is supported by the existence of a root zone between 4 and 20mm from the root cap junction, in which neither mitotic cells nor labelled nuclei were observed in phloem pericycle cells.

  20. Changes in growth irradiance are reflected on H⁺ATPase activity of plasma membrane enriched vesicles from maize (Zea mays L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Zuchi, Sabrina; Astolfi, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Leaves change their photosynthetic activity in response to growth light conditions, but little is known about what may happen at the root level. The effect of irradiance level (high or low) on transport activities of root plasma membrane enriched vesicles was studied in maize (Zea mays L.) plants. High irradiance appears to have a differential promoting effect on proton transport activity and ATPase activity, the most pronounced one on ATP-dependent H(+)-accumulation. Furthermore, our results put in evidence a correlation between increase in enzyme activity and increase in MHA2 gene transcription level. Finally, high irradiance results in increased uptake rates of nitrate and in a higher reduction rate of the anion. We suggest that high light-induced changes in plasma membrane H(+)ATPase activity and transcription might have an adaptive role in sustaining the higher request for the nitrate resulting from increased photosynthate availability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Constitutive Expression of the Maize Genes B1 and C1 in Transgenic Hi II Maize Results in Differential Tissue Pigmentation and Generates Resistance to Helicoverpa zea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize protects tissues from biotic and abiotic stresses. Constitutive expression of the maize B1 and C1 genes, which induces anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulted in transgenic plants with varied phenotypes. Some colored leaves were substantially resistant to thrips damage...

  2. Investigation on gene transfer from genetically modified corn (Zea mays L.) plants to soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ma, B L; Blackshaw, Robert E; Roy, Julie; He, Tianpei

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in soil bacteria communities is required to evaluate the possibility and ecological consequences of the transfer of these genes carried by genetically modified (GM) plants to soil bacteria. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) conferring resistance to kanamycin and neomycin is one of the antibiotic resistance genes commonly present in GM plants. In this study, we investigated kanamycin-resistant (Km(R)) and neomycin-resistant (Nm(R)) soil bacterial populations in a 3-year field trial using a commercial GM corn (Zea mays L.) carrying the nptII gene and its near isogenic line. The results showed that a portion (2.3 - 15.6 %) of cultivable soil bacteria was naturally resistant to kanamycin or neomycin. However, no significant difference in the population level of Km(R) or Nm(R) soil bacteria was observed between the GM and non-GM corn fields. The nptII gene was not detected in any of the total 3000 Km(R) or Nm(R) isolates screened by PCR. Further, total soil bacterial cells were collected through Nycodenz gradient centrifugation and bacterial community DNA was subjected to PCR. Detection limit was about 500 cells per gram of fresh soil. Our study suggests that the nptII gene was relatively rare in the soil bacterial populations and there was no evidence of gene transfer from a GM corn plant to soil bacteria based on the data from total soil bacterial communities.

  3. Provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize variety (Zea mays L.) grown in different geographical locations of central Malawi.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Taeyoung; Ndolo, Victoria U; Katundu, Mangani; Nyirenda, Blessings; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Arntfield, Susan; Beta, Trust

    2016-04-01

    The provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize from different locations (A, B, C and D) of central Malawi has been evaluated. Physicochemical compositions, color, total carotenoid content (TCC), carotenoid profiles, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant capacities of maize were determined. Color values of orange maize had correlations with β-cryptoxanthin (r>0.36). TCC of white and orange maize averaged 2.12 and 59.5 mg/kg, respectively. Lutein was the most abundant carotenoid (47.8%) in orange maize, followed by zeaxanthin (24.2%), β-carotene (16.4%) and β-cryptoxanthin (11.6%). Location D showed the highest levels of lutein, zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity. Provitamin A content of orange maize met the target level (15 μg/g) of biofortification. Retinol activity equivalent (RAE) from β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in orange maize averaged 81.73 μg/100g. In conclusion, orange maize has the potential to be a natural source of provitamin A.

  4. The selection and use of sorghum (Sorghum propinquum) bacterial artificial chromosomes as cytogenetic FISH probes for maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Debbie M; Davis, James D; Strobel, Cornelia; Conejo, Maria S; Beckham, Katherine D; Ring, Brian C; Bass, Hank W

    2011-01-01

    The integration of genetic and physical maps of maize is progressing rapidly, but the cytogenetic maps lag behind, with the exception of the pachytene fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps of maize chromosome 9. We sought to produce integrated FISH maps of other maize chromosomes using Core Bin Marker loci. Because these 1 Kb restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) probes are below the FISH detection limit, we used BACs from sorghum, a small-genome relative of maize, as surrogate clones for FISH mapping. We sequenced 151 maize RFLP probes and compared in silico BAC selection methods to that of library filter hybridization and found the latter to be the best. BAC library screening, clone verification, and single-clone selection criteria are presented along with an example of transgenomic BAC FISH mapping. This strategy has been used to facilitate the integration of RFLP and FISH maps in other large-genome species.

  5. Co-expression network analysis of duplicate genes in maize (Zea mays L.) reveals no subgenome bias.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Briskine, Roman; Schaefer, Robert; Schnable, Patrick S; Myers, Chad L; Flagel, Lex E; Springer, Nathan M; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2016-11-04

    Gene duplication is prevalent in many species and can result in coding and regulatory divergence. Gene duplications can be classified as whole genome duplication (WGD), tandem and inserted (non-syntenic). In maize, WGD resulted in the subgenomes maize1 and maize2, of which maize1 is considered the dominant subgenome. However, the landscape of co-expression network divergence of duplicate genes in maize is still largely uncharacterized. To address the consequence of gene duplication on co-expression network divergence, we developed a gene co-expression network from RNA-seq data derived from 64 different tissues/stages of the maize reference inbred-B73. WGD, tandem and inserted gene duplications exhibited distinct regulatory divergence. Inserted duplicate genes were more likely to be singletons in the co-expression networks, while WGD duplicate genes were likely to be co-expressed with other genes. Tandem duplicate genes were enriched in the co-expression pattern where co-expressed genes were nearly identical for the duplicates in the network. Older gene duplications exhibit more extensive co-expression variation than younger duplications. Overall, non-syntenic genes primarily from inserted duplications show more co-expression divergence. Also, such enlarged co-expression divergence is significantly related to duplication age. Moreover, subgenome dominance was not observed in the co-expression networks - maize1 and maize2 exhibit similar levels of intra subgenome correlations. Intriguingly, the level of inter subgenome co-expression was similar to the level of intra subgenome correlations, and genes from specific subgenomes were not likely to be the enriched in co-expression network modules and the hub genes were not predominantly from any specific subgenomes in maize. Our work provides a comprehensive analysis of maize co-expression network divergence for three different types of gene duplications and identifies potential relationships between duplication types

  6. Plant potassium content modifies the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on root hydraulic properties in maize plants.

    PubMed

    El-Mesbahi, Mohamed Najib; Azcón, Rosario; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aroca, Ricardo

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis helps the host plant to overcome several abiotic stresses including drought. One of the mechanisms for this drought tolerance enhancement is the higher water uptake capacity of the mycorrhizal plants. However, the effects of the AM symbiosis on processes regulating root hydraulic properties of the host plant, such as root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression, and protein abundance, are not well defined. Since it is known that K(+) status is modified by AM and that it regulates root hydraulic properties, it has been tested how plant K(+) status could modify the effects of the symbiosis on root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression and protein abundance, using maize (Zea mays L.) plants and Glomus intraradices as a model. It was observed that the supply of extra K(+) increased root hydraulic conductivity only in AM plants. Also, the different pattern of plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression and protein abundance between AM and non-AM plants changed with the application of extra K(+). Thus, plant K(+) status could be one of the causes of the different observed effects of the AM symbiosis on root hydraulic properties. The present study also highlights the critical importance of AM fungal aquaporins in regulating root hydraulic properties of the host plant.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in maize (Zea mays. L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Bian, Yunlong; Lv, Yanping; Xie, Qin

    2010-12-01

    The phytohormone auxin is important in various aspects of organism growth and development. Aux/IAA genes encoding short-lived nuclear proteins are responsive primarily to auxin induction. Despite their physiological importance, systematic analysis of Aux/IAA genes in maize have not yet been reported. In this paper, we presented the isolation and characterization of maize Aux/IAA genes in whole-genome scale. A total of 31 maize Aux/IAA genes (ZmIAA1 to ZmIAA31) were identified. ZmIAA genes are distributed in all the maize chromosomes except chromosome 2. Aux/IAA genes expand in the maize genome partly due to tandem and segmental duplication events. Multiple alignment and motif display results revealed major maize Aux/IAA proteins share all the four conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated Aux/IAA family can be divided into seven subfamilies. Putative cis-acting regulatory DNA elements involved in auxin response, light signaling transduction and abiotic stress adaption were observed in the promoters of ZmIAA genes. Expression data mining suggested maize Aux/IAA genes have temporal and spatial expression pattern. Collectively, these results will provide molecular insights into the auxin metabolism, transport and signaling research.

  8. An expression analysis of 57 transcription factors derived from ESTs of developing seeds in Maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Fei; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-06-01

    Maize seeds are an important source of food, animal feed, and industrial raw materials. To understand global gene expression and regulation during maize seed development, a normalized cDNA library, covering most of the developmental stages of maize seeds, was constructed. Sequencing analysis of 10,848 randomly selected clones identified 6,630 unique ESTs. Among them, 57 putative transcription factors (TFs) were identified. The TFs belong to seven different super-families, specifically 17 Zinc-finger, 13 bZIP, 8 bHLH, 6 MADS, 7 MYB, 3 Homedomain, and 3 AP2/EREBP. The spatial and temporal expression of the TFs was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR with representative tissue types and seeds at different developmental stages, revealing their diverse expression patterns and expression levels. One-third (19) of the maize TFs was found their putative orthologs in Arabidopsis. Similar expression patterns were observed in both maize and Arabidopsis for the majority of orthologous pairs (15 out of 19), suggesting their conserved functions during seed development. In conclusion, the systematic analysis of maize seed TFs has provided valuable insight into transcriptional regulation during maize seed development.

  9. Association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes with root traits in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharath; Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Pace, Jordon; Reyes-Matamoros, Jenaro; Hochholdinger, Frank; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Several genes involved in maize root development have been isolated. Identification of SNPs associated with root traits would enable the selection of maize lines with better root architecture that might help to improve N uptake, and consequently plant growth particularly under N deficient conditions. In the present study, an association study (AS) panel consisting of 74 maize inbred lines was screened for seedling root traits in 6, 10, and 14-day-old seedlings. Allele re-sequencing of candidate root genes Rtcl, Rth3, Rum1, and Rul1 was also carried out in the same AS panel lines. All four candidate genes displayed different levels of nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium. Gene based association analyses were carried out between individual polymorphisms in candidate genes, and root traits measured in 6, 10, and 14-day-old maize seedlings. Association analyses revealed several polymorphisms within the Rtcl, Rth3, Rum1, and Rul1 genes associated with seedling root traits. Several nucleotide polymorphisms in Rtcl, Rth3, Rum1, and Rul1 were significantly (P<0.05) associated with seedling root traits in maize suggesting that all four tested genes are involved in the maize root development. Thus considerable allelic variation present in these root genes can be exploited for improving maize root characteristics.

  10. Size dependent effects of antifungal phytogenic silver nanoparticles on germination, growth and biochemical parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L), maize (Zea mays L) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Tollamadugu N V K V; Adam, Shaik; Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Ravindra Reddy, Balam; Giridhara Krishna, Thimmavajjula

    2017-04-01

    Advancement in materials synthesis largely depends up on their diverse applications and commercialisation. Antifungal effects of phytogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were evident, but the reports on the effects of the same on agricultural crops are scant. Herein, we report for the first time, size dependent effects of phytogenic AgNPs (synthesised using Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract) on the germination, growth and biochemical parameters of three important agricultural crops viz., rice (Oryza sativa L), maize (Zea mays L) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L). AgNPs with varied sizes were prepared by changing the concentration and quantity of the Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract. As prepared AgNPs were characterized using the techniques, such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, particle size and zeta potential analyser. The measured (dynamic light scattering technique) average sizes of particles are ranging from 68.5 to 116 nm. Fourier transform infrared studies confirmed the participation of alcohols, aldehydes and amides in the reduction and stabilisation of the AgNPs. Application of these AgNPs to three agricultural crop seeds (rice, maize and peanut) resulted in size dependent effects on their germination, growth and biochemical parameters such as, chlorophyll content, carotenoid and protein content. Further, antifungal activity of AgNPs also evaluated against fungi, Aspergillus niger.

  11. Influence of sub-lethal crude oil concentration on growth, water relations and photosynthetic capacity of maize (Zea mays L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Athar, Habib-Ur-Rehman; Ambreen, Sarah; Javed, Muhammad; Hina, Mehwish; Rasul, Sumaira; Zafar, Zafar Ullah; Manzoor, Hamid; Ogbaga, Chukwuma C; Afzal, Muhammad; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Maize tolerance potential to oil pollution was assessed by growing Zea mays in soil contaminated with varying levels of crude oil (0, 2.5 and 5.0 % v/w basis). Crude oil contamination reduced soil microflora which may be beneficial to plant growth. It was observed that oil pollution caused a remarkable decrease in biomass, leaf water potential, turgor potential, photosynthetic pigments, quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv/Fm), net CO2 assimilation rate, leaf nitrogen and total free amino acids. Gas exchange characteristics suggested that reduction in photosynthetic rate was mainly due to metabolic limitations. Fast chlorophyll a kinetic analysis suggested that crude oil damaged PSII donor and acceptor sides and downregulated electron transport as well as PSI end electron acceptors thereby resulting in lower PSII efficiency in converting harvested light energy into biochemical energy. However, maize plants tried to acclimate to moderate level of oil pollution by increasing root diameter and root length relative to its shoot biomass, to uptake more water and mineral nutrients.

  12. Molecular interactions of ROOTLESS CONCERNING CROWN AND SEMINAL ROOTS, a LOB domain protein regulating shoot-borne root initiation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Majer, Christine; Xu, Changzheng; Berendzen, Kenneth W; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2012-06-05

    Rootless concerning crown and seminal roots (Rtcs) encodes a LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES domain (LBD) protein that regulates shoot-borne root initiation in maize (Zea mays L.). GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP)-fusions revealed RTCS localization in the nucleus while its paralogue RTCS-LIKE (RTCL) was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm probably owing to an amino acid exchange in a nuclear localization signal. Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) experiments demonstrated that RTCS primarily binds to LBD DNA motifs. RTCS binding to an LBD motif in the promoter of the auxin response factor (ARF) ZmArf34 and reciprocally, reciprocal ZmARF34 binding to an auxin responsive element motif in the promoter of Rtcs was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments. In addition, comparative qRT-PCR of wild-type versus rtcs coleoptilar nodes suggested RTCS-dependent activation of ZmArf34 expression. Consistently, luciferase reporter assays illustrated the capacity of RTCS, RTCL and ZmARF34 to activate downstream gene expression. Finally, RTCL homo- and RTCS/RTCL hetero-interaction were demonstrated in yeast-two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments, suggesting a role of these complexes in downstream gene regulation. In summary, the data provide novel insights into the molecular interactions resulting in crown root initiation in maize.

  13. The determination of physiological and DNA changes in seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds exposed to the waters of the Gediz River and copper heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Batir, Muhammet Burak; Candan, Feyza; Buyuk, Ilker; Aras, Sumer

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of the heavy metal-polluted waters of the Gediz River, which flow into the Aegean Sea, and different concentrations of copper (Cu) solutions on maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings are investigated with physiological parameters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay. Results displayed physiologically a significant difference in root and stem length between the control seedlings and the seedlings grown with the waters of the Gediz River. Also, the certain ascending concentrations of copper solution (80, 160, 320, 640, and 1280 ppm) caused a significant decrease in root and stem length of seedlings compared to the control seedlings. As a result of the waters of the Gediz River and copper solution treatment, the changes occurred in RAPD profiles of seedlings observed as variations like increment and/or loss of bands compared with the control seedlings. And these changes were reflected as a decrease in genomic template stability (GTS, changes in RAPD profile) derived by genotoxicity. RAPD band profiles and GTS values showed consistent results with physiological parameter. In conclusion, the study revealed the environmental risk and negative effect of waters of the Gediz River on maize seedlings and the suitability of RAPD assay for the detection of environmental toxicology.

  14. Effect of some granular insecticides currently used for the treatment of maize crops (Zea mays) on the survival of inoculated Azospirillum lipoferum.

    PubMed

    Revellin, C; Giraud, J J; Silva, N; Wadoux, P; Catroux, G

    2001-11-01

    Four insecticides, carbofuran, chlormephos, terbufos and benfuracarb, currently used on maize (Zea mays) at sowing, were tested for their compatibility with Azospirillum lipoferum strain CRT1 used as an inoculant to improve maize growth and yield. The growth or survival of A lipoferum was studied in the presence of the insecticides: (1) in liquid and solid cultures of the bacteria, (2) when a commercial inoculant (Azogreen-m, Liphatech, Meyzieu, France) was inoculated directly on insecticide granules, (3) when inoculated Azogreen-m granules were mixed with insecticide granules and (4) when inoculated Azogreen-m granules were delivered separately to the seed bed. Of the four insecticides tested, only terbufos had a slight effect on growth of A lipoferum in solid cultures. All the insecticides decreased the survival of A lipoferum when the bacteria were inoculated directly on to the granules, or when inoculated Azogreen-m granules were mixed with an insecticide. We hypothesize that the discrepancies between bacterial culture tests and survival studies might be explained by the conditions of desiccation encountered during inoculation of the granules. Desiccation stress could increase the toxic effect of the insecticides. We therefore suggest including desiccation stress in the biotest used to assess inoculant-pesticide compatibility.

  15. Effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on root development and distribution of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of petroleum contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Javad; Hajabbasi, Mohammad Ali; Alaie, Ebrahim

    2014-05-01

    The root systems of most terrestrial plants are confronted to various abiotic and biotic stresses. One of these abiotic stresses is contamination of soil with petroleum hydrocarbon, which the efficiency of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils is dependent on the ability of plant roots to development into the contaminated soils. Piriformospora indica represents a recently discovered fungus that transfers considerable beneficial impact to its host plants. A rhizotron experiment was conducted to study the effects of P. Indica inoculation on root distribution and root and shoot development of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of three patterns of petroleum contamination in the soil (subsurface contamination, continuous contamination and without contamination (control)). Root distribution and root and shoot development were monitored over time. The final root and shoot biomass and the final TPH concentration in the rhizosphere were determined. Analysis of digitized images which were prepared of the tracing of the appeared roots along the front rhizotrons showed the depth and total length of root network in the contamination treatments were significantly decreased. Although the degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of maize was significant, but there were no significant differences between degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of +P. indica plants in comparison to -P. indica plants.

  16. Salicylic acid induced changes on some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under salinity.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Aydin; Inal, Ali; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Eraslan, Figen; Bagci, Esra Guneri; Cicek, Nuray

    2007-06-01

    It has been proposed that salicylic acid (SA) acts as an endogenous signal molecule responsible for inducing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effect of varying salicylic acid (SA) supply (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mM) on growth, mineral uptake, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation, H(2)O(2) concentration, UV-absorbing substances, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations of NaCl (40 mM) stressed maize (Zea mays L.) was investigated. Exogenously applied SA increased plant growth significantly both in saline and non-saline conditions. As a consequence of salinity stress, lipid peroxidation, measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and membrane permeability was decreased by SA. UV-absorbing substances (UVAS) and H(2)O(2) concentration were increased by increasing levels of SA. SA also strongly inhibited Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation, but stimulated N, Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations of salt stressed maize plants. These results suggest that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator to improve plant salinity stress resistance.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation characterisation of water status of developing grains of maize (Zea mays L.) grown at different nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Prameela; Chopra, Usha Kiran; Verma, Ajay Pal Singh; Joshi, Devendra Kumar; Chand, Ishwar

    2014-04-01

    Changes in water status of developing grains of maize (Zea mays L.) grown under different nitrogen levels were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. There were distinct changes in water status of grains due to the application of different levels of nitrogen (0, 120 and 180 kg N ha(-1)). A comparison of the grain developmental characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, not only the developmental characteristics like grain weight, grain number/ear, and rate of grain filling increased, but also bound water characterized by the T2 component of NMR relaxation increased with nitrogen application (50-70%) and developmental stages leading to maturation (10-60%). The consistency in the patterns of responses to free water and intermediate water to increasing levels of nitrogen application and grain maturity suggested that nitrogen application resulted in more proportion of water to both bound- and intermediate states and less in free state. These changes are further corroborated by the concomitant increases in protein and starch contents in grains from higher nitrogen treatments as macromolecules like protein and starch retain more amount of water in the bound state. The results of the changes in T2 showed that water status during grain development was not only affected by developmental processes but also by nitrogen supply to plants. This study strongly indicated a clear nutrient and developmental stage dependence of grain tissue water status in maize. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Uptake, translocation and biotransformation kinetics of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuehui; Wen, Bei; Huang, Honglin; Wang, Sen; Han, Ruixia; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a detailed kinetic investigation on the uptake, acropetal translocation and transformation of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize (Zea mays L.) by hydroponic exposure. Root uptake followed the order: BDE-47 > 6-MeO-BDE-47 > 6-OH-BDE-47, while 6-OH-BDE-47 was the most prone to acropetal translocation. Debromination rates of BDE-47 were 1.31 and 1.46 times greater than the hydroxylation and methoxylation rates, respectively. Transformation from BDE-47 to lower brominated OH/MeO-PBDEs occurred mainly through debromination first followed by hydroxylation or methoxylation. There was no transformation from 6-OH-BDE-47 or 6-MeO-BDE-47 to PBDEs. Methylation rate of 6-OH-BDE-47 was twice as high as that of 6-MeO-BDE-47 hydroxylation, indicating methylation of 6-OH-BDE-47 was easier and more rapid than hydroxylation of 6-MeO-BDE-47. Debromination and isomerization were potential metabolic pathways for 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize. This study provides important information for better understanding the mechanism on plant uptake and transformation of PBDEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of using phenotypic means and genotypic values in GGE biplot analyses on genotype by environment studies on tropical maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Granato, I S C; Fritsche-Neto, R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the type and intensity of nutritional stress, and of the statistical treatment of the data, on the genotype x environment (G x E) interaction for tropical maize (Zea mays). For this purpose, 39 hybrid combinations were evaluated under low- and high-nitrogen and -phosphorus availability. The plants were harvested at the V6 stage, and the shoot dry mass was estimated. The variance components and genetic values were assessed using the restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction method, and subsequently analyzed using the GGE biplot method. We observed differences in the performances of the hybrids depending on both the type and intensity of nutritional stress. The results of relationship between environments depended on whether genotypic values or phenotypic means were used. The selection of tropical maize genotypes against nutritional stress should be performed for each nutrient availability level within each type of nutritional stress. The use of phenotypic means for this purpose provides greater reliability than do genotypic values for the analysis of the G x E interaction using GGE biplot.

  20. Analysis of nonadditive protein accumulation in young primary roots of a maize (Zea mays L.) F(1)-hybrid compared to its parental inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Hoecker, Nadine; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Sarholz, Barbara; Paschold, Anja; Fladerer, Claudia; Madlung, Johannes; Wurster, Karl; Stahl, Mark; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Nordheim, Alfred; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2008-09-01

    Heterosis describes the superior performance of heterozygous F(1)-hybrids compared to their homozygous parental inbred lines. Heterosis is already manifested during early maize (Zea mays L.) primary root development. In this study, the most abundant soluble proteins have been investigated before the phenotypic manifestation of heterosis in 3.5-day-old primary roots in the flint inbred line UH002, the dent inbred line UH301 and the corresponding hybrid UH301 x UH002. In CBB-stained 2-DE gels, 150 of 304 detected proteins (49%) were accumulated in a nonadditive fashion in the hybrid compared to the average of their parental inbred lines (Student's t-test: p < 0.05). Remarkably, expression of 51% (76/150) of the nonadditively accumulated proteins exceeded the high parent or was below the low parent. ESI-MS/MS identified 75 of the 76 proteins that belonged to these expression classes. The most abundant functional classes among the 75 proteins that were encoded by 60 different genes were metabolism (58%) and disease and defense (19%). Nonadditive protein accumulation in primary roots of maize hybrids might be associated with heterosis manifestation. Identification of these proteins could therefore contribute to the better understanding of the molecular basis of heterosis.

  1. Effects of municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilizer amendments on soil properties and heavy metals distribution in maize plants (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Gregoria; de Imperial, Rosario Miralles; Torrijos, Manuel; Delgado, Mar; Rodriguez, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Soil amendments based on crop nutrient requirements are considered a beneficial management practice. A greenhouse experiment with maize seeds (Zea mays L.) was conducted to assess the inputs of metals to agricultural land from soil amendments. Maize seeds were exposed to a municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (50 Mg ha(-1)) and NPK fertilizer (33 g plant(-1)) amendments considering N plant requirement until the harvesting stage with the following objectives: (1) determine the accumulation of total and available metals in soil and (2) know the uptake and ability of translocation of metals from roots to different plant parts, and their effect on biomass production. The results showed that MSW compost increased Cu, Pb and Zn in soil, while NPK fertilizer increased Cd and Ni, but decreased Hg concentration in soil. The root system acted as a barrier for Cr, Ni, Pb and Hg, so metal uptake and translocation were lower in aerial plant parts. Biomass production was significantly enhanced in both MSW and NPK fertilizer-amended soils (17%), but also provoked slight increases of metals and their bioavailability in soil. The highest metal concentrations were observed in roots, but there were no significant differences between plants growing in amended soil and the control soil. Important differences were found for aerial plant parts as regards metal accumulation, whereas metal levels in grains were negligible in all the treatments.

  2. Selection and adaptation to high plant density in the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic maize (Zea mays L.) population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant density at which Zea mays L. hybrids achieve maximum grain yield has increased throughout the hybrid era while grain yield on a per plant basis has increased little. Changes in plant traits including grain yield, moisture, test weight, and stalk and root lodging have been well characterize...

  3. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter and its allelopathic activity on the growth of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Hu, Hongling; Hu, Tingxing; Wang, Qian; Ye, Mao; Luo, Jie; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Ruyi

    2017-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of maize. In this study, the morphological traits of maize were significantly inhibited when the leaf litter amount reached or exceeded 40 g per pot; Furthermore, during the early growth stage or with a large amount of litter addition, the pigment contents were inhibited by C. septentrionale leaf litter. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the volatile substances of leaf litter and 34 compounds were identified, several of which were reported to be phytotoxic. In conclusion, the leaf litter of C. septentrionale showed a strong allelopathic effect on the growth of maize. Thus, it is better to avoid the growing of maize under or near the C. septentrionale plantation unless the leaf litter could be eliminated in time or other effective leaf litter processing methods could be implemented.

  4. Registration of temperate quality protein maize (QPM) lines BQPM9, BQPM10, BQPM11, BQPM12, BQPM13, BQPM14, BQPM15, BQPM16, and BQPM17

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The discovery of the opaque2 (o2) mutation and o2 modifier genes in maize (Zea mays L.) has resulted in the development of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) lines with higher lysine and tryptophan content. QPM lines BQPM9, BQPM10, BQPM11, BQPM12, BQPM13, BQPM14, BQPM15, BQPM16, and BQPM17 were developed a...

  5. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL(-1). The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9-5.39 μg mL(-1) and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies.

  6. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M. Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant–microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL-1. The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9–5.39 μg mL-1 and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies. PMID:25852667

  7. Genome-wide identification and functional prediction of nitrogen-responsive intergenic and intronic long non-coding RNAs in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuanda; Liang, Zhikai; Ge, Min; Qi, Weicong; Zhang, Tifu; Lin, Feng; Peng, Zhaohua; Zhao, Han

    2016-05-11

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential and often limiting nutrient to plant growth and development. Previous studies have shown that the mRNA expressions of numerous genes are regulated by nitrogen supplies; however, little is known about the expressed non-coding elements, for example long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that control the response of maize (Zea mays L.) to nitrogen. LncRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs larger than 200 bp, which have emerged as key regulators in gene expression. In this study, we surveyed the intergenic/intronic lncRNAs in maize B73 leaves at the V7 stage under conditions of N-deficiency and N-sufficiency using ribosomal RNA depletion and ultra-deep total RNA sequencing approaches. By integration with mRNA expression profiles and physiological evaluations, 7245 lncRNAs and 637 nitrogen-responsive lncRNAs were identified that exhibited unique expression patterns. Co-expression network analysis showed that the nitrogen-responsive lncRNAs were enriched mainly in one of the three co-expressed modules. The genes in the enriched module are mainly involved in NADH dehydrogenase activity, oxidative phosphorylation and the nitrogen compounds metabolic process. We identified a large number of lncRNAs in maize and illustrated their potential regulatory roles in response to N stress. The results lay the foundation for further in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs' role in response to nitrogen stresses.

  8. Membrane-bound guaiacol peroxidases from maize (Zea mays L.) roots are regulated by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and pathogen elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Angela; Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Hopff, David; Lüthje, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Plant peroxidases are involved in numerous cellular processes in plant development and stress responses. Four plasma membrane-bound peroxidases have been identified and characterized in maize (Zea mays L.) roots. In the present study, maize seedlings were treated with different stresses and signal compounds, and a functional analysis of these membrane-bound class III peroxidases (pmPOX1, pmPOX2a, pmPOX2b, and pmPOX3) was carried out. Total guaiacol peroxidase activities from soluble and microsomal fractions of maize roots were compared and showed weak changes. By contrast, total plasma membrane and washed plasma membrane peroxidase activities, representing peripheral and integral membrane proteins, revealed strong changes after all of the stresses applied. A proteomic approach using 2D-PAGE analysis showed that pmPOX3 was the most abundant class III peroxidase at plasma membranes of control plants, followed by pmPOX2a >pmPOX2b >pmPOX1. The molecular mass (63 kDa) and the isoelectric point (9.5) of the pmPOX2a monomer were identified for the first time. The protein levels of all four enzymes changed in response to multiple stresses. While pmPOX2b was the only membrane peroxidase down-regulated by wounding, all four enzymes were differentially but strongly stimulated by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and elicitors (Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum extracts, and chitosan) indicating their function in pathogen defence. Oxidative stress applied as H2O2 treatment up-regulated pmPOX2b >pmPOX2a, while pmPOX3 was down-regulated. Treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor chantharidin resulted in distinct responses. PMID:20032108

  9. A dynamic meiotic SUN belt includes the zygotene-stage telomere bouquet and is disrupted in chromosome segregation mutants of maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shaun P.; Gumber, Hardeep K.; Mao, Yunyun; Bass, Hank W.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) plays an essential role in meiotic telomere behavior and links the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm during homologous chromosome pairing and recombination in many eukaryotic species. Resident NE proteins including SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84) and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-homology) domain proteins are known to interact forming the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex that connects chromatin to the cytoskeleton. To investigate the possible cross-kingdom conservation of SUN protein functions in plant meiosis, we immunolocalized maize SUN2 using 3D microscopy of pollen mother cells from maize (Zea mays L.), a large-genome plant model with a canonical NE zygotene-stage telomere bouquet. We detected SUN2 at the nuclear periphery and found that it exhibited a distinct belt-like structure that transitioned to a half-belt during the zygotene stage and back to a full belt during and beyond the pachytene stage. The zygotene-stage half-belt SUN structure was shown by 3D immuno-FISH to include the NE-associated telomere cluster that defines the bouquet stage and coincides with homologous chromosome synapsis. Microtubule and filamentous actin staining patterns did not show any obvious belt or a retracted-like structure other than a general enrichment of tubulin staining distributed widely around the nucleus and throughout the cytoplasm. Genetic disruption of the meiotic SUN belt staining patterns with three different meiosis-specific mutants, desynaptic (dy1), asynaptic1 (as1), and divergent spindle1 (dv1) provides additional evidence for the role of the nuclear envelope in meiotic chromosome behavior. Taking into account all of the observations from this study, we propose that the maize SUN belt is directly or indirectly involved in meiotic telomere dynamics, chromosome synapsis, and possibly integration of signals and forces across the meiotic prophase nuclear envelope. PMID:25071797

  10. Bacterial community composition in the rhizosphere of a transgenic, herbicide-resistant maize (Zea mays) and comparison to its non-transgenic cultivar Bosphore.

    PubMed

    Schmalenberger, Achim; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2002-04-01

    Bacterial communities in rhizospheres of transgenic maize (Zea mays, with the pat-gene conferring resistance to the herbicide glufosinate; syn. l-phosphinothricin) were compared to its isogenic, non-transgenic cultivar. Total DNA was extracted from bacterial cell consortia collected from rhizospheres of plants grown in an agricultural field. With the use of three different primer pairs binding to evolutionarily conserved regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, partial sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were subjected to single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) to generate genetic profiles which corresponded to the diversity of the amplified sequences. Genetic profiles of rhizospheres consisted of 40-60 distinguishable bands depending on the chosen primer pairs, and the variability between independent replicates was very low. Neither the genetic modification nor the use of the herbicide Liberty (syn. Basta; active ingredient: glufosinate) affected the SSCP profiles as investigated with digital image analysis. In contrast, PCR-SSCP profiles of bacterial communities from rhizospheres of sugar beet, grown in the same field as a control crop, were clearly different. A less pronounced but significant difference was also observed with rhizosphere samples from fine roots of maize plants collected 35 and 70 days after sowing. Sequencing of the dominant 30 products from one typical SSCP profile generated from transgenic maize rhizospheres indicated the presence of typical soil and rhizosphere bacteria: half of the bands could be attributed to Proteobacteria, mainly of the alpha- and beta-subgroups. Other SSCP bands could be assigned to members of the following phylogenetic groups: Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides, Chlamydiales-Verrucomicrobium, Planctomyces, Holophaga and to Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C DNA content.

  11. Three Groups of Transposable Elements with Contrasting Copy Number Dynamics and Host Responses in the Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) Genome

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Concepcion M.; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2014-01-01

    Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24∶22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome. PMID:24743518

  12. Three groups of transposable elements with contrasting copy number dynamics and host responses in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) genome.

    PubMed

    Diez, Concepcion M; Meca, Esteban; Tenaillon, Maud I; Gaut, Brandon S

    2014-04-01

    Most angiosperm nuclear DNA is repetitive and derived from silenced transposable elements (TEs). TE silencing requires substantial resources from the plant host, including the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thus, the interaction between TEs and siRNAs is a critical aspect of both the function and the evolution of plant genomes. Yet the co-evolutionary dynamics between these two entities remain poorly characterized. Here we studied the organization of TEs within the maize (Zea mays ssp mays) genome, documenting that TEs fall within three groups based on the class and copy numbers. These groups included DNA elements, low copy RNA elements and higher copy RNA elements. The three groups varied statistically in characteristics that included length, location, age, siRNA expression and 24:22 nucleotide (nt) siRNA targeting ratios. In addition, the low copy retroelements encompassed a set of TEs that had previously been shown to decrease expression within a 24 nt siRNA biogenesis mutant (mop1). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of the three groups, we estimated their abundance in two landraces, one with a genome similar in size to that of the maize reference and the other with a 30% larger genome. For all three accessions, we assessed TE abundance as well as 22 nt and 24 nt siRNA content within leaves. The high copy number retroelements are under targeted similarly by siRNAs among accessions, appear to be born of a rapid bust of activity, and may be currently transpositionally dead or limited. In contrast, the lower copy number group of retrolements are targeted more dynamically and have had a long and ongoing history of transposition in the maize genome.

  13. QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J

    2004-05-01

    In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.

  14. High Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Yield Trait QTLs in Maize (Zea mays) Using the Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) Technology

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chengfu; Wang, Wei; Gong, Shunliang; Zuo, Jinghui; Li, Shujiang; Xu, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS. A total of 1,046,524,604 reads with an average of 5,258,918 reads per F2 individual were generated. This number of reads represents an approximately 0.36-fold coverage of the maize reference genome Zea_mays.AGPv3.29 for each F2 individual. A total of 68,882 raw SNPs were discovered in the F2 population, which, after stringent filtering, led to a total of 29,927 high quality SNPs. Comparative analysis using these physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with the reference genome. The SNP genotype data were utilized to construct an intra-specific genetic linkage map of maize consisting of 3,305 bins on 10 linkage groups spanning 2,236.66 cM at an average distance of 0.68 cM between consecutive markers. From this map, we identified 28 QTLs associated with yield traits (100-kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, cob diameter, kernel row number, corn grains per row, ear weight, and grain weight per plant) using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method and 29 QTLs using the least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) method. QTLs identified by the CIM method account for 6.4% to 19.7% of the phenotypic variation. Small intervals of three QTLs (qCGR-1, qKW-2, and qGWP-4) contain several genes, including one gene (GRMZM2G139872) encoding the F-box protein, three genes (GRMZM2G180811, GRMZM5G828139, and GRMZM5G873194) encoding the WD40-repeat protein, and

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differ in their ability to regulate the expression of phosphate transporters in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui; Drijber, Rhae A; Li, Xiaolin; Miller, Daniel N; Wienhold, Brian J

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies have found that some phosphate (Pi) starvation inducible transporter genes are downregulated and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inducible Pi transporter genes are upregulated in maize roots associated with the fungus Glomus intraradices. However, little is known about the functional diversity of different AM fungal species in influencing the expression of Pi transporters in maize roots. Here, we studied the expression of two Pi transporter genes ZEAma:Pht1;3 (Pi starvation inducible) and ZEAma:Pht1;6 (AM inducible) in maize root colonized by different AM fungal inoculants. Non-mycorrhizal maize, maize colonized by Glomus deserticola (CA113), Glomus intraradices (IA506), Glomus mosseae (CA201), Gigaspora gigantea (MN922A) and the co-inoculation of all four species were established. The expression patterns of the two genes were quantified using real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression level of ZEAma:Pht1;6 was 26-135 times higher in AM plants than in non-mycorrhizal maize roots, whereas the expression level of ZEAma:Pht1;3 was five to 44 times lower in AM plants than in non-mycorrhizal plants. Expression of the two genes differed with inoculation treatment, and increasing the diversity of AM fungi in maize roots led to greater expression of ZEAma:Pht1;6 as well as Pi uptake in shoots. The expression of ZEAma:Pht1;6 was significantly positively correlated with AM colonization rate, concentration of AM biomarkers in maize roots, Pi uptake and dry weight of shoot, but negatively correlated with the expression of ZEAma:Pht1;3. Addition of Pi fertilizer at a low concentration significantly increased the expression of ZEAma:Pht1;6 but had no effect on the expression of ZEAma:Pht1;3.

  16. [Medical and biological safety assessment of genetically modified maize event MIR604].

    PubMed

    Tyshko, N V; Britsina, M V; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Zhanataev, A K; Zakharova, N S; Zorin, S N; Mazo, V K; Ozeretskovskaia, M N; Semenov, B F

    2009-01-01

    There are presented the results of genotoxicologic, immunologic and allergologic examinations which were conducted within the framework of integrated medical and biological assessment of genetically modified rootworm Diabrotica spp.-protected maize event MIR604. Analysis of damages of DNA and structural chromosome aberrations, assessment of the allergenic potential and immunoreactive properties has not confirmed any genotoxic, allergenic and immunotoxic effect of maize event MIR604.

  17. The influence of fertilizer level and spore density on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of transgenic Bt 11 maize (Zea mays) in experimental microcosms.

    PubMed

    Cheeke, Tanya E; Pace, Brian A; Rosenstiel, Todd N; Cruzan, Mitchell B

    2011-02-01

    Crop plants genetically modified for the expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins have broad appeal for reducing insect damage in agricultural systems, yet questions remain about the impact of Bt plants on symbiotic soil organisms. Here, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization of transgenic maize isoline Bt 11 (expressing Cry1Ab) and its non-Bt parental line (Providence) was evaluated under different fertilizer level and spore density scenarios. In a three-way factorial design, Bt 11 and non-Bt maize were inoculated with 0, 40, or 80 spores of Glomus mosseae and treated weekly with 'No' (0 g L(-1) ), 'Low' (0.23 g L(-1) ), or 'High' (1.87 g L(-1) ) levels of a complete fertilizer and grown for 60 days in a greenhouse. While no difference in AMF colonization was detected between the Bt 11 and Providence maize cultivars in the lower spore/higher fertilizer treatments, microcosm experiments demonstrated a significant reduction in AMF colonization in Bt 11 maize roots in the 80 spore treatments when fertilizer was limited. These results confirm previous work indicating an altered relationship between this Bt 11 maize isoline and AMF and demonstrate that the magnitude of this response is strongly dependent on both nutrient supply and AMF spore inoculation level. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of the nutritional quality of a traditional complementary porridge made of fermented yellow maize (Zea mays): effect of maize-legume combinations and traditional processing methods.

    PubMed

    Ejigui, Jeanne; Savoie, Laurent; Marin, Johanne; Desrosiers, Thérèse

    2007-03-01

    Blends with a cereal-legume ratio of 70:30 have been introduced in many communities for use in the preparation of complementary foods with augmented protein quality. These foods should meet World Health Organization estimated energy and nutrient needs from complementary foods. To increase energy and nutrient densities and nutrient availability in a traditional complementary porridge. Yellow maize was processed by lactic acid fermentation. Peanuts (Arachis hypogea) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were processed by germination, roasting, dehulling, and a combination of germination and roasting. Blends were prepared from processed peanuts and beans and cooked into porridges with viscosities less than 3,000 cp. Traditional porridge was the control and consisted of fermented yellow maize only. The porridges were analyzed for their physicochemical and nutritional properties. Blends increased energy and nutrient densities in porridges compared with the control (p < .05). The maize-peanuts combination yielded porridges with higher energy densities and improved nutritional quality compared with the maize-beans combinations. In vitro availability of iron did not change (p > .05) with formulation of the blends except for porridges made from maize and germinated peanuts, but there was a significant increase in zinc in vitro availability, whereas a decrease was observed for calcium in vitro availability. The energy densities of maize-peanuts porridges were sufficient to cover energy required from complementary foods for infants aged 6 to 11 months receiving four meals of complementary foods per day and an average amount of energy from breastmilk. Maize-legume blends can efficiently improve the nutritional quality of traditional porridge. Peanuts are the best legume complements.

  19. The mechanisms of low nitrogen induced weakened photosynthesis in summer maize (Zea mays L.) under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shanshan; Wang, Xiangyu; Shi, Deyang; Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Dong, Shuting

    2016-08-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) shortage is a problem which affects many developing nations. Crops grown with low soil N levels show a marked decrease in the rate of photosynthesis and this deficiency reduces crop yield significantly. Therefore, developing a better understanding of the mechanisms by which low N levels cause decreased photosynthesis is crucial for maize agriculture. To better understand this process, we assessed the responses of photosynthesis traits and enzymatic activities in the summer maize cultivar Denghai 618 under field conditions with and without the use of N fertilisers. We measured photosynthesis parameters, and compared proteome compositions to identify the mechanisms of physiological and biochemical adaptations to N deficiency in maize. We observed that parameters that indicated the rate of photosynthesis decreased significantly under N deficiency, and this response was associated with leaf senescence. Moreover, we identified 37 proteins involved in leaf photosynthesis, and found that N deficiency significantly affected light-dependent and light-independent reactions in maize leaf photosynthesis. Although further analysis is required to fully elucidate the roles of these proteins in the response to N deficiency, our study identified candidate proteins which may be involved in the regulatory mechanisms involved in reduced photosynthesis under low N conditions in maize.

  20. Rhizosphere competent Pantoea agglomerans enhances maize (Zea mays) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth, without altering the rhizosphere functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Tripathi, Manisha; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2011-10-01

    Plant growth promoting Pantoea agglomerans NBRISRM (NBRISRM) was able to produce 60.4 μg/ml indole acetic acid and solubilize 77.5 μg/ml tri-calcium phosphate under in vitro conditions. Addition of 2% NaCl (w/v) in the media induced the IAA production and phosphate solubilization by 11% and 7%, respectively. For evaluating the plant growth promotory effect of NBRISRM inoculation a micro plot trial was conducted using maize and chickpea as host plants. The results revealed significant increase in all growth parameters tested in NBRISRM inoculated maize and chickpea plants, which were further confirmed by higher macronutrients (N, P and K) accumulation as compared to un-inoculated controls. Throughout the growing season of maize and chickpea, rhizosphere population of NBRISRM were in the range 10(7)-10(8) CFU/g soil and competing with 10(7)-10(9) CFU/g soil with heterogeneous bacterial population. Functional richness, diversity, and evenness were found significantly higher in maize rhizosphere as compared to chickpea, whereas NBRISRM inoculation were not able to change it, in both crops as compared to their un-inoculated control. To the best of our knowledge this is first report where we demonstrated the effect of P. agglomerans strain for improving maize and chickpea growth without altering the functional diversity.

  1. Antioxidative free and bound phenolic constituents in botanical fractions of Indian specialty maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit K; Singh, Vasudeva

    2016-06-15

    Specialty maize genotypes viz. QPM (quality protein maize), Baby corn, Popcorn and Sweet corn, which are usually consumed in whole forms can be good supplements of phenolic antioxidants. Botanical fractions of these maize genotypes were analyzed to explore the distribution of free and bound phenolics. HPLC and ESI-MS/MS results indicated the presence of vanillic, syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and isoferulic acids along with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol and quercetin. Germs of maize samples contained significantly higher free phenolics than pericarps, whereas, pericarps contained 74-83% of bound ones. QPM and Popcorn contained only 3% free phenolics whereas, Baby corn and Sweet corn had 14-17%. Unlike in peroxide scavenging and reducing capacity, anti-radical capacity of free phenolics of germs was significantly higher than that of pericarps. Free phenolics contributed 0.2-1.65%, 2-5% and 42-49% in anti-radical, peroxide scavenging and reducing capacity, respectively. Among lipophilic tocochromanols γ-tocopherol was the most abundant isomer in the samples among which Sweet corn contained the most (84.2 μg/g). Data showed that specialty maize genotypes are rich sources of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactives and are natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unraveling the genetic architecture of subtropical maize (Zea mays L.) lines to assess their utility in breeding programs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maize is an increasingly important food crop in southeast Asia. The elucidation of its genetic architecture, accomplished by exploring quantitative trait loci and useful alleles in various lines across numerous breeding programs, is therefore of great interest. The present study aimed to characterize subtropical maize lines using high-quality SNPs distributed throughout the genome. Results We genotyped a panel of 240 subtropical elite maize inbred lines and carried out linkage disequilibrium, genetic diversity, population structure, and principal component analyses on the generated SNP data. The mean SNP distance across the genome was 70 Kb. The genome had both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions; the latter were dominant in areas near the gene-rich telomeric portions where recombination is frequent. A total of 252 haplotype blocks, ranging in size from 1 to 15.8 Mb, were identified. Slow LD decay (200–300 Kb) at r 2  ≤ 0.1 across all chromosomes explained the selection of favorable traits around low LD regions in different breeding programs. The association mapping panel was characterized by strong population substructure. Genotypes were grouped into three distinct clusters with a mean genetic dissimilarity coefficient of 0.36. Conclusions The genotyped panel of subtropical maize lines characterized in this study should be useful for association mapping of agronomically important genes. The dissimilarity uncovered among genotypes provides an opportunity to exploit the heterotic potential of subtropical elite maize breeding lines. PMID:24330649

  3. Randomly amplified polymorphic-DNA analysis for detecting genotoxic effects of Boron on maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Sakcali, M Serdal; Kekec, Guzin; Uzonur, Irem; Alpsoy, Lokman; Tombuloglu, Huseyin

    2015-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the genotoxic effect of boron (B) on maize using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Experimental design was conducted under 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 125, and 150 ppm B exposures, and physiological changes have revealed a sharp decrease in root growth rates from 28% to 85%, starting from 25 ppm to 150 ppm, respectively. RAPD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis shows that DNA alterations are clearly observed from beginning to 100 ppm. B-induced inhibition in root growth had a positive correlation with DNA alterations. Total soluble protein, root and stem lengths, and B content analysis in root and leaves encourage these results as a consequence. These preliminary findings reveal that B causes chromosomal aberration and genotoxic effects on maize. Meanwhile, usage of RAPD-PCR technique is a suitable biomarker to detect genotoxic effect of B on maize and other crops for the future.

  4. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Z; Skoková Habuštová, O; Boháč, J; Sehnal, F

    2016-08-01

    Staphylinid beetles are recommended bioindicators for the pre-market environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) insect protected maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Our multiannual study is a unique European analysis of a staphylinid community within a 14 ha maize field. GM maize, its near-isogenic hybrid (with or without insecticide treatment), and two other reference hybrids were each grown in five 0.5 ha plots. The opportunity for exposure to Cry toxin from plant residues ploughed into the soil was shown by the presence of saprophagous dipteran larvae that are common prey of predatory staphylinid species and hosts of the parasitoid species. 2587 individuals belonging to 77 staphylinid species were sampled using pitfall traps. Lesteva longoelytrata (31%), Oxypoda acuminata (12%), Aloconota sulcifrons (8%) and Anotylus rugosus (7%) were the most abundant beetles in the field. Bionomics, food specialization, temperature requirements and size group were assigned for 25 most common species. These traits determine the occurrence of staphylinid beetles in the field, the food sources they could utilize and thus also their likely contact with the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Statistical analysis of activity abundance, Rao indices and multivariate analysis of distribution of particular categories of functional traits in the field showed negligible effects of the experimental treatments, including the GM maize, upon the staphylinid community. Staphylinid beetles represent a considerably diverse part of epigeic field fauna with wide food specialization; these features render them suitable for the assessment of environmental safety of GM insect protected maize. However, the availability of prey and the presence of particular staphylinid species and their abundance are highly variable; this complicates the interpretation of the results.

  5. Mycorrhizal responsiveness of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes as related to releasing date and available P content in soil.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qun; Wang, Xinxin; Yang, Yang; Chen, Fanjun; Zhang, Fusuo; Feng, Gu

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mycorrhizal responsiveness among old and recent Chinese maize genotypes (released from 1950s to 2008) in low- and high-Olsen-P soils and to identify parameters that would indicate the relationships between the mycorrhizal responsiveness and the functional traits related to P uptake of maize. A greenhouse factorial experiment was conducted. The factors were maize genotype [Huangmaya (HMY), Zhongdan 2 (ZD2), Nongda 108 (ND108), and NE15], inoculation with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Rhizophagus irregularis), and Olsen-P levels (4, 9, 18, 36, or 60 mg P kg(-1)). Old and recently released genotypes differed in their response to AMF under low- and high-P supply. Three kinds of responses (in terms of shoot growth) were observed: the response was positive if the soil P content was low, but negative if the soil Olsen-P content was high (HMY and ND108); the response was neutral regardless of soil P content (ZD2); and the response was positive regardless of soil P content (NE15). Principle component (PC) analysis showed that the first PC comprised morphological and physiological traits of maize roots, and the second PC comprised mycorrhizal traits. The opposite was the case, however, in high-P soil. It is concluded that maize breeding selection from 1950s to 2000s is not always against the AM association and that AMF play positive roles in promoting the growth of some maize genotypes in high-P soil. The root length colonization by efficient AMF might be a useful parameter for breeding varieties with increased mycorrhizal responsiveness.

  6. Genomic Dissection of Leaf Angle in Maize (Zea mays L.) Using a Four-Way Cross Mapping Population.

    PubMed

    Ding, Junqiang; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Jiafa; Li, Xiantang; Li, Yongming; Cheng, Hongliang; Huang, Rongrong; Zhou, Bo; Li, Zhimin; Wang, Jiankang; Wu, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing grain yield by the selection for optimal plant architecture has been the key focus in modern maize breeding. As a result, leaf angle, an important determinant of plant architecture, has been significantly improved to adapt to the ever-increasing plant density in maize production over the past several decades. To extend our understanding on the genetic mechanisms of leaf angle in maize, we developed the first four-way cross mapping population, consisting of 277 lines derived from four maize inbred lines with varied leaf angles. The four-way cross mapping population together with the four parental lines were evaluated for leaf angle in two environments. In this study, we reported linkage maps built in the population and quantitative trait loci (QTL) on leaf angle detected by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM). ICIM applies a two-step strategy to effectively separate the cofactor selection from the interval mapping, which controls the background additive and dominant effects at the same time. A total of 14 leaf angle QTL were identified, four of which were further validated in near-isogenic lines (NILs). Seven of the 14 leaf angle QTL were found to overlap with the published leaf angle QTL or genes, and the remaining QTL were unique to the four-way population. This study represents the first example of QTL mapping using a four-way cross population in maize, and demonstrates that the use of specially designed four-way cross is effective in uncovering the basis of complex and polygenetic trait like leaf angle in maize.

  7. The response of maize (Zea mays L.) plant assisted with bacterial consortium and fertilizer under oily sludge.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Asim; Saddiqui, Samina; Bano, Asghari

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of PGPR consortium and fertilizer alone and in combination on the physiology of maize grown under oily sludge stress environment as well on the soil nutrient status. Consortium was prepared from Bacillus cereus (Acc KR232400), Bacillus altitudinis (Acc KF859970), Comamonas (Delftia) belonging to family Comamonadacea (Acc KF859971) and Stenotrophomonasmaltophilia (Acc KF859973). The experiment was conducted in pots with complete randomized design with four replicates and kept in field. Oily sludge was mixed in ml and Ammonium nitrate and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) were added at 70 ug/g and 7 ug/g at sowing. The plant was harvested at 21 d for estimation of protein, proline and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). To study the degradation, total petroleum hydrocarbon was extracted by soxhelt extraction and extract was analyzed by GC-FID at different period after incubation. Combined application of consortium and fertilizer enhanced the germination %, protein and, proline content by 90,130 and 99% higher than untreated maize plants. Bioavailability of macro and micro nutrient was also enhanced with consortium and fertilizer in oily sludge. The consortium and fertilizer in combined treatment decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase dismutase (POD) of the maize leaves grown in oily sludge. Degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPHs) was 59% higher in combined application of consortium and fertilizer than untreated maize at 3 d. The bacterial consortium can enhanced the maize tolerance to oily sludge and enhanced degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPHs). The maize can be considered as tolerant plant species to remediate oily sludge contaminated soils.

  8. Genomic Dissection of Leaf Angle in Maize (Zea mays L.) Using a Four-Way Cross Mapping Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiantang; Li, Yongming; Cheng, Hongliang; Huang, Rongrong; Zhou, Bo; Li, Zhimin; Wang, Jiankang; Wu, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing grain yield by the selection for optimal plant architecture has been the key focus in modern maize breeding. As a result, leaf angle, an important determinant of plant architecture, has been significantly improved to adapt to the ever-increasing plant density in maize production over the past several decades. To extend our understanding on the genetic mechanisms of leaf angle in maize, we developed the first four-way cross mapping population, consisting of 277 lines derived from four maize inbred lines with varied leaf angles. The four-way cross mapping population together with the four parental lines were evaluated for leaf angle in two environments. In this study, we reported linkage maps built in the population and quantitative trait loci (QTL) on leaf angle detected by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM). ICIM applies a two-step strategy to effectively separate the cofactor selection from the interval mapping, which controls the background additive and dominant effects at the same time. A total of 14 leaf angle QTL were identified, four of which were further validated in near-isogenic lines (NILs). Seven of the 14 leaf angle QTL were found to overlap with the published leaf angle QTL or genes, and the remaining QTL were unique to the four-way population. This study represents the first example of QTL mapping using a four-way cross population in maize, and demonstrates that the use of specially designed four-way cross is effective in uncovering the basis of complex and polygenetic trait like leaf angle in maize. PMID:26509792

  9. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y.; Tahir, Muhammad N.; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that Se

  10. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Tahir, Muhammad N; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L(-1) resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that

  11. β-Cryptoxanthin biofortified maize (Zea mays) increases β-cryptoxanthin concentration and enhances the color of chicken egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Q; Davis, C R; Schmaelzle, S T; Rocheford, T; Cook, M E; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-02-01

    The laying hen has a natural ability to deposit carotenoids into its egg yolks, especially the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein that is used commercially as an egg colorant. Can this ability to deposit carotenoids be used to enrich egg yolk provitamin A value? After a 10-d carotenoid depletion period in hens (n = 24), the effects of a 20-d intervention with high-β-cryptoxanthin, high-β-carotene, or typical yellow maize on color and carotenoid profile were compared with the effects of a white maize diet (n = 6/treatment). Eggs were collected every other day and yolks were analyzed by using a portable colorimeter to define the color space and by using an HPLC to determine the carotenoid profile. The high-β-cryptoxanthin and yellow maize increased β-cryptoxanthin in the yolk (0.55 ± 0.08 to 4.20 ± 0.56 nmol/g and 0.55 ± 0.08 to 1.06 ± 0.12 nmol/g, respectively; P < 0.001). Provitamin A equivalents increased in eggs from hens fed high-β-cryptoxanthin maize (P < 0.001) but not the high-β-carotene maize. The color (L*, a*, and b*) assessment of the yolks showed an increase in the high-β-cryptoxanthin treatment for the red-green a* scale (P < 0.001) and a decrease for the light-dark L* scale (P < 0.001). No appreciable change was noted in the yellow-blue b* scale for the high-β-cryptoxanthin treatment; but significant changes were noted for the yellow (P = 0.002) and high-β-carotene maize (P = 0.005) treatments, which were most evident at the end of the washout period with white maize. β-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified maize is a potential vehicle to elevate provitamin A equivalents and to enhance the color of yolks. This could lead to a human health benefit if widely adopted.

  12. Identification of promoter motifs regulating ZmeIF4E expression level involved in maize rough dwarf disease resistance in maize (Zea Mays L.).

    PubMed

    Shi, Liyu; Weng, Jianfeng; Liu, Changlin; Song, Xinyuan; Miao, Hongqin; Hao, Zhuanfang; Xie, Chuanxiao; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Bai, Li; Pan, Guangtang; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Shihuang

    2013-04-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD, a viral disease) results in significant grain yield losses, while genetic basis of which is largely unknown. Based on comparative genomics, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) was considered as a candidate gene for MRDD resistance, validation of which will help to understand the possible genetic mechanism of this disease. ZmeIF4E (orthologs of eIF4E gene in maize) encodes a protein of 218 amino acids, harboring five exons and no variation in the cDNA sequence is identified between the resistant inbred line, X178 and susceptible one, Ye478. ZmeIF4E expression was different in the two lines plants treated with three plant hormones, ethylene, salicylic acid, and jasmonates at V3 developmental stage, suggesting that ZmeIF4E is more likely to be involved in the regulation of defense gene expression and induction of local and systemic resistance. Moreover, four cis-acting elements related to plant defense responses, including DOFCOREZM, EECCRCAH1, GT1GAMSCAM4, and GT1CONSENSUS were detected in ZmeIF4E promoter for harboring sequence variation in the two lines. Association analysis with 163 inbred lines revealed that one SNP in EECCRCAH1 is significantly associated with CSI of MRDD in two environments, which explained 3.33 and 9.04 % of phenotypic variation, respectively. Meanwhile, one SNP in GT-1 motif was found to affect MRDD resistance only in one of the two environments, which explained 5.17 % of phenotypic variation. Collectively, regulatory motifs respectively harboring the two significant SNPs in ZmeIF4E promoter could be involved in the defense process of maize after viral infection. These results contribute to understand maize defense mechanisms against maize rough dwarf virus.

  13. Effect of exogenous selenium supply on photosynthesis, Na+ accumulation and antioxidative capacity of maize (Zea mays L.) under salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chaoqiang; Zu, Chaolong; Lu, Dianjun; Zheng, Qingsong; Shen, Jia; Wang, Huoyan; Li, Decheng

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of selenium-mediated salt tolerance has not been fully clarified. This study investigated the possible role of selenium (Se) in regulating maize salt tolerance. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the role of Se (0, 1, 5 and 25 μM Na2SeO3) in photosynthesis, antioxidative capacity and ion homeostasis in maize under salinity. The results showed that Se (1 μM) relieved the salt-induced inhibitory effects on the plant growth and development of 15-day-old maize plants. Se application (1 μM) also increased the net photosynthetic rate and alleviated the damage to chloroplast ultrastructure induced by NaCl. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were increased, and ZmMPK5, ZmMPK7 and ZmCPK11 were markedly up-regulated in the roots of Se-treated plants, likely contributing to the improvement of antioxidant defence systems under salinity. Moreover, 1 μM Se increased K+ in the shoots while decreasing Na+ in the roots, indicating that Se up-regulates ZmNHX1 in the roots, which may be involved in Na+ compartmentalisation under salinity. The findings from this single experiment require repetition together with measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but nevertheless suggest that exogenous Se alleviates salt stress in maize via the improvement of photosynthetic capacity, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the regulation of Na+ homeostasis. PMID:28169318

  14. Fungal and bacterial metabolites of stored maize (Zea mays, L.) from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adetunji, Modupeade; Atanda, Olusegun; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Warth, Benedikt; Beltrán, Eduardo; Krska, Rudolf; Obadina, Olusegun; Bakare, Adegoke; Chilaka, Cynthia A

    2014-05-01

    Seventy composite samples of maize grains stored in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Nigeria where maize is predominantly produced were evaluated for the presence of microbial metabolites with the LC-MS/MS technique. The possible relationships between the storage structures and levels of mycotoxin contamination were also evaluated. Sixty-two fungal and four bacterial metabolites were extracted from the grains, 54 of which have not been documented for maize in Nigeria. Aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 were quantified in 67.1 and 92.9% of the grains, while 64.1 and 57.1% exceeded the European Union Commission maximum acceptable limit (MAL) for aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins, respectively. The concentration of deoxynivalenol was, however, below the MAL with occurrence levels of 100 and 10% for its masked metabolite, deoxynivalenol glucoside. The bacterial metabolites had low concentrations and were not a source of concern. The storage structures significantly correlated positively or negatively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05), respectively with the levels of grain contamination. Consumption of maize grains, a staple Nigerian diet, may therefore expose the population to mycotoxin contamination. There is need for an immediate action plan for mycotoxin mitigation in Nigeria, especially in the Derived Savannah zone, in view of the economic and public health importance of the toxins.

  15. Validation of candidate genes putatively associated with resistance to SCMV and MDMV in maize (Zea mays L.) by expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Uzarowska, Anna; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Sarholz, Barbara; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Xu, Mingliang; Ingvardsen, Christina Rønn; Wenzel, Gerhard; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2009-02-02

    The potyviruses sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) are major pathogens of maize worldwide. Two loci, Scmv1 and Scmv2, have ealier been shown to confer complete resistance to SCMV. Custom-made microarrays containing previously identified SCMV resistance candidate genes and resistance gene analogs were utilised to investigate and validate gene expression and expression patterns of isogenic lines under pathogen infection in order to obtain information about the molecular mechanisms involved in maize-potyvirus interactions. By employing time course microarray experiments we identified 68 significantly differentially expressed sequences within the different time points. The majority of differentially expressed genes differed between the near-isogenic line carrying Scmv1 resistance locus at chromosome 6 and the other isogenic lines. Most differentially expressed genes in the SCMV experiment (75%) were identified one hour after virus inoculation, and about one quarter at multiple time points. Furthermore, most of the identified mapped genes were localised outside the Scmv QTL regions. Annotation revealed differential expression of promising pathogenesis-related candidate genes, validated by qRT-PCR, coding for metallothionein-like protein, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, germin-like protein or 26S ribosomal RNA. Our study identified putative candidate genes and gene expression patterns related to resistance to SCMV. Moreover, our findings support the effectiveness and reliability of the combination of different expression profiling approaches for the identification and validation of candidate genes. Genes identified in this study represent possible future targets for manipulation of SCMV resistance in maize.

  16. Mapping quantitative trait loci conferring resistance to rice black-streaked virus in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Luan, Junwen; Wang, Fei; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Juren

    2012-08-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is one of the most serious virus diseases of maize worldwide, and it causes great reduction of maize production. In China, the pathogen was shown to be rice black-streaked virus (RBSDV). Currently, MRDD has spread broadly and leads to significant loss in China. However, there has been little research devoted to this disease. Our aims were to identify the markers and loci underlying resistance to this virus disease. In this study, segregation populations were constructed from two maize elite lines '90110', which is highly resistant to MRDD and 'Ye478', which is highly susceptible to MRDD. The F(2) and BC(1) populations were used for bulk sergeant analysis (BSA) to identify resistance-related markers. One hundred and twenty F(7:9) RILs were used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping through the experiment of multiple environments over 3 years. Natural occurrence and artificial inoculation were both used and combined to determine the phenotype of plants. Five QTL, qMRD2, qMRD6, qMRD7, qMRD8 and qMRD10 were measured in the experiments. The qMRD8 on chromosome 8 was proved to be one major QTL conferring resistance to RBSDV disease in almost all traits and environments, which explained 12.0-28.9 % of the phenotypic variance for disease severity in this present study.

  17. Concentration of Beneficial Phytochemicals in Harvested Grain of U.S. Yellow Dent Maize (Zea mays L.) Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Butts-Wilmsmeyer, Carrie J; Mumm, Rita H; Bohn, Martin O

    2017-09-27

    Although previous studies have examined the concentration of various nutritional compounds in maize, little focus has been devoted to the study of commercial maize hybrids or their inbred parents. In this study, a genetically and phenotypically diverse set of maize hybrids and inbreds relevant to U.S. commercial maize germplasm was evaluated for its variability in phytochemical content. Total protein, unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, soluble phenolics, and insoluble-bound phenolics were evaluated in this study. Of these compounds, only soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic acids exhibited means and variances that were at least as large as the means and variances reported for other sets of germplasm. This suggests that selection for high phenolic acid content is possible in current U.S. commercial germplasm. In contrast, while the total protein, unsaturated fatty acid, or tocopherol content could possibly be improved using current U.S. commercial germplasm, the results of this study indicate that the incorporation of more diverse sources of germplasm would most likely result in quicker genetic gains.

  18. Isolation, expression and functional analysis of a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene from maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    He, Junguang; Dong, Zhigang; Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

    2010-02-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) in plants have been reported to be involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and antiviral defense. In this report, an RdRP gene from maize (ZmRdRP1) was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and RT-PCR. The mRNA of ZmRdRP1 was composed of 3785 nucleotides, including a 167 nt 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 291 nt 3'UTR and a 3327 nt open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a putative protein of 1108 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 126.9 kDa and a predicated isoelectric point (pI) of 8.37. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that ZmRdRP1 was elicited by salicylic acid (SA) treatment, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) infection. We silenced ZmRdRP1 by constitutively expressing an inverted-repeat fragment of ZmRdRP1 (ir-RdRP1) in transgenic maize plants. Further studies revealed that the ir-RdRP1 transgenic plants were more susceptible to SCMV infection than wild type plants. Virus-infected transgenic maize plants developed more serious disease symptoms and accumulated more virus than wild type plants. These findings suggested that ZmRdRP1 was involved in antiviral defense in maize.

  19. Effect of exogenous selenium supply on photosynthesis, Na(+) accumulation and antioxidative capacity of maize (Zea mays L.) under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chaoqiang; Zu, Chaolong; Lu, Dianjun; Zheng, Qingsong; Shen, Jia; Wang, Huoyan; Li, Decheng

    2017-02-07

    The mechanism of selenium-mediated salt tolerance has not been fully clarified. This study investigated the possible role of selenium (Se) in regulating maize salt tolerance. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the role of Se (0, 1, 5 and 25 μM Na2SeO3) in photosynthesis, antioxidative capacity and ion homeostasis in maize under salinity. The results showed that Se (1 μM) relieved the salt-induced inhibitory effects on the plant growth and development of 15-day-old maize plants. Se application (1 μM) also increased the net photosynthetic rate and alleviated the damage to chloroplast ultrastructure induced by NaCl. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were increased, and ZmMPK5, ZmMPK7 and ZmCPK11 were markedly up-regulated in the roots of Se-treated plants, likely contributing to the improvement of antioxidant defence systems under salinity. Moreover, 1 μM Se increased K(+) in the shoots while decreasing Na(+) in the roots, indicating that Se up-regulates ZmNHX1 in the roots, which may be involved in Na(+) compartmentalisation under salinity. The findings from this single experiment require repetition together with measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but nevertheless suggest that exogenous Se alleviates salt stress in maize via the improvement of photosynthetic capacity, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the regulation of Na(+) homeostasis.

  20. Evaluation of Hbr (MITE) markers for assessment of genetic relationships among maize ( Zea mays L.) inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Casa, A M; Mitchell, S E; Smith, O S; Register, J C; Wessler, S R; Kresovich, S

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a new type of molecular marker has been developed that is based on the presence or absence of the miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE) family Heartbreaker ( Hbr) in the maize genome. These so-called Hbr markers have been shown to be stable, highly polymorphic, easily mapped, and evenly distributed throughout the maize genome. In this work, we used Hbr-derived markers for genetic characterization of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to Stiff Stalk (SS) and Non-Stiff Stalk (NSS) heterotic groups. In total, 111 markers were evaluated across 62 SS and NSS lines. Seventy six markers (68%) were shared between the two groups, and 25 of the common markers occurred at fairly low frequency (maize inbred lines.

  1. Physiological Strategies to Improve the Performance of Spring Maize (Zea mays L.) Planted under Early and Optimum Sowing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bakhtavar, Muhammad Amir; Afzal, Irfan; Basra, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed; Ahmad, Azraf-Ul-Haq; Noor, Mehmood Ali

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature at stand establishment and high temperature at reproductive stage are involved in reduction of grain yield of spring maize. A field study was therefore conducted to evaluate different physiological strategies for improving performance of spring maize under temperature extremes. Seed priming and foliar spray with 3% moringa leaf extract (MLE) and 100 mg L-1 kinetin solution alone or in all possible combinations with each other at three growth stages (knee height, tasseling and grain filling stage) and hydropriming was compared with control. Seed priming plus foliar spray of MLE and kinetin significantly improved stand establishment especially under early sown crop as indicated by reduced mean emergence time (MET), improved emergence index (EI) and final emergence percentage (FEP). Similarly increased chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, leaf area index, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, relative water content and decreased membrane permeability were recorded in both early and optimum sowing conditions in MLE priming plus foliar spray treatment. All these improvements were harvested in the form of increased yield and harvest index compared with control treatment. Overall crop sown at optimum time performed best but exogenous application of MLE through seed priming and foliar spray maximally improved the performance of early sown maize crop which is attributed more likely due to improved stand establishment, chlorophyll and phenolic contents, increased leaf area duration and grain filling period. It can be concluded that seed priming with MLE along with its foliar spray could increase production of maize under temperature extremes.

  2. High bioavailable iron maize (Zea mays L.) developed through molecular breeding provides more absorbable iron in vitro and in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Fe biofortification is a preventative strategy that alleviates Fe deficiency by improving the amount of absorbable Fe in staple crops, such as maize. This approach reaches populations that fortification and supplementation p...

  3. Physiological Strategies to Improve the Performance of Spring Maize (Zea mays L.) Planted under Early and Optimum Sowing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtavar, Muhammad Amir; Afzal, Irfan; Basra, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed; Ahmad, Azraf-ul-Haq; Noor, Mehmood Ali

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature at stand establishment and high temperature at reproductive stage are involved in reduction of grain yield of spring maize. A field study was therefore conducted to evaluate different physiological strategies for improving performance of spring maize under temperature extremes. Seed priming and foliar spray with 3% moringa leaf extract (MLE) and 100 mg L-1 kinetin solution alone or in all possible combinations with each other at three growth stages (knee height, tasseling and grain filling stage) and hydropriming was compared with control. Seed priming plus foliar spray of MLE and kinetin significantly improved stand establishment especially under early sown crop as indicated by reduced mean emergence time (MET), improved emergence index (EI) and final emergence percentage (FEP). Similarly increased chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, leaf area index, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, relative water content and decreased membrane permeability were recorded in both early and optimum sowing conditions in MLE priming plus foliar spray treatment. All these improvements were harvested in the form of increased yield and harvest index compared with control treatment. Overall crop sown at optimum time performed best but exogenous application of MLE through seed priming and foliar spray maximally improved the performance of early sown maize crop which is attributed more likely due to improved stand establishment, chlorophyll and phenolic contents, increased leaf area duration and grain filling period. It can be concluded that seed priming with MLE along with its foliar spray could increase production of maize under temperature extremes. PMID:25928295

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differ in their ability to regulate the expression of phosphate transportors in maize (Zea mays L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the expression of two phosphate (P) transporter genes ZEAma:Pht1;3 (epidermal-expressed) and ZEAma:Pht1;6 (AM specific induced, and expressed around arbuscules) in maize root to colonization by different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal inoculants. No...

  5. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis and quantitative trait locus identification for grain mineral concentration, content, and yield in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Gu, Riliang; Chen, Fanjun; Liu, Bingran; Wang, Xin; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Pengcheng; Pan, Qingchun; Pace, Jordon; Soomro, Ayaz-Ali; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Mi, Guohua; Yuan, Lixing

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the correlations of seven minerals for concentration, content and yield in maize grain, and exploring their genetic basis will help breeders to develop high grain quality maize. Biofortification by enhanced mineral accumulation in grain through genetic improvement is an efficient way to solve global nutrient malnutrition, in which one key step is to detect the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). Herein, a maize recombinant inbred population (RIL) was field grown to maturity across four environments (two locations × two years). Phenotypic data for grain mineral concentration, content and yield were determined for copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). Significant effects of genotype, location and year were observed for all investigated traits. The strongest location effects were found for Zn accumulation traits probably due to distinct soil Zn availabilities across locations. Heritability (H (2)) of different traits varied with higher H (2) (72-85 %) for mineral concentration and content, and lower (48-63 %) for mineral yield. Significant positive correlations for grain concentration were revealed between several minerals. QTL analysis revealed 28, 25, and 12 QTL for mineral concentration, content and yield, respectively; and identified 8 stable QTL across at least two environments. All these QTL were assigned into 12 distinct QTL clusters. A cluster at chromosome Bin 6.07/6.08 contained 6 QTL for kernel weight, mineral concentration (Mg) and content (Zn, K, Mg, P). Another cluster at Bin 4.05/4.06 contained a stable QTL for Mn concentration, which were previously identified in other maize and rice RIL populations. These results highlighted the phenotypic and genetic performance of grain mineral accumulation, and revealed two promising chromosomal regions for genetic improvement of grain biofortification in maize.

  6. Histological and transcript analyses of intact somatic embryos in an elite maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line Y423.

    PubMed

    Liu, Beibei; Su, Shengzhong; Wu, Ying; Li, Ying; Shan, Xiaohui; Li, Shipeng; Liu, Hongkui; Dong, Haixiao; Ding, Meiqi; Han, Junyou; Yuan, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Intact somatic embryos were obtained from an elite maize inbred line Y423, bred in our laboratory. Using 13-day immature embryos after self-pollination as explants, and after 4-5 times subculture, a large number of somatic embryos were detected on the surface of the embryonic calli on the medium. The intact somatic embryos were transferred into the differential medium, where the plantlets regenerated with shoots and roots forming simultaneously. Histological analysis and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the different developmental stages of somatic embryogenesis, including globular-shaped embryo, pear-shaped embryo, scutiform embryo, and mature embryo. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) was used for comparative transcript profiling between embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of a new elite maize inbred line Y423 during somatic embryogenesis. Differentially expressed genes were cloned and sequenced. Gene Ontology analysis of 117 candidate genes indicated their involvement in cellular component, biological process and molecular function. Nine of the candidate genes were selected. The changes in their expression levels during embryo induction and regeneration were analyzed in detail using quantitative real-time PCR. Two full-length cDNA sequences, encoding ZmSUF4 (suppressor of fir 4-like protein) and ZmDRP3A (dynamin-related protein), were cloned successfully from intact somatic embryos of the elite inbred maize line Y423. Here, a procedure for maize plant regeneration from somatic embryos is described. Additionally, the possible roles of some of these genes during the somatic embryogenesis has been discussed. This study is a systematic analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanism during the formation of intact somatic embryos in maize.

  7. Analysis of water and nitrogen use efficiency for maize (Zea mays L.) grown on soft rock and sand compound soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanyuan; Han, Jichang; Tong, Wei; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Haiou

    2017-06-01

    Maize was grown on compound soils constituted from mixtures of soft rock and sand at different ratios, and water use efficiency (WUE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency (FNUE) were quantified. The data were used to assist in designing strategies for optimizing water and nitrogen management practices for maize on the substrates used. Maize was sown in composite soil prepared at three ratios of soft rock and sand (1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 v/v) in Mu Us Sandy Land, Yuyang district, Yulin city, China. Yields, amount of drainage, nitrogen (N) leaching, WUE and NUE were calculated. Then a water and nitrogen management model (WNMM) was calibrated and validated. No significant difference in evapotranspiration of maize was found among compound soils with soft rock/sand ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5, while water drainage increased significantly with increasing soft rock/sand ratio. WUE increased to 1.30 kg m(-3) in compound soil with 1:2 soft rock/sand ratio. Nitrogen leaching and ammonia volatilization were the main reason for nitrogen loss, and N reduction mainly relied on crop uptake. NUE and FNUE could reach 33.1 and 24.9 kg kg(-1) N respectively. Water drainage and nitrogen leaching occurred mostly during heavy rainfall or irrigation. Through a scenario analysis of different rainfall types, water and fertilizer management systems were formulated each year. This study shows that soft rock plays a key role in improving the WUE, NUE and FNUE of maize. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Identification of B6T173 (ZmPrx35) as the prevailing peroxidase in highly insect-resistant maize (Zea mays, p84C3) kernels by activity-directed purification

    PubMed Central

    López-Castillo, Laura M.; López-Arciniega, Janet A. I.; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Brieba, Luis G.; García-Lara, Silverio; Winkler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Plant peroxidases (PODs) are involved in diverse physiological processes, including defense against pathogens and insects. Contrary to their biological importance, only very few plant PODs have been proven on protein level, because their low abundance makes them difficult to detect in standard proteomics work-flows. A statistically significant positive correlation between POD activity and post-harvest insect resistance has been found for maize (Zea mays, p84C3) kernels. In combining activity-directed protein purification, genomic and proteomic tools we found that protein B6T173 (ZmPrx35) is responsible for the majority of the POD activity of the kernel. We successfully produced recombinant ZmPrx35 protein in Escherichia coli and demonstrate both, in vitro activity and the presence of a haem (heme) cofactor of the enzyme. Our findings support the screening for insect resistant maize variants and the construction of genetically optimized maize plants. PMID:26379694

  9. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  10. Characterization of mature maize (Zea mays L.) root system architecture and complexity in a diverse set of Ex-PVP inbreds and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Andrew L; Novais, Joana; Grift, Tony E; Bohn, Martin O

    2015-01-01

    The mature root system is a vital plant organ, which is critical to plant performance. Commercial maize (Zea mays L.) breeding has resulted in a steady increase in plant performance over time, along with noticeable changes in above ground vegetative traits, but the corresponding changes in the root system are not presently known. In this study, roughly 2500 core root systems from field trials of a set of 10 diverse elite inbreds formerly protected by Plant Variety Protection plus B73 and Mo17 and the 66 diallel intercrosses among them were evaluated for root traits using high throughput image-based phenotyping. Overall root architecture was modeled by root angle (RA) and stem diameter (SD), while root complexity, the amount of root branching, was quantified using fractal analysis to obtain values for fractal dimension (FD) and fractal abundance (FA). For each trait, per se line effects were highly significant and the most important contributor to trait performance. Mid-parent heterosis and specific combining ability was also highly significant for FD, FA, and RA, while none of the traits showed significant general combining ability. The interaction between the environment and the additive line effect was also significant for all traits. Within the inbred and hybrid generations, FD and FA were highly correlated (rp ≥ 0.74), SD was moderately correlated to FD and FA (0.69 ≥ rp ≥ 0.48), while the correlation between RA and other traits was low (0.13 ≥ rp ≥ -0.40). Inbreds with contrasting effects on complexity and architecture traits were observed, suggesting that root complexity and architecture traits are inherited independently. A more comprehensive understanding of the maize root system and the way it interacts with the environment will be useful for defining adaptation to nutrient acquisition and tolerance to stress from drought and high plant densities, critical factors in the yield gains of modern hybrids.

  11. Regulation of the pericycle proteome in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots by RUM1 which is required for lateral root initiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; von Behrens, Inga; Muthreich, Nils; Schütz, Wolfgang; Nordheim, Alfred; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Lateral roots are all roots that are initiated in the pericycle cell layer of other roots during postembryonic development. The maize (Zea mays L.) mutant rum1 (rootless with undetectable meristems 1) does not initiate lateral roots in the primary root. In the present study, two-dimensional electrophoresis proteome profiles of three biological replicates of pericycle cells isolated from the differentiation zone of 2.5-day-old wild-type and rum1 primary roots were generated. This early developmental stage was selected in order to analyze histologically similar cells before the initiation of lateral roots in wild-type primary roots. In total, 418 proteins were reproducibly detected on all six gels after fluorescent staining with Flamingo dye. Among those, twelve proteins were differentially accumulated between wild-type and rum1 pericycle cells (Fc > 2; p < 0.05). Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) identified eight of the twelve proteins. Six proteins were related to metabolism, one protein belonged to the class of disease and defense, and one protein was related to development. Six of the eight proteins have not been previously localized to the pericycle. Moreover, the slight overlap between proteins and transcripts that are differentially accumulated in the maize pericycle between wild-type and rum1 underscores the importance of posttranscriptional protein modifications that cannot be detected on the RNA level. The differential accumulation of proteins in rum1 and wild-type pericycle cells of the primary root suggests that the abundance of these proteins could be regulated by RUM1.

  12. Contrasting effects of biochar, compost and farm manure on alleviation of nickel toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.) in relation to plant growth, photosynthesis and metal uptake.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia-Ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Fatima, Nida; Yousaf, Balal; Naeem, Asif; Sabir, Muhammad; Ahmad, Hamaad Raza; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-11-01

    Nickel (Ni) toxicity in agricultural crops is a widespread problem while little is known about the role of biochar (BC) and other organic amendments like farm manure (FM) from cattle farm and compost (Cmp) on its alleviation. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BC, Cmp and FM on physiological and biochemical characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under Ni stress. Maize was grown in Ni spiked soil without and with two rates of the amendments (equivalent to 1% and 2% organic carbon, OC) applied separately to the soil. After harvest, plant height, root length, dry weight, chlorophyll contents, gas exchange characteristics and trace elements in plants were determined. In addition, post-harvest soil characteristics like pHs, ECe and bioavailable Ni were also determined. Compared to the control, all of the amendments increased plant height, root length, shoot and root dry weight with the maximum increase in all parameters by FM (2% OC) treatment. Similarly, total chlorophyll contents and gas exchange characteristics significantly increased with the application of amendments being maximum with FM (2% OC) application. Amendments significantly increased copper, zinc, manganese and iron concentrations and decreased Ni concentrations in the plants. The highest reduction in shoot Ni concentration was recorded with FM (2% OC) followed by BC (2% OC) being 73.2% and 61.1% lower compared to the control, respectively. The maximum increase in soil pH and decrease in AB-DTPA extractable Ni was recorded with BC (2% OC) followed by FM (2% OC). It is concluded that FM (2% OC) was the most effective in reducing Ni toxicity to plants by reducing Ni uptake while BC (2% OC) was the most effective in decreasing bioavailable Ni in the soil through increasing soil pH. However, long-term field studies are needed to evaluate the effects of these amendments in reducing Ni toxicity in plants.

  13. Co-ordination between Leaf Initiation and Leaf Appearance in Field-grown Maize (Zea mays): Genotypic Differences in Response of Rates to Temperature

    PubMed Central

    PADILLA, J. M.; OTEGUI, M. E.

    2005