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Sample records for modified tapioca starch

  1. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch in Atmospheric Argon Plasma under Diverse Humidity by FTIR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeyai, P.; Suphantharika, M.; Wongsagonsup, R.; Dangtip, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tapioca is economical crop grown in Thailand and continues to be one of the major sources of starch. Nowadays, tapioca starch has been widely used in industrial applications, however the native form of starch has limited the applications. Thus scientists try to modify the properties of starch for increasing the stability of the granules, pastes to low pH, heat, and shear during the food process. We modify the tapioca starch by plasma treatment under an argon atmosphere. The degree of modification is determined by following water content in the starch granules. The tablet samples of native starch are also prepared and compared with the plasma treated starch. Before plasma treatment, the starch tablets are stored under three different relative humilities (RH) including 11%, 68%, and 78%RH, respectively. The samples are characterized using FTIR spectroscopy associated with the degree of cross-linking. The results show that the water molecules are engulfed into the starch structure in two ways, a tight bond and a weak absorption of water molecules which is represented at two wave number of 1630 cm-1 and 3272 cm-1, respectively. The degree of cross-linking can be identified from the relative intensity of these two peaks with the C—O—H peak at 993 cm-1. The results show that the degree of cross-linking increase in the plasma treated starch. The degree of cross-linking of the treated starch with high relative humidity is less than that of the treated starch with low relative humidity.

  2. Development of modified starch technology (maltodextrin) from commercial tapioca on semi production scale using oil heater dextrinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triyono, Agus; Cecep Erwan Andriansyah, Raden; Luthfiyanti, Rohmah; Rahman, Taufik

    2017-12-01

    One way to improve functional starch is by modification of starch into dextrin or maltodextrin. Maltodextrin is used in the food industry as a food substitution. Development of enzymatically modified starch technology has been performed with the use of α-amylase at optimum pH of 5.5, temperature 75-85 °C, with enzyme activity of 135 KNU/g. The maltodextrin produced from commercial tapioca has the quality requirements for food according to SNI 1992. The yield of maltodextrin obtained is about 80%. The use of the optimum amount of the α-amylase enzyme is 0.07 % v/w and the substrate amount of tapioca starch is 35%. Analysis of the feasibility of modified starch with the assumption of production scale of 300 kg per day, the economic value of 10 years business, the price of starch is IDR 8,350/kg, from tapioca starch (tapioca) IDR 4,000 - IDR 4,500/kg.

  3. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch Solutions and Their Sprays for High Temperature Coating Applications

    PubMed Central

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature. PMID:24592165

  4. Improvement of rheological, thermal and functional properties of tapioca starch using gum arabic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The addition of gum arabic (GA) to native tapioca starch (TS) to modify the functionality of TS was investigated. GA is well known for its stabilizing, emulsifying, and thickening properties. The effects of adding GA (0.1-1.0%) on pasting, rheological and solubility properties of TS (5%) were analy...

  5. Initial sustainability assessment of tapioca starch production system in Lake Toba area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situmorang, Asido; Manik, Yosef

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore to what extent the principles of sustainability have been applied in a tapioca industry located in Lake Toba area and to explore the aspects that open the opportunities for system improvement. In conducting such assessment, we adopted the life-cycle approach using Mass Flow Analysis methods that covers all cassava starch production processes from fresh cassava root till dry cassava starch. The inventory data were collected from the company, in the form of both production record and interviews. From data analysis the authors were able to present a linked flow that describes the production process of tapioca starch that quantifies into the functional unit of one pack marketable tapioca starch weighs 50 kg. In order to produce 50 kg of tapioca, 200 kg cassava root and 800 kg of water are required. This production efficiency translates to 25% yield. This system generates 40 kg of cassava peel, 60 kg of pulp and 850 kg of waste water. For starch drying 208.8 MJ of thermal energy is required in the form of heating fuel. The material flow analysis is employed for impact assessment. Several options in improving the operation are proposed includes utilization of pulp into more valuable co-products, integration of waste treatment plant to enable the use of water recycled from the extraction operation for the washing process, and to application of a waste water treatment system that produces biogas as a renewable energy, which reduces the consumption of fuel in dryer unit.

  6. Production of a protein-rich extruded snack base using tapioca starch, sorghum flour and casein.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jiral R; Patel, Ashok A; Singh, Ashish K

    2016-01-01

    A protein-rich puffed snack was produced using a twin screw extruder and the effects of varying levels of tapioca starch (11 to 40 parts), rennet casein (6 to 20 parts) and sorghum flour (25 to 75 parts) on physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of the product studied. An increasing level of sorghum flour resulted in a decreasing whiteness (Hunter L* value) of the snack. Although the starch also generally tended to make the product increasingly darker, both starch and casein showed redness parameter (a* value) was not significantly influenced by the ingredients levels, the yellow hue (b* value) generally declined with the increasing sorghum level. Tapioca starch significantly increased the expansion ratio and decreased the bulk density and hardness value of the snack, whereas the opposite effects seen in case of sorghum flour. While the water solubility index was enhanced by starch, water absorption index was appreciably improved by sorghum. Incorporation of casein (up to 25 %) improved the sensory color and texture scores, and so also the overall acceptability rating of the product. Sorghum flour had an adverse impact on all the sensory attributes whereas starch only on the color score. The casein or starch level had no perceivable effect on the product's flavor score. The response surface data enabled optimization of the snack-base formulation for the desired protein level or desired sensory characteristics.

  7. Effect of tapioca starch and amyloglucosidase concentration on very high gravity simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (VHG-SSF) of bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugih, A. K.; Santoso, I. V.; Kristijarti, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tapioca starch is isolated from the root of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). It is produced in a large quantity in Indonesia and other south east Asian countries. Tapioca starch has been commonly used as a feedstock for food as well as non-food industries. Due to its high carbohydrate content, tapioca starch has the potentiality to be used as a raw material for bioethanol production. In this research, a novel approach (Very High Gravity Simultaneous Sacharification and Fermentation/ VHG-SSF) to synthesise highly concentrated ethanol from tapioca starch was investigated. Tapioca starch suspension was first gelatinised for two hours at 90°C and hydrolised at the same temperature for another two hours using commercial α- amylase (Liquozyme Supra, 0.16%-v/ w starch). The pretreated suspension was sterilised and mixed with nitrogenous supplement. In order to start the fermentation, Saccharomyces cereviseae NRRL Y-132 inoculum (10%-v/v; 107 cells/ ml) and commercial amyloglucosidase (Dextrozyme GA, 35-105 AGU/ g starch) were added to the mixture. The initial total carbohydrate, yeast extract, and peptone concentrations of the fermentation broths were 30-40 %-w/v, 1%-w/v, and 2%-w/v, respectively. VHG-SSF was allowed to proceed for 6 days at 30°C with rotary shaker speed of 100 rpm. The concentration of glucose and ethanol during fermentation was monitored using HPLC. The experimental result shows that tapioca starch has been successfully converted to ethanol with a final concentration of 10.12-16.14 %-w/v, which is corresponding to yield of 34.68-56.83 %-w ethanol/ w-converted sugar. The result suggests that VHG-SSF is a prospective method to synthesise bioethanol from tapioca starch.

  8. Effect of salt on the glass transition of condensed tapioca starch systems.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert A; Kasapis, Stefan

    2017-08-15

    This work examines the effect of including hydrated NaCl and CaCl 2 (up to 6% w/w) on the physicochemical properties of condensed tapioca starch. Samples were prepared by hot pressing at 120°C to produce condensed systems that covered a range of moisture contents from 7.34% w/w (23% relative humidity) to 19.52% w/w (75% relative humidity). Tensile storage modulus and heat flow measurements were taken using DMA and MDSC, which were accompanied by FTIR, WAXD and ESEM. Increasing the salt level enhances the mechanical strength of starch in the glassy state and shifts the glass transition temperature to a higher value. Antiplasticising effects of NaCl and CaCl 2 on the non-phosphorylated tapioca starch are indistinguishable from each other. Observations are complemented by intensification of absorbance peaks in FTIR spectra and a systematic change in shape and intensity of diffraction patterns with increasing addition of salt consistent with interactions between added ions and macromolecule. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Nikhil; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to develop tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for the intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate (MT). The beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using calcium chloride as crosslinker and gas forming calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as floating inducer. The alginate gel beads having 51-58% entrapped MT showed 90% release within 45 min in gastric medium (pH 1.2). Tapioca starch blending markedly improved the entrapment efficiency (88%) and sustained the release for 3-4 h. A 12% w/w HPMC coating on these beads extended the release upto 9-11 h. In vitro wash off and buoyancy test in gastric media revealed that the beads containing CaCO3 has gastric residence of more than 12 h. In vitro optimized multi-unit formulation consisting of immediate and sustained release mucoadhesive-floating beads (40:60) showed good initial release of 42% MT within 1h followed by a sustained release of over 90% for 11 h. Pharmacokinetic study performed in rabbit model showed that the relative oral bioavailability of MT after administration of oral solution, sustain release and optimized formulation was 51%, 67% and 87%, respectively. Optimized formulation showed a higher percent inhibition of isoprenaline induced heart rate in rabbits for almost 12 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of green composites based on tapioca starch and celluloses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owi, Wei Tieng; Lin, Ong Hui; Sam, Sung Ting; Mern, Chin Kwok; Villagracia, Al Rey; Santos, Gil Nonato C.; Akil, Hazizan Md

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the properties of green composites based on tapioca starch (TS) and celluloses isolated from empty fruit bunches (EFB) and commercial celluloses from cotton linter (supplied by Sigma). Empty fruit bunches (EFB) acted as the main source to obtain the cellulose by using a chemical approach whereas the commercial cellulose from Sigma was used as reference. The TS/cellulose composite films were prepared using cellulose in varying proportions as filler into TS matrix by a casting method. The amount of celluloses added into the tapioca starch were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 phr (as per dry mass of TS). The celluloses were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTTR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While the green composite films were analyzed in terms of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), SEM and tensile properties. FTTR analysis confirmed the removal of non-cellulosic materials such as hemicelluloses and lignin from raw EFB after the chemical treatment. XRD diffractograms revealed that the crystallinity of celluloses EFB increased from 43.1 % of raw EFB to 52.1 %. SEM images showed the fibrillar structure of cellulose isolated from EFB. The TGA and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of green composite films showed no significant effect on the thermal stability. Melting temperature of TS/cellulose EFB higher than neat TS while TS/cellulose Sigma lower than neat TS. The green composite films with 15 phr cellulose from EFB filler loading provided the best tensile properties in term of its strength and modulus. However, in term of elongation at break, the percentage elongation decreased with the increased of the amount of filler loading. SEM images of the films demonstrated a good interaction between cellulose filler and TS matrix especially with the addition of 15 phr of cellulose from EFB.

  11. Flow, packing and compaction properties of novel coprocessed multifunctional directly compressible excipients prepared from tapioca starch and mannitol.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-12-01

    Novel multifunctional excipients were prepared by coprocessing tapioca starch with mannitol using two methods viz; co-grinding and co-fusion. The flow, packing and compaction properties of the native and novel excipients were evaluated by using density, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose, the maximum volume reduction, consolidation index, the rate of consolidation, angle of internal friction, morphological properties, Heckel analysis, tensile strength and dilution potential as evaluation parameters. The study revealed that the method of coprocessing, particle size and particle shape influenced the properties of the resulting novel excipients. Co-grinding was less effective than co-fusion in the preparation of excipients with enhanced properties. The study concluded that coprocessing tapioca starch and mannitol will enhance the flow, packing and compaction properties of the novel excipient and that the co-fusion method of coprocessing would produce novel excipients with enhanced direct compression potential compared to the co-grinding method.

  12. Effects of low molecular sugars on the retrogradation of tapioca starch gels during storage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongfang; Kang, Huaibin; Luo, Denglin; Fan, Jinling; Zhu, Wenxue; Liu, Xinfang; Tong, Qunyi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of low molecular sugars (sucrose, glucose and trehalose) on the retrogradation of tapioca starch (TS) gels stored at 4°C for different periods were examined with different methods. Decrease in melting enthalpy (ΔHmelt) were obtained through differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Analysis of decrease in crystallization rate constant (k) and increase in semi-crystallization time (τ1/2) results obtained from retrogradation kinetics indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels and further revealed trehalose as the best inhibitor among the sugars used in this study. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that the intensity ratio of 1047 to 1022 cm−1 was increased with the addition of sugars in the order of trehalose > sucrose > glucose. Decrease in hardness parameters and increase in springiness parameters obtained from texture profile analysis (TPA) analysis also indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels. The results of FTIR and TPA showed a consistent sugar effect on starch retrogradation with those of DSC and retrogradation kinetics analysis. PMID:29284007

  13. Effects of low molecular sugars on the retrogradation of tapioca starch gels during storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Rongfang; Kang, Huaibin; Luo, Denglin; Fan, Jinling; Zhu, Wenxue; Liu, Xinfang; Tong, Qunyi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of low molecular sugars (sucrose, glucose and trehalose) on the retrogradation of tapioca starch (TS) gels stored at 4°C for different periods were examined with different methods. Decrease in melting enthalpy (ΔHmelt) were obtained through differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Analysis of decrease in crystallization rate constant (k) and increase in semi-crystallization time (τ1/2) results obtained from retrogradation kinetics indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels and further revealed trehalose as the best inhibitor among the sugars used in this study. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that the intensity ratio of 1047 to 1022 cm-1 was increased with the addition of sugars in the order of trehalose > sucrose > glucose. Decrease in hardness parameters and increase in springiness parameters obtained from texture profile analysis (TPA) analysis also indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels. The results of FTIR and TPA showed a consistent sugar effect on starch retrogradation with those of DSC and retrogradation kinetics analysis.

  14. Inclusive business model in tapioca starch industry in Lake Toba area: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, S.; Manik, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The notion of inclusive business calls for additional focus and innovation in the way companies do business which seeks to contribute to poverty alleviation by including Bottom of the Pyramids (BoP) communities within its value chain while not losing sight of the ultimate goal of business. Lake Toba Area has potentials in providing chances for doing businesses. On the other hand, the growth of market size is rather slow and demographically still dominated by BoP. This is a case study which seeks to investigate to what extent the Inclusive Business Model (IBM) is adopted in the strategic planning and applied in the operational management of companies that operate in Lake Toba Area. The study was conducted in qualitative basis. The observation was conducted by gathering data and information through a series of interviews with the top management and desk study of the business plan in a tapioca starch industry in Toba Samosir Regency. The collected data and information were then analyzed qualitatively by comparing them with criteria and parameters of IBM suggested in a vast body of literature. The reference by which the IBM is referred in this study is a series of criteria which is synthesized from a literature review on a vast body of literature about IBM. From data analysis, it is evident that IBM has been incorporated in the strategic plan and applied in the operational activities of the object of this study. However, we also found some rooms for improvement such as expanding the involvement of BoP in their value chain as consumers, by which some innovation in the product diversification is required.

  15. Tapioca starch graft copolymers and Dome Matrix® modules II. Effect of modules assemblage on riboflavin release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Casas, Marta; Strusi, Orazio Luca; Jiménez-Castellanos, M Rosa; Colombo, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the Riboflavin release from systems made of assembled modules of Dome Matrix® technology using tapioca starch-ethylmethacrylate (TSEMA) and tapioca hydroxypropylstarch-ethylmethacrylate (THSEMA) graft copolymers produced by two different drying methods. Two different shape modules were manufactured for this study, i.e., female and male modules, in order to facilitate their assemblage in "void configuration", a system with an internal void space. Drug release studies on void configurations based on THSEMA show faster releases than TSEMA; HPMC systems used as a comparative reference showed intermediate release. Moreover, using void configurations made with one module of TSEMA and the other of THSEMA is possible to average the drug release, without difference between the drying methods used for the polymers. With respect to the floatation characteristics, all the void configurations floated immediately and, due to the mass center of the system, the floatation position of the system was always axial with the female module up and the male down. The drug release studies performed with a sinker to force the immersion of the systems in the medium did not show differences with respect to the dissolution test without a sinker. The combination of floatation capability of the assembled modules and the prolonged drug release provided with the graft copolymers make these assembled modules candidates as controlled release gastro-retentive dosage forms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite film based on tapioca starch/bovine gelatin/nanorod zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Marvizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Oladzadabbasabadi, Nazila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Jokar, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    To exploring a nano-packaging materials for using as coating or edible films, tapioca starch/gelatin/nanorod ZnO (ZnON) bionanocomposites were prepared via solution casting technique. The effects of nanofiller addition on the mechanical, physicochemical, and crystalline structures, as well as the barrier properties of bionanocomposite films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the bionanocomposite film incorporated with ZnON at a concentration of 3.5% w/w exhibited high intensity peaks compared with control samples. Results of UV-vis spectra analysis showed that incorporation of ZnON into the films can absorb the whole UV light. Tensile strength of the films was increased from 14 to 18MPa whereas elongation at breaks decreased from 18 to 8 percent and oxygen permeability decreased from 151.03 to 91.52cm 3 μm/(m 2 -day) by incorporation of 3.5% ZnON into biopolymer matrix. In summary combined starch/gelatin films supported by ZnON showed better properties compared to starch or gelatin alone. Thus, the bionanocomposite films can be used in food, medicine, and pharmaceutical packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of water volume based on water absorption and mixing time on physical properties of tapioca starch – wheat composite bread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prameswari, I. K.; Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Atmaka, W.

    2018-05-01

    Tapioca starch application in bread processing change water absorption level by the dough, while sufficient mixing time makes the optimal water absorption. This research aims to determine the effect of variations in water volume and mixing time on physical properties of tapioca starch – wheat composite bread and the best method for the composite bread processing. This research used Complete Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) with two factors: variations of water volume (111,8 ml, 117,4 ml, 123 ml) and mixing time (16 minutes, 17 minutes 36 seconds, 19 minutes 12 seconds). The result showed that water volume significantly affected on dough volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, and crust thickness. Mixing time significantly affected on dough volume and specific volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, bread height, and crust thickness. While the combination of water volume and mixing time significantly affected for all physical properties parameters except crust thickness.

  18. Optimization of composite coagulant made from polyferric chloride and tapioca starch in landfill leachate treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaylinda, M. Z. N.; Hamidi, A. A.; Mohd, N. A.; Ariffin, A.; Irvan, D.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this research, the performance of polyferric chloride and tapioca flour as composite coagulants for partially stabilized leachate was investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the coagulation and flocculation process of partially stabilized leachate. Central composite design a standard design tool in RSM was applied to evaluate the interactions and effects of dose and pH. Dose 0.2 g/L Fe and pH 4.71 were the optimum value suggested by RSM. Experimental test based on the optimum condition, resulted in 95.9%, 94.6% and 50.4% of SS, color and COD removals, respectively. The percentage difference recorded between experimental and model responses was <5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that RSM was an appropriate optimization tool for coagulation and flocculation process.

  19. Development of edible films from tapioca starch and agar, enriched with red cabbage (Brassica oleracea) as a sausage deterioration bio-indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditya Wardana, Ata; Dewanti Widyaningsih, Tri

    2017-12-01

    Sausage spoilage has been identified as a cause of some food poisoning cases. Development of a bioindicator film is one of the alternative methods to detect sausage deterioration. The objectives of this paper were to develop a bioindicator edible films (BEF) from tapioca starch (TS), agar, and red cabbage juice (RC), and to evaluate its performance on sausage deterioration detection. The experiment had a 3x3 randomized factorial experimental design (agar: 3, 5, 7% by weight of TS; RC: 10, 15, 20% v/v based on 100% of suspension). Glycerol was used as the plasticizer. The results showed that the addition of agar into the film solution increased the thickness, elongation, and tensile strength, and decreased water vapour transmission rate (WVTR). While the addition of RC increased the thickness, but decreased elongation, tensile strength, and WVTR. BEF consisting of 2% tapioca starch, 7% (w/w) agar and 10 % (v/v) RC was chosen to apply on sausage. It could detect an increase in the microbial population and in the pH variations as result of sausage deterioration at 24, 48, and 72 h shown through color changes of BEF from bright purple at 0 h to light purple, dark purple-blue, and purple-green color respectively.

  20. Urea encapsulation in modified starch matrix for nutrients retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariff, Mohd. Hazwan Bin Mohd.; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    It has been estimated that 20-70% of the used urea goes to the environment via leaching, nitrification and volatilization which not only harms the environment but also reduces the urea efficiency. By coating the urea granules, the farmers can achieve high urea performance through controlling the excess release of nitrogen. Up until now, different materials have been tested for nutrients retention. However, most of them are either expensive or unfriendly to the environment. Being cheap and biodegradable materials, the starches may also be used to coat the urea fertilizer for controlling the nutrients release. However, the pure starches do not meet the standards set by many industrial processes due to their slow tacking and too low viscosities and should be modified for getting smooth, compact and mechanically stronger coatings. In these studies, the tapioca starch was modified by reacting it with urea and different masses of borax. The prepared solutions were used to coat the urea granules of 3.45 mm average diameter. Different volumes (1, 1.5 and 2 mL) of each solution were used to coat 30 g of urea fluidized above the minimum level of fluidization. It was noticed that the coating thickness, percent coating, dissolution rate and percent release follow an increasing trend with an increase of solution volume; however, some random results were obtained while investigating the solution volume effects on the percent release. It was seen that the nutrients percent release over time increases with an increase in solution volume from 1 to 1.5 mL and thereafter reaches to a steady state. It confirms that the 1.5 mL of solution for 30 g urea samples will give the optimized coating results.

  1. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food starch...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food starch...

  3. Tapioca starch: An efficient fuel in gel-combustion synthesis of photocatalytically and anti-microbially active ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasami, Alamelu K.; Raja Naika, H.; Nagabhushana, H.

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by gel-combustion method using novel bio-fuel tapioca starch pearls, derived from the tubers of Manihotesculenta. The product is characterized using various techniques. The X-ray diffraction pattern correspond to a hexagonal zincite structure. Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed main absorption peaks at 394 and 508 cm{sup −} {sup 1} due to stretching vibration of Zn–O. Ultravoilet–visible spectrum of zinc oxide nanoparticles showed absorption maximum at 373 nm whereas the maximum of the bulk zinc oxide was 377 nm. The morphology of the product was studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The scanning electronmore » microscopic images showed that the products are agglomerated and porous in nature. The transmission electron microscopic images revealed spherical particles of 40–50 nm in diameter. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was examined using zinc oxide nanoparticles and found more efficient in sunlight than ultra-violet light due to reduced band gap. The antibacterial properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated against four bacterial strains Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aereus, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aereus exhibited significant antibacterial activity in agar well diffusion method when compared to positive control. - Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared from a new bio-fuel, tapioca starch by gel combustion method. • XRD pattern revealed hexagonal zincite crystal structure with crystallite size 33 nm. • ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a band gap of 2.70 eV. • The ZnO nanoparticles exhibited superior degradation in sunlight in comparison with UV light. • The product showed a good anti-bacterial activity against two bacterial strains.« less

  4. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch-modified may be safely used as a component of..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is...

  5. Rheological properties of reactive extrusion modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide copolymer gels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rheological properties of modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymers prepared by reactive extrusion were investigated. Both materials can absorb huge amount of water and form gels. The modified waxy starch and waxy starch-polyacrylamide graft copolymer gels all exhibite...

  6. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with degree of substitution of 0.018 (OS-S-L) and 0.092 (OS-S-H) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in an aqueous slurry system. The substitution distribution of OS groups was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatogr...

  7. Biomass Potential of Virgin and Calcined Tapioca (Cassava Starch) for the Removal of Sr(II) and Cs(I) from Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Ueta, Erimi; Nakamura, Takehiro; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we prepared novel adsorbents containing virgin and calcined tapioca products for removing strontium (Sr(II)) and cesium (Cs(I)) from aqueous solutions. The characteristics of tapioca, along with its capacity to adsorb Sr(II) and Cs(I), were evaluated. Multiple tapioca products were prepared and tested. The adsorbent prepared by boiling the tapioca followed by calcination at 300°C (BTP300) was the most effective. In addition, adsorption was affected by the adsorbent's surface properties. The Sr(II) and Cs(I) adsorbed onto BTP300 could be recovered through desorption by hydrochloric acid at different concentrations, which indicates that BTP300 can be used several times for adsorption/desorption. The results of this study suggest that BTP300, which was produced from tapioca biomass, can remove Sr(II) and Cs(I) from aqueous solutions.

  8. Modified starch containing liquid fuel slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, G.W.

    1978-04-04

    A substantially water-free, high solids content, stably dispersed combustible fuel slurry is provided, with a method of preparing the slurry. The slurry contains a minor amount of a solid particulate carbonaceous material such as powdered coal, with substantially the entire balance of the slurry being comprised of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel, particularly a heavy fuel oil. In extremely minor amounts are anionic surfactants, particularly soaps, and a stabilizing amount of a starch modified with an anionic polymer.

  9. Comparison of gamma radiation effects on natural corn and potato starches and modified cassava starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Bruna S.; Garcia, Rafael H. L.; Takinami, Patricia Y. I.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irradiation treatment on physicochemical properties of three natural polymers, i.e. native potato and corn starches and a typical Brazilian product, cassava starch modified through fermentation -sour cassava- and also to prepare composite hydrocolloid films based on them. Starches were irradiated in a 60Co irradiation chamber in doses up to 15 kGy, dose rate about 1 kGy/h. Differences were found in granule size distribution upon irradiation, mainly for corn and cassava starch but radiation did not cause significant changes in granule morphology. The viscosity of the potato, corn and cassava starches hydrogels decreased as a function of absorbed dose. Comparing non-irradiated and irradiated starches, changes in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra in the 2000-1500 cm-1 region for potato and corn starches were observed but not for the cassava starch. Maximum rupture force of the starch-based films was affected differently for each starch type; color analysis showed that doses of 15 kGy promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L* (lightness) was not significantly affected; X-ray diffraction patterns remained almost unchanged by irradiation.

  10. Dry Starch Powders Modified Teabag Method

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following is a test protocol for a “tea bag analysis” that was conducted on PMN starches by the Corn Refiners Association. This protocol is one approach to providing information on swellability of high molecular weight polymers.

  11. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food starch-modified. 172.892 Section 172.892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  12. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food starch-modified. 172.892 Section 172.892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  13. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food starch-modified. 172.892 Section 172.892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.892 Food...

  14. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA)-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State

    PubMed Central

    Marefati, Ali; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Wahlgren, Marie; Rayner, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable. PMID:27479315

  15. Utilization of modified starch from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed in cream soup production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelia, M.; Christianti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed was often seen as waste and underutilized resources, especially in the food industry. The aim of this research was to modify the structure of avocado seed starch using the cross-linking method, to improve the viscosity stability in the cream soup. In the preliminary research, starch was isolated from the seed and modified by STPP (sodium tripolyphosphate) with 2%, 4%, and 6% concentration and were reacted for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Starches were analyzed for moisture and ash content, paste clarity, gel strength, swelling power, solubility, yield, and degree of whiteness. Based on the analysis results, the best reaction time and STPP concentration was 6% at 1 hour reaction time. Native starch and the best-modified starch were applied in the cream soup and compared with commercial cream soup. Cream soups were analyzed for viscosity stability using viscometer in 0, 1, 3, and 5 hours after storage in room temperature. The result showed that cream soup using modified starch has better viscosity stability than native starch and commercial cream soup after 5 hours storage, which was 181.7 ± 4.85 cP. Sensory analysis showed that cream soup using modified starch was more acceptable than the others. Avocado seed modified starch has phosphate group that strengthen the starch chain to prevent viscosity breakdown.

  16. Comparison of various types of starch when used in meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Skrede, G

    1989-01-01

    Technological and sensory properties of meat sausages formulated with 4·0% of either potato flour, modified (acetylated distarch phosphate) potato starch, wheat, corn or tapioca starch were compared. Sausages were analyzed after cooking at temperatures between 65 and 85°C followed by storage at 5°C and -25°C. Characteristics evaluated were weight loss during cooking and storage, instrumentally and sensory assessed firmness, taste and smell of sausages. The results revealed differences in the suitability of starches for use in meat sausages. Part of the differences could be ascribed to differences in gelatination properties of the starches. With the criteria used for evaluating quality, potato flour was rated as the best suited starch followed by wheat starch while tapioca was rated as the least suited. Corn starch required cooking temperatures above 75°C and showed relatively low freeze/thaw stability. The modified potato starch stored well both above and below the freezing point. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Physicochemical and digestibility properties of double-modified banana ( Musa paradisiaca L.) starches.

    PubMed

    Carlos-Amaya, Fandila; Osorio-Diaz, Perla; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2011-02-23

    Banana starch was chemically modified using single (esterification or cross-linking) and dual modification (esterification-cross-linking and cross-linking-esterification), with the objective to increase the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) concentrations. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility were analyzed. The degree of substitution of the esterified samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.020. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the modified samples did not show change; however, an increase in crystallinity level was determined (from 23.79 to 32.76%). The ungelatinized samples had low rapidly digestible starch (RDS) (4.23-9.19%), whereas the modified starches showed an increase in SDS (from 10.79 to 16.79%) and had high RS content (74.07-85.07%). In the cooked samples, the esterified starch increased the SDS content (21.32%), followed by cross-linked starch (15.13%). Dual modified starch (cross-linked-esterified) had the lowest SDS content, but the highest RS amount. The esterified and cross-linked-esterified samples had higher peak viscosity than cross-linked and esterified-cross-linked. This characteristic is due to the fact that in dual modification, the groups introduced in the first modification are replaced by the functional group of the second modification. Temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization decreased in modified starches (from 75.37 to 74.02 °C and from 10.42 to 8.68 J/g, respectively), compared with their unmodified starch (76.15 °C and 11.05 J/g). Cross-linked-esterified starch showed the lowest enthalpy of gelatinization (8.68 J/g). Retrogradation temperature decreased in modified starches compared with unmodified (59.04-57.47 °C), but no significant differences were found among the modified samples.

  18. Glycemic response to corn starch modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and its relationship to physical properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn starch was modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) below the gelatinization temperature. The porous, partially hydrolyzed, granules with or without CGTase hydrolysis products, cyclodextrins (CDs) and short chain maltodextrins, may be used as an alternative to modified corn starc...

  19. Sensory and physicochemical evaluation of low-fat chicken mortadella with added native and modified starches.

    PubMed

    Prestes, R C; Silva, L B; Torri, A M P; Kubota, E H; Rosa, C S; Roman, S S; Kempka, A P; Demiate, I M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded as MOD2 (2.5 % of Thermtex) were studied. The following tests were performed: physicochemical characterization (moisture, ash, protein, starch and lipid contents, and water activity); cooling, freezing and reheating losses; texture (texture profile test); color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C and h); microbiological evaluation; sensory evaluation (multiple comparison and preference test); and histological evaluation (light microscopy). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) for ash, protein, cooling loss, cohesiveness or in the preference test for the tested samples. The other evaluated parameters showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Histological study allowed for a qualitative evaluation between the physical properties of the food and its microscopic structure. The best results were obtained for formulation MOD2 (2.5 % Thermtex). The addition of modified starch resulted in a better performance than the native starch in relation to the evaluated technological parameters, mainly in relation to reheating losses, which demonstrated the good interaction between the modified starch in the structure of the product and the possibility of the application of this type of starch in other types of functional meat products.

  20. Calcium modified edible Canna (Canna edulis L) starch for controlled released matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, A. P.; Ridwan, M.; Darmawan, T. A.; Darusman, F.; Gadri, A.

    2017-07-01

    Canna edulis L starch was modified with calcium chloride in order to form controlled released matrix. Present study aim to analyze modified starch characteristic. Four different formulation of ondansetron granules was used to provide dissolution profile of controlled released, two formula consisted of 15% and 30% modified starch, one formula utilized matrix reference standards and the last granules was negative control. Methocel-hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose was used as controlled released matrix reference standards in the third formula. Calcium starch was synthesized in the presence of sodium hydroxide to form gelatinized mass and calcium chloride as the cross linking agent. Physicochemical and dissolution properties of modified starch for controlled released application were investigated. Modified starch has higher swelling index, water solubility and compressibility index. Three of four different formulation of granules provide dissolution profile of controlled released. The profiles indicate granules which employed calcium Canna edulis L starch as matrix are able to resemble controlled drug released profile of matrix reference, however their bigger detain ability lead to lower bioavailability.

  1. Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Bambara Groundnut Starch Films Modified with Stearic Acid.

    PubMed

    Oyeyinka, Samson A; Singh, Suren; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-01-01

    The physicochemical and mechanical properties of biofilm prepared from bambara starch modified with varying concentrations of stearic acid (0%, 2.5%, 3.5%, 5%, 7%, and 10%) were studied. By scanning electron microscopy, bambara starch films modified with stearic acid (≥3.5%) showed a progressively rough surface compared to those with 2.5% stearic acid and the control. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra revealed a peak shift of approximately 31 cm -1 , suggesting the promotion of hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of starch and stearic acid. The addition of 2.5% stearic acid to bambara starch film reduced water vapor permeability by approximately 17%. Bambara starch films modified with higher concentration of stearic acid were more opaque and showed significantly high melting temperatures. However, mechanical properties of starch films were generally negatively affected by stearic acid. Bambara starch film may be modified with 2.5% stearic acid for improved water vapor permeability and thermal stability with minimal effect on tensile strength. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Emulsion stabilizing capacity of intact starch granules modified by heat treatment or octenyl succinic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Timgren, Anna; Rayner, Marilyn; Dejmek, Petr; Marku, Diana; Sjöö, Malin

    2013-03-01

    Starch granules are an interesting stabilizer candidate for food-grade Pickering emulsions. The stabilizing capacity of seven different intact starch granules for making oil-in-water emulsions has been the topic of this screening study. The starches were from quinoa; rice; maize; waxy varieties of rice, maize, and barley; and high-amylose maize. The starches were studied in their native state, heat treated, and modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). The effect of varying the continuous phase, both with and without salt in a phosphate buffer, was also studied. Quinoa, which had the smallest granule size, had the best capacity to stabilize oil drops, especially when the granules had been hydrophobically modified by heat treatment or by OSA. The average drop diameter (d 32) in these emulsions varied from 270 to 50 μm, where decreasing drop size and less aggregation was promoted by high starch concentration and absence of salt in the system. Of all the starch varieties studied, quinoa had the best overall emulsifying capacity, and OSA modified quinoa starch in particular. Although the size of the drops was relatively large, the drops themselves were in many instances extremely stable. In the cases where the system could stabilize droplets, even when they were so large that they were visible to the naked eye, they remained stable and the measured droplet sizes after 2 years of storage were essentially unchanged from the initial droplet size. This somewhat surprising result has been attributed to the thickness of the adsorbed starch layer providing steric stabilization. The starch particle-stabilized Pickering emulsion systems studied in this work has potential practical application such as being suitable for encapsulation of ingredients in food and pharmaceutical products.

  3. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P < 0.05). An increase in moisture, water, and oil absorption capacity was observed for the acetylated starch and, which was less pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed starch but more pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed acetylated product. The latter product underwent an increase in resistant starch content, which is induced by a rise in hydrolysis time to attain about 67 % after 1 h of reaction. The modified starch samples were added to cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch.

  4. Evaluation of the material and tablet formation properties of modified forms of Dioscorea starches.

    PubMed

    Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M

    2009-11-01

    Starches obtained from four different Dioscorea species-namely, White yam (Dioscorea rotundata), Bitter yam (Dioscorea dumetorum), Chinese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia), and Water yam (Dioscorea alata)-were modified by cross-linking, hydroxypropylation, and dual modification-cross-linking followed by hydroxypropylation. The physicochemical, material, and tablet properties of the modified starches were investigated with the aim of understanding their properties to determine their potential use for different applications. The tablet formation properties were assessed using 3D modeling, the Heckel equation, and force-displacement profiles. The analyzed tablet properties were elastic recovery, compactibility, and disintegration. The result indicates that the modifications generally increased the swelling power for all the starches in the rank order hydroxypropyl > hydroxypropylated cross-linked > cross-linked (CL) while the solubility did not show a clear-cut pattern. This indicates that hydroxypropylation generally showed the strongest effects on swelling. Furthermore, hydroxypropylation improved the hot water swelling of the CL starches. The modifications did not cause any detectable morphological change in the starch granules shape or size although slight rupture was observed in some granules. CL starch had the lowest water sorption capacity and hydroxypropylation increased the sorption capacity of the CL starches. The material property results indicate that hydroxypropylation and cross-linking did not significantly improve the flowability and compressibility but improved bonding, which resulted in an increased compaction and higher tablet crushing force even though they all disintegrated rapidly. Thus, the modified Dioscorea starches showed potentials for development as new excipients in solid dosage form design, and they could be useful as disintegrants or for Soft tableting.

  5. Tapioca Cardiomyopathy: Curse of Cassava Endomyocardial Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Anandan, Prem Krishna; Shukkarbhai, Patel Jigarkumar; George, Jimmy; Bhatt, Prabhavathi; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa

    2015-01-01

    Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis is a rare entity in the present era. Restrictive cardiomyopathy due to tapioca consumption is very rare, although it has been reported in India, especially in state of Kerala. We report a rare case of restrictive cardiomyopathy secondary to tapioca consumption in a 20-year-old male patient. PMID:28197237

  6. A technical feasibility study of surfactant-free drug suspensions using octenyl succinate-modified starches.

    PubMed

    Kuentz, Martin; Egloff, Peter; Röthlisberger, Dieter

    2006-05-01

    Many new drugs exhibit poor wetting behaviour and low aqueous solubility. This is particularly an issue for preclinical studies like toxicological trials, in which considerably higher doses and volumes are being administered compared to clinical studies. Preclinical vehicles typically contain high levels of surfactants that can exert biological effects. However, the biological inertness of vehicles is pivotal for the application in preclinical studies stressing the need in finding new excipients to solve formulation problems of today's drug discovery. The present study investigated the technical feasibility of surfactant-free suspensions using a new poorly soluble drug as model. It was shown that octenyl succinate-modified starches adequately wetted the drug and homogenous tasteless suspensions were obtained. The polymer xanthan gum was identified as macroscopically compatible gelling agent. Concentration effects of xanthan, drug and different modified starches were studied in a D-optimal design with respect to rheological properties. The suspensions were also tested in an analytical centrifuge using NIR transmission profiles to obtain a measure of sedimentation stability under accelerated conditions. The modified starches exhibited only little influence on the viscosity as well as on the yield point in contrast to the rheological effects of xanthan gum. This gelling agent was the main stabilising excipient as the modified starches hindered to a lesser extent sedimentation. The most stable suspensions displayed convenient flow properties. The viscosity at 100 s(-1) and 25 degrees C was in technically acceptable range of 120-140 mPa s in view of a application via gavage or a syringe in animal studies. The results demonstrated that surfactant-free drug suspensions with excellent technical performance can be obtained using octenyl succinate-modified starches. The vehicles were tasteless and based on the experience of modified starches in the food industry, the

  7. Enzyme-modified starch as an oil delivery system for bake-only chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of enzyme modification on starch as an effective oil delivery system for bake-only chicken nuggets. Various native starches were hydrolyzed by amyloglucosidase to a hydrolysis degree of 20% to 25% and plated with 50% (w/w, starch dry basis) with canola oil to create a starch-oil matrix. This matrix was then blended into a dry ingredient blend for batter and breader components. Nuggets were prepared by coated with predust, hydrated batter, and breader, and the coated nuggets were steam-baked until fully cooked and then frozen until texture and sensory analyses. The enzyme-modified starches showed a significant decrease in pasting viscosities for all starch types. For textural properties of nuggets, no clear relationship was found between peak force and starch source or amylose content. Sensory attributes related to fried foods (for example, crispness and mouth-coating) did not significantly differ between bake-only nuggets formulated using the enzyme-modified starches and the partially fried and baked ones. The present findings suggest that enzyme-modified starches can deliver sufficient quantity of oil to create sensory attributes similar to those of partially fried chicken nuggets. Further study is needed to optimize the coating formulation of bake-only chicken nugget to become close to the fried one in sensory aspects. The food industry has become increasingly focused on healthier items. Frying imparts several critical and desirable product functionalities, such as developing texture and color, and providing mouth-feel and flavor. The food industry has yet to duplicate all of the unique characteristics of fried chicken nuggets with a baking process. This study investigated the application of enzyme-modified starch as an oil delivery system in bake-only chicken nugget formulation in attempts to provide characteristics of fried items. This information is useful to improve the nutritional value of fried food by eliminating the

  8. Electron beam technology for modifying the functional properties of maize starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemţanu, M. R.; Minea, R.; Kahraman, K.; Koksel, H.; Ng, P. K. W.; Popescu, M. I.; Mitru, E.

    2007-09-01

    Maize starch is a versatile biopolymer with a wide field of applications (e.g. foods, pharmaceutical products, adhesives, etc.). Nowadays there is a continuous and intensive search for new methods and techniques to modify its functional properties due to the fact that native form of starch may exhibit some disadvantages in certain applications. Radiation technology is frequently used to change the properties of different polymeric materials. Thus, the goal of the work is to discuss the application of accelerated electron beams on maize starch in the view of changing some of its functional properties. Maize starch has been irradiated with doses up to 52.15 kGy by using electron beam technology and the modifications of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and pasting characteristics, paste clarity, freezing and thawing stability as well as colorimetric characteristics have been investigated. The results of the study revealed that the measured properties can be modified by electron beam treatment and, therefore, this method can be an efficient and ecological alternative to obtain modified maize starch.

  9. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid

  10. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid

  11. Formation and stability of Vitamin E enriched nanoemulsions stabilized by Octenyl Succinic Anhydride modified starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin E (VE) is highly susceptible to autoxidation; therefore, it requires systems to encapsulate and protect it from autoxidation.In this study,we developed VE delivery systems, which were stabilized by Capsul® (MS), a starch modified with octenyl succinic anhydride. Influences of interfacial ten...

  12. Nano-encapsulation of coenzyme Q10 using octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch (OSA-ST) was used to encapsulate Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). CoQ10 was dissolved in rice bran oil (RBO), and incorporated into an aqueous OSA-ST solution. High pressure homogenization (HPH) of the mixture was conducted at 170 MPa for 5-6 cycles. The resulting ...

  13. Effects of cyclodextrin glycosiltransferase modified starch and cyclodextrins on plasma glucose and lipids metabolism in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential functional and nutritional benefits of granular starch treated with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) and the released cyclodextrins (CDs) were explored in in vivo studies. The metabolic effects of diets in the C57BL/6J mouse containing native and enzymatically modified corn st...

  14. Synchrotron Infrared Confocal Microspectroscopical Detection of Heterogeneity Within Chemically Modified Single Starch Granules

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.; Shi, Y; Reffner, J

    This reports the first detection of chemical heterogeneity in octenyl succinic anhydride modified single starch granules using a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopical technique that combines diffraction-limited infrared microspectroscopy with a step size that is less than the mask projected spot size focused on the plane of the sample. The high spatial resolution was achieved with the combination of the application of a synchrotron infrared source and the confocal image plane masking system of the double-pass single-mask Continuum{reg_sign} infrared microscope. Starch from grains such as corn and wheat exists in granules. The size of the granules depends on the plantmore » producing the starch. Granules used in this study typically had a median size of 15 {micro}m. In the production of modified starch, an acid anhydride typically is reacted with OH groups of the starch polymer. The resulting esterification adds the ester carbonyl (1723 cm{sup -1}) organic functional group to the polymer and the hydrocarbon chain of the ester contributes to the CH{sub 2} stretching vibration to enhance the intensity of the 2927 cm{sup -1} band. Detection of the relative modifying population on a single granule was accomplished by ratioing the baseline adjusted peak area of the carbonyl functional group to that of a carbohydrate band. By stepping a confocally defined infrared beam as small as 5 {micro}m x 5 {micro}m across a starch granule 1 {micro}m at a time in both the x and y directions, the heterogeneity is detected with the highest possible spatial resolution.« less

  15. Formulation and development of plasma volume expander using natural and modified starch from Solanum tuberosum

    PubMed Central

    Thombre, Nilima A.; Vishwakarma, Ajit V.; Jadhav, Trupti S.; Kshirsagar, Sanjay J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To formulation and development of plasma volume expander (PVE) by using natural and modified starch from Solanum tuberosum. The function of blood circulation is to provide the needs of the body tissues and to maintain an appropriate environment in all tissue fluids of the body for the optimal survival and functions of the cells. Rapid restoration of the blood volume is necessary to decrease reduction in the amount of the blood. The PVEs are isotonic colloidal solutions, act by increasing the osmotic pressure of the intravascular compartment, which leads to the influx of the interstitial fluids through the capillary pore which, in turn, leads to the increase in the volume of the blood. Therefore, there is a need to discover the PVE with less side effects. The main aim of the present study is to use amylopectin as PVEs, fractionated from natural and modified starch obtained from S. tuberosum. Methods: The starch extracted from the normal grains and the tubers of potatoes was selected for the production of starch. Statistical analysis includes in vitro characterization that involves viscosity studies, plasma–product interaction, osmotic pressure detection, molecular weight–viscosity relationship, determination of weight average molecular weight, enzymatic interaction, and in vivo characterization such as toxicity studies and the effect of the products on the blood coagulation. The isolated starch and fractionated amylopectin were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics. Result and Conclusion: The amylopectin fractionated from isolated starch from grains and tubers of potatoes can be used as PVE, as per the outcome of the study. PMID:28123990

  16. Enzymatically Modified Starch Favorably Modulated Intestinal Transit Time and Hindgut Fermentation in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Newman, M. A.; Zebeli, Q.; Velde, K.; Grüll, D.; Molnar, T.; Kandler, W.; Metzler-Zebeli, B. U.

    2016-01-01

    Aside from being used as stabilizing agents in many processed foods, chemically modified starches may act as functional dietary ingredients. Therefore, development of chemically modified starches that are less digestible in the upper intestinal segments and promote fermentation in the hindgut receives considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on nutrient flow, passage rate, and bacterial activity at ileal and post-ileal level. Eight ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy cornstarch as control) in a cross-over design for 10 d, followed by a 4-d collection of feces and 2-d collection of ileal digesta. On d 17, solid and liquid phase markers were added to the diet to determine ileal digesta flow for 8 h after feeding. Reduced small intestinal digestion after the consumption of the EMS diet was indicated by a 10%-increase in ileal flow and fecal excretion of dry matter and energy compared to the control diet (P<0.05). Moreover, EMS feeding reduced ileal transit time of both liquid and solid fractions compared to the control diet (P<0.05). The greater substrate flow to the large intestine with the EMS diet increased the concentrations of total and individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces (P<0.05). Total bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance was not affected by diet, whereas the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus group decreased (P<0.01) by 50% and of Enterobacteriaceae tended (P<0.1) to increase by 20% in ileal digesta with the EMS diet compared to the control diet. In conclusion, EMS appears to resemble a slowly digestible starch by reducing intestinal transit and increasing SCFA in the distal large intestine. PMID:27936165

  17. Dietary starch intake modifies the relation between copy number variation in the salivary amylase gene and BMI.

    PubMed

    Rukh, Gull; Ericson, Ulrika; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna; Orho-Melander, Marju; Sonestedt, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Background: Studies have shown conflicting associations between the salivary amylase gene ( AMY1 ) copy number and obesity. Salivary amylase initiates starch digestion in the oral cavity; starch is a major source of energy in the diet. Objective: We investigated the association between AMY1 copy number and obesity traits, and the effect of the interaction between AMY1 copy number and starch intake on these obesity traits. Design: We first assessed the association between AMY1 copy number (genotyped by digital droplet polymerase chain reaction) and obesity traits in 4800 individuals without diabetes (mean age: 57 y; 60% female) from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort. Then we analyzed interactions between AMY1 copy number and energy-adjusted starch intake (obtained by a modified diet history method) on body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage. Results: AMY1 copy number was not associated with BMI ( P = 0.80) or body fat percentage ( P = 0.38). We observed a significant effect of the interaction between AMY1 copy number and starch intake on BMI ( P -interaction = 0.007) and body fat percentage ( P -interaction = 0.03). Upon stratification by dietary starch intake, BMI tended to decrease with increasing AMY1 copy numbers in the low-starch intake group ( P = 0.07) and tended to increase with increasing AMY1 copy numbers in the high-starch intake group ( P = 0.08). The lowest mean BMI was observed in the group of participants with a low AMY1 copy number and a high dietary intake of starch. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an effect of the interaction between starch intake and AMY1 copy number on obesity. Individuals with high starch intake but low genetic capacity to digest starch had the lowest BMI, potentially because larger amounts of undigested starch are transported through the gastrointestinal tract, contributing to fewer calories extracted from ingested starch. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Rice starch vs. rice flour: differences in their properties when modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Puncha-arnon, Santhanee; Uttapap, Dudsadee

    2013-01-02

    Starch and flour from the same rice grain source (with 20, 25 and 30% moisture content) were exposed to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at 100 °C for 16 h in order to investigate whether there were differences in their susceptibility to modification by HMT and, if any, to determine the main causes of the differences. HMT had a far greater effect on paste viscosity of flour than of starch. A significant increase in paste viscosity after removal of proteins from HMT flour - as well as images of fast green-stained HMT flour gels - indicated that an important role was played by proteins in affecting properties of the modified samples. Greater effects of HMT on thermal parameters of gelatinization and gel hardness values of flours were observed - more so than those for starches. Following this observation, it was ascertained that components in rice flour other than rice starch granules also underwent alterations during HMT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toughening mechanisms in interfacially modified HDPE/thermoplastic starch blends.

    PubMed

    Taguet, Aurélie; Bureau, Martin N; Huneault, Michel A; Favis, Basil D

    2014-12-19

    The mechanical behavior of polymer blends containing 80 wt% of HDPE and 20 wt% of TPS and compatibilized with HDPE-g-MA grafted copolymer was investigated. Unmodified HDPE/TPS blends exhibit high fracture resistance, however, the interfacial modification of those blends by addition of HDPE-g-MA leads to a dramatic drop in fracture resistance. The compatibilization of HDPE/TPS blends increases the surface area of TPS particles by decreasing their size. It was postulated that the addition of HDPE-g-MA induces a reaction between maleic anhydride and hydroxyl groups of the glycerol leading to a decrease of the glycerol content in the TPS phase. This phenomenon increases the stiffness of the modified TPS particles and stiffer TPS particles leading to an important reduction in toughness and plastic deformation, as measured by the EWF method. It is shown that the main toughening mechanism in HDPE/TPS blends is shear-yielding. This article demonstrates that stiff, low diameter TPS particles reduce shear band formation and consequently decrease the resistance to crack propagation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interfacial rheology of surface-active biopolymers: Acacia senegal gum versus hydrophobically modified starch.

    PubMed

    Erni, Philipp; Windhab, Erich J; Gunde, Rok; Graber, Muriel; Pfister, Bruno; Parker, Alan; Fischer, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Acacia gum is a hybrid polyelectrolyte containing both protein and polysaccharide subunits. We study the interfacial rheology of its adsorption layers at the oil/water interface and compare it with adsorbed layers of hydrophobically modified starch, which for economic and political reasons is often used as a substitute for Acacia gum in technological applications. Both the shear and the dilatational rheological responses of the interfaces are considered. In dilatational experiments, the viscoelastic response of the starch derivative is just slightly weaker than that for Acacia gum, whereas we found pronounced differences in shear flow: The interfaces covered with the plant gum flow like a rigid, solidlike material with large storage moduli and a linear viscoelastic regime limited to small shear deformations, above which we observe apparent yielding behavior. In contrast, the films formed by hydrophobically modified starch are predominantly viscous, and the shear moduli are only weakly dependent on the deformation. Concerning their most important technological use as emulsion stabilizers, the dynamic interfacial responses imply not only distinct interfacial dynamics but also different stabilizing mechanisms for these two biopolymers.

  1. Synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of modified starches from banana (Musa AAB) and its biological activities in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Suriya, M; Vidya, P V; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2017-01-01

    This study describes a simple method of preparation and physico-chemical properties of modified starches (type-3 resistant starches) from banana (Musa AAB), and the modified starches investigated as functional food with a beneficial effect on type-2 diabetes. RS3 was prepared using a method combined with debranching modification and physical modification; native and modifies starches were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rapid visco analyzer (RVA). Use of the enzymatic and physical modification methodology, improved the yield of RS (26.62%) from Musa AAB. A reduced viscosity and swelling power; increased transition temperatures, water absorption capacity and solubility index with B-type crystalline pattern and loss of granular appearance were observed during the debranching modification and physical modification. The modified starches exhibited beneficial health effects in diabetic and HFD rats who consumed it. These results recommend that dietary feeding of RS3 was effective in the regulation of glucose and lipid profile in serum and suppressing the oxidative stress in rats under diabetic and HFD condition. This current study provides new bioactive starches, with potential applications in the food and non-food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro digestion and physicochemical characteristics of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying

    2018-03-01

    The digestibility and molecular structure of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low-pressure treatment (LPT) was investigated. Amino acid induced a significant increase in the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and decrease in the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) after LPT. The reason is the formation of ester bond between the molecular chains of amino acid and starch. Low pressure treatment altered greatly the morphology of corn starch mixed with or without amino acid. After LPT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for starch-amino acid complex. An increase in size distribution was obvious after LPT and the size distribution curves provided from a new variety. We found that higher enthalpy and relative crystallinity of the starch-amino acid complex were associated with a higher SDS content. It can be inferred that LPT had a greater impact on the digestion and structural characterization of corn starch mixed with amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Slow digestion property of octenyl succinic anhydride modified waxy maize starch in the presence of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanli; Xue, Lei; Leng, Xue; Yang, Ruobing; Zhang, Genyi; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-03-18

    The in vivo slow digestion property of octenyl succinic anhydride modified waxy corn starch (OSA-starch) in the presence of tea polyphenols (TPLs) was studied. Using a mouse model, the experimental results showed an extended and moderate postprandial glycemic response with a delayed and significantly decreased blood glucose peak of OSA-starch after cocooking with TPLs (5% starch weight base). Further studies revealed an increased hydrodynamic radius of OSA-starch molecules indicating an interaction between OSA-starch and TPLs. Additionally, decreased gelatinization temperature and enthalpy and reduced viscosity and emulsifiability of OSA-starch support their possible complexation to form a spherical OSA-starch-TPLs (OSAT) complex. The moderate and extended postprandial glycemic response is likely caused by decreased activity of mucosal α-glucosidase, which is noncompetitively inhibited by tea catechins released from the complex during digestion. Meanwhile, a significant decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased DPPH free radical scavenging activity in small intestine tissue demonstrated the antioxidative functional property of the OSAT complex. Thus, the complex of OSAT, acting as a functional carbohydrate material, not only leads to a flattened and prolonged glycemic response but also reduces the oxidative stress, which might be beneficial to health.

  4. Isolation and characterisation of nanoparticles from tef and maize starch modified with stearic acid.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Wokadala O; Ray, Suprakas S; Emmambux, Naushad M

    2017-07-15

    Nanoparticles were isolated from tef and maize starch modified with added stearic acid after pasting at 90°C for 130min. This was followed by thermo-stable alpha-amylase hydrolysis of the paste. The resultant residues were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic laser scattering particle size distribution (DLPSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD and DSC showed that the isolated residues consisted of amylose-lipid complexes. These complexes were type II with melting temperature above 104°C. DLPSD, AFM and HRTEM showed that the isolated tef and maize starch residues consisted of nanoparticles which became more distinct with increased hydrolysis time. The isolated tef and maize nanoparticles had distinct particles of about 3-10nm and 2.4-6.7nm, respectively and the yield was about 24-30%. The results demonstrated that distinct (physically separate) nanoparticles of less than 10nm can be isolated after formation during pasting of tef and maize starch with stearic acid. The production and isolation of the nanoparticles uses green chemistry principles and these nanoparticles can be used in food and non-food systems as nanofillers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial paper based on a soy protein isolate or modified starch coating including carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Arfa, Afef Ben; Preziosi-Belloy, Laurence; Chalier, Pascale; Gontard, Nathalie

    2007-03-21

    Soy protein isolates (SPI) and octenyl-succinate (OSA) modified starch were used as paper coating and inclusion matrices of two antimicrobial compounds: cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol. Antimicrobial compound losses from the coated papers were evaluated after the coating and drying process, and the two matrices demonstrated retention ability that depended on the compound nature and concentration. Whereas carvacrol losses ranged between 12 and 45%, cinnamaldehyde losses varied from 43 to 76%. The losses were always higher from OSA-starch-coated papers than from SPI-coated papers. During storage in accelerated conditions, at 30 degrees C and 60% relative humidity, carvacrol retention from coated papers was found to be similar whatever the coating matrices and the carvacrol rate. In contrast, the retention from SPI-coated papers was particularly high for the cinnamaldehyde concentration of 30% (w/w) compared to the lowest (10% w/w) or highest concentration (60% w/w). Compared to carvacrol, faster release was observed, particurlarly when OSA-starch was used. The antimicrobial properties of the coated papers were shown against Escherichia coli and Botrytis cinerea and explained by favorable conditions of total release of the antimicrobial agents.

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Handayani, Noer Abyor; Kusumayanti, Heny

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year). Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition composite flours (modified cassava starch, corn, Canavalian ensiformis, and Dioscorea esculenta). This study consists of three main stages, preparation of composite flour, formulation, and artificial rice production using hot extruder capacity 10 kg/day. The objectives of this studies were to investigate some formulation in compare with commercial paddy rice. Artificial rice has been successfully conducted using prototype of hot extruder with the temperature 95°C. Physical analyses (color and water absorption) were carried out to artificial rice product and commercial paddy rice. Chemical analyses (nutrition and amylose content) of product will be also presented in this study. The best formulation of artificial rice was achieved in 80% modified cassava starch, 10% Canavalian ensiformis, and 10% Dioscorea esculenta, respectively.

  7. Green natural rubber-g-modified starch for controlling urea release.

    PubMed

    Riyajan, Sa-Ad; Sasithornsonti, Yodsathorn; Phinyocheep, Pranee

    2012-06-05

    The hydrophilicity of natural rubber (NR) was improved by grafting with modified cassava starch (ST) (NR-g-ST) by using potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) as a catalyst. The modified ST was added to NR latex in the presence of Terric16A16 as a non-ionic surfactant at 60 °C for 3 h and cast film on a glass plate to obtain NR-g-ST. The chemical structure of NR-g-ST was confirmed by FTIR. The swelling ratio of NR-g-ST was investigated in water and results showed that the swelling ratio of the modified NR decreased as function of ST. In addition, the tensile strength of the modified NR in the presence of modified ST at 50 phr was the highest value. Also, the thermal stability modified NR-g-ST was higher than of NR/ST blend confirmed by TGA. Finally, the NR-g-ST was used a polymer membrane for controlling urea fertilizer and it easily degraded in soil. This product with good controlled-release and water-retention could be especially useful in agricultural and horticultural applications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Yaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch was investigated using ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media. Waxy maize starch was pretreated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chlorine and then esterified with OSA in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate by using Novozyme 435 as catalyst. The degree of substitution of OSA starch reached 0.0130 with 5 wt% starch concentration and 1 wt% lipase dosage based on ILs weight at 50 °C for 3h. The formation of OSA starch was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that the morphology and crystal structure of starch were significantly destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that esterification decreased the thermal stability of starch. The successful lipase-catalyzed synthesis of OSA starch in ILs suggests that ILs are potential replacement of traditional organic solvents for starch ester biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of algal flocculation on dissolved organic matters using cationic starch modified soils.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenqing; Bi, Lei; Pan, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Modified soils (MSs) are being increasingly used as geo-engineering materials for the sedimentation removal of cyanobacterial blooms. Cationic starch (CS) has been tested as an effective soil modifier, but little is known about its potential impacts on the treated water. This study investigated dissolved organic matters in the bloom water after algal removal using cationic starch modified soils (CS-MSs). Results showed that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) could be decreased by CS-MS flocculation and the use of higher charge density CS yielded a greater DOC reduction. When CS with the charge density of 0.052, 0.102 and 0.293meq/g were used, DOC was decreased from 3.4 to 3.0, 2.3 and 1.7mg/L, respectively. The excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and UV254 analysis indicated that CS-MS exhibits an ability to remove some soluble organics, which contributed to the DOC reduction. However, the use of low charge density CS posed a potential risk of DOC increase due to the high CS loading for effective algal removal. When CS with the charge density of 0.044meq/g was used, DOC was increased from 3.4 to 3.9mg/L. This study suggested, when CS-MS is used for cyanobacterial bloom removal, the content of dissolved organic matters in the treated water can be controlled by optimizing the charge density of CS. For the settled organic matters, other measures (e.g., capping treatments using oxygen loaded materials) should be jointly applied after algal flocculation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Dangers of Cassava (Tapioca) Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael J

    1987-01-01

    Cassava (Tapioca) is a worldwide staple food consumed by over 800 million people. It contains cyanide which may lead to acute toxicity or chronically may be an aetiological factor in tropical nutritional amblyopia, tropical neuropathy, endemic goitre, cretinism and tropical diabetes. It may also have carcinogenic potential. However, despite nutritional limitations it has many advantages as a crop to the subsistence farmer and would be difficult to replace. PMID:28906749

  11. Application of corona electrical discharge plasma on modifying the physicochemical properties of banana starch indigenous to Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Yen; Sun, Nan-Nong; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2018-01-01

    Corona electrical discharge (CED) belongs to an atmospheric pressure cold plasma. In this study, raw banana starch (indigenous to Taiwan), which contained resistant starch and amylose at a level of 58.4 g/100 g and 14.5 g/100 g, respectively, was treated by CED at 30 kV/cm, 40 kV/cm, and 50 kV/cm for 3 minutes. After the CED treatment, starch analyses showed that there were no apparent changes in the resistant starch and amylose contents. Only surface and nonpenetrative damage caused by plasma etching at different voltage strengths were observed on the starch granules. The CED treatments reduced the total area of diffraction peak, gelatinization enthalpy (by -21% to -38%), and different pasting behaviors including peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and setback. The CED treatments were capable of increasing relative crystallinity and gelatinization temperature. This study revealed the potential of CED plasma technology as a tool to modify the characteristics of banana starch. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of modified starch/polybutadiene as novel transdermal drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Saboktakin, Mohammad Reza; Akhyari, Shahab; Nasirov, Fizuli A

    2014-08-01

    Transdermal drug delivery systems are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of transdermal drug delivery systems. The objective of the present study was to develop the modified starch and 1,4-cis polybutadiene nanoparticles as novel polymer matrix system. We have been studied the properties of a novel transdermal drug delivery system with clonidine as drug model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Field testing and exploitation of genetically modified cassava with low-amylose or amylose-free starch in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Koehorst-van Putten, H J J; Sudarmonowati, E; Herman, M; Pereira-Bertram, I J; Wolters, A M A; Meima, H; de Vetten, N; Raemakers, C J J M; Visser, R G F

    2012-02-01

    The development and testing in the field of genetically modified -so called- orphan crops like cassava in tropical countries is still in its infancy, despite the fact that cassava is not only used for food and feed but is also an important industrial crop. As traditional breeding of cassava is difficult (allodiploid, vegetatively propagated, outbreeding species) it is an ideal crop for improvement through genetic modification. We here report on the results of production and field testing of genetically modified low-amylose transformants of commercial cassava variety Adira4 in Indonesia. Twenty four transformants were produced and selected in the Netherlands based on phenotypic and molecular analyses. Nodal cuttings of these plants were sent to Indonesia where they were grown under biosafety conditions. After two screenhouse tests 15 transformants remained for a field trial. The tuberous root yield of 10 transformants was not significantly different from the control. Starch from transformants in which amylose was very low or absent showed all physical and rheological properties as expected from amylose-free cassava starch. The improved functionality of the starch was shown for an adipate acetate starch which was made into a tomato sauce. This is the first account of a field trial with transgenic cassava which shows that by using genetic modification it is possible to obtain low-amylose cassava plants with commercial potential with good root yield and starch quality.

  14. Development of native and modified banana starch nanoparticles as vehicles for curcumin.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Guevara, Leonardo; Nieto-Suaza, Leonardo; Sanchez, Leidy T; Pinzon, Magda I; Villa, Cristian C

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, starch nanoparticles have been of great interest for drug delivery due to their relatively easy synthesis, biocompatibility, and vast amount of botanical sources. Native and acetylated starch obtained from green bananas were used for synthesis of curcumin-loaded starch nanoparticles. Mean particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and curcumin release in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids were studied. Both nanosystems showed sizes lower than 250 nm and encapsulation efficiency above 80%, with acetylated banana starch nanoparticles having the capacity to encapsulate more curcumin molecules. Both FTIR and XRD analyses showed that starch acetylation allows stronger hydrogen bond interaction between curcumin and the starch matrix, thus, higher encapsulation efficiency. Finally, curcumin release studies showed that acetylated banana starch nanoparticles allowed more controlled release, probably due to their stronger hydrogen bond interaction with curcumin. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effect of granular characteristics on pasting properties of starch blends.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jheng-Hua; Kao, Wen-Tsu; Tsai, You-Che; Chang, Yung-Ho

    2013-11-06

    Pasting and morphology properties of starch blends composed of waxy (waxy rice and waxy corn) and non-waxy (normal corn, tapioca and potato) starches at various ratios were investigated for elucidating effect of granular characteristics on pasting of blends. Pasting profiles of blends were between those of the component starches alone, while the changes varied with starch source. Results reveal obvious water competition during pasting for blends composed of waxy starch and highly swelling non-waxy (tapioca or potato) starch. On the contrary, starch blends composed of waxy starch and non-waxy (normal corn) starch with restricted swelling showed less water competition during pasting, and the pasting attributes could be estimated from those of the component starches following the mixing ratio. Results indicate that the pasting properties of starch blends composed of waxy and non-waxy starches depend on not only the mixing ratio, but also the granular characteristics of component starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of Amorphophallus campanulatus Modified Starch as Novel Adsorbent for Nickel and Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, A. Y. D.; Dewi, L. K.

    2018-05-01

    Novel adsorbents are succesfully manufactured from Amorphophalluscampanulatus (Porang or Suweg or Elephant Foot Yam or Foot Yam) starch. The experiment focused on modifiying the starch with citric acid and detailing those morphologies and chemical bonds. Analysis with FTIR and SEM showed that PTM (modified porous porang starch) sample is the best adsorbent which has most stable of chemical bonding and also has the most pores that influence an adsorption phenomena. Isotherm adsorption analysis showed that the adsorption mechanism of Cd and Ni ions onto the suface of PB, PT and PTM followed the Temkin and Langmuir isotherm adsorption. Adsorption ability of PTM is the best than the other PB and PT which can adsorps 256,23 mg Cd/g PTM and 87,45 mg Ni/g PTM in 500 ppm synthetic aqueous solution

  17. Effect of Preexercise Ingestion of Modified Amylomaize Starch on Glycemic Response While Cycling.

    PubMed

    Parks, Rachel B; Angus, Hector F; King, Douglas S; Sharp, Rick L

    2018-01-01

    Amylomaize-7 is classified as a resistant corn starch and is 68% digestible. When modified by partial hydrolysis in ethanol and hydrochloric acid its digestibility is 92%, yet retains its low glycemic and insulinemic properties. The purpose of this study was to characterize the metabolic response when modified amylomaize-7 or dextrose is consumed in the hour before exercise, and to compare the effect on performance of a brief high-intensity cycling trial. Ten male, trained cyclists were given 1 g/kg body mass of dextrose (DEX) or modified amylomaize-7 (AMY-7) or a flavored water placebo (PL) 45 min prior to exercise on a cycle ergometer. A 15-min ride at 60% W max was immediately followed by a self-paced time trial (TT) equivalent to 15 min at 80% W max . When cyclists consumed DEX, mean serum glucose concentration increased by 3.3 ± 2.1 mmol/L before exercise, compared to stable serum glucose observed for AMY-7 or PL. Glucose concentrations returned to baseline by pre-TT in all treatments. However, the mean post-TT glucose concentration of the DEX group was significantly lower than baseline, AMY-7, or PL. Serum insulin concentration increased nine-fold from baseline to preexercise in the DEX trial, whereas PL or AMY-7 remained unchanged. Time required to complete the performance trial was not significantly different between DEX, AMY-7 or PL. Preexercise ingestion of modified amylomaize-7 compared to dextrose resulted in a more stable serum glucose concentration, but did not offer a performance advantage in this high-intensity cycling trial.

  18. Application of Taguchi optimization on the cassava starch wastewater electrocoagulation using batch recycle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudibyo, Hermida, L.; Suwardi

    2017-11-01

    Tapioca waste water is very difficult to treat; hence many tapioca factories could not treat it well. One of method which able to overcome this problem is electrodeposition. This process has high performance when it conducted using batch recycle process and use aluminum bipolar electrode. However, the optimum operation conditions are having a significant effect in the tapioca wastewater treatment using bath recycle process. In this research, The Taguchi method was successfully applied to know the optimum condition and the interaction between parameters in electrocoagulation process. The results show that current density, conductivity, electrode distance, and pH have a significant effect on the turbidity removal of cassava starch waste water.

  19. Using heat-treated starch to modify the surface of biochar and improve the tensile properties of biochar-filled stryene-butadiene rubber composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat-treated starch is a renewable material that can be used to modify the surface chemistry of small particles. In this work, heat-treated starch was used to coat hydrophilic biochar particles in order to make them more hydrophobic. Then when added as filler to hydrophobic styrene-butadiene rubber,...

  20. Evaluation of a modified method to measure total starch in animal feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The AOAC method 996.11 has been recognized as an accurate, repeatable, and efficient method to measure total starch in animal feeds. However, analyzing starch using the AOAC method can be expensive and associated with technical challenges. The objective of this study was to determine if an alternati...

  1. Compression parameters of hexagonal boron nitride on direct compression mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and modified starch.

    PubMed

    Halaçoğlu, Mekin Doğa; Uğurlu, Timuçin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of conventional lubricants including a new candidate lubricant "hexagonal boron nitride (HBN)" on direct compression powders. Lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), glyceryl behenate, stearic acid, talc and polyethylene glycol6000 were studied and tablets were manufactured on a single station instrumented tablet press. This study comprised the continuation of our previous one, so mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and modified starch was used as a master formula to evaluate effects of lubricants on pharmaceutical excipients that undergo complete plastic deformation without any fragmentation under compression pressure. Bulk and tapped densities, and Carr's index parameters were calculated for powders. Tensile strength, cohesion index, lower punch ejection force and lubricant effectiveness values were investigated for tablets. The deformation mechanisms of tablets were studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricant. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant and HBN was found very close to it. HBN did not show a significant negative effect on the crushing strength and disintegration time of the tablets when we compared with MGST. Based on the Heckel plots at the level of 1%, formulation prepared with HBN showed the most pronounced plastic character.

  2. Properties and characteristics of dual-modified rice starch based biodegradable films.

    PubMed

    Woggum, Thewika; Sirivongpaisal, Piyarat; Wittaya, Thawien

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the dual-modified rice starch was hydroxypropylated with 6-12% of propylene oxide followed by crosslinking with 2% sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) and a mixture of 2% STMP and 5% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). Increasing the propylene oxide concentrations in the DMRS yielded an increase in the molar substitution (MS) and degree of substitution (DS). However, the gelatinization parameters, paste properties, gel strength and paste clarity showed an inverse trend. The biodegradable films from the DMRS showed an increase the tensile strength, elongation at break and film solubility, while the transparency value decreased when the concentration of propylene oxide increased. However the water vapor permeability of the films did not significantly change with an increase in the concentration of propylene oxide. In addition, it was found that DMRS films crosslinked with 2% STMP demonstrated higher tensile strength, transparency value and lower water vapor permeability than the DMRS films crosslinked with a mixture of 2% STMP and 5% STPP. The XRD analysis of the DMRS films showed a decrease in crystallinity when the propylene oxide concentrations increased and the crystallinity of DMRS films with 2% STMP were higher than the DMRS films with a mixture of 2% STMP and 5% STPP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of galactooligosaccharides and modified waxy maize starch on some attributes of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Laxmi N; Sherkat, Frank; Shah, Nagendra P

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and modified waxy maize starch (MWMS) addition on the growth of starter cultures, and syneresis and firmness of low-fat yogurt during storage for 28 d at 4 °C. The control yogurt (CY) was prepared without any prebiotics. Incorporation of 2.0% (w/v) GOS improved the growth of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 resulting in a shorter fermentation time. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in proteolysis in yogurt made with GOS (GOSY) as measured by absorbance value (0.728). Addition of GOS resulted in higher (P < 0.05) concentration of lactic and acetic acids in comparison with that of MWMSY and the CY up to day 14, thereafter, the product showed a decrease in lactic acid content in all 3 batches until the end of storage. The level of syneresis was the lowest (2.14%) in MWMSY as compared with that of GOSY (2.35%) and CY (2.53%). There was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference in the firmness among the 3 types of yogurt. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Slow glucose release property of enzyme-synthesized highly branched maltodextrins differs among starch sources.

    PubMed

    Kittisuban, Phatcharee; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Suphantharika, Manop; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-07-17

    Seven types of starch (waxy corn, normal corn, waxy rice, normal rice, waxy potato, normal potato, and tapioca) were selected to produce slowly digestible maltodextrins by enzymatic modification using a previously developed procedure. Branching enzyme (BE) alone and in combination with β-amylase (BA) were used to increase the amount of α-1,6 branching points, which are slowly hydrolyzed by mucosal α-glucosidases in the small intestine. The enzymatic treatments of all starches resulted in a reduction of the debranched linear chain length distribution and weight-average molecular weight. After α-amylolysis of the enzymatically synthesized-maltodextrins, the proportion of branched α-limit dextrins increased, and consequently a reduction in rate of glucose release by rat intestinal α-glucosidases in vitro. Among the samples, enzyme-modified waxy starches had a more pronounced effect on an increase in the slow digestion property than normal starches. These enzyme-modified maltodextrins show potential as novel functional foods by slowing digestion rate to attain extended glucose release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyethylene Glycol Modified, Cross-Linked Starch Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Magnetic Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Adam J.; David, Allan E.; Wang, Jianxin; Galbán, Craig J.; Hill, Hannah L.; Yang, Victor C.

    2010-01-01

    While successful magnetic tumor targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles has been achieved in a number of models, the rapid blood clearance of magnetically suitable particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) limits their availability for targeting. This work aimed to develop a long-circulating magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (MNP) platform capable of sustained tumor exposure via the circulation and, thus, enhanced magnetic tumor targeting. Aminated, cross-linked starch (DN) and aminosilane (A) coated MNPs were successfully modified with 5 kDa (A5, D5) or 20 kDa (A20, D20) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains using simple N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry and characterized. Identical PEG-weight analogues between platforms (A5 & D5, A20 & D20) were similar in size (140–190 nm) and relative PEG labeling (1.5% of surface amines – A5/D5, 0.4% – A20/D20), with all PEG-MNPs possessing magnetization properties suitable for magnetic targeting. Candidate PEG-MNPs were studied in RES simulations in vitro to predict long-circulating character. D5 and D20 performed best showing sustained size stability in cell culture medium at 37°C and 7 (D20) to 10 (D5) fold less uptake in RAW264.7 macrophages when compared to previously targeted, unmodified starch MNPs (D). Observations in vitro were validated in vivo, with D5 (7.29 hr) and D20 (11.75 hr) showing much longer half-lives than D (0.12 hr). Improved plasma stability enhanced tumor MNP exposure 100 (D5) to 150 (D20) fold as measured by plasma AUC0-∞ Sustained tumor exposure over 24 hours was visually confirmed in a 9L-glioma rat model (12 mg Fe/kg) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Findings indicate that both D5 and D20 are promising MNP platforms for enhanced magnetic tumor targeting, warranting further study in tumor models. PMID:21176955

  6. Elucidation of stabilizing oil-in-water Pickering emulsion with different modified maize starch-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Jin, Zhengyu; Zhang, Tao

    2017-08-15

    The aim of present study was to study the medium-chain triacylglycerol-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsion stabilized using different modified starch-based nanoparticles (octenylsuccinylation treated soluble starch nanoparticle, OSA-SSNP, and insoluble starch nanoparticle, ISNP). The major factors for affecting the system stability, rheological behaviour and microstructure of the emulsions were also investigated. The parameters of the O/W emulsions stabilized by OSA-SSNP or ISNP were selected as follows: 3.0% of starch nanoparticles concentration, 50% of MCT fraction and 7.0 of system pH. The rheological properties indicated that both emulsions displayed shear-thinning behaviour as a non-Newtonian fluid. For OSA-SSNP, the viscosities of the emulsion were higher than those of ISNP throughout shear rate range for the same condition. The plot of droplet size distribution for emulsion stabilized OSA-SSNP appeared as a single narrow peak, whereas a broader droplet size distribution with bimodal pattern was observed for emulsion stabilized ISNP. The microscopy results showed that both OSA-SSNP and ISNP were adsorbed at oil-water interface to form a barrier film and retard the phase separation. When emulsion was stored for 30d, no phase separation was detected for O/W emulsion, revealing high stability of emulsion stabilized by both OSA-SSNP and ISNP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-fat papadams from black gram-tapioca blends.

    PubMed

    Annapure, U S; Michael, M; Singhal, R S; Kulkarni, P R

    1997-07-01

    Papadams, made from black gram (Phaseolus mungo) and largely manufactured on cottage scale are popular in the Indian dietary. Escalating prices of black gram coupled with abundant availability of tapioca flour at almost 1/8th the price of black gram prompted the study of papadam characteristics using blends of black gram and tapioca flour. Tapioca flour up to 25% substitution did not alter the sensory attributes. However, the expansibility of the product decreased on addition of tapioca flour; a fact which could be overcome by using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) at 3% level of black gram flour. This decreased the oil content to 19.7% and also increased the expansibility to 5.539%.

  8. Pasta quality as impacted by the type of flour and starch and the level of egg addition.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed; Al-Ismail, Khalid; Ajo, Radwan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of substituting wheat flour with fractions of different starch types and egg levels on pasta quality. First order mixture response surface model was used where the effects of various starch types and egg levels on pasta quality were evaluated. Coefficients of estimation were determined and fractional contribution of wheat, starch type and egg levels were evaluated. Egg levels negatively (p < .05) impacted treatments pasting viscosities, except in potato starch and rice flour. Stabilized rice bran peak viscosity increased from 215.0 to 3420.0 cP with decrease in egg level from 33 to 0%. Flow behavior index of treatments solution with various fractions of starch types and egg level ranged from 0.34 to 1.42 and was significantly (p < .05) lower than control (i.e., 2.15) indicating a better fit as a shear thinning model. Water holding capacity values of acorn starch and lupine flour were the greatest among treatment ranging from 86.8% to 176.0% and from 83.3% to 152.0%, respectively. Results also showed a possible modification of cooked pasta quality including firmness, stickiness, cooking loss, and water uptake, keeping with consumer acceptability through varying starch type and egg level. Results show that flour and starch type and egg level interaction play significant role in pasta blends formulation. Moreover, substitution of wheat flour with acorn, native or modified corn and potato starches fractions, as well as with lupine, rice, tapioca, and stabilized rice bran flours would have significant effects on the physical properties and acceptability of various cereal products. For instance, the use of rice bran in potentially developed products would enhance the consumption of whole grain foods, resulting in improved intake of fiber and other healthy components. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Microstructural and techno-functional properties of cassava starch modified by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Yuliana; Rivero, Sandra; García, María A

    2018-04-01

    This work was focused on the correlation between the structural and techno-functional properties of ultrasound treated cassava starch for the preparation of tailor-made starch-based ingredients and derivatives. Furthermore, the effect of treatment time, sample conditioning and ultrasound amplitude was studied. Ultrasonic treatment of cassava starch induced structural disorganization and microstructural changes evidenced mainly in the morphological characteristics of the granules and in their degrees of crystallinity. These structural modifications were supported by ATR-FTIR and SEM and CSLM studies as well as DRX and thermal analysis. The selection of the processing conditions is critical due to the complete gelatinization of the starch was produced with the maximum amplitude tested and without temperature control. Rheological dynamical analysis indicated changes at the molecular level in starch granules due to the ultrasound treated, revealing the paste stability under refrigeration condition. PCA allow to establish the interrelationships between microstructural and techno-functional properties. In summary, different starch derivatives could be obtained by adjusting the ultrasound treatment conditions depending on their potential applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparative Study Between Modified Starch and Xanthan Gum Thickeners in Post-Stroke Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Vilardell, N; Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Speyer, R; Clavé, P

    2016-04-01

    Thickeners are used in post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) as a compensatory therapeutic strategy against aspirations. To compare the therapeutic effects of modified starch (MS) and xanthan gum (XG) thickeners on swallow safety and efficacy in chronic post-stroke OD patients using clinical and videofluoroscopic (VFS) assessment. Patients were studied by clinical assessment (volume-viscosity swallow test, V-VST) and VFS using 3 volumes (5, 10, 20 mL) and 3 viscosities (liquid, nectar and spoon thick), comparing MS and XG. We studied 122 patients (46MS, 76XG). (A) V-VST showed that both thickeners similarly improved safety of swallow. Prevalence of safe swallowing significantly increased with enhanced viscosity (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 47.83 % at liquid, 84.93 % at nectar and 92.96 % at spoon thick; XG: 55.31 % at liquid, 77.78 % at nectar and 97.84 % at spoon thick. Patients on MS reported higher prevalence of pharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosities. (B) VFS: increasing bolus viscosity with either thickener increased prevalence of safe swallows (P < 0.001 vs liquid), MS: 30.25 % liquid, 61.07 % nectar and 92.64 % spoon thick; XG: 29.12 % liquid, 71.30 % nectar and 89.91 % spoon thick. Penetration-aspiration scale score was significantly reduced with increased viscosity with both thickeners. MS increased oral and pharyngeal residues at nectar and spoon-thick viscosities but XG did not. Timing of airway protection mechanisms and bolus velocity were not affected by either thickener. Increasing bolus viscosity with MS and XG thickeners strongly and similarly improved safety of swallow in chronic post-stroke OD by a compensatory mechanism; in contrast only MS thickeners increased oropharyngeal residue.

  11. Optimization and characterization of high pressure homogenization produced chemically modified starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongbo; Kan, Jianquan

    2017-12-01

    Chemically modified starch (RS4) nanoparticles were synthesized through homogenization and water-in-oil mini-emulsion cross-linking. Homogenization was optimized with regard to z-average diameter by using a three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design. Homogenization pressure (X 1 ), oil/water ratio (X 2 ), and surfactant (X 3 ) were selected as independent variables, whereas z-average diameter was considered as a dependent variable. The following optimum preparation conditions were obtained to achieve the minimum average size of these nanoparticles: 50 MPa homogenization pressure, 10:1 oil/water ratio, and 2 g surfactant amount, when the predicted z-average diameter was 303.6 nm. The physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles were also determined. Dynamic light scattering experiments revealed that RS4 nanoparticles measuring a PdI of 0.380 and an average size of approximately 300 nm, which was very close to the predicted z-average diameter (303.6 nm). The absolute value of zeta potential of RS4 nanoparticles (39.7 mV) was higher than RS4 (32.4 mV), with strengthened swelling power. X-ray diffraction results revealed that homogenization induced a disruption in crystalline structure of RS4 nanoparticles led to amorphous or low-crystallinity. Results of stability analysis showed that RS4 nanosuspensions (particle size) had good stability at 30 °C over 24 h.

  12. Allelic variants of the amylose extender mutation of maize demonstrate phenotypic variation in starch structure resulting from modified protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fushan; Ahmed, Zaheer; Lee, Elizabeth A.; Donner, Elizabeth; Liu, Qiang; Ahmed, Regina; Morell, Matthew K.; Emes, Michael J.; Tetlow, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    amylose extender (ae−) starches characteristically have modified starch granule morphology resulting from amylopectin with reduced branch frequency and longer glucan chains in clusters, caused by the loss of activity of the major starch branching enzyme (SBE), which in maize endosperm is SBEIIb. A recent study with ae− maize lacking the SBEIIb protein (termed ae1.1 herein) showed that novel protein–protein interactions between enzymes of starch biosynthesis in the amyloplast could explain the starch phenotype of the ae1.1 mutant. The present study examined an allelic variant of the ae− mutation, ae1.2, which expresses a catalytically inactive form of SBEIIb. The catalytically inactive SBEIIb in ae1.2 lacks a 28 amino acid peptide (Val272–Pro299) and is unable to bind to amylopectin. Analysis of starch from ae1.2 revealed altered granule morphology and physicochemical characteristics distinct from those of the ae1.1 mutant as well as the wild-type, including altered apparent amylose content and gelatinization properties. Starch from ae1.2 had fewer intermediate length glucan chains (degree of polymerization 16–20) than ae1.1. Biochemical analysis of ae1.2 showed that there were differences in the organization and assembly of protein complexes of starch biosynthetic enzymes in comparison with ae1.1 (and wild-type) amyloplasts, which were also reflected in the composition of starch granule-bound proteins. The formation of stromal protein complexes in the wild-type and ae1.2 was strongly enhanced by ATP, and broken by phosphatase treatment, indicating a role for protein phosphorylation in their assembly. Labelling experiments with [γ-32P]ATP showed that the inactive form of SBEIIb in ae1.2 was phosphorylated, both in the monomeric form and in association with starch synthase isoforms. Although the inactive SBEIIb was unable to bind starch directly, it was strongly associated with the starch granule, reinforcing the conclusion that its presence in the

  13. Preparation and characterization of aminoethyl hydroxypropyl starch modified with collagen peptide.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huigao; Hu, Jin; Ge, Hongyu; Zou, Shengqiong; Xiao, Yao; Li, Ya; Feng, Han; Fan, Lihong

    2017-08-01

    The preparation of aminoethyl hydroxypropyl starch collagen peptide (AEHPS-COP) was via an enzyme-catalyzed reaction between amino groups in aminoethyl hydroxypropyl starch (AEHPS) and γ-carboxamide groups in collagen peptide (COP) by using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) as biocatalyst. As an intermediate reactant, AEHPS was synthesized from hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) and 2-chloroethylamine hydrochloride (CEH). The chemical structures of HPS, AEHPS and AEHPS-COP were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR). The reaction conditions that influenced the degree of substitution (DS) of AEHPS-COP were optimized, which included the reaction temperature, the reaction time, the mass ratio of collagen peptide to aminoethyl hydroxypropyl starch and the pH value. In addition, in vitro antioxidant activities of AEHPS-COP were evaluated through the scavenging activity of hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Furthermore, the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay was applied to investigate the cell viability of AEHPS-COP. The results indicated that the AEHPS-COP exhibited better cell viability to L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Therefore, the AEHPS-COP showed a promising potential application in cosmetic, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Substitution of modified starch with hydrogen peroxide-modified rice bran in salad dressing formulation: physicochemical, texture, rheological and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Maani, Bahareh; Alimi, Mazdak; Shokoohi, Shirin; Fazeli, Fatemeh

    2017-06-01

    Rice bran samples were treated under different conditions including hydrogen peroxide content (1, 4, and 7 wt%) and media pH (10.5, 11.5, and 12.5). Water holding capacity and color measurement results showed acceptable improvements compared with the untreated native bran confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. Optimization of modification conditions upon characterization results suggested the introduction of 7% hydrogen peroxide at pH = 12.5. Accordingly, 1, 2 and 3 wt% of the rice bran treated under the optimized conditions, was used in salad dressing formulation; as for .3 wt% of modified starch in the formulation of blank sample, 1 wt% of treated rice bran dietary fiber was substituted. Biopolymer swelling and formation of a stable viscous gel network promoted by the chemical treatment of lignocellulosic rice bran restrict the mobility of oil droplets dispersed in the continuous phase which would consequently retard the emulsion instability phenomena. This effect was also confirmed by flow behavior and viscoelastic characterization results. Salad dressing samples containing 1 and 2 wt% treated rice bran showed acceptable physicochemical, rheological and organoleptic properties besides superior nutritional characteristics compared with the commercial modified starch traditionally used in salad dressing formulations. Despite recommended consumption of dietary fibers, addition of unprocessed lignocellulosic materials to food products usually raise negative effects in sensory, color, and texture quality. This study investigates the modification of rice bran, the byproduct of brown rice milling, to substitute modified starch traditionally used in salad dressing formulations to achieve optimum properties desirable for the final product. Optimization of modification conditions upon characterization of the formulated samples in this study would suggest new improved formulation for the commercial product. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Utilization of a Biodegradable Mulch Sheet Produced from Poly(Lactic Acid)/Ecoflex®/Modified Starch in Mandarin Orange Groves

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yuya; Maeda, Takuya; Ito, Osamu; Maeda, Yasukatsu; Kunioka, Masao

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a mulch sheet made by inflation molding of PLA, Ecoflex® and modified starch, which all have different biodegradabilities. A field test of use as an agricultural mulch sheet for mandarin oranges was carried out over two years. The mechanical properties of the mulch sheet were weakened with time during the field test, but the quality of the mandarin oranges increased, a result of the controlled degradation of the sheet. The most degradable modified starch degraded first, allowing control of the moisture on the soil. Accelerator mass spectroscopy was used for evaluation of the biomass carbon ratio. The biomass carbon ratio decreased by degradation of the biobased materials, PLA and modified starch in the mulch sheet. PMID:19812715

  16. Robust and biodegradable polymer of cassava starch and modified natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Riyajan, Sa-Ad

    2015-12-10

    The application of starch based materials for packaging purposes has attracted significant interest because they are both cheap and renewable resources. The study investigated the preparation and properties of a novel biopolymer sheet produced from a blend of maleated epoxidized natural rubber (MENR) and natural rubber-g-cassava starch (NR-g-CSt). The water resistance, toluene resistance and elongation at break of the polymer blend were enhanced after the addition of the MENR compared to pristine NR-g-CSt. The maximum tensile strength and thermal stability of the NR-g-CSt/MENR blend were found in the 100:50 NR-g-CSt:MENR blend. The novel films demonstrated good biodegradability in soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistant Starch but Not Enzymatically Modified Waxy Maize Delays Development of Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Sven; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2017-05-01

    Background: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, and nutritional management of circulating glucose may be a strategic tool in the prevention of T2D. Objective: We studied whether enzymatically modified waxy maize with an increased degree of branching delayed the onset of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Methods: Forty-eight male ZDF rats, aged 5 wk, were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets for 9 wk that contained 52.95% starch: gelatinized corn starch (S), glucidex (GLU), resistant starch (RS), or enzymatically modified starch (EMS). Blood glucose after feed deprivation was assessed every second week; blood samples taken at run-in and at the end of the experiment were analyzed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipids. During weeks 2 and 8, urine was collected for metabolomic analysis. Results: Based on blood glucose concentrations in feed-deprived rats, none of the groups developed diabetes. However, in week 9, plasma glucose after feed deprivation was significantly lower in rats fed the S and RS diets (13.5 mmol/L) than in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets (17.0-18.9 mmol/L), and rats fed RS had lower HbA1c (4.9%) than rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS (5.6-6.1%) diets. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was significantly lower in rats fed RS than in rats fed the other diets (185 compared with 311-360), indicating that rats fed the S, GLU, and EMS diets were diabetic, and a 100% higher urine excretion during week 8 in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets than that of rats fed S and RS showed that they were diabetic. Urinary nontargeted metabolomics revealed that the diabetic state of rats fed S, GLU, and EMS diets influenced microbial metabolism, as well as amino acid, lipid, and vitamin metabolism. Conclusions: EMS did not delay the onset of diabetes in ZDF rats, whereas rats fed RS showed no signs of diabetes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Enzymatically modified starch up-regulates expression of incretins and sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter in jejunum of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ertl, R; Grüll, D; Molnar, T; Zebeli, Q

    2017-07-01

    Dietary effects on the host are mediated via modulation of the intestinal mucosal responses. The present study investigated the effect of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) product on the mucosal expression of genes related to starch digestion, sugar and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption and incretins in the jejunum and cecum in growing pigs. Moreover, the impact of the EMS on hepatic expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and postprandial serum metabolites were assessed. Barrows (n=12/diet; initial BW 29 kg) were individually fed three times daily with free access to a diet containing either EMS or waxy corn starch as control (CON) for 10 days. The enzymatic modification led to twice as many α-1,6-glycosidic bonds (~8%) in the amylopectin fraction in the EMS in comparison with the non-modified native waxy corn starch (4% α-1,6-glycosidic bonds). Linear discriminant analysis revealed distinct clustering of mucosal gene expression for EMS and CON diets in jejunum. Compared with the CON diet, the EMS intake up-regulated jejunal expression of sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (SMCT), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) (P<0.05) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI) (P=0.08), which may be related to greater luminal SCFA availability, whereas cecal gene expression was unaffected by diet. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression tended (P=0.07) to be down-regulated in pigs fed the EMS diet compared with pigs fed the CON diet, which may explain the trend (P=0.08) of 30% decrease in serum triglycerides in pigs fed the EMS diet. Furthermore, pigs fed the EMS diet had a 50% higher (P=0.03) serum urea concentration than pigs fed the CON diet potentially indicating an increased use of glucogenic amino acids for energy acquisition in these pigs. Present findings suggested the jejunum as the target site to influence the intestinal epithelium and altered lipid and

  19. Conductive composites of tapioca based bioplastic and electrochemical-mechanical liquid exfoliation (emle) graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amri, A.; Rahmana, H.; Utami, S. P.; Iriyanti, R. S.; Jiang, Z. T.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    The conductive composites of tapioca based bioplastic and the electrochemical- mechanical liquid exfoliation (EMLE) graphene have been successfully synthesized via the solution intercalation method for conductive bioplastic applications. The synthesized EMLE graphene quality, the mechanical properties, the functional group interactions and the conductivity of bioplastic composites, respectively, were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy, Universal Testing Machine (UTM) via ASTM D882-92, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Multitester via Four Probe Method. Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed that the graphene used is multi layer graphene (~ 3-10 layer) with deffects and minor impurity of graphene oxide (EMLE graphene). The tensile strength and the Young’s modulus increased with the increasing of the EMLE graphene content in the composites, while the elongation decreased. The bioplastic synthesized using the 9% EMLE graphene content and the mixing time of 50 minutes exhibited the best mechanical properties with the tensile strength of 4.116 Mpa, the Young’s modulus of 75.476 Mpa, and the elongation of 5.453%. The FTIR spectra indicated that there was a good interactions of EMLE graphene in the bioplastic matrix due to the hydrophylic properties and the secondary bonds between the EMLE graphene and the starch and glycerol plasticizer. The higher amount of graphene added, the higher conductivity of bioplastic would be, and vice versa for the resistivity. The best electrical properties of 1.57 x10‑1/ohm.cm (conductivity) and 6.34 ohm.cm (resistivity) was reached by the bioplastic synthesized with addition of 9% EMLE graphene and 50 minutes stirring time. EMLE Graphene is the promissing filler for further development of Tapioca based conductive bioplastics.

  20. Synthesis of biodegradable plastic from tapioca with N-Isopropylacrylamid and chitosan using glycerol as plasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaubari; Safwani, S.; Riza, M.

    2018-04-01

    One of natural polymers that can be used as raw material in the manufacture of biodegradable plastic is tapioca and chitosan. The addition of other compounds such as glycerol as plasticizer is to improve the characteristics of the plastic that already produced. N- Isopropylacrylamid (NIPAm) is an organic compound that can be synthesized into a polymer or polymer grafting which also biodegradable too. This research aims tostudy the synthesis of biodegradable plastics from tapioca with the addition of chitosan, NIPAm, poly(NIPAm) and analyze the characteristics of biodegradable plastics that already produced. This research was done in three stages, there are (1) polymerization NIPAm, (2) the grafting of chitosan-poly NIPAm and (3) the synthesis of biodegradable plastics from starch mixture with variation of addition chitosan, NIPAm, poly(NIPAm), chitosan-graft-poly(NIPAm) and also variations of glycerol as plasticizer. The results of this research is a thin sheet of plastic which is will get analyzed for the characteristics of functional groups, mechanical, morphological and its biodegradability. FTIR spectra showed the grafting process with the new group formation of CO single-bond at 850 cm-1. Plastic with the addition of NIPAm and 1 ml glycerol has the highest tensile strength value about 31.1 MPa. Plastic with poly(NIPAm) and 4 ml glycerol produces the highest elongation value about 153.72%. Plastic with Chitosan-graft-poly(NIPAm) with 1 ml glycerol has the longest biodegradation because of the small mass-loss for six weeks which is about 6.6%.

  1. Development of low-fat and low-calorie beef sausage using modified starch as fat replacement agent.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mehrdad; Oghabi, Firouz

    2012-04-01

    The effects of modified waxy maize starch (MWMS, 10-32.5 g kg(-1)) as a replacement for varying levels of oil or both oil and wheat flour (WF) on the chemical and technological characteristics of 60% beef sausages were investigated. Addition of MWMS increased water-holding capacity and decreased moisture content and both cooking and purge losses. Incorporation of MWMS improved organoleptic acceptance compared with control sausages. Sausage formula 5 (F5), containing 20 g kg(-1) MWMS and 50 g kg(-1) WF, was better (P < 0.05) than all other formulae. The total caloric content of the sausages decreased significantly with decreasing fat level (P < 0.05); for example, the decrease in fat content of 57.4% in F5 led to a significant decrease in energy value of 34.9% (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of the storage conditions on mechanical properties and microstructure of biodegradabel baked starch foams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baked foam films were prepared from four sources of starch: corn, potato, tapioca and chayotextle, and stored at relative moisture conditions of 0 to 75% and at temperatures of 4 and 65 °C. Then, the structural and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated. The results showed that the source...

  3. A comparison of corn fiber gum, hydrophobically modified starch, gum arabic and soybean soluble polysaccharide: interfacial dynamics, viscoelastic response at oil/water interfaces and emulsion stabilization mechanisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interfacial rheology of polysaccharide adsorption layers of corn fiber gum (CFG), octenyl succinate anhydride-modified starch (OSA-s), gum arabic (GA) and soybean soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) at the oil/water interface and their emulsifying properties in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were compa...

  4. Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Robert; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian Denis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanol–chloroform–hexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexane–isopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P < 0.05) and water ratio in the solvent mixture (r = 0.5299, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION In general, BD-based methods showed better extraction yields compared to methods without the addition of water and, most interestingly, there was much greater method dependence of lipid yields in the starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and

  5. Slow-Absorbing Modified Starch before and during Prolonged Cycling Increases Fat Oxidation and Gastrointestinal Distress without Changing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Daniel A.; Vargas, Fernanda de C. S.; Bach, Christopher W.; Garvey, Jordan A.; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    While prior research reported altered fuel utilization stemming from pre-exercise modified starch ingestion, the practical value of this starch for endurance athletes who consume carbohydrates both before and during exercise is yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting a hydrothermally-modified starch supplement (HMS) before and during cycling on performance, metabolism, and gastrointestinal comfort. In a crossover design, 10 male cyclists underwent three nutritional interventions: (1) a commercially available sucrose/glucose supplement (G) 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 15 min during exercise (60 g∙h−1); (2) HMS consumed at the same time points before and during exercise in isocaloric amounts to G (Iso HMS); and (3) HMS 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 60 min during exercise (30 g·h−1; Low HMS). The exercise protocol (~3 h) consisted of 1 h at 50% Wmax, 8 × 2-min intervals at 80% Wmax, and 10 maximal sprints. There were no differences in sprint performance with Iso HMS vs. G, while both G and Iso HMS likely resulted in small performance enhancements (5.0%; 90% confidence interval = ±5.3% and 4.4%; ±3.2%, respectively) relative to Low HMS. Iso HMS and Low HMS enhanced fat oxidation (31.6%; ±20.1%; very likely (Iso); 20.9%; ±16.1%; likely (Low), and reduced carbohydrate oxidation (−19.2%; ±7.6%; most likely; −22.1%; ±12.9%; very likely) during exercise relative to G. However, nausea was increased during repeated sprints with ingestion of Iso HMS (17 scale units; ±18; likely) and Low HMS (18; ±14; likely) vs. G. Covariate analysis revealed that gastrointestinal distress was associated with reductions in performance with Low HMS vs. G (likely), but this relationship was unclear with Iso HMS vs. G. In conclusion, pre- and during-exercise ingestion of HMS increases fat oxidation relative to G. However, changes do not translate to performance improvements, possibly owing to HMS

  6. Slow-Absorbing Modified Starch before and during Prolonged Cycling Increases Fat Oxidation and Gastrointestinal Distress without Changing Performance.

    PubMed

    Baur, Daniel A; Vargas, Fernanda de C S; Bach, Christopher W; Garvey, Jordan A; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-06-25

    While prior research reported altered fuel utilization stemming from pre-exercise modified starch ingestion, the practical value of this starch for endurance athletes who consume carbohydrates both before and during exercise is yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting a hydrothermally-modified starch supplement (HMS) before and during cycling on performance, metabolism, and gastrointestinal comfort. In a crossover design, 10 male cyclists underwent three nutritional interventions: (1) a commercially available sucrose/glucose supplement (G) 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 15 min during exercise (60 g∙h(-1)); (2) HMS consumed at the same time points before and during exercise in isocaloric amounts to G (Iso HMS); and (3) HMS 30 min before (60 g carbohydrate) and every 60 min during exercise (30 g·h(-1); Low HMS). The exercise protocol (~3 h) consisted of 1 h at 50% Wmax, 8 × 2-min intervals at 80% Wmax, and 10 maximal sprints. There were no differences in sprint performance with Iso HMS vs. G, while both G and Iso HMS likely resulted in small performance enhancements (5.0%; 90% confidence interval = ±5.3% and 4.4%; ±3.2%, respectively) relative to Low HMS. Iso HMS and Low HMS enhanced fat oxidation (31.6%; ±20.1%; very likely (Iso); 20.9%; ±16.1%; likely (Low), and reduced carbohydrate oxidation (-19.2%; ±7.6%; most likely; -22.1%; ±12.9%; very likely) during exercise relative to G. However, nausea was increased during repeated sprints with ingestion of Iso HMS (17 scale units; ±18; likely) and Low HMS (18; ±14; likely) vs. G. Covariate analysis revealed that gastrointestinal distress was associated with reductions in performance with Low HMS vs. G (likely), but this relationship was unclear with Iso HMS vs. G. In conclusion, pre- and during-exercise ingestion of HMS increases fat oxidation relative to G. However, changes do not translate to performance improvements, possibly owing to HMS

  7. Polyethylene glycol modified, cross-linked starch-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for enhanced magnetic tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Cole, Adam J; David, Allan E; Wang, Jianxin; Galbán, Craig J; Hill, Hannah L; Yang, Victor C

    2011-03-01

    While successful magnetic tumor targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles has been achieved in a number of models, the rapid blood clearance of magnetically suitable particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) limits their availability for targeting. This work aimed to develop a long-circulating magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (MNP) platform capable of sustained tumor exposure via the circulation and, thus, potentially enhanced magnetic tumor targeting. Aminated, cross-linked starch (DN) and aminosilane (A) coated MNPs were successfully modified with 5 kDa (A5, D5) or 20 kDa (A20, D20) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains using simple N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry and characterized. Identical PEG-weight analogues between platforms (A5 & D5, A20 & D20) were similar in size (140-190 nm) and relative PEG labeling (1.5% of surface amines - A5/D5, 0.4% - A20/D20), with all PEG-MNPs possessing magnetization properties suitable for magnetic targeting. Candidate PEG-MNPs were studied in RES simulations in vitro to predict long-circulating character. D5 and D20 performed best showing sustained size stability in cell culture medium at 37 °C and 7 (D20) to 10 (D5) fold less uptake in RAW264.7 macrophages when compared to previously targeted, unmodified starch MNPs (D). Observations in vitro were validated in vivo, with D5 (7.29 h) and D20 (11.75 h) showing much longer half-lives than D (0.12 h). Improved plasma stability enhanced tumor MNP exposure 100 (D5) to 150 (D20) fold as measured by plasma AUC(0-∞). Sustained tumor exposure over 24 h was visually confirmed in a 9L-glioma rat model (12 mg Fe/kg) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Findings indicate that a polyethylene glycol modified, cross-linked starch-coated MNP is a promising platform for enhanced magnetic tumor targeting, warranting further study in tumor models. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and characterization of acorn starch/poly(lactic acid) composites modified with functionalized vegetable oil derivates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shouhai; Xia, Jianling; Xu, Yuzhi; Yang, Xuejuan; Mao, Wei; Huang, Kun

    2016-05-20

    Composites of acorn starch (AS) and poly(1actic acid) (PLA) modified with dimer fatty acid (DFA) or dimer fatty acid polyamide (DFAPA) were produced by a hot-melt extrusion method. The effects of DFA and DFAPA contents on the mechanical, hydrophobic, thermal properties and melt fluidity of the composites were studied under an invariable AS-to-PLA mass ratio of 40/60. SEM and DMA research results show that the compatibility of AS/PLA composites are determined by the dosage of DFA or DFAPA. The hydrophobicity and melt fluidity of composites are improved with the addition of DFA and DFAPA. The glass transition temperatures of the composites are all reduced remarkably by additives DFA and DFAPA. However, DFA and DFAPA exert different effects on the mechanical properties of AS/PLA composites. In the DFAPA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength first increase and then decrease with the increase of DFAPA dosage; the mechanical strength is maximized when the dosage of DFAPA is 2 wt% of total weight. In the DFA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength decrease with the increase of DFA dosage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Granulocytapheresis with modified fluid gelatin versus high-molecular-weight hydroxyethyl starch: a matched-pair analysis.

    PubMed

    Dullinger, Katharina; Pamler, Irene; Brosig, Andreas; Mohrez, Morad; Hähnel, Viola; Offner, Robert; Dormann, Frauke; Becke, Christine; Holler, Ernst; Ahrens, Norbert

    2017-02-01

    Granulocyte apheresis requires a sedimentation agent. Usually, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is administered to donors for this purpose and, as granulocyte concentrate (GC) ingredient, also to patients. Authorities recently recommended suspending market authorizations for starch-containing products due to side effects. Therefore, we tested the efficacy of modified fluid gelatin (MFG, Gelafundin 4%) versus hetastarch (Hespan) for GC apheresis. This retrospective matched-pair analysis compared MFG- and hetastarch-derived GCs. Each group consisted of 15 unrelated male donors mobilized with dexamethasone and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor for apheresis on 1 or 2 days with the COBE Spectra's PMN program. In each group, 24 GCs were collected from 15 male donors and analyzed. None of the HES-derived products, but two of the MFG-derived products (8.3%), had aggregates and could not be used. The HES-derived products had significantly higher neutrophil counts on the first day (7.7 × 10 10 /unit vs. 4.0 × 10 10 /unit; p = 0.00005) as well as second day of apheresis (4.0 × 10 10 /unit vs. 1.1 × 10 10 /unit; p = 0.0002). Median white blood cell collection efficacies were lower with MFG than with HES on Day 1 (24% vs. 43%) and Day 2 (15% vs. 37%). Twenty-one percent of the MFG-derived products had less than 1 × 10 10 granulocytes. These results indicate that granulocyte apheresis is feasible with MFG as well as with hetastarch and that the latter is superior for GC production, if used in the same dosage. In addition, aggregates in GC from the COBE Spectra were observed in the MFG group but not in the hetastarch group. © 2016 AABB.

  10. Response of rats fed diets low in glucose and glucose precursors to low levels of glucose, starch and chemically modified starch.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Tsai, S; Nesheim, M C

    1980-05-01

    Several levels of glucose or starches were added to a basal diet that was free of available carbohydrate and low in carbohydrate precursors and fed to male, weanling rats. Rats fed such diets were highly responsive to dietary carbohydrate in growth rate, blood glucose levels and blood ketone bodies. There were no significant differences in the activities of pancreatic amylase, liver glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase when dietary carbohydrate varied from 1.5 to 6% of the diet. Under these feeding conditions, a minimum of 6% by weight or 5.8% of the dietary calories has to be provided by carbohydrate to allow the rat an optimum rate of growth. Such diets that are low in glucose precursors were employed as an assay system for glucose availability from chemically cross-bonded starches with various degrees of phosphate crosslinkage. The data showed that introducing low levels of phosphate crosslinkages into the starch had little effect on the glucose availability from the starch.

  11. In vitro digestibility of normal and waxy corn starch is modified by the addition of Tween 80.

    PubMed

    Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Bello-Perez, L A; Garcia-Hernandez, A; Roldan-Cruz, C; Garcia-Diaz, S

    2018-05-15

    Aqueous dispersions of normal and waxy corn starch (3% w/w) were mixed with Tween 80 (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 g/100 g of starch), and gelatinized (90 °C, 20 min). Optical microscopy of the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD x ; x = Tween 80 concentration) revealed that the microstructure was characterized by a continuous phase of leached amylose and amylopectin entangled chains, and a dispersed phase of insoluble remnants, called ghosts, on whose surface small granules were observed, imputed to Tween 80. The apparent viscosity of the GSD x decreased as the concentration of Tween 80 increased (up to about 70-90%). FTIR analysis of dried GSD x indicated that Tween 80 addition decreased short-range ordering. The content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions tended to increase significantly, at the expense of a significant decrease of slowly digestible starch (SDS) fraction, an effect that may be attributed to the increase of amorphous structures and starch chain-surfactant complexes. The RDS and RS increase was more pronounced for normal than for waxy corn starch, and the significance of the increase was dependent on Tween 80 concentration. Overall, the results showed that surfactant can affect largely the digestibility of starch chains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-exercise nutrition: the role of macronutrients, modified starches and supplements on metabolism and endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Bach, Christopher W; Baur, Daniel A

    2014-04-29

    Endurance athletes rarely compete in the fasted state, as this may compromise fuel stores. Thus, the timing and composition of the pre-exercise meal is a significant consideration for optimizing metabolism and subsequent endurance performance. Carbohydrate feedings prior to endurance exercise are common and have generally been shown to enhance performance, despite increasing insulin levels and reducing fat oxidation. These metabolic effects may be attenuated by consuming low glycemic index carbohydrates and/or modified starches before exercise. High fat meals seem to have beneficial metabolic effects (e.g., increasing fat oxidation and possibly sparing muscle glycogen). However, these effects do not necessarily translate into enhanced performance. Relatively little research has examined the effects of a pre-exercise high protein meal on subsequent performance, but there is some evidence to suggest enhanced pre-exercise glycogen synthesis and benefits to metabolism during exercise. Finally, various supplements (i.e., caffeine and beetroot juice) also warrant possible inclusion into pre-race nutrition for endurance athletes. Ultimately, further research is needed to optimize pre-exercise nutritional strategies for endurance performance.

  13. Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on Metabolism and Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ormsbee, Michael J.; Bach, Christopher W.; Baur, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes rarely compete in the fasted state, as this may compromise fuel stores. Thus, the timing and composition of the pre-exercise meal is a significant consideration for optimizing metabolism and subsequent endurance performance. Carbohydrate feedings prior to endurance exercise are common and have generally been shown to enhance performance, despite increasing insulin levels and reducing fat oxidation. These metabolic effects may be attenuated by consuming low glycemic index carbohydrates and/or modified starches before exercise. High fat meals seem to have beneficial metabolic effects (e.g., increasing fat oxidation and possibly sparing muscle glycogen). However, these effects do not necessarily translate into enhanced performance. Relatively little research has examined the effects of a pre-exercise high protein meal on subsequent performance, but there is some evidence to suggest enhanced pre-exercise glycogen synthesis and benefits to metabolism during exercise. Finally, various supplements (i.e., caffeine and beetroot juice) also warrant possible inclusion into pre-race nutrition for endurance athletes. Ultimately, further research is needed to optimize pre-exercise nutritional strategies for endurance performance. PMID:24787031

  14. Plasma modification of starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Plasma is a medium of unbound negative and positive particles with the overall electrical charge being roughly zero. Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging green technology with great potential to improve the quality and microbial safety of various food materials. Starch is a major component of many food products and is an important ingredient for food and other industries. There has been increasing interest in utilizing plasma to modify the functionalities of starch through interactions with reactive species. This mini-review summarises the impact of plasma on composition, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, and uses of starch. Structure-function relationships of starch components as affected by plasma modifications are discussed. Effect of plasma on the properties of wheat flour, which is a typical example of starch based complex food systems, is also reviewed. Future research directions on how to better utilise plasma to improve the functionalities of starch are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of starch-beeswax coatings on quality parameters of blackberries (Rubus spp.).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gallardo, Alfonso; García-Almendárez, Blanca; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo; Pimentel-González, Diana; Reyes-González, L R; Regalado, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    There is increased interest in berry fruits due to health benefits, and maintenance of fruit quality for longer periods of time has been a priority. We previously found that starch based coatings applied on raspberries was associated to volatile compounds production due to anoxic conditions. The objective of this work was to design more hydrophobic coatings with reduced thickness. A starch-beeswax dispersion containing 2 % (w/v) modified tapioca starch added with either 0.5 or 1.0 % (w/v) beeswax microparticles was produced, and used for spray coating freshly harvested blackberries (Rubus spp.). Coatings were air dried, packed in plastic trays and stored up to 16 days at 4 °C and 88 % relative humidity. Storage quality parameters such as hardness, respiration rate, anthocyanins content, total phenols, color changes and weight loss were evaluated. We did not find Interactions among coating ingredients, and incorporation of beeswax reduced moisture transfer rate. Coatings did not occlude the stomata and apparently did not over-hydrate the cuticle. This characteristic allowed appropriate gas exchange (O2 and CO2), and reduced accumulation of volatile compounds associated to fermentative metabolism. Respiration rates were 4.207 ± 0.157, 4.557 ± 0.220 and 4.780 ± 0.050 mmol CO2 kg(-1) h(-1) for control, 0.5 and 1 % of wax content in coatings, respectively. However, ethylene production increased throughout storage time along with beeswax concentration, indicating stressful conditions for the fruit. This trend appears to be related with changes in total phenols and anthocyanins during storage. Edible coatings based on starch and hydrophobic particles should be reformulated to maintain quality of stored berry fruits.

  16. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  17. Mechanical Retention and Waterproof Properties of Bacterial Cellulose-Reinforced Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites Modified with Sodium Hexametaphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-wei; Xu, Ying-juan; Li, Xin; Huang, Chao-ming; Huang, Kuo-shien; Wang, Chuen-kai; Yeh, Jen-taut

    2015-01-01

    The waterproof and strength retention properties of bacterial cellulose (BC)-reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were successfully improved by reacting with sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP). After modification with SHMP, the tensile strength (σf) and impact strength (Is) values of initial and conditioned BC-reinforced TPS, modified with varying amounts of SHMP(TPS100BC0.02SHMPx), and their blends with poly(lactic acid)((TPS100BC0.02SHMPx)75PLA25) specimens improved significantly and reached a maximal value as SHMP content approached 10 parts per hundred parts of TPS resin (phr), while their moisture content and elongation at break (ɛf) was reduced to a minimal value as SHMP contents approached 10 phr. The σf, Is and ɛf retention values of a (TPS100BC0.02SHMP10)75PLA25 specimen conditioned for 56 days are 52%, 50% and 3 times its initial σf, Is and ɛf values, respectively, which are 32.5 times, 8.9 times and 40% of those of a corresponding conditioned TPS100BC0.02 specimen, respectively. As evidenced by FTIR analyses of TPS100BC0.02SHMPx specimens, hydroxyl groups of TPS100BC0.02 resins were successfully reacted with the phosphate groups of SHMP molecules. New melting endotherms and diffraction peaks of VH-type crystals were found on DSC thermograms and WAXD patterns of TPS or TPS100BC0.02 specimens conditioned for 7 days, while no new melting endotherm or diffraction peak was found for TPS100BC0.02SHMPx and/or (TPS100BC0.02SHMPx)75PLA25 specimens conditioned for less than 14 and 28 days, respectively.

  18. The effect of water volume and mixing time on physical properties of bread made from modified cassava starch-wheat composite flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srirejeki, S.; Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Atmaka, W.; Laksono, P. W.

    2018-03-01

    Modification of cassava starch with soaking in the whey (by product on cheese production) resulted in changes of the flour characteristics. Adjustments of processing condition are important to be studied in the making of bread from modified cassava starch and wheat composite flour (30:70). This research aims to determine the effect of water volume and mixing time on the physical properties of the bread. The experimental design of this research was Completely Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) with two factors which were water volume and mixing time. The variation of water volume significantly affected on bread height, dough volume, dough specific volume, and crust thickness. The variation of mixing time had a significant effect on the increase of dough volume and dough specific volume. The combination of water volume and mixing time had a significant effect on dough height, bread volume, bread specific volume, baking expansion, and weight loss.

  19. Treatment of high salt oxidized modified starch waste water using micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic aerobic and electrolysis for reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xuenong; Wang, Yulin

    2017-06-01

    A combined process of micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic, aerobic and electrolysis was investigated for the treatment of oxidized modified starch wastewater (OMSW). Optimum ranges for important operating variables were experimentally determined and the treated water was tested for reuse in the production process of corn starch. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of micro-electrolysis, methanation reactor, aerobic process and electrolysis process were 5, 24, 12 and 3 h, respectively. The addition of iron-carbon fillers to the acidification reactor was 200 mg/L while the best current density of electrolysis was 300 A/m2. The biodegradability was improved from 0.12 to 0.34 by micro-electrolysis. The whole treatment was found to be effective with removal of 96 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 0.71 L/day of methane energy recovery. In addition, active chlorine production (15,720 mg/L) was obtained by electrolysis. The advantage of this hybrid process is that, through appropriate control of reaction conditions, effect from high concentration of salt on the treatment was avoided. Moreover, the process also produced the material needed in the production of oxidized starch while remaining emission-free and solved the problem of high process cost.

  20. Application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried foods because of increasing health concerns from consumers. Oxidized starches have been utilized in many coating applications for their adhesion ability. However, it is not known if they perform similarly in bake-only products. This study investigated the application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets. Oxidized starches were prepared from 7 starches and analyzed for gelatinization and pasting properties. Chicken nuggets were prepared using batter containing wheat flour, oxidized starch, salt, and leavening agents prior to steaming, oven baking, freezing, and final oven baking for sensory evaluation. All nuggets were analyzed for hardness by a textural analyzer, crispness by an acoustic sound, and sensory characteristics by a trained panel. The oxidation level used in the study did not alter the gelatinization temperature of most starches, but increased the peak pasting viscosity of both types of corn and rice starches and decreased that of tapioca and potato starches. There were slight differences in peak force and acoustic reading between some treatments; however, the differences were not consistent with starch type or amylose content. There was no difference among the treatments as well as between the control with wheat flour and the treatments partially replaced with oxidized starches in all sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets evaluated by the trained panel. There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried food, such as chicken nuggets, because of increasing childhood obesity. Oxidized starches are widely used in coating applications for their adhesion ability. This study investigated the source of oxidized starches in steam-baked coated nuggets for their textural and sensorial properties. The findings from this research will provide an understanding of the contributions of starch source and oxidation to the texture and sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets, and future directions to improve

  1. Effects of Hydrated Potato Starch on the Quality of Low-fat Ttoekgalbi (Korean Traditional Patty) Packaged in Modified Atmosphere Conditions during Storage.

    PubMed

    Muhlisin, S M Kang; Choi, W H; Lee, K T; Cheong, S H; Lee, S K

    2012-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hydrated potato starch on the quality of low-fat ttoekgalbi (Korean traditional patty) packaged in modified atmosphere conditions during storage. The ttoekgalbi was prepared from 53.2% lean beef, 13.9% lean pork, 9.3% pork fat, and 23.6% other ingredients. Two low-fat ttoekgalbi treatments were prepared by substituting pork fat with hydrated potato starch; either by 50% fat replacement (50% FR) or 100% fat replacement (100% FR). Both 50% and 100% FR increased the moisture, crude protein, and decreased fat content, cooking loss, and hardness. For MAP studies, 200 g of ttoekgalbi were placed on the tray and filled with gas composed of 70% O2: 30% CO2 (70% O2-MAP) and 30% CO2: 70% N2 (70% N2-MAP), and were stored at 5°C for 12 d. During the storage time, both 50% and 100% FR showed higher protein deterioration, while no differences were found in CIE a*, CIE L*, lipid oxidation, and bacterial counts in comparison to control. The ttoekgalbi with 70% O2-MAP was more red, lighter in color, and showed higher TBARS values compared with 70% N2-MAP. The meat with 70% N2-MAP showed lower aerobic bacterial counts in control than those with 70% O2-MAP. The lower anaerobic bacterial counts were observed only in 50% FR and 100% FR packed with 70% N2-MAP in comparison with 70% O2-MAP. In conclusion, the fat replacement with hydrated potato starch showed no negative effects on the quality of low fat ttoekgalbi during storage and 70% N2-MAP was better than 70% O2-MAP for low-fat ttoekgalbi packaging.

  2. Performance properties and antibacterial activity of crosslinked films of quaternary ammonium modified starch and poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Sekhavat Pour, Zahra; Makvandi, Pooyan; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2015-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in developing antibacterial polymeric materials. In the present work, novel antibacterial cross-linked blend films were prepared based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and quaternary ammonium starch (ST-GTMAC) using citric acid (CA) as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linker. The ST-GTMAC was successfully synthesized from reaction between water-soluble oxidized starch and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC). The effect of ST-GTMAC, CA and GA contents on the swelling, solubility, mechanical and thermal properties of the films was investigated. It was found that incorporation of ST-GTMAC reduced UV-transmittance and provided antibacterial properties, increasing GA content increased tensile strength and decreased solubility and swelling degree of the films, while CA acted as plasticizer when its concentration was above 10 wt%. The results showed that ST-GTMAC/PVA/CA/GA film has fair antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. These results suggest that the prepared film might be used as potential antibacterial material in medical and packaging applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polyaniline/MWCNTs/starch modified carbon paste electrode for non-enzymatic detection of cholesterol: application to real sample (cow milk).

    PubMed

    Gautam, Vineeta; Singh, Karan P; Yadav, Vijay L

    2018-03-01

    Nanocomposite materials are potentially revolutionizing many technologies, including sensors. In this paper, we described the application of "PANI/MWCNTs/Starch" modified carbon paste electrode (PCS-CPE) as a simple and highly sensitive cholesterol sensor. This novel nano-composite material has integrated nano-morphology, where polyaniline could interact effectively with the additives; pi-pi stacking "MWCNTs," and covalently bonded with starch. Specific binding sites (sugar chains), better electro-catalytic properties and fast electron transfer facilitated the oxidation of cholesterol. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the interaction of cholesterol with the composite material. The sensing response of PCS was measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry (0.1 M PBS-5 used as supporting electrolyte). As the amount of cholesterol increased in the test solution, cyclic voltammograms showed a rise of peak current (cathodic and anodic). Under the normal experimental conditions, the developed sensor exhibited wide linear dynamic range (0.032 to 5 mM) (upper limit is due to lack of solubility of cholesterol), high sensitivity (800 μAmM -1  cm -2 ), low detection limit (0.01 mM) and shorter response time (within 4-6 s). Analytical specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity during cholesterol estimation were compared with the response of some other analytes (ascorbic acid, glucose, l-dopa, urea and lactic acid). This novel sensor was successfully applied to estimate cholesterol in cow milk (used as a model real sample). The sensing platform is highly sensitive and shows a linear response towards cholesterol without using any additional redox mediator or enzyme, thus this material is extremely promising for the realization of a low-cost integrated cholesterol sensor device. Graphical abstract Cyclic voltammetric response of cholesterol of composite modified carbon paste capillary electrode.

  4. Physical and mechanical properties of LDPE incorporated with different starch sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Kormin, Faridah; Dalour Hossen Beg, Mohammad; Bijarimi Mat Piah, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In this study it was investigated the incorporation of different starches, such as sago starch, corn starch, potato starch, tapioca starch and wheat starch, in low-density polyethylene matrix (LDPE) to enhanced mechanical properties and to obtain partially biodegradable product with the aim to reduce the plastics wastes in the environment. For comparison, virgin LDPE, LDPE with different sources of starch blends were prepared and characterized under the same conditions. The starches were mixed to the LDPE using a twin screw extruder to guarantee the homogeneity of the formulations. The compound were shaping processed by injection moulding. The characterization of those compounds was done by physical (density, MFI), mechanical (Universal tensile machine). The addition of starch to LDPE reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength, whereas the elastic modulus, flexural modulus and flexural strength increased. LDPE/SS show the good mechanical behavior compared to other formulation. The physical and mechanical properties were evident when 5 and 30 wt% were added. Water uptake increased with increased starch content and immersion time. The time taken for the composites to equilibrate was about one month even when they were immersed completely in water.

  5. Modeling of glucose release from native and modified wheat starch gels during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion using artificial intelligence methods.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, A R; Razavi, Seyed M A

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the amounts of glucose release (AGR) during gastrointestinal digestion can be useful to identify food of potential use in the diet of individuals with diabetes. In this work, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), genetic algorithm-artificial neural network (GA-ANN) and group method of data handling (GMDH) models were applied to estimate the AGR from native (NWS), cross-linked (CLWS) and hydroxypropylated wheat starch (HPWS) gels during digestion under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The GA-ANN and ANFIS were fed with 3 inputs of digestion time (1-120min), gel volume (7.5 and 15ml) and concentration (8 and 12%, w/w) for prediction of the AGR. The developed ANFIS predictions were close to the experimental data (r=0.977-0.996 and RMSE=0.225-0.619). The optimized GA-ANN, which included 6-7 hidden neurons, predicted the AGR with a good precision (r=0.984-0.993 and RMSE=0.338-0.588). Also, a three layers GMDH model with 3 neurons accurately predicted the AGR (r=0.979-0.986 and RMSE=0.339-0.443). Sensitivity analysis data demonstrated that the gel concentration was the most sensitive factor for prediction of the AGR. The results dedicated that the AGR will be accurately predictable through such soft computing methods providing less computational cost and time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of bio char derived from tapioca skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnan, F. I.; Iamail, K. N.; Musa, M.; Jaapar, J.; Alwi, H.; Hamid, K. K. K.

    2018-03-01

    Pyrolysis of tapioca skin was conducted to produce bio chars in the range between 500°C–800°C. Surface modification treatment were performed on bio chars by using chemicals within 24 hours at 30°C and hot water within 1 hour to enhance the bio char’s adsorption properties according to surface area, pore volume, pore size, crystallinity structure and functional groups. The samples were characterized by using BET, XRD, FTIR and Methylene Blue adsorption. Based on BET result, it showed the surface area increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased followed by pore volume and pore size for S0. The optimum temperature for SNaOH, SHW and SMeOH was at 600°C, 700°C and 800°C with the surface area of 75.9874, 274.5066 and 351.5531 m2/g respectively compared to S0 while SP3HO4 has the worst result since it felt on macroporous structure. The percentage of MB adsorption was followed the size of bio chars surface area. Based on FTIR result, at temperature 500°C to 700°C, the bio chars still have functional groups while at 800°C, many functional groups were diminished due to high temperature struck on them. XRD result showed all the bio chars were amorphous. In conclusion, the best surface modification treatment was by Methanol followed by hot water and Sodium Hydroxide at temperature of 700°C and 800°C while Ortho-Phosphoric acid was the worst one and was not suitable for bio char’s surface modification for adsorption purpose.

  7. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  8. Structural and molecular basis of starch viscosity in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Ral, J-P; Cavanagh, C R; Larroque, O; Regina, A; Morell, M K

    2008-06-11

    Wheat starch is considered to have a low paste viscosity relative to other starches. Consequently, wheat starch is not preferred for many applications as compared to other high paste viscosity starches. Increasing the viscosity of wheat starch is expected to increase the functionality of a range of wheat flour-based products in which the texture is an important aspect of consumer acceptance (e.g., pasta, and instant and yellow alkaline noodles). To understand the molecular basis of starch viscosity, we have undertaken a comprehensive structural and rheological analysis of starches from a genetically diverse set of wheat genotypes, which revealed significant variation in starch traits including starch granule protein content, starch-associated lipid content and composition, phosphate content, and the structures of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. Statistical analysis highlighted the association between amylopectin chains of 18-25 glucose residues and starch pasting properties. Principal component analysis also identified an association between monoesterified phosphate and starch pasting properties in wheat despite the low starch-phosphate level in wheat as compared to tuber starches. We also found a strong negative correlation between the phosphate ester content and the starch content in flour. Previously observed associations between internal starch granule fatty acids and the swelling peak time and pasting temperature have been confirmed. This study has highlighted a range of parameters associated with increased starch viscosity that could be used in prebreeding/breeding programs to modify wheat starch pasting properties.

  9. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  10. Starch--value addition by modification.

    PubMed

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2005-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking and storage, particularly at low pH, retrogradation characteristics, syneresis, etc., of native starches. Oxidation, esterification, hydroxyalkylation, dextrinization, and cross-linking are some of the modifications commonly employed to prepare starch derivatives. In a way, starch modification provides desirable functional attributes as well as offering economic alternative to other hydrocolloid ingredients, such as gums and mucilages, which are unreliable in quality and availability. Resistant starch, a highly retrograded starch fractionformed upon food processing, is another useful starch derivative. It exhibits the beneficial physiological effects of therapeutic and nutritional values akin to dietary fiber. There awaits considerable opportunity for future developments, especially for tailor-made starch derivatives with multiple modifications and with the desired functional and nutritional properties, although the problem of obtaining legislative approval for the use of novel starch derivatives in processed food formulations is still under debate. Nevertheless, it can be predicted that new ventures in starch modifications and their diverse applications will continue to be of great interest in applied research.

  11. Starch-gum interactions: nutritional and technological implications.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, V; Singhal, R S; Kulkarni, P R

    1996-03-01

    Starch contributes greatly to the textural properties of many foods. Starch, both native as well as various modified derivative forms offer a great scope to develop a variety of food products having varied texture and mouthfeel.

  12. Development of photo-modified starch/kefiran/TiO2 bio-nanocomposite as an environmentally-friendly food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Vahid; Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, Iman

    2018-05-21

    This paper reports on an experiment in which starch/kefiran/TiO 2 (SKT)-based bio-nanocomposite films were developed and modified by photo-chemical reaction. In so doing, film-forming solutions were exposed to ultraviolet A (UV-A) for different times (1, 6, and 12 h). The obtained results indicated that increasing UV-A exposure time brought about an increase (≈14.9%) in the tensile strength of bio-nanocomposites. However, elongation at break and Young's modulus of irradiated film specimen decreased (≈32%, ≈12%, respectively) by increasing UV-A exposure time, and the moisture-sensitive parameters of specimen decreased using UV-A irradiation. According to the results, the functional properties of irradiated bio-nanocomposite are depended on the ratio of cross-linkages between polymer chains and the potentially produced mono and disaccharide by UV-A. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Quality characteristics of low fat ostrich meat patties formulated with either pork lard or modified corn starch, soya isolate and water.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Mellett, F D

    2003-10-01

    A trained taste panel could not distinguish (P>0.05) between ostrich meat patties containing either 10% pork lard or 10% of a modified starch/protein isolate (fat replacer) mixture. The panel could distinguish between the types of ostrich muscle/meat cuts used with a significant (P<0.05) number preferring ostrich patties made from meat containing a higher collagen content (±3% vs <1%). The chemical analysis of the patties showed that within the meat classes (Class fillet-de-membraned, Class A-very lean off-cuts and Class B-off-cuts containing visual connective tissue and some fat), the patties containing the pork fat had a +6% higher total fat content than those containing the fat replacer. The fatty acid profiles of the various products were in accordance with the meat type and fat or fat replacer used. The mineral profile was as expected for lean ostrich meat that had spices added. It is concluded that fat replacers can be used successfully for the production of low fat ostrich patties without any negative quality attributes being perceived.

  14. Feasibility study analysis for multi-function dual energy oven (case study: tapioca crackers small medium enterprise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soraya, N. W.; El Hadi, R. M.; Chumaidiyah, E.; Tripiawan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional drying process is constrained by weather (cloudy / rainy), and requires wide drying area, and provides low-quality product. Multi-function dual energy oven is the appropriate technology to solve these problems. The oven uses solar thermal or gas heat for drying various type of products, including tapioca crackers. Investment analysis in technical, operational, and financial aspects show that the multi-function dual energy oven is feasible to be implemented for small medium enterprise (SME) processing tapioca crackers.

  15. Resistant starch: promise for improving human health.

    PubMed

    Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.

  16. 21 CFR 169.150 - Salad dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquid egg white or frozen egg white. (d) Starchy paste. It may be prepared from a food starch, food starch-modified, tapioca flour, wheat flour, rye flour, or any two or more of these. Water may be added...

  17. 21 CFR 169.150 - Salad dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquid egg white or frozen egg white. (d) Starchy paste. It may be prepared from a food starch, food starch-modified, tapioca flour, wheat flour, rye flour, or any two or more of these. Water may be added...

  18. 21 CFR 169.150 - Salad dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquid egg white or frozen egg white. (d) Starchy paste. It may be prepared from a food starch, food starch-modified, tapioca flour, wheat flour, rye flour, or any two or more of these. Water may be added...

  19. Proteome analysis of Aspergillus niger: Lactate added in starch-containing medium can increase production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B2 by modifying acetyl-CoA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus found in the environment, on foods and feeds and is used as host for production of organic acids, enzymes and proteins. The mycotoxin fumonisin B2 was recently found to be produced by A. niger and hence very little is known about production and regulation of this metabolite. Proteome analysis was used with the purpose to reveal how fumonisin B2 production by A. niger is influenced by starch and lactate in the medium. Results Fumonisin B2 production by A. niger was significantly increased when lactate and starch were combined in the medium. Production of a few other A. niger secondary metabolites was affected similarly by lactate and starch (fumonisin B4, orlandin, desmethylkotanin and pyranonigrin A), while production of others was not (ochratoxin A, ochratoxin alpha, malformin A, malformin C, kotanin, aurasperone B and tensidol B). The proteome of A. niger was clearly different during growth on media containing 3% starch, 3% starch + 3% lactate or 3% lactate. The identity of 59 spots was obtained, mainly those showing higher or lower expression levels on medium with starch and lactate. Many of them were enzymes in primary metabolism and other processes that affect the intracellular level of acetyl-CoA or NADPH. This included enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, pyruvate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, ammonium assimilation, fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidative stress protection. Conclusions Lactate added in a medium containing nitrate and starch can increase fumonisin B2 production by A. niger as well as production of some other secondary metabolites. Changes in the balance of intracellular metabolites towards a higher level of carbon passing through acetyl-CoA and a high capacity to regenerate NADPH during growth on medium with starch and lactate were found to be the likely cause of this effect. The results lead to the hypothesis that fumonisin production by A. niger is regulated by acetyl

  20. High-oil-load encapsulation of medium-chain triglycerides and D-limonene mixture in modified starch by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Paramita, Vita; Furuta, Takeshi; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2012-02-01

    Oil mixtures of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and D-limonene in mixing ratios from 10 to 100 wt% were encapsulated in modified starch (wall material) by spray drying to produce oil-rich powders. The oil load (mass ratio of oil mixture to wall material) of the infeed emulsion markedly influenced the properties of the infeed liquid and the characteristics of the resulting powder. The viscosity of the infeed liquid and the particle size of the powder exponentially decreased with increasing oil load, while the emulsion droplet size in the infeed liquid increased. In addition, retention of D-limonene during spray drying also decreased markedly with increasing oil load. Irrespective of the different oil loads and concentrations of the wall material, D-limonene retention was well correlated with the emulsion droplet diameter of the infeed liquid. The encapsulation efficiency of the oil mixture exhibited a maximum value (almost 100%) at an oil load between 0.5 and 1.0, before decreasing at higher oil loads. At an oil load of 2.0, the encapsulation efficiency of D-limonene was reduced to almost zero, while around 40% of the initial MCT was encapsulated in the powder. The increase in oil load also led to increased amounts of surface oil of MCT and D-limonene in the resulting powder due to the increasing emulsion droplet diameter of the infeed liquids. This study proposes the microencapsulation of medium-chain triglycerides under high-oil-load conditions by spray drying. The powders prepared by this process provide significant benefits in terms of rapid energy conversion after consumption without accumulation in the body. Important quality factors of the powder products such as the encapsulation efficiency and the amount of surface oil were examined to understand the optimum process conditions for spray drying. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing-Feng; Visser, Richard G. F.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (de)phosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal). Interestingly, expression of an (engineered) laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf). Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20–30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself. PMID:28056069

  2. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch.

    PubMed

    Wokadala, Obiro Cuthbert; Emmambux, Naushad Mohammad; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2014-11-04

    In this study, waxy and high amylose starches were modified through butyl-etherification to facilitate compatibility with polylactide (PLA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and wettability tests showed that hydrophobic butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starches were obtained with degree of substitution values of 2.0 and 2.1, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated improved PLA/starch compatibility for both waxy and high amylose starch after butyl-etherification. The PLA/butyl-etherified waxy and high amylose starch composite films had higher tensile strength and elongation at break compared to PLA/non-butyl-etherified composite films. The morphological study using SEM showed that PLA/butyl-etherified waxy starch composites had a more homogenous microstructure compared to PLA/butyl-etherified high amylose starch composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PLA/starch composite thermal stability decreased with starch butyl-etherification for both waxy and high amylose starches. This study mainly demonstrates that PLA/starch compatibility can be improved through starch butyl-etherification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of PLA-Starch Fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composites of polylactic acid (PLA) with starch have been prepared previously in an effort to reduce cost as well as to modify other properties such as biodegradation rate. However, strength and elongation both decrease on addition of starch due to poor adhesion and stress concentration at the inte...

  4. Protein and starch concentrates of air-classified field pea and zero-tannin faba bean for weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, C K; Zijlstra, R T; Goonewardene, L A; Beltranena, E

    2010-08-01

    Air-classified pulse (non-oilseed legume) protein and starch may replace specialty protein and starch feedstuffs in diets for weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, three specialty protein sources (5% soy protein concentrate, 5% corn gluten meal, and 5% menhaden meal in the control diet) were replaced with 16% zero-tannin hulled or dehulled faba bean, or 17.5% field pea protein concentrate. In total, 192 group-housed pigs (2 gilts and 2 barrows per pen; BW = 7.5 +/- 1.4 kg) were fed wheat-based diets (3.60 Mcal/kg of DE and 3.3 g of standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal DE) over 28 d for 12 pen observations per each of 4 diets. Overall, protein source did not affect ADFI, ADG, or G:F. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, GE, and P was greater (P < 0.05) for dehulled faba bean and field pea protein concentrate diets than the diet with 3 specialty protein sources. In Exp. 2, faba bean and field pea starch concentrates were compared with corn, wheat, tapioca, and potato starch as dietary energy sources. In total, 36 individually housed barrows (BW = 8.0 +/- 1.5 kg) were fed 1 of 6 diets for 15 d. Feces and urine were collected from d 8 to 14, and jugular blood was sampled after overnight fast and refeeding on d 15. Starch source did not affect N retention as a percentage of N intake. For d 0 to 14, ADFI of pigs fed field pea starch was greater (P < 0.05) than pigs fed corn, wheat, potato, and faba bean starch. Pigs fed tapioca, field pea, wheat, or corn starch grew faster (P < 0.05) than those fed faba bean or potato starch. For d 0 to 14, pigs fed corn or wheat starch had a 0.1 greater (P < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed faba bean, field pea, or potato starch. The ATTD of DM, GE, CP, and starch and the DE value of potato starch were much less (P < 0.05) than those of other starch diets. Postprandial plasma glucose was 4.9, 6.3, and 9 mmol/L greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed tapioca than for pigs fed faba bean, wheat, and potato starch, respectively. However, postprandial plasma

  5. The addition of nanochitosan suspension as filler in carrageenan-tapioca biocomposite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochima, Emma; Fiyanih, Elisah; Afrianto, Eddy; Subhan, Ujang; Praseptiangga, Danar; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of nanochitosan (CSNPs) suspension by beads milling method as filler in carrageenan-tapioca biocomposite film. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CSNPs as filler with two food pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and then influence of nano fillers for appearance of films were observed. The incorporation of CSNPs suspension with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 (%v/v) in carrageenan-tapioca film exhibited antibacterial activity againts both bacteria. CSNPs had slightly higher antimicrobial activity against E. coli aureus compared to S. aureus at all concentrations due to different mechanisms. Therefore, the best antimicrobial activity was obtained from 1 wt%. Furthermore the best antimicrobial activity was characterized by means of the thickness and transparency. The result showed that the thickness of film was 0.059 mm and the transparency was 87.88. It was concluded that the incorporation of CSNPs suspension 1 wt% in carrageenan-tapioca composite film is suitable for developing active packaging.

  6. Revitalization model of tapioca industry through environmental awareness reinforcement for minimizing water body contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banowati, E.; Indriyanti, D. R.; Juhadi

    2018-03-01

    Tapioca industry in Margoyoso District is a household industry which positively contributes to the growth of the region's economy as it is able to absorb 6,61% of productive age populationor absorb 3,300 workers.On the other hand, the industry impacts contamination of river water in the form of pollutants dissolved materials and particulates into water bodies so that the quality of water decreases even does not work anymore in accordance with the allocation for irrigation or run off of agriculture. The purpose of this research is to: strengthen environmental awareness; calculate the success of the reinforcement action and minimize water body contamination. The research was conducted in two villages of tapioca industry center in Margoyoso district - Pati Regency Administration Area. The determination coefficient of R Square is 0.802 which indicates a successful effort of 80.2%. Regression equation Y = 34.097 + 0.608 X. Industrial entrepreneur's concern increased on 8.45 from total indicator or position to 70.72 so that the gradual effort showed success to minimize water contamination of Suwatu River. The business community of tapioca should build installation of wastewater treatment.

  7. Novel FT-IR Microspectroscopic Census of Simple Starch Granules for Octenyl Succinate Ester Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Y.; Shi, Y; Wetzel, D

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy was used to investigate reaction homogeneity of octenyl succinic anhydride modification on waxy maize starch and detect uniformity of blends of modified and native starches. For the first time, the level and uniformity of chemical substitution on individual starch granules were analyzed by FT-IR microspectroscopy. More than 100 starch granules of each sample were analyzed one by one by FT-IR microspectroscopy. In comparison to the native starch, modified starch had two additional bands at 1723 and 1563 cm{sup -1}, indicative of ester formation in the modified starch. For the 3% modification level, the degree ofmore » substitution (DS) was low (0.019) and the distribution of the ester group was not uniform among starch granules. For the modified starch with DS of 0.073, 99% of individual starch granules had a large carbonyl band area, indicating that most granules were modified to a sufficient extent that the presence of their carbonyl ester classified them individually as being modified. However, the octenyl succinate concentration varied between granules, suggesting that the reaction was not uniform. When modified starch (DS = 0.073) was blended with native starch (3:7, w/w) to achieve a mixture with an average DS of 0.019, FT-IR microspectroscopy was able to detect heterogeneity of octenyl succinate in the blend and determine the ratio of the modified starch to the native starch granules.« less

  8. The Other Double Helix--The Fascinating Chemistry of Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Robert D.; Tarbet, Bryon J.

    2000-08-01

    Current textbooks deal only briefly with the chemistry of starch. A short review with 21 references is presented, describing the structure of starch and indicating the double helix structure of A-type and B-type starch. The structure of the starch granule is examined, pointing out the existence of growth rings of alternating crystalline and noncrystalline starch, with growing amylopectin molecules extending from the hilum (point of origin) to the surface of the starch granule. The swelling of starch granules in water, above the gelatinization temperature of about 60 °C, is discussed. The process of gelatinization involves unraveling of the starch helix and a manyfold increase in volume of the starch granule as water is imbibed and bound to the unraveled starch polymer by hydrogen bonding. Baking bread or pastries causes unraveling of the starch helix, and the process by which these products become stale corresponds primarily to the re-forming of the starch helix. The importance of this phenomenon in food science is discussed. The absorption of nonpolar linear molecules such as I2, or linear nonpolar portions of molecules such as n-butanol or fats and phospholipids, by the C-type helix of starch is examined. The way in which starch is structurally modified to retard staling is discussed in relation to food technology.

  9. Lipid production from tapioca wastewater by culture of Scenedesmus sp. with simultaneous BOD, COD and nitrogen removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaidi; Hasanudin, Muhammad; Kholifah, Khusnul; Maulidiyah, Alik; Putro, Sapto P.; Kikuchi, Akira; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi

    2018-05-01

    The use of microalgae to produce biodiesel or possibly remove nutrients from industrial wastewater has gained important attention during recent years due to their photosynthetic rate and its versatile nature to grow in various wastewater systems. In this study, a microalgae, Scenedesmus sp., was cultured to enhance the lipid production and nutrients removal from tapioca wastewater sample. To assess lipid production, Scenedesmus sp. was cultured in different concentration of tapioca wastewater sample (from 0 to 100 %), and nutrient removal including BOD, COD, NH4, NO2, NO3 level by Scenedesmus sp. was assessed in 100% of tapioca wastewater culture. After 8 days of culture, it was found out that 50% of tapioca wastewater sample resulted in highest concentration of lipid content than that of the other concentrations. The level of environment indicator as nutrient removal such as BOD, COD, NH4, NO2, NO3 were also decreased up to 74%, 72%, 95%, 91%, and 91%, respectively. The pH condition changed from initial condition acidic (pH: 4) to neutral or basic condition (pH: 7-8) as recommended in wastewater treatment system. This research provided a novel approach and achieved efficient simultaneous lipid production and nutrients removal from tapioca wastewater sample by Scenedesmus’s culture system.

  10. Separation of silver ions and starch modified silver nanoparticles using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and inductively coupled mass spectrometric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Traci A.; Saadawi, Ryan; Zhang, Peng; Caruso, Joseph A.; Landero-Figueroa, Julio

    2014-10-01

    The production of commercially available products marketed to contain silver nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Species-specific toxicity is a phenomenon associated with many elements, including silver, making it imperative to develop a method to identify and quantify the various forms of silver (namely, silver ions vs. silver nanoparticles) possibly present in these products. In this study a method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV-VIS) and inductively coupled mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection to separate starch stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver ions (Ag+) by cation exchange chromatography with 0.5 M nitric acid mobile phase. The silver nanoparticles and ions were baseline resolved with an ICP-MS response linear over four orders of magnitude, 0.04 mg kg- 1 detection limit, and 90% chromatographic recovery for silver solutions containing ions and starch stabilized silver nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm.

  11. Resistant starch modifies gut microflora and microbial metabolism in human flora-associated rats inoculated with faeces from Italian and UK donors.

    PubMed

    Silvi, S; Rumney, C J; Cresci, A; Rowland, I R

    1999-03-01

    The effect of sucrose and resistant starch ('CrystaLean'--a retrograded, amylose starch) on human gut microflora and associated parameters was studied in human flora-associated (HFA) rats, colonized with microfloras from UK or Italian subjects, to determine whether such floras were affected differently by dietary carbohydrates. Consumption of the resistant starch diet resulted in significant changes in four of the seven main groups of bacteria enumerated. In both the UK and Italian flora-associated rats, numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were increased 10-100-fold, and there was a concomitant decrease in enterobacteria when compared with sucrose-fed rats. The induced changes in caecal microflora of both HFA rat groups were reflected in changes in bacterial enzyme activities and caecal ammonia concentration. Although it had little effect on caecal short-chain fatty acid concentration, CrystaLean markedly increased the proportion of n-butyric acid in both rat groups and was associated with a significant increase in cell proliferation in the proximal colon of the Italian flora-associated rats. CrystaLean appeared to play a protective role in the colon environment, lowering caecal ammonia concentration, caecal pH and beta-glucuronidase activity.

  12. Moisture absorption of starch based biocomposites reinforced with water hyacinth fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abral, H.; Hartono, J.

    2017-06-01

    Bioplastic based on tapioca starch (TSB) is very sensitive on moisture; meanwhile this substance may be used to replace synthetic plastic. This paper reports effect of Water Hyacinth Fibers (WHF) content on performance moisture absorption of starch based biocomposites. WHF content in the TSB matrix was varied in 1, 3, 5, and 10% respectively. The samples were placed in closed room with high relative humidity (RH) of 99% at 250C with different duration for 30 and 960 min respectively. The result showed that moisture absorption in the beginning was increased rapidly, and then achieved a level steady state. After that, significant swelling of the sample occurred for further duration in 960 min. Gradient of the swelling was decreased as increasing the fibers content in the TSB matrix.

  13. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Preparation of low digestible and viscoelastic tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) starch by Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Fu, Jingchao; Wang, Yujuan; Ma, Fumin; Li, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Tigernut starch is an underutilized food resource. In this study, pullulanase (PUL) hydrolysis was used to change its physiochemical properties for different food applications. The content of low digestible fractions, resistant starch and slow digestible starch, in PUL modified tigernut starch significantly increased from 2.03% to 25.08% (P<0.05) using 100U/g starch of PUL in the debranching reaction. The paste or dispersion of PUL modified tigernut starch had a significantly decreased viscoelasticity (P<0.05), but the paste still exhibited a typical property of pseudoplasticity. Molecular weight, amylopectin A B2 and B3 chain of PUL modified starch were lower, while amylose content, amylopectin B1 chain were higher than those of natural tigernut starch. The low digestible and viscous tigernut starch is highly valued as a component in some functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Paraformaldehyde-Resistant Starch-Fermenting Bacteria in “Starch-Base” Drilling Mud

    PubMed Central

    Myers, G. E.

    1962-01-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde. PMID:13936949

  16. Antimicrobial nanostructured starch based films for packaging.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana S; Oliveira, M; de Sá, Arsénio; Rodrigues, Rui M; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Vicente, António A; Machado, A V

    2015-09-20

    Montmorillonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt C30B/starch nanocomposite (C30B/ST-NC), silver nanoparticles/starch nanocomposite (Ag-NPs/ST-NC) and both silver nanoparticles/C30B/starch nanocomposites (Ag-NPs/C30B/ST-NC) films were produced. The nanoclay (C30B) was dispersed in a starch solution using an ultrasonic probe. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs (0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0mM) were synthesized directly in starch and in clay/starch solutions via chemical reduction method. Dispersion of C30B silicate layers and Ag-NPs in ST films characterized by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy showed that the presence of Ag-NPs enhanced clay dispersion. Color and opacity measurements, barrier properties (water vapor and oxygen permeabilities), dynamic mechanical analysis and contact angle were evaluated and related with the incorporation of C30B and Ag-NPs. Films presented antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans without significant differences between Ag-NPs concentrations. The migration of components from the nanostructured starch films, assessed by food contact tests, was minor and under the legal limits. These results indicated that the starch films incorporated with C30B and Ag-NPs have potential to be used as packaging nanostructured material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rheology of different hydrocolloids–rice starch blends. Effect of successive heating–cooling cycles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrocolloids are frequently used for modifying starch functionality. In the present study the possible interaction of three different hydrocolloids - guar gum, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and xanthan gum - with rice starch was explored by determining the pasting, viscoelastic and swelling ...

  18. Explaining the texture properties of whey protein isolate/starch co-gels from fracture structures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    The effects of tapioca starch (TS) and potato starch (PS) on texture properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)/starch co-gels were investigated for fracture structures. We focused on two types of WPI network structures. In a fine-stranded structure at pH 6.8, the WPI/TS co-gel fractured similarly to the WPI single gel. The WPI/PS co-gel was broken at a lower strain and lower stress. In a random aggregation at pH 5.8, the WPI/TS co-gel reached a yielding point at a lower strain, whereas the WPI/PS co-gel fractured at a higher strain and higher stress. In the fracture structures, it was revealed that breaks occurred in different places in these cases, which could explain the different texture properties of samples. This study tries to explain the texture properties of WPI/starch co-gels from fracture structures and provides a reference to predict texture properties of the WPI/starch food system.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Bioplastic-Based Green Renewable Composites from Tapioca with Acetyl Tributyl Citrate as a Plasticizer

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Chi-Hui; Suen, Maw-Cherng; Yao, Wei-Hua; Yeh, Jen-Taut; Wu, Chin-San; Tsou, Chih-Yuan; Chiu, Shih-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Chin; Wang, Ruo Yao; Lin, Shang-Ming; Hung, Wei-Song; Guzman, Manuel De; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn

    2014-01-01

    Granular tapioca was thermally blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA). All blends were prepared using a plasti-corder and characterized for tensile properties, thermal properties and morphology. Scanning electron micrographs showed that phase separation occurred, leading to poor tensile properties. Therefore, methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was used as an interfacial compatibilizer to improve the mechanical properties of PLA/tapioca blends. The addition of MDI could improve the tensile strength of the blend with 60 wt% tapioca, from 19.8 to 42.6 MPa. In addition, because PLA lacked toughness, acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) was added as a plasticizer to improve the ductility of PLA. A significant decrease in the melting point and glass-transition temperature was observed on the basis of differential scanning calorimetry, which indicated that the PLA structure was not dense after ATBC was added. As such, the brittleness was improved, and the elongation at break was extended to several hundred percent. Therefore, mixing ATBC with PLA/tapioca/MDI blends did exhibit the effect of plasticization and biodegradation. The results also revealed that excessive plasticizer would cause the migration of ATBC and decrease the tensile properties. PMID:28788150

  20. Hydroxyethyl starch.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W L

    1980-01-01

    HES products should be designated by both their number average of molecular weight (that determines colloidal activity) and molar substitution ratios. In addition to the original HES-70/70 developed in 1960, a rapidly excreted HES-50/50 has been available since 1977. HES-70/70 and human albumin are equivalent in both healthy and hypoalbuminemia subjects in regard to maximal and total effects on plasma volume, intravascular colloidal activity and plasma concentration of ingested colloid. Albumin and HES-70/70 are extravasated at nearly equal rates. Albumin elimination is predominantly monoexponential. HES-70/70 however, is partly metabolized and partly excreted in urine at rates that decrease progressively as the amount remaining in the body decreases. HES-50/50 has maximal effects on plasma volume and colloidal activity similar to those of dextran-40, but it is eliminated twice as rapidly and unlike dextran-40, does not accumulate on repeated ingestion of large doses. HES ingestion increases apparent serum activity of alpha amylase by slowing enzyme elimination. Anaphylactoid reactions have been infrequent and mild, even on repetitive ingestion in recurrent "Phoresis" donors. The effect of HES on coagulation in urine but does not slow urine flow by hyperviscosity. Hydroxyethylation of waxy starches yields safe colloids with the advantage of permitting selective control of drug effects by altering independently molecular size and rate of enzymatic hydrolysis, tailoring drug kinetics to specific uses.

  1. [Effect of acetylation and oxidation on some properties of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) seed starch].

    PubMed

    Rincón, Alicia Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Aragoza, Luis E; Padilla, Fanny

    2007-09-01

    Starch extracted from seeds of Artocarpus altilis (Breadfruit) was chemically modified by acetylation and oxidation, and its functional properties were evaluated and compared with these of native starch. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that moisture content was higher for modified starches. Ash, protein, crude fiber and amylose contents were reduced by the modifications, but did not alter the native starch granules' irregularity, oval shape and smooth surface. Acetylation produced changes in water absorption, swelling power and soluble solids, these values were higher for acetylated starch, while values for native and oxidized starches were similar. Both modifications reduced pasting temperature; oxidation reduced maximum peak viscosity but it was increased by acetylation. Hot paste viscosity was reduced by both modifications, whereas cold paste viscosity was lower in the oxidized starch and higher in the acetylated starch. Breakdown was increased by acetylation and reduced with oxidation. Setback value was reduced after acetylation, indicating it could minimize retrogradation of the starch.

  2. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) with the protein content and negatively correlated (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05) with the carbohydrate content. For T. castaneum, the suitable diets were ranked as follows: atta flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P < 0.05) than in the other diets, and the greatest number of progeny was produced from beetles reared on atta flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.

  3. Dynamic high-pressure microfluidization assisting octenyl succinic anhydride modification of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ri-Si; Liang, Rui-Hong; Chen, Jun; He, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Rui-Yun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei

    2018-08-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch is widely used in food industries. In this study, rice starch (RS) was pretreated by dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) and subsequently modified by OSA. The influence of DHPM on OSA modification of rice starch was investigated. Results showed that DHPM pretreatment enhanced the degree of substitution by changing the morphology and crystallinity of rice starch. Compared with the rice starch modified by OSA without DHPM pretreatment (OSA-RS), the DHPM-pretreated OSA starch (DHPM-OSA-RS) presented higher peak viscosity and lower pasting temperature. DHPM-OSA-RS also exhibited better emulsifying activity and emulsion stability. This study suggested that DHPM will provide an opportunity to change the physicochemical properties of starch, with the resulting starch being more suitable for chemical modification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of fermentation time of mixture of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS (Total Suspended Solids)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandia, S.; Tanata, S.; Rachel, M.; Octiva, C.; Sialagan, N.

    2018-02-01

    The waste from tapioca industry is as an organic waste that contains many important compounds such as carbohydrate, protein, and glucose. This research as aimed to know the effect of fermentation time from solid waste combined with waste-water from the tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS. The study was started by mixing the solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry at a ratio of 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 (w/w) with a starter from solid waste of cattle in a batch anaerobic digester. The percentage reduction of TSS was 72.2289 at a ratio by weight of the composition of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry was 70:30 after 30 days of fermentation time.

  5. Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Diane F.; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J.; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M. Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized. PMID:24228189

  6. Dietary glucose stimulus at larval stage modifies the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles: An in vivo approach using (14)C-starch.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Filipa; Dias, Jorge; Geurden, Inge; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Panserat, Stephane; Engrola, Sofia

    2016-11-01

    The concept of nutritional programming was investigated in order to enhance the use of dietary carbohydrates in gilthead seabream juveniles. We assessed the long-term effects of high-glucose stimuli, exerted at the larval stage, on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolic utilization and gene expression of seabream juveniles, challenged with a high-carbohydrate intake. During early development, a group of larvae (control, CTRL) were kept under a rich-protein-lipid feeding regime whereas another group (GLU) was subjected to high-glucose stimuli, delivered intermittently over time. At juvenile stage, triplicate groups (IBW: 2.5g) from each fish nutritional background were fed a high-protein (59.4%) low-carbohydrate (2.0%) diet before being subjected to a low-protein (43.0%) high-carbohydrate (33.0%) dietary challenge for 36-days. Fish from both treatments increased by 8-fold their initial body weight, but neither growth rate, feed intake, feed and protein efficiency, nutrient retention (except lipids) nor whole-body composition were affected (P˃0.05) by fish early nutritional history. Nutrient digestibility was also similar among both groups. The metabolic fate of (14)C-starch and (14)C-amino acids tracers was estimated; GLU juveniles showed higher absorption of starch-derived glucose in the gut, suggesting an enhanced digestion of carbohydrates, while amino acid use was not affected. Moreover, glucose was less used for de novo synthesis of hepatic proteins and muscle glycogen from GLU fish (P<0.05). Our metabolic data suggests that the early glucose stimuli may alter carbohydrate utilization in seabream juveniles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The toxicity study of functionalized CNT from fermented tapioca on neuroblastoma cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurulhuda, I.; Mazatulikhma, M. Z.; Alrokayan, S.; Khan, H.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes known as one of the most interesting types of nanomaterials, especially use in application directly to cells. Somehow the use should take into consideration regarding the potential adverse impact on human health. Current study, the carbon nanotube was synthesized from fermented tapioca and functionalized with polyethylene glycol and directly test on the neuroblastoma cells in vitro. The toxicity effect on cells was assessed by 3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-tetrazolium bromide assays. It showed a dose-and time-dependent less toxic effect on functionalized carbon nanotube compared to non-functionalized. This leads us to the conclusion that functionalized carbon nanotube can be use for drug delivery in future.

  8. β-Glucans and Resistant Starch Alter the Fermentation of Recalcitrant Fibers in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sonja; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kabel, Mirjam A; Vasanthan, Thava; Zijlstra, Ruurd T

    2016-01-01

    Interactions among dietary ingredients are often assumed non-existent when evaluating the nutritive value and health effects of dietary fiber. Specific fibers can distinctly affect digestive processes; therefore, digestibility and fermentability of the complete diet may depend on fiber types present. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of readily fermentable fibers (β-glucans and resistant starch) on the degradation of feed ingredients containing more persistent, recalcitrant, fibers. Six semi-synthetic diets with recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal (pectic polysaccharides, xyloglucans, and cellulose) or corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS; (glucurono)arabinoxylans and cellulose) with or without inclusion of β-glucans (6%) or retrograded tapioca (40%) substituted for corn starch were formulated. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (BW 28±1.4 kg) were assigned to the diets according to a 6×6 Latin square. β-glucan-extract increased apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of non-glucosyl polysaccharides (accounting for ~40% of the fiber-fraction) from rapeseed meal (6%-units, P<0.001), but did not affect non-glucosyl polysaccharides from DDGS. Retrograded tapioca reduced ATTD of non-glucosyl polysaccharides from rapeseed meal and DDGS (>10%-units, P<0.001), indicating that the large amount of resistant starch entering the hindgut was preferentially degraded over recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal and DDGS, possibly related to reduced hindgut-retention time following the increased intestinal bulk. Fermentation of fiber sources was not only dependent on fiber characteristics, but also on the presence of other fibers in the diet. Hence, interactions in the gastrointestinal tract among fibrous feed ingredients should be considered when evaluating their nutritive value.

  9. β-Glucans and Resistant Starch Alter the Fermentation of Recalcitrant Fibers in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Vasanthan, Thava; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions among dietary ingredients are often assumed non-existent when evaluating the nutritive value and health effects of dietary fiber. Specific fibers can distinctly affect digestive processes; therefore, digestibility and fermentability of the complete diet may depend on fiber types present. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of readily fermentable fibers (β-glucans and resistant starch) on the degradation of feed ingredients containing more persistent, recalcitrant, fibers. Six semi-synthetic diets with recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal (pectic polysaccharides, xyloglucans, and cellulose) or corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS; (glucurono)arabinoxylans and cellulose) with or without inclusion of β-glucans (6%) or retrograded tapioca (40%) substituted for corn starch were formulated. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (BW 28±1.4 kg) were assigned to the diets according to a 6×6 Latin square. β-glucan-extract increased apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of non-glucosyl polysaccharides (accounting for ~40% of the fiber-fraction) from rapeseed meal (6%-units, P<0.001), but did not affect non-glucosyl polysaccharides from DDGS. Retrograded tapioca reduced ATTD of non-glucosyl polysaccharides from rapeseed meal and DDGS (>10%-units, P<0.001), indicating that the large amount of resistant starch entering the hindgut was preferentially degraded over recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal and DDGS, possibly related to reduced hindgut-retention time following the increased intestinal bulk. Fermentation of fiber sources was not only dependent on fiber characteristics, but also on the presence of other fibers in the diet. Hence, interactions in the gastrointestinal tract among fibrous feed ingredients should be considered when evaluating their nutritive value. PMID:27911928

  10. A comparative study of gelatin and starch-based nano-composite films modified by nano-cellulose and chitosan for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Noorbakhsh-Soltani, S M; Zerafat, M M; Sabbaghi, S

    2018-06-01

    Environmental concerns have led to extensive research for replacing polymer-based food packaging with bio-nano-composites. In this study, incorporation of nano-cellulose into gelatin and starch matrices is investigated for this purpose. Chitosan is used to improve mechanical, anti-fungal and waterproof properties. Experiments are designed and analyzed using response surface methodology. Nano-Cellulose is synthesized via acid hydrolysis and incorporated in base matrices through wet processing. Also, tensile strength test, food preservation, transparency in visible and UV and water contact angle are performed on the nano-composite films. DSC/TGA and air permeability tests are also performed on the optimal films. The results show that increasing nano-cellulose composition to 10% leads to increase the tensile strength at break to 8121 MN/m 2 and decrease the elongation at break. Also, increasing chitosan composition from 5% to 30% can enhance food preservation up to 15 days. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of dry heating on physicochemical properties of corn starch and lysine mixture.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Yu, Jicheng; Xu, Yongbin; Zhang, Yinghui

    2016-10-01

    Corn starch was modified with lysine by dry heat treatment and to investigate how they can affect the pasting and structural properties of the treated starches. Dry heating with lysine reduced the pasting temperature and resulting in viscosity increase. The particle size of heated starch-lysine mixture increased, suggesting that starch granules were cross-linked to lysine. After dry heating, the onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature of corn starch-lysine mixture were lower than those of other starches. The degree of crystallinity decreased for the starch after dry heat treatment while these heated starch samples still have the same X-ray diffraction types as the original starch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Stefan W; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-04-06

    The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products.

  13. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products

    PubMed Central

    Horstmann, Stefan W.; Lynch, Kieran M.; Arendt, Elke K.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products. PMID:28383504

  14. The influence of pH adjustment on kinetics parameters in tapioca wastewater treatment using aerobic sequencing batch reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyani, Happy; Budianto, Gregorius Prima Indra; Margono, Kaavessina, Mujtahid

    2018-02-01

    The present investigation deals with the aerobic sequencing batch reactor system of tapioca wastewater treatment with varying pH influent conditions. This project was carried out to evaluate the effect of pH on kinetics parameters of system. It was done by operating aerobic sequencing batch reactor system during 8 hours in many tapioca wastewater conditions (pH 4.91, pH 7, pH 8). The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) of the aerobic sequencing batch reactor system effluent at steady state condition were determined at interval time of two hours to generate data for substrate inhibition kinetics parameters. Values of the kinetics constants were determined using Monod and Andrews models. There was no inhibition constant (Ki) detected in all process variation of aerobic sequencing batch reactor system for tapioca wastewater treatment in this study. Furthermore, pH 8 was selected as the preferred aerobic sequencing batch reactor system condition in those ranging pH investigated due to its achievement of values of kinetics parameters such µmax = 0.010457/hour and Ks = 255.0664 mg/L COD.

  15. Enzymatic modification of corn starch with 4-α-glucanotransferase results in increasing slow digestible and resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan; Miao, Ming; Ye, Fan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    In this study, partial 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT) treatment was used to modulate the fine structure responsible for the slow digestion and resistant property of starch. Normal corn starch modified using 4αGT for 4h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 9.40% to 20.92%, and resistant starch from 10.52 to 17.63%, respectively. The 4αGT treatment decreased the content of amylose from 32.6% to 26.8%. The molecular weight distribution and chain length distribution of 4αGT-treated starch showed a reduction of molecular weight and a great number of short (DP<13) and long (DP>30) chains through cleaving and reorganization of starch molecules. Both the short and long chain fractions of modified amylopectin were attributed to the low in vitro digestibility. The viscosity was inversely related to the digestibility of the 4αGT-treated starch. These results suggested that the 4αGT modified starch synthesized the novel amylopectin clusters with slow digestible and resistant character. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetylated adipate of retrograded starch as RS 3/4 type resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Kapelko-Żeberska, M; Zięba, T; Spychaj, R; Gryszkin, A

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at producing acetylated adipate of retrograded starch (ADA-R) with various degrees of substitution with functional groups and at determining the effect of esterification degree on resistance and pasting characteristics of the produced preparations. Paste was prepared from native potato starch, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. After drying and disintegration, the paste was acetylated and crosslinked using various doses of reagents. An increase in the total degree of esterification of the produced ADA-R-preparation caused an increase in its resistance to the action of amyloglucosidase. Viscosity of the paste produced from ADA-R-preparation in a wide range of acetylation degrees was increasing along with increasing crosslinking of starch. The study demonstrated that acetylated adipate of retrograded starch may be classified as a preparation of RS 3/4 type resistant starch (retrograded starch/chemically-modified starch) with good texture-forming properties. The conducted modification offers the possibility of modeling the level of resistance of the produced preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on Esterification Reaction of Starch Isolated from Cassava (Manihot esculeta) with Acetic Acid and Isopropyl Myrtistate Using Ultrasonicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wika Amini, Helda; Masruri; Mariyah Ulfa, Siti

    2018-01-01

    Cassava starch is a polysaccharide consists of amylose and amylopectin. This research was purposed to modify the starch isolated from local cassava (Manihot esculenta). Modification was undertaken to study the esterification reaction of cassava starch with acetic acid and with isopropyl myristate. Moreover, morphology observation was also conducted both for original starch and its modification yields. It was found that cassava’s starch was isolated in 16.4% yield as a white powder. Esterification on the starch provided DS value 0.549 for ratio 1:2 of starch-acetic acid. It gave DS value 0.356 for ratio 1:3 of starch-isopropyl myristate. Treatment by ultrasonication from 0 to 60 minutes was significantly improved the DS value to 0.549 for starch-acetic acid. But it gave DS value to 0.413 for 30 minute ultrasonication of starch-isopropyl myristate. In addition, morphology of the starch observed by microscope gave different features with starch ester acetate and starch ester myristate. The original starch consists of granules, but starch ester acetate indicates a non-granules shape (amorf solid). Moreover for starch ester myristate shows a rather bigger size of granules, and all of the granules afforded were round and oval.

  18. Impact of amylosucrase modification on the structural and physicochemical properties of native and acid-thinned waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Xing; He, Jian; Wang, Tao; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zhengxing

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea was utilized to modify native and acid-thinned starches. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of modified starches were investigated. Acid-thinned starch displayed much lower viscosity after gelatinization than did the native starch. However, the enzyme exhibited similar catalytic efficiency for both forms of starch. The modified starches had higher proportions of long (DP>33) and intermediate chains (DP 13-33), and X-ray diffraction showed a B-type crystalline structure for all modified starches. With increasing reaction time, the relative crystallinity and endothermic enthalpy of the modified starches gradually decreased, whereas the melting peak temperatures and resistant starch contents increased. Slight differences were observed in thermal parameters, relative crystallinity, and branch chain length distribution between the modified native and acid-thinned starches. Moreover, the digestibility of the modified starches was not affected by acid hydrolysis pretreatment, but was affected by the percentage of intermediate and long chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Swelling Kinetics of Waxy Maize Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desam, Gnana Prasuna Reddy

    Starch pasting behavior greatly influences the texture of a variety of food products such as canned soup, sauces, baby foods, batter mixes etc. The annual consumption of starch in the U.S. is 3 million metric tons. It is important to characterize the relationship between the structure, composition and architecture of the starch granules with its pasting behavior in order to arrive at a rational methodology to design modified starch of desirable digestion rate and texture. In this research, polymer solution theory was applied to predict the evolution of average granule size of starch at different heating temperatures in terms of its molecular weight, second virial coefficient and extent of cross-link. Evolution of granule size distribution of waxy native maize starch when subjected to heating at constant temperatures of 65, 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 C was characterized using static laser light scattering. As expected, granule swelling was more pronounced at higher temperatures and resulted in a shift of granule size distribution to larger sizes with a corresponding increase in the average size by 100 to 120% from 13 mum to 25-28 mum. Most of the swelling occurred within the first 10 min of heating. Pasting behavior of waxy maize at different temperatures was also characterized from the measurements of G' and G" for different heating times. G' was found to increase with temperature at holding time of 2 min followed by its decrease at larger holding times. This behavior is believed to be due to the predominant effect of swelling at small times. However, G" was insensitive to temperature and holding times. The structure of waxy maize starch was characterized by cryoscanning electron microscopy. Experimental data of average granule size vs time at different temperatures were compared with model predictions. Also the Experimental data of particle size distribution vs particle size at different times and temperatures were compared with model predictions.

  20. THE RESEARCH ON THERMAL PROPERTIES AND HYDROPHOBILITY OF THE NATIVE STARCH/HYDROLYSIS STARCH BLENDS WITH TREATED CaCO{sub 3} POWDER

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.-I; Huang, C.-Y.

    In this research, hydrolysis starch was added into the starch blends to study the thermal properties. The enthalpy of blends had a significant decrease to 109J/g as content of treated CaCO{sub 3} increased to 5wt%. The modified starch was degraded slightly to produce glucose in the hydrolysis treatment. The amount of glucose in native starch and hydrolysis starch was 0.09 {mu}mol and 0.14 {mu}mol by the DNS measurement. Moreover, CaCO{sub 3} treated with titanium coupling agent was also added to improve miscibility and hydrophobility in the starch blends. The contact angle of the blends increased from 60 deg. to 95more » deg. when 15wt% treated CaCO{sub 3} was added. Treated CaCO{sub 3} was confirmed to improve the hydrophobility of starch blends effectively.« less

  1. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  2. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  3. Impact on molecular organization of amylopectin in starch granules upon annealing.

    PubMed

    Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Bertoft, Eric; Soldatov, Dmitriy V; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2013-10-15

    This study investigated the influence of the internal structure of amylopectin on annealing (3h, 24h) of starches from four different types of amylopectin (Bertoft, Koch, & Aman, 2012; Bertoft, Piyachomkwan, Chatakanonda, & Sriroth, 2008). Regardless of the starch source and incubation time, annealing significantly increased the onset gelatinization temperature (To) and narrowed and deepened the amylopectin endotherm. However, the extent of the change in the melting temperature (Tm) and the enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) differed among the types. In terms of the To and Tm, starches from type 1 (oat, rye, barley, and waxy barley) showed the most significant response to annealing. The Tm of starches belonging to type 2 (waxy maize, rice, waxy rice, and sago) remained unchanged after 3h of annealing. Type 1 and type 2 starches with the lowest gelatinization temperatures showed the greatest increase in melting temperature after annealing. However, type 3 (tapioca, mung bean, and arrowroot) and type 4 (potato, waxy potato, canna, and yam) starches were not in line with these observations. Instead, starches from type 3 and type 4 showed a pronounced increase in the ΔH. The inter-block chain length (IB-CL) (distance between tightly branched units within a cluster) correlated positively (r=0.93, p<0.01) with the change in enthalpy after 24h of annealing. These data indicate that a short IB-CL affects the optimum registration of double helices within the crystalline lamellae. The relationship between the gelatinization parameters before and after annealing suggests that type 1 and 2 starches might possess a high number of unpacked double helices (type 1>type 2) compared to other types. Longer IB-CLs, which facilitate the parallel packing of splayed double helices, and the lengthening of double helices likely increased the ΔH in type 3 and type 4 starches. It is concluded that annealing can be used as a probe for visualizing the organization of glucan chains (alignment

  4. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Larissa S; Moraes, Jaqueline; Albano, Kivia M; Telis, Vânia R N; Franco, Célia M L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Octenylsuccinate starch spherulites as a stabilizer for Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chan; Fu, Xiong; Tang, Chuan-He; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Bin

    2017-07-15

    This study investigated structure and morphology of starch spherulites prepared from debranched waxy maize and waxy potato starches. Debranched waxy potato starch favored the formation of B-type crystals with longer branch chains (average chain length, 26.14), whereas A-type polymorphic aggregates were generated from debranched waxy maize under same recrystallization condition. Spherulites had smaller particle size distribution (D[3,2], ∼3.7μm), higher dissociation temperature (80-120°C) and crystallinity (80∼90%), compared to native waxy starches. Intact spherulites could be used as an edible particle emulsifier after modifying by octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). The emulsion produced using 2wt.% of octenylsuccinate (OS) starch spherulites as emulsifier was quite stable over 2months, and its Pickering emulsions displayed protective effect on stability of oil droplets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Formulation and development of a patch containing tamarind fruit extract by using the blended chitosan-starch as a rate-controlling matrix.

    PubMed

    Viyoch, J; Patcharaworakulchai, P; Songmek, R; Pimsan, V; Wittaya-Areekul, S

    2003-06-01

    A cosmetic patch containing tamarind fruit extract was formulated and developed by blending two types of natural polymers: chitosan with molecular weight of 100 000 and starch such as corn, potato or tapioca starch. The physicochemical characteristics, i.e. flexibility, colour, transparency, integrity, gloss, water sorption and bioadhesion property and the stability of the patch without tamarind content were investigated. Stability test was performed by keeping the prepared patches at 4 degrees C, at room temperature or at 45 degrees C for 2 weeks. The results showed that the formulations composed of chitosan:corn starch ratio of 4.5 : 0.5 (CC(4.5 : 0.5)) and chitosan:tapioca starch ratios of 4.5 : 0.5 (CT(4.5 : 0.5)) and 4.0 : 1.0 (CT(4 : 1)) provide patches with favourable physical characteristics, high water sorption, good bioadhesion ability and good stability. After the lyophilized tamarind extract in an amount corresponding to 5% of tartaric acid was incorporated into the formulations of CC(4.5 : 0.5), CT(4.5 : 0.5) and CT(4 : 1), the ability of the patches to adhere to skin was improved. However, after keeping the test patches at room temperature or at 45 degrees C for 6 weeks, their colours were intensified while their flexibilities and skin adhesion properties decreased. A 12-h in vitro permeation was investigated by studying the cumulative amount of tartaric acid permeated through the Silastic membrane (Dow-Coming, Midland, MI, USA). The CC(4.5 : 0.5) patch tended to give the highest amount of tartaric acid released. The release pattern of all the blended polymeric matrices was exhibited in two distinct phases: the rapid phase, where the flux averaged 3.61 microg min(-1) mm(-2); and the slow phase, where the flux averaged 1.89 microg min(-1) mm(-2).

  7. Partial characterization of chayotextle starch-based films added with ascorbic acid encapsulated in resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ortiz, Miguel A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio; Román-Gutiérrez, Alma D; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Meza-Nieto, Martín; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M

    2017-05-01

    Chayotextle starch was modified by subjecting it to a dual treatment with acid and heating-cooling cycles. This caused a decrease in the content of amylose, which showed values of 30.22%, 4.80%, 3.27% and 3.57% for native chayotextle starch (NCS), starch modified by acid hydrolysis (CMS), and CMS with one (CMS1AC) and three autoclave cycles (CMS3AC), respectively. The percentage of crystallinity showed an increase of 36.9%-62% for NCS and CMS3AC. The highest content of resistant starch (RS) was observed in CMS3AC (37.05%). The microcapsules were made with CMS3AC due to its higher RS content; the total content of ascorbic acid of the microcapsules was 82.3%. The addition of different concentrations of CMS3AC microcapsules (0%, 2.5%, 6.255% and 12.5%) to chayotextle starch-based films (CSF) increased their tensile strength and elastic modulus. The content of ascorbic acid and RS in CSF was ranged from 0% to 59.4% and from 4.84% to 37.05% in the control film and in the film mixed with CMS3AC microcapsules, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) values decreased with increasing concentrations of microcapsules in the films. Microscopy observations showed that higher concentrations of microcapsules caused agglomerations due their poor distribution in the matrix of the films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzyme-Catalyzed Regioselective Modification of Starch Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Soma; Sahoo, Bishwabhusan; Teraoka, Iwao

    The selective esterification of starch nanoparticles was performed using as catalyst Candida antartica Lipase B (CAL-B) in its immobilized (Novozym 435) and free (SP-525) forms. The starch nanoparticles were made accessible for acylation reactions by formation of Aerosol-OT (AOT, bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate) stabilized microemulsions. Starch nanoparticles in microemulsions were reacted with vinyl stearate, ε-caprolactone, and maleic anhydride at 40 °C for 48 h to give starch esters with degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4, respectively. Substitution occurred regioselectively at the C-6 position of the glucose repeat units. Infrared microspectroscopy (IRMS) revealed that AOT-coated starch nanoparticles diffuse into themore » outer 50 μm shell of catalyst beads. Thus, even though CAL-B is immobilized within a macroporous resin, CAL-B is sufficiently accessible to the starch nanoparticles. When free CAL-B was incorporated along with starch within AOT-coated reversed micelles, CAL-B was also active and catalyzed the acylation with vinyl stearate (24 h, 40 °C) to give DS = 0.5. After removal of surfactant from the modified starch nanoparticles, they were dispersed in DMSO or water and were shown to retain their nanodimensions.« less

  9. Modification of cassava starch using combination process lactic acid hydrolysis and micro wave heating to increase coated peanut expansion quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Jos, Bakti; Taufani, Muhammad; Yahya, Faad

    2017-05-01

    Modified cassava starch is very prospective products in the food industry. The main consideration of this study is the increasing volume of imported wheat and the demand for modified cassava starch industry. The purpose of this study is the assessing of lactic acid hydrolysis and microwave heating impact to the physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch, and test applications of modified cassava starch to coated peanut expansion quality. Experimental variables include the concentration of lactic acid (0.5% w/w, 1% w/w; 2% w/w), a time of hydrolysis (15, 30, 45 minutes), a time of microwave heating (1, 2, 3 hours). The research step is by dissolving lactic acid using aquadest in the stirred tank reactor, then added cassava starch. Hydrolysed cassava starch was then heated by microwave. Physicochemical properties and rheology of the modified cassava starch is determined by the solubility, swelling power, and test congestion. The optimum obtained results indicate that solubility, swelling power, congestion test, respectively for 19.75%; 24.25% and 826.10% in the hydrolysis treatment for 15 minutes, 1% w lactic acid and microwave heating 3 hours. The physicochemical and rheological properties of modified cassava starch have changed significantly when compared to the native cassava starch. Furthermore, these modified cassava starch are expected to be used for the substitution of food products.

  10. Effect of citric acid concentration and hydrolysis time on physicochemical properties of sweet potato starches.

    PubMed

    Surendra Babu, Ayenampudi; Parimalavalli, Ramanathan; Rudra, Shalini Gaur

    2015-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of citric acid treated sweet potato starches were investigated in the present study. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed using citric acid with different concentrations (1 and 5%) and time periods (1 and 11 h) at 45 °C and was denoted as citric acid treated starch (CTS1 to CTS4) based on their experimental conditions. The recovery yield of acid treated starches was above 85%. The CTS4 sample displayed the highest amylose (around 31%) and water holding capacity its melting temperature was 47.66 °C. The digestibility rate was slightly increased for 78.58% for the CTS3 and CTS4. The gel strength of acid modified starches ranged from 0.27 kg to 1.11 kg. RVA results of acid thinned starches confirmed a low viscosity profile. CTS3 starch illustrated lower enthalpy compared to all other modified starches. All starch samples exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. SEM analysis revealed that the extent of visible degradation was increased at higher hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The CTS3 satisfied the criteria required for starch to act as a fat mimetic. Overall results conveyed that the citric acid treatment of sweet potato starch with 5% acid concentration and 11h period was an ideal condition for the preparation of a fat replacer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect on in vitro starch digestibility of Mexican blue maize anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Sanchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blue maize extracts obtained by acid-methanol treatment on the nutritional in vitro starch fractions such as: rapidly digestive starch (RDS), slowly digestive starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of native and gelatinized commercial maize starch. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) of blue maize extracts showed the presence of seven anthocyanins, where cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside) was the main. Blue maize extracts modified nutritional in vitro starch fractions (decrease of RDS) while RS content increased (1.17 and 2.02 times for native and gelatinized commercial maize starch, respectively) when anthocyanins extracts were added to starch up to 75% (starch weight). This preliminary observation provides the basis for further suitability evaluation of blue maize extract as natural starch-modifier by the possible anthocyanins-starch interaction. Anthocyanin extracts can be a suitable to produce functional foods with higher RS content with potential human health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical and chemical modification of starches: A review.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ud-Din; Xiong, Hanguo; Fei, Peng

    2017-08-13

    The development of green material in the last decade has been increased, which tends to reduce the impact of humans on the environment. Starch as an agro-sourced polymer has become very popular recently due to its characteristics, such as wide availability, low cost, and total compostability without toxic residues. Starch is the most abundant organic compound found in nature after cellulose. Starches are inherently unsuitable for most applications and, therefore, must be modified physically and/or chemically to enhance their positive attributes and/or to minimize their defects. Modification of starches is generally carried out by using physical methods that are simple and inexpensive due to the absence of chemical agents. However, chemical modification involves the exploitation of hydroxyl group present in the starches that brings about the desired results for the utilization of starches for specific applications. All these techniques have the tendency to produce starches with altered physicochemical properties and modified structural attributes for various food and nonfood applications. This paper reviews the recent knowledge and developments using physical modification methods, some chemical modification methods, and a combination of both to produce a novel molecule with substantial applications, in food industry along with future perspectives.

  13. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  14. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed. PMID:27219066

  15. Effects of single and dual physical modifications on pinhão starch.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Deon, Vinicius Gonçalves; Moomand, Khalid; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Lim, Loong-Tak; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-11-15

    Pinhão starch was modified by annealing (ANN), heat-moisture (HMT) or sonication (SNT) treatments. The starch was also modified by a combination of these treatments (ANN-HMT, ANN-SNT, HMT-ANN, HMT-SNT, SNT-ANN, SNT-HMT). Whole starch and debranched starch fractions were analyzed by gel-permeation chromatography. Moreover, crystallinity, morphology, swelling power, solubility, pasting and gelatinization characteristics were evaluated. Native and single ANN and SNT-treated starches exhibited a CA-type crystalline structure while other modified starches showed an A-type structure. The relative crystallinity increased in ANN-treated starches and decreased in single HMT- and SNT-treated starches. The ANN, HMT and SNT did not provide visible cracks, notches or grooves to pinhão starch granule. SNT applied as second treatment was able to increase the peak viscosity of single ANN- and HMT-treated starches. HMT used alone or in dual modifications promoted the strongest effect on gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro digestibility of banana starch cookies.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Méndez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Tovar, Juscelino

    2004-01-01

    Banana starch was isolated and used for preparation of two types of cookies. Chemical composition and digestibility tests were carried out on banana starch and the food products, and these results were compared with corn starch. Ash, protein, and fat levels in banana starch were higher than in corn starch. The high ash amount in banana starch could be due to the potassium content present in this fruit. Proximal analysis was similar between products prepared with banana starch and those based on corn starch. The available starch content of the banana starch preparation was 60% (dmb). The cookies had lower available starch than the starches while banana starch had lower susceptibility to the in vitro alpha-amylolysis reaction. Banana starch and its products had higher resistant starch levels than those made with corn starch.

  17. Effect of dry heating and ionic gum on the physicochemical and release properties of starch from Dioscorea.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, Deepika; Pandey, Anima; Hermenean, Anca; Yáñez-Gascón, Maria Josefa; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2017-02-01

    To meet the ever increasing industrial demand for excipients with desirable properties, modified starch is regarded as an alternative to it. With this in mind, the present study focuses on the modification of starches of Dioscorea from Jharkhand (India) using dry heat treatment with and without ionic gum. Modified starches were prepared using sodium alginate (1% w/w). Native and modified starches were subjected to heat treatment at 130°C for 2h and 4h. The effect of heating and ionic gum on the properties of Dioscorea starch was investigated. The amylose content, water holding capacity, micromeritic properties, swelling power, solubility and morphology of starches were evaluated. Dry heat treatment of starches without gum showed an increment in water-holding capacity after two-hours heating, but no such increment was found after four-hours heating. Oil binding capacity of starches modified with gum varied from 62% to 78%. Strongest effect of heat treatment occurred on the morphology of starches and thereby modified starches showed distorted surface morphology. Amylose content (21.09-21.89%) found to be decreased with the addition of gum which lead to decrease in paste clarity. Starches heated with gum at high-temperature resulted in restrict swelling and slight increase in solubility. Micromeritic properties of the modified starches showed the good flow properties. Further, the modified starches were investigated for in-vitro release studies and that the thermally modified derivatives can be a good prospect in slow release formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of the Resistant Starch from Purple Sweet Potato.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yafeng; Wang, Qi; Li, Baoyu; Lin, Liangmei; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Zheng, Baodong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-07-19

    Purple sweet potato starch is a potential resource for resistant starch production. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and enzyme debranching combined heat-moisture treatment (EHMT) on the morphological, crystallinity and thermal properties of PSP starches were investigated. The results indicated that, after HMT or EHMT treatments, native starch granules with smooth surface was destroyed to form a more compact, irregular and sheet-like structure. The crystalline pattern was transformed from C-type to B-type with decreasing relative crystallinity. Due to stronger crystallites formed in modified starches, the swelling power and solubility of HMT and EHMT starch were decreased, while the transition temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy were significantly increased. In addition, HMT and EHMT exhibited greater effects on the proliferation of bifidobacteria compared with either glucose or high amylose maize starch.

  19. Flocculation and coalescence of droplets in oil-in-water emulsions formed with highly hydrolysed whey proteins as influenced by starch.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aiqian; Hemar, Yacine; Singh, Harjinder

    2004-10-10

    The effects of added unmodified amylopectin starch, modified amylopectin starch and amylose starch on the formation and properties of emulsions (4 wt.% corn oil) made with an extensively hydrolysed commercial whey protein (WPH) product under a range of conditions were examined. The rate of coalescence was calculated based on the changes in the droplet size of the emulsions during storage at 20 degrees C. The rates of creaming and coalescence in emulsions containing amylopectin starches were enhanced with increasing concentration of the starches during storage for up to 7 days. At a given starch concentration, the rate of coalescence was higher in the emulsions containing modified amylopectin starch than in those containing unmodified amylopectin starch, whereas it was lowest in the emulsions containing amylose starch. All emulsions containing unmodified and modified amylopectin starches showed flocculation of oil droplets by a depletion mechanism. However, flocculation was not observed in the emulsions containing amylose starch. The extent of flocculation was considered to correlate with the rate of coalescence of oil droplets. The different rates of coalescence could be explained on the basis of the strength of the depletion potential, which was dependent on the molecular weight and the radius of gyration of the starches. At high levels of starch addition (>1.5%), the rate of coalescence decreased gradually, apparently because of the high viscosity of the aqueous phase caused by the starch.

  20. Process development of starch hydrolysis using mixing characteristics of Taylor vortices.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hayato; Horie, Takafumi; Hubacz, Robert; Ohmura, Naoto; Shimoyamada, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    In food industries, enzymatic starch hydrolysis is an important process that consists of two steps: gelatinization and saccharification. One of the major difficulties in designing the starch hydrolysis process is the sharp change in its rheological properties. In this study, Taylor-Couette flow reactor was applied to continuous starch hydrolysis process. The concentration of reducing sugar produced via enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated by varying operational variables: rotational speed of the inner cylinder, axial velocity (reaction time), amount of enzyme, and initial starch content in the slurry. When Taylor vortices were formed in the annular space, efficient hydrolysis occurred because Taylor vortices improved the mixing of gelatinized starch with enzyme. Furthermore, a modified inner cylinder was proposed, and its mixing performance was numerically investigated. The modified inner cylinder showed higher potential for enhanced mixing of gelatinized starch and the enzyme than the conventional cylinder.

  1. New starch methodology to measure both soluble and insoluble starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch is a natural sugarcane juice impurity that greatly influences raw sugar quality and affects factory and refinery processing. Since the advent of the USDA Starch Research method, the mechanisms in which starch concentration and physical form affects sugar crop processing, conversion, and end-g...

  2. Physicochemical properties of kiwifruit starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxing; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Three varieties of golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) (Gold3, Gold9 and Hort16A) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. Starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. All the kiwifruit starches showed B-type polymorph. Compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starches were higher, and the degree of crystallinity, granule size and gelatinization parameters of core starches were somewhat lower. This suggests different biosynthetic properties between these two starches. The enthalpy changes of gelatinization of outer pericarp starches were high (∼21J/g). Rheological properties of outer pericarp starches were compared with normal maize and potato starches showed high yield stress of flow properties. This study revealed the unique properties of kiwifruit starch among various types of starches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient production of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch by using a genetically modified L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient and alpha-amylase-secreting Lactobacillus plantarum strain.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Zhang, Qiao; Shinkawa, Satoru; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve direct and efficient fermentation of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch, we constructed L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum and introduced a plasmid encoding Streptococcus bovis 148 alpha-amylase (AmyA). The resulting strain produced only D-lactic acid from glucose and successfully expressed amyA. With the aid of secreting AmyA, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished. After 48 h of fermentation, 73.2 g/liter of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.85 g per g of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of 99.6%. Moreover, a strain replacing the ldhL1 gene with an amyA-secreting expression cassette was constructed. Using this strain, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics. This is the first report of direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw starch.

  4. Efficient Production of Optically Pure d-Lactic Acid from Raw Corn Starch by Using a Genetically Modified l-Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene-Deficient and α-Amylase-Secreting Lactobacillus plantarum Strain▿

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kenji; Zhang, Qiao; Shinkawa, Satoru; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve direct and efficient fermentation of optically pure d-lactic acid from raw corn starch, we constructed l-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum and introduced a plasmid encoding Streptococcus bovis 148 α-amylase (AmyA). The resulting strain produced only d-lactic acid from glucose and successfully expressed amyA. With the aid of secreting AmyA, direct d-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished. After 48 h of fermentation, 73.2 g/liter of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.85 g per g of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of 99.6%. Moreover, a strain replacing the ldhL1 gene with an amyA-secreting expression cassette was constructed. Using this strain, direct d-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics. This is the first report of direct d-lactic acid fermentation from raw starch. PMID:19011066

  5. Structural modification in the formation of starch – silver nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal, E-mail: perumal.ramasamy@gmail.com; Aswal, V. K.

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO{sub 3}. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structuresmore » and with increasing the AgNO{sub 3} concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.« less

  6. Structural modification in the formation of starch - silver nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Aswal, V. K.; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal

    2016-05-01

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO3. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO3 concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  7. Long-term ingestion of cassava (tapioca) does not produce diabetes or pancreatitis in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Mathangi, D C; Deepa, R; Mohan, V; Govindarajan, M; Namasivayam, A

    2000-06-01

    Cassava (tapioca, manihot) is consumed as a staple food in some developing countries. The intake of cassava has been linked to several diseases including fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (tropical calcific pancreatitis). There are few long-term studies on the effect of cassava ingestion on the pancreas in animal models. This article reports on the long-term (up to 1 yr) effects of cassava in the rat model. We found that cassava did not produce diabetes in the rat even after a year of cassava feeding. There were transient changes in serum insulin and lipase levels, but the significance of these findings are not clear. There was no histopathological evidence of either acute or chronic pancreatitis, but there were changes of toxic hepatitis in the liver. In conclusion, chronic cassava ingestion up to a year does not lead to either diabetes or chronic pancreatitis in the rat model.

  8. Physicochemical properties, in-vitro digestibility and structural elucidation of RS4 from rice starch.

    PubMed

    Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Gani, Adil; Shah, Asima; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Starches extracted from four different rice cultivars were phosphorylated by using STMP/STPP to make modified food starches with high contents of type 4 resistant starch (RS4). The results revealed 10- fold improvement in RS4 content by the phosphorylation of starch. The phosphorus % and DS values of rice starches ranged from 0.33 to 0.35, and 0.016 to 0.018, respectively. FT-IR spectroscopy showed reduction of OH stretching band at 3290cm-1 and the appearance of PO at 1244-1266cm-1 which confirms crosslinking of starch with STMP/STPP. Phosphorylation was found to increase water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, bile-acid binding and lightness, whereas amylose content, swelling power, solubility index and light transmittance were decreased with phosphorylation. DSC analyses revealed increase in thermal transition temperatures of the crosslinked starches which suggests that the application of STMP/STPP as a crosslinker can improve the integrality and stability of starch. SEM micro-graphs revealed that phosphorylated rice starch granules retained their integrity, while some fissures appeared on the surface of some granules. XRD analysis revealed decreased crystallinity of RS4 rice starches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Starch-based xerogels: Effect of acetylation on Physicochemical and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Kemas, Chinwe U; Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Ochekpe, Nelson A; Nep, Elijah I

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the physicochemical and rheological properties of starch-based xerogels. The starch from the shoots of Borassus aethiopium was physically modified by xerogelization, and chemically by acetylation, and combination of acetylation and xerogelization. The solubility, swelling and syneresis of the starches were determined by gravimetric techniques. Evaluation of the native starch and derivatives was done using microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Rheological evaluation was done on 10%w/v dispersions using a Bohlin Gemini rheometer (fitted with a 55mm and 2° cone and plate geometry with gap of 70). The diffractograms displayed three peaks, centered on 2θ=15.3, 17.2 and 23.1° for the native and the starch acetate while the xerogel and the starch acetate xerogel were amorphous. The 1 H NMR and FTIR confirmed the presence of acetyl groups at about 2.05ppm and 1720cm -1 , respectively. Acetylation of the native starch resulted in improvement of solubility. The starch acetate-xerogel sample formed viscoelastic gels without the need for heating. Acetylation and/or xerogelization of the native starch inhibited syneresis. Starch acetate-xerogels, may find application as stabilizer or suspending agent in liquid food and pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural, morphological, and physicochemical properties of acetylated high-, medium-, and low-amylose rice starches.

    PubMed

    Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vania Zanella; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Marques E Silva, Ricardo; da Rosa Zavareze, Elessandra; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2014-03-15

    The high-, medium-, and low-amylose rice starches were isolated by the alkaline method and acetylated by using acetic anhydride for 10, 30, and 90 min of reaction. The degree of substitution (DS), the Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the X-ray diffractograms, the thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, and the swelling power and solubility of native and acetylated starches were evaluated. The DS of the low-amylose rice starch was higher than the DS of the medium- and the high-amylose rice starches. The introduction of acetyl groups was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The acetylation treatment reduced the crystallinity, the viscosity, the swelling power, and the solubility of rice starch; however, there was an increase in the thermal stability of rice starch modified by acetylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Agitation in Alkalization Process on the Characteristics of Sodium Carboxymethyl Sago and Cassava Starches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titi, C. S.; Fachrudin, R.; Ruriani, E.; Yuliasih, I.

    2018-05-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl starch (Sodium CMS) is a modified starch prepared by two successive processes, alkalization and etherification. Alkalization will change the activated hydroxyl group of starch to more reactive alkoxide (St-O-), and then carboxymethyl group will substitute the hydroxyl group into sodium CMS. This research investigated the effect of agitation (1000 rpm of stirring and 4000 rpm of homogenization) in alkalization process to the modification of native starch into sodium CMS. Cassava and sago starches were mixed with sodium hydroxide (1.8 and 1.9 moles per mole anhydrous glucose units). The combination of NaOH and homogenizing gave the highest degrees of substitution for cassava (DS 0.73) and sago (DS 0.55) starches. The sodium CMS characteristics (paste clarity, water and oil absorption capacities, solubility, swelling power) were a function of mixing method but not on the amount of NaOH used.

  12. Multi-scale structure, pasting and digestibility of heat moisture treated red adzuki bean starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Zhaoyuan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Binjia

    2017-09-01

    The pasting and digestibility of a red adzuki bean starch were simultaneously modulated by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) through altering the multi-scale structure. HMT, especially at high moisture content, could disrupt the granule integrity, semicrystalline lamellae, molecular order (crystallites) and molecular chains. Also, certain rearrangement of starch molecules occurred to form ordered structures with increased thermal stability as shown by DSC. This concomitant disordering and reassembly in the multi-scale structure converted the fractions of resistant starch (RS) and rapidly digestible starch (RDS) into that of slowly digestible starch (SDS). Furthermore, the emergence of thermally-stable orders increased the pasting temperature but suppressed the swelling of granules during heating. Hence, HMT-modified red adzuki starch may serve as a potential thickener/gelling agent with slow digestion rate for various foods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Modification of flow and compressibility of corn starch using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Abbas; Sadeghi, Hasti; Dabbagh, Mohammad Ali

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to improve flowability and compressibility characteristics of starch to use as a suitable excipient in direct compression tabletting. Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion was used as a crystal modification method. Corn starch was dissolved in hydrochloric acid at 80°C and then ethanol as a non-solvent was added with lowering temperature until the formation of a precipitate of modified starch. Flow parameters, particle size and thermal behavior of the treated powders were compared with the native starch. Finally, the 1:1 mixture of naproxen and each excipient was tabletted, and hardness and friability of different tablets were evaluated. Larger and well shaped agglomerates were formed which showed different thermal behavior. Treated starch exhibited suitable flow properties and tablets made by the treated powder had relatively high hardness. It was found that recrystallization of corn starch by quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method could improve its flowability and compressibility characteristics.

  14. Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high levels of damaged starch in starch-gluten systems.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Gabriela N; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-05-01

    During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α-amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged-starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α-amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Statistical analysis of the factors that influenced the mechanical properties improvement of cassava starch films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Mayra; Oliveira, Victor; Santos, Francisco; Barros Neto, Eduardo; Silva, Karyn; Silva, Rayane; Henrique, João; Chibério, Abimaelle

    2017-08-01

    In order to obtain cassava starch films with improved mechanical properties in relation to the synthetic polymer in the packaging production, a complete factorial design 23 was carried out in order to investigate which factor significantly influences the tensile strength of the biofilm. The factors to be investigated were cassava starch, glycerol and modified clay contents. Modified bentonite clay was used as a filling material of the biofilm. Glycerol was the plasticizer used to thermoplastify cassava starch. The factorial analysis suggested a regression model capable of predicting the optimal mechanical property of the cassava starch film from the maximization of the tensile strength. The reliability of the regression model was tested by the correlation established with the experimental data through the following statistical analyse: Pareto graph. The modified clay was the factor of greater statistical significance on the observed response variable, being the factor that contributed most to the improvement of the mechanical property of the starch film. The factorial experiments showed that the interaction of glycerol with both modified clay and cassava starch was significant for the reduction of biofilm ductility. Modified clay and cassava starch contributed to the maximization of biofilm ductility, while glycerol contributed to the minimization.

  16. Engineering starch accumulation by manipulation of phosphate metabolism of starch.

    PubMed

    Weise, Sean E; Aung, Kimberly; Jarou, Zach J; Mehrshahi, Payam; Li, Ziru; Hardy, Anna C; Carr, David J; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-06-01

    A new understanding of leaf starch degradation has emerged in the last 10 years. It has been shown that starch phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are critical components of this process. Glucan, water dikinase (GWD) (and phosphoglucan, water dikinase) adds phosphate to starch, and phosphoglucan phosphatase (SEX4) removes these phosphates. To explore the use of this metabolism to manipulate starch accumulation, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were engineered by introducing RNAi constructs designed to reduce expression of AtGWD and AtSEX4. The timing of starch build-up was altered with ethanol-inducible and senescence-induced gene promoters. Ethanol induction of RNAi lines reduced transcript for AtGWD and AtSEX4 by 50%. The transgenic lines had seven times more starch than wild type at the end of the dark period but similar growth rates and total biomass. Elevated leaf starch content in maize leaves was engineered by making an RNAi construct against a gene in maize that appeared to be homologous to AtGWD. The RNAi construct was expressed using the constitutive ubiquitin promoter. Leaf starch content at the end of a night period in engineered maize plants was 20-fold higher than in untransformed plants with no impact on total plant biomass. We conclude that plants can be engineered to accumulate starch in the leaves with little impact on vegetative biomass. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Starch Biorefinery Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Läufer, Albrecht

    2017-03-07

    Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry. This chapter reviews the development of enzyme applications in the major starch biorefining processes.

  18. Slowly digestible waxy maize starch prepared by octenyl succinic anhydride esterification and heat-moisture treatment: glycemic response and mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Jinhua; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Genyi

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism and molecular structure of the slowly digestible waxy maize starch prepared by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) esterification and heat-moisture treatment were investigated. The in vitro Englyst test showed a proportion of 28.3% slowly digestible starch (SDS) when waxy maize starch was esterified with 3% OSA (starch weight based, and it is named OSA-starch), and a highest SDS content of 42.8% was obtained after OSA-starch (10% moisture) was further heated at 120 degrees C for 4 h (named HOSA-starch). The in vivo glycemic response of HOSA-starch, which showed a delayed appearance of blood glucose peak and a significant reduction (32.2%) of the peak glucose concentration, further confirmed its slow digestion property. Amylopectin debranching analysis revealed HOSA-starch had the highest resistance to debranching enzymes of isoamylase and pullulanase, and a simultaneous decrease of K m and V m (enzyme kinetics) was also shown when HOSA-starch was digested by either alpha-amylase or amyloglucosidase, indicating that the slow digestion of HOSA-starch resulted from an uncompetitive inhibition of enzyme activity during digestion. Size exclusion chromatography analysis of HOSA-starch showed fragmented amylopectin molecules with more nonreducing ends that are favorable for RS conversion to SDS by the action of amyloglucosidase in the Englyst test. Further solubility analysis indicates that the water-insolubility of HOSA-starch is caused by OSA-mediated cross-linking of amylopectin and the hydrophobic interaction between OSA-modified starch molecules. The water-insolubility of HOSA-starch would decrease its enzyme accessibility, and the digestion products with attached OSA molecules might also directly act as the uncompetitive inhibitor to reduce the enzyme activity leading to a slow digestion of HOSA-starch.

  19. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and retrogradation treatments on structural and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Bao; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the effects of high hydrostatic pressure and retrogradation (HHPR) treatments on in vitro digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were investigated. The waxy wheat starch slurries (10%, w/v) were treated with high hydrostatic pressures of 300, 400, 500, 600MPa at 20°C for 30min, respectively, and then retrograded at 4°C for 4d. The results indicated that the content of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in HHPR-treated starch samples increased with increasing pressure level, and it reached the maximum (31.12%) at 600MPa. HHPR treatment decreased the gelatinization temperatures, the gelatinization enthalpy, the relative crystallinity and the peak viscosity of the starch samples. Moreover, HHPR treatment destroyed the surface and interior structures of starch granules. These results suggest that the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of waxy wheat starch are effectively modified by HHPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Barrier and Mechanical Properties of Starch-Clay Nanocomposite Films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The poor barrier and mechanical properties of biopolymer-based food packaging can potentially be enhanced by the use of layered silicates (nanoclay) to produce nanocomposites. In this study, starch-clay nano-composites were synthesized by a melt extrusion method. Natural (MMT) and organically modifi...

  2. Silicon tetrachloride plasma induced grafting for starch-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yonghui C.

    Non-modified virgin starch is seldom used directly in industrial applications. Instead, it is often physically and/or chemically modified to achieve certain enhanced properties. For many of the non-food applications, these modifications involve changing its hydrophilicity to create hydrophobic starch. In this study, the hydrophobic starch was produced through silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) plasma induced graft polymerization, so that it could be used as a renewable and biodegradable component of, or substitute for, the petrochemical-based plastics. It was suggested that this starch graft-copolymer might be used as reinforcing components in silicone-rubber materials for starch-based composites. To make this starch graft-copolymer, the ethyl ether-extracted starch powders were surface functionalized by SiCl4 plasma using a 13.56 MHz radio frequency rotating plasma reactor and subsequently stabilized by either ethylene diamine or dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS). The functionalized starch was then graft-polymerized with DCDMS to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers around the starch granules. The presence of this PDMS layer was demonstrated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA/XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), thermo gravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and other analyses. It was shown that the surface morphology, thermal properties, swelling characteristic, and hydrophilicity of starch were all changed due to the existence of this protective hydrophobic PDMS layer. Several different procedures to carry out the functionalization and graft polymerization steps were evaluated to improve the effectiveness of the reactions and to prevent the samples from being hydrolyzed by the grafting byproduct HCl. Actinometry, GC-MS, and residual gas analyzer (RGA) were used to investigate the mechanisms of the SiCl4 discharge and to optimize the plasma

  3. Dynamic moisture sorption characteristics of enzyme-resistant recrystallized cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Mutungi, Christopher; Schuldt, Stefan; Onyango, Calvin; Schneider, Yvonne; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

    2011-03-14

    The interaction of moisture with enzyme-resistant recrystallized starch, prepared by heat-moisture treatment of debranched acid-modified or debranched non-acid-modified cassava starch, was investigated in comparison with the native granules. Crystallinities of the powdered products were estimated by X-ray diffraction. Moisture sorption was determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer and data fitted to various models. Percent crystallinities of native starch (NS), non-acid-modified recrystallized starch (NAMRS), and acid-modified recrystallized starch (AMRS) were 39.7, 51.9, and 56.1%, respectively. In a(w) below 0.8, sorption decreased in the order NS > NAMRS > AMRS in line with increasing sample crystallinities but did not follow this crystallinity dependence at higher a(w) because of condensation and polymer dissolution effects. Adsorbed moisture became internally absorbed in NS but not in NAMRS and AMRS, which might explain the high resistance of the recrystallized starches to digestion because enzyme and starch cannot approach each other over fairly sufficient surface at the molecular level.

  4. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetanhydride and azelaic acid/acetanhydride mixtures. II. Chemical and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Ačkar, Durđica; Subarić, Drago; Babić, Jurislav; Miličević, Borislav; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetanhydride and azelaic acid/acetanhydride mixtures on chemical and physical properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetanhydride and azelaic acid and acetanhydride in 4, 6 and 8% (w/w). Total starch content, resistant starch content, degree of modification, changes in FT-IR spectra, colour, gel texture and freeze-thaw stability were determined. Results showed that resistant starch content increased by both investigated modifications, and degree of modification increased proportionally to amount of reagents used. FT-IR analysis of modified starches showed peak around 1,740 cm(-1), characteristic for carbonyl group of ester. Total colour difference caused by modifications was detectable by trained people. Adhesiveness significantly increased, while freeze-thaw stability decreased by both investigated modifications.

  5. The in vitro effects of retrograded starch (resistant starch type 3) from lotus seed starch on the proliferation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Baodong; Lu, Xu; Zhuang, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    Prebiotics such as oligosaccharides, fructans, and resistant starch (RS) stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in large bowel and modify the human gastrointestinal environment. In this study, compared with glucose (GLU) and high amylose maize starch (HAMS), the in vitro effects of LRS3 and P-LRS3 (RS3 and purified RS3 prepared from lotus seed starch) on the proliferation of bifidobacteria were assessed by assessing the changes in optical density (OD), pH values, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and tolerance ability to gastrointestinal conditions. Significantly higher OD values were obtained from media containing LRS3 and P-LRS3, and especially in the medium containing P-LRS3, the OD value of which reached 1.36 when the concentration of the carbon source was 20 g L(-1). Additionally, the lag phase of bifidobacteria was 8 h in the medium with LRS3 or P-LRS3, whereas it was 16 h in the medium with GLU or HAMS. What is more, a higher content of butyric acid was obtained in the P-LRS3 medium. Compared with GLU and HAMS media, bifidobacteria had a higher tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions in LRS3 and P-LRS3 media. It shows that lotus seed resistant starch, especially P-LRS3, could stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. The rough surface of resistant starch and the SCFAs produced during fermentation might influence the proliferation of bifidobacteria.

  6. Evaluation of the Significance of Starch Surface Binding Sites on Human Pancreatic α-Amylase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Caner, Sami; Kwan, Emily; Li, Chunmin; Brayer, Gary D; Withers, Stephen G

    2016-11-01

    Starch provides the major source of caloric intake in many diets. Cleavage of starch into malto-oligosaccharides in the gut is catalyzed by pancreatic α-amylase. These oligosaccharides are then further cleaved by gut wall α-glucosidases to release glucose, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. Potential surface binding sites for starch on the pancreatic amylase, distinct from the active site of the amylase, have been identified through X-ray crystallographic analyses. The role of these sites in the degradation of both starch granules and soluble starch was probed by the generation of a series of surface variants modified at each site to disrupt binding. Kinetic analysis of the binding and/or cleavage of substrates ranging from simple maltotriosides to soluble starch and insoluble starch granules has allowed evaluation of the potential role of each such surface site. In this way, two key surface binding sites, on the same face as the active site, are identified. One site, containing a pair of aromatic residues, is responsible for attachment to starch granules, while a second site featuring a tryptophan residue around which a malto-oligosaccharide wraps is shown to heavily influence soluble starch binding and hydrolysis. These studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which enzymes tackle the degradation of largely insoluble polymers and also present some new approaches to the interrogation of the binding sites involved.

  7. Morphological and physicochemical characterization of porous starches obtained from different botanical sources and amylolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Benavent-Gil, Yaiza; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-10-01

    Porous starches might offer an attractive alternative as bio-adsorbents of a variety of compounds. However, morphology and physicochemical properties of starches must be understood before exploring their applications. Objective was to study the action of different amylolytic enzymes for producing porous starches. Wheat, rice, potato and cassava starches were treated with Amyloglucosidase (AMG), α-amylase (AM) and cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase (CGTase). Morphological characteristics, chemical composition, adsorptive capacity and pasting/thermal properties were assessed. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed porous structures with diverse pore size distribution, which was dependent on the enzyme type and starch source, but no differences were observed in the total granule surface occupied by pores. The adsorptive capacity analysis revealed that modified starches had high water absorptive capacity and showed different oil adsorptive capacity depending on the enzyme type. Amylose content analysis revealed different hydrolysis pattern of the amylases, suggesting that AMG mainly affected crystalline region meanwhile AM and CGTase attacked amorphous area. A heatmap illustrated the diverse pasting properties of the different porous starches, which also showed significant different thermal properties, with different behavior between cereal and tuber starches. Therefore, it is possible to modulate the properties of starches through the use of different enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    PubMed Central

    Kiangkitiwan, Nopparut; Srikulkit, Kawee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties. In this paper, soybean oil maleate (SOMA) was synthesized by grafting soybean oil with various weight percents of maleic anhydride (MA) using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as an initiator. Then, SOMA was employed for the surface modifying of cassava starch powder, resulting in SOMA-g-STARCH. The obtained SOMA-g-STARCH was mixed with PLA in various weight ratios using twin-screw extruder, resulting in PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH. Finally, the obtained PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH composites were prepared by a compression molding machines. The compatibility, thermal properties, morphology properties, and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated. The results showed that the compatibility, surface appearance, and mechanical properties at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratios of PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH were the best. PMID:24307883

  9. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and Effect of Gamma Radiation on The Properties and Biodegradability of Poly(Styrene/Starch) Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. E.; Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable blends based on Poly(styrene/starch) Poly(Sty/Starch) were prepared by the casting method using different contents of starch in the range of 0-20 wt% aiming at preparing disposable packaging materials. The prepared bio-blends were Characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), swelling behavior, mechanical properties, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the swelling behavior slightly increased with increasing starch content and not exceeding 7.5%. The results showed that by increasing irradiation dose up to 5 kGy, the mechanical properties of the prepared PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film modified than other blend films, and hence it is selected. Also the water resistant increased, by irradiation of the selected PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film. The intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between Starch and PSty of the PSty/10 wt% Starch blend film promote a more homogenous blend film as shown in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared Poly(Sty/Starch) blends with different compositions and the selected irradiated PSty/10 wt% Starch blend were subjected to biodegradation in soil burial tests for 6 months using two different types of soils; agricultural and desert soils, then analyzed gravimetrically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results suggested that there is a possibility of using irradiated PSty/10 wt% Starch at a dose of 5 kGy as a potential candidate for packaging material.

  11. Expression of an (Engineered) 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase in Potato Results in Changes in Starch Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Dechesne, Annemarie; Visser, Richard G. F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Starch structure strongly influences starch physicochemical properties, determining the end uses of starch in various applications. To produce starches with novel structure and exploit the mechanism of starch granule formation, an (engineered) 4, 6-α-glucanotransferase (GTFB) from Lactobacillus reuteri 121 was introduced into two potato genetic backgrounds: amylose-containing line Kardal and amylose-free mutant amf. The resulting starches showed severe changes in granule morphology regardless of genetic backgrounds. Modified starches from amf background exhibited a significant increase in granule size and starch phosphate content relative to the control, while starches from Kardal background displayed a higher digestibility, but did not show changes in granule size and phosphate content. Transcriptome analysis revealed the existence of a mechanism to restore the regular packing of double helices in starch granules, which possibly resulted in the removal of novel glucose chains potentially introduced by the (engineered) GTFB. This amendment mechanics would also explain the difficulties to detect alterations in starch fine structure in the transgenic lines. PMID:27911907

  12. Expression of an (Engineered) 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase in Potato Results in Changes in Starch Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuan; Dechesne, Annemarie; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2016-01-01

    Starch structure strongly influences starch physicochemical properties, determining the end uses of starch in various applications. To produce starches with novel structure and exploit the mechanism of starch granule formation, an (engineered) 4, 6-α-glucanotransferase (GTFB) from Lactobacillus reuteri 121 was introduced into two potato genetic backgrounds: amylose-containing line Kardal and amylose-free mutant amf. The resulting starches showed severe changes in granule morphology regardless of genetic backgrounds. Modified starches from amf background exhibited a significant increase in granule size and starch phosphate content relative to the control, while starches from Kardal background displayed a higher digestibility, but did not show changes in granule size and phosphate content. Transcriptome analysis revealed the existence of a mechanism to restore the regular packing of double helices in starch granules, which possibly resulted in the removal of novel glucose chains potentially introduced by the (engineered) GTFB. This amendment mechanics would also explain the difficulties to detect alterations in starch fine structure in the transgenic lines.

  13. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  14. Influence of resistant starch and slowly digestible starch on rice texture.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice, comprised mainly of starch, serves as a significant source of caloric energy world-wide, therefore differences in starch digestibility are important to human health. Rice starch consists of three forms based on digestibility, rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and...

  15. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals.

    PubMed

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas; Nielsen, Morten M; Holm, Preben B; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2012-09-07

    Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties. In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce or eliminate the economical and environmental costs of industrial modification. Recently, many advances have been achieved to clarify the genetic mechanism that controls starch biosynthesis. Several genes involved in the synthesis and modification of complex carbohydrates in many organisms have been identified and cloned. This knowledge suggests a number of strategies and a series of candidate genes for genetic transformation of crops to generate new types of starch-based polymers. However transformation of cereals is a slow process and there is no easy model system available to test the efficiency of candidate genes in planta. We explored the possibility to use transgenic barley callus generated from immature embryo for a fast test of transgenic modification strategies of starch biosynthesis. We found that this callus contains 4% (w/w dw) starch granules, which we could modify by generating fully transgenic calli by Agrobacterium-transformation. A Green Fluorescent Protein reporter protein tag was used to identify and propagate only fully transgenic callus explants. Around 1 - 1.5 g dry weight of fully transgenic callus could be produced in 9 weeks. Callus starch granules were smaller than endosperm starch granules and contained less amylose. Similarly the expression profile of starch biosynthesis genes were slightly different in callus compared with developing endosperm. In this study

  16. Barley callus: a model system for bioengineering of starch in cereals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is the most important source of calories for human nutrition and the majority of it is produced by cereal farming. Starch is also used as a renewable raw material in a range of industrial sectors. It can be chemically modified to introduce new physicochemical properties. In this way starch is adapted to a variety of specific end-uses. Recombinant DNA technologies offers an alternative to starch industrial processing. The plant biosynthetic pathway can be manipulated to design starches with novel structure and improved technological properties. In the future this may reduce or eliminate the economical and environmental costs of industrial modification. Recently, many advances have been achieved to clarify the genetic mechanism that controls starch biosynthesis. Several genes involved in the synthesis and modification of complex carbohydrates in many organisms have been identified and cloned. This knowledge suggests a number of strategies and a series of candidate genes for genetic transformation of crops to generate new types of starch-based polymers. However transformation of cereals is a slow process and there is no easy model system available to test the efficiency of candidate genes in planta. Results We explored the possibility to use transgenic barley callus generated from immature embryo for a fast test of transgenic modification strategies of starch biosynthesis. We found that this callus contains 4% (w/w dw) starch granules, which we could modify by generating fully transgenic calli by Agrobacterium-transformation. A Green Fluorescent Protein reporter protein tag was used to identify and propagate only fully transgenic callus explants. Around 1 – 1.5 g dry weight of fully transgenic callus could be produced in 9 weeks. Callus starch granules were smaller than endosperm starch granules and contained less amylose. Similarly the expression profile of starch biosynthesis genes were slightly different in callus compared with developing

  17. Powder and compaction characteristics of pregelatinized starches.

    PubMed

    Rojas, J; Uribe, Y; Zuluaga, A

    2012-06-01

    Pregelatinized starch is widely used as a pharmaceutical aid, especially as a filler-binder. It is known that the tableting performance of excipients could be affected by their source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the powder and tableting properties of pregelatinized starches obtained from yucca, corn and rice and compare those properties with those of Starch 1500. This material had the lowest particle size, and porosity and largest density and best flow. However, yucca starch and corn starch showed an irregular granule morphology, better compactibility and compressibility than Starch 1500. Their onset of plastic deformation and their strain rate sensitivity was comparable to that of Starch 1500. These two materials showed compact disintegration slower that Starch 1500. Conversely, rice starch showed a high elasticity, and friability, low compactibility, which are undesirable for direct compression. This study demonstrated the potential use of pregelatinized starches, especially those obtained from yucca and corn as direct compression filler-binders.

  18. Effects of corn fiber gum with different molecular weights on the gelatinization behaviors of corn and wheat starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid. Recent research has shown that it has a considerable potential in food processing. In our previous study, we reported that CFG could be used to modify the gelling and rheological properties of starch-based food. In this study, starch and CFG...

  19. Effect of alkali and oxidative treatments on the physicochemical, pasting, thermal and morphological properties of corn starch.

    PubMed

    Spier, Franciela; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Marques e Silva, Ricardo; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2013-07-01

    Few studies on starch modifications using different chemical agents are available in the literature, and no reports were found on the combined effect of oxidation and alkaline treatment of corn starch. Thus this work evaluated the physicochemical, pasting, morphological, cystallinity and thermal properties of chemically modified corn starch, after either the isolated or combined action of alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and oxidative (sodium hypochlorite) treatments. The highest values for the sum of carbonyl and carboxyl and enzymatic hydrolysis occurred in starches submitted to oxidative treatment at high active chlorine concentrations. The alkali treatment in isolation modified the pasting properties, reduced the paste temperature and increased the peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback of starches. Starch modified by the action of sodium hypochlorite and hydroxide in combination presented more severe damage on granule surfaces. The results show that corn starch modified by the combined action of oxidative and alkaline treatments should be studied more, especially at the concentration limit of sodium hydroxide where gelatinization occurs. Under these conditions the effect of oxidation can be more intense and thus allow the production of starches with different properties and an increase in their industrial applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Impact of acid and oxidative modifications, single or dual, of sorghum starch on biodegradable films.

    PubMed

    Biduski, Bárbara; Silva, Francine Tavares da; Silva, Wyller Max da; Halal, Shanise Lisie de Mello El; Pinto, Vania Zanella; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acid and oxidation modifications on sorghum starch, as well as the effect of dual modification of starch on the physical, morphological, mechanical, and barrier properties of biodegradable films. The acid modification was performed with 3% lactic acid and the oxidation was performed with 1.5% active chlorine. For dual modification, the acid modification was performed first, followed by oxidation under the same conditions as above. Both films of the oxidized starches, single and dual, had increased stiffness, providing a higher tensile strength and lower elongation when compared to films based on native and single acid modified starches. However, the dual modification increased the water vapor permeability of the films without changing their solubility. The increase in sorghum starch concentration in the filmogenic solution increased the thickness, water vapor permeability, and elongation of the films. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Overexpression of STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II increases short-chain branching of amylopectin and alters the physicochemical properties of starch from potato tuber.

    PubMed

    Brummell, David A; Watson, Lyn M; Zhou, Jun; McKenzie, Marian J; Hallett, Ian C; Simmons, Lyall; Carpenter, Margaret; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2015-04-29

    amylopectin branching pattern. This work reports the first time that overexpression of SBEII has been achieved in a non-cereal plant. The data show that overexpression of SBEII using a simple single-intron hybrid intragene is an effective way to modify potato starch physicochemical properties, and indicate that an increased ratio of short to long amylopectin branches produces commercially beneficial changes in starch properties such as reduced gelatinisation temperature, reduced viscosity and increased swelling volume.

  2. Hydroxyeyhyl starch: Controversies revisited

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rashmi; Nair, Rajeev; Pandey, Anil; Kumar, Nitish; Sahoo, Tapan

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) family has been one of the cornerstones in fluid management for over four decades. Recent evidence from clinical studies and meta-analyses has raised few concerns about the safety of these fluids, especially in certain subpopulations of patients. High-quality clinical trials and meta-analyses have emphasized nephrotoxic effects, increased risk of bleeding, and a trend toward higher mortality in these patients after the use of HES solutions. Scientific evidence was derived from international guidelines, aggregated research literature, and opinion-based evidence was obtained from surveys and other activities (e.g., internet postings). On critical analysis of the current data available, it can be summarized that further large scale trials are still indicated before HES can be discarded. PMID:25425769

  3. Effects of granule swelling on starch saccharification by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofeng; Cai, Liming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-08-13

    The effects of granule swelling on enzymatic saccharification of normal corn starch by granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme were investigated. After swelling, Km values for the saccharification of granular starch decreased compared with native granular starch, indicating that granule swelling caused granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme to have higher affinity for starch granules. The partial swelling of starch granules enhanced starch saccharification. Furthermore, the enhancement at an earlier stage of enzymatic reaction was much more significant than that at later stages. For granular starch pretreated at 67.5 °C for 30 min, conversions to glucose after incubation with the enzyme at 32 °C for 4 and 24 h were approximately 3-fold and 26% higher than for native granular starch, respectively. As a result, proper heat pretreatment of granular starch before simultaneous saccharification and fermentation has great potential to facilitate industrial production of ethanol by use of granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

  4. New perspectives of starch: Synthesis and in vitro assessment of novel thiolated mucoadhesive derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jelkmann, Max; Bonengel, Sonja; Menzel, Claudia; Markovic, Svetislav; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2018-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel thiolated starch polymer with improved mucoadhesive properties by conjugation of cysteamine to starch as a natural polymer of restricted mucoadhesive properties. Aldehyde substructures were integrated into starch via oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols by increasing amounts of sodium periodate followed by covalent attachment of cysteamine to oxidized starch via reductive amination. Thiol groups were quantified via Ellman's reaction and their impact on mucoadhesion was analyzed by rheological investigations, the rotating cylinder method and tensile studies on porcine mucosa. The total amount of immobilized thiol groups revealed a correlation between degree of oxidation and thiolation. Modified starch demonstrated an up to 1.66-fold increase in water uptake in comparison to native starch. Modification of starch resulted in greatly improved cohesive properties and improvement in mucoadhesion. Rheological investigations revealed a 2- to 4-fold rise in viscosity of mucus. Tensile studies revealed a linear correlation between degree of oxidation/thiolation and enhancement of maximum detachment force and total work adhesion. In terms of these results, thiolated starch is a new, promising, polymer in the field of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Resistant Starches in Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Ai, Yongfeng; Jones, Roger W.

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch fitmore » the ideal curve with a R2 of 0.997. A principal component analysis plot of components 1 and 2 showed that spectra from diets clustered significantly from each other. This study clearly showed that FTIR-PAS can accurately quantify starch content and identify the form of starch in complex matrices.« less

  6. In vitro starch digestibility, pasting and textural properties of mung bean: effect of different processing methods.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh; Ahlawat, RavinderPal; Sharma, Somesh

    2015-03-01

    Mung bean was subjected to different processing conditions (soaking, germination, cooking and autoclaving) and their textural, pasting and in vitro starch digestibility characteristics were studied. A significant reduction in textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness) after cooking and autoclaving treatment of mung bean was observed. Flours made from differently processed mung bean showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in their pastin g characteristics. Peak and final viscosity were the highest for flour from germinated mung bean whereas those made from autoclaved mung bean showed the lowest value. in vitro starch digestibility of mung bean flours was assessed enzymatically using modified Englyst method and the parameters studied were readily digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), resistant starch (RS) and total starch (TS) content. Various processing treatments increased the RDS contents of mung bean, while the SDS content was found to be the highest for soaked and the lowest for the autoclaved sample. Germinated sample showed higher amount of digestible starch (RDS + SDS) as compared to raw and soaked samples. Flours from raw and soaked samples showed significantly low starch hydrolysis rate at all the temperatures with total hydrolysis of 29.9 and 31.2 %, respectively at 180 min whereas cooked and autoclaved samples showed high hydrolysis rates with 50.2 and 53.8 % of these hydrolyzing within 30 min of hydrolysis.

  7. Swelling and tensile properties of starch glycerol system with various crosslinking agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mohd, N.; Nurazzi, N.; Siti Aisyah, M. I.; Fauzi, F. Mohd

    2017-07-01

    Brittle properties of starch had been overcome by the modification process. In this work, sago starch is being modified with variable amount of plasticiser, namely glycerol at 20 and 40% and crosslinking agent had been added to the system. The film of the modification and characterizations of the starch glycerol system with various crosslinking systems were produced by casting method. The film properties of the starch glycerol system were then characterized by tensile strength (mechanical properties) and swelling (physical properties). The modification of the starch glycerol had improved that system by increasing the tensile strength, modulus however lowering its elongation. The increasing in percentage of the water absorption and also swelling are due to the intrinsic hydroxyl groups presence from the starch and glycerol itself that can attract more water to the system. Upon crosslinking, films casted with chemicals namely, glyoxal, malonic acid, borax, PEG were characterised. It was found that, all the film of sago starch crosslinked and undergoing easy film formation. From this modification, borax and malonic acid crosslinking agent had been determined as the best crosslinking agent to the starch glycerol system.

  8. Utilization of bio-degradable fermented tapioca to synthesized low toxicity of carbon nanotubes for drug delivery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nurulhuda, I., E-mail: nurulnye@gmail.com; Poh, R.; Mazatulikhma, M. Z.

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have potential biomedical applications, and investigations are shifting towards the production of such nanotubes using renewable natural sources. CNTs were synthesized at various temperatures of 700, 750, 800, 850 and 900 °C, respectively, using a local fermented food known as “tapai ubi” or fermented tapioca as a precursor. The liquid part of this fermented food was heated separately at 80°C and channeled directly into the furnace system that employs the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Ferrocene, which was the catalyst was placed in furnace 1 in the thermal CVD process. The resulting CNTs produced from themore » process were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The FESEM images showed the growth morphology of the CNTs at the different temperatures employed. It was observed that the higher the synthesis temperature up to a point, the diameter of CNTs produced, after which the diameter increased. CNTs with helical structures were observed at 700 °C with a diameter range of 111 - 143 nm. A more straightened structure was observed at 750 °C with a diameter range of 59 - 121 nm. From 800 °C onwards, the diameters of the CNTs were less than 60 nm. Raman analysis revealed the present of D, G and G’ peak were observed at 1227-1358, 1565-1582, and 2678-2695 cm{sup −1}, respectively. The highest degree of crystallity of the carbon nanotubes synthesized were obtained at 800 °C. The radial breathing mode (RBM) were in range between 212-220 and 279-292 cm{sup −1}. Carbon nanotubes also being functionalized with Polyethylene bis(amine) Mw2000 (PEG 2000-NH2) and showed highly cells viability compared to non-functionalized CNT. The nanotubes synthesized will be applied as drug delivery in future study.« less

  9. Quinoa starch granules as stabilizing particles for production of Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöö, Malin; Timgren, Anna; Dejmek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Intact starch granules isolated from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were used to stabilize emulsion drops in so-called Pickering emulsions. Miglyol 812 was used as dispersed phase and a phosphate buffer (pH7) with different salt (NaCl) concentrations was used as the continuous phase. The starch granules were hydrophobically modified to different degrees by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) or by dry heat treatment at 120 degrees C in order to study the effect on the resulting emulsion drop size. The degree of OSA-modification had a low to moderate impact on drop size. The highest level of modification (4.66%) showed the largest mean drop size, and lowest amount of free starch, which could be an effect of a higher degree of aggregation of the starch granules and, thereby, also the emulsion drops stabilized by them. The heat treated starch granules had a poor stabilizing ability and only the starch heated for the longest time (150 min at 120 degrees C) had a better emulsifying capacity than the un-modified native starch granules. The effect of salt concentration was rather limited. However, an increased concentration of salt slightly increased the mean drop size and the elastic modulus.

  10. Design starch: stochastic modeling of starch granule biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Raguin, Adélaïde; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2017-08-15

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants and the main source of carbohydrate in the human diet. Owing to its remarkable properties and commercial applications, starch is still of growing interest. Its unique granular structure made of intercalated layers of amylopectin and amylose has been unraveled thanks to recent progress in microscopic imaging, but the origin of such periodicity is still under debate. Both amylose and amylopectin are made of linear chains of α-1,4-bound glucose residues, with branch points formed by α-1,6 linkages. The net difference in the distribution of chain lengths and the branching pattern of amylose (mainly linear), compared with amylopectin (racemose structure), leads to different physico-chemical properties. Amylose is an amorphous and soluble polysaccharide, whereas amylopectin is insoluble and exhibits a highly organized structure of densely packed double helices formed between neighboring linear chains. Contrarily to starch degradation that has been investigated since the early 20th century, starch production is still poorly understood. Most enzymes involved in starch growth (elongation, branching, debranching, and partial hydrolysis) are now identified. However, their specific action, their interplay (cooperative or competitive), and their kinetic properties are still largely unknown. After reviewing recent results on starch structure and starch growth and degradation enzymatic activity, we discuss recent results and current challenges for growing polysaccharides on granular surface. Finally, we highlight the importance of novel stochastic models to support the analysis of recent and complex experimental results, and to address how macroscopic properties emerge from enzymatic activity and structural rearrangements. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. An evaluation of total starch and starch gelatinization methodologies in pelleted animal feed.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Jones, C; Guo, Q; Lewis, L; Stark, C R; Alavi, S

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of total starch content (TS) or degree of starch gelatinization (DG) in animal feed is always challenging because of the potential interference from other ingredients. In this study, the differences in TS or DG measurement in pelleted swine feed due to variations in analytical methodology were quantified. Pelleted swine feed was used to create 6 different diets manufactured with various processing conditions in a 2 × 3 factorial design (2 conditioning temperatures, 77 or 88°C, and 3 conditioning retention times, 15, 30, or 60 s). Samples at each processing stage (cold mash, hot mash, hot pelletized feed, and final cooled pelletized feed) were collected for each of the 6 treatments and analyzed for TS and DG. Two different methodologies were evaluated for TS determination (the AOAC International method 996.11 vs. the modified glucoamylase method) and DG determination (the modified glucoamylase method vs. differential scanning calorimetry [DSC]). For TS determination, the AOAC International method 996.11 measured lower TS values in cold pellets compared with the modified glucoamylase method. The AOAC International method resulted in lower TS in cold mash than cooled pelletized feed, whereas the modified glucoamylase method showed no significant differences in TS content before or after pelleting. For DG, the modified glucoamylase method demonstrated increased DG with each processing step. Furthermore, increasing the conditioning temperature and time resulted in a greater DG when evaluated by the modified glucoamylase method. However, results demonstrated that DSC is not suitable as a quantitative tool for determining DG in multicomponent animal feeds due to interferences from nonstarch transformations, such as protein denaturation.

  12. Starch as a source, starch as a sink: the bifunctional role of starch in carbon allocation.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Gregory J; Mehrpouyan, Sahar; Minow, Mark A A; Patterson, Jenelle A; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J

    2017-07-20

    Starch commands a central role in the carbon budget of the majority of plants on earth, and its biological role changes during development and in response to the environment. Throughout the life of a plant, starch plays a dual role in carbon allocation, acting as both a source, releasing carbon reserves in leaves for growth and development, and as a sink, either as a dedicated starch store in its own right (in seeds and tubers), or as a temporary reserve of carbon contributing to sink strength, in organs such as flowers, fruits, and developing non-starchy seeds. The presence of starch in tissues and organs thus has a profound impact on the physiology of the growing plant as its synthesis and degradation governs the availability of free sugars, which in turn control various growth and developmental processes. This review attempts to summarize the large body of information currently available on starch metabolism and its relationship to wider aspects of carbon metabolism and plant nutrition. It highlights gaps in our knowledge and points to research areas that show promise for bioengineering and manipulation of starch metabolism in order to achieve more desirable phenotypes such as increased yield or plant biomass. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Characterization of a starch based desiccant wheel dehumidifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beery, Kyle Edward

    Starch, cellulose, and hemicellulose have an affinity for water, and adsorb water vapor from air. Materials made from combinations of these biobased sugar polymers also have been found to possess adsorptive properties. An interesting possible application of these starch-based adsorbents is the desiccant wheel dehumidifier. The desiccant wheel dehumidifier is used in conjunction with a standard air conditioning system. In this process, ambient air is passed through a stationary section while a wheel packed with desiccant rotates through that section. The desiccant adsorbs humidity (latent load) from the air, and the air conditioning system then cools the air (sensible load). Several starch based adsorbents were developed and tested for adsorptive capacity in a new high throughput screening system. The best formulations from the high throughput screening system, also taking into account economic considerations and structural integrity, were considered for use in the desiccant wheel dehumidifier. A suitable adsorbent was chosen and formulated into a matrix structure for the desiccant wheel system. A prototype desiccant wheel system was constructed and the performance was investigated under varying regeneration temperatures and rotation speeds. The results from the experiments showed that the starch based desiccant wheel dehumidification system does transfer moisture from the inlet process stream to the outlet regeneration stream. The DESSIM model was modified for the starch based adsorbent and compared to the experimental results. Also, the results when the wheel parameters were varied were compared to the predicted results from the model. The results given by the starch based desiccant wheel system show the desired proof of concept.

  14. Physical Characteristics of White Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), Rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) Flours - Based Seasoning Composite Flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfani, NNA; Ishartani, D.; Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of seasoning composite flour that made from white sweet potato, rice, and tapioca flours, and determined the best formula of seasoning composite flour. A completely randomized design (CRD) with formula as the single factor was used. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA method and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance 5% if there was a significant difference. The best formula of seasoning composite flour was 30% tapioca flour, 30% rice flour, and 40% white sweet potato flour. The physical characteristics of the best formula were 5.689 ml/g of swelling power, 2.681 g/g of water absorption capacity, 0.887 ml/g of oil absorption capacity, and 22.03% cooking loss. Physical characteristics of the best seasoning composite flour were significantly different from the commercial seasoning flour and showed a better cooking loss, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power than commercial seasoning flour.

  15. Optimization of factors to obtain cassava starch films with improved mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Mayra; Oliveira, Victor; Santos, Francisco; Barros Neto, Eduardo; Silva, Karyn; Silva, Rayane; Henrique, João; Chibério, Abimaelle

    2017-08-01

    In this study, was investigated the optimization of the factors that significantly influenced the mechanical property improvement of cassava starch films through complete factorial design 23. The factors to be analyzed were cassava starch, glycerol and modified clay contents. A regression model was proposed by the factorial analysis, aiming to estimate the condition of the individual factors investigated in the optimum state of the mechanical properties of the biofilm, using the following statistical tool: desirability function and response surface. The response variable that delimits the improvement of the mechanical property of the biofilm is the tensile strength, such improvement is obtained by maximizing the response variable. The factorial analysis showed that the best combination of factor configurations to reach the best response was found to be: with 5g of cassava starch, 10% of glycerol and 5% of modified clay, both percentages in relation to the dry mass of starch used. In addition, the starch biofilm showing the lowest response contained 2g of cassava starch, 0% of modified clay and 30% of glycerol, and was consequently considered the worst biofilm.

  16. Composition and physical properties of starch in microgravity-grown plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsov, O. A.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.; Sanwo-Lewandowski, M. M.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of spaceflight on starch development in soybean (Glycine max L., BRIC-03) and potato (Solanum tuberosum, Astroculture-05) was compared with ground controls by biophysical and biochemical measurements. Starch grains from plants from both flights were on average 20-50% smaller in diameter than ground controls. The ratio delta X/delta rho (delta X --difference of magnetic susceptibilities, delta rho--difference of densities between starch and water) of starch grains was ca. 15% and 4% higher for space-grown soybean cotyledons and potato tubers, respectively, than in corresponding ground controls. Since the densities of particles were similar for all samples (1.36 to 1.38 g/cm3), the observed difference in delta X/delta rho was due to different magnetic susceptibilities and indicates modified composition of starch grains. In starch preparations from soybean cotyledons (BRIC-03) subjected to controlled enzymatic degradation with alpha-amylase for 24 hours, 77 +/- 6% of the starch from the flight cotyledons was degraded compared to 58 +/- 12% in ground controls. The amylose content in starch was also higher in space-grown tissues. The good correlation between the amylose content and delta X/delta rho suggests, that the magnetic susceptibility of starch grains is related to their amylose content. Since the seedlings from the BRIC-03 experiment showed elevated post-flight ethylene levels, material from another flight experiment (GENEX) which had normal levels of ethylene was examined and showed no difference to ground controls in size distribution, density, delta X/delta rho and amylose content. Therefore the role of ethylene appears to be more important for changes in starch metabolism than microgravity. c2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition and physical properties of starch in microgravity-grown plants.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, O A; Brown, C S; Levine, H G; Piastuch, W C; Sanwo-Lewandowski, M M; Hasenstein, K H

    2001-01-01

    The effect of spaceflight on starch development in soybean (Glycine max L., BRIC-03) and potato (Solanum tuberosum, Astroculture-05) was compared with ground controls by biophysical and biochemical measurements. Starch grains from plants from both flights were on average 20-50% smaller in diameter than ground controls. The ratio delta X/delta rho (delta X --difference of magnetic susceptibilities, delta rho--difference of densities between starch and water) of starch grains was ca. 15% and 4% higher for space-grown soybean cotyledons and potato tubers, respectively, than in corresponding ground controls. Since the densities of particles were similar for all samples (1.36 to 1.38 g/cm3), the observed difference in delta X/delta rho was due to different magnetic susceptibilities and indicates modified composition of starch grains. In starch preparations from soybean cotyledons (BRIC-03) subjected to controlled enzymatic degradation with alpha-amylase for 24 hours, 77 +/- 6% of the starch from the flight cotyledons was degraded compared to 58 +/- 12% in ground controls. The amylose content in starch was also higher in space-grown tissues. The good correlation between the amylose content and delta X/delta rho suggests, that the magnetic susceptibility of starch grains is related to their amylose content. Since the seedlings from the BRIC-03 experiment showed elevated post-flight ethylene levels, material from another flight experiment (GENEX) which had normal levels of ethylene was examined and showed no difference to ground controls in size distribution, density, delta X/delta rho and amylose content. Therefore the role of ethylene appears to be more important for changes in starch metabolism than microgravity. c2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular structure of quinoa starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-02-20

    Quinoa starch has very small granules with unique properties. However, the molecular structure of quinoa starch remains largely unknown. In this study, composition and amylopectin molecular structure of 9 quinoa starch samples were characterised by chromatographic techniques. In particular, the amylopectin internal molecular structure, represented by φ, β-limit dextrins (LDs), was explored. Great variations in the composition and molecular structures were recorded among samples. Compared with other amylopectins, quinoa amylopectin showed a high ratio of short chain to long chains (mean:14.6) and a high percentage of fingerprint A-chains (A fp ) (mean:10.4%). The average chain length, external chain length, and internal chain length of quinoa amylopectin were 16.6, 10.6, and 5.00 glucosyl residues, respectively. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis revealed some inherent correlations among structural parameters and a similarity of different samples. Overall, quinoa amylopectins are structurally similar to that from starches with A-type polymorph such as oat and amaranth starches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  20. THE SYNTHESIS OF THE STARCH GRANULE.

    PubMed

    Smith, A. M.; Denyer, K.; Martin, C.

    1997-06-01

    This review describes and discusses the implications of recent discoveries about how starch polymers are synthesized and organized to form a starch granule. Three issues are highlighted. 1. The role and importance of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in the generation of ADPglucose as the substrate for polymer synthesis. 2. The contributions of isoforms of starch-branching enzyme, starch synthase, and debranching enzyme to the synthesis and ordered packing of amylopectin molecules. 3. The requirements for and regulation of the synthesis of amylose.

  1. Effect of a small amount of sodium carbonate on konjac glucomannan-induced changes in thermal behavior of wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Winkworth-Smith, Charles G; Wang, Yu; Liang, Jianfen; Foster, Tim J; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2014-12-19

    The effects of konjac glucomannan (KGM) on thermal behavior of wheat starch have been studied in the presence of low concentrations of Na2CO3 (0.1-0.2 wt% of starch). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows the visualization of the starch gelatinization process and granule remnants in starch pastes. Heating the starch dispersion in KGM-Na2CO3 solution significantly delays granule swelling and inhibits amylose leaching, whereas Na2CO3 alone, at the same concentration, has little effect. Na2CO3 assists KGM in producing the extremely high viscosity of starch paste, attributing to a less remarkable breakdown of viscosity in subsequent heating, and protecting starch granules against crystallite melting. The distinct partially networked film around the surface of starch granules is evident in the CLSM images. We propose that Na2CO3 could trigger the formation of complexes between KGM and starch polymers, which exerts a protective effect on granular structure and modifying gelatinization characteristics of the mixtures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Esterification of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We shall discuss the use of various ionic liquids in the preparation of starch esters. Starch was reacted with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim) salts as solvents in an effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution (DS) w...

  3. Studies of Amylose Content in Potato Starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato starch is typically low in amylose (~20-25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is the most important property influencing the physical properties of starch. There is a strong case to be made for the development of food crops...

  4. Structure of Porous Starch Microcellular Foam Particles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A relatively new starch product with various novel applications is a porous microcellular foam. The foam product is made by dehydrating a starch hydrogel in a solvent such as ethanol and then removing the solvent to form a foam product. The process involves heating an aqueous slurry of starch (8% w/...

  5. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of molecular weight profile of sorghum proanthocyanidins on resistant starch formation.

    PubMed

    Barros, Frederico; Awika, Joseph; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest to increase resistant starch (RS) in foods through natural modification of starch. Sorghum tannins (proanthocyanidins, PAs) were recently reported to interact with starch, increasing RS. However, there is no information about how the molecular weight profile of PAs affects RS formation. This study investigated how different-molecular-weight PAs from sorghum affected RS formation in different starch models. The levels of RS were higher (331-437 mg g(-1)) when high-amylose starch was cooked with phenolic extracts containing mostly high-molecular-weight PAs compared with extracts containing lower-molecular-weight PAs or monomeric catechin (249-285 mg g(-1)). In general, binding capacity of PAs with amylose increased proportionally with molecular weight. For example, the percentage of PAs bound to amylose increased from 45% (PAs with degree of polymerization (DP) = 6) to 94% (polymeric PAs, DP > 10). The results demonstrate that molecular weight of the PAs directly affects their interaction with starch: the higher the molecular weight, the stronger the binding to amylose and the higher the RS formation. Polymeric PAs from sorghum can naturally modify starch by interacting strongly with amylose and are thus most suitable to produce foods with higher RS. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Starch hydrogels: The influence of the amylose content and gelatinization method.

    PubMed

    Biduski, Bárbara; Silva, Wyller Max Ferreria da; Colussi, Rosana; Halal, Shanise Lisie de Mello El; Lim, Loong-Tak; Dias, Álvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2018-07-01

    Gelatinization and retrogradation, influenced by amylose and amylopectin ratio, are important characteristics for starch hydrogels elaboration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of amylose content and the gelatinization method on the physicochemical characteristics of native and cross-linked rice starch hydrogels. The native and cross-linked starches were gelatinized with heating or alkaline solution, added polyvinyl alcohol, frozen and then freeze-dried. The cross-linked starch had a low final viscosity (101.38 RVU), which made the heat-induced gelatinized hydrogel readily disintegrated in water. However, modified starch hydrogels obtained by alkaline-induced gelatinization resulted in a more rigid structure than the native starch hydrogels. In addition, the starch sample with high amylose content had lower water absorption (322.2%) due to the greater stiffness of the hydrogel structure that resisted swelling. The alkaline-gelatinization resulted in stiffer hydrogels with lower water absorption (322.2 to 534.8%), while the heat-gelatinized behaved as a superabsorbent (658.7 to 1068.5%). The variability of the hydrogels properties of this study can enable a range of applications due to different amylose contents and gelatinization methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on the synthesis and physicochemical properties of starch acetate with low substitution under microwave assistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Derong; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Jingjing; Lan, Weijie; Chen, Rongming; Li, Yutong; Xing, Baoshan; Li, Zhuohao; Xiao, Mengshi; Wu, Zhijun; Li, Xindan; Chen, Rongna; Zhang, Xingwen; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Qing; Qin, Wen; Li, Suqing

    2017-10-01

    In this study, synthesis and physicochemical properties of starch acetate with low substitution under microwave were studied. A three-level-three-factorial Central Composite Design using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the reaction conditions. The optimal parameters are as follows: amount of acetic anhydride of 12%, radiation time of 11min, and microwave power of 100W. These optimal conditions predicted by RSM were confirmed that the degree of substitution (DS) of acetate starch is 0.0691mg/g and the physical and chemical properties of natural corn starch (NCS) and corn starch acetate (ACS) were further studied.The transparency, water separation, water absorption, expansion force, and solubility of ACS low substitution are better than NCS, while the NCS's hydrolysis percentage is higher than ACS, which indicate that the modified corn starch has better performance than native corn starch. The surface morphology of the corn starch acetate was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), which showed that it had a smooth surface and a spherical and polygonal shape. However, samples' shape is irregular. Crystal structure was observed by X-ray diffraction, and the ACS can determine the level of microwave technology that can destroy the extent of the crystal and amorphous regions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows that around 1750cm -1 carbonyl signal determines acetylation bonding successfully. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of feed pellet characteristics by dietary pre-gelatinized starch and their subsequent effects on growth and physiology in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Naga; Romano, Nicholas; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Nurul Amin, S M; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Karami, Ali; Kumar, Vikas

    2018-01-15

    A 9-week study was conducted to compare dietary corn starch (CS) or tapioca starch (TS), with or without being pre-gelatinized (PG), on the growth, feeding efficiencies, plasma and muscle biochemistry, intestinal short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and liver glycogen of triplicate groups of 20 red hybrid tilapia (Orecohromis sp.). Various pellet characteristics were evaluated, along with their surface and cross sectional microstructure. The PG diets had significantly higher water stability, bulk density, and protein solubility, along with a smoother surface. Tilapia fed the TS diet had lower growth than had all other tilapia, but were significantly improved when diet was pre-gelatinized. In the PG treatments, intestinal SCFA significantly decreased while plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver glycogen, significantly increased. Fish fed the CS diet had significantly more long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid than had those fed by other treatments. Pre-gelatinization may improve fish productivity and offer greater flexibility during aquafeed production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physicochemical properties of starches isolated from pumpkin compared with potato and corn starches.

    PubMed

    Przetaczek-Rożnowska, Izabela

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the selected physicochemical, thermal and rheological properties of pumpkin starches and compared with the properties of potato and corn starches used as control samples. Pumpkin starches could be used in the food industry as a free gluten starch. Better thermal and rheological properties could contribute to reduce the costs of food production. The syneresis of pumpkin starches was similar to that of potato starch but much lower than that for corn starch. Pasting temperatures of pumpkin starches were lower by 17-21.7°C and their final viscosities were over 1000cP higher than corn paste, but were close to the values obtained for potato starch. The thermodynamic characteristic showed that the transformation temperatures of pumpkin starches were lower than those measured for control starches. A level of retrogradation was much lower in pumpkin starch pastes (32-48%) than was in the case of corn (59%) or potato (77%) starches. The pumpkin starches gels were characterized by a much greater hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness, than potato or corn starches gels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  12. Starch characteristics influencing resistant starch content of cooked buckwheat groats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzyme resistant starch (RS), owing to its health benefits such as colon cancer inhibition, reduced glycemic response, reduced cholesterol level, prevention of gall stone formation and obesity, has received an increasing attention from consumers and food manufacturers, whereas intrinsic and extrinsi...

  13. Organic amaranth starch: A study of its technological properties after heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Bet, Camila Delinski; de Oliveira, Cristina Soltovski; Colman, Tiago André Denck; Marinho, Marina Tolentino; Lacerda, Luiz Gustavo; Ramos, Augusto Pumacahua; Schnitzler, Egon

    2018-10-30

    Organic amaranth starch (Amaranthus caudatus) was studied after heat-moisture treatment (HMT) using different moisture contents and different times. The starch extracted by the aqueous method presented low lipid and protein content. After HMT, an increase in the thermal stability was identified. The onset and peak temperatures were higher with an increase in moisture content and the times used in the modification. The gelatinisation enthalpy varied due to the heterogeneity of the crystals formed after the structural reorganisation caused by HMT. The relative crystallinity was lower for the physically modified starches. An increase in the pasting temperature was accompanied by a decrease in the viscosity, setback and breakdown, which were proportional to the moisture and time used. The morphology of the HMT-modified samples was not altered; however, agglomerations were noted. Low levels of dispersion homogeneity and suspension stability were observed for the modified samples due to the strong presence of agglomerates. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Continuous-flow electro-assisted acid hydrolysis of granular potato starch via inductive methodology.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Yang, Na; Jin, Yamei; Guo, Lunan; Zhou, Yuyi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2017-08-15

    The induced electric field assisted hydrochloric acid (IEF-HCl) hydrolysis of potato starch was investigated in a fluidic system. The impact of various reaction parameters on the hydrolysis rate, including reactor number (1-4), salt type (KCl, MgCl 2 , FeCl 3 ), salt concentration (3-12%), temperature (40-55°C), and hydrolysis time (0-60h), were comprehensively assessed. Under optimal conditions, the maximum reducing sugar content in the hydrolysates was 10.59g/L. X-ray diffraction suggested that the crystallinity of IEF-HCl-modified starches increased with the intensification of hydrolysis but was lower than that of native starch. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface and interior regions of starch granules were disrupted by the hydrolysis. The solubility of IEF-HCl-modified starches increased compared to native starch while their swelling power decreased, contributing to a decline in paste viscosity. These results suggest that IEF is a notable potential electrotechnology to conventional hydrolysis under mild conditions without any electrode touching the subject. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling the Effects of Ageing Time of Starch on the Enzymatic Activity of Three Amylolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Nelson P.; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of increasing ageing time (t) of starch on the activity of three amylolytic enzymes (Termamyl, San Super, and BAN) was investigated. Although all the enzymatic reactions follow michaelian kinetics, v max decreased significantly (P < 0.05) and K M increased (although not always significantly) with the increase in t. The conformational changes produced in the starch chains as a consequence of the ageing seemed to affect negatively the diffusivity of the starch to the active site of the enzymes and the release of the reaction products to the medium. A similar effect was observed when the enzymatic reactions were carried out with unaged starches supplemented with different concentrations of gelatine [G]. The inhibition in the amylolytic activities was best mathematically described by using three modified forms of the Michaelis-Menten model, which included a term to consider, respectively, the linear, exponential, and hyperbolic inhibitory effects of t and [G]. PMID:22666116

  16. Investigation on the pitting of potato starch granules during high frequency ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wenzhe; Hébraud, Pascal; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Hemar, Yacine

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the pitting of potato starch granules in aqueous suspensions (1%) by high-frequency high-power ultrasound (850kHz at a power of 0.2W, 2W or 3.7W; and also 500kHz and 1MHz at a power of 2W) is reported. The number of pits per starch granules was found to be independent of the amylose content of starches, and the surface properties of starch granules as modified through SDS and ethanol washing. At 850kHz, the maximum number of pits per starch granule, for both normal and waxy starches, did not exceed 11. However, a close inspection of fractionated starch granules based on their sizes showed that there is an optimum granule size for which a maximum pit number is obtained. For example, starch granules with diameter size range of ∼15 to ∼30μm had a maximum pit number (between 10 and 20 pits per granule) when sonicated (2W, 850kHz and 30min); while sonication of small (<10μm) and very large (>45μm) granules resulted in a smaller number of pits per granule (∼5). Further, the maximum number of pits per granules is also found to be proportional to the ultrasound frequency, with values of approximately 7, 10 and 11 at 0.50, 0.85, and 1MHz, respectively. FTIR measurements did not show any breakup of starch molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of amylose content and level of oxidation on the structural changes of acetylated corn starch and generation of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Sławomir; Fortuna, Teresa; Łabanowska, Maria; Juszczak, Lesław; Gałkowska, Dorota; Bączkowicz, Małgorzata; Kurdziel, Magdalena

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of starch oxidation on its acetylation, structure of starch granules, and generation of free radicals. Corn and waxy corn starches were oxidised by NaClO applied in doses of 10, 20, and 30g Cl/kg of starch, and then acetylated using acetic acid anhydride. The carboxyl, carbonyl, acetyl groups were determined in modified starches. Structural properties of starch granules were evaluated based on molecular weight distribution, gelatinisation, crystallinity, specific surface, intrinsic viscosity. EPR measurements were carried out to establish starch susceptibility to UV irradiation induced generation of free radicals. It was found that the number of carbon centered radicals was dependent on the kind of starch and its chemical modification. Study results allowed concluding that the applied modifications contributed to significant changes in starch granules that were determined not only by the amylose content of starch but also by the degree of its oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Simultaneous Abolition of Three Starch Hydrolases Blocks Transient Starch Breakdown in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Eicke, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which enzymes are involved in debranching amylopectin during transient starch degradation. Previous studies identified two debranching enzymes, isoamylase 3 (ISA3) and limit dextrinase (LDA), involved in this process. However, plants lacking both enzymes still degrade substantial amounts of starch. Thus, other enzymes/mechanisms must contribute to starch breakdown. We show that the chloroplastic α-amylase 3 (AMY3) also participates in starch degradation and provide evidence that all three enzymes can act directly at the starch granule surface. The isa3 mutant has a starch excess phenotype, reflecting impaired starch breakdown. In contrast, removal of AMY3, LDA, or both enzymes together has no impact on starch degradation. However, removal of AMY3 or LDA in addition to ISA3 enhances the starch excess phenotype. In plants lacking all three enzymes, starch breakdown is effectively blocked, and starch accumulates to the highest levels observed so far. This provides indirect evidence that the heteromultimeric debranching enzyme ISA1-ISA2 is not involved in starch breakdown. However, we illustrate that ISA1-ISA2 can hydrolyze small soluble branched glucans that accumulate when ISA3 and LDA are missing, albeit at a slow rate. Starch accumulation in the mutants correlates inversely with plant growth. PMID:23019330

  20. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2016-02-10

    Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure of New Zealand sweetpotato starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Xie, Qian

    2018-05-15

    New Zealand sweetpotatoes (kumara) (Ipomoea batatas) represent unique genetic resources for sweetpotato diversity, though they are much under-studied. In this study, 7 New Zealand sweetpotato varieties with commercial significance were collected for the characterization of the molecular and granular structure of the starches. In particular, the internal molecular structure of the amylopectins was detailed by chromatographic and enzymatic techniques. Maize and potato starches with normal amylose contents, which are among the most important commercial starch sources, were employed for comparison. The results revealed a degree of diversity in amylose composition, unit and internal chain composition, granule size distribution, and degree of crystallinity among the 7 sweetpotato starches. All the sweetpotato starches showed C A -type polymorph. The sweetpotato amylopectins have intermediate amounts of both short and long internal unit chains among amylopectins of different botanical sources. The differences in the structure of sweetpotato starches suggest differences in physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of starch digestion by α-amylase-Structural basis for kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Warren, Frederick J; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-03-24

    Recent studies of the mechanisms determining the rate and extent of starch digestion by α-amylase are reviewed in the light of current widely-used classifications for (a) the proportions of rapidly-digestible (RDS), slowly-digestible (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) based on in vitro digestibility, and (b) the types of resistant starch (RS 1,2,3,4…) based on physical and/or chemical form. Based on methodological advances and new mechanistic insights, it is proposed that both classification systems should be modified. Kinetic analysis of digestion profiles provides a robust set of parameters that should replace the classification of starch as a combination of RDS, SDS, and RS from a single enzyme digestion experiment. This should involve determination of the minimum number of kinetic processes needed to describe the full digestion profile, together with the proportion of starch involved in each process, and the kinetic properties of each process. The current classification of resistant starch types as RS1,2,3,4 should be replaced by one which recognizes the essential kinetic nature of RS (enzyme digestion rate vs. small intestinal passage rate), and that there are two fundamental origins for resistance based on (i) rate-determining access/binding of enzyme to substrate and (ii) rate-determining conversion of substrate to product once bound.

  3. Changes in protein and starch digestibility in sorghum flour during heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Vu, Thanh-Hien; Bean, Scott; Hsieh, Chao-Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure. Sorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg -1 w.b.) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120 and 140 °C) and times (1, 2 and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg -1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg -1 vs. 56 g kg -1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg -1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction. HMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Quantification of high-power ultrasound induced damage on potato starch granules using light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yue Yue J; Hébraud, Pascal; Hemar, Yacine; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-05-01

    A simple light microscopic technique was developed in order to quantify the damage inflicted by high-power low-frequency ultrasound (0-160 W, 20 kHz) treatment on potato starch granules in aqueous dispersions. The surface properties of the starch granules were modified using ethanol and SDS washing methods, which are known to displace proteins and lipids from the surface of the starch granules. The study showed that in the case of normal and ethanol-washed potato starch dispersions, two linear regions were observed. The number of defects first increased linearly with an increase in ultrasound power up to a threshold level. This was then followed by another linear dependence of the number of defects on the ultrasound power. The power threshold where the change-over occurred was higher for the ethanol-washed potato dispersions compared to non-washed potato dispersions. In the case of SDS-washed potato starch, although the increase in defects was linear with the ultrasound power, the power threshold for a second linear region was not observed. These results are discussed in terms of the different possible mechanisms of cavitation induced-damage (hydrodynamic shear stresses and micro-jetting) and by taking into account the hydrophobicity of the starch granule surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acetylation of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) starches using a microwave heating procedure and iodine as catalyst: II. Rheological and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Almanza-Benitez, Sirlen; Bello-Perez, Luis A; Mendez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Núñez-Santiago, María C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Gutierrez-Meráz, Felipe

    2013-02-15

    The effect of iodine concentration on the acetylation of starches with low and moderate degree of substitution (DS<0.5) and its impact on the physicochemical feature and structural features was evaluated. The acetylated starches were prepared with 0.03 mol anhydroglucose unit, 0.12 mol of anhydride acetic, and 0.6, 0.9 or 1.4 mM of molecular iodine as catalyst in a sealed Teflon vessel using microwave heating (600 W/2 min). Pasting profile and rheological properties were obtained under steady flow; dynamic oscillatory test was used. Structural features were obtained by HPSEC-RI. In acetylated starches, DS and acetyl groups increased when the iodine concentration increased, corn starch showed higher values than banana starch. The viscosity of acetylated starches decreased relative to unmodified starches while, acetylated corn starch had lower value than acetylated banana starch. In the flow curves, a non-Newtonian pattern (shear-thinning) was shown in the pastes of native and modified starches. Storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") showed low dependence on frequency (G'αω(0.1); G"αω(0.2)) on frequency sweep test, which is characteristic of a viscoelastic gel. Debranched native banana and corn starches presented trimodal chain-length distribution. The pattern was maintained in the acetylated starches, but with different level of short and long chains. The structural differences in native and acetylated samples explain the rheological characteristics in both starches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  7. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  8. Atomic force microscopy of starch systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-09-22

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) generates information on topography, adhesion, and elasticity of sample surface by touching with a tip. Under suitable experimental settings, AFM can image biopolymers of few nanometers. Starch is a major food and industrial component. AFM has been used to probe the morphology, properties, modifications, and interactions of starches from diverse botanical origins at both micro- and nano-structural levels. The structural information obtained by AFM supports the blocklet structure of the granules, and provides qualitative and quantitative basis for some physicochemical properties of diverse starch systems. It becomes evident that AFM can complement other microscopic techniques to provide novel structural insights for starch systems.

  9. The Effects of Treatments on Batu Banana Flour and Percentage of Wheat Substitution on The Resistant Starch, In Vitro Starch Digestibility Content and Palatability of Cookies Made with Banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) Flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasari, D.; Rustanti, N.; Arifan, F.; Afifah, DN

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disease worldwide. Resistant starch is polysaccharide that is recommended for DM patient diets. One of the staple crops containing resistant starch is banana. It is the fourth most important staple crop in the world and critical for food security, best suited plant in warm, frost-free, and coastal climates area. Among banana varieties, Batu bananas (Musa balbisiana Colla) had the highest content of resistant starch (~39%), but its use as a food ingredient is limited. Inclusion of Batu banana flour into cookies manufacturing would both increase the economic value of Batu bananas and provide alternative snacks for DM patients. Here we sought to examine whether cookies made with modified Batu banana flour would be a suitable snack for DM patients. This study used a completely randomized design with two factors: substitution of Batu banana flour (25%, 50%,75%) for wheat-based flour and Batu banana flour treatment methods (no treatment, autoclaving-cooling, autoclaving-cooling-spontaneous fermentation). The resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility levels were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test, whereas the acceptance level was analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. The content of resistant starch and in vitro starch digestibility of the different treatments ranged from 3.10 to 15.79% and 16.03 to 52.59%, respectively. Both factors differed significantly (p<0.05) with respect to Batu banana flour substitution, but not to processing method (p>0.05). Meanwhile, palatability in terms of color, aroma, texture, and flavor differed significantly among the different treatments and starch contents (p<0.05). Together these results show that Batu banana flour could be a promising ingredient for the production of snacks suitable for consumption by DM patients. Keywords: Batu banana, cookies, resistant starch, in vitro starch digestibility

  10. Combination process method of lactic acid hydrolysis and hydrogen peroxide oxidation for cassava starch modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumardiono, Siswo; Pudjihastuti, Isti; Budiyono, Hartanto, Hansen; Sophiana, Intan Clarissa

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the world's largest wheat importer, some research are conducted to find other carbohydrate sources which can replace wheat. Cassava is very easy to find and grown in tropical climates especially Indonesia. The research is focused on cassava starch modification as a substitute for wheat flour in order to reduce consumption of wheat flour. The aim of this research is to assess the effect of temperature, pH, and the concentration of H2O2 in modifying cassava starch which. The combination methods are lactic acid hydroxylation and hydrogen peroxide oxidation to improve baking expansion. The carboxyl group, carbonyl group, swelling power, starch solubility, and baking expansion of starch are analized and calculated. Results showed that the modified cassava starch can substitute wheat flour with optimum conditions process at a concentration of H2O2 is 1.5% w/w, oxidation temperature is 50°C, and pH is 3 by the value of swelling power is 6.82%, solubility is 0.02%, and baking expansion is 7.2 cm3/gram.

  11. Fractionation of oats into products enriched with protein, beta-glucan, starch, or other carbohydrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A modified wet method was developed to fractionate ground oat groats into 4 fractions enriched with beta-glucan (BG), protein, starch, and other carbohydrates (CHO), respectively. Effects of defatting oats and centrifuge force for separation were also investigated. Results show that, depending on ...

  12. Rheological properties of kuzu starch pastes with galactomannans.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Bertrand; Orczykowska, Magdalena; Dziubiński, Marek

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes the effects of galactomannans on viscoelastic properties of commercial Japanese white kuzu starch pastes. The study included morphological, thermal and rheological analyses of the biopolymer. The results obtained in the form of storage modulus G '( ω ) and loss modulus G ″( ω ) were described by the modified fractional Kelvin-Voigt model with two springpot-type elements, created on the basis of differential calculus of fractional order and Fourier transform. It allowed to determine 17 material parameters providing a lot of additional information about structure and viscoelastic properties of the biopolymer in comparison to the classical analysis of oscillatory and creep tests. The study led to the conclusion that commercial Japanese white kuzu starch was so-called type II starch with a high pasting temperature of 75 °C and an average granule diameter equal to 10.9 μm. Rheological properties of the pastes depended on the galactose-to-mannose ratio in galactomannan molecule. The larger substitution degree, the higher viscosity, characteristic relaxation times, polydispersity index, gel stiffness, and the lower cross-linking density and average molecular weights. The presence of galactose side groups favored the hydration and immobilization of water molecules.

  13. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineering yeasts for raw starch conversion.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, W H; Bloom, M; Viktor, M J

    2012-09-01

    Next to cellulose, starch is the most abundant hexose polymer in plants, an import food and feed source and a preferred substrate for the production of many industrial products. Efficient starch hydrolysis requires the activities of both α-1,4 and α-1,6-debranching hydrolases, such as endo-amylases, exo-amylases, debranching enzymes, and transferases. Although amylases are widely distributed in nature, only about 10 % of amylolytic enzymes are able to hydrolyse raw or unmodified starch, with a combination of α-amylases and glucoamylases as minimum requirement for the complete hydrolysis of raw starch. The cost-effective conversion of raw starch for the production of biofuels and other important by-products requires the expression of starch-hydrolysing enzymes in a fermenting yeast strain to achieve liquefaction, hydrolysis, and fermentation (Consolidated Bioprocessing, CBP) by a single organism. The status of engineering amylolytic activities into Saccharomyces cerevisiae as fermentative host is highlighted and progress as well as challenges towards a true CBP organism for raw starch is discussed. Conversion of raw starch by yeast secreting or displaying α-amylases and glucoamylases on their surface has been demonstrated, although not at high starch loading or conversion rates that will be economically viable on industrial scale. Once efficient conversion of raw starch can be demonstrated at commercial level, engineering of yeast to utilize alternative substrates and produce alternative chemicals as part of a sustainable biorefinery can be pursued to ensure the rightful place of starch converting yeasts in the envisaged bio-economy of the future.

  15. Starch-Branching Enzymes Preferentially Associated with A-Type Starch Granules in Wheat Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mingsheng; Gao, Ming; Båga, Monica; Hucl, Pierre; Chibbar, Ravindra N.

    2000-01-01

    Two starch granule-bound proteins (SGP), SGP-140 and SGP-145, were preferentially associated with A-type starch granules (>10 μm) in developing and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels. Immunoblotting and N-terminal sequencing suggested that the two proteins were different variants of SBEIc, a 152-kD isoform of wheat starch-branching enzyme. Both SGP-140 and SGP-145 were localized to the endosperm starch granules but were not found in the endosperm soluble fraction or pericarp starch granules younger than 15 d post anthesis (DPA). Small-size starch granules (<10 μm) initiated before 15 DPA incorporated SGP-140 and SGP-145 throughout endosperm development and grew into full-size A-type starch granules (>10 μm). In contrast, small-size starch granules harvested after 15 DPA contained only low amounts of SGP-140 and SGP-145 and developed mainly into B-type starch granules (<10 μm). Polypeptides of similar mass and immunologically related to SGP-140 and/or SGP-145 were also preferentially incorporated into A-type starch granules of barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), and triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) endosperm, which like wheat endosperm have a bimodal starch granule size distribution. PMID:10982441

  16. Characterisation of corn starch-based films reinforced with taro starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-01

    Taro starch nanoparticles (TSNPs) obtained by hydrolysis with pullulanase and the recrystallisation of gelatinised starch were used as reinforcing agents in corn starch films. The influence of TSNPs contents (0.5-15%) on the physical, mechanical, thermal, and structural properties of starch films was investigated. An increase in the concentration of TSNPs led to a significant decrease in the water vapour permeability (WVP) of films. The addition of TSNPs increased the tensile strength (TS) of films from 1.11 MPa to 2.87 MPa. Compared with pure starch films, the surfaces of nanocomposite films became uneven. The onset temperature (To) and melting temperature (Tm) of films containing TSNPs were higher than those of pure starch films. The addition of TSNPs improved the thermal stability of starch films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of down-regulation of starch branching enzyme IIb in rice by artificial microRNA- and hairpin RNA-mediated RNA silencing

    PubMed Central

    Butardo, Vito M.; Fitzgerald, Melissa A.; Bird, Anthony R.; Gidley, Michael J.; Flanagan, Bernadine M.; Larroque, Oscar; Resurreccion, Adoracion P.; Laidlaw, Hunter K. C.; Jobling, Stephen A.; Morell, Matthew K.; Rahman, Sadequr

    2011-01-01

    The inactivation of starch branching IIb (SBEIIb) in rice is traditionally associated with elevated apparent amylose content, increased peak gelatinization temperature, and a decreased proportion of short amylopectin branches. To elucidate further the structural and functional role of this enzyme, the phenotypic effects of down-regulating SBEIIb expression in rice endosperm were characterized by artificial microRNA (amiRNA) and hairpin RNA (hp-RNA) gene silencing. The results showed that RNA silencing of SBEIIb expression in rice grains did not affect the expression of other major isoforms of starch branching enzymes or starch synthases. Structural analyses of debranched starch showed that the doubling of apparent amylose content was not due to an increase in the relative proportion of amylose chains but instead was due to significantly elevated levels of long amylopectin and intermediate chains. Rices altered by the amiRNA technique produced a more extreme starch phenotype than those modified using the hp-RNA technique, with a greater increase in the proportion of long amylopectin and intermediate chains. The more pronounced starch structural modifications produced in the amiRNA lines led to more severe alterations in starch granule morphology and crystallinity as well as digestibility of freshly cooked grains. The potential role of attenuating SBEIIb expression in generating starch with elevated levels of resistant starch and lower glycaemic index is discussed. PMID:21791436

  18. Pasting characteristics of starch-lipid composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch-lipid composites (SLC) have been used as fat replacers and stabilizers in beef patties, dairy products, and baked goods. The SLC are produced by mixing aqueous starch slurry with a lipid source, and steam jet-cooking. The SLC may be dried using a drum drier and then milled in a Retch mill. ...

  19. Functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) starch.

    PubMed

    Mélo, E A; Stamford, T L M; Silva, M P C; Krieger, N; Stamford, N P

    2003-08-01

    The study was carried out in order to determine and establish the functional characters of starch extracted from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L) Urban) compared with cassava starch. Yam bean is a tropical tuber legume easily grown and holds a great potential as a new source of starch. Yam bean starch shows functional properties which are peculiar to those of most starch root crops. Gelatinization temperature (53-63 degrees C) and the pasting temperature (64.5 degrees C) are less than those of cereal starch, however, the swelling power is high (54.4 g gel/g dried starch). Yam bean starch paste presents a high viscosity profile, high retrogradation tendency and low stability on cooking. The functional properties of yam bean starch, similar to those of cassava starch, allows yam bean to be used as a potential new source of starch.

  20. Starch Structure Influences Its Digestibility: A Review.

    PubMed

    Magallanes-Cruz, Perla A; Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Bello-Perez, Luis A

    2017-09-01

    Twenty-five years ago, it was found that a significant fraction of the starch present in foods is not digested in the small intestine and continues to the large intestine, where it is fermented by the microbiota; this fraction was named resistant starch (RS). It was also reported that there is a fraction of starch that is slowly digested, sustaining a release of glucose in the small intestine. Later, health benefits were found to be associated with the consumption of this fraction, called slowly digestible starch (SDS). The authors declare both fractions to be "nutraceutical starch." An overview of the structure of both fractions (RS and SDS), as well as their nutraceutical characteristics, is presented with the objective of suggesting methods and processes that will increase both fractions in starchy foods and prevent diseases that are associated with the consumption of glycemic carbohydrates. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., packing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting, or holding food, subject to the... and paperboard intended for food packaging. β-Diethylaminoethyl chloride hydrochloride, not to exceed... and paperboard intended for food packaging. 2,3-Epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride, not to exceed 5...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., packing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting, or holding food, subject to the... and paperboard intended for food packaging. β-Diethylaminoethyl chloride hydrochloride, not to exceed... and paperboard intended for food packaging. 2,3-Epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride, not to exceed 5...

  3. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... phosphorus. 1-Octenyl succinic anhydride, not to exceed 3 percent 1-Octenyl succinic anhydride, not to exceed... beverage bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter. Phosphorus oxychloride, not to exceed 0.1 percent Phosphorus oxychloride, not to exceed 0.1 percent, followed by either acetic anhydride, not to...

  4. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... phosphorus. 1-Octenyl succinic anhydride, not to exceed 3 percent 1-Octenyl succinic anhydride, not to exceed... beverage bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter. Phosphorus oxychloride, not to exceed 0.1 percent Phosphorus oxychloride, not to exceed 0.1 percent, followed by either acetic anhydride, not to...

  5. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  6. Molecular disassembly of rice and lotus starches during thermal processing and its effect on starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-02-01

    The molecular disassembly of starch during thermal processing is a major determinant for the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion. In the present study, the effects of thermal processing on the disassembly of the granular structure and the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of rice and lotus starches were investigated. After heating at 50 °C, rice and lotus starches did not show significant changes in granular morphology, long-range crystallinity and short-range molecular order. As the temperature increased to 60 °C, rice starch underwent a partial gelatinization followed by an incomplete disruption of granular morphology, crystallites and molecular order. In contrast, lotus starch was almost completely gelatinized at 60 °C. At 70 °C or higher, both starches were fully gelatinized with complete disruption of the micro and macro structures. Our results show that gelatinization greatly increased the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of both starches, but that the degree of disassembly of the starch structure during thermal processing was not a major determinant of the digestibility of gelatinized starch.

  7. Development of starch based mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems for application in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Gök, Mehmet Koray; Özgümüş, Saadet; Demir, Kamber; Cirit, Ümüt; Pabuccuoğlu, Serhat; Cevher, Erdal; Özsoy, Yıldız; Bacınoğlu, Süleyman

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the mucoadhesive, biocompatible and biodegradable progesterone containing vaginal tablets based on modified starch copolymers for the estrus synchronization of ewes. Starch-graft-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers (S-g-PAA) were synthesized and characterized. The vaginal tablets were fabricated with S-g-PAA and their equilibrium swelling degree (Qe) and matrix erosion (ME%) were determined in lactate buffer solution. In vitro, mucoadhesive properties of the tablets were investigated by using ewe vaginal mucosa and in vivo residence time were also investigated. In vitro and in vivo progesterone release profiles from the tablets were compared with two commercial products. Tablet formulation containing wheat starch based grafted copolymer (WS-g-PAA)gc indicated promising results and might be convenient as an alternative product to the commercial products in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango (Mangifera indica) kernel starch.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Hasnain, Abid

    2016-12-01

    The effects of different concentrations of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango kernel starch (MKS) were studied. Both guar and xanthan gum enhanced the water absorption of MKS. The addition of xanthan gum appeared to reduce the SP (swelling power) and solubility at higher temperatures while guar gum significantly enhanced the SP as well as solubility of MKS. The addition of both gums produced a reinforcing effect on peak viscosity of MKS as compared to control. Pasting temperature of MKS was higher than that of starch modified by gums indicating ease of gelatinization. Guar gum played an accelerative effect on setback but xanthan gum delayed the setback phenomenon during the cooling of the starch paste. Both gums were found to be effective in reducing the syneresis while gel firmness was markedly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of resistant starch RS4 added to the high-fat diets on selected biochemical parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bronkowska, Monika; Orzeł, Dagmara; Łoźna, Karolina; Styczyńska, Marzena; Biernat, Jadwiga; Gryszkin, Artur; Zieba, Tomasz; Kapelko, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is part of potato starch that is not digested in the gastrointestinal tract. RS4 is a chemically modified starch (for example by oxidation and esterification) and physically (by heating). The study was aimed at determining the effect of resistant starch on lipid metabolism and activity of hepatic enzymes in Wistar strain rats fed high-fat diets containing 15% of lard or 15% of soybean oil. Four types of diets were administered to the animals (4 groups of males, n = 32): control diet (K1) containing 15% of soybean oil; control diet (K2) containing 15% of lard as well as two groups receiving the same diets with 10% addition of resistant starch RS4 (K1S and K2S). The mean concentration of total cholesterol was lower in the group of animals fed a diet with vegetable oil (39.9 mg/dl) as compared to that reported in the group of rats fed the lard-supplemented diet (55.2 mg/dl). Compared to the control groups in both groups of animals receiving the diet supplemented with resistant starch RS4 the total cholesterol concentration in serum decreased by ca. 25% (differences were statistically significant). In groups of rats receiving oil- or lard-containing diets with the addition of the resistant starch preparation the concentration of triglycerides in serum decreased by ca. 47% and 10%, respectively. A beneficial effect of the resistant starch RS4 added to Wistar rats diets on the lipid metabolism has been shown. The concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum were lower and concentration of HDL-cholesterol was higher in the rats fed with the diets containing the addition of the RS4 preparation as compared to the control groups. Based on the activity of hepatic enzymes the degree of liver damage was lower in groups of rats fed with diets containing resistant starch RS4 as compared to the control groups.

  10. Quinoa starch: Structure, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has gained popularity worldwide largely due to the attractive nutritional profile. It also has much potential for food security due to the great genetic diversity. Starch is the main component of quinoa grain and makes up to 70% of the dry matter. The starch plays a crucial role in functional properties of quinoa and related food products. The starch granules are rather small (∼1-3μm) with relatively low amylose contents as compared with most of the other starches. Quinoa amylopectin has significant amounts of short chains and super-long chains. These unique features have generated research interest in using the starch for food and other applications such as creating Pickering emulsions. This review summarizes the present knowledge of the isolation, composition, granular and molecular structures, physicochemical properties, modifications, and applications of quinoa starch. It becomes obvious that this starch has great potential for food and nonfood applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Starch digestibility: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Bello-Perez, Luis A; Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Tovar, Juscelino

    2018-02-10

    In the last century, starch present in foods was considered to be completely digested. However, during the 1980s, studies on starch digestion started to show that besides digestible starch, which could be rapidly or slowly hydrolysed, there was a variable fraction that resisted hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. That fraction was named resistant starch (RS) and it encompasses those forms of starch that are not accessible to human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota, producing short-chain fatty acids. RS has been classified into five types, depending on the mechanism governing its resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Early research on RS was focused on the methods to determine its content in foods and its physiological effects, including fermentability in the large intestine. Later on, due to the interest of the food industry, methods to increase the RS content of isolated starches were developed. Nowadays, the influence of RS on the gut microbiota is a relevant research topic owing to its potential health-related benefits. This review summarizes over 30 years of investigation on starch digestibility, its relationship with human health, the methods to produce RS and its impact on the microbiome. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of acetic acid on physical properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starch gels.

    PubMed

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Kaveh, Zahra; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2016-04-01

    Pregelatinized starches are physically modified starches with ability to absorb water and increase viscosity at ambient temperature. The main purpose of this study was to determine how different concentrations of acetic acid (0, 500, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg) can affect functional properties of pregelatinized wheat and corn starches (PGWS and PGCS, respectively) produced by a twin drum drier. With increasing acetic acid following changes occurred for both samples; cold water solubility (at 25 °C) increased, water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity (at 25 °C) reduced, the smooth surface of the starch particles converted to an uneven surface as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, cohesiveness, consistency and turbidity of the starch gels reduced while their syneresis increased. It was found that in presence of acetic acid, PGWS resulted in higher water absorption and apparent cold water viscosity and produced more cohesive and turbid gels with less syneresis compared to PGCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch altered by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hang; Fan, Huanhuan; Cao, Rong; Blanchard, Christopher; Wang, Min

    2016-11-01

    A nonthermal processing technology, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment, was investigated to assess its influence on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch (SS). There was no change in the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of SS after the pressure treatments at 120-480MPa. However, treatment at 600MPa produced a pattern similar to 'B'-type crystalline. HHP treatment also resulted in SS granules with rough surfaces. Measured amylose content, water absorption capacity, alkaline water retention, pasting temperature and thermostability increased with increasing pressure levels, while the oil absorption capacity, swelling power, relative crystallinity and viscosity decreased. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified SS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced amount of rapidly digestible starch, as well as increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results indicate that HHP treatment is an effective modification method for altering in vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of SS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodegradation of polystyrene-graft-starch copolymers in three different types of soil.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Vladimir; Velickovic, Sava; Popovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Materials based on polystyrene and starch copolymers are used in food packaging, water pollution treatment, and textile industry, and their biodegradability is a desired characteristic. In order to examine the degradation patterns of modified, biodegradable derivates of polystyrene, which may keep its excellent technical features but be more environmentally friendly at the same time, polystyrene-graft-starch biomaterials obtained by emulsion polymerization in the presence of new type of initiator/activator pair (potassium persulfate/different amines) were subjected to 6-month biodegradation by burial method in three different types of commercially available soils: soil rich in humus and soil for cactus and orchid growing. Biodegradation was monitored by mass decrease, and the highest degradation rate was achieved in soil for cactus growing (81.30%). Statistical analysis proved that microorganisms in different soil samples have different ability of biodegradation, and there is a significant negative correlation between the share of polystyrene in copolymer and degree of biodegradation. Grafting of polystyrene on starch on one hand prevents complete degradation of starch that is present (with maximal percentage of degraded starch ranging from 55 to 93%), while on the other hand there is an upper limit of share of polystyrene in the copolymer (ranging from 37 to 77%) that is preventing biodegradation of degradable part of copolymers.

  15. Starch nanoparticles resulting from combination of dry heating under mildly acidic conditions and homogenization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Eun Young; Kim, Jong-Yea

    2017-07-15

    To modify starch granular structure, normal maize starch was subjected to dry heating with various amounts of 1.0M HCl (1.2, 1.4 or 1.6mL) and different treatment times (2, 4 or 8h). For all reaction conditions, at least 80% of the starch substance was recovered, and amylose and amylopectin B1 chains were preferentially cleaved. As acidic condition and/or treatment time increased, the treated granules were readily fragmented by homogenization. The treatment appeared to alter short-range crystalline structure (FT-IR), but long-range crystalline structure (XRD) remained intact. Homogenization for 60min fragmented the treated starch granules (subjected to reaction condition of 1.4mL/4h, 1.6mL/2h, and 1.6mL/4h) into nanoparticles consisting of individual platelet-like and spherical particles with diameters less than 100nm. However, the fragmentation caused obvious damage in the long-range crystalline structure of starch nanoparticles, while the short-range chain associations remained relatively intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced starch granule number per chloroplast in the dpe2/phs1 mutant is dependent on initiation of starch degradation.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Irina; Fettke, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    An Arabidopsis double knock-out mutant lacking cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) and the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) revealed a dwarf-growth phenotype, reduced starch content, an uneven distribution of starch within the plant rosette, and a reduced number of starch granules per chloroplast under standard growth conditions. In contrast, the wild type contained 5-7 starch granules per chloroplast. Mature and old leaves of the double mutant were essentially starch free and showed plastidial disintegration. Several analyses revealed that the number of starch granules per chloroplast was affected by the dark phase. So far, it was unclear if it was the dark phase per se or starch degradation in the dark that was connected to the observed decrease in the number of starch granules per chloroplast. Therefore, in the background of the double mutant dpe2/phs1, a triple mutant was generated lacking the initial starch degrading enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD). The triple mutant showed improved plant growth, a starch-excess phenotype, and a homogeneous starch distribution. Furthermore, the number of starch granules per chloroplast was increased and was similar to wild type. However, starch granule morphology was only slightly affected by the lack of GWD as in the triple mutant and, like in dpe2/phs1, more spherical starch granules were observed. The characterized triple mutant was discussed in the context of the generation of starch granules and the formation of starch granule morphology.

  17. Reduced starch granule number per chloroplast in the dpe2/phs1 mutant is dependent on initiation of starch degradation

    PubMed Central

    Malinova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    An Arabidopsis double knock-out mutant lacking cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) and the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) revealed a dwarf-growth phenotype, reduced starch content, an uneven distribution of starch within the plant rosette, and a reduced number of starch granules per chloroplast under standard growth conditions. In contrast, the wild type contained 5–7 starch granules per chloroplast. Mature and old leaves of the double mutant were essentially starch free and showed plastidial disintegration. Several analyses revealed that the number of starch granules per chloroplast was affected by the dark phase. So far, it was unclear if it was the dark phase per se or starch degradation in the dark that was connected to the observed decrease in the number of starch granules per chloroplast. Therefore, in the background of the double mutant dpe2/phs1, a triple mutant was generated lacking the initial starch degrading enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD). The triple mutant showed improved plant growth, a starch-excess phenotype, and a homogeneous starch distribution. Furthermore, the number of starch granules per chloroplast was increased and was similar to wild type. However, starch granule morphology was only slightly affected by the lack of GWD as in the triple mutant and, like in dpe2/phs1, more spherical starch granules were observed. The characterized triple mutant was discussed in the context of the generation of starch granules and the formation of starch granule morphology. PMID:29155859

  18. Bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis spores encapsulated with amaranth derivatized starches: studies on the propagation "in vitro".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana Priscila García; Martínez, Marcela Gaytán; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Ibarra, Jorge E; Bustos, Fernando Martínez

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is one of the bioinsecticides used worldwide due to its specific toxicity against target pests in their larval stage. Despite this advantage, its use is limited because of their short persistence in field when exposed to ultra violet light and changing environmental conditions. In this work, microencapsulation has been evaluated as a promising method to improve Bt activity. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize native and modified amaranth starch granules and evaluate their potential application as wall materials in the microcapsulation of B thuringiensis serovar kurstaki HD-1 (Bt- HD1), produced by spray drying. Native amaranth starch granules were treated by hydrolyzation, high energy milling (HEM) and were chemically modified by phosphorylation and succinylation. The size of the Bt microcapsules varied from 12.99 to 17.14 μm adequate to protect the spores of Bt from ultraviolet radiation. The aw coefficient of the microcapsules produced by the modified starches after drying was low (0.14-1.88), which prevent microbial growth. Microcapsules prepared with phosphorylated amaranth starch presented the highest bacterial count and active material yield. Different concentrations of the encapsulated Bt formulation in phosphorylated amaranth starch showed a high level of insecticidal activity when tested on M. sexta larvae and has great potential to be developed as a bioinsecticide formulation, also, the level of toxicity is much higher than that found in some of the products commercially available.

  19. Distribution of branches in whole starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2014-05-21

    An earlier study explored the possibility of analyzing the distribution of branches directly in native, whole starch without isolating the amylopectin component. The aim of this study was to explore if this approach can be extended to include starch mutants. Whole starches from du1 maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with amylose content of ∼30-40% were characterized and compared with the wild type of the common genetic background W64A. Clusters were produced from whole starch by hydrolysis with α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their compositions of building blocks and chains were analyzed further by complete α-amylolysis and by debranching, respectively, whereafter the products were subjected to gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. The size and structure of the clusters were compared with those of their isolated amylopectin component. Whereas the whole starch of the wild type sample had a branched structure similar to that of its amylopectin component, the results showed that the du1 mutation resulted in more singly branched building blocks in the whole starch compared to the isolated amylopectin. This suggested that amylose and/or intermediate materials in whole du1 starches likely contributed to the composition of branches. This study explored an alternative procedure to characterize the composition of branches in the whole starch without fractionating the components.

  20. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Starch blockers--their effect on calorie absorption from a high-starch meal.

    PubMed

    Bo-Linn, G W; Santa Ana, C A; Morawski, S G; Fordtran, J S

    1982-12-02

    It has been known for more than 25 years that certain plant foods, such as kidney beans and wheat, contain a substance that inhibits the activity of salivary and pancreatic amylase. More recently, this antiamylase has been purified and marketed for use in weight control under the generic name "starch blockers." Although this approach to weight control is highly popular, it has never been shown whether starch-blocker tablets actually reduce the absorption of calories from starch. Using a one-day calorie-balance technique and a high-starch (100 g) meal (spaghetti, tomato sauce, and bread), we measured the excretion of fecal calories after normal subjects had taken either placebo or starch-blocker tablets. If the starch-blocker tablets had prevented the digestion of starch, fecal calorie excretion should have increased by 400 kcal. However, fecal calorie excretion was the same on the two test days (mean +/- S.E.M., 80 +/- 4 as compared with 78 +/- 2). We conclude that starch-blocker tablets do not inhibit the digestion and absorption of starch calories in human beings.

  2. Modified Antifreeze Liquids for Use on Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Report presents results of evaluation of two antifreeze liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol and five viscosity modifiers: gelatin, gum tragacanth, starch, agarose powder and citrus pectin. Purpose of evaluation to find best way of dealing with frost formation on Space Shuttle.

  3. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  5. The "Food Polymer Science" approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology.

    PubMed

    Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry

    2018-04-13

    This article reviews the application of the "Food Polymer Science" approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology. The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: (a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, based on "cryostabilization technology" of frozen foods, utilizing commercial starch hydrolysis products (SHPs); (b) glassy-matrix encapsulation technology for flavors and other volatiles, based on structure-function relationships for commercial SHPs; (c) production of stabilized whole-grain wheat flours for biscuit products, based on the application of "solvent retention capacity" technology to develop flours with reduced damaged starch; (d) production of improved-quality, low-moisture cookies and crackers, based on pentosanase enzyme technology; (e) production of "baked-not-fried," chip-like, starch-based snack products, based on the use of commercial modified-starch ingredients with selected functionality; (f) accelerated staling of a starch-based food product from baked bread crumb, based on the kinetics of starch retrogradation, treated as a crystallization process for a partially crystalline glassy polymer system; and (g) a process for producing an enzyme-resistant starch, for use as a reduced-calorie flour replacer in a wide range of grain-based food products, including cookies, extruded expanded snacks, and breakfast cereals.

  6. Effect of mineral elements on physicochemical properties of oxidised starches and generation of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Sławomir; Fortuna, Teresa; Królikowska, Karolina; Rogozińska, Ewelina; Labanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena

    2013-09-12

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of enrichment of oxidised starches with mineral compounds on their physicochemical properties and capability for free radical generation. Potato and spelt wheat starches were oxidised with sodium hypochlorite and, afterwards, modified with ions of potassium, magnesium and iron. The modified starches were analysed for: content of mineral elements, colour parameters (L*a*b*), water binding capacity solubility in water at temperature of 50 and 80 °C, and susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis with α-amylase. In addition, thermodynamic characteristics of gelatinisation was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the number and character of thermally generated free radicals was assayed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Based on the results achieved, it was concluded that the quantity of incorporated minerals and changes in the assayed physicochemical parameters depended not only on the botanical type of starch but also on the type of the incorporated mineral element. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and physicochemistry properties of smart edible films based on gelatin-starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tao, Furong; Shi, Chengmei; Cui, Yuezhi

    2018-04-24

    Among the natural polymers able to form edible films, starch and gelatin (Gel) are potential sources. Corn starch is a polysaccharide widely produced around the world, and gelatin differs from other hydrocolloids as a fully digestible protein, containing nearly all the essential amino acids, except tryptophan. Based on this, with advantages such as abundance, relatively low cost, biodegradability, and edibility, studies considering alternative systems for food protection that utilize biopolymers have increased significantly in the recent years. A novel macromolecular crosslinker Starch-BTCAD-NHS (starch - butanetetracarboxylic acid dianhydride - N-hydroxysuccinimide, SBN) was successfully prepared to modify gelatin film. Compared with the blank gelatin films, the resulting SBN-Gel films exhibited the improved surface hydrophobicity, the higher tense strength and elongation-at-break, the lower Young's modulus values, the greater opacity, the poorer water vapor uptake properties and better anti-degradation capacity. The modified gelatin film material with advanced properties obtained in this work was safe, stable eco-friendly and biorefractory, and was an ideal choice to form a packaging in food industry. Also, the crosslinking SBN-gelatin coating was effective in reducing the corruption and extending the shelf life for the peeled apple substantially. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of Extrusion Process of Directly Expanded Snacks Based on Potato Starch in a Single Step for the Formation of Type IV Resistant Starch.

    PubMed

    Calvo-López, Amira Daniela; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    Resistant starch type IV (RSIV) can be produced by chemical modifications (etherized or esterified) such as conversion, substitution, or cross-linking, which can prevent its digestion by blocking enzyme access and forming atypical linkages. In this research, the effects of barrel temperature (145.86-174.14 °C), the screw speed (42.93-57.07 Hz) and derivatization (esterification) in the formation of RSIV content of directly expanded snacks (second generation snacks) were studied. Potato starch was chemically modified by phosphorylation and succinylation, and expanded by using the extrusion cooking process. Snacks with phosphorylated starch showed expansion index from 2.57 to 3.23, bulk density from 306.19 to 479.00 kg/m 3 and RSIV from 43.27 to 55.81%. Snacks with succinylated starch had expansion index from 3.52 to 3.82, bulk density from 99.85 to 134.51 kg/m 3 and RSIV from 23.17 to 35.01%. The results found in this work showed that it is possible to manufacture extruded directly expanded snacks (second-generation snacks) such as a ready-to-eat (RTE) with good physicochemical properties and without substantial loss of extrusion functionality, which could bring a healthy benefit due to the presence of RSIV.

  9. Biodegradable starch-based polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, Anna I.; Tyukova, Irina S.; Trufanova, Elena I.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight additives, temperature and mechanical action on the structure and properties of starch are discussed. Special attention is given to mixtures of starch with synthetic polymers, e.g., co-polymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, cellulose derivatives and other natural polymers. These mixtures can be used in the development of novel environmentally safe materials (films, coatings, packaging materials) and various articles for short-term use. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  10. Dietary-resistant starch and glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Robertson, M Denise

    2012-07-01

    Recent findings in animal models suggest that resistant starch is beneficial for both body weight regulation and glycaemic control. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence and recommendations in humans. When resistant starch replaces available carbohydrate in a meal, postprandial glycaemia is reduced. There are some data to suggest that resistant starch may affect glycaemia even when the available carbohydrate portion remains constant; however, there is inconsistency in the literature. Recent animal data suggest that chronic resistant starch feeding upregulates glucagon-like peptide 1 expression in the large bowel with concomitant increases in neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus, combining to result in weight loss and improvements in glycaemic control. However, to date there is no evidence for this in humans. Resistant starch may have a role in glycaemic control in healthy individuals and those with type 2 diabetes; however, there are limited interventional trials in humans to support this. There are no data concerning resistant starch feeding in human diabetes and as such no health recommendation can be made.

  11. Effect of presence of sulphurdioxide on acetylation and sorption isotherm of acetylated starches from cultivars of cassava.

    PubMed

    Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin Faramade; Seidu, Kudirat Titilope; Mueller, Rudolf

    2014-05-15

    Starches from cultivars of cassava were modified with acetic anhydride. Treatment with sulphurdioxide was compared with native. The starches were evaluated for functional properties and moisture isotherms were calculated. Addition of 3.5% acetic anhydride resulted in starches with DS of 1.66% and 3.25% in sweet and bitter cultivars. Sweet starch alone will be applicable for food. Least gelation concentrations for the native were 14% and 10% against 6% and 8% acetylated samples, respectively. Degree of substitution (DS) was reduced with SO2 by 45% and 39% in sweet and bitter cultivar with 150 mg/kg starch, respectively. Swelling power and solubility increased with DS. Exudates from samples varied. Monolayer values of the starches were between 1.05% and 9.16% under 18 °C and 30 °C that simulated distribution and storage. R(2) value of water adsorbed and water activity ranged from 50% to 97%. X-ray patterns were not disrupted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Influence of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional properties of water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa) starch.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, Zubala; Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Hasnain, Abid; Haider, Syed Zia

    2017-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional and pasting properties of starch isolated from water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa). Morphological properties of water chestnut starch with CMC were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of hydrocolloids significantly enhanced the solubility of water chestnut starch (WCS) while reduced swelling power and freeze-thaw stability. The hydrophilic tendency of WCS was increased by xanthan gum; however, with addition of gum acacia it decreased significantly. Starch was modified with guar and gum acacia exhibited highest% syneresis. Guar gum was found to be effective in increasing the clarity of water chestnut starch paste. The addition of CMC significantly reduced the pasting temperature of WCS indicating ease of gelatinization. The setback was accelerated in the presence of xanthan gum but gum acacia delayed this effect during the cooling of the starch paste. Only xanthan gum was found to be effective in increasing breakdown showing good paste stability of WCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on multi-scale structures and physicochemical properties of breadfruit starch.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Xie, Fengwei; Li, Lin; Huang, Jidong

    2017-04-01

    Breadfruit starch was subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at different moisture content (MC). HMT did not apparently change the starch granule morphology but decreased the molecular weight and increased the amylose content. With increased MC, HMT transformed the crystalline structure (B→A+B→A) and decreased the relative crystallinity. With ≥25% MC, the scattering peak at ca. 0.6nm -1 disappeared, suggesting the lamellar structure was damaged. Compared with native starch, HMT-modified samples showed greater thermostability. Increased MC contributed to a higher pasting temperature, lower viscosity, and no breakdown. The pasting temperature of native and HMT samples ranged from 68.8 to 86.2°C. HMT increased the slowly-digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents. The SDS content was 13.24% with 35% MC, which was 10.25% higher than that of native starch. The increased enzyme resistance could be ascribed to the rearrangement of molecular chains and more compact granule structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resistant Starch and Starch Thermal Characteristics in Exotic Corn Lines Grown in Temperate and Tropical Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn as a food that is heated and cooled to allow starch retrogradation has higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Increasing the amount of RS can make corn an even healthier food and may be accomplished by breeding and selection, especially by using exotic germplasm. Sixty breeding lines of introg...

  16. Cecropia peltata Accumulates Starch or Soluble Glycogen by Differentially Regulating Starch Biosynthetic Genes[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Sylvain; Umhang, Martin; Eicke, Simona; Streb, Sebastian; Qi, Weihong; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2013-01-01

    The branched glucans glycogen and starch are the most widespread storage carbohydrates in living organisms. The production of semicrystalline starch granules in plants is more complex than that of small, soluble glycogen particles in microbes and animals. However, the factors determining whether glycogen or starch is formed are not fully understood. The tropical tree Cecropia peltata is a rare example of an organism able to make either polymer type. Electron micrographs and quantitative measurements show that glycogen accumulates to very high levels in specialized myrmecophytic structures (Müllerian bodies), whereas starch accumulates in leaves. Compared with polymers comprising leaf starch, glycogen is more highly branched and has shorter branches—factors that prevent crystallization and explain its solubility. RNA sequencing and quantitative shotgun proteomics reveal that isoforms of all three classes of glucan biosynthetic enzyme (starch/glycogen synthases, branching enzymes, and debranching enzymes) are differentially expressed in Müllerian bodies and leaves, providing a system-wide view of the quantitative programming of storage carbohydrate metabolism. This work will prompt targeted analysis in model organisms and cross-species comparisons. Finally, as starch is the major carbohydrate used for food and industrial applications worldwide, these data provide a basis for manipulating starch biosynthesis in crops to synthesize tailor-made polyglucans. PMID:23632447

  17. Preparation and characterization of non-crystalline granular starch and corresponding carboxymethyl starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Li, Xiaomin; Xie, Qiutao; Tao, Han; Wang, Wu; Chen, Han-Qing

    2017-10-01

    Native corn starch slurried in 50% ethanol solution was treated at 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 85°C, respectively. The resultant starches were investigated by polarized microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The Maltese cross of ethanol-heating treated starch gradually weaken with increasing temperature and completely disappeared at 85°C. SEM data indicated the treated granular exhibited a rougher surface with more pores and grooves than native starch granular, but the shape of the treated starch was still intact. DSC and XRD data confirmed ethanol-heating treated starch changed from crystalline to non-crystalline structure at 85°C. The highest degree of substitution (DS) and corresponding reaction efficiency (RE) for the carboxymethylation of native starch were 0.66 and 36.7%, respectively, while the corresponding DS and RE for non-crystalline granular starches increased by 0.29 and 16.1% at the same reaction condition, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Starch Spherulites Prepared by a Combination of Enzymatic and Acid Hydrolysis of Normal Corn Starch.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yaqian; Chao, Chen; Yu, Jinglin; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Shujun

    2018-06-13

    This paper describes a new method to prepare spherulites from normal corn starch by a combination of enzymatic (mixtures of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase) and acid hydrolysis followed by recrystallization of the hydrolyzed products. The resulting spherulites contained a higher proportion of chains with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 6-12 and a lower proportion of chains with DP of 25-36, compared to those of native starch. The spherulites had an even particle size of about 2 μm and a typical B-type crystallinity. The amounts of long- and short-range molecular order of double helices in starch spherulites were larger, but the quality of starch crystallites was poorer, compared to that of native starch. This study showed an efficient method for preparing starch spherulites with uniform granule morphology and small particle size from normal corn starch. The ratios of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase in enzymatic hydrolysis had little effect on the structure of the starch spherulites.

  19. Effect of waxy rice flour and cassava starch on freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gels.

    PubMed

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Preechathammawong, Nutsuda

    2012-10-01

    Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistant starch type V formation in brown lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) starch with different lipids/fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Okumus, Bahar Nur; Tacer-Caba, Zeynep; Kahraman, Kevser; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize the brown lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) starch and investigate the formation of amylose-lipid complexes (Resistant Starch Type V) by the addition of different lipids/fatty acids (10%, w/w) to both raw and cooked starch samples. Resistant starch content (measured by the official method of AACCI (Method 32-40), using the resistant starch assay kit) of raw brown lentil starch (BLS) increased significantly by the additions of lipids/fatty acids, starch sample complexed with HSO (hydrogenated sunflower oil) (14.1±0.4%) being the highest. For the cooked starch/lipid complexes, more profound effect was evident (22.2-67.7%). Peak, breakdown and trough viscosity values of the amylose-lipid complexed starches were significantly lower than that of BLS (p<0.05), while significant decreases in the setback and final viscosities were only detected in oil samples, but not in fatty acids. Each lipid in concern exerted different effects on the digestibility of starch and amylose-lipid complex formation while having no substantial differential effects on the thermal properties of starch depicted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Amylose-lipid complex formation with suitable fatty acids/lipids seems a promising way of increasing resistant starch content of food formulations. Although the applications being quite uncommon yet, brown lentil seems to have potential both as a starch and also as a resistant starch source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rice Starch Particle Interactions at Air/Aqueous Interfaces—Effect of Particle Hydrophobicity and Solution Ionic Strength

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, Cathy E.; Sato, Yu; Wiege, Berthold; Furikado, Ippei; Marefati, Ali; Nylander, Tommy; Kappl, Michael; Rayner, Marilyn

    2018-01-01

    Starch particles modified by esterification with dicarboxylic acids to give octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch is an approved food additive that can be used to stabilize oil in water emulsions used in foods and drinks. However, the effects of the OSA modification of the starch particle on the interfacial interactions are not fully understood. Here, we directly measured the packing of films of rice starch granules, i.e., the natural particle found inside the plant, at air/aqueous interfaces, and the interaction forces in that system as a function of the particle hydrophobicity and ionic strength, in order to gain insight on how starch particles can stabilize emulsions. This was achieved by using a combined Langmuir trough and optical microscope system, and the Monolayer Interaction Particle Apparatus. Native rice starch particles were seen to form large aggregates at air/water interfaces, causing films with large voids to be formed at the interface. The OSA modification of the rice starches particles decreased this aggregation. Increasing the degree of modification improved the particle packing within the film of particles at the air/water interface, due to the introduction of inter-particle electrostatic interactions within the film. The introduction of salt to the water phase caused the particles to aggregate and form holes within the film, due to the screening of the charged groups on the starch particles by the salt. The presence of these holes in the film decreased the stiffness of the films. The effect of the OSA modification was concluded to decrease the aggregation of the particles at an air/water interface. The presence of salts, however, caused the particles to aggregate, thereby reducing the strength of the interfacial film. PMID:29868551

  2. Rice Starch Particle Interactions at Air/Aqueous Interfaces-Effect of Particle Hydrophobicity and Solution Ionic Strength.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Cathy E; Sato, Yu; Wiege, Berthold; Furikado, Ippei; Marefati, Ali; Nylander, Tommy; Kappl, Michael; Rayner, Marilyn

    2018-01-01

    Starch particles modified by esterification with dicarboxylic acids to give octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch is an approved food additive that can be used to stabilize oil in water emulsions used in foods and drinks. However, the effects of the OSA modification of the starch particle on the interfacial interactions are not fully understood. Here, we directly measured the packing of films of rice starch granules, i.e., the natural particle found inside the plant, at air/aqueous interfaces, and the interaction forces in that system as a function of the particle hydrophobicity and ionic strength, in order to gain insight on how starch particles can stabilize emulsions. This was achieved by using a combined Langmuir trough and optical microscope system, and the Monolayer Interaction Particle Apparatus. Native rice starch particles were seen to form large aggregates at air/water interfaces, causing films with large voids to be formed at the interface. The OSA modification of the rice starches particles decreased this aggregation. Increasing the degree of modification improved the particle packing within the film of particles at the air/water interface, due to the introduction of inter-particle electrostatic interactions within the film. The introduction of salt to the water phase caused the particles to aggregate and form holes within the film, due to the screening of the charged groups on the starch particles by the salt. The presence of these holes in the film decreased the stiffness of the films. The effect of the OSA modification was concluded to decrease the aggregation of the particles at an air/water interface. The presence of salts, however, caused the particles to aggregate, thereby reducing the strength of the interfacial film.

  3. Rice starch particle interactions at air/aqueous interfaces– effect of particle hydrophobicity and solution ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Cathy E.; Sato, Yu; Wiege, Berthold; Furikado, Ippei; Marefati, Ali; Nylander, Tommy; Kappl, Michael; Rayner, Marilyn

    2018-05-01

    Starch particles modified by esterification with dicarboxylic acids to give octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch is an approved food additive that can be used to stabilize oil in water emulsions used in foods and drinks. However, the effects of the OSA modification of the starch particle on the interfacial interactions are not fully understood. Here, we directly measured the packing of films of rice starch granules, i.e. the natural particle found inside the plant, at air/aqueous interfaces and the interaction forces in that system as a function of the particle hydrophobicity and ionic strength, in order to gain insight on how starch particles can stabilize emulsions. This was achieved by using a combined Langmuir trough and optical microscope system, and the Monolayer Interaction Particle Apparatus. Native rice starch particles were seen to form large aggregates at air/water interfaces, causing films with large voids to be formed at the interface. The OSA modification of the rice starches particles decreased this aggregation. Increasing the degree of modification improved the particle packing within the film of particles at the air/water interface, due to the introduction of inter-particle electrostatic interactions within the film. The introduction of salt to the water phase caused the particles to aggregate and form holes within the film, due to the screening of the charged groups on the starch particles by the salt. The presence of these holes in the film decreased the stiffness of the films. The effect of the OSA modification was concluded to decrease the aggregation of the particles at an air/water interface. The presence of salts, however, caused the particles to aggregate, thereby reducing the strength of the interfacial film.

  4. Effects of pH and Salts on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Pea Starch Films.

    PubMed

    Choi, W S; Patel, D; Han, J H

    2016-07-01

    To identify the significant contribution of intermolecular hydrogen bonds of starch molecules to the film structure formation, pH of film-forming solutions was adjusted and also various salts (NaCl, CaCl2 , CaSO4 , and K2 SO4 ) were mixed into the glycerol-plasticized pea starch film. The film made from pH 7 possessed the highest tensile strength-at-break (2 times) and elastic modulus (4 to 15 times) and the lowest elongation-at-break compared with those of the films made from acid and alkali environments. The pH 7 film also has the highest film density and the lowest total soluble matter. At the level of 0.01 to 0.1 M of CaSO4 and 0.1 M of K2 SO4 in a kilogram of starch, the water solubility of the film increased, while chloride salts slightly lowered the solubility. NaCl and CaSO4 reduced water vapor permeability (WVP), while CaCl2 slightly increased WVP at 0.01 and 0.06 M concentrations, and K2 SO4 significantly increased WVP at 0.03 and 0.15 M. Presence of salts increased tensile strength (5 to 14 times than the control films) and elastic modulus (35 to 180 times) of starch film at 0.01 to 0.03 M of CaSO4 and K2 SO4 . Elongation-at-break increased significantly as salt concentration increases to an optimal level. However, when the concentration exceeded above the optimal level, the E of starch films decreased and showed no significant difference from the control film. Overall, the addition of salts modified physical and mechanical properties of pea starch films more than pH adjustment without any salt addition. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Starch phosphorylation in potato tubers is influenced by allelic variation in the genes encoding glucan water dikinase, starch branching enzymes I and II, and starch synthase III

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Margaret A.; Joyce, Nigel I.; Genet, Russell A.; Cooper, Rebecca D.; Murray, Sarah R.; Noble, Alasdair D.; Butler, Ruth C.; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch phosphorylation is a complex trait which has been previously shown by antisense gene repression to be influenced by a number of genes including those involved in starch synthesis and degradation. We have used an association mapping approach to discover genetic markers associated with the degree of starch phosphorylation. A diverse collection of 193 potato lines was grown in replicated field trials, and the levels of starch phosphorylation at the C6 and C3 positions of the glucosyl residues were determined by mass spectrometry of hydrolyzed starch from tubers. In addition, the potato lines were genotyped by amplicon sequencing and microsatellite analysis, focusing on candidate genes known to be involved in starch synthesis. As potato is an autotetraploid, genotyping included determination of allele dosage. Significant associations (p < 0.001) were found with SNPs in the glucan water dikinase (GWD), starch branching enzyme I (SBEI) and the starch synthase III (SSIII) genes, and with a SSR allele in the SBEII gene. SNPs in the GWD gene were associated with C6 phosphorylation, whereas polymorphisms in the SBEI and SBEII genes were associated with both C6 and C3 phosphorylation and the SNP in the SSIII gene was associated with C3 phosphorylation. These allelic variants have potential as genetic markers for starch phosphorylation in potato. PMID:25806042

  6. Evaluation studies on the combined effect of hydrothermal treatment and octenyl succinylation on the physic-chemical, structural and digestibility characteristics of sweet potato starch.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qing-Qing; Li, Gao-Yang; Xie, Qiu-Tao; Zhang, Bao; Li, Xiao-Min; Pan, Yi; Chen, Han-Qing

    2018-08-01

    In order to increase the degree of substitution (DS), a combination of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and octenyl succinylation (OSA) was used to modify sweet potato starch (SPS). The content of OSA had significant influence on the DS of starch, and DS of HMT OSA-modified SPS (HOSA-SPS) was higher than that of OSA-modified SPS (OSA-SPS), indicating that prior HMT could enhance the reaction. HOSA-SPS showed higher contents of SDS and RS in comparison with OSA-SPS as OSA concentration was beyond 6%. HMT decreased swelling power of starch while OSA modification had a contrary role (p < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed starch was destroyed by OSA modification while HMT had slight effect on the structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystal type of starch was transformed from C- to A-type resulted from HMT, and remained unchanged by OSA modification. The onset, peak, and conclusion gelatinization temperatures of starch increased by HMT and decreased by OSA modification (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical and structural changes induced by high pressure on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Mariotti, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    The impact of high pressure (HP) processing on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour was investigated as a function of pressure level (400MPa; 600MPa), pressure holding time (5min; 10min), and temperature (20°C; 40°C). Samples were pre-conditioned (final moisture level: 40g/100g) before HP treatments. Both the HP treated and the untreated raw materials were evaluated for pasting properties and solvent retention capacity, and investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Different pasting behaviors and solvent retention capacities were evidenced according to the applied pressure. Corn starch presented a slower gelatinization trend when treated at 600MPa. Corn starch and rice flour treated at 600MPa showed a higher retention capacity of carbonate and lactic acid solvents, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry and environmental scanning electron microscopy investigations highlighted that HP affected the starch structure of rice flour and corn starch. Few variations were evidenced in waxy rice flour. These results can assist in advancing the HP processing knowledge, as the possibility to successfully process raw samples in a very high sample-to-water concentration level was evidenced. This work investigates the effect of high pressure as a potential technique to modify the processing characteristics of starchy materials without using high temperature. In this case the starches were processed in the powder form - and not as a slurry as in previously reported studies - showing the flexibility of the HP treatment. The relevance for industrial application is the possibility to change the structure of flour starches, and thus modifying the processability of the mentioned products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    PubMed

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.

  9. Physicochemical properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum) starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Mojel, Reuben; Li, Guantian

    2018-02-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is among the most popular spices around the world. Starch is the major component of black pepper. However, little is known about functional properties of this starch. In this study, swelling, solubility, thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility of 2 black pepper starches were studied and compared with those of maize starch. Pepper starch had lower water solubility and swelling power than maize starch. It had higher viscosity during pasting event. In dynamic oscillatory analysis, pepper starch had lower storage modulus. Thermal analysis showed that pepper starch had much higher gelatinization temperatures (e.g., conclusion temperature of 94°C) than maize starch. The susceptibility to α-amylolysis of pepper starch was not very different from that of maize starch. Overall, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the 2 pepper starches are non-significant. The relationships between structure (especially amylopectin internal molecular structure) and properties of starch components are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed “resistant starch” (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For gelatinized starch, a very high content of RS (65 %) was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%). The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch branching enzymes. We

  11. Molecular structure, functionality and applications of oxidized starches: A review.

    PubMed

    Vanier, Nathan Levien; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; da Rosa Zavareze, Elessandra

    2017-04-15

    During oxidation, the hydroxyl groups of starch molecules are first oxidized to carbonyl groups, then to carboxyl groups. The contents of the carbonyl and carboxyl groups in a starch molecule therefore indicate the extent of starch oxidation. The mechanisms of starch oxidation with different oxidizing agents, including sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and sodium periodate, are described in this review. The effects of these oxidizing agents on the molecular, physicochemical, thermal, pasting and morphological properties of starch are described as well. In addition, the main industrial applications of oxidized starches are presented. The present review is important for understanding the effects of oxidation on starch properties, and this information may facilitate the development of novel oxidized starches for both food and non-food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphological, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Starches from Maize Mutants Deficient in Starch Synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Li, Guantian

    2016-08-31

    Morphological, thermal, and rheological properties of starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with a common genetic background (W64A) were studied and compared with the wild type. SSIII deficiency reduced granule size of the starches from 16.7 to ∼11 μm (volume-weighted mean). Thermal analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased the enthalpy change of starch during gelatinization. Steady shear analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased the consistency coefficient and yield stress during steady shearing, whereas additional deficiency in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) increased these values. Dynamic oscillatory analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased G' at 90 °C during heating and increased it when the paste was cooled to 25 °C at 40 Hz during a frequency sweep. Additional GBSS deficiency further decreased the G'. Structural and compositional bases responsible for these changes in physical properties of the starches are discussed. This study highlighted the relationship between SSIII and some physicochemical properties of maize starch.

  13. Measurement of resistant starch by enzymatic digestion in starch and selected plant materials: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; McNally, Marian; Rossiter, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Interlaboratory performance statistics was determined for a method developed to measure the resistant starch (RS) content of selected plant food products and a range of commercial starch samples. Food materials examined contained RS (cooked kidney beans, green banana, and corn flakes) and commercial starches, most of which naturally contain, or were processed to yield, elevated RS levels. The method evaluated was optimized to yield RS values in agreement with those reported for in vivo studies. Thirty-seven laboratories tested 8 pairs of blind duplicate starch or plant material samples with RS values between 0.6 (regular maize starch) and 64% (fresh weight basis). For matrixes excluding regular maize starch, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values ranged from 1.97 to 4.2%, and reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) values ranged from 4.58 to 10.9%. The range of applicability of the test is 2-64% RS. The method is not suitable for products with <1% RS (e.g., regular maize starch; 0.6% RS). For such products, RSDr and RSDR values are unacceptably high.

  14. Physical characterisation of high amylose maize starch and acylated high amylose maize starches.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ya-Mei; Hoobin, Pamela; Ying, DanYang; Burgar, Iko; Gooley, Paul R; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2015-03-06

    The particle size, water sorption properties and molecular mobility of high amylose maize starch (HAMS) and high amylose maize starch acylated with acetate (HAMSA), propionate (HAMSP) and butyrate (HAMSB) were investigated. Acylation increased the mean particle size (D(4,3)) and lowered the specific gravity (G) of the starch granules with an inverse relationship between the length of the fatty acid chain and particle size. Acylation of HAMS with fatty acids lowered the monolayer moisture content with the trend being HAMSBstarch granules by NMR spectroscopy with Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CMPG) experiments showed that T2 long was reduced in acylated starches and that drying and storage of the starch granules further reduced T2 long. Analysis of the Free Induction Decay (FID) focussing on the short components of T2 (correlated to the solid matrix), indicated that drying and subsequent storage resulted in alterations of starch at 0.33a(w) and that these changes were reduced with acylation. In vitro enzymatic digestibility of heated starch dispersions by bacterial α-amylase was increased by acylation (HAMSstarch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Starch and starch hydrolysates are favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria in the human gut.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songling; Ren, Fazheng; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Lu; Hao, Yanling; Jin, Junhua; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Lei, Xingen; Sun, Erna; Liu, Hongna

    2015-03-01

    Bifidobacteria are key commensals in human gut, and their abundance is associated with the health of their hosts. Although they are dominant in infant gut, their number becomes lower in adult gut. The changes of the diet are considered to be main reason for this difference. Large amounts of whole-genomic sequence data of bifidobacteria make it possible to elucidate the genetic interpretation of their adaptation to the nutrient environment. Among the nutrients in human gut, starch is a highly fermentable substrate and can exert beneficial effects by increasing bifidobacteria and/or being fermented to short chain fatty acids. In order to determine the potential substrate preference of bifidobacteria, we compared the glycoside hydrolase (GH) profiles of a pooled-bifidobacterial genome (PBG) with a representative microbiome (RM) of the human gut. In bifidobacterial genomes, only 15% of GHs contained signal peptides, suggesting their weakness in utilization of complex carbohydrate, such as plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, compared with other intestinal bacteria, bifidobacteiral genomes encoded more GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates, indicating that they have genetic advantages in utilizing these substrates. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68 isolated from centenarian's faeces was used as a model strain to further investigate the carbohydrate utilization. The pathway for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates was the only complete pathway for complex carbohydrates in human gut. It is noteworthy that all of the GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates in the BBMN68 genome were conserved in all studied bifidobacterial strains. The in silico analyses of BBMN68 were further confirmed by growth experiments, proteomic and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analyses. Our results demonstrated that starch and starch hydrolysates were the most universal and favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria. The low amount of these

  16. A comparison of the stability of beverage cloud emulsions formulated with different gum acacia- and starch-based emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Reiner, S J; Reineccius, G A; Peppard, T L

    2010-06-01

    The performance of several hydrocolloids (3 gum acacias, 1 modified gum acacia, and 3 modified starches) in stabilizing beverage emulsions and corresponding model beverages was investigated employing different core materials, emulsifier usage levels, and storage temperatures. Concentrated emulsions were prepared using orange terpenes or Miglyol 812 (comprising medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) weighted 1:1 with ester gum, stored at 25 or 35 degrees C, and analyzed on days 0, 1, and 3. On day 3, model beverages were made from each emulsion, stored at both temperatures, and analyzed weekly for 4 wk. Stability of concentrated emulsions was assessed by measuring mean particle size and by visual observations of ringing; beverage stability was judged similarly and also by loss of turbidity. Particle size measurements showed concentrated emulsions containing gum acacia or modified gum acacia with either core material were stable over 3 d storage at both temperatures whereas those made with modified starches were not, destabilization being faster at 35 degrees C. Beverages based on orange terpenes, in contrast to Miglyol, yielded smaller mean particle sizes, both on manufacture and during storage, regardless of hydrocolloid used. Visual observations of ringing generally supported this finding. Modified gum acacia was evaluated at both recommended and higher usage levels, stability increasing in the latter case. In general, all gum acacia and modified gum acacia emulsifiers were superior in stability to those based on modified starches, at either temperature, for orange terpene-based beverages. In Miglyol-based beverages, similar results were seen, except 1 modified starch performed as well as the gum acacia products.

  17. Preliminary Investigation to Determine the Suitable Mixture Composition for Corn Starch Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huzaimi Zakaria, Nazri; Ngali, Zamani; Zulkefli Selamat, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    The use of natural fiber as reinforcement in polymeric composites has been seen a dramatically increase over the last decades. The surge in the interest of natural fiber composite or biodegradable composite is mainly due to the attractive cost of production, improved of hardness, better fatigue endurance and good thermal and mechanical resistivity. In this work, corn starch in the form of powder is utilized as the matrix of the composite. However, starch is brittle and has low strength make it inappropriate candidate for matrix binder. The main objective of this study is to modify the mechanical properties of pure corn starch by mixing it with water, glycerol and vinegar. The composition ratio of water is 60~80%, corn starch 10~35%, glycerol is 5~15% and vinegar is 0~5%, ten samples (A-J) have been manufactured and the best mixture composition is selected based on few selection criteria. The selection criteria are visual impaction, hardness and density. From the results, the samples without vinegar are not suitable to be used because of the fungus availability on the surface. Meanwhile the results from the samples with 5 ml vinegar have no fungus on their surface even has been exposed to the ambient air. While the sample C has shown the best sample based on the visual, hardness and density test.

  18. Preparation and physico-chemical properties of hydrogels from carboxymethyl cassava starch crosslinked with citric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonkham, Sasikan; Sangseethong, Kunruedee; Chatakanon, Pathama; Niamnuy, Chalida; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Sriroth, Klanarong

    2014-06-01

    Recently, environmentally friendly hydrogels prepared from renewable bio-based resources have drawn significant attention from both industrial and academic sectors. In this study, chemically crosslinked hydrogels have been developed from cassava starch which is a bio-based polymer using a non-toxic citric acid as a crosslinking agent. Cassava starch was first modified by carboxymethylation to improve its water absorbency property. The carboxymethyl cassava starch (CMCS) obtained was then crosslinked with citric acid at different concentrations and reaction times. The gel fraction of hydrogels increased progressively with increasing citric acid concentration. Free swelling capacity of hydrogels in de-ionized water, saline solution and buffers at various pHs as well as absorption under load were investigated. The results revealed that swelling behavior and mechanical characteristic of hydrogels depended on the citric acid concentration used in reaction. Increasing citric acid concentration resulted in hydrogels with stronger network but lower swelling and absorption capacity. The cassava starch hydrogels developed were sensitive to ionic strength and pH of surrounding medium, showing much reduced swelling capacity in saline salt solution and acidic buffers.

  19. Development of functional milk desserts enriched with resistant starch based on consumers' perception.

    PubMed

    Ares, Florencia; Arrarte, Eloísa; De León, Tania; Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2012-10-01

    Sensory characteristics play a key role in determining consumers' acceptance of functional foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to apply a combination of sensory and consumer methodologies to the development of chocolate milk desserts enriched with resistant starch. Chocolate milk desserts containing modified waxy maize starch were formulated with six different concentrations of two types of resistant starch (which are part of insoluble dietary fiber). The desserts were evaluated by trained assessors using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Moreover, consumers scored their overall liking and willingness to purchase and answered an open-ended question. Resistant starch caused significant changes in the sensory characteristics of the desserts and a significant decrease in consumers' overall liking and willingness to purchase. Consumer data was analyzed applying survival analysis on overall liking scores, considering the risk on consumers liking and willing to purchase the functional products less than their regular counterparts. The proposed methodologies proved to be useful to develop functional foods taking into account consumers' perception, which could increase their success in the market.

  20. Insights into molecular structure and digestion rate of oat starch.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinchuan; Kuang, Qirong; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Xingxun; Wang, Shujun

    2017-04-01

    The in vitro digestibility of oat starch and its relationship with starch molecular structure was investigated. The in vitro digestion results showed that the first-order kinetic constant (k) of oat starches (OS-1 and OS-2) was lower than that of rice starch. The size of amylose chains, amylose content and degree of branching (DB) of amylopectin in oat starch were significantly higher than the corresponding parameters in rice starch. The larger molecular size of oat starch may account for its lower digestion rate. The fine structure of amylopectin showed that oat starch had less chains of DP 6-12 and DP>36, which may explain the small difference in digestion rate between oat and rice starch. The biosynthesis model from oat amylopectin fine structure data suggested a lower starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity and/or a higher starch synthase (SS) activity, which may decrease the DB of oat starch and increase its digestion rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Wild Potato Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately 20% of potato tuber fresh weight is starch, which is composed of amylose (straight chains of glucose) and amylopectin (branched chains). Potato starch is low in amylose (~25%), but high amylose starch has superior nutritional qualities. Amylose content has been determined in tuber samp...

  2. Amylose Content in Tuber Starch of Potato Cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato tuber is mostly water and starch. Approximately 20% of fresh tuber weight is the starch and the remainder is water. Most of the starch in the tuber, approximately 75%, is amylopectin and 25% amylose, but can vary depending on the cultivar. A total of 162 American (85) and foreign (77) potato ...

  3. Recent processing methods for preparing starch-based bioproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is currently an intense interest in starch-based materials because of the low cost of starch, the replacement of dwindling petroleum-based resources with annually-renewable feedstocks, the biodegradability of starch-based products, and the creation of new markets for farm commodities. Non-trad...

  4. Starch-based Foam Composite Materials: processing and bioproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch is an abundant, biodegradable, renewable and low-cost commodity that has been explored as a replacement for petroleum-based plastics. By itself, starch is a poor replacement for plastics because of its moisture sensitivity and brittle properties. Efforts to improve starch properties and funct...

  5. Extrusion and characterization of thermoplastic starch sheets from "macho" banana.

    PubMed

    Alanís-López, P; Pérez-González, J; Rendón-Villalobos, R; Jiménez-Pérez, A; Solorza-Feria, J

    2011-08-01

    Starch isolated from macho banana was oxidized by using 2.5% and 3.5% (w/w) of sodium hypochlorite. Native and oxidized starches with glycerol were processed using a conical twin screw extruder to obtain thermoplastic laminates or sheets, which were partially characterized. Oxidized banana starches presented higher moisture and total starch but lower ash, protein, lipids, and apparent amylose content than the native starch. Micrographs of sheets from oxidized starches showed wrinkles and cavities presumably caused by the plasticizer, but with less free glycerol and unplasticized starch granules than those from native starch. Sheets from oxidized starch showed a notorious increase in all thermal parameters (To, Tp, and ΔH), mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, and elasticity), and solubility. Banana starch X-ray diffraction patterns corresponded to a mixture of the A- and B-type polymorphs, with apparently slightly higher crystallinity in oxidized specimens than in native starch. A similar trend was observed in the corresponding sheets. Due to the pollution problem caused by the conventional plastics, there has been a renewed interest in biodegradable sheets, because they may have the potential to replace conventional packaging materials. Banana starch might be an interesting raw material to be used as edible sheet, coating or in food packaging, and preservation, because it is biodegradable, cheap, innocuous, and abundant. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Starch as a feedstock for bioproducts and packaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much progress has been achieved in developing starch-based feedstocks as a partial replacement for petroleum-based feedstocks. Although starch remains a poor direct substitute for plastics, composite starch-based materials have useful functional properties and are in commercial production as a repla...

  7. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic study of the effect of the thermal treatment and extraction methods on the characteristics of ayocote bean starches.

    PubMed

    Bernardino-Nicanor, Aurea; Acosta-García, Gerardo; Güemes-Vera, Norma; Montañez-Soto, José Luis; de Los Ángeles Vivar-Vera, María; González-Cruz, Leopoldo

    2017-03-01

    Starches isolated from four ayocote bean varieties were modified by thermal treatment to determinate the effect of the treatment on the structural changes of ayocote bean starch. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the starch granules have oval and round shapes, with heterogeneous sizes and fractures when the extraction method is used. The presence of new bands at 2850 and 1560 cm -1 in the FT-IR spectra showed that the thermal treatment of ayocote beans induced an interaction between the protein or lipid and the amylose or amylopectin, while the sharpest band at 3400 cm -1 indicated a dehydration process in the starch granule in addition to the presence of the band at 1260 cm -1 , indicating the product of the retrogradation process. The thermal treatment reduced the crystallinity as well as short-range order. Raman spectroscopy revealed that acute changes occurred in the polysaccharide bonds after thermal treatment. This study showed that the thermal treatment affected the structural properties of ayocote bean starches, the interactions of the lipids and proteins with starch molecules and the retrogradation process of starch.

  8. Starch Biosynthesis in Developing Wheat Grain 1

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Peter L.; Wood, John R.; Tyson, R. Huw; Bridges, Ian G.

    1988-01-01

    We have used 13C-labeled sugars and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry to study the metabolic pathway of starch biosynthesis in developing wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Mardler). Our aim was to examine the extent of redistribution of 13C between carbons atoms 1 and 6 of [1-13C] or [6-13C]glucose (or fructose) incorporated into starch, and hence provide evidence for or against the involvement of triose phosphates in the metabolic pathway. Starch synthesis in the endosperm tissue was studied in two experimental systems. First, the 13C sugars were supplied to isolated endosperm tissue incubated in vitro, and second the 13C sugars were supplied in vivo to the intact plant. The 13C starch produced by the endosperm tissue of the grain was isolated and enzymically degraded to glucose using amyloglucosidase, and the distribution of 13C in all glucosyl carbons was quantified by 13C-NMR spectrometry. In all of the experiments, irrespective of the incubation time or incubation conditions, there was a similar pattern of partial (between 15 and 20%) redistribution of label between carbons 1 and 6 of glucose recovered from starch. There was no detectable increase over background 13C incidence in carbons 2 to 5. Within each experiment, the same pattern of partial redistribution of label was found in the glucosyl and fructosyl moieties of sucrose extracted from the tissue. Since it is unlikely that sucrose is present in the amyloplast, we suggest that the observed redistribution of label occurred in the cytosolic compartment of the endosperm cells and that both sucrose and starch are synthesized from a common pool of intermediates, such as hexose phosphate. We suggest that redistribution of label occurs via a cytosolic pathway cycle involving conversion of hexose phosphate to triose phosphate, interconversion of triose phosphate by triose phosphate isomerase, and resynthesis of hexose phosphate in the cytosol. A further round of triose phosphate interconversion in

  9. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mateiu, Ramona V.; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  10. Structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Joo; Moon, Tae Wha

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch. The waxy potato starch with 25.7% moisture content was heated at 120°C for 5.3h. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of RS and SDS+RS fractions revealed a growth ring structure. The branch chain-length distribution of debranched amylopectin from the RS fraction had a higher proportion of long chains (DP ≥ 37) than the SDS+RS fraction. The X-ray diffraction intensities of RS and SDS+RS fractions were increased compared to the control. The SDS+RS fraction showed a lower gelatinization enthalpy than the control while the RS fraction had a higher value than the SDS+RS fraction. In this study we showed the RS fraction is composed mainly of crystalline structure and the SDS fraction consists of weak crystallites and amorphous regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  12. Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

  13. 75 FR 879 - National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-62,282] National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Page Employment, Island... Adjustment Assistance on December 13, 2007, applicable to workers of National Starch and Chemical Company...

  14. Gradually Decreasing Starch Branching Enzyme Expression Is Responsible for the Formation of Heterogeneous Starch Granules1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pan; Chen, Zichun

    2018-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm is mainly occupied by homogeneous polygonal starch from inside to outside. However, morphologically different (heterogeneous) starches have been identified in some rice mutants. How these heterogeneous starches form remains unknown. A high-amylose rice line (TRS) generated through the antisense inhibition of starch branching synthase I (SBEI) and SBEIIb contains four heterogeneous starches: polygonal, aggregate, elongated, and hollow starch; these starches are regionally distributed in the endosperm from inside to outside. Here, we investigated the relationship between SBE dosage and the morphological architecture of heterogeneous starches in TRS endosperm from the view of the molecular structure of starch. The results indicated that their molecular structures underwent regular changes, including gradually increasing true amylose content but decreasing amylopectin content and gradually increasing the ratio of amylopectin long chain but decreasing the ratio of amylopectin short chain. Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) amounts in the four heterogeneous starches were not significantly different from each other, but SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb showed a gradually decreasing trend. Further immunostaining analysis revealed that the gradually decreasing SBEs acting on the formation of the four heterogeneous granules were mainly due to the spatial distribution of the three SBEs in the endosperm. It was suggested that the decreased amylopectin in starch might remove steric hindrance and provide extra space for abundant amylose accumulation when the GBSSI amount was not elevated. Furthermore, extra amylose coupled with altered amylopectin structure possibly led to morphological changes in heterogeneous granules. PMID:29133372

  15. Joint Effects of Granule Size and Degree of Substitution on Octenylsuccinated Sweet Potato Starch Granules As Pickering Emulsion Stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinfeng; Ye, Fayin; Lei, Lin; Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-05-02

    The granules of sweet potato starch were size fractionated into three portions with significantly different median diameters ( D 50 ) of 6.67 (small-sized), 11.54 (medium-sized), and 16.96 μm (large-sized), respectively. Each portion was hydrophobized at the mass-based degrees of substitution (DS m ) of approximately 0.0095 (low), 0.0160 (medium), and 0.0230 (high). The Pickering emulsion-stabilizing capacities of modified granules were tested, and the resultant emulsions were characterized. The joint effects of granule size and DS m on emulsifying capacity (EC) were investigated by response surface methodology. For small-, medium-, and large-sized fractions, their highest emulsifying capacities are comparable but, respectively, encountered at high (0.0225), medium (0.0158), and low (0.0095) DS m levels. The emulsion droplet size increased with granule size, and the number of freely scattered granules in emulsions decreased with DS m . In addition, the term of surface density of the octenyl succinic group (SD -OSG ) was first proposed for modified starch granules, and it was proved better than DS m in interpreting the emulsifying capacities of starch granules with varying sizes. The present results implied that, as the particulate stabilizers, the optimal DS m of modified starch granules is size specific.

  16. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  17. Starch: chemistry, microstructure, processing and enzymatic degradation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch is recognized as one of the most abundant and important commodities containing value added attributes for a vast number of industrial applications. Its chemistry, structure, property and susceptibility to various chemical, physical and enzymatic modifications offer a high technological value ...

  18. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  19. Resistant starch in food: a review.

    PubMed

    Raigond, Pinky; Ezekiel, Rajarathnam; Raigond, Baswaraj

    2015-08-15

    The nutritional property of starch is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. For nutritional purposes, starch is classified as rapidly available, slowly available and resistant starch (RS). The exact underlying mechanism of relative resistance of starch granules is complicated because those factors are often interconnected. The content of RS in food is highly influenced by food preparation manner and processing techniques. Physical or chemical treatments also alter the level of RS in a food. Commercial preparations of RS are now available and can be added to foods as an ingredient for lowering the calorific value and improving textural and organoleptic characteristics along with increasing the amount of dietary fiber. RS has assumed great importance owing to its unique functional properties and health benefits. The beneficial effects of RS include glycemic control and control of fasting plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and absorption of minerals. This review attempts to analyze the information published, especially in the recent past, on classification, structure, properties, applications and health benefits of RS. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Novel products from starch based feedstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been progress in the utilization of starch as a partial replacement for petroleum based plastics, but it remains a poor direct substitute for plastics, and a moderate one for composites. Our research focuses on using polymers produced from direct fermentation such as poly(lactic acid) or m...

  1. Starch and protein chemistry and functional properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch and protein are the major constituents of all cereal grains and are an important source of nutrition for humans and animals. Worldwide, sorghum and the millets are basic food staples for millions of people and are important sources of animal feed, and in some cases fuel. The chemical properti...

  2. Full-time response of starch subjected to microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Fan, Daming; Wang, Liyun; Zhang, Nana; Xiong, Lei; Huang, Luelue; Zhao, Jianxin; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao

    2017-06-21

    The effect of non-ionizing microwave radiation on starch is due to a gelatinization temperature range that changes starch structure and properties. However, the changes in starch upon microwave heating are observable throughout the heating process. We compared the effects on starch heating by microwaves to the effects by rapid and regular conventional heating. Our results show that microwave heating promotes the rapid rearrangement of starch molecules at low temperatures; starch showed a stable dielectric response and a high dielectric constant. Microwave heating changed the Cole-Cole curve and the polarization of starch suspension at low temperatures. A marked transition at 2.45 GHz resulted in a double-polarization phenomenon. At temperatures below gelatinization, microwave-induced dielectric rearrangement and changes in the polarization characteristics of starch suspensions reduced the absorption properties; at temperatures above gelatinization, these characteristics became consistent with conventional heating. Throughout the heating process, microwaves change the electrical response and polarization characteristics of the starch at low temperatures, but on the macro level, there is no enhancement of the material's microwave absorption properties. In contrast, with the warming process, the starch exhibited a "blocking effect", and the absorption properties of the starch quickly returned to the level observed in conductive heating after gelatinization.

  3. Water dynamics and retrogradation of ultrahigh pressurized wheat starch.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2006-09-06

    The water dynamics and retrogradation kinetics behavior of gelatinized wheat starch by either ultrahigh pressure (UHP) processing or heat are investigated. Wheat starch completely gelatinized in the condition of 90, 000 psi at 25 degrees C for 30 min (pressurized gel) or 100 degrees C for 30 min (heated gel). The physical properties of the wheat starches were characterized in terms of proton relaxation times (T2 times) measured using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and evaluated using commercially available continuous distribution modeling software. Different T2 distributions in both micro- and millisecond ranges between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels suggest distinctively different water dynamics between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels. Smaller water self-diffusion coefficients were observed for pressurized wheat starch gels and are indicative of more restricted translational proton mobility than is observed with heated wheat starch gels. The physical characteristics associated with changes taking place during retrogradation were evaluated using melting curves obtained with differential scanning calorimetry. Less retrogradation was observed in pressurized wheat starch, and it may be related to a smaller quantity of freezable water in pressurized wheat starch. Starches comprise a major constituent of many foods proposed for commercial potential using UHP, and the present results furnish insight into the effect of UHP on starch gelatinization and the mechanism of retrogradation during storage.

  4. Evaluation of a High Throughput Starch Analysis Optimised for Wood

    PubMed Central

    Bellasio, Chandra; Fini, Alessio; Ferrini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the most important long-term reserve in trees, and the analysis of starch is therefore useful source of physiological information. Currently published protocols for wood starch analysis impose several limitations, such as long procedures and a neutralization step. The high-throughput standard protocols for starch analysis in food and feed represent a valuable alternative. However, they have not been optimised or tested with woody samples. These have particular chemical and structural characteristics, including the presence of interfering secondary metabolites, low reactivity of starch, and low starch content. In this study, a standard method for starch analysis used for food and feed (AOAC standard method 996.11) was optimised to improve precision and accuracy for the analysis of starch in wood. Key modifications were introduced in the digestion conditions and in the glucose assay. The optimised protocol was then evaluated through 430 starch analyses of standards at known starch content, matrix polysaccharides, and wood collected from three organs (roots, twigs, mature wood) of four species (coniferous and flowering plants). The optimised protocol proved to be remarkably precise and accurate (3%), suitable for a high throughput routine analysis (35 samples a day) of specimens with a starch content between 40 mg and 21 µg. Samples may include lignified organs of coniferous and flowering plants and non-lignified organs, such as leaves, fruits and rhizomes. PMID:24523863

  5. Branching patterns in leaf starches from Arabidopsis mutants deficient in diverse starch synthases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Szydlowski, Nicolas; d'Hulst, Christophe; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2015-01-12

    This is the first report on the cluster structure of transitory starch from Arabidopsis leaves. In addition to wild type, the molecular structures of leaf starch from mutants deficient in starch synthases (SS) including single enzyme mutants ss1-, ss2-, or ss3-, and also double mutants ss1-ss2- and ss1-ss3- were characterized. The mutations resulted in increased amylose content. Clusters from whole starch were isolated by partial hydrolysis using α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The clusters were then further hydrolyzed with concentrated α-amylase of B. amyloliquefaciens to produce building blocks (α-limit dextrins). Structures of the clusters and their building blocks were characterized by chromatography of samples before and after debranching treatment. While the mutations increased the size of clusters, the reasons were different as reflected by the composition of their unit chains and building blocks. In general, all mutants contained more of a-chains that preferentially increased the number of small building blocks with only two chains. The clusters of the double mutant ss1-ss3- were very large and possessed also more of large building blocks with four or more chains. The results from transitory starch are compared with those from agriculturally important crops in the context that to what extent the Arabidopsis can be a true biotechnological reflection for starch modifications through genetic means. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Amyloplast Membrane Protein SUBSTANDARD STARCH GRAIN6 Controls Starch Grain Size in Rice Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ryo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Kusano, Miyako; Tomita, Katsura; Kondo, Hideki; Nishimura, Hideki; Crofts, Naoko; Fujita, Naoko; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Starch is a biologically and commercially important polymer of glucose. Starch is organized into starch grains (SGs) inside amyloplasts. The SG size differs depending on the plant species and is one of the most important factors for industrial applications of starch. There is limited information on genetic factors regulating SG sizes. In this study, we report the rice (Oryza sativa) mutant substandard starch grain6 (ssg6), which develops enlarged SGs in endosperm. Enlarged SGs are observed starting at 3 d after flowering. During endosperm development, a number of smaller SGs appear and coexist with enlarged SGs in the same cells. The ssg6 mutation also affects SG morphologies in pollen. The SSG6 gene was identified by map-based cloning and microarray analysis. SSG6 encodes a protein homologous to aminotransferase. SSG6 differs from other rice homologs in that it has a transmembrane domain. SSG6-green fluorescent protein is localized in the amyloplast membrane surrounding SGs in rice endosperm, pollen, and pericarp. The results of this study suggest that SSG6 is a novel protein that controls SG size. SSG6 will be a useful molecular tool for future starch breeding and applications. PMID:26792122

  7. Some rheological properties of sodium caseinate-starch gels.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Andrea C; Creamer, Lawrence K; Eppink, Mieke; Boland, Mike

    2005-03-23

    The influence of sodium caseinate on the thermal and rheological properties of starch gels at different concentrations and from different botanical sources was evaluated. In sodium caseinate-starch gels, for all starches with the exception of potato starch, the sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the storage modulus and in the viscosity of the composite gel when compared with starch gels. The addition of sodium caseinate resulted in an increase in the onset temperature, the gelatinization temperature, and the end temperature, and there was a significant interaction between starch and sodium caseinate for the onset temperature, the peak temperature, and the end temperature. Microscopy results suggested that sodium caseinate promoted an increase in the homogeneity in the matrix of cereal starch gels.

  8. Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota: Structure, Biochemistry and Cell Signalling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Huang, Yanjun; He, Caimei; Yang, Huansheng; He, Shanping; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Hocher, Berthold; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials. In this mini-review, recent remarkable progress in resistant starch on gut microbiota, particularly the effect of structure, biochemistry and cell signaling on nutrition has been summarized, with highlights on its regulatory effect on gut microbiota. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH Is Required for Localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to Starch Granules and for Normal Amylose Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Seung, David; Soyk, Sebastian; Coiro, Mario; Maier, Benjamin A.; Eicke, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin) or linear (amylose). The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS) is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST) is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM). We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is exclusively involved

  10. Comparison of fractionation methods for nitrogen and starch in maize and grass silages.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; de Jonge, L H; Cone, J W; van Duinkerken, G; Blok, M C; Bruinenberg, M H; Hendriks, W H

    2016-06-01

    In in situ nylon bag technique, many feed evaluation systems use a washing machine method (WMM) to determine the washout (W) fraction and to wash the rumen incubated nylon bags. As this method has some disadvantages, an alternate modified method (MM) was recently introduced. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the W and non-washout (D+U) fractions of nitrogen (N) and/or starch of maize and grass silages, using the WMM and the MM. Ninety-nine maize silage and 99 grass silage samples were selected with a broad range in chemical composition. The results showed a large range in the W, soluble (S) and D+U fractions of N of maize and grass silages and the W, insoluble washout (W-S) and D+U fractions of starch of maize silages, determined by both methods, due to variation in their chemical composition. The values for N fractions of maize and grass silages obtained with both methods were found different (p < 0.001). Large differences (p < 0.001) were found in the D+U fraction of starch of maize silages which might be due to different methodological approaches, such as different rinsing procedures (washing vs. shaking), duration of rinsing (40 min vs. 60 min) and different solvents (water vs. buffer solution). The large differences (p < 0.001) in the W-S and D+U fractions of starch determined with both methods can led to different predicted values for the effective rumen starch degradability. In conclusion, the MM with one recommended shaking procedure, performed under identical and controlled experimental conditions, can give more reliable results compared to the WMM, using different washing programs and procedures. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Increased probiotic yogurt or resistant starch intake does not affect isoflavone bioavailability in subjects consuming a high soy diet.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Theresa A; Price, William E; Astheimer, Lee B

    2007-10-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics that affect gut microflora balance and its associated enzyme activity may contribute to interindividual variation in isoflavone absorption after soy intake, possibly enhancing isoflavone bioavailability. This study examined the effects of the consumption of bioactive yogurt (a probiotic) or resistant starch (a known prebiotic) in combination with high soy intake on soy isoflavone bioavailability. Using a crossover design, chronic soy consumption was compared with soy plus probiotic yogurt or resistant starch in older male and postmenopausal females (n = 31). Isoflavone bioavailability was assessed at the beginning and end of each 5-wk dietary period by sampling plasma and urine after a standardized soy meal. Chronic soy intake did not significantly affect plasma or urinary isoflavones after the soy meal and there were no significant effects of probiotic or resistant starch treatment. However, there were trends for increased circulating plasma daidzein and genistein after the probiotic treatment and for increased plasma daidzein and genistein 24 h after soy intake with resistant starch treatment. Neither treatment induced or increased equol production, although there was a trend for increased plasma equol in "equol-positive" subjects (n = 12) after probiotic treatment. The weak or absence of effects of probiotic yogurt or resistant starch supplement to a chronic soy diet suggests that gut microflora were not modified in a manner that significantly affected isoflavone bioavailability or metabolism.

  12. Effect of modification with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme on the rheological properties of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Yadi; Li, Caiming; Gu, Zhengbiao; Hong, Yan; Cheng, Li; Li, Zhaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Steady and dynamic shear measurements were used to investigate the rheological properties of cassava starches modified using the 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. GBE treatment lowered the hysteresis loop areas, the activation energy (E a ) values and the parameters in rheological models of cassava starch pastes. Moreover, GBE treatment increased its storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli, and decreased their tan δ (ratio of G″/G') values and frequency-dependencies. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the selective and particular attack of GBE on starch granules, and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that GBE treatment produces significant structural changes in amylose and amylopectin. These changes demonstrate that GBE modification produces cassava starch with a more structured network and improved stability towards mechanical processing. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis and temperature sweeps indicated greater resistance to granule rupture, higher gel rigidity, and a large decrease in the rate of initial conformational ordering with increasing GBE treatment time. Pronounced changes in rheological parameters revealed that GBE modification enhances the stability of cassava starch and its applicability in the food processing industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel Bioengineered Cassava Expressing an Archaeal Starch Degradation System and a Bacterial ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase for Starch Self-Digestibility and Yield Increase

    PubMed Central

    Ligaba-Osena, Ayalew; Jones, Jenna; Donkor, Emmanuel; Chandrayan, Sanjeev; Pole, Farris; Wu, Chang-Hao; Vieille, Claire; Adams, Michael W. W.; Hankoua, Bertrand B.

    2018-01-01

    To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava (Manihot esculenta), which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC) from Escherichia coli, were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar. A total of 13 multigene expressing transgenic lines were generated and characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that the microbial genes are expressed in the transgenic roots. Multigene-expressing transgenic lines produced up to 60% more storage root yield than the non-transgenic control, likely due to glgC expression. Total protein extracted from the transgenic roots showed up to 10-fold higher starch-degrading activity in vitro than the protein extracted from the non-transgenic control. Interestingly, transgenic tubers released threefold more glucose than the non-transgenic control when incubated at 85°C for 21-h without exogenous application of thermostable enzymes, suggesting that the archaeal enzymes produced in planta maintain their activity and thermostability. PMID:29541080

  14. Novel Bioengineered Cassava Expressing an Archaeal Starch Degradation System and a Bacterial ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase for Starch Self-Digestibility and Yield Increase.

    PubMed

    Ligaba-Osena, Ayalew; Jones, Jenna; Donkor, Emmanuel; Chandrayan, Sanjeev; Pole, Farris; Wu, Chang-Hao; Vieille, Claire; Adams, Michael W W; Hankoua, Bertrand B

    2018-01-01

    To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava ( Manihot esculenta ), which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus , together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ( glgC ) from Escherichia coli , were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar. A total of 13 multigene expressing transgenic lines were generated and characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that the microbial genes are expressed in the transgenic roots. Multigene-expressing transgenic lines produced up to 60% more storage root yield than the non-transgenic control, likely due to glgC expression. Total protein extracted from the transgenic roots showed up to 10-fold higher starch-degrading activity in vitro than the protein extracted from the non-transgenic control. Interestingly, transgenic tubers released threefold more glucose than the non-transgenic control when incubated at 85°C for 21-h without exogenous application of thermostable enzymes, suggesting that the archaeal enzymes produced in planta maintain their activity and thermostability.

  15. Deficiency of Starch Synthase IIIa and IVb Alters Starch Granule Morphology from Polyhedral to Spherical in Rice Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Toyosawa, Yoshiko; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Matsushima, Ryo; Ogawa, Masahiro; Fukuda, Masako; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Okazaki, Yozo; Kusano, Miyako; Saito, Kazuki; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Ai, Yongfeng; Fujita, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Starch granule morphology differs markedly among plant species. However, the mechanisms controlling starch granule morphology have not been elucidated. Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm produces characteristic compound-type granules containing dozens of polyhedral starch granules within an amyloplast. Some other cereal species produce simple-type granules, in which only one starch granule is present per amyloplast. A double mutant rice deficient in the starch synthase (SS) genes SSIIIa and SSIVb (ss3a ss4b) produced spherical starch granules, whereas the parental single mutants produced polyhedral starch granules similar to the wild type. The ss3a ss4b amyloplasts contained compound-type starch granules during early developmental stages, and spherical granules were separated from each other during subsequent amyloplast development and seed dehydration. Analysis of glucan chain length distribution identified overlapping roles for SSIIIa and SSIVb in amylopectin chain synthesis, with a degree of polymerization of 42 or greater. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type developing rice seeds revealed that the majority of SSIVb was localized between starch granules. Therefore, we propose that SSIIIa and SSIVb have crucial roles in determining starch granule morphology and in maintaining the amyloplast envelope structure. We present a model of spherical starch granule production. PMID:26747287

  16. Degradation of Glucan Primers in the Absence of Starch Synthase 4 Disrupts Starch Granule Initiation in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kuan-Jen; Stettler, Michaela; Streb, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis leaf chloroplasts typically contain five to seven semicrystalline starch granules. It is not understood how the synthesis of each granule is initiated or how starch granule number is determined within each chloroplast. An Arabidopsis mutant lacking the glucosyl-transferase, STARCH SYNTHASE 4 (SS4) is impaired in its ability to initiate starch granules; its chloroplasts rarely contain more than one large granule, and the plants have a pale appearance and reduced growth. Here we report that the chloroplastic α-amylase AMY3, a starch-degrading enzyme, interferes with granule initiation in the ss4 mutant background. The amy3 single mutant is similar in phenotype to the wild type under normal growth conditions, with comparable numbers of starch granules per chloroplast. Interestingly, the ss4 mutant displays a pleiotropic reduction in the activity of AMY3. Remarkably, complete abolition of AMY3 (in the amy3 ss4 double mutant) increases the number of starch granules produced in each chloroplast, suppresses the pale phenotype of ss4, and nearly restores normal growth. The amy3 mutation also restores starch synthesis in the ss3 ss4 double mutant, which lacks STARCH SYNTHASE 3 (SS3) in addition to SS4. The ss3 ss4 line is unable to initiate any starch granules and is thus starchless. We suggest that SS4 plays a key role in granule initiation, allowing it to proceed in a way that avoids premature degradation of primers by starch hydrolases, such as AMY3. PMID:27458017

  17. Packing properties of starch-based powders under mild mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, I; Gabbrielli, A; Travagli, V

    2009-07-01

    This study reports the ability to settle of commercial pharmaceutical grade starch samples, both native and pregelatinized. The experiments were carried out under different relative humidity (RH%) conditions and the packing properties were evaluated using both official pharmacopoeial monograph conditions and also modified conditions in order to give a deeper knowledge of tapping under mild mechanical stress. The technique adopted, simulating common pharmaceutical operating practices, appears to be useful to estimate some technologically relevant features of diluent powder materials. Moreover, a general mathematical function has been applied to the experimental data; this could be appropriate for adequately describing material settling patterns and offers practical parameters for characterizing starch powders within the context of a pharmaceutical quality system.

  18. Development of oxidised and heat-moisture treated potato starch film.

    PubMed

    Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Klein, Bruna; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Prentice-Hernández, Carlos; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium hypochlorite oxidation and a heat-moisture treatment of potato starch on the physicochemical, pasting and textural properties of potato starches in addition to the water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of potato starch films produced from these starches. The carbonyl contents, carboxyl contents, swelling power, solubility, pasting properties and gel texture of the native, oxidised and heat-moisture treated (HMT) starches were evaluated. The films made of native, oxidised and HMT starches were characterised by thickness, water solubility, colour, opacity, mechanical properties and WVP. The oxidised and HMT starches had lower viscosity and swelling power compared to the native starch. The films produced from oxidised potato starch had decreased solubility, elongation and WVP values in addition to increased tensile strength compared to the native starch films. The HMT starch increased the tensile strength and WVP of the starch films compared to the native starch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gelatin- and starch-based hydrogels. Part A: Hydrogel development, characterization and coating.

    PubMed

    Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Salamon, Achim; Peters, Kirsten; Graulus, Geert-Jan; Martins, José C; Frankel, Daniel; Kersemans, Ken; De Vos, Filip; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-11-05

    The present work aims at constructing the ideal scaffold matrix of which the physico-chemical properties can be altered according to the targeted tissue regeneration application. Ideally, this scaffold should resemble the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as close as possible both in terms of chemical composition and mechanical properties. Therefore, hydrogel films were developed consisting of methacrylamide-modified gelatin and starch-pentenoate building blocks because the ECM can be considered as a crosslinked hydrogel network consisting of both polysaccharides and structural, signaling and cell-adhesive proteins. For the gelatin hydrogels, three different substitution degrees were evaluated including 31%, 72% and 95%. A substitution degree of 32% was applied for the starch-pentenoate building block. Pure gelatin hydrogels films as well as interpenetrating networks with gelatin and starch were developed. Subsequently, these films were characterized using gel fraction and swelling experiments, high resolution-magic angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy, rheology, infrared mapping and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate that both the mechanical properties and the swelling extent of the developed hydrogel films can be controlled by varying the chemical composition and the degree of substitution of the methacrylamide-modified gelatin applied. The storage moduli of the developed materials ranged between 14 and 63kPa. Phase separation was observed for the IPNs for which separated starch domains could be distinguished located in the surrounding gelatin matrix. Furthermore, we evaluated the affinity of aggrecan for gelatin by atomic force microscopy and radiolabeling experiments. We found that aggrecan can be applied as a bioactive coating for gelatin hydrogels by a straightforward physisorption procedure. Thus, we achieved distinct fine-tuning of the physico-chemical properties of these hydrogels which render them promising candidates for tissue engineering

  20. Second Harmonic Generation Mediated by Aligned Water in Starch Granules.

    PubMed

    Cisek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Krouglov, Serguei; Steup, Martin; Emes, Michael J; Tetlow, Ian J; Barzda, Virginijus

    2014-12-26

    The origin of second harmonic generation (SHG) in starch granules was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical modeling and experimentally examined using polarization-in, polarization-out (PIPO) second harmonic generation microscopy. Ab initio calculations revealed that the largest contribution to the SHG signal from A- and B-type allomorphs of starch originates from the anisotropic organization of hydroxide and hydrogen bonds mediated by aligned water found in the polymers. The hypothesis was experimentally tested by imaging maize starch granules under various hydration and heat treatment conditions that alter the hydrogen bond network. The highest SHG intensity was found in fully hydrated starch granules, and heat treatment diminished the SHG intensity. The PIPO SHG imaging showed that dried starch granules have a much higher nonlinear optical susceptibility component ratio than fully hydrated granules. In contrast, deuterated starch granules showed a smaller susceptibility component ratio demonstrating that SHG is highly sensitive to the organization of the hydroxyl and hydrogen bond network. The polarization SHG imaging results of potato starch granules, representing starch allomorph B, were compared to those of maize starch granules representing allomorph A. The results showed that the amount of aligned water was higher in the maize granules. Nonlinear microscopy of starch granules provides evidence that varying hydration conditions leads to significant changes in the nonlinear susceptibility ratio as well as the SHG intensity, supporting the hypothesis from ab initio calculations that the dominant contribution to SHG is due to the ordered hydroxide and hydrogen bond network.

  1. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Siti A; Sarbini, Shahrul R

    2016-01-01

    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry.

  2. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production and characterization of cellulose reinforced starch (CRT) films.

    PubMed

    Sudharsan, K; Chandra Mohan, C; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Archana, G; Sabina, K; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2016-02-01

    Starch from Tamarind seed is considered to be a nonedible and inexpensive component, with many industrial applications. Extraction and characterization of tamarind seed starch was carried out for the synthesis of biopolymer. Tamarind seeds were collected, cleaned and further roasted, decorticated, and pulverized to get starch powder. Total starch content present in each tamarind seed is estimated to be around 65-70%. About 84.68% purified starch can be recovered from the tamarind seed. Defatted Tamarind seed starch has an amylose content of 27.55 wt.% and 72.45 wt.% of amylopectin. Morphological (SEM) and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate crystallinity. Likewise, TGA and DSC of starch have also been analyzed. Thermal properties of starch obtained from tamarind seeds showed good thermal stability when compared to other starch sources such as Mesquite seed and Mango kernel. This study proved that the tamarind seed starch can be used as a potential biopolymer material. Thermo-stable biofilms were produced through initial optimization studies. Predictive response surface quadratic models were constructed for prediction and optimization of biofilm mechanical properties. Correlation coefficient values were calculated to me more than 0.90 for mechanical responses which implies the fitness of constructed model with experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots

    PubMed Central

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  5. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-02-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed.

  6. Microstructure, thermal properties and crystallinity of amadumbe starch nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mukurumbira, Agnes; Mariano, Marcos; Dufresne, Alain; Mellem, John J; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-09-01

    Amadumbe (Colocasia esculenta), commonly known as taro is a tropical tuber that produces starch-rich underground corms. In this study, the physicochemical properties of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared by acid hydrolysis of amadumbe starches were investigated. Two varieties of amadumbe corms were used for starch extraction. Amadumbe starches produced substantially high yield (25%) of SNC's. These nanocrystals appeared as aggregated and individual particles and possessed square-like platelet morphology with size: 50-100nm. FTIR revealed high peak intensities corresponding to OH stretch, CH stretch and H 2 O bending vibrations for SNCs compared to their native starch counterparts. Both the native starch and SNC exhibited the A-type crystalline pattern. However, amadumbe SNCs showed higher degree of crystallinity and slightly reduced melting temperatures than their native starches. Amadumbe SNCs presented similar thermal decomposition property as their native starches. Amadumbe starch nanocrystals may have potential application in biocomposite films due to their square-like platelet morphology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Amylopectin molecular structure reflected in macromolecular organization of granular starch.

    PubMed

    Vermeylen, Rudi; Goderis, Bart; Reynaers, Harry; Delcour, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    For lintners with negligible amylose retrogradation, crystallinity related inversely to starch amylose content and, irrespective of starch source, incomplete removal of amorphous material was shown. The latter was more pronounced for B-type than for A-type starches. The two predominant lintner populations, with modal degrees of polymerization (DP) of 13-15 and 23-27, were best resolved for amylose-deficient and A-type starches. Results indicate a more specific hydrolysis of amorphous lamellae in such starches. Small-angle X-ray scattering showed a more intense 9-nm scattering peak for native amylose-deficient A-type starches than for their regular or B-type analogues. The experimental evidence indicates a lower contrasting density within the "crystalline" shells of the latter starches. A higher density in the amorphous lamellae, envisaged by the lamellar helical model, explains the relative acid resistance of linear amylopectin chains with DP > 20, observed in lintners of B-type starches. Because amylopectin chain length distributions were similar for regular and amylose-deficient starches of the same crystal type, we deduce that the more dense (and ordered) packing of double helices into lamellar structures in amylose-deficient starches is due to a different amylopectin branching pattern.

  8. Properties of foam and composite materials made o starch and cellulose fiber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composite materials were made of starch and cellulose fibers. Pre-gelatinized starch was effective in dispersing pulp fiber in a starch matrix to form a viscous starch/fiber dough. The starch/fiber dough was a useful feedstock for various composite foam and plastic materials. Viscous blends of star...

  9. Optimization of resistant starch formation from high amylose corn starch by microwave irradiation treatments and characterization of starch preparations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Selime; Kahraman, Kevser; Öztürk, Serpil

    2017-02-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied. The RS contents of the samples increased with increasing microwave-storing cycle. The highest RS (43.4%) was obtained by oven drying after 3 cycles of microwave treatment at 20% power for 2min. The F, p (<0.05) and R 2 values indicated that the selected models were consistent. Linear equations were obtained for oven-dried samples applied by 1 and 3 cycles of microwave with regression coefficients of 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Quadratic equation was obtained for freeze-dried samples applied by 3 cycles of microwave with a regression coefficient of 0.83. The solubility, water binding capacity (WBC) and RVA viscosity values of the microwave applied samples were higher than those of native Hylon VII. The WBC and viscosity values of the freeze-dried samples were higher than those of the oven-dried ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of starch-garlic powder ratio on degradation rate of Gadung starch bioplastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairiza, L.; Mariana; Ramadhany, M.; Feviyussa, C. A.

    2018-03-01

    Bioplastic is one of the solutions for environmental problems caused by plastics waste. Utilization of toxic gadung starch in the manufacturing of bioplastic would be as an alternative, due to gadung bulb has high starch content, and it is still not used optimally. This research aimed to learn about the using of gadung starch-mixed with garlic powder of making biodegradable plastic packaging. Also, to observe the duration of degradation, as a level of biodegradability of plastic film produced. The method used making this bioplastic was casting method. The variables used in this study were the ratios of starch and powdered garlic, were 10:0; 8:2; 6:4, and the concentration of garlic powder were 2%; 4%; 6%; and 8 %. The degradation test was done by soil burial test. The results of the soil burial test shown that the film was more rapidly degraded at ratio of 6: 4 compared to the ratio of 8: 2 and 10: 0. The results shown that bioplastic at the starch-garlic powder ratio of 10: 0 was decomposed in 21 days, at the the ratio of 8:2 was 15 days, while at the ratio of 6:4, the plastic film was degraded in the 11 days.

  11. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g).

  12. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole grain sorghums, millet, quinoa and amaranth flours, as affected by starch and non-starch constituents.

    PubMed

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Curti, Delphine; Austin, Sean; King, Roberto; Lamothe, Lisa; Gloria-Hernandez, Hugo

    2017-10-15

    Minor grains such as sorghum, millet, quinoa and amaranth can be alternatives to wheat and corn as ingredients for whole grain and gluten-free products. In this study, influences of starch structures and other grain constituents on physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole flours made from these grains were investigated. Starches were classified into two groups according to their amylopectin branch chain-length: (i) quinoa, amaranth, wheat (shorter chains); and (ii) sorghum, millet, corn (longer chains). Such amylopectin features and amylose content contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties as well as starch digestibility of the flours. Non-starch constituents had additional impacts; proteins delayed starch gelatinization and pasting, especially in sorghum flours, and high levels of soluble fibre retarded starch retrogradation in wheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was restricted by the presence of associated protein matrix and enzyme inhibitors, but accelerated by endogenous amylolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soybean cotyledon starch metabolism is sensitive to altered gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have demonstrated that etiolated soybean seedlings grown under the altered gravity conditions of clinorotation (1 rpm) and centrifugation (5xg) exhibit changes in starch metabolism. Cotyledon starch concentration was lower (-28%) in clinorotated plants and higher (+24%) in centrifuged plants than in vertical control plants. The activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in the cotyledons was affected in a similar way, i.e. lower (-37%) in the clinorotated plants and higher (+22%) in the centrifuged plants. Other starch metabolic enzyme activities, starch synthase, starch phosphorylase and total hydrolase were not affected by the altered gravity treatments. We conclude that the observed changes in starch concentrations were primarily due to gravity-mediated differences in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.

  14. Optical characterization of CdS nanorods capped with starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J. S.; Pal Majumder, T.; Schick, C.

    2015-05-01

    Well crystalline uniform CdS nanorods were grown by changing the concentration of maize starch. The highly polymeric (branched) structure of starch enhances the growth of CdS nanorods. The average diameter of the nanorods is 20-25 nm while length is of 500-600 nm as verified from SEM and XRD observations. The optical band gaps of the CdS nanorods are varying from 2.66 eV to 2.52 eV depending on concentration of maize starch. The photoluminescence (PL) emission bands are shifted from 526 nm to 529 nm with concentration of maize starch. We have also observed the enhanced PL intensity in CdS nanorods capped with starch. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows the significant effect of starch on CdS nanorods.

  15. Enzymatic transformation of nonfood biomass to starch

    PubMed Central

    You, Chun; Chen, Hongge; Myung, Suwan; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Jianyong; Zhang, Y.-H. Percival

    2013-01-01

    The global demand for food could double in another 40 y owing to growth in the population and food consumption per capita. To meet the world’s future food and sustainability needs for biofuels and renewable materials, the production of starch-rich cereals and cellulose-rich bioenergy plants must grow substantially while minimizing agriculture’s environmental footprint and conserving biodiversity. Here we demonstrate one-pot enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass to starch through a nonnatural synthetic enzymatic pathway composed of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolyase, cellobiose phosphorylase, and alpha-glucan phosphorylase originating from bacterial, fungal, and plant sources. A special polypeptide cap in potato alpha-glucan phosphorylase was essential to push a partially hydrolyzed intermediate of cellulose forward to the synthesis of amylose. Up to 30% of the anhydroglucose units in cellulose were converted to starch; the remaining cellulose was hydrolyzed to glucose suitable for ethanol production by yeast in the same bioreactor. Next-generation biorefineries based on simultaneous enzymatic biotransformation and microbial fermentation could address the food, biofuels, and environment trilemma. PMID:23589840

  16. Composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and modifications of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2015-05-20

    Cassava is highly tolerant to harsh climatic conditions and has great productivity on marginal lands. The supply of cassava starch, the major component of the root, is thus sustainable and cheap. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the composition, physical and chemical structures, physicochemical properties, nutritional quality, and modifications of cassava starch. Research opportunities to better understand this starch are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Root starch in defoliated sugar maples following thrips damage

    Treesearch

    Barbara S. Burns

    1991-01-01

    Sugar maple root starch evaluations were done in 1987 and 1988 as a service to Vermont sugarmakers concerned about tree health. Trees were rated for starch content in late fall, using a visual iodine-staining technique. On the average, trees with heavy pear thrips damage in the spring of 1988 had higher levels of root starch the following fall than trees with light or...

  18. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Co-immobilization of glucoamylase and glucose oxidase for electrochemical sequential enzyme electrode for starch biosensor and biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lang, Qiaolin; Yin, Long; Shi, Jianguo; Li, Liang; Xia, Lin; Liu, Aihua

    2014-01-15

    A novel electrochemical sequential biosensor was constructed by co-immobilizing glucoamylase (GA) and glucose oxidase (GOD) on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by chemical crosslinking method, where glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin was used as crosslinking and blocking agent, respectively. The proposed biosensor (GA/GOD/MWNTs/GCE) is capable of determining starch without using extra sensors such as Clark-type oxygen sensor or H2O2 sensor. The current linearly decreased with the increasing concentration of starch ranging from 0.005% to 0.7% (w/w) with the limit of detection of 0.003% (w/w) starch. The as-fabricated sequential biosensor can be applicable to the detection of the content of starch in real samples, which are in good accordance with traditional Fehling's titration. Finally, a stable starch/O2 biofuel cell was assembled using the GA/GOD/MWNTs/GCE as bioanode and laccase/MWNTs/GCE as biocathode, which exhibited open circuit voltage of ca. 0.53 V and the maximum power density of 8.15 μW cm(-2) at 0.31 V, comparable with the other glucose/O2 based biofuel cells reported recently. Therefore, the proposed biosensor exhibited attractive features such as good stability in weak acidic buffer, good operational stability, wide linear range and capable of determination of starch in real samples as well as optimal bioanode for the biofuel cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibition of buckwheat starch digestion by the formation of starch/bile salt complexes: possibility of its occurrence in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2011-06-08

    During the digestion of starch in foods, starch is mixed with bile in the duodenum. Because fatty acids and some kinds of polyphenols could bind to starch, it was postulated that bile salts might also bind to starch. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of bile and bile salts on starch/iodine complex formation and pancreatin-induced starch digestion. Bile suppressed starch/iodine complex formation and inhibited pancreatin-induced starch digestion slightly in control buckwheat starch, but did so significantly in buckwheat starch from which fatty acids and polyphenols had been extracted. Such significant suppression and inhibition by bile were also observed in a reagent soluble starch. The effects of cholate and taurocholate on the starch/iodine complex formation and the pancreatin-induced starch digestion were essentially the same as those of bile. Bile, cholate, and taurocholate suppressed amylose/iodine complex formation more significantly than amylopectin/iodine complex formation and inhibited pancreatin-induced amylose digestion more effectively than the digestion of amylopectin. It is concluded from the results that bile salts could bind to starch, especially amylose, the helical structures of which were not occupied by other molecules such as fatty acids and polyphenols, and that the binding resulted in the inhibition of starch digestion by pancreatin. The conclusion suggests that the function of bile salts can be discussed from the point of not only lipid digestion but also starch digestion.

  1. Structures, properties, modifications, and uses of oat starch.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    There has been increasing interest to utilise oats and their components to formulate healthy food products. Starch is the major component of oat kernels and may account up to 60% of the dry weight. Starch properties may greatly determine the product quality. As a by-product of oat processing and fractionation, the starch may also be utilised for food and non-food applications. This mini-review updates the recent advances in the isolation, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, chemical and physical modifications, and food and non-food uses of oat starch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Supply of avocado starch (Persea americana mill) as bioplastic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, M. H. S.; Hasibuan, R.; Lubis, M.; Alanjani, F.; Winoto, F. A.; Siregar, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of time precipitation of avocado slurry seed to yield of starch. Starch analysis included starch content, moisture content, amylose content, amylopectin content, ash content, protein content, fat content, Fourier transform infra red analysis and rapid visco analyzer. Supply of starch from avocado seeds was used by extraction method. Every one hundred grams of avocado slurry was precipitated by gravity with variations for 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, 16 hours, 20 hours and 24 hours. The Starch yield was washed, and dried using oven at 70°C for 30 minutes. Starch yield was the highest as 24.20 gram at 24 hours. The result of starch characterization was 73.62%, water content 16.6%, amylose 0.07%, amylopectin 73.55%, ash content 0.23%, protein content 2.16%, fat content 1.09%. Rapid visco analyzer obtained at 91.33°C of gelatinization temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analyzes obtained 20 μm oval-shaped starch granules. Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis of starch obtained the peak spectrum of O-H group of alcohols, C-H alkanes and C-O ether.

  3. Characterisation of a starch-hydrolysing enzyme of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Suresh, C; Dubey, A K; Srikanta, S; Kumar, S U; Karanth, N G

    1999-05-01

    A UV-induced mutant strain of Aspergillus niger (CFTRI-1105-U9) overproduced a starch-hydrolysing enzyme with properties characteristically different from the known amylases of the fungus. The purified enzyme of 4.0 pI had an apparent molecular mass of 125 kDa and it dextrinised starch and then saccharified the dextrins. Patterns of the enzyme activity on starch, resulting in glucose at 60 degrees C and glucose, maltose and maltodextrins at 70 degrees C as primary products, suggested significant applications for the enzyme in starch-processing industries.

  4. Novel polymer blends with thermoplastic starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh, Ata

    A new class of polymers known as "bioplastics" has emerged and is expanding rapidly. This class consists of polymers that are either bio-based or biodegradable, or both. Among these, polysaccharides, namely starch, are of great interest for several reasons. By gelatinizing starch via plasticizers, it can be processed in the same way as thermoplastic polymers with conventional processing equipment. Hence, these bio-based and biodegradable plastics, with their low source and refinery costs, as well as relatively easy processability, have made them ideal candidates for incorporation into various current plastic products. Four different plasticizers have been chosen here for gelatinization of thermoplastic starch (TPS): glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol, with the latter two being used for the first time in such a process. Two methodological categories are used. The first involves a calorimetric method (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) as well as optical microscopy; these are "static" methods where no shear is applied A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The onset and conclusion gelatinization temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol were found to be in the same vicinity, while diglycerol and polyglycerol showed significantly higher transition temperatures. The higher molecular weight and viscosity of polyglycerol allow this transition to occur at an even higher temperature than with diglycerol. This is due to the increase in molecular weight and viscosity of the two new plasticizers, as well as their significant decrease in water solubility. It is demonstrated that the water/plasticizer ratio has a pronounced effect on gelatinization temperatures. When plasticizer content was held constant and water content was increased, it was found that the gelatinization temperature decreased for all the plasticizers. Meanwhile, when the water content was held constant and the

  5. A standardized method for preparation of potatoes and analysis of their resistant starch content: Variation by cooking method and service temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of resistant starch (RS) may lead to reduced glycemia, improved satiety, and beneficial changes in gut microbiota due to its unique digestive and absorptive properties. We developed a standardized protocol for preparation of potatoes in order to assess their RS content and modified a com...

  6. Effect of conditions of modification on thermal and rheological properties of phosphorylated pumpkin starch.

    PubMed

    Przetaczek-Rożnowska, Izabela; Fortuna, Teresa

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the effect of conditions of modification process on thermal and rheological properties of phosphorylated pumpkin starch. The esterification process was conducted at 115°C and 145°C for 1, 2, and 3h. The thermodynamic properties of samples were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), flow curves were plotted and the resulting curves were described the Herschel-Bulkley model, textural properties were evaluated with the TPA method. The data proved that the chemical modification of starch affected its rheological and thermal characteristics, but the direction and extent of the changes were found to depend on both temperature and duration of phoshorylation. The results demonstrated that temperatures of gelatinization of the samples modified at 145°C were higher by 1.4-8.5°C than those of the samples obtained at 115°C. Prolongation of starch modification at 115°C caused reduction of shear stress (from 2.10Pa to 0.86Pa), and higher temperature of esterification also reduced the value of this parameter. The hardness of the samples heated at 145°C was higher by 45-59N than that of heated at 115°C. Adjustment of phosphorylation process caused an increase in gumminess by 1.8-37.9N, wherein higher temperature and process prolongation resulted in the highest gumminess. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and characterization of gamma irradiated Starch/PVA/ZnO nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Azam; Khoylou, Farah; Ataeivarjovi, Ebrahim

    2017-09-01

    In this study starch/PVA/ZnO nanocomposite films with antibacterial activity were prepared and modified using gamma irradiation for packaging applications. ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from Zn(OH)2 using hydrothermal process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared ZnO NPs were incorporated into blend films of starch and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with different concentrations from 0.1 to 1 wt% using solution casting method. The results of SEM confirmed good dispersion of ZnO NPs into the films while FTIR spectroscopy showed interactions between ZnO particles and starch/PVA blend. The nanocomposite films were irradiated at the dose range of 1-5 kGy. It was found that gamma irradiation induces a significant reduction in water absorptions of the films at the dose of 3 kGy. Different trends were observed for the tensile and elongation properties of the irradiated films. Based on the results, the bacterial growth on the films was effectively inhibited when the dosage of ZnO NPs was only 0.5 wt%.

  8. Enhancement of interfacial adhesion between starch and grafted poly(ε-caprolactone).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Toro, Rodrigo; Santagata, Gabriella; Gomez d'Ayala, Giovanna; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Talens Oliag, Pau; Chiralt Boix, M Amparo; Malinconico, Mario

    2016-08-20

    The use of a modified poly(ε-caprolactone) (gPCL) to enhance polymer miscibility in films based on thermoplastic starch (S) and poly(ε-caprolactone) is reported. PCL was functionalized by grafting with maleic anyhdride (MA) and/or glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by reactive blending in a batch mixer. gPCL based materials were analysed in terms of their grafting degree, structural and thermal properties. Blends based on starch and PCL (wt. ratio 80:20) with including gPCL (0, 2.5 and 5wt.%), as a compatibilizer, were obtained by extrusion and compression moulding, and their structural, thermal, mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Blends containing gPCL evidenced better interfacial adhesion between starch and PCL domains, as deduced from both structural (XRD, FTIR, SEM) and bulk properties (DSC, TGA). Moreover, grafted PCL-based compatibilizers greatly improved functional properties of S-PCL blend films, as pointed out from mechanical performance and higher barrier properties, valuable to meet the food packaging requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Starch synthase 4 is essential for coordination of starch granule formation with chloroplast division during Arabidopsis leaf expansion

    PubMed Central

    Crumpton-Taylor, Matilda; Pike, Marilyn; Lu, Kuan-Jen; Hylton, Christopher M; Feil, Regina; Eicke, Simona; Lunn, John E; Zeeman, Samuel C; Smith, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the SS4 isoform of starch synthase have strongly reduced numbers of starch granules per chloroplast, suggesting that SS4 is necessary for the normal generation of starch granules. To establish whether it plays a direct role in this process, we investigated the circumstances in which granules are formed in ss4 mutants. Starch granule numbers and distribution and the accumulation of starch synthase substrates and products were investigated during ss4 leaf development, and in ss4 mutants carrying mutations or transgenes that affect starch turnover or chloroplast volume. We found that immature ss4 leaves have no starch granules, but accumulate high concentrations of the starch synthase substrate ADPglucose. Granule numbers are partially restored by elevating the capacity for glucan synthesis (via expression of bacterial glycogen synthase) or by increasing the volumes of individual chloroplasts (via introduction of arc mutations). However, these granules are abnormal in distribution, size and shape. SS4 is an essential component of a mechanism that coordinates granule formation with chloroplast division during leaf expansion and determines the abundance and the flattened, discoid shape of leaf starch granules. PMID:23952675

  10. Starch-Branching Enzyme IIa Is Required for Proper Diurnal Cycling of Starch in Leaves of Maize1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Laurens, Lieve; Shi, Zi; Xia, Huan; Smith, Alison M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Starch-branching enzyme (SBE), a glucosyl transferase, is required for the highly regular pattern of α-1,6 bonds in the amylopectin component of starch. In the absence of SBEIIa, as shown previously in the sbe2a mutant of maize (Zea mays), leaf starch has drastically reduced branching and the leaves exhibit a severe senescence-like phenotype. Detailed characterization of the maize sbe2a mutant revealed that SBEIIa is the primary active branching enzyme in the leaf and that in its absence plant growth is affected. Both seedling and mature sbe2a mutant leaves do not properly degrade starch during the night, resulting in hyperaccumulation. In mature sbe2a leaves, starch hyperaccumulation is greatest in visibly senescing regions but also observed in green tissue and is correlated to a drastic reduction in photosynthesis within the leaf. Starch granules from sbe2a leaves observed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses are larger, irregular, and amorphous as compared with the highly regular, discoid starch granules observed in wild-type leaves. This appears to trigger premature senescence, as shown by an increased expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in senescence and programmed cell death processes. Together, these results indicate that SBEIIa is required for the proper diurnal cycling of transitory starch within the leaf and suggest that SBEIIa is necessary in producing an amylopectin structure amenable to degradation by starch metabolism enzymes. PMID:21508184

  11. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinfeng; Kreft, Ivan; Chao, Guimei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojin; Wang, Li; Wang, Pengke; Gao, Xiaoli; Feng, Baili

    2016-01-01

    A starch rich fraction is a side product in Tartary buckwheat processing. This study investigated the fractions that are of technological and nutritional interest. Tartary buckwheat starch granules had a diameter of 3-14 μm, and presented a typical type "A" X-ray diffraction pattern. They contained nearly 39.0% amylose. The solubility of Tartary buckwheat starch was much lower at 70-90 °C (ranging within 9.9-10.4% at 90 °C) than that in maize (up to 49.3%) and potato (up to 85.0%) starch. The starch of one variety of Tartary buckwheat had significantly lower solubility at 70 °C and 80 °C than that of common buckwheat. The starch peak viscosity and breakdown were higher and pasting time was shorter in Tartary buckwheat than in that of the starch of common buckwheat. Tartary buckwheat starch had unique pasting and physicochemical properties, and is thereby capable of being exploited as a suitable raw material of retrograded starch in food processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of starch regulatory enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Okita, Thomas W.

    ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and the plastidial starch phosphorylase1 (Pho1) are two regulatory enzymes whose catalytic activities are essential for starch granule synthesis. Conversion of the pre-starch granule to the mature form is dependent on AGPase, which produces ADPglucose, the substrate used by starch synthases. The catalytic activity of AGPase is controlled by small effector molecules and a prime goal of this project was to decipher the role of the two subunit types that comprise the heterotetrameric enzyme structure. Extensive genetic and biochemical studies showed that catalysis was contributed mainly by the small subunit although the large subunit was required formore » maximum activity. Both subunits were needed for allosteric regulatory properties. We had also demonstrated that the AGPase catalyzed reaction limits the amount of starch accumulation in developing rice seeds and that carbon flux into rice seed starch can be increased by expression of a cytoplasmic-localized, up-regulated bacterial AGPase enzyme form. Results of subsequent physiological and metabolite studies showed that the AGPase reaction is no longer limiting in the AGPase transgenic rice lines and that one or more downstream processes prevent further increases in starch biosynthesis. Further studies showed that over-production of ADPglucose dramatically alters the gene program during rice seed development. Although the expression of nearly all of the genes are down-regulated, levels of a starch binding domain containing protein (SBDCP) are elevated. This SBDCP was found to bind to and inhibit the catalytic activity of starch synthase III and, thereby preventing maximum starch synthesis from occurring. Surprisingly, repression of SBDCP elevated expression of starch synthase III resulting in increasing rice grain weight. A second phase of this project examined the structure-function of Pho1, the enzyme required during the initial phase of pre-starch granule formation and its

  13. Effect of roasted pea flour/starch and encapsulated pea starch incorporation on the in vitro starch digestibility of pea breads.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhan-Hui; Donner, Elizabeth; Liu, Qiang

    2018-04-15

    Oven or microwave roasting and alginate encapsulation of pea flour and starch to produce novel pea ingredients for enrichment of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) content in pea bread were investigated. Pea flour treated either by oven roasting (160°C, 30min) or by microwave roasting (1.1kW, 6min) effectively retained its low starch digestibility similar to its native form (∼25% SDS; ∼60% RS). When oven roasting was applied to pea starch, SDS content increased triply compared to the fully boiled counterpart. Alginate encapsulation effectively controlled carbohydrate release to simulated gastric, intestinal and colonic fluids, and thus largely enriched the SDS and RS fractions in starch. Pea bread containing up to 37.5% of encapsulated roasted MPS pea starch not only provided high SDS and RS fractions (23.9% SDS and 30.2% RS) compared to a white bread control (0.2% SDS and 2.5% RS), but also provided an acceptable palatability. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1∶3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

  15. The deposition and characterization of starch in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Svensson, Jan T.; Jensen, Susanne L.; Buléon, Alain; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is a non-domesticated cereal. Nonetheless, Brachypodium was recently introduced as a model plant for temperate cereals. This study compares grain starch metabolism in Brachypodium and barley (Hordeum vulgare). In Brachypodium, we identified and annotated 28 genes involved in starch metabolism and identified important motifs including transit peptides and putative carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) of the families CBM20, CBM45, CBM48, and CBM53. Starch content was markedly lower in Brachypodium grains (12%) compared to barley grains (47%). Brachypodium starch granules were doughnut shaped and bimodally distributed into distinct small B-type (2.5–10 µm) and very small C-type (0.5–2.5 µm) granules. Large A-type granules, typical of cereals, were absent. Starch-bound phosphate, important for starch degradation, was 2-fold lower in Brachypodium compared with barley indicating different requirements for starch mobilization. The amylopectin branch profiles were similar and the amylose content was only slightly higher compared with barley cv. Golden Promise. The crystallinity of Brachypodium starch granules was low (10%) compared to barley (20%) as determined by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and molecular disorder was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The expression profiles in grain for most genes were distinctly different for Brachypodium compared to barley, typically showing earlier decline during the course of development, which can explain the low starch content and differences in starch molecular structure and granule characteristics. High transitory starch levels were observed in leaves of Brachypodium (2.8% after 14h of light) compared to barley (1.9% after 14h of light). The data suggest important pre-domesticated features of cereals. PMID:25056772

  16. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    PubMed

    Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  17. Incorporation of bentonite clay in cassava starch films for the reduction of water vapor permeability.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, M K S; Oliveira, V R L; Santos, F K G; Barros Neto, E L; Leite, R H L; Aroucha, E M M; Silva, R R; Silva, K N O

    2018-03-01

    Complete factorial planning 2 3 was applied to identify the influence of the cassava starch(A), glycerol(B) and modified clay(C) content on the water vapor permeability(WVP) of the cassava starch films with the addition of bentonite clay as a filler, its surface was modified by ion exchange from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), fourier transform by infrared radiation(FTIR), atomic force microscopy(AFM) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The factorial analysis suggested a mathematical model thats predicting the optimal condition of the minimization of WVP. The influence of each individual factor and interaction in the WVP was investigated by Pareto graph, response surface and the optimization was established by the desirability function. The sequence of the degree of statistical significance of the investigated effects on the WVP observed in the Pareto graph was C>B>A>BC>AC. Interactions AB, BC and AC showed that the modified clay was the factor of greater significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modified cyanobacteria

    DOEpatents

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  19. Adaptation of the cecal bacterial microbiome of growing pigs in response to resistant starch type 4.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Mann, Evelyne; Grüll, Dietmar; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-12-01

    Resistant starch (RS) exacerbates health benefits on the host via modulation of the gut bacterial community. By far, these effects have been less well explored for RS of type 4. This study aimed at gaining a community-wide insight into the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on the cecal microbiota and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Castrated male pigs (n = 12/diet; 29-kg body weight) were fed diets with either 70% EMS or control starch for 10 days. The bacterial profile of each cecal sample was determined by sequencing of the V345 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. EMS diet reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations in cecum and proximal colon compared to the control diet. Linear discriminant analyses and K means clustering indicated diet-specific cecal community profiles, whereby diversity and species richness were not different among diets. Pigs showed host-specific variation in their most abundant phyla, Firmicutes (55%), Proteobacteria (35%), and Bacteroidetes (10%). The EMS diet decreased abundance of Ruminococcus, Parasutterella, Bilophila, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus operational taxonomic units (OTU), whereas Meniscus and Actinobacillus OTU were increased compared to those with the control diet (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR confirmed results for host effect on Enterobacteriaceae and diet effect on members of the Lactobacillus group. The presence of less cecal short-chain fatty acids and the imputed metabolic functions of the cecal microbiome suggested that EMS was less degradable for cecal bacteria than the control starch. The present EMS effects on the bacterial community profiles were different than the previously reported RS effects and can be linked to the chemical structure of EMS. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Isolation of high quality RNA from cereal seeds containing high levels of starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Fang; Song, Rentao

    2012-01-01

    Cereals are an important source of food, feed and fuel with a rapidly increasing global demand. However, cereal seeds contain high levels of starch and polysaccharides, making the isolation of high quality RNA extremely difficult. To develop a novel method for extracting high quality total RNA from various starch- and polysaccharides-rich cereal seeds, such as maize, rice, sorghum and wheat. We developed a modified sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)/TRIzol method. The combined use of a Tris buffer (pH 9.0) and SDS before TRIzol extraction effectively resolved the problem of seed homogenate solidification in such a buffer. A high concentration of SDS was used separately, not only to promote cell lysis but also to effectively dissolve seed sample containing high levels of starch. Moreover, acid phenol saturated with 0.1  M citrate buffer (pH 4.3) was used to separate RNA from DNAs, proteins and high levels of starch. This rapid protocol was compared with other RNA isolation methods preferentially used for plants rich in polysaccharides and secondary metabolites. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the extracted total RNA had good integrity without apparent DNA contamination. Furthermore, an A₂₆₀/₂₈₀ ratio of approximately 2.0, an A₂₆₀/₂₃₀ ratio of more than 2.0 and RIN values of more than 8.6 indicated that the isolated RNA was of high purity. The isolated RNA was suitable for subsequent molecular manipulations, such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and real-time PCR. The study has described an easy, efficient and highly reproducible method for RNA isolation from various cereal seeds. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Mass transfer kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobukola, O. P.; Bouchon, P.

    2014-06-01

    Mass transfer (moisture loss and oil uptake) kinetics during deep fat frying of wheat starch and gluten based snacks was investigated. Both followed a modified first order reaction. Activation energies, z-value, and highest values of D and k for moisture loss and oil uptake were 28.608 kJ/mol, 129.88 °C, 490 and 0.0080 s-1; and 60.398 kJ/mol, 61.79 °C, 1,354.71 and 0.0052 s-1, respectively.

  2. Thermal dissolution of maize starches in aqueous medium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starches are not soluble in neutral water at room temperature. However, if they are heated in a closed container beyond the boiling point of water, they eventually dissolve. The dissolution temperature depends on the type of starch. The dissolution process was monitored in real time by measuring ...

  3. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, p<0.01) and negatively correlated to the lipid content (r=-0.951, p<0.01). Understanding the roles of starch and other components in physicochemical properties of quinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Milk glucosidase activity enables suckled pup starch digestion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch requires six enzymes for digestion to free glucose: two amylases (salivary and pancreatic) and four mucosal maltase activities; sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. All are deficient in suckling rodents. The objective of this study is to test (13)C-starch digestion before weaning by m...

  5. Alternative utilization of wheat starch, Grafton, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In 1978, North Dakota State University (NDSU), in cooperation with the Economic Development Administration, completed a study of the feasibility of a vital wheat gluten starch processing plant in North Dakota. The overall objective of this study is to determine the most feasible alternatives for utilizing the by-product starch slurry from a vital wheat gluten processing plant.

  6. Analysis of Cereal Starches by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch has unique physicochemical characteristics among carbohydrates. Most starch granules are a mixture of two sugar polymers: a highly branched polysaccharide named amylopectin, and a basically linear polysaccharide named amylose. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, one-step and ...

  7. Autophagy Contributes to Leaf Starch Degradation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Yu, Bingjie; Zhao, Jinping; Guo, Jiangbo; Li, Ying; Han, Shaojie; Huang, Lei; Du, Yumei; Hong, Yiguo; Tang, Dingzhong; Liu, Yule

    2013-01-01

    Transitory starch, a major photosynthetic product in the leaves of land plants, accumulates in chloroplasts during the day and is hydrolyzed to maltose and Glc at night to support respiration and metabolism. Previous studies in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that the degradation of transitory starch only occurs in the chloroplasts. Here, we report that autophagy, a nonplastidial process, participates in leaf starch degradation. Excessive starch accumulation was observed in Nicotiana benthamiana seedlings treated with an autophagy inhibitor and in autophagy-related (ATG) gene-silenced N. benthamiana and in Arabidopsis atg mutants. Autophagic activity in the leaves responded to the dynamic starch contents during the night. Microscopy showed that a type of small starch granule-like structure (SSGL) was localized outside the chloroplast and was sequestered by autophagic bodies. Moreover, an increased number of SSGLs was observed during starch depletion, and disruption of autophagy reduced the number of vacuole-localized SSGLs. These data suggest that autophagy contributes to transitory starch degradation by sequestering SSGLs to the vacuole for their subsequent breakdown. PMID:23564204

  8. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Individual mammalian mucosal glucosidase subunits digest various starch structures differently

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch digestion in the human body requires two luminal enzymes,salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylase (AMY), and four small intestinal mucosal enzyme activities related to the maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) complexes. Starch consists of two polysaccharides, amylose (AM) and ...

  10. A rapid method to determine starch damage in sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a major component of cereal grains including sorghum, starch plays an important role not only in grain development but also post-maturation processing and end-product quality. Because milling can result in the inadvertent disruption of starch granules, in turn negatively affecting dough rheology...

  11. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pulses are recognized as a low-fat source of gluten-free protein, soluble fiber, B-vitamins and minerals, and their use in foods has increased in recent years. The functional properties of pulse starches have received relatively little attention, but they are important since starch is the major comp...

  12. Battle of the starches: Insoluble versus soluble at the refinery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study using the USDA starch research method has been conducted to evaluate the effects of total, insoluble, and soluble starch on raw sugar filterability and viscosity in international carbonatation refineries. Raw sugar qualities, i.e., pol, color, % invert, ash, and dextran, were also studied in...

  13. Effect of high pressure on rheological and thermal properties of quinoa and maize starches.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-15

    Quinoa starch has small granules with relatively low gelatinization temperatures and amylose content. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a non-thermal technique for food processing. In this study, effects of HHP up to 600MPa on physical properties of quinoa starch were studied and compared with those of a normal maize starch. Both starches gelatinized at 500 and 600MPa. The pressure of 600MPa completely gelatinized quinoa starch as revealed by thermal analysis. Dynamic rheological analysis showed that HHP improved the gel stability of both starches during cooling. HHP had little effects on amylopectin recrystallization and gel textural properties of starch. Overall, quinoa starch was more susceptible to HHP than maize starch. The effects of HHP on some rheological properties such as frequency dependence were different between these two types of starches. The differences could be attributed to the different composition, granular and chemical structures of starch, and the presence of granule remnants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Insect pests dissemination by extruded starch packages].

    PubMed

    Fraga, Felipe B; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Tavares, Marcelo T

    2009-01-01

    We observed the viability of extruded starch products used as impact protector for fragile packing as a food source of the following stored grains pests: Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Lasioderma serricorne (Fabr.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera). Cryptolestes ferrugineus, L. serricorne and T. castaneum were found in these products, which are used by them as shelter and food. Under experimentation, we observed the development of O. surinamensis, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella feeding on this food source. Thus, it is recorded the viability of such material to be a potential dispersal vehicle to spread insect pests.

  15. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    PubMed Central

    Grajales-García, Eva M.; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Goñi, Isabel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50%) and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80) of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g) than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g). The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics. PMID:22312252

  16. Chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity of tortilla made with a blend of quality protein maize and black bean.

    PubMed

    Grajales-García, Eva M; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Goñi, Isabel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50%) and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80) of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g) than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g). The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  17. Effect of heat–moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Different heat–moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3–23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat–moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P < 0.05) in the digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  18. Physicochemical properties of cross-linked and acetylated starches and products of their hydrolysis in continuous recycle membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Krystyna; Konował, Emilia; Sulej-Chojnacka, Joanna; Lewandowicz, Grazyna

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the physicochemical properties of doubly modified, by cross-linking and acetylating, starches as well as the products of their enzymatic hydrolysis. A two step procedure of hydrolysis, including the batch and membrane reactors, were investigated. The second step of enzymatic processes were carried out in a continuous recycle membrane reactor (CRMR). Three kinds of commercial starches--two preparations of acetylated distarch adipate E1422 of different degrees of cross-linking, as well as one preparation of acetylated distarch phosphate E1414 were examined. It was found that the degree of substitution of acetyl groups in the macromolecules of starch did not influence the effectiveness of hydrolysis. However, the degree of cross-linking with adipate groups slightly decreased the efficiency of processing in the CRMR. Additionally, the relationship between the type of hydrocolloid and its adsorption activity in the air/water and oil/water systems was considered. All obtained derivatives revealed adsorption properties and reduced the surface/interface tension in the air/water and oil/water systems. The efficiency and effectiveness of adsorption of the investigated hydrocolloids were affected by the type of modification as well as the degree of substitution of acetyl groups in the macromolecules of starch. Particle size distributions formed in aqueous solutions for all investigated hydrolyses were determined and compared with results obtained for commercial products.

  19. Fungal inactivation by Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Hernández-Zamoran, Erika; López-Mendoza, Ingrid; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-04-01

    Edible films can incorporate antimicrobial agents to provide microbiological stability, since they can be used as carriers of a wide number of additives that can extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of pathogenic bacteria growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of low antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Oregano essential oil was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan, and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. Mold radial growth was evaluated inoculating spores in 2 ways: edible films were placed over inoculated agar, Film/Inoculum mode (F/I), or the edible films were first placed in the agar and then films were inoculated, Inoculum/Film mode (I/F). The modified Gompertz model adequately described growth curves. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth parameters between the 2 modes of inoculation. Antifungal effectiveness of edible films was starch > chitosan > amaranth. In starch edible films, both studied molds were inhibited with 0.50% of essential oil. Edible films added with Mexican oregano essential oil could improve the quality of foods by controlling surface growth of molds.

  20. Characterization of the functional interactions of plastidial starch phosphorylase and starch branching enzymes from rice endosperm during reserve starch biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Ono, Masami; Sawada, Takayuki; Crofts, Naoko; Fujita, Naoko; Steup, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Functional interactions of plastidial phosphorylase (Pho1) and starch branching enzymes (BEs) from the developing rice endosperm are the focus of this study. In the presence of both Pho1 and BE, the same branched primer molecule is elongated and further branched almost simultaneously even at very low glucan concentrations present in the purified enzyme preparations. By contrast, in the absence of any BE, glucans are not, to any significant extent, elongated by Pho1. Based on our in vitro data, in the developing rice endosperm, Pho1 appears to be weakly associated with any of the BE isozymes. By using fluorophore-labeled malto-oligosaccharides, we identified maltose as the smallest possible primer for elongation by Pho1. Linear dextrins act as carbohydrate substrates for BEs. By functionally interacting with a BE, Pho1 performs two essential functions during the initiation of starch biosynthesis in the rice endosperm: First, it elongates maltodextrins up to a degree of polymerization of at least 60. Second, by closely interacting with BEs, Pho1 is able to elongate branched glucans efficiently and thereby synthesizes branched carbohydrates essential for the initiation of amylopectin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y; Rutgeerts, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline starch, containing 74% amylopectin. The effect of the extent of gelatinisation was studied by comparing extruded starch and crystalline starch. Finally, the possible inhibitory effect of adding wheat fibre to extruded starch on the hydrolysis rate was studied. The 13CO2 excretion from two to four hours after intake of crystalline starch was significantly lower than that of extruded starch. Waxy starch was hydrolysed much faster than high amylose starch, but there was no significant difference between waxy starch and normal crystalline starch. Addition of wheat fibre did not influence the hydrolysis rate. The 13CO2 starch breath test is an attractive test for the study of factors affecting carbohydrate assimilation. PMID:2107133

  2. Step-reduced synthesis of starch-silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Jung, Jeyoung; Kim, Dowan; Seo, Jongchul

    2016-05-01

    In the present process, silver nanoparticles were directly synthesized in a single step by microwave irradiation of a mixture of starch, silver nitrate, and deionized water. This is different from the commonly adopted procedure for starch-silver nanoparticle synthesis in which silver nanoparticles are synthesized by preparing a starch solution as a reaction medium first. Thus, the additional step associated with the preparation of the starch solution was eliminated. In addition, no additional reducing agent was utilized. The adopted method was facile and straight forward, affording spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter below 10nm that exhibited good antibacterial activity. Further, influence of starch on the size of the silver nanoparticles was noticed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Leaf starch degradation comes out of the shadows.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, James R; Kossmann, Jens; Ritte, Gerhard

    2005-03-01

    During the day, plants accumulate starch in their leaves as an energy source for the coming night. Based on recent findings, the prevailing view of how the transitory starch is remobilized needs considerable revision. Analyses of transgenic and mutant plants demonstrate that plastidic glucan phosphorylase is not required for normal starch breakdown and cast doubt on the presumed essential role of alpha-amylase but do show that beta-amylase is important. Repression of the activity of a plastidic beta-amylase, the export of its product (maltose) or further metabolism of maltose by a newly identified transglucosidase impairs starch degradation. Breakdown of particulate starch also depends on the activity of glucan-water dikinase, which phosphorylates glucosyl residues within the polymer.

  4. Characterization of polymer chain fractions of kiwifruit starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxing; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    In this report, the amylose composition and molecular structure of starches from the core and outer pericarp of 3 golden kiwifruit varieties were characterised, using enzymatic and chromatographic techniques. Starches from the core tissues of kiwifruit tend to have higher amylose contents (by ∼3-5%) and longer unit chains of both amylopectins and their φ, β-limit dextrins (LDs) than those of the outer pericarp starches. The contents of short B-chains of the φ, β-LDs of amylopectins from the outer pericarp were higher (by ∼3%) than those of φ, β-LDs of the core amylopectins. Overall, the composition and structure of starches from the outer pericarp and core tissues of a golden kiwifruit were different. This study provides a structural basis to further investigate the starch degradation in kiwifruit, which may be of importance for the storage and eating quality of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of Rosin Acid Starch Catalyzed by Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rihui; Li, He; Long, Han; Su, Jiating; Huang, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Rosin, an abundant raw material from pine trees, was used as a starting material directly for the synthesis of rosin acid starch. The esterification reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Novozym 435) under mild conditions. Based on single factor experimentation, the optimal esterification conditions were obtained as follows: rosin acid/anhydrous glucose unit in the molar ratio 2 : 1, reaction time 4 h at 45°C, and 15% of lipase dosage. The degree of substitution (DS) reaches 0.098. Product from esterification of cassava starch with rosin acid was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and iodine coloration analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the morphology and crystallinity of the cassava starch were largely destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that thermal stability of rosin acid starch decreased compared with native starch. PMID:24977156

  6. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  7. The Mechanism of Starch Over-Accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii High-Starch Mutants Identified by Comparative Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kwang M.; Jung, Sera; Lee, Beom S.; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jo, Yeong D.; Choi, Hong-Il; Kang, Si-Yong; Chung, Gook-H.; Jeong, Won-Joong; Ahn, Joon-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this study was the mechanism of starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii high-starch mutants. Three C. reinhardtii mutants showing high-starch content were generated using gamma irradiation. When grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions, these mutants had more than twice as much starch than a wild-type control. The mechanism of starch over-accumulation in these mutants was studied with comparative transcriptome analysis. In all mutants, induction of phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) expression was detected; PGM1 catalyzes the inter-conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate in both starch biosynthetic and glycolytic pathway. Interestingly, transcript levels of phosphoglucose isomerase 1 (PGI1), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase 1 and 2 (FBA1 and FBA2) were down-regulated in all mutants; PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 act on downstream of glucose 6-phosphate conversion in glycolytic pathway. Therefore, down-regulations of PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 may lead to accumulation of upstream metabolites, notably glucose 6-phosphate, resulting in induction of PGM1 expression through feed-forward regulation and that PGM1 overexpression caused starch over-accumulation in mutants. These results suggest that PGI1, FBA1, FBA2, and PGM1 correlate with each other in terms of coordinated transcriptional regulation and play central roles for starch over-accumulation in C. reinhardtii. PMID:28588557

  8. Effects of adding corn oil and soy protein to corn starch on the physicochemical and digestive properties of the starch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; He, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Bin; Fu, Xiong; Jane, Jay-Lin; Huang, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to understand effects of adding corn oil (CO) and soy protein (SP) to corn starch on the physicochemical properties and digestive rates of annealed starch complex and mechanisms of interactions between corn starch (CS), CO and SP. Binary and ternary blends were prepared using CS mixed with CO (10%, dsb) and/or SP (10%, dsb) and incubated in a water bath at 50°C for 14h. Results showed that more agglomerates of the granules were in the ternary blends. With the addition of CO and/or SP, the CS displayed a decreased pasting temperature, an increased peak viscosity and a decreased enthalpy change of amylose-lipid complex dissociation. The CO can reinforce but SP hinder the annealing phenomenon. Results also showed that CO decreased retrogradation of CS, whereas SP increased it. The digestibility studies showed that the addition of CO and SP decreased the content of rapidly digestible starch and increased the sum of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents. SP displayed more impact on the digestibility of the ternary blends than CO. The physical barrier of CO, and amylose-lipid complex and protein-starch matrix can provide resistance to starch digestion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of molecular weight of starch on the properties of cassava starch microspheres prepared in aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Huiping; Li, Bing-Zheng; Gao, Qunyu

    2017-12-01

    Starch microspheres (SMs) were fabricated in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). A series of starch samples with different molecular weight were prepared by acid hydrolysis, and the effect of molecular weight of starch on the fabrication of SMs were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the morphologies of SMs varied with starch molecular weight, and spherical SMs with sharp contours were obtained while using starch samples with weight-average molecular weight (M¯w)≤1.057×10 5 g/mol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that crystalline structure of SMs were different from that of native cassava starch, and the relative crystallinity of SMs increased with the molecular weight of starch decreasing. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed peak gelatinization temperature (T p ) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) of SMs increased with decreased M¯wof starch. Stability tests indicated that the SMs were stable under acid environment, but not stable under α-amylase hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Polyvinyl Alcohol Microspheres Reinforced Thermoplastic Starch Composites

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Dongdong; Li, Bengang; Yin, Peng; Li, Panxin

    2018-01-01

    We reported a new method to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/thermoplastic starch (TPS) composites by using polyvinyl alcohol microspheres (PVAMS). The PVAMS/TPS composites were characterized using tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results exhibited that adding small amounts of PVAMSs can effectively improve the mechanical strength and toughness of the composites, especially for the 1 wt %PVAMS in TPS matrix, with a tensile strength of 3.5 MPa, an elongation at break at 71.73% and an impact strength of 33.4 kJ/m2. Furthermore, the SEM and shift in the tan δ peak (Tα and Tβ) at the maximum value of 69.87 and −36.52 °C indicates that the PVAMS decreased the mobility of the amorphous starch molecules due to the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds between PVAMS and TPS. The peak temperature of maximum decomposition rate (Tp) of 1 wt % PVAMS/TPS composites increased about 5 °C compared with TPS in TGA curves. PMID:29690506

  11. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Jones, Roger W.; Ai, Yongfeng

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-weekmore » study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.« less

  12. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  13. Preparation and Physical Properties of Starch Stearates of Low to High Degree of Substitution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch stearates of degree of substitution (DS) 0.07-2.40 were prepared by heating dry starch and vinyl stearate in the ionic liquid BMIM dca at 75 Degrees C. Starch stearate of low DS (0.07) was insoluble in water but formed a gel and absorbed over seven times its weight of water. Starch stearate...

  14. Chemical composition, mineral profile, and functional properties of Canna (Canna edulis) and Arrowroot (Maranta spp.) starches.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Elevina; Lares, Mary

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate some chemical and mineral characteristics and functional and rheological properties of Canna and Arrowroot starches produced in the Venezuelan Andes. Canna starch showed a higher (P < 0.05) moisture, ash, and crude protein content than arrowroot starch, while crude fiber, crude fat, and amylose content of this starch were higher (P < 0.05). Starches of both rhizomes own phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium, and zinc in their composition. Phosphorus, sodium, and potassium are the higher in both starches. Water absorption, swelling power, and solubility values revealed weak bonding forces in Canna starch granules; this explained the lower gelatinization temperature and the substantial viscosity development of Canna starch during heating. Arrowroot starch showed a higher gelatinization temperature measure by DSC, than Canna starch and exhibited a lower value of DeltaH. Both starches show negative syneresis. The apparent viscosity of Canna starch was higher (P < 0.05) than the Arrowroot starch values. The size (wide and large) of Canna starch granules was higher than arrowroot starch. From the previous results, it can be concluded that Canna and Arrowroot starches could become interesting alternatives for food developers, depending on their characteristics and functional properties.

  15. 40 CFR 406.100 - Applicability; description of the wheat starch and gluten subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wheat starch and gluten subcategory. 406.100 Section 406.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Starch and Gluten Subcategory § 406.100 Applicability; description of the wheat starch and gluten... operations utilizing wheat flour as a raw material for production of wheat starch and gluten (protein...

  16. Slowly digestible starch diets alter proximal glucosidase activity and glucose absorption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sucrase-isomaltase (Si) and maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) are mucosal glucosidases required for digestion of starch to glucose. Ablation of maltase-Mgam reduces in vivo starch digestion. We tested whether slowly digestible starch diets induce changes in glucosidase activities. Rice starch was encaps...

  17. Ecotoxicological assessment of flocculant modified soil for lake restoration using an integrated biotic toxicity index.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Honggang; Pan, Gang

    2016-06-15

    Flocculant modified soils/clays are being increasingly studied as geo-engineering materials for lake restoration and harmful algal bloom control. However, the potential impacts of adding these materials in aquatic ecological systems remain unclear. This study investigated the potential effects of chitosan, cationic starch, chitosan modified soils (MS-C) and cationic starch modified soils (MS-S) on the aquatic organisms by using a bioassay battery. The toxicity potential of these four flocculants was quantitatively assessed using an integrated biotic toxicity index (BTI). The test system includes four aquatic species, namely Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, Cyprinus carpio and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, which represent four trophic levels in the freshwater ecosystem. Results showed that median effect concentrations (EC50) of the MS-C and MS-S were 31-124 times higher than chitosan and cationic starch, respectively. D. magna was the most sensitive species to the four flocculants. Histological examination of C. carpio showed that significant pathological changes were found in gills. Different from chitosan and cationic starch, MS-C and MS-S significantly alleviated the acute toxicities of chitosan and cationic starch. The toxicity order of the four flocculants based on BTI were cationic starch > chitosan > MS-S > MS-C. The results suggested that BTI can be used as a quantitative and comparable indicator to assess biotic toxicity for aquatic geo-engineering materials. Chitosan or cationic starch modified soil/clay materials can be used at their optimal dosage without causing substantial adverse effects to the bioassay battery in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rheological properties in relation to molecular structure of quinoa starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-07-15

    Quinoa starch granules are small (~0.5 - 3μm) with potentials for some food and other applications. To better exploit it as a new starch resource, this study investigates the steady shear and dynamic oscillatory properties of 9 quinoa starches varying in composition and structure. Steady shear analysis shows that the flow curves could be well described by 4 selected mathematic models. Temperature sweep analysis reveals that the quinoa starch encounters a 4-stage process including 2 phase transitions. Structure-function relationship analysis showed that composition as well as unit and internal chain length distribution of amylopectin have significant impact on the rheological properties (e.g., G' at 90°C) of quinoa starch. The roles of some individual unit chains and super-long unit chains of amylopectin in determining the rheological properties of quinoa starch were revealed. This study may stimulate further interest in understanding the structural basis of starch rheology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ovary starch reserves and pistil development in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, M Librada; Hormaza, J Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2010-12-01

    In avocado, only a very small fraction of the flowers are able to set fruit. Previous work in other woody perennial plant species has shown the importance of carbohydrates accumulated in the flower in the reproductive process. Thus, in order to explore the implications of the nutritive status of the flower in the reproductive process in avocado, the starch content in the pistil has been examined in individual pollinated and non-pollinated flowers at anthesis and during the days following anthesis. Starch content in different pistilar tissues in each flower was quantified with the help of an image analysis system attached to a microscope. Flowers at anthesis were rich in highly compartmentalized starch. Although no external morphological differences could be observed among flowers, the starch content varied widely at flower opening. Starch content in the ovary is largely independent of flower size because these differences were not correlated with ovary size. Differences in the progress of starch accumulation within the ovule integuments between pollinated and non-pollinated flowers occurred concomitantly with the triggering of the progamic phase. The results suggest that starch reserves in the ovary could play a significant role in the reproductive process in avocado. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  20. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  1. Rheological and biochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch.

    PubMed

    Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Pascoal, Aline M; Batista, Karla A; Bassinello, Priscila Z; Lião, Luciano M; Leles, Maria Inês G; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2014-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rheological and physicochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch. The thermogravimetric analysis of S. lycocarpum starch showed a typical three-step weight loss pattern. Microscopy revealed significant changes in the granule morphology after hydrothermal treatment. Samples hydrothermally treated at 50°C for 10 min lost 52% of their crystallinity, which was recovered after storage for 7 days at 4°C. However, samples hydrothermally treated at 65°C were totally amorphous. This treatment was sufficient to completely disrupt the starch granule, as evidenced by the absence of an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. The RVA of S. lycocarpum starch revealed 4440.7cP peak viscosity, 2660.5cP breakdown viscosity, 2414.1cP final viscosity, 834.3cP setback viscosity, and a pasting temperature of 49.6°C. The low content of resistant starch (10.25%) and high content of digestible starch (89.78%) in S. lycocarpum suggest that this starch may be a good source for the production of hydrolysates, such as glucose syrup and its derivatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Turmeric powder and starch: selected physical, physicochemical, and microstructural properties.

    PubMed

    Kuttigounder, Dhanalakshmi; Lingamallu, Jaganmohan Rao; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2011-01-01

    Turmeric powder and its starch were characterized for physical, physicochemical, and microstructural characteristics. X-ray diffractogram indicated that turmeric starch to be of B type. Dried and cured-dried turmeric powder samples showed higher water-holding capacity (3.62 and 4.78 g/g, respectively) compared to isolated starch (1.07 g/g) at 30 °C. Non-Newtonian shear-thinning characteristics were observed with turmeric powder dispersion containing 10% (w/w) solids. A power law model fitted well to correlate the shear-rate and shear-stress data (r= 0.993 to 0.999, P≤ 0.01) for both samples. Apparent viscosities of isolated turmeric starch and cured-dried turmeric powder dispersion containing 10% (w/w) solids were 1.29 ± 0.03 and 7.57 ± 0.39 mPa s, respectively. Microstructure of starch particles showed a smooth flat outer surface. The approximate length and breadth of isolated elliptical starches were 25 and 10 μm while the thickness was about 5 μm. Isolation and characterization of starch from an unconventional source like turmeric rhizome indicate a potential application as a functional ingredient in foods and pharmaceutical industries including agglomerated products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Gravitropism in roots of intermediate-starch mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Wright, J. B.; Caspar, T.

    1996-01-01

    Gravitropism was studied in roots of wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (strain Wassilewskija) and three starch-deficient mutants that were generated by T-DNA insertional mutagenesis. One of these mutants was starchless while the other two were intermediate mutants, which had 51% and 60%, respectively, of the WT amount of starch as determined by light and electron microscopy. The four parameters used to assay gravitropism were: orientation during vertical growth, time course of curvature, induction, and intermittent stimulation experiments. WT roots were much more responsive to gravity than were roots of the starchless mutant, and the intermediate starch mutants exhibited an intermediate graviresponse. Our data suggest that lowered starch content in the mutants primarily affects gravitropism rather than differential growth because both phototropic curvature and growth rates were approximately equal among all four genotypes. Since responses of intermediate-starch mutants were closer to the WT response than to the starchless mutant, it appears that 51-60% of the WT level of starch is near the threshold amount needed for full gravitropic sensitivity. While other interpretations are possible, the data are consistent with the starch statolith hypothesis for gravity perception in that the degree of graviresponsiveness is proportional to the total mass of plastids per cell.

  4. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P < 0.01)in both the outer and inner crust. A lower temperature (difference of 10-20 °C) in combination with a higher moisture content (maximum difference of 8%) of bread crust were a result of starch coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Atomic force microscopy of pea starch: origins of image contrast.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Michael J; Parker, Mary L; Hedley, Cliff L; Bogracheva, Tatiana Y; Morris, Victor J

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image the internal structure of pea starch granules. Starch granules were encased in a nonpenetrating matrix of rapid-set Araldite. Images were obtained of the internal structure of starch exposed by cutting the face of the block and of starch in sections collected on water. These images have been obtained without staining, or either chemical or enzymatic treatment of the granule. It has been demonstrated that contrast in the AFM images is due to localized absorption of water within specific regions of the exposed fragments of the starch granules. These regions swell, becoming "softer" and higher than surrounding regions. The images obtained confirm the "blocklet model" of starch granule architecture. By using topographic, error signal and force modulation imaging modes on samples of the wild-type pea starch and the high amylose r near-isogenic mutant, it has been possible to demonstrate differing structures within granules of different origin. These architectural changes provide a basis for explaining the changed appearance and functionality of the r mutant. The growth-ring structure of the granule is suggested to arise from localized "defects" in blocklet distribution within the granule. It is proposed that these defects are partially crystalline regions devoid of amylose.

  7. Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.

  8. Physicochemical properties of rhizome starch from a traditional Chinese medicinal plant of Anemone altaica.

    PubMed

    Man, Jianmin; Cai, Jinwen; Cai, Canhui; Huai, Huyin; Wei, Cunxu

    2012-06-20

    This study investigated the physicochemical properties of rhizome starch of A. altaica for the first time. The results were compared to those obtained from two common starches (potato and rice). The rhizome had a starch content of 49.8%. Isolated starch granules were mostly oval in shape with a central Maltese cross and an average long axis of 6.25 μm. The starch contained 35.5% amylose and had lower gelatinization and pasting temperatures than rice and potato starches and a swelling power comparable to potato. Altaica starch had high breakdown and setback viscosities. X-ray diffraction revealed B-type starch with relative degree of crystallinity of 17.5%. Starch possessed a high susceptibility to hydrolysis by acid, porcine pancreatic α-amylase and Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase when compared with potato and rice starches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal properties of partially hydrolyzed starch-glycerophosphatidylcholine complexes with various acyl chains.

    PubMed

    Siswoyo, Tri Agus; Morita, Naofumi

    2003-05-07

    Complexes of starch and monoacyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine (GPC) containing various acyl (myristoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl) chains were subjected to hydrolysis with glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1.3). The enzyme hydrolyzed approximately 40% of starch control and 20-28% of starch-GPC complexes. Among the GPCs examined, 1- and 2-monomyristoyl-sn-GPC showed the highest resistance to enzyme hydrolysis, and the hydrolysis rate of starch-GPCs was greater with longer chains. Enzymatic hydrolysis strongly affected the thermal properties of the starch. After enzymatic hydrolysis of starch-GPC complexes for 24 h, their thermograms had broader peaks with lower enthalpies than the corresponding starch without enzyme; however, the starch-GPC complexes showed little change. The surface of starch-GPC granules was less eroded. These results showed that the increasing amount of starch-GPC complexes could be more resistant to hydrolysis.

  10. The physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Laovachirasuwan, Pornpun; Peerapattana, Jomjai; Srijesdaruk, Voranuch; Chitropas, Padungkwan; Otsuka, Makoto

    2010-06-15

    Glutinous rice starch (GRS) is a biopolymer used widely in the food industry but not at all in the pharmaceutical industry. There are several ways to modify this biopolymer. Physical modification is simple and cheap because it requires no chemicals or biological agents. The aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties of a spray dried glutinous rice starch (SGRS) produced from pregelatinized GRS. The surface morphology changed from an irregular to concave spherical shape as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SGRS was almost amorphous as determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The water molecules became linked through hydrogen bonds to the exposed hydroxyl group of amorphous SGRS as determined by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Then, SGRS formed a colloid gel matrix with water and developed a highly viscous gelatinous form as determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a stress control type rheometer. In addition, SGRS can swell and produce a gelatinous surface barrier like a hydrophilic matrix biopolymer which controls drug release. Therefore, a novel application of SGRS is as a sustained release modifier for direct compression tablets in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children

    PubMed Central

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    <