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Sample records for modified total body

  1. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  2. Modified gravity inside astrophysical bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Ryo; Langlois, David; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Gleyzes, Jérôme E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr

    2015-06-01

    Many theories of modified gravity, including the well studied Horndeski models, are characterized by a screening mechanism that ensures that standard gravity is recovered near astrophysical bodies. In a recently introduced class of gravitational theories that goes beyond Horndeski, it has been found that new derivative interactions lead to a partial breaking of the Vainshtein screening mechanism inside any gravitational source, although not outside. We study the impact of this new type of deviation from standard gravity on the density profile of a spherically symmetric matter distribution, in the nonrelativistic limit. For simplicity, we consider a polytropic equation of state and derive the modifications to the standard Lane-Emden equations. We also show the existence of a universal upper bound on the amplitude of this type of modified gravity, independently of the details of the equation of state.

  3. Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

  4. Modified total body irradiation as a planned second high-dose therapy with stem cell infusion for patients with bone-based malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Zaucha, Renata E.; Buckner, Dean C.; Barnett, Todd; Holmberg, Leona A.; Gooley, Ted; Hooper, Heather A. P.A.-C.; Maloney, David G.; Appelbaum, Frederick; Bensinger, William I. . E-mail: wbensing@fhcrc.org

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the maximum tolerated dose of hyperfractionated total marrow irradiation (TMI) as a second consolidation after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous or syngeneic blood stem cell transfusion for patients with bone/bone marrow-based malignant disease. Patients and Methods: Fifty-seven patients aged 3-65 years (median, 45 years), including 21 with multiple myeloma, 24 with breast cancer, 10 with sarcoma, and 2 with lymphoma, were treated with 1.5 Gy administered twice daily to a total dose of 12 Gy (n = 27), 13.5 Gy (n = 12), and 15 Gy (n = 18). Median time between the 2 transplants was 105 days (range, 63-162 days). Results: All patients engrafted neutrophils (median, Day 11; range, Day 9-23) and became platelet independent (median, Day 9; range, Day 7-36). There were 5 cases of Grade 3-4 regimen-related pulmonary toxicity, 1 at 12 Gy, and 4 at 15 Gy. Complete responses, partial responses, and stabilizations were achieved in 33%, 26%, and 41% of patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival for 56 evaluable patients are 24% and 36%, respectively. Median time of follow-up among survivors was 96 months (range, 77-136 months). Conclusion: Total marrow irradiation as a second myeloablative therapy is feasible. The estimated maximum tolerated dose for TMI in a tandem transplant setting was 13.5 Gy. Because 20% of patients are surviving at 8 years free of disease, further studies of TMI are warranted.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Saeed, N; Hajnal, J V; Brynes, A; Goldstone, A P; Frost, G; Bell, J D

    1998-11-01

    In this study we assessed different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning regimes and examined some of the assumptions commonly made for measuring body fat content by MRI. Whole body MRI was used to quantify and study different body fat depots in 67 women. The whole body MRI results showed that there was a significant variation in the percentage of total internal, as well as visceral, adipose tissue across a range of adiposity, which could not be predicted from total body fat and/or subcutaneous fat. Furthermore, variation in the amount of total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue was not related to standard anthropometric measurements such as skinfold measurements, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio. Finally, we show for the first time subjects with a percent body fat close to the theoretical maximum (68%). This study demonstrates that the large variation in individual internal fat content cannot be predicted from either indirect methods or direct imaging techniques, such as MRI or computed tomography, on the basis of a single-slice sampling strategy. PMID:9804581

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Saeed, N; Hajnal, J V; Brynes, A; Goldstone, A P; Frost, G; Bell, J D

    1998-11-01

    In this study we assessed different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning regimes and examined some of the assumptions commonly made for measuring body fat content by MRI. Whole body MRI was used to quantify and study different body fat depots in 67 women. The whole body MRI results showed that there was a significant variation in the percentage of total internal, as well as visceral, adipose tissue across a range of adiposity, which could not be predicted from total body fat and/or subcutaneous fat. Furthermore, variation in the amount of total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue was not related to standard anthropometric measurements such as skinfold measurements, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio. Finally, we show for the first time subjects with a percent body fat close to the theoretical maximum (68%). This study demonstrates that the large variation in individual internal fat content cannot be predicted from either indirect methods or direct imaging techniques, such as MRI or computed tomography, on the basis of a single-slice sampling strategy.

  7. Endocrine deficit after fractionated total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ogilvy-Stuart, A L; Clark, D J; Wallace, W H; Gibson, B E; Stevens, R F; Shalet, S M; Donaldson, M D

    1992-09-01

    Endocrine function was assessed in 31 children (17 boys) after fractionated total body irradiation used in the preparative regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Endocrine dysfunction was present in 25 children. Fifteen of 29 had growth hormone insufficiency 0.9-4.9 years after total body irradiation, yet only three of the 15 had received previous cranial irradiation. Five of 30 had thyroid dysfunction: two with a low thyroxine and raised thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration and three with a raised TSH and normal thyroxine concentration. Thus the incidence of thyroid dysfunction (16%) is much lower than that reported after single fraction total body irradiation (39-59%). In only two children were abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis demonstrated. The majority of pubertal children assessed (n = 15) showed evidence of gonadal damage. All the pubertal girls (n = 5) had ovarian failure, although there was evidence of recovery of ovarian function in one girl. All seven boys in late puberty showed evidence of damage to the germinal epithelium, and two of three in early puberty had raised follicle stimulating hormone concentrations. Despite the use of a fractionated total body irradiation regimen, endocrine morbidity is substantial and children undergoing such procedures will require long term endocrine review and management.

  8. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  9. Advanced lymphosarcoma treated by total body irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Chaffey, J. T.; Rosenthal, D. S.; Pinkus, F.; Hellman, S.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-five cases of clinical Stage III and Stage IV lymphosarcoma primarily treated by total body irradiation (TBI) are reported. Fifteen cases demonstrated nodular histology and 10 demonstrated diffuse histology by the Rappaport criteria. Treatments were 15 rad given twice weekly, calculated to midpelvis, to a total dose of 150 rad. Toxicity was confined to thrombocytopenia, one-third of patients requiring interruptions in the treatment course to allow platelet count recovery. Five patients had additional local irradiation. Complete responses were seen in 80% of patients and partial responses in 20%. Sixteen patients (64%) have been in continuous, unmaintained remission since treatments for variable periods to 39 months. Of 9 patients with clinically recurrent disease, 3 received further TBI and are in remission, 3 are in remission on chemotherapy, one patient has died, failing on all therapy, and 2 have not been treated. One patient died of pneumonia at 12 months, without clinical evidence of disease. Overall, actuarial survival is 87% at 2 years and compares well with survival in a sequential combination drug treated group of patients matched for age, sex, and histology, though differences are not statistically significant in these small groups. Total body irradiation is an effective systemic agent in the management of advanced lymphosarcoma and should be considered in treating this disease. PMID:810155

  10. Changes in total body water during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) changes occurring in humans as a consequence of prolonged exposure to microgravity were measured in five male crewmembers of Space Shuttle missions STS-61C and STS-26. It was found that the inflight mean TBW values were significantly different from the preflight and postflight values, while the preflight TBW values were not significantly different from the postflight values. It was also found that individuals may differ in the rate at which they respond to weightlessness. Of the three crewmen who reported experiencing no symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS), two had not exhibited a decrease of TBW at the time of measurements (24 hrs after launch), while the two crewmen who reported SMS of intermediate severity showed a decrease of several kg by 24 hrs, suggesting that dehydration might be an important factor affecting the rate of TBW decrease.

  11. Aperture modulated, translating bed total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Jose Eduardo; Dunscombe, Peter; Brown, Derek W.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques aim to deliver a uniform radiation dose to a patient with an irregular body contour and a heterogeneous density distribution to within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. In the current article, the authors present a novel, aperture modulated, translating bed TBI (AMTBI) technique that produces a high degree of dose uniformity throughout the entire patient. Methods: The radiation beam is dynamically shaped in two dimensions using a multileaf collimator (MLC). The irregular surface compensation algorithm in the Eclipse treatment planning system is used for fluence optimization, which is performed based on penetration depth and internal inhomogeneities. Two optimal fluence maps (AP and PA) are generated and beam apertures are created to deliver these optimal fluences. During treatment, the patient/phantom is translated on a motorized bed close to the floor (source to bed distance: 204.5 cm) under a stationary radiation beam with 0 deg. gantry angle. The bed motion and dynamic beam apertures are synchronized. Results: The AMTBI technique produces a more homogeneous dose distribution than fixed open beam translating bed TBI. In phantom studies, the dose deviation along the midline is reduced from 10% to less than 5% of the prescribed dose in the longitudinal direction. Dose to the lung is reduced by more than 15% compared to the unshielded fixed open beam technique. At the lateral body edges, the dose received from the open beam technique was 20% higher than that prescribed at umbilicus midplane. With AMTBI the dose deviation in this same region is reduced to less than 3% of the prescribed dose. Validation of the technique was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Rando phantom. Agreement between calculation and measurement was better than 3% in all cases. Conclusions: A novel, translating bed, aperture modulated TBI technique that employs dynamically shaped MLC defined beams is shown to improve dose uniformity

  12. Modeling a radiotherapy clinical procedure: total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Ernesto P; García, Camille; De La Rosa, Verónica

    2010-09-01

    Leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and neuroblastoma patients prior to bone marrow transplants may be subject to a clinical radiotherapy procedure called total body irradiation (TBI). To mimic a TBI procedure, we modified the Jones model of bone marrow radiation cell kinetics by adding mutant and cancerous cell compartments. The modified Jones model is mathematically described by a set of n + 4 differential equations, where n is the number of mutations before a normal cell becomes a cancerous cell. Assuming a standard TBI radiotherapy treatment with a total dose of 1320 cGy fractionated over four days, two cases were considered. In the first, repopulation and sub-lethal repair in the different cell populations were not taken into account (model I). In this case, the proposed modified Jones model could be solved in a closed form. In the second, repopulation and sub-lethal repair were considered, and thus, we found that the modified Jones model could only be solved numerically (model II). After a numerical and graphical analysis, we concluded that the expected results of TBI treatment can be mimicked using model I. Model II can also be used, provided the cancer repopulation factor is less than the normal cell repopulation factor. However, model I has fewer free parameters compared to model II. In either case, our results are in agreement that the standard dose fractionated over four days, with two irradiations each day, provides the needed conditioning treatment prior to bone marrow transplant. Partial support for this research was supplied by the NIH-RISE program, the LSAMP-Puerto Rico program, and the University of Puerto Rico-Humacao.

  13. A New Total Body Potassium Method to Estimate Total Body Skeletal Muscle Mass in Children12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZiMian; Heshka, Stanley; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Chen, Zhao; Silva, Analiza M.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Wang, Jack; Gallager, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    A whole body skeletal muscle [(SM); kg] mass estimation model, based on total body potassium [(TBK); mmol] measured by whole body 40K counting (WBC) was developed (SM = 0.0082·TBK) and validated in adults in a previous study. It is unknown whether the adult TBK SM prediction model is applicable for pediatric use. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a pediatric TBK SM prediction equation. SM measured by MRI was used as the criterion and TBK was measured by WBC. The protocol was completed in 116 healthy children, 66 males and 50 females, 11.7 ± 3.5 y (mean ± SD, range = 5–17 y). A strong linear correlation was observed between TBK and SM (r = 0.984; P < 0.001). The SM:TBK ratio was 0.0071 ± 0.0008 kg/mmol in the children studied, much lower than the corresponding value of 0.0082 kg/mmol in adults. An empirical SM prediction equation was developed using TBK alone: SM = 0.0085·TBK − 2.83, r2 = 0.97, SEE = 1.39 kg. Bland-Altman analysis did not disclose a significant bias in the prediction of SM. When biological factors entered along with TBK in the general linear model, another prediction equation was developed: SM = 5.52 + 0.001·TBK (mmol) + 0.081·weight (kg) − 0.049·height (cm) + 0.00004·TBK · height + race (−0.60 for Caucasian, 0.49 for African-American, and 0 for Hispanic). Because the adult TBK SM prediction model is not applicable for pediatric use, this study provides new empirical TBK SM prediction equations that should prove useful for studies on nutrition, growth, and development in children. PMID:17634275

  14. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  15. Symbiotic bacterium modifies aphid body color.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Koga, Ryuichi; Horikawa, Mitsuyo; Tsunoda, Tetsuto; Maoka, Takashi; Matsumoto, Shogo; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Fukatsu, Takema

    2010-11-19

    Color variation within populations of the pea aphid influences relative susceptibility to predators and parasites. We have discovered that infection with a facultative endosymbiont of the genus Rickettsiella changes the insects' body color from red to green in natural populations. Approximately 8% of pea aphids collected in Western Europe carried the Rickettsiella infection. The infection increased amounts of blue-green polycyclic quinones, whereas it had less of an effect on yellow-red carotenoid pigments. The effect of the endosymbiont on body color is expected to influence prey-predator interactions, as well as interactions with other endosymbionts. PMID:21097935

  16. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  17. Three-Dimensional Dose Calculation for Total Body Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Akira

    Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) therapy has been a big success in the treatment of leukemia and other haematopoietic diseases 1 . Prior to BMT, total body irradiation (TBI) is given to the patient for the purpose of (1) killing leukemia cells in bone marrow, as well as in the whole body, and (2) producing immuno-suppressive status in the patient so that the donor's marrow cells will be transplanted without rejection. TBI employs a very large field photon beam to irradiate the whole body of the patient. A uniform dose distribution over the entire body is the treatment goal. To prevent the occurrence of a serious side effect (interstitial pneumonia), the lung dose should not exceed a certain level. This novel technique poses various new radiological physics problems. The accurate assessment of dose and dose distribution in the patient is essential. Physical and dosimetric problems associated with TBI are reviewed elsewhere 2,3 .

  18. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution.

    PubMed

    Powers, Michael E.; Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. DESIGN AND SETTING: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. SUBJECTS: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 +/- 3.01 years, height = 179.8 +/- 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 +/- 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 +/- 2.51 years, height = 163.4 +/- 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 +/- 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. RESULTS: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. CONCLUSIONS: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed.

  19. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. Design and Setting: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. Subjects: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 ± 3.01 years, height = 179.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 ± 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 ± 2.51 years, height = 163.4 ± 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 ± 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. Results: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. Conclusions: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed. PMID:12937471

  20. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  1. Electronic compensation technique to deliver a total body dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakeman, Tara E.

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been conventionally used to compensate for the varying thickness throughout the body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two pair of parallel opposed fields. One pair of large fields is used to encompass the majority of the patient's anatomy. The other pair are very small open fields focused only on the thin bottom portion of the patient's anatomy, which requires much less radiation than the rest of the body to reach 100% of the prescribed dose. A desirable fluence pattern was manually painted within each of the larger fields for each patient to provide a more uniform distribution. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In the electronically compensated plans, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the conventionally-compensated plans by an average of 15%, indicating a more uniform dose. The mean body doses calculated from the electronically compensated DVH remained comparable to that of the conventionally-compensated plans, indicating an accurate delivery of the prescription dose using electronic compensation. All calculated monitor units were within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not increase the beam on time beyond clinically acceptable limits while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup

  2. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis. PMID:27411418

  3. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD). PMID:9246868

  4. Virtual Reality Body Swapping: A Tool for Modifying the Allocentric Memory of the Body.

    PubMed

    Serino, Silvia; Pedroli, Elisa; Keizer, Anouk; Triberti, Stefano; Dakanalis, Antonios; Pallavicini, Federica; Chirico, Alice; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    An increasing amount of evidence has shown that embodiment of a virtual body via visuo-tactile stimulation can lead to an altered perception of body and object size. The current study aimed to investigate whether virtual reality (VR) body swapping can be an effective tool for modifying the enduring memory of the body. The experimental sample included 21 female participants who were asked to estimate the width and circumference of different body parts before any kind of stimulation and after two types of body swapping illusions ("synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation" and "asynchronous visuo-tactile stimulation"). Findings revealed that after participants embodied a virtual body with a skinny belly (independently of the type of visuo-tactile stimulation), there was an update of the stored representation of the body: participants reported a decrease in the ratio between estimated and actual body measures for most of the body parts considered. Based on the Allocentric Lock Theory, these findings provide first evidence that VR body swapping is able to induce a change in the memory of the body. This knowledge may be potentially useful for patients suffering from eating and weight disorders. PMID:26506136

  5. Determination of body composition in growing rats by total body electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Morbach, C A; Brans, Y W

    1992-04-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC), measured with an Em-Scan SA-1 analyzer, was evaluated as a means of estimating fat-free mass and total body water content noninvasively in small laboratory animals. Ninety-four rats whose weight ranged from 5.53 to 170.84 g at 0-50 days of age were studied. The animals were killed by intraperitoneal injection of a pentobarbital overdose. After weight, crown-rump length (CRL) and TOBEC were measured, and the animals were minced with scissors and desiccated to constant weight in a convection oven. Fat was extracted by multiple bathings in petroleum ether followed by Soxhlet extraction. Fifty-four rats were used to determine the relation between fat-free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), and TOBEC# (E) by regression analysis. The best correlations were observed between FFM and (E x CRL)1/2 (r = 0.995, p less than 0.0001). Forty rats were used to determine the predictive value of TOBEC estimates. With this instrument, TOBEC tended to underestimate FFM by an average of 3.9% and TBW by 5.3%. Accuracy was questionable for animals smaller than 13 g and TOBEC did not provide useful estimates of total body fat. Subject to these limitations, TOBEC instruments should prove to be useful for sequential in vivo estimations of body composition during growth and development of small animals.

  6. Total body phosphorus in healthy women and ethnic variations.

    PubMed

    Arunabh, Sonia; Feuerman, Martin; Ma, Ruimei; Aloia, John F

    2002-02-01

    Total body phosphorus (TBP) levels were measured in 90 black and 143 white healthy women to determine ethnic differences. The measurements were performed by in vivo delayed gamma neutron activation (DGNA) analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Mean value of TBP in whites was 10.4% lower as compared with the black women (mean TBP in white women 401.4 +/- 57.5 g v. 447.7 +/- 57.7 g in black women). Both subgroups have a decrease in TBP with age with a rapid phase after the onset of menopause, which corresponds to bone loss. The decrease in TBP is similar in both ethnic groups with black women losing -1.59 g/yr (-0.33%/yr) and white women losing -2.08 g/yr (-0.45%/yr). PMID:11833045

  7. Cyclic, low-dose total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angio, G.J.; Evans, A.E.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) can be thought of as a systemic anticancer agent. It therefore might best be given like an adjuvant drug, i.e., in tolerable doses, cyclically. The therapeutic ratio between normal bone marrow stem cells and suitably sensitive cancer cells should be widened by these means. Fourteen children with advanced (Stage IV) neuroblastomas were given 100-150 rad TBI in 50 rad daily fractions along with each three-week cycle of standard triple-agent chemotherapy (vincristine, DTIC, cyclophosphamide). Two patients died of toxicity and one is still undergoing therapy. Four of the remaining 12 survive free of disease for 12+ to 31+ months. The regimen is well tolerated, but prolonged, pronounced bone marrow depression, especially thrombocytopenia, commonly occurs after doses of 300-450 rad.

  8. Total body phosphorus in healthy women and ethnic variations.

    PubMed

    Arunabh, Sonia; Feuerman, Martin; Ma, Ruimei; Aloia, John F

    2002-02-01

    Total body phosphorus (TBP) levels were measured in 90 black and 143 white healthy women to determine ethnic differences. The measurements were performed by in vivo delayed gamma neutron activation (DGNA) analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Mean value of TBP in whites was 10.4% lower as compared with the black women (mean TBP in white women 401.4 +/- 57.5 g v. 447.7 +/- 57.7 g in black women). Both subgroups have a decrease in TBP with age with a rapid phase after the onset of menopause, which corresponds to bone loss. The decrease in TBP is similar in both ethnic groups with black women losing -1.59 g/yr (-0.33%/yr) and white women losing -2.08 g/yr (-0.45%/yr).

  9. Total body water measurements using resonant cavity perturbation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Darren A.; Robinson, Martin P.

    2004-05-01

    A recent paper proposed a novel technique for determining the total body water (TBW) of patients suffering with abnormal hydration levels, using a resonant cavity perturbation method. Current techniques to measure TBW are limited by resolution and technical constraints. However, this new method involves measuring the dielectric properties of the body, by placing a subject in a large cavity resonator and measuring the subsequent change in its resonant frequency, fres and its Q-factor. Utilizing the relationship that water content correlates to these dielectric properties, it has been shown that the measured response of these parameters enables determination of TBW. Results are presented for a preliminary study using data estimated from anthropometric measurements, where volunteers were asked to lie and stand in an electromagnetic screened room, before and after drinking between 1 and 2 l of water, and in some cases, after voiding the bladder. Notable changes in the parameters were observed; fres showed a negative shift and Q was reduced. Preliminary calibration curves using estimated values of water content have been developed from these results, showing that for each subject the measured resonant frequency is a linear function of TBW. Because the gradients of these calibration curves correlate to the mass-to-height-ratio of the volunteers, it has proved that a system in which TBW can be unequivocally obtained is possible. Measured values of TBW have been determined using this new pilot-technique, and the values obtained correlate well with theoretical values of body water (r = 0.87) and resolution is very good (750 ml). The results obtained are measurable, repeatable and statistically significant. This leads to confidence in the integrity of the proposed technique.

  10. Virtual bolus for total body irradiation treated with helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Gilles; Izar, Françoise; Ferrand, Régis; Bardies, Manuel; Ken, Soléakhéna; Simon, Luc

    2015-11-08

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for total body irradiation (TBI) is practiced in several centers using the TomoTherapy System. In this context the planning target volume (PTV) is the entire body including the skin. A safety margin in the air surrounding the body should be added to take into account setup errors. But using inverse planning, over-fluence peak could be generated in the skin region to insure dose homogeneity. This work proposes to study the performance of the use of a virtual bolus (VB). A VB is a material placed on the skin surface during planning, but absent for the real treatment. The optimal VB that compensates large setup errors without introducing a high-dose increase or hot spots for small setup errors was determined. For two cylindrical phantoms, 20VBs with different densities, thicknesses or designs were tested. Dose coverage of the PTV (V95%) in the presence of simulated setup errors was computed to assess the VB performance. A measure of the dose increase in the phantom center due to the absence of the VB during treatment was also achieved. Finally, the fluence peak at the phantom edge was measured in complete buildup conditions using a large phantom and a detector matrix. Using these VBs, simulated setup errors were compensated to a minimum value of 2.6 and 2.1 cm for small and large phantom, respectively (and only 1.2 and 1.7 cm with no VB). An optimal double-layer VB was found with a density of 0.4 kg.m(-3) and a total thickness of 8mm; an inner layer of 5 mm was declared as the target for the treatment planning system and an additional layer of 3 mm was added to avoid the over-fluence peak. Using this VB, setup errors were compensated up to 2.9 cm. The dose increase was measured to be only +1.5% at the phantom center and over-fluence peak was strongly decreased.

  11. Determination of body composition in conscious adult female Wistar utilising total body electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, K; North, T J; Telford, G; Smith, S; Brammer, R; Jones, R B; Heal, D J

    2001-01-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a noninvasive method for estimating fat free mass (FFM) in live animals. In this study, we have evaluated the use of the Em-Scan SA-3000, which is claimed by the manufacturers to perform better than earlier analysers. Previous studies in rats using these earlier versions of the TOBEC analyser have always used anaesthesia to minimise movement artefacts. As repeated anaesthesia also has the potential to induce artefacts by disrupting food intake, for example, we have also attempted to determine if this TOBEC analyser can be used to predict body composition in conscious adult weight-stable female Wistar rats. A simplified cafeteria diet was used to produce large variations in body composition (40-350 g fat/carcass) and a full chemical body composition analysis was performed to generate a TOBEC calibration equation. The TOBEC parameter was more strongly correlated to FFM (r(2)=.785) than it was to body weight (r(2)=.669) or other body composition parameters. Using the TOBEC calibration equation to predict fat mass on these data, there was an excellent correlation with the value obtained by chemical analyses (r(2)=.952, slope=0.958). To determine if the TOBEC calibration equation derived from this calibration study would then be useful for the routine estimation of body composition an additional, validation study was performed. This validation study was performed 6 months later, used an independent group of obese female Wistar rats and was undertaken by different TOBEC operators. This validation study, again, showed a good correlation between the TOBEC- and chemical-derived fat mass (r(2)=.918, slope=1.003) indicating stability of the calibration equation with time and independence from operator. We therefore conclude that it is possible to meaningfully estimate body fat changes in conscious rats using this TOBEC analysis system.

  12. New way of body composition analysis using total body electrical conductivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, Wojciech; Koteja, Pawel; Weiner, January; Froncisz, Wojciech

    1995-04-01

    Traditional methods of measuring total body water and fat content of animals that require sacrificing specimens are generally unacceptable when endangered species, or large animal sizes, or humans are involved. These methods are also unsuitable for following changes of fat and water content in individuals. An alternative method, based on the nonresonant absorption of a rf electromagnetic field has been used for constructing a new body composition analyzer. As the electrical conductivity of lipids is approximately 20 times lower than that of lean tissues, the rf power absorbed by the animal provides information which enables one to calculate the lean body mass and total body water. The new instrument measures rf power absorbed by an animal by measuring the quality factor (Q) of the resonant circuit with an animal placed inside the coil. Numerical calculations of the rf power absorbed by a cylindrical object containing 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution have also been performed. Experimental values confirmed the calculated dependence of the absorbed power on the cylinder radius. The device built has been calibrated on 9 males and 11 females of laboratory mice. The amount of lipids was then measured by ether extraction. The relation between instrument reading, which is proportional to the power absorption, and lean body mass (LBM) or water mass (WM) was linear and highly significant: the simple regression coefficients of determination were 0.983 for LBM, and 0.990 for WM (p<0.001). It has been found that for an individual animal with a body mass ranging from 15.9 to 40.7 g, the accuracy of measurement was ±1.6 g for LBM and ±1 g for WM.

  13. Patterns of patient specific dosimetry in total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi; McMullen, Kevin P.; Das, Indra J.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) has been used for bone marrow transplant for hematologic and immune deficiency conditions. The goal of TBI is to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, with a generally accepted range of dose uniformity being within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. The moving table technique for TBI could make dose uniform in whole body by adjusting couch speed. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the actual dose by calculation and hence in vivo dosimetry (IVD) is routinely performed. Here, the authors present patterns of patient-specific IVD in 161 TBI patients treated at our institution. Methods: Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit (Model C9 Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, Picker X-ray Corporation) with customized moving bed (SITI Industrial Products, Inc., Fishers, IN) were used for TBI treatment. During treatment, OneDose{sup TM} (Sicel Technology, NC) Metal Oxide-silicon Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor detectors were placed at patient body surface; both entrance and exit side of the beam at patient head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee to estimate midplane dose. When large differences (>10%) between the prescribed and measured dose were observed, dose delivery was corrected for subsequent fractions by the adjustment of couch speed and/or bolus placement. Under IRB exempt status, the authors retrospectively analyzed the treatment records of 161 patients who received TBI treatment between 2006 and 2011. Results: Across the entire cohort, the median {+-} SD (range) percent variance between calculated and measured dose for head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee was -2.3 {+-} 10.2% (-66.2 to +35.3), 1.1 {+-} 11.5% (-62.2 to +40.3), -1.9 {+-} 9.5% (-66.4 to +46.6), -1.1 {+-} 7.2% (-35.2 to +42.9), and 3.4 {+-} 12.2% (-47.9 to +108.5), respectively. More than half of treatments were within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose for all anatomical regions. For 80% of treatments (10%-90%), dose at the umbilicus was within {+-}10

  14. GFR normalized to total body water allows comparisons across genders and body sizes.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Bjørn O; Melsom, Toralf; Mathisen, Ulla D; Jenssen, Trond G; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid

    2011-08-01

    The normalization of GFR to a standardized body-surface area of 1.73 m(2) impedes comparison of GFR across individuals of different genders, heights, or weights. Ideally, GFR should be normalized to a parameter that best explains variation in GFR. Here, we measured true GFR by iohexol clearance in a representative sample of 1627 individuals from the general population who did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or kidney disease. We also estimated total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume, lean body mass, liver volume, metabolic rate, and body-surface area. We compared two methods of normalizing GFR to these physiologic variables: (1) the conventional method of scaling GFR to each physiologic variable by simple division and (2) a method based on regression of the GFR on each variable. TBW explained a higher proportion of the variation in GFR than the other physiologic variables. GFR adjusted for TBW by the regression method exhibited less dependence on gender, height, and weight compared with the other physiologic variables. Thus, adjusting GFR for TBW by the regression method allows direct comparisons between individuals of different genders, weights, and heights. We propose that regression-based normalization of GFR to a standardized TBW of 40 L should replace the current practice of normalizing GFR to 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area.

  15. Renal dysfunction after total body irradiation: Dose-effect relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Kal, Henk B. . E-mail: H.B.Kal@UMCUtrecht.nl; Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: Late complications related to total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been increasingly noted. We reviewed and compared the results of treatments with various TBI regimens and tried to derive a dose-effect relationship for the endpoint of late renal dysfunction. The aim was to find the tolerance dose for the kidney when TBI is performed. Methods and Materials: A literature search was performed using PubMed for articles reporting late renal dysfunction. For intercomparison, the various TBI regimens were normalized using the linear-quadratic model, and biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. Results: Eleven reports were found describing the frequency of renal dysfunction after TBI. The frequency of renal dysfunction as a function of the BED was obtained. For BED >16 Gy an increase in the frequency of dysfunction was observed. Conclusions: The tolerance BED for kidney tissue undergoing TBI is about 16 Gy. This BED can be realized with highly fractionated TBI (e.g., 6 x 1.7 Gy or 9 x 1.2 Gy at dose rates >5 cGy/min). To prevent late renal dysfunction, the TBI regimens with BED values >16 Gy (almost all found in published reports) should be applied with appropriate shielding of the kidneys.

  16. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  17. Bone markers after total body irradiation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Espérou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Souberbielle, J-C; Brauner, R

    2010-03-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) can cause short stature because of decreased growth hormone (GH) and skeletal abnormalities. To evaluate the plasma concentrations of markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, P1NP) and resorption (carboxy-terminal telopeptide, CTX), in patients (n=65) who had been given TBI at 6.6+/-0.4 years were evaluated at 9.8+/-0.4 years. Patients given single 10 Gy or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, except that plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was lower in those given a single 10 Gy. Seven had lower osteocalcin and two had higher CTX than controls. Bone markers (as zs) were positively correlated (osteocalcin with P1NP, rho=0.42, P=0.0007; osteocalcin with CTX, rho=0.3, P<0.02), but not P1NP with CTX. Plasma osteocalcin and CTX were also positively correlated with plasma IGF-1, but not with growth rate during the first year on GH (n=28). Adult height was -2.5+/-0.2 s.d.s. (n=49). Those irradiated when young (P=0.0002) or given single TBI lost more height between TBI and adult height. Most TBI patients had normal bone formation and resorption markers. Thus, impaired bone turnover is probably not the cause of their short stature and poor response to GH.

  18. Influence of body mass index in revision total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Santos, Diego Benone; Chammas, Victor; Arrebola, Lucas Simões; Colombo, Mauricio Lebre; Scalizi, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on the functional assessment of patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA). METHODS : Thirty patients who un-derwent RTKA between January 2008 and January 2012 were retrospectively assessed using the WOMAC questionnaire. The patients were divided into three groups according to the BMI ca-tegories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO): Group I with normal BMI (18-24.9 Kg/m2), with eight patients; Group II, overweight (BMI 25-29.9 Kg/m2), with 15 patients, and Group III obesity with BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2, with seven patients. The post-ope-rative function scores obtained through the WOMAC questionnaire were compared with the BMI of each group. The statistical analysis between BMI and WOMAC scores was performed with the Spe-arman correlation test. RESULTS : The average functional WOMAC score for individuals in Group I was 16.7; in Group II it was 47.7; and in Group III it was 69.9, with a statistically significant differen-ce between groups I, II and III (p< 0.0001). CONCLUSION : Patients with BMI > 25 Kg/m2 had a worse functional evaluation through WOMAC scores when compared to patients with normal BMI after RTKA. Level of Evidence III, Tranversal Retrospective Study. PMID:27057139

  19. Total body irradiation selectively induces murine hematopoietic stem cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Schulte, Bradley A; LaRue, Amanda C; Ogawa, Makio; Zhou, Daohong

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) and certain chemotherapeutic agents not only causes acute bone marrow (BM) suppression but also leads to long-term residual hematopoietic injury. This latter effect has been attributed to damage to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. Using a mouse model, we investigated whether IR induces senescence in HSCs, as induction of HSC senescence can lead to the defect in HSC self-renewal. It was found that exposure of C57BL/6 mice to a sublethal dose (6.5 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) resulted in a sustained quantitative and qualitative reduction of LKS+ HSCs. In addition, LKS+ HSCs from irradiated mice exhibited an increased expression of the 2 commonly used biomarkers of cellular senescence, p16(Ink4a) and SA-beta-gal. In contrast, no such changes were observed in irradiated LKS- hematopoietic progenitor cells. These results provide the first direct evidence demonstrating that IR exposure can selectively induce HSC senescence. Of interest, the induction of HSC senescence was associated with a prolonged elevation of p21(Cip1/Waf1), p19(Arf), and p16(Ink4a) mRNA expression, while the expression of p27(Kip1) and p18(Ink4c) mRNA was not increased following TBI. This suggests that p21(Cip1/Waf1), p19(Arf), and p16(Ink4a) may play an important role in IR-induced senescence in HSCs.

  20. Total body water adjustment of mean alcohol intakes.

    PubMed

    Mirand, A L; Welte, J W

    1994-01-01

    Total body water volume (TBW) is one factor that determines the functional effect of a standard dose of alcohol. Because women and the elderly generally have lower TBW values than men and younger persons, respectively, less alcohol needs to be consumed by women and elders to achieve the same or higher blood alcohol levels compared to men and younger persons. An existing data set on elderly drinkers was analyzed with and without TBW adjustment of intakes using mean TBW estimates per decade for each gender. The estimates were obtained from a published report that pooled cross-sectional data to produce mean TBW values and TBW prediction equations applicable to Western populations. As the analyses confirm, the use of cutoff points of alcohol intake not adjusted for TBW results in drinking-level misclassification and findings biased towards younger males. This report supports the standard use of TBW-adjusted alcohol intakes in analyses of samples with both genders and/or a wide age range.

  1. Disease-modifying therapeutic directions for Lewy-Body dementias

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Kim, Young-Cho; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2015-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second leading cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD) and accounts for up to 25% of all dementia. DLB is distinct from AD in that it involves extensive neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as motor symptoms, leads to enormous societal costs in terms of direct medical care and is associated with high financial and caregiver costs. Although, there are no disease-modifying therapies for DLB, we review several new therapeutic directions in treating DLB. We discuss progress in strategies to decrease the level of alpha-synuclein, to prevent the cell to cell transmission of misfolded alpha-synuclein, and the potential of brain stimulation in DLB. PMID:26347604

  2. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  3. Delayed renal dysfunction after total body irradiation in pediatric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Watanabe Nemoto, Miho; Isobe, Koichi; Togasaki, Gentaro; Kanazawa, Aki; Kurokawa, Marie; Saito, Makoto; Harada, Rintaro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hisao; Uno, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of delayed renal dysfunction after total body irradiation (TBI) in long-term survivors of TBI/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between 1989 and 2006, 24 pediatric patients underwent TBI as part of the conditioning regimen for HSCT at Chiba University Hospital. Nine patients who survived for more than 5 years were enrolled in this study. No patient had any evidence of renal dysfunction prior to the transplant according to their baseline creatinine levels. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 6 years old (range: 1-17 years old). The follow-up period ranged from 79-170 months (median: 140 months). Renal dysfunction was assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The TBI dose ranged from 8-12 Gy delivered in 3-6 fractions over 2-3 d. The patients were treated with linear accelerators in the supine position, and the radiation was delivered to isocentric right-left and left-right fields via the extended distance technique. The kidneys and the liver were not shielded except in one patient with a left adrenal neuroblastoma. No patient required hemodialysis. The eGFR of four patients (44.4%) progressively decreased. The remaining patients did not demonstrate any eGFR deterioration. Only one patient developed hypertension. By evaluating the changes in eGFR, renal dysfunction among long-term survivors of TBI/HSCT could be detected. Our results suggested that the TBI schedule of 12 Gy in 6 fractions over three consecutive days affects renal function.

  4. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-07-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt ..gamma.. neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients.

  5. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M. )

    1993-03-20

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing [sup 60]Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  7. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  8. The use of the articulated total body model as a robot dynamics simulation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obergfell, Louise A.; Avula, Xavier J. R.; Kalegs, Ints

    1988-01-01

    The Articulated Total Body (ATB) model is a computer sumulation program which was originally developed for the study of aircrew member dynamics during ejection from high-speed aircraft. This model is totally three-dimensional and is based on the rigid body dynamics of coupled systems which use Euler's equations of motion with constraint relations of the type employed in the Lagrange method. In this paper the use of the ATB model as a robot dynamics simulation tool is discussed and various simulations are demonstrated. For this purpose the ATB model has been modified to allow for the application of torques at the joints as functions of state variables of the system. Specifically, the motion of a robotic arm with six revolute articulations with joint torques prescribed as functions of angular displacement and angular velocity are demonstrated. The simulation procedures developed in this work may serve as valuable tools for analyzing robotic mechanisms, dynamic effects, joint load transmissions, feed-back control algorithms employed in the actuator control and end-effector trajectories.

  9. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor.

  10. Central nervous versus total body thermosensitivity of the duck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, E.; Martin, R.; Simon-Oppermann, Ch.

    1981-09-01

    Ducks were chronically implanted with thermodes in the POAH region, the lower brainstem or the vertebral canal. At thermoneutral conditions, lowering the temperature of the spinal cord (Tvc) or the lower brainstem (Tmb) stimulated metabolic heat production (M) with a subsequent rise of core temperature (Tc). Lowering the temperature of the POAH region (Thy) induced a fall of Tc due to paradoxical activation of heat defence and, thus, induced slight to moderate general hypothermia depending on the cooling intensity. When Thy was normalized, the hypothermia temporarily stimulated metabolic heat production until Tc was normalized. Cold sensitivity of the entire body, as revealed by the metabolic response to the hypothermia induced by preceding POAH cooling, and cold sensitivity of the spinal cord and the lower brainstem, as revealed by the metabolic response to local cooling, were quantified by calculating the quotient δM/δT from the maximum metabolic response and the experimentally induced drop of Tc, Tmb and Tvc. With lower brainstem cooling δM/δTmbdid not exceed -0.4 W/(kg · ‡C). With spinal cord cooling, δM/δTvc did not exceed -0.6 W/(kg · ‡C). The mean value of δM/δTc after hypothermia induced by POAH cooling was -4.02 W/(kg · ‡C). The results indicate that the cold sensitivity residing in the CNS of ducks represents only a small fraction of the entire cold sensitivity of the body.

  11. Myeloproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Urowitz, M.B.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-01-21

    Four patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total body irradiation administered in two sittings, 300 to 400 rads to each half of the body. All four patients had taken antimetabolites prior to receiving total body irradiation, and two continued to use them after total body irradiation. Two patients had taken alkylating agents before, and one had used them after total body irradiation. All patients showed clinical improvement. However, in two patients myeloproliferative disorders developed: a myelodysplastic preleukemia at 40 months after total body irradiation in one and acute myelogenous leukemia at 25 months in the other. Total body irradiation differs from total nodal irradiation in the total dose of irradiation (300 to 400 rads versus 2,000 to 3,000), and in the duration of the therapy (two sittings versus treatment over several weeks to months). Furthermore, the patients in the total body irradiation study frequently used cytotoxic drugs before and/or after irradiation, whereas in one total nodal irradiation study, azathioprine (2 mg/kg per day or less) was permitted, but no other cytotoxic agents were allowed. Rheumatologists may therefore face a binding decision when deciding to treat a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with either a cytotoxic drug or irradiation.

  12. Fractionated sublethal total body irradiation and donor bone marrow infusion for induction of specific allograft tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, G.E.; Kimler, B.F.; Thomas, J.H.; Watts, L.M.; Kinnaman, M.L.

    1981-03-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (FT-lymphoid-I) plus donor bone marrow (BM) can induce tolerance to skin allografts. In the present study, fractionated total body irradiation (FT-body-I) was studied as an alternative to FT-lymphoid-I. FT-body-I produces less pulmonary and gastrointestinal injury than does single exposure total body irradiation, but because of the decreased capacity of lymphoid tissues to recover from the effects of irradiation between fractions, the effect of FT-body-I on lymphoid cells, when delivered within 24 h, is approximately the same as an equivalent single exposure of total body irradiation. Therefore, FT-body-I, like FT-lymphoid-I, has some selectivity for lymphoid tissues and has the advantage that it can be delivered within the time constraints of ex vivo organ preservation.

  13. Modified Kepler's law, escape speed, and two-body problem in modified Newtonian dynamics-like theories

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Hongsheng; Li Baojiu; Bienayme, Olivier

    2010-11-15

    We derive a simple analytical expression for the two-body force in a subclass of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theories and make testable predictions in the modification to the two-body orbital period, shape, precession rate, escape speed, etc. We demonstrate the applications of the modified Kepler's law in the timing of satellite orbits around the Milky Way, and checking the feasibility of MOND in the orbit of the large Magellanic cloud, the M31 galaxy, and the merging bullet clusters. MOND appears to be consistent with satellite orbits although with a tight margin. Our results on two-bodies are also generalized to restricted three-body, many-body problems, rings, and shells.

  14. Modified Kepler's law, escape speed, and two-body problem in modified Newtonian dynamics-like theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Li, Baojiu; Bienaymé, Olivier

    2010-11-01

    We derive a simple analytical expression for the two-body force in a subclass of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theories and make testable predictions in the modification to the two-body orbital period, shape, precession rate, escape speed, etc. We demonstrate the applications of the modified Kepler’s law in the timing of satellite orbits around the Milky Way, and checking the feasibility of MOND in the orbit of the large Magellanic cloud, the M31 galaxy, and the merging bullet clusters. MOND appears to be consistent with satellite orbits although with a tight margin. Our results on two-bodies are also generalized to restricted three-body, many-body problems, rings, and shells.

  15. Computer program for the computation of total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a computer program to compute total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure are presented. The FORTRAN 77 language version is for use on the PRIME computer, and the BASIC language version is for use on most microcomputers. The program contains built-in limitations and input-output options that closely follow the original modified Einstein procedure. Program documentation and listings of both versions of the program are included. (USGS)

  16. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  17. Development and application of an analysis of axisymmetric body effects on helicopter rotor aerodynamics using modified slender body theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, G.; Johnson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A computationally efficient body analysis designed to couple with a comprehensive helicopter analysis is developed in order to calculate the body-induced aerodynamic effects on rotor performance and loads. A modified slender body theory is used as the body model. With the objective of demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and application of the method, the analysis at this stage is restricted to axisymmetric bodies at zero angle of attack. By comparing with results from an exact analysis for simple body shapes, it is found that the modified slender body theory provides an accurate potential flow solution for moderately thick bodies, with only a 10%-20% increase in computational effort over that of an isolated rotor analysis. The computational ease of this method provides a means for routine assessment of body-induced effects on a rotor. Results are given for several configurations that typify those being used in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and in the rotor-body aerodynamic interference tests being conducted at Ames. A rotor-hybrid airship configuration is also analyzed.

  18. The Thoratec system implanted as a modified total artificial heart: the Bad Oeynhausen technique.

    PubMed

    Arusoglu, Latif; Reiss, Nils; Morshuis, Michiel; Schoenbrodt, Michael; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Gummert, Jan

    2010-12-01

    The CardioWest™ total artificial heart (SynCardia Systems, Tuscon, AZ, USA) is the only FDA-approved total artificial heart determined as a bridge to human heart transplantation for patients dying of biventricular heart failure. Implantation provides immediate hemodynamic restoration and clinical stabilization, leading to end-organ recovery and thus eventually allowing cardiac transplantation. Occasionally, implantation of a total artificial heart is not feasible for anatomical reasons. For this patient group, we have developed an alternative technique using the paracorporeal Thoratec biventricular support system (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA, USA) as a modified total artificial heart. A detailed description of the implantation technique is presented.

  19. Simplified methods for computing total sediment discharge with the modified Einstein procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Bruce R.; Hubbell, David Wellington

    1961-01-01

    A procedure was presented in 1950 by H. A. Einstein for computing the total discharge of sediment particles of sizes that are in appreciable quantities in the stream bed. This procedure was modified by the U.S. Geological Survey and adapted to computing the total sediment discharge of a stream on the basis of samples of bed sediment, depth-integrated samples of suspended sediment, streamflow measurements, and water temperature. This paper gives simplified methods for computing total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure. Each of four homographs appreciably simplifies a major step in the computations. Within the stated limitations, use of the homographs introduces much less error than is present in either the basic data or the theories on which the computations of total sediment discharge are based. The results are nearly as accurate mathematically as those that could be obtained from the longer and more complex arithmetic and algebraic computations of the Einstein procedure.

  20. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  1. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set too high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg guideline was calculated by the dividing the 4.0 W/kg dose by a safety factor of 10. However, if the RFR dose in the rat had been normalized with respect to surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/sq m which translates, for a 80 kg adult, to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg. Thus, the current RF exposure guideline may be several-fold greater than originally intended.

  2. A Monte Carlo evaluation of beam characteristics for total body irradiation at extended treatment distances.

    PubMed

    Chakarova, Roumiana; Krantz, Marcus

    2014-05-08

    The aim is to study beam characteristics at large distances when focusing on the electron component. In particular, to investigate the utility of spoilers with various thicknesses as an electron source, as well as the effect of different spoiler-to-surface distances (STSD) on the beam characteristics and, consequently, on the dose in the superficial region. A MC model of a 15 MV Varian accelerator, validated earlier by experimental data at isocenter and extended distances used in large-field total body irradiation, is applied to evaluate beam characteristics at distances larger than 400 cm. Calculations are carried out using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code packages and phase space data are analyzed by the beam data processor BEAMdp. The electron component of the beam is analyzed at isocenter and extended distances, with and without spoilers as beam modifiers, assuming vacuum or air surrounding the accelerator head. Spoiler thickness of 1.6 cm is found to be optimal compared to thicknesses of 0.8 cm and 2.4 cm. The STSD variations should be taken into account when treating patients, in particular when the treatment protocols are based on a fixed distance to the patient central sagittal plane, and also, in order to maintain high dose in the superficial region.

  3. Gigapixel photography for skin cancer surveillance: a novel alternative to total-body photography.

    PubMed

    Mikailov, Anar; Blechman, Adam

    2013-11-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the use of cutaneous imaging in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for early detection and treatment of melanoma. In the last 2 decades, total-body photography (TBP) has been widely used in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for active skin cancer surveillance with proven clinical utility; however, the groundbreaking image detail provided by gigapixel photography (GP) could improve dermatologists' ability to monitor suspicious lesions and therefore could serve a critical role in supplementing traditional total-body skin examinations for skin cancer surveillance. Although it has been successfully implemented in other fields, future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of GP in dermatology.

  4. Abdominal fat weight and thickness as predictors of total body fat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sonaiya, E B

    1985-10-01

    In two experiments broilers of both sexes from two strains were reared to 16 weeks of age to determine how total body fat could be estimated and predicted from some carcase traits. In the first experiment, age, carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness were found to be significant factors in the prediction of total body fat weight estimated from abdominal fat weight. In the second experiment abdominal fat weight was the best predictor of total body fat weight, obtained by ether extraction of the minced whole carcase. Inclusion of abdominal fat weight in the prediction equation after carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness significantly improved the regression. If the carcase cannot be weighed and abdominal fat weight is not available, because of the more laborious nature of its determination, then the measurement of abdominal fat thickness can be useful in predicting the total body fat content.

  5. ATriple Iron triathlon leads to a decrease in total body mass but not to dehydration.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-09-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running. Measurements were taken prior to starting the race and after arrival at the finish line. Total body mass decreased by 1.66 kg (SD = 1.92; -5.3 kg to +1.2 kg; p < .001), skeletal muscle mass by 1.00 kg (SD = 0.90; -2.54 kg to +2.07 kg; p < .001), and fat mass by 0.58 kg (SD = 0.78; -1.74 kg to +0.87 kg; p < .001). The decrease in total body mass was associated with the decrease in skeletal muscle mass (r = .44; p < .05) and fat mass (r = .51; p < .05). Total body water and urinary specific gravity did not significantly change. Plasma urea increased significantly (p < .001); the decrease in skeletal muscle mass and the increase in plasma urea were associated (r = .39; p < .05). We conclude that completing a Triple Iron triathlon leads to decreased total body mass due to reduced fat mass and skeletal muscle mass but not to dehydration. The association of decrease in skeletal muscle mass and increased plasma urea suggests a loss in skeletal muscle mass.

  6. Facilitation of allogeneic bone marrow engraftment in mice by total lymphoid irradiation combined with total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, K.K.; Waer, M.; van der Schueren, E.; Vandeputte, M.

    1983-07-01

    Different groups of C57BL/Ka mice received daily fractions of 2 Gy total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in a total dose of 34, 24, or 14 Gy. On the day after the last irradiation, 30 X 10(6) allogeneic (BALB/c) nucleated bone marrow cells were infused into the irradiated animals. When the last one or two fractions of the radiation schedule were given to the whole body (combined total lymphoid-total-body irradiation, TLBI): (1) stable bone marrow chimerism with a higher number of donor-type cells in the peripheral blood was induced in a higher percentage of mice that had received 34 Gy TLBI compared with mice that received 34 Gy TLI. (2) bone marrow chimerism could also be induced after 24 Gy or 14 Gy TLBI, whereas 24 and 14 Gy TLI alone were ineffective. The tolerance to the TLBI schedules was excellent and no clinical signs of graft-versus-host disease were noticed. It is concluded that the addition of TBI can facilitate bone marrow engraftment after TLI and drastically reduce the number of radiation fractions needed to obtain successful chimerism after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice.

  7. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  8. Total body and exchangeable potassium in chronic airways obstruction: a controversial area?

    PubMed Central

    Boddy, K; Davies, D L; Howie, A D; Madkour, M M; Mahaffy, M E; Pack, A I

    1978-01-01

    Potassium deficiency is an important complication in the treatment of heart disease. However, there is a serious dichotomy in the literature. Severe potassium depletion has been reported in this condition when exchangeable potassium was measured whereas normal levels or marginal depletion were found in measurements of total body potassium. To clarify this situation, simultaneous measurements of total body potassium by whole-body counting, and of exchangeable potassium by isotope dilution using 43K, were made in 10 male subjects with established airways obstruction. Sequential determinations showed that exchangeable potassium increased up to 68 hours after administration, and values obtained at only 24 hours would have been a substantial underestimate. In this group of subjects neither total body nor exchangeable potassium at 48 hours was significantly different from the expected normal value. PMID:417419

  9. Total Laparoscopic Modified Duhamel Operation in Combination With Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yi; Lin, Mou-Bin; Zhang, Ya-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic-assisted colonic resection has been well described for multiple surgical indications and typically requires an abdominal incision for specimen removal that is associated with most of the postoperative pain. We report the total laparoscopic modified Duhamel operation for megacolon in combination with transanal endoscopic microsurgery for transanal specimen retrieval and anastomosis to avoid the additional abdominal extraction incision. Case Description: Two cases are presented: case 1 was a 15-year-old boy who presented with intermittent abdominal distention, pain, and constipation for 3 years' duration and was diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease, and case 2 was a 60-year-old man who presented with repeated attacks of incomplete intestinal obstruction for 2 years' duration and was diagnosed with adult megacolon. They were treated by the total laparoscopic modified Duhamel operation without an abdominal extraction incision in combination with transanal endoscopic microsurgery. The operations were successfully accomplished without conversion to open surgery. The patients tolerated the procedure well, complained of minimal postoperative pain, and did not require narcotics beyond the day of the operation. No surgical complications occurred. Discharge from the hospital occurred on the ninth postoperative day in case 1 and the 13th postoperative day in case 2. Discussion: The total laparoscopic modified Duhamel operation in combination with transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a feasible and minimally invasive technique for idiopathic megacolon and adult megacolon. This advanced surgical technique was developed by combining laparoscopy with the concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. PMID:24680156

  10. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  11. Modifiable Factors Associated with Cognitive Impairment in 1,143 Japanese Outpatients: The Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST)

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kaori; Watanabe, Yumi; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Sanpei, Kazuhiro; Wakasugi, Minako; Yokoseki, Akio; Onodera, Osamu; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Kuwano, Ryozo; Momotsu, Takeshi; Narita, Ichiei; Endo, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Evidence on modifiable factors associated with cognitive impairment in Japanese patients is scarce. This study aimed to determine modifiable factors for cognitive impairment in a Japanese hospital-based population. Methods Subjects of this cross-sectional study were 1,143 patients of Sado General Hospital (Niigata, Japan) registered in the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST) between June 2008 and September 2014. We assessed disease history, body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity, walking time, smoking and drinking habits, and consumption of vegetables, fruits, and green tea as predictors, with cognitive impairment defined by the Mini-Mental State Examination (score <24) as an outcome. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for cognitive impairment. Results The mean subject age was 68.9 years, and the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 21.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that age (p < 0.001), low BMI (<21.1; OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.72), a history of stroke (p = 0.003), a history of myocardial infarction (p = 0.038), low fruit consumption (p for trend = 0.012), and low green tea consumption (p for trend = 0.032) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment. Conclusions Modifiable factors, such as low BMI, low fruit consumption, and low green tea consumption, are associated with cognitive impairment. Longitudinal studies will be needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27703467

  12. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Richard V; Walker, Ann C; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L; Leonard, Michael S; Miller, Ram R; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2014-06-15

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19-30 yr, 70-84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51-62 yr, 70-84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA.

  13. Changes in total body calcium balance with exercise in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A. D.; Evans, H. J.; Johnson, P. C.; Jhingran, S.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of deconditioning on the total body calcium in rats. Two separate experiments were performed using female Sprague-Dawley rats, 187-266 days of age. Total body calcium was measured in experimental and control rats during and following several weeks of voluntary exercise. The slope from the least-squares fit of total body calcium with time was used to obtain an average calcium balance for each animal during each study period. In both groups, the exercised rats had a significantly decreased calcium balance after cessation of exercise, whereas no significant change was seen in nonexercised controls. In both groups, the exercised animals gained calcium at a significantly greater rate than controls. The findings indicate that while exercised rats may gain calcium at a faster rate compared with nonexercising controls, the rate of gain following cessation of exercise is less than in the controls.

  14. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  15. Total diesel exhaust particulate length measurements using a modified household smoke alarm ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of various means to combat the negative health effects of ultrafine particles emitted by internal combustion engines, a reliable, low-cost instrument for dynamic measurements of the exhaust emissions of ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is needed. In this study, an ordinary ionization-type building smoke detector was modified to serve as a measuring ionization chamber and utilized for dynamic measurements of PM emissions from diesel engines. When used with diluted exhaust, the readings show an excellent correlation with total particulate length. The instrument worked well with raw and diluted exhaust and with varying emission levels and is well suitable for on-board use.

  16. Total diesel exhaust particulate length measurements using a modified household smoke alarm ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of various means to combat the negative health effects of ultrafine particles emitted by internal combustion engines, a reliable, low-cost instrument for dynamic measurements of the exhaust emissions of ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is needed. In this study, an ordinary ionization-type building smoke detector was modified to serve as a measuring ionization chamber and utilized for dynamic measurements of PM emissions from diesel engines. When used with diluted exhaust, the readings show an excellent correlation with total particulate length. The instrument worked well with raw and diluted exhaust and with varying emission levels and is well suitable for on-board use. PMID:21387930

  17. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  18. Familial lipoprotein lipase-activity deficiency: study of total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Brun, L D; Gagné, C; Julien, P; Tremblay, A; Moorjani, S; Bouchard, C; Lupien, P J

    1989-10-01

    Total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution were evaluated in 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients. Eleven were males, aged 10 to 57 years, and eight were females, aged 13 to 46 years. Familial lipoprotein-lipase-activity deficiency was diagnosed by the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in the plasma withdrawn ten and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of ten units of heparin per kilogram of body weight. The 19 patients had skin-fold measurements for evaluation of subcutaneous fat distribution. Fifteen also underwent body density measurements by underwater weighing. Percent body fat was calculated from body density. These anthropometric data were plotted against the regression curves of 1638 normal controls of both sexes (aged 10 to 54 years) for fat tissue weight, percent body fat, subcutaneous fat/total fat mass ratio and trunk/extremity skin-fold ratio. Impairments in the process of building fat tissue reserves could not be shown in the 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients, in spite of the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in their postheparin plasma. It is hypothesized that normal fat tissue mass in these patients could be due partly to de novo synthesis of fatty acids by adipocytes, hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides by hepatic lipase, and/or contribution of a specific fat-tissue lipase to the catabolism of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

  19. Total body calcium analysis using the Ca-12(n, alpha) Ar-37 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A low dose neutron activation technique was developed to measure total body calcium in vivo. The effort had included development of irradiation and processing facilities and conduction of human studies to determine the accuracy and precision of measurement attainable with the systems.

  20. The effect of upper dorsal thoracoscopic sympathectomy on the total amount of body perspiration.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, D; Assalia, A; Ehrenreich, M; Ben-Amnon, Y; Bahous, H; Hashmonai, M

    2000-01-01

    Thoracoscopic T2-T3 sympathectomy is the treatment of choice for primary palmar hyperhidrosis (PPH); however, compensatory hyperhidrosis (CH) is a disturbing sequela of this operation, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of heat stress on total body perspiration after thoracoscopic T2-T3 sympathectomy, and determine its correlation with CH. A total of 17 patients with PPH who underwent bilateral T2-T3 sympathectomy were subjected to heat stress induced by a 10-min sauna bath (ambient temperature 70 degrees C), 1 day before and 1 month after surgery. The naked body weight was recorded before and immediately following the sauna bath, and the patients were followed up to assess whether CH had developed and the degree of its severity. Postoperatively, the amount of perspiration increased in 13 patients and decreased in 1. The amount of perspiration induced by the sauna bath ranged from 60 to 480 g, with a mean value of 185.29 +/- 125.80 g, before the operation, and from 60 to 540 g, with a mean value of 265.88 +/- 154.05 g, after the operation (P = 0.0113). There was no correlation between the degree of alteration in total body perspiration and the development of CH. Performing thoracoscopic T2-T3 sympathectomy for PPH affects the total body sweating response to heat; however, the development of CH does not correlate with this alteration.

  1. Metabolic changes in humans following total body irradiation. Report for February 1960-October 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-29

    These studies are designed to obtain new information about the metabolic effects of total body and partial body irradiation so as to have a better understanding of the acute and subacute effects of irradiation in the human. The initial studies are pointed toward the elucidation of biological indicators of radiation effects in humans. The major parameters being investigated at present are urinary amino aciduria and alterations in immunological patterns. Certain other parameters such as creatine and creatinine excretion and hematological effects are also being followed. The long-term program envisions carrying out the various observations at dose levels of 100 rad and gradually increasing the dose to 150, 200, 250 and 300 rad. Eventually doses up to 600 rad are anticipated. Also comparison of effects of radiomimetic drugs with total body radiation will be studied.

  2. Axial and total-body bone densitometry using a narrow-angle fan-beam.

    PubMed

    Mazess, R B; Hanson, J A; Payne, R; Nord, R; Wilson, M

    2000-01-01

    We assessed a new dual-energy bone densitometer, the PRODIGY, that uses a narrow-angle fan-beam (4.5 degrees) oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body (i.e., perpendicular to the usual orientation). High-resolution scans across the body can be stepped at 17 mm intervals. The energy-sensitive array detector uses cadmium zinc telluride, which allowed rapid photon counting. Spine and femur scans required 30 s, and total-body scans required 4-5 min; the dose was only 3.7 mrem and 0.04 mrem respectively, or about 5 to 10 times lower than conventional fan-beam densitometry. We found only a small influence of soft-tissue thickness on bone mineral density (BMD) results. There was also a small (+/- 1%) influence of height above the tabletop on BMD results. A software correction for object height allowed a first-order correction for the large magnification effects of position on bone mineral content (BMC) and area. Consequently, the results for BMC and area, as well as BMD, with PRODIGY corresponded closely to those obtained using the predecessor DPX densitometer, both in vitro and in vivo; there was a generally high correlation (r = 0.98-0.99) for BMD values. Spine and femur values for BMC, area and BMD averaged within 0.5% in vivo (n = 122), as did total-body BMC and BMD (n = 46). PRODIGY values for total-body lean tissue and fat also corresponded within 1% to DPX values. Regional and total-body BMD were measured with 0.5% precision in vitro and 1% precision in vivo. The new PRODIGY densitometer appears to combine the low dose and high accuracy of pencil-beam densitometry with the speed of fan-beam densitometers.

  3. A new total body scanning system for automatic change detection in multiple pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Korotkov, Konstantin; Quintana, Josep; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The detection of newly appearing and changing pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) is essential for timely diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Total body skin examination (TBSE) procedures, currently practiced for this purpose, can be extremely time-consuming for patients with numerous lesions. In addition, these procedures are prone to subjectivity when selecting PSLs for baseline image comparison, increasing the risk of missing a developing cancer. To address this issue, we propose a new photogrammetry-based total body scanning system allowing for skin surface image acquisition using cross-polarized light. Equipped with 21 high-resolution cameras and a turntable, this scanner automatically acquires a set of overlapping images, covering 85%-90% of the patient's skin surface. These images are used for the automated mapping of PSLs and their change estimation between explorations. The maps produced relate images of individual lesions with their locations on the patient's body, solving the body-to-image and image-to-image correspondence problem in TBSEs. Currently, the scanner is limited to patients with sparse body hair and, for a complete skin examination, the scalp, palms, soles and inner arms should be photographed manually. The initial tests of the scanner showed that it can be successfully applied for automated mapping and temporal monitoring of multiple lesions: PSLs relevant for follow-up were repeatedly mapped in several explorations. Moreover, during the baseline image comparison, all lesions with artificially induced changes were correctly identified as "evolved." PMID:25222947

  4. The signal in total-body plethysmography: errors due to adiabatic-isothermic difference.

    PubMed

    Chaui-Berlinck, J G; Bicudo, J E

    1998-09-01

    Total-body plethysmography is a technique often employed in comparative physiology studies because it avoids excessive handling of the animals. The pressure signal obtained is generated by an increase in internal energy of the gas phase of the system. Currently, this increase in internal energy is ascribed to heating (and water vapour saturation) of the inspired gas. The standard equation for computing tidal-volume implies that only temperature and saturation differences can be responsible for generating the ventilation signal. In this study, we were able to demonstrate that the difference between the external process of the thoracic expansion, which is adiabatic, and the internal process of it, which is isothermic, is an important factor of internal energy change in the total-body plethysmography method. In other words, organic tissues transfer heat to the entering gas but also to the present gas, in a way that keeps internal expansion an isothermic process. This extra amount of energy was never taken into account before. Therefore, experiments using such a technique to measure tidal-volume should be done using isothermic chambers. Moreover, due to uncertainties of the complementary measurements (ambient and lung temperatures, ambient water vapour saturation) needed to compute tidal-volume using total-body plethysmography, a minimal temperature difference about 15 degrees C between body and ambient should exist to keep uncertainties in tidal-volume values below 5%. However, this limit is not absolute, because it varies as a function of humidity and degree of uncertainty of the complementary measurements.

  5. Measurement of total-body cobalt-57 vitamin B12 absorption with a gamma camera.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, J A; Slingerland, D W; Burrows, B A; Miller, A

    1985-08-01

    Previously described techniques for the measurement of the absorption of [57Co]vitamin B12 by total-body counting have required an iron room equipped with scanning or multiple detectors. The present study uses simplifying modifications which make the technique more available and include the use of static geometry, the measurement of body thickness to correct for attenuation, a simple formula to convert the capsule-in-air count to a 100% absorption count, and finally the use of an adequately shielded gamma camera obviating the need of an iron room.

  6. Design of a compact modified total internal reflection lens for high angular color uniformity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuiming; Chen, Fei; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Shuang; Zhao, Zhili; Liu, Sheng

    2012-12-20

    Total internal reflection (TIR) lenses are optical components that are used to collimate the light or to generate a desired uniform illumination. However, most TIR designs do not pay attention to color uniformity, an increasingly important issue for the quality of lighting, and have a considerable dimension, which also limits their applications. In this study, we proposed an effective design principle of color mixing, and a phosphor-converted white LED module integrated with a compact modified free form TIR component was presented and optimized to achieve compact size and high angular color uniformity (ACU). Optimization results indicated that modified LED packages could achieve a smaller size in vertical height (~0.52) within the same horizontal radius, compared with LEDs integrated with classic TIR lenses. Meanwhile, the enhancement of ACU with an optimum appropriate divergence half angle (65°) reached as high as 84% in terms of normalized standard deviation of yellow-blue ratio from 0.888 to 0.429. PMID:23262594

  7. Design of a compact modified total internal reflection lens for high angular color uniformity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuiming; Chen, Fei; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Shuang; Zhao, Zhili; Liu, Sheng

    2012-12-20

    Total internal reflection (TIR) lenses are optical components that are used to collimate the light or to generate a desired uniform illumination. However, most TIR designs do not pay attention to color uniformity, an increasingly important issue for the quality of lighting, and have a considerable dimension, which also limits their applications. In this study, we proposed an effective design principle of color mixing, and a phosphor-converted white LED module integrated with a compact modified free form TIR component was presented and optimized to achieve compact size and high angular color uniformity (ACU). Optimization results indicated that modified LED packages could achieve a smaller size in vertical height (~0.52) within the same horizontal radius, compared with LEDs integrated with classic TIR lenses. Meanwhile, the enhancement of ACU with an optimum appropriate divergence half angle (65°) reached as high as 84% in terms of normalized standard deviation of yellow-blue ratio from 0.888 to 0.429.

  8. SU-E-T-600: In Vivo Dosimetry for Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations with Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Niedbala, M; Save, C; Cygler, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for in-vivo dosimetry of patients undergoing Total Body and Total Marrow Irradiations (TBI and TMI). Methods: TBI treatments of 12 Gy were delivered in 6 BID fractions with the patient on a moving couch under a static 10 MV beam (Synergy, Elekta). TMI treatments of 18 Gy in 9 BID fractions were planned and delivered using a 6 MV TomoTherapy unit (Accuray). To provide a uniform dose to the entire patient length, the treatment was split into 2 adjacent fields junctioned in the thigh region. Our standard clinical practice involves in vivo dosimetry with MOSFETs for each TBI fraction and TLDs for at least one fraction of the TMI treatment for dose verification. In this study we also used OSLDs. Individual calibration coefficients were obtained for the OSLDs based on irradiations in a solid water phantom to the dose of 50 cGy from Elekta Synergy 10 MV (TBI) and 6 MV (TMI) beams. Calibration coefficients were calculated based on the OSLDs readings taken 2 hrs post-irradiation. For in vivo dosimetry OSLDs were placed alongside MOSFETs for TBI patients and in approximately the same locations as the TLDs for TMI patients. OSLDs were read 2 hours post treatment and compared to the MOSFET and TLD results. Results: OSLD measured doses agreed within 5% with MOSFET and TLD results, with the exception of the junction region in the TMI patient due to very high dose gradient and difficulty of precise and reproducible detector placement. Conclusion: OSLDs are useful for in vivo dosimetry of TBI and TMI patients. The quick post-treatment readout is an advantage over TLDs, allowing the results to be obtained between BID fractions, while wireless detectors are advantageous over MOSFETs for treatments involving a moving couch.

  9. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252.

    PubMed

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P

    1988-01-01

    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  10. Influence of nandrolone decanoate on the repopulation of the thymus after total body irradiation of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, J.; Huys, J.; De Scheerder, Y.; Dhont, E.; De Smedt, M.

    1982-10-01

    It has been reported that nandrolone decanoate is helpful in overcoming the neutropenic phase following irradiation. In the present study the influence of nandrolone decanoate on the thymus' cellularity after total body irradiation was investigated. In comparison with a placebo-treated group, mice receiving nandrolone decanoate showed a similar pattern of thymus repopulation, but a significantly lower number of thymocytes over the whole period of treatment was found. Nonirradiated mice also had a significantly lower number of thymocytes when treated with nandrolone decanoate. In addition, the number of circulating leukocytes was also evaluated over a period of 1 month after total body irradiation. On 11 of the 21 days investigated, a significantly higher number of leukocytes was found in the nandrolone decanoate-treated group. We conclude that the action of nandrolone decanoate was not clearly distinct from that of testosterone regarding either granulopoiesis or thymic involution.

  11. Measurement of total body calcium in osteoporotic patients treated with salmon calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I.; Thompson, K.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, the evaluation of therapies for osteoporosis has been limited by the lack of a suitable quantitative end point. The introduction of the technique of in vivo total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) has made possible the precise and accurate measurement of total body calcium (TBCa). Since almost 99 percent of TBCa is in the skeleton, TBNAA gives a direct measurement of skeletal mass. Thus, changes in skeletal mass serve as an objective criterion in the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy in osteoporosis. Studies performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere have reported the use of calcitonin (CT) in the treatment of primary osteoporosis and related conditions in a limited number of patients. The physiological effects of CT as an inhibitor of bone resorption has been the rationale of its use. The results of a randomized, controlled, 2 year therapeutical trial of CT in a group of postmenopausal osteoporotic women are presented in this report.

  12. The urine proteome for radiation biodosimetry: effect of total body vs. local kidney irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D; Wakim, Bassam T; Savin, Virginia J; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E

    2010-02-01

    Victims of nuclear accidents or radiological terrorism are likely to receive varying doses of ionizing radiation inhomogeneously distributed over the body. Early biomarkers may be useful in determining organ-specific doses due to total body irradiation (TBI) or partial body irradiation. The authors used liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the effect of TBI and local kidney irradiation (LKI) on the rat urine proteome using a single 10-Gy dose of x-rays. Both TBI and LKI altered the urinary protein profile within 24 h with noticeable differences in gene ontology categories. Some proteins, including fetuin-B, tissue kallikrein, beta-glucuronidase, vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2, were detected only in the TBI group. Some other proteins, including major urinary protein-1, RNA binding protein 19, neuron navigator, Dapper homolog 3, WD repeat and FYVE domain containing protein 3, sorting nexin-8, ankycorbin and aquaporin were detected only in the LKI group. Protease inhibitors and kidney proteins were more abundant (fraction of total scans) in the LKI group. Urine protein (Up) and creatinine (Uc) (Up/Uc) ratios and urinary albumin abundance decreased in both TBI and LKI groups. Several markers of acute kidney injury were not detectable in either irradiated group. Present data indicate that abundance and number of proteins may follow opposite trends. These novel findings demonstrate intriguing differences between TBI and LKI, and suggest that urine proteome may be useful in determining organ-specific changes caused by partial body irradiation.

  13. The physiology and biochemistry of total body immobilization in animals: A compendium of research. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorchak, K. J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Major studies that describe the physiological and biochemical mechanisms which operate during total body restraint (confinement in cages for example) are presented. The metabolism and behavior of various animals used in medical research (dogs, monkeys, rats, fowl) was investigated and wherever possible a detailed annotation for each study is provided under the subheadings: (a) purposes, (b) procedures and methods, (c) results, and (d) conclusions. Selected references are also included.

  14. Measurement of spine and total body mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.; Young, D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of Gd-153 dual-photon absorptiometry at 43 and 100 keV to measure individual-bone and total-body bone minerals is discussed in a survey of recent studies on humans, phantoms, and monkeys. Precision errors of as low as 1 percent have been achieved in vivo, suggesting the use of sequential measurements in studies of immobilization and space-flight effects.

  15. Radiophosphate visualization of the foreign body reaction to wear debris from total knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosenthall, L

    1987-05-01

    Three patients with total knee arthroplasties, in which the tibial and patellar articulating surfaces consisted of a polyethylene-carbon fiber composite, demonstrated technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) deposition in the intraarticular space, whereas, the gallium-67 citrate images were normal. This was shown to be due to a synovial giant cell foreign body reaction to particulate carbon fiber debris in one patient who required surgical revision of the prosthesis.

  16. NOTE: Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K. J.; Yasumura, S.; Shypailo, R. J.; Pierson, R. N., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%.

  17. Multi-frequency impedance for the prediction of extracellular water and total body water.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Tagliabue, A; Schouten, F J

    1995-03-01

    The relationship between total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW), measured by deuterium oxide dilution and bromide dilution respectively, and impedance and impedance index (height2/impedance) at 1, 5, 50 and 100 kHz was studied. After correction for TBW, ECW was correlated only with the impedance index at 1 and 5 kHz. After correction for ECW, TBW was best correlated with the impedance index at 100 kHz. The correlation of body-water compartments with impedance values obtained with modelling programs was lower than with measured impedance values. Prediction formulas for ECW (at 1 and 5 kHz) and TBW (at 50 and 100 kHz) were developed. The prediction errors for ECW and TBW were 1.0 and 1.7 kg respectively (coefficient of variation 5%). The residuals of both ECW and TBW were related to the ECW/TBW value. Application of the prediction formulas in a population, independently measured, revealed a slight overestimation of TBW and ECW, which could be largely explained by differences in the validation group in body-water distribution and in body build. The ratio of impedance at 1 kHz to impedance at 100 kHz was correlated with body-water distribution (ECW/TBW). The relation is however not strong enough to be useful as a predictor. It is concluded that an independent prediction of ECW and TBW, using impedance at low and high frequency respectively, is possible, but that the bias depends on the body-water distribution and body build of the measured subject.

  18. Establishment of a mouse model of 70% lethal dose by total-body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Choi, Soo-Young; Ham, Seung-Hoon; Park, Jin-Il; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jun-Young; Yoo, Ran-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jin; Woo, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Whereas increasing concerns about radiation exposure to nuclear disasters or side effects of anticancer radiotherapy, relatively little research for radiation damages or remedy has been done. The purpose of this study was to establish level of LD70/30 (a lethal dose for 70% of mice within 30 days) by total-body γ irradiation (TBI) in a mouse model. For this purpose, at first, 8-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from A and B companies were received high dose (10, 11, 12 Gy) TBI. After irradiation, the body weight and survival rate were monitored for 30 days consecutively. In next experiment, 5-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from B company were received same dose irradiation. Results showed that survival rate and body weight change rate in inbred C57BL/6N mice were similar between A and B company. In ICR mice, however, survival rate and body weight change rate were completely different among the companies. Significant difference of survival rate both ICR and C57BL6N mice was not observed in between 5-week-old and 8-week-old groups receiving 10 or 12 Gy TBI. Our results indicate that the strain and age of mice, and even purchasing company (especially outbred), should be matched over experimental groups in TBI experiment. Based on our results, 8-week-old male ICR mice from B company subjected to 12 Gy of TBI showed LD70/30 and suitable as a mouse model for further development of new drug using the ideal total-body irradiation model.

  19. Establishment of a mouse model of 70% lethal dose by total-body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Choi, Soo-Young; Ham, Seung-Hoon; Park, Jin-Il; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jun-Young; Yoo, Ran-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jin; Woo, Sang-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Whereas increasing concerns about radiation exposure to nuclear disasters or side effects of anticancer radiotherapy, relatively little research for radiation damages or remedy has been done. The purpose of this study was to establish level of LD70/30 (a lethal dose for 70% of mice within 30 days) by total-body γ irradiation (TBI) in a mouse model. For this purpose, at first, 8-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from A and B companies were received high dose (10, 11, 12 Gy) TBI. After irradiation, the body weight and survival rate were monitored for 30 days consecutively. In next experiment, 5-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from B company were received same dose irradiation. Results showed that survival rate and body weight change rate in inbred C57BL/6N mice were similar between A and B company. In ICR mice, however, survival rate and body weight change rate were completely different among the companies. Significant difference of survival rate both ICR and C57BL6N mice was not observed in between 5-week-old and 8-week-old groups receiving 10 or 12 Gy TBI. Our results indicate that the strain and age of mice, and even purchasing company (especially outbred), should be matched over experimental groups in TBI experiment. Based on our results, 8-week-old male ICR mice from B company subjected to 12 Gy of TBI showed LD70/30 and suitable as a mouse model for further development of new drug using the ideal total-body irradiation model. PMID:27382380

  20. Comparison of two methods of assessing total body water at sea level and increasing high altitude.

    PubMed

    Boos, C J; Holdsworth, D A; Hall, D P; Mellor, A; O'Hara, J; Woods, D R

    2014-11-01

    Fluid retention is a recognized feature of acute mountain sickness. However, accurate assessment of hydration, including the quantification of body water, has traditionally relied on expensive and non-portable equipment limiting its utility in the field setting. We compared the assessment of total body water (TBW) and their relationship to total body weight using two non-invasive methods using the NICas single-frequency bioimpedance analysis (SF-BIA) system and the BodyStat QuadScan 4000 multifrequency BIA system (MF-BIA). TBW measurements were performed at rest at sea level and at high altitude (HA) at 3833 m postexercise and at rest and thereafter at rest at 4450 m and 5129 m on 47 subjects. The average age was 34.5 ± 9.3 years with an age range of 21-54 years (70.2% male). There were strong correlations between TBW assessment with both methods at sea level (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.78-0.95: P<0.0001) and at HA (r = 0.92; 0.89-0.94: P<0.0001), however, TBW readings were 0.2 l and 1.91 l lower, respectively, with the NICaS. There was a stronger correlation between TBW and body weight with the QuadScan (r = 0.91; P<0.0001) than with the NICaS (r = 0.83; P<0.0001). The overall agreement between the two TBW methods was good, but the 95% confidence intervals around these agreements were relatively wide. We conclude that there was reasonable agreement between the two methods of BIA for TBW, but this agreement was lower at HA.

  1. Establishment of a mouse model of 70% lethal dose by total-body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Choi, Soo-Young; Ham, Seung-Hoon; Park, Jin-Il; Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Jun-Young; Yoo, Ran-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jin; Woo, Sang-Keun; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Whereas increasing concerns about radiation exposure to nuclear disasters or side effects of anticancer radiotherapy, relatively little research for radiation damages or remedy has been done. The purpose of this study was to establish level of LD70/30 (a lethal dose for 70% of mice within 30 days) by total-body γ irradiation (TBI) in a mouse model. For this purpose, at first, 8-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from A and B companies were received high dose (10, 11, 12 Gy) TBI. After irradiation, the body weight and survival rate were monitored for 30 days consecutively. In next experiment, 5-week-old male ICR and C57BL/6N mice from B company were received same dose irradiation. Results showed that survival rate and body weight change rate in inbred C57BL/6N mice were similar between A and B company. In ICR mice, however, survival rate and body weight change rate were completely different among the companies. Significant difference of survival rate both ICR and C57BL6N mice was not observed in between 5-week-old and 8-week-old groups receiving 10 or 12 Gy TBI. Our results indicate that the strain and age of mice, and even purchasing company (especially outbred), should be matched over experimental groups in TBI experiment. Based on our results, 8-week-old male ICR mice from B company subjected to 12 Gy of TBI showed LD70/30 and suitable as a mouse model for further development of new drug using the ideal total-body irradiation model. PMID:27382380

  2. Total body electrical conductivity measurements: an evaluation of current instrumentation for infants.

    PubMed

    Fiorotto, M L; de Bruin, N C; Brans, Y W; Degenhart, H J; Visser, H K

    1995-01-01

    Quantitation of the body's fat and learn masses is an important component of nutritional assessment. Such measurements, however, are difficult to conduct routinely in infants due to the numerous limitations of traditional methods. The application of total body electrical conductivity measurements for quantitating fat-free mass (FFM) overcomes many of these limitations. The instruments required to perform these measurements in pediatric patients (HP-2) have recently become commercially available, but their measurement performance has not been evaluated. In these studies, we compared the precision, day-to-day variability, and magnetic field profile of three HP-2 instruments. We also derived a new calibration equation that relates the FFM to the total body electrical conductivity measurement in piglets, and compared it with an equation (provided currently by the manufacturer) derived on a prototype instrument. The performance of the instruments was generally similar, although a significant difference in the magnetic field of one instrument was identified. The coefficient of variation of inanimate phantom measurements varied from +/- 0.2 to +/- 0.5%, and the day-to-day variability was generally similar. Such measurement error is significant (+/- 0.035 to +/- 0.078 kg FFM) for small subjects. The new calibration equation was similar to the original equation; therefore, all the data were pooled to generate a new equation that is linear at least to 10 kg. Thus, the HP-2 total body electrical conductivity instruments, which can be safely and easily used to measure FFM and fat in infants through 1 y of age, proved to be reliable and precise, and results obtained from different instruments can be confidently compared. PMID:7700740

  3. Interaction between ketopantolactone and chirally modified Pt investigated by attenuated total reflection IR concentration modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bonalumi, Norberto; Bürgi, Thomas; Baiker, Alfons

    2003-11-01

    The combination of ATR-IR and modulation spectroscopy allowed for the study of the interaction of ketopantolactone with Pt/Al2O3 films chirally modified by cinchonidine under hydrogenation conditions. The spectra reveal a significant influence of ketopantolactone on the adsorption of the modifier and indicate a N-H-O hydrogen bond between modifier and reactant. The latter was corroborated by a comparative study with N-methyl cinchonidine chloride modified Pt/Al2O3.

  4. Feasibility of intrafraction whole-body motion tracking for total marrow irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manju; Santos, Troy Dos; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Hui, Susanta Kumar

    2011-05-01

    With image-guided tomotherapy, highly targeted total marrow irradiation (TMI) has become a feasible alternative to conventional total body irradiation. The uncertainties in patient localization and intrafraction motion of the whole body during hour-long TMI treatment may pose a risk to the safety and accuracy of targeted radiation treatment. The feasibility of near-infrared markers and optical tracking system (OTS) is accessed along with a megavoltage scanning system of tomotherapy. Three near-infrared markers placed on the face of a rando phantom are used to evaluate the capability of OTS in measuring changes in the markers' positions as the rando is moved in the translational direction. The OTS is also employed to determine breathing motion related changes in the position of 16 markers placed on the chest surface of human volunteers. The maximum uncertainty in locating marker position with the OTS is 1.5 mm. In the case of normal and deep breathing motion, the maximum marker position change is observed in anterior-posterior direction with the respective values of 4 and 12 mm. The OTS is able to measure surface changes due to breathing motion. The OTS may be optimized to monitor whole body motion during TMI to increase the accuracy of treatment delivery and reduce the radiation dose to the lungs.

  5. Feasibility of intrafraction whole-body motion tracking for total marrow irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manju; Dos Santos, Troy; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P; Hui, Susanta Kumar

    2011-05-01

    With image-guided tomotherapy, highly targeted total marrow irradiation (TMI) has become a feasible alternative to conventional total body irradiation. The uncertainties in patient localization and intrafraction motion of the whole body during hour-long TMI treatment may pose a risk to the safety and accuracy of targeted radiation treatment. The feasibility of near-infrared markers and optical tracking system (OTS) is accessed along with a megavoltage scanning system of tomotherapy. Three near-infrared markers placed on the face of a rando phantom are used to evaluate the capability of OTS in measuring changes in the markers' positions as the rando is moved in the translational direction. The OTS is also employed to determine breathing motion related changes in the position of 16 markers placed on the chest surface of human volunteers. The maximum uncertainty in locating marker position with the OTS is 1.5 mm. In the case of normal and deep breathing motion, the maximum marker position change is observed in anterior-posterior direction with the respective values of 4 and 12 mm. The OTS is able to measure surface changes due to breathing motion. The OTS may be optimized to monitor whole body motion during TMI to increase the accuracy of treatment delivery and reduce the radiation dose to the lungs.

  6. Measuring internalized weight attitudes across body weight categories: validation of the modified weight bias internalization scale.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to validate a modified version of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS-M) that is applicable to individuals across different body weight statuses. One hundred forty-eight men and women completed an online survey that included the WBIS-M and relevant measures of psychopathology. Results indicated that the WBIS-M had high internal consistency and strong construct validity. The WBIS-M also demonstrated significant correlations with body image, eating pathology, self-esteem, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and was associated with these outcomes distinctly from antifat attitudes and body mass index. Implications for the use of this scale in diverse samples are discussed. PMID:24100004

  7. Serum Creatinine Modifies Associations between Body Mass Index and Mortality and Morbidity in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sakao, Yukitoshi; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Hideo; Hashimoto, Seiji; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background High body mass index (BMI) is paradoxically associated with better outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aimed to examine whether serum creatinine (Cr), a marker of muscle mass, could modify the association between BMI, and mortality and morbidity in prevalent HD patients. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a nationwide database from the registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. A total of 119,099 patients were selected (age: 65±12 years; median time on HD: 5.6 years; male: 62%), and we examined the association of basal BMI with mortality and morbidity after a 1-year period. Patients were stratified either by BMI into 4 groups or by serum Cr levels into 3 tertiles. Odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] was calculated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Higher BMI did not predict a higher 1-year total mortality. However, when we stratified the patients by serum Cr levels, the risk of cardiac death became significantly higher in obese patients with the lowest Cr levels, in both males (OR 2.82 [1.51–5.27], p<0.01) and females (OR 2.00 [1.03–3.90], p<0.05). The risk of new cerebral infarction was also higher in obese male patients within the lowest Cr tertile. In contrast, there was a significantly lower risk of cardiac, cerebrovascular, and infection-related death in non-obese patients with higher levels of Cr. Higher serum Cr was also related to a lower risk of cardiovascular events and hip fracture in non-obese HD patients. Conclusions The obesity paradox was found to be present in HD patients only when obesity was defined by BMI. Decreased serum Cr levels were found to be positively associated with clinical poor outcomes in all BMI groups. Thus, irrespective of BMI, the evaluation of serum Cr levels is important to predict mortality and morbidity in patients receiving regular HD. PMID:26930325

  8. Inter-Rater Reliability of Total Body Score-A Scale for Quantification of Corpse Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka, Marta; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-05-01

    The degree of body decomposition can be quantified using Total Body Score (TBS), a scale frequently used in taphonomic or entomological studies of decomposition. Here, the inter-rater reliability of the scale is analyzed. The study was made on 120 laymen, which were trained in the use of the scale. Participants scored decomposition of pig carcasses from photographs. It was found that the scale, when used by different people, gives homogeneous results irrespective of the user qualifications (the Krippendorff's alfa for all participants was 0.818). The study also indicated that carcasses in advanced decomposition receive significantly less accurate scores. Moreover, it was found that scores for cadavers in mosaic decomposition (i.e., representing signs of at least two stages of decomposition) are less accurate. These results demonstrate that the scale may be regarded as inter-rater reliable. Some propositions for refinement of the scale were also discussed. PMID:27093214

  9. Inter-Rater Reliability of Total Body Score-A Scale for Quantification of Corpse Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka, Marta; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-05-01

    The degree of body decomposition can be quantified using Total Body Score (TBS), a scale frequently used in taphonomic or entomological studies of decomposition. Here, the inter-rater reliability of the scale is analyzed. The study was made on 120 laymen, which were trained in the use of the scale. Participants scored decomposition of pig carcasses from photographs. It was found that the scale, when used by different people, gives homogeneous results irrespective of the user qualifications (the Krippendorff's alfa for all participants was 0.818). The study also indicated that carcasses in advanced decomposition receive significantly less accurate scores. Moreover, it was found that scores for cadavers in mosaic decomposition (i.e., representing signs of at least two stages of decomposition) are less accurate. These results demonstrate that the scale may be regarded as inter-rater reliable. Some propositions for refinement of the scale were also discussed.

  10. Thrombotic Microangiopathy In Metastatic Melanoma Patients Treated with Adoptive Cell Therapy and Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Jennifer; Citrin, Deborah E.; Waldman, Meryl; White, Donald E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Yang, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thrombotic microangioapathy (TMA) is a complication that developed in some patients receiving 12 Gy total body irradiation in addition to lymphodepleting preparative chemotherapy prior to infusion of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with high-dose aldesleukin (IL-2). This paper describes the incidence, presentation and course of radiation-associated TMA. Methods The data for patients with metastatic melanoma who received ACT with TIL plus aldesleukin following myeloablative chemotherapy and 12 Gy total body irradiation was examined, looking at patient characteristics and the natural history of TMA. Results The median time to presentation was approximately 8 months after completing TBI. The estimated cumulative incidence of TMA was 31.2% (median follow-up of 24 months). Noninvasive criteria for diagnosis included newly elevated creatinine levels, new-onset hypertension, new-onset anemia, microscopic hematuria, thrombocytopenia, low haptoglobin and elevated lactate dehydrogenase values. Once diagnosed, patients were managed with control of their hypertension with multiple agents and supportive red blood cell transfusions. TMA typically stabilized or improved and no patient progressed to dialysis. TMA was associated with a higher probability of an anti-tumor response. Conclusions Thrombotic microangiopathy occurs in approximately a third of patients treated with a lymphodepleting preparative chemotherapy regimen with total body irradiation prior to autologous T-cell therapy. The disease has a variable natural history, however no patient developed end-stage renal failure. Successful management with supportive care and aggressive hypertension control is vital to the safe application of a systemic therapy that has shown curative potential for patients with disseminated melanoma. PMID:24474396

  11. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Valente, Marco; Denis, Josiane; Grenier, Nancy; Arvers, Philippe; Foucher, Barbara; Desangles, François; Martigne, Patrick; Chaussard, Hervé; Drouet, Michel; Abend, Michael; Hérodin, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI) and partial-body irradiation (PBI) to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims). To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18) were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI) or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI). More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6) and PBI (n = 12), for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  12. Changes in total body calcium and diet of breeding house sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Ankney, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    We collected House Sparrows Passer domesticus around London, Ontario, estimated their total body calcium masses, food habits and egg production to test for the effects of endogenous calcium levels on control of clutch size. Before egg production began, calcium levels increased significantly and remained high through the end of egg laying, and then declined significantly after egg laying. We found no evidence that clutch size was related to endogenous calcium levels. Upon first ovulation, House Sparrows greatly increased consumption of calciferous materials such as snail shells, bird eggshells and calciferous grit. Their diet returned to normal after the final egg was ovulated. Daily calcium intake was sufficient to meet eggshell calcium needs.

  13. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation: the relationship with total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, T.J.; Van Dyk, J.; Rider, W.D.

    1981-10-01

    Interstitial pneumonia is a frequent and often fatal complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Thirty to 40 percent of such cases are of unknown etiology and have been labelled as cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Idiopathic cases are more commonly associated with the use of total body irradiation; their occurrence appears to be independent of immunosupression or graft versus host disease. Evidence is presented from the literature suggesting that the development of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is related to the absolute absorbed dose of radiation to lung. The similarity of idiopathic pneumonia to radiation pneumonitis seen in a different clinical setting is described.

  14. The effect of fixative on total length of small-bodied stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinkley, P.D.; Fischer, John R.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were fixed in 5% and 10% formalin and 70% and 95% ethyl alcohol to determine fixative effects on total length (TL). Total length reduced over the first 24h for all species (P<0.0001) but then stabilized. Longnose dace and green sunfish TL reduction was less for 5% formalin than for either 70% or 95% ethanol (both P<0.0001), whereas the fixative solution had no effect on red shiner TL (P=0.347). A greater percentage of change in TL was observed in green sunfish and red shiner than in longnose dace, suggesting that body form (compressiform vs. fusiform) may affect shrinkage rate among adult stream fishes.

  15. Lymphoid and Myeloid Recovery in Rhesus Macaques Following Total Body X-Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Farese, Ann M; Hankey, Kim G; Cohen, Melanie Veirs; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Recovery from severe immunosuppression requires hematopoietic stem cell reconstitution and effective thymopoiesis to restore a functional immune cell repertoire. Herein, a model of immune cell reconstitution consequent to potentially lethal doses of irradiation is described, which may be valuable in evaluating potential medical countermeasures. Male rhesus macaques were total body irradiated by exposure to 6.00 Gy 250 kVp x-radiation (midline tissue dose, 0.13 Gy min), resulting in an approximate LD10/60 (n = 5/59). Animals received medical management, and hematopoietic and immune cell recovery was assessed (n ≤ 14) through 370 d post exposure. A subset of animals (n ≤ 8) was examined through 700 d. Myeloid recovery was assessed by neutrophil and platelet-related parameters. Lymphoid recovery was assessed by the absolute lymphocyte count and FACS-based phenotyping of B- and T-cell subsets. Recent thymic emigrants were identified by T cell receptor excision circle quantification. Severe neutropenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia resolved within 30 d. Total CD3+ cells μL required 60 d to reach values 60% of normal, followed by subsequent slow recovery to approximately normal by 180 d post irradiation. Recovery of CD3+4+ and CD3+8+ cell memory and naïve subsets were markedly different. Memory populations were ≥ 100% of normal by day 60, whereas naïve populations were only 57% normal at 180 d and never fully recovered to baseline post irradiation. Total (CD20+) B cells μL were within normal levels by 77 d post exposure. This animal model elucidates the variable T- and B-cell subset recovery kinetics after a potentially lethal dose of total-body irradiation that are dependent on marrow-derived stem and progenitor cell recovery, peripheral homeostatic expansion, and thymopoiesis.

  16. Why do total-body decay curves of iodine-labeled proteins begin with a delay

    SciTech Connect

    Regoeczi, E.

    1987-09-01

    The initial delay that occurs in total-body radiation curves reaching their single-exponential slopes was analyzed from 106 experiments involving several mammalian species (guinea pig, mouse, rabbit, and rat) and plasma proteins (alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, antithrombin III, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G, and transferrin) in 14 different combinations. The time interval (Td) between injection and the intercept of the slope with the full-dose value was adopted as a measure of curve nonideality. The overall mean Td was 6.6 h, but individual values showed a significant correlation to protein half-lives, whereby proteins of unequal metabolic properties exhibited different mean Td values. Targeting protein to the liver abolished delay. Choice of the isotope (/sup 125/I or /sup 131/I) and size of the labeled protein had no influence on the magnitude of delay. Whole-body radiation curves of animals that received (/sup 125/I)iodotyrosines, Na/sup 131/I, or /sup 131/I-polyvinylpyrrolidone exhibited no initial delays. These results do not support the earlier notion that delay is caused by a redistribution of the labeled protein in the body to radiometrically more favorable sites. However, they are compatible with the assumption that delayed passage of a protein dose through the extracellular matrix and/or retarded transfer of proteolytic products from extravascular catabolic sites to plasma may be responsible for the phenomenon.

  17. Total hip arthroplasty with ceramic-on-ceramic bearing failure from third-body wear.

    PubMed

    Bonnaig, Nicolas S; Freiberg, Richard A; Freiberg, Andrew A

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a new mechanism of failure of a ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to fretting corrosion and failure of the Morse taper. A 46-year-old man with hip osteonecrosis underwent THA in 2006. A ceramic-on-ceramic, un-cemented THA with a titanium femoral component and metal-on-ceramic Morse taper was implanted. Two years postoperatively, he presented with swelling in his groin and a painless medial thigh mass. The thigh mass was diagnosed as an abscess. Incision and drainage was performed and resulted in a sinus tract that continuously drained copious amounts of seropurulent fluid. Two months later, the patient underwent irrigation, debridement, and explantation of his hip. Frozen sections showed no signs of infection. There was dramatic visible wear of the Morse taper and pieces of metal embedded in the ceramic. Permanent sections showed chronic inflammation and foreign body reaction. He subsequently underwent an uneventful re-implantation with a metal-on-highly-cross-linked-polyethylene THA. In this case, failure of the morse taper led to metal debris, which reacted with the ceramic and caused dramatic third-body wear. The thigh mass, which appeared to be an infection, proved to be a massive foreign body granuloma. Malfunction of the morse taper as reported in this case represents a possible failure mechanism of a ceramic-on-ceramic THA.

  18. Cardiac injury after 10 gy total body irradiation: indirect role of effects on abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Lam, Vy; Jensen, Eric; Fish, Brian L; Su, Jidong; Koprowski, Stacy; Komorowski, Richard A; Harmann, Leanne; Migrino, Raymond Q; Li, X Allen; Hopewell, John W; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced injury to the heart after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) is direct or indirect. Young male WAG/RijCmcr rats received a 10 Gy single dose using TBI, upper hemi-body (UHB) irradiation, lower hemi-body (LHB) irradiation, TBI with the kidneys shielded or LHB irradiation with the intestines shielded. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. The lipid profile, kidney injury, heart and liver morphology and cardiac function were determined up to 120 days after irradiation. LHB, but not UHB irradiation, increased the risk factors for cardiac disease as well as the occurrence of cardiac and kidney injury in a way that was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to that observed after TBI. Shielding of the kidneys prevented the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. Shielding of the intestines did not prevent the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease. There was no histological evidence of liver injury 120 days after irradiation. Injury to the heart from irradiation appears to be indirect, supporting the notion that injury to abdominal organs, principally the kidneys, is responsible for the increased risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after TBI and LHB irradiation.

  19. Core body temperature control by total liquid ventilation using a virtual lung temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Mathieu; Micheau, Philippe; Robert, Raymond; Avoine, Olivier; Tissier, Renaud; Germim, Pamela Samanta; Vandamme, Jonathan; Praud, Jean-Paul; Walti, Herve

    2014-12-01

    In total liquid ventilation (TLV), the lungs are filled with a breathable liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) while a liquid ventilator ensures proper gas exchange by renewal of a tidal volume of oxygenated and temperature-controlled PFC. Given the rapid changes in core body temperature generated by TLV using the lung has a heat exchanger, it is crucial to have accurate and reliable core body temperature monitoring and control. This study presents the design of a virtual lung temperature sensor to control core temperature. In the first step, the virtual sensor, using expired PFC to estimate lung temperature noninvasively, was validated both in vitro and in vivo. The virtual lung temperature was then used to rapidly and automatically control core temperature. Experimentations were performed using the Inolivent-5.0 liquid ventilator with a feedback controller to modulate inspired PFC temperature thereby controlling lung temperature. The in vivo experimental protocol was conducted on seven newborn lambs instrumented with temperature sensors at the femoral artery, pulmonary artery, oesophagus, right ear drum, and rectum. After stabilization in conventional mechanical ventilation, TLV was initiated with fast hypothermia induction, followed by slow posthypothermic rewarming for 1 h, then by fast rewarming to normothermia and finally a second fast hypothermia induction phase. Results showed that the virtual lung temperature was able to provide an accurate estimation of systemic arterial temperature. Results also demonstrate that TLV can precisely control core body temperature and can be favorably compared to extracorporeal circulation in terms of speed.

  20. A simplified technique for delivering total body irradiation (TBI) with improved dose homogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Rui; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius; Abrams, Ross A.; Sensakovic, William; Fung, Henry C.; Chu, James C. H.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) with megavoltage photon beams has been accepted as an important component of management for a number of hematologic malignancies, generally as part of bone marrow conditioning regimens. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the authors' TBI technique, which both simplifies the treatment process and improves the treatment quality. Methods: An AP/PA TBI treatment technique to produce uniform dose distributions using sequential collimator reductions during each fraction was implemented, and a sample calculation worksheet is presented. Using this methodology, the dosimetric characteristics of both 6 and 18 MV photon beams, including lung dose under cerrobend blocks was investigated. A method of estimating midplane lung doses based on measured entrance and exit doses was proposed, and the estimated results were compared with measurements. Results: Whole body midplane dose uniformity of {+-}10% was achieved with no more than two collimator-based beam modulations. The proposed model predicted midplane lung doses 5% to 10% higher than the measured doses for 6 and 18 MV beams. The estimated total midplane doses were within {+-}5% of the prescribed midplane dose on average except for the lungs where the doses were 6% to 10% lower than the prescribed dose on average. Conclusions: The proposed TBI technique can achieve dose uniformity within {+-}10%. This technique is easy to implement and does not require complicated dosimetry and/or compensators.

  1. A new model for estimating total body water from bioelectrical resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, S. F.; Kear, K. T.

    1992-01-01

    Estimation of total body water (T) from bioelectrical resistance (R) is commonly done by stepwise regression models with height squared over R, H(exp 2)/R, age, sex, and weight (W). Polynomials of H(exp 2)/R have not been included in these models. We examined the validity of a model with third order polynomials and W. Methods: T was measured with oxygen-18 labled water in 27 subjects. R at 50 kHz was obtained from electrodes placed on the hand and foot while subjects were in the supine position. A stepwise regression equation was developed with 13 subjects (age 31.5 plus or minus 6.2 years, T 38.2 plus or minus 6.6 L, W 65.2 plus or minus 12.0 kg). Correlations, standard error of estimates and mean differences were computed between T and estimated T's from the new (N) model and other models. Evaluations were completed with the remaining 14 subjects (age 32.4 plus or minus 6.3 years, T 40.3 plus or minus 8 L, W 70.2 plus or minus 12.3 kg) and two of its subgroups (high and low) Results: A regression equation was developed from the model. The only significant mean difference was between T and one of the earlier models. Conclusion: Third order polynomials in regression models may increase the accuracy of estimating total body water. Evaluating the model with a larger population is needed.

  2. Modified titanium implant as a gateway to the human body: the implant mediated drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Seok; Cho, Joo-Youn; Lee, Shin-Jae; Hwang, Chee Il

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a proposed new implant mediated drug delivery system (IMDDS) in rabbits. The drug delivery system is applied through a modified titanium implant that is configured to be implanted into bone. The implant is hollow and has multiple microholes that can continuously deliver therapeutic agents into the systematic body. To examine the efficacy and feasibility of the IMDDS, we investigated the pharmacokinetic behavior of dexamethasone in plasma after a single dose was delivered via the modified implant placed in the rabbit tibia. After measuring the plasma concentration, the areas under the curve showed that the IMDDS provided a sustained release for a relatively long period. The result suggests that the IMDDS can deliver a sustained release of certain drug components with a high bioavailability. Accordingly, the IMDDS may provide the basis for a novel approach to treating patients with chronic diseases.

  3. Augmentation Improves Human Cadaveric Vertebral Body Compression Mechanics For Lumbar Total Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Jonathon H.; Auerbach, Joshua D.; Maurer, Philip M.; Erbe, Erik M.; Entrekin, Dean; Balderston, Richard A.; Bertagnoli, Rudolf; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric biomechanical study. Objectives Quantify the effects of vertebral body augmentation on biomechanics under axial compression by a total disc replacement (TDR) implant. Summary of Background Data TDR is a surgical alternative to lumbar spinal fusion to treat degenerative disc disease. Osteoporosis in the adjacent vertebrae to the interposed TDR may lead to implant subsidence or vertebral body fracture. Vertebral augmentation is used to treat osteoporotic compression fracture. The study sought to evaluate whether vertebral augmentation improves biomechanics under TDR axial loading. Methods Forty-five L1-L5 lumbar vertebral body segments with intact posterior elements were used. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were performed to determine bone density, block randomizing specimens by bone density into augmentation and control groups. A semi-constrained keeled lumbar disc replacement device was implanted providing 50% endplate coverage. Vertebral augmentation of 17.6 ± 0.9% vertebral volume fill with Cortoss was performed on augmentation group. All segments underwent axial compression at a rate of 0.2 mm/s to 6mm. Results The load-displacement response for all specimens was non-linear. Subfailure mechanical properties with augmentation were significantly different from control; in all cases the augmented group was 2× higher than control. At failure, the maximum load and stiffness with augmentation was not significantly different from control. The maximum apparent stress and modulus with augmentation were 2× and 1.3× greater than control, respectively. The subfailure stress and apparent modulus with augmentation was moderately correlated with bone density while the control subfailure properties were not. The augmented maximum stress was not correlated with bone density, while the control was weakly correlated. The maximum apparent modulus was moderately correlated with bone density for both the augmented and control groups

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H. W.; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths. PMID:26509531

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    PubMed

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  6. Total-body irradiation and cataract incidence: A randomized comparison of two instantaneous dose rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozsahin, M.; Belkacemi, Y.; Pene, F.; Dominique, C.; Schwartz, L.H.; Uzal, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Gindrey-Vie, B.; Vitu-Loas, L.; Touboul, E. )

    1994-01-15

    To assess the influence of instantaneous total-body irradiation dose rate in hematological malignancies, the authors randomized 157 patients according to different instantaneous dose rates. Patients have undergone a total-body irradiation before bone-marrow transplantation according to two different techniques: Either in one fraction (1000 cGy given to the midplane at the level of L4, and 800 cGy to the lungs) or in six fractions (1200 cGy over 3 consecutive days to the midplane at the level of L4, and 900 cGy to the lungs). Patients were randomized according to two instantaneous dose rates, called LOW and HIGH, in single-dose (6 vs. 15 cGy/min) and fractionated (3 vs. 6 cGy/min) TBI groups; there were 77 cases for the LOW and 80 for the HIGH groups, with 57 patients receiving single-dose (28 LOW, 29 HIGH) and 100 patients receiving fractionated total-body irradiation (49 LOW, 51 HIGH). As of July 1992, 16 of 157 patients developed cataracts after 17 to 46 months, with an estimated incidence of 23% at 5 years. Four of 77 patients in the LOW group, 12 of 80 patients in the HIGH group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 12% and 34%, respectively. Ten of 57 patients in the single-dose group, and 6 of 100 patients in the fractionated group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 39% and 13%, respectively. When the subgroups were considered, in the single-dose group, 3 of 28 LOW patients, and 7 of 29 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 24% and 53%, respectively; in the fractionated group, 1 of 49 LOW patients, and 5 of 51 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 4% and 22%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of 5-year estimated cataract incidence between the patients receiving steroids and those not. The instantaneous dose rate was the only independent factor influencing the cataractogenesis. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Variants within the SP110 nuclear body protein modify risk of canine degenerative myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ivansson, Emma L.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Murén, Eva; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Swofford, Ross; Koltookian, Michele; Tonomura, Noriko; Zeng, Rong; Kolicheski, Ana L.; Hansen, Liz; Katz, Martin L.; Johnson, Gayle C.; Johnson, Gary S.; Coates, Joan R.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a naturally occurring neurodegenerative disease with similarities to some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Most dogs that develop DM are homozygous for a common superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) mutation. However, not all dogs homozygous for this mutation develop disease. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) breed comparing DM-affected and -unaffected dogs homozygous for the SOD1 mutation. The analysis revealed a modifier locus on canine chromosome 25. A haplotype within the SP110 nuclear body protein (SP110) was present in 40% of affected compared with 4% of unaffected dogs (P = 1.5 × 10−5), and was associated with increased probability of developing DM (P = 4.8 × 10−6) and earlier onset of disease (P = 1.7 × 10−5). SP110 is a nuclear body protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription. Our findings suggest that variations in SP110-mediated gene transcription may underlie, at least in part, the variability in risk for developing DM among PWCs that are homozygous for the disease-related SOD1 mutation. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of this modifier across dog breeds. PMID:27185954

  8. Disturbances in dental development after total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlloef, G.B.; Barr, M.; Bolme, P.; Modeer, T.; Loennqvist, B.R.; Ringden, O.; Heimdahl, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dental status of 16 children who had been treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for serious bone marrow diseases was followed for up to 6 years. Several types of disturbances in dental development were observed in children who had been conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI) at 10 Gy before BMT. Thus, impaired root development that caused short V-shaped roots was found in all patients, a complete failure of root development and premature apical closure were found in five patients, enamel hypoplasia was observed in four patients, and microdontia was observed in three patients conditioned with TBI. Patients younger than 6 years of age at BMT exhibited the most severe and extensive dental aberrations. The TBI at 10 Gy appeared to be the major cause of the disturbances found.

  9. Low-dose total body irradiation versus combination chemotherapy for lymphomas with follicular growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, J H; Carde, P; Burgers, J M; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; Somers, R; Sizoo, W; Glabbeke, M V; Duez, N; de Wolf-Peeters, C

    1991-10-01

    The treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with follicular growth pattern and advanced stage of disease remains controversial. Treatments varying from no initial treatment up to aggressive combination chemotherapy have been advocated. The EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group has performed a randomized prospective trial comparing short duration low dose total body irradiation (TBI) vs combination chemotherapy (CHVmP) + consolidation radiotherapy. Ninety-three patients were entered; of 84 evaluable patients, 44 received TBI and 40 CHVmP. Complete remission (CR) rates were 36%--TBI and 55%--CHVmP, but overall response rates were identical, 76 versus 69%. No significant difference in freedom from progression or survival was observed. No unexpected toxicity was seen. Although numbers are small, we cannot conclude that aggressive combination chemo-radiotherapy resulted in a better survival. Our analysis confirms that there is a constant risk of relapse. Other approaches should be explored if survival benefit is the ultimate goal in treatment of this patient population.

  10. The influence of prior total body irradiation on the tissue distribution of mouse lymphoma/leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cobb, L M; Butler, S A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of 10 Gy X rays on the distribution of subsequently injected mouse lymphoma/leukemia cells was studied. The organ distribution of an acute myeloid leukemia (A46) was not affected by prior (90 days) administration of 10 Gy X rays. A T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (A55) and a B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (A31) produced enhanced infiltration of the lung when 10 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) was given 90 days before the tumor cells. The infiltration was predominantly in the peribronchiolar and perivascular spaces. Enhancement was not seen in any tissues other than lung. The possibility is raised that in those acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients whose treatment includes TBI, residual circulating cells may be encouraged to infiltrate the lung.

  11. Endpoint Refinement for Total Body Irradiation of C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Artwohl, James E; Anderson, Robert J; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome is a life-threatening condition that has the potential to affect large populations of humans. Although several animal models of this syndrome are available, the total-body–irradiated mouse has emerged as an important tool to evaluate the efficacy of prospective prophylaxis, mitigation, and treatment compounds. Despite the widespread use of this model, humane endpoints have not been clearly identified. To address this issue, we developed a cageside observation-based scoring system specifically for total-body–irradiated mice to assess the progression of clinical signs associated with acute radiation syndrome. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 175; age, 8 to 9 wk) received an anticipated LD50 dose of radiation and were observed for progression of clinical signs of acute radiation syndrome for 30 d. All mice were scored individually through cageside observation of their body posture (score, 0 to 3), eye appearance (0 to 3), and activity level (0 to 3). Retrospective analysis of the score data indicated that death could be predicted accurately by using increasing cumulative scores (0 to 9). Total scores of 6, 7, 8, and 9 were associated with mortality rates of 78.6%, 86.4%, 93.3%, and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, scores of 6, 7, and 8 predicted death within 3, 1.5, and 0.5 d, respectively. The use of this scoring system provides investigators and IACUCs with predictive humane, surrogate endpoints for total-body–irradiated mice. This system allows preemptive euthanasia of mice before they become moribund, thereby minimizing pain and distress associated with acute radiation syndrome and improving animal welfare. PMID:23561934

  12. Development and clinical application of a length-adjustable water phantom for total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Yao, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Tie-Ning; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Zhe-Kai; Lu, Xun

    2012-08-01

    A new type of water phantom which would be specialised for the absorbed dose measurement in total body irradiation (TBI) treatment is developed. Ten millimetres of thick Plexiglas plates were arranged to form a square cube with 300 mm of edge length. An appropriate sleeve-type piston was installed on the side wall, and a tabular Plexiglas piston was positioned inside the sleeve. By pushing and pulling the piston, the length of the self-made water phantom could be varied to meet the required patients' physical sizes. To compare the international standard water phantom with the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms, absorbed dose for 6-MV X ray was measured by an ionisation chamber at different depths in three kinds of phantoms. In 70 cases with TBI, midplane doses were metered using the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms for simulating human dimensions, and dose validation was synchronously carried out. There were no significant statistical differences, p > 0.05, through statistical processing of data from the international standard water phantom and the self-designed one. There were significant statistical differences, p < 0.05, between the two sets of data from the standard and the Plexiglas one. In addition, the absolute difference had a positive correlation with the varied depth of the detector in the Plexiglas phantom. Comparing the data of clinical treatment, the differences were all <1 % among the prescription doses and the validation data collected from the self-design water phantom. However, the differences collected from the Plexiglas phantom were increasing gradually from +0.77 to +2.30 % along with increasing body width. Obviously, the difference had a positive correlation with the body width. The results proved that the new length-adjustable water phantom is more accurate for simulating human dimensions than Plexiglas phantom.

  13. In vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation: five-year results and technique comparison.

    PubMed

    Patel, Reshma P; Warry, Alison J; Eaton, David J; Collis, Christopher H; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2014-07-08

    The aim of this work is to establish if the new CT-based total body irradiation (TBI) planning techniques used at University College London Hospital (UCLH) and Royal Free Hospital (RFH) are comparable to the previous technique at the Middlesex Hospital (MXH) by analyzing predicted and measured diode results. TBI aims to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, typically using extended SSD fields with beam modulation to limit doses to organs at risk. In vivo dosimetry is used to verify the accuracy of delivered doses. In 2005, when the Middlesex Hospital was decommissioned and merged with UCLH, both UCLH and the RFH introduced updated CT-planned TBI techniques, based on the old MXH technique. More CT slices and in vivo measurement points were used by both; UCLH introduced a beam modulation technique using MLC segments, while RFH updated to a combination of lead compensators and bolus. Semiconductor diodes were used to measure entrance and exit doses in several anatomical locations along the entire body. Diode results from both centers for over five years of treatments were analyzed and compared to the previous MXH technique for accuracy and precision of delivered doses. The most stable location was the field center with standard deviations of 4.1% (MXH), 3.7% (UCLH), and 1.7% (RFH). The least stable position was the ankles. Mean variation with fraction number was within 1.5% for all three techniques. In vivo dosimetry can be used to verify complex modulated CT-planned TBI, and demonstrate improvements and limitations in techniques. The results show that the new UCLH technique is no worse than the previous MXH one and comparable to the current RFH technique.

  14. Sex differences in the contributions of visceral and total body fat to blood pressure in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pausova, Zdenka; Mahboubi, Amel; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomas

    2012-03-01

    Excess body fat deposited viscerally rather than elsewhere in the body is associated with higher risk for hypertension; this relationship is stronger in men than in women. Here we investigated whether similar sex dimorphism exists already in adolescence. A population-based sample of adolescent boys (n=237) and girls (n=262), age 12 to 18 years, was studied. Total body fat (TBF) was assessed with multifrequency bioelectrical impedance, and visceral fat (VF) was quantified with MRI. Blood pressure (BP) was measured beat by beat during an hour-long protocol, including supine, standing, sitting, mental stress, and poststress sections. Multivariate mixed-model analysis was used to assess the relative contributions of TBF and VF to BP during these sections. In boys, BP was strongly positively associated with VF (P<0.0001), whereas it was less strongly and negatively associated with TBF (P=0.004); these relationships did not substantially vary during the protocol. In contrast, in girls, BP was strongly positively associated with TBF (P=0.0006), whereas it was not associated with VF (P=0.08); the relationship with TBF varied during the protocol and was most apparent during mental stress (TBF*section interaction: P=0.002). Furthermore, when waist circumference was included in multivariate models instead of VF, it was not associated with BP in either sex; this indicates that waist circumference may not be an appropriate surrogate for VF. Thus, in adolescence, adiposity-related BP elevation is driven mainly by visceral fat in males and by fat deposited elsewhere in females. This dimorphism suggests sex-specific mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension and the need for sex-specific criteria of its prevention.

  15. Survival after total-body irradiation. 1. Effects of partial small bowel shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T.

    1989-01-01

    The small intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal small intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18-MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the small intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal small intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the small intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated small intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the small intestine.

  16. Survival after total-body irradiation. I. Effects of partial small bowel shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneulle, R.M.; Vriesendorp, H.M.; Taylor, P.; Burns, W.; Pelkey, T. )

    1989-08-01

    The small intestine of the rat was shielded during total-body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of radiation dose and length of intestine shielded on survival. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized in groups of 10. Using aseptic surgical procedures 80, 40, 20, or 10 cm, or none of the proximal or distal small intestine were temporarily exteriorized and shielded during irradiation with photons from an 18 MeV linear accelerator. Less than 17% of the dose was delivered to the shielded intestines. In unshielded animals deaths occurred from Days 4 to 6 with 13, 15, or 17 Gy and from Days 8 to 30 with 9, 11, and 12 Gy. However, in all animals exposed to 15 Gy with all or part of the small intestine shielded, survival was increased to between 5 and 9 days. Shielding of the distal small intestine was more effective in prolonging survival than shielding of the proximal small intestine. The previously identified target of radiation damage in the small intestine is the crypt stem cell. In this study, the analysis of histological specimens of shielded and irradiated small intestine suggested that humoral factors also influence intestinal histology and survival after irradiation. These humoral factors are thought to originate from the irradiated body tissues, the shielded proximal intestine, and the shielded distal intestine. Further studies are required to identify these factors and to determine their mode of action and their therapeutic potential after radiation damage to the small intestine.

  17. Influence of sublethal total-body irradiation on immune cell populations in the intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sarita; Boerma, Marjan; Wang, Junru; Fu, Qiang; Loose, David S; Kumar, K Sree; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The intestinal immune system is the largest in the body. This study analyzed changes in intestinal immune cell populations, cytokine protein levels, and transcript profiles after total-body irradiation (TBI) in CD2F1 mice. A single dose of 8.0 Gy gamma radiation caused negligible 30-day lethality but induced significant histological damage in jejunal mucosa that was maximal at 3.5 days and that had seemingly recovered by day 21 after irradiation. These changes were accompanied by decreased numbers of mucosal macrophages, neutrophils, and B and T lymphocytes, mostly coinciding with similar reductions in peripheral blood cell counts. Recovery of mucosal macrophages occurred within 1 week, whereas mucosal granulocytes and lymphocytes remained low until 3 weeks after TBI. Maximal suppression of T-helper cell (T(H))-related transcripts occurred at 3.5 days, but there was no obvious T(H)1 or T(H)2 bias. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed a preponderance of differentially regulated genes involved in cell cycle control, cell death and DNA repair between 4 h and 3.5 days after irradiation. Genes involved in tissue recovery predominated from day 7 onward. We conclude that the intestinal immune system undergoes profound changes after sublethal TBI and that these changes likely contribute to postirradiation pathophysiological manifestations.

  18. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Koch, Amory; Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies. PMID:27579862

  19. Contribution of pressure natriuresis to control of total body sodium: balance studies in freely moving dogs

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, Erdmann; Safak, Erdal; Persson, Pontus B; Reinhardt, H Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    This study aims at determining whether elevation of renal perfusion pressure (RPP) may correct for increased total body sodium (TBS), via pressure natriuresis.Freely moving dogs were studied on four consecutive days. During day 1, low-dose angiotensin II and aldosterone were infused. Pressure natriuresis was prevented by servo-controlling RPP to 20% below the control level. Sodium and water retention increased TBS and total body water. Mean arterial blood pressure rose by ∼25 mmHg.In protocol 1, infusions and control of RPP were maintained over three more days. Sodium was retained on all days, resulting in a continuous increase in TBS.In protocol 2, control of RPP was stopped after day 1. Thus, pressure natriuresis could exert its effect beginning with day 2. Angiotensin II and aldosterone infusions were continued. This prevented the effects of endogenous suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which is caused by increased TBS. No further sodium retention occurred, i.e. TBS remained at the elevated level gained on day 1.In protocol 3, control of RPP and the infusions were stopped. Thus, pressure natriuresis and RAAS suppression could exert their combined effects. Sodium excretion exceeded sodium intake on day 2. Control level of TBS was regained within 24 h.It was concluded that when RPP is considerably elevated, pressure natriuresis prevents further increase of TBS in the face of elevated angiotensin II and aldosterone levels. However, pressure natriuresis does not suffice to restore TBS to control. This requires additional endogenous suppression of RAAS. PMID:11744766

  20. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Koch, Amory; Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies.

  1. Mitigating effects of hUCB-MSCs on the hematopoietic syndrome resulting from total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sehwan; Lee, Seung Bum; Lee, Jong-geol; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and pathologic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in the recovery from total body irradiation by comparing it with the effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), an efficacious drug in the treatment of acute bone marrow radiation syndrome. BALB/c mice were treated with G-CSF or hUCB-MSCs after they were irradiated with 7 Gy cobalt-60 γ-rays. Circulating blood counts, histopathologic changes in the bone marrow, and plasma level of Flt-3L and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) were monitored in the postirradiation period. Hematologic analysis revealed that the peripheral leukocyte counts were markedly increased in the hUCB-MSCs-treated group, whereas G-CSF-treated mice did not recover significantly. Moreover, differential counts showed that hUCB-MSC treatment has regenerative effects on white blood cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes compared with the irradiated group. Treatment with hUCB-MSCs or G-CSF significantly increased immunoreactivity of Ki-67 until 3 weeks after total body irradiation. However, at 3 weeks, the number of Ki-67 immunoreactive cells significantly increased in the hUCB-MSCs-treated group compared with the G-CSF-treated group. Furthermore, hUCB-MSC treatment significantly modulated plasma levels of the hematopoietic cytokines Flt-3L and TGF-β1, whereas G-CSF treatment failed to decrease the plasma Flt-3L levels at 2 weeks after irradiation. Based on the differences in circulating blood cell reconstitution and cell density of bone marrow, the authors suggest that MSC treatment is superior to G-CSF treatment for hematopoietic reconstitution following sublethal dose radiation exposure.

  2. Calibration of a total body potassium monitor with an anthropomorphic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. D.; Allen, B. J.

    1996-11-01

    An anthropomorphic phantom was used to calibrate a supine geometry sodium iodide total body potassium monitor. Correction factors accommodating variability in subject size were empirically determined. Measurements on 12 males of weight 45 - 96 kg, height 161 - 184 cm and 18 females of weight 48 - 89 kg, height 153 - 175 cm, showed that the calibration factor was significantly correlated (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001) to subject , indicating comparable accuracy to -based calibration procedures. Fat-free mass determined from the potassium measurements of 16 subjects correlated significantly with fat-free mass estimated from skinfold thickness (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (r = 0.99, p < 0.0001) and bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001). These data, together with the precision (coefficient of variation, CV = 1.5%) and accuracy (CV = 4.5%) of the system, indicate that this calibration procedure represents a relatively low-cost, non-invasive alternative to -based methods of calibrating total body potassium monitors.

  3. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6–14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2–4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies. PMID:27579862

  4. Dedicated dental volumetric and total body multislice computed tomography: a comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strocchi, Sabina; Colli, Vittoria; Novario, Raffaele; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Giorgianni, Andrea; Macchi, Aldo; Fugazzola, Carlo; Conte, Leopoldo

    2007-03-01

    Aim of this work is to compare the performances of a Xoran Technologies i-CAT Cone Beam CT for dental applications with those of a standard total body multislice CT (Toshiba Aquilion 64 multislice) used for dental examinations. Image quality and doses to patients have been compared for the three main i-CAT protocols, the Toshiba standard protocol and a Toshiba modified protocol. Images of two phantoms have been acquired: a standard CT quality control phantom and an Alderson Rando ® anthropomorphic phantom. Image noise, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and geometric accuracy have been considered. Clinical image quality was assessed. Effective dose and doses to main head and neck organs were evaluated by means of thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) placed in the anthropomorphic phantom. A Quality Index (QI), defined as the ratio of squared CNR to effective dose, has been evaluated. The evaluated effective doses range from 0.06 mSv (i-CAT 10 s protocol) to 2.37 mSv (Toshiba standard protocol). The Toshiba modified protocol (halved tube current, higher pitch value) imparts lower effective dose (0.99 mSv). The conventional CT device provides lower image noise and better SNR, but clinical effectiveness similar to that of dedicated dental CT (comparable CNR and clinical judgment). Consequently, QI values are much higher for this second CT scanner. No geometric distortion has been observed with both devices. As a conclusion, dental volumetric CT supplies adequate image quality to clinical purposes, at doses that are really lower than those imparted by a conventional CT device.

  5. Dosimetric aspects of inverse-planned modulated-arc total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Held, Mareike; Kirby, Neil; Morin, Olivier; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To develop optimal beam parameters and to verify the dosimetric aspects of the recently developed modulated-arc total-body irradiation (MATBI) technique, which delivers an inverse-planned dose to the entire body using gantry rotation. Methods: The patient is positioned prone and supine underneath the gantry at about 2 m source-to-surface distance (SSD). Then, up to 28 beams irradiate the patient from different gantry angles. Based on full-body computed-tomography (CT) images of the patient, the weight of each beam is optimized, using inverse planning, to create a uniform body dose. This study investigates how to best simulate patients and the ideal beam setup parameters, such as field size, number of beams, and beam geometry, for treatment time and dose homogeneity. In addition, three anthropomorphic water phantoms were constructed and utilized to verify the accuracy of dose delivery, with both diode array and ion chamber measurements. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy of the new technique, a beam model is created specifically for the extended-SSD positioning for MATBI. Results: Low dose CT scans can be utilized for dose calculations without affecting the accuracy. The largest field size of 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2} was found to deliver the most uniform dose in the least amount of time. Moreover, a higher number of beams improves dose homogeneity. The average dose discrepancy between ion chamber measurements and extended-SSD beam model calculations was 1.2%, with the largest discrepancy being 3.2%. This average dose discrepancy was 1.4% with the standard beam model for delivery at isocenter. Conclusions: The optimum beam setup parameters, regarding dose uniformity and treatment duration, are laid out for modulated-arc TBI. In addition, the presented dose measurements show that these treatments can be delivered accurately. These measurements also indicated that a new beam model did not significantly improve the accuracy of dose calculations

  6. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  7. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Eaton, David J; Warry, Alison J; Trimble, Rachel E; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J; Collis, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources.

  8. Dosimetry and verification of Co total body irradiation with human phantom and semiconductor diodes.

    PubMed

    Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Geraily, Ghazale; Esfehani, Mahbod; Sharafi, Aliakbar; Haddad, Peyman; Shirazi, Alireza

    2007-10-01

    Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is a form of radiotherapy used for patients prior to bone marrow or stem cell transplant to destroy any undetectable cancer cells. The dosimetry characteristics of a (60)Co unit for TBI were studied and a simple method for the calculation of the prescribed dose for TBI is presented. Dose homogeneity was verified in a human phantom. Dose measurements were made in water phantom (30 × 30 × 30 cm(3)), using farmer ionization chamber (0.6 cc, TM30010, PTW) and a parallel plate ionization chamber (TM23343, PTW). Point dose measurements for AP/PA irradiation were measured in a human phantom using silicon diodes (T60010L, PTW). The lung dose was measured with an ionization chamber (0.3 cc, TM31013). The validity of the proposed algorithm was checked at TBI distance using the human phantom. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm was within 3.5%. The dose delivered to the mid-lobe of the lung was 14.14 Gy and it has been reduced to 8.16 Gy by applying the proper shield. Dose homogeneity was within ±7% for all measured points. The results indicate that a good agreement between the total prescribed and calculated midplane doses can be achieved using this method. Therefore, it could be possible to use calculated data for TBI treatments.

  9. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, David J.; Warry, Alison J.; Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources.

  10. Fludarabine Allows Dose Reduction for Total Body Irradiation in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kornguth, David G. . E-mail: dkorngut@mdanderson.org; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao; Chan, Ka Wah; Antolak, John; Ha, Chul S.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To examine, in the setting of total body irradiation (TBI) for the preparation of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), whether TBI dose can be reduced without compromising the efficacy of a regimen consisting of fludarabine and radiotherapy; and whether there is any increased risk of pulmonary toxicity due to the radiosensitizing effect of fludarabine. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies received TBI-based conditioning regimens in preparation for allogeneic HSCT. Twenty-three patients received 12 Gy in 4 daily fractions in combination with cyclophosphamide, either alone or with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents. Twenty-nine patients received 9 Gy in 3 fractions in conjunction with fludarabine and melphalan. Clinical and radiation records were reviewed to determine engraftment, pulmonary toxicity (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria), transplant-related mortality, recurrence of primary disease, and overall survival. Results: The two groups of patients had comparable pretransplant clinical characteristics. For the 12-Gy and 9-Gy regimens, the engraftment (89% and 93%; p = 0.82), freedom from life-threatening pulmonary events (65% and 79%; p = 0.33), freedom from relapse (60% and 73%; p = 0.24), and overall survival (26% and 47%; p = 0.09) were not statistically different. Conclusions: The addition of fludarabine and melphalan seems to allow the dose of TBI to be lowered to 9 Gy without loss of engraftment or antitumor efficacy.

  11. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  12. INDIVIDUAL TISSUE TO TOTAL BODY-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND TOTAL, POLAR, AND NON-POLAR LIPIDS IN TISSUES OF HATCHERY LAKE TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tissue body weight relaltionships, total lipid, and major lipid subclasses were measured in 20 adult hatchery lake trout to obtain a more in-depth understanding of the major lipid compartments of the "lean" lake trout for use in modeling the disposition of xenobiotics. It is sug...

  13. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly: Effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and dietary protein enhanced mating success and had no effect on survival in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). .The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of methoprene and protein on body lipids and protein tu...

  14. Evaluation of Field-in-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Cem; Sonmez, Aydan; Arslan, Gungor; Sonmez, Serhat; Efe, Esma; Oymak, Ezgi

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical use of a field-in-field (FIF) technique for total body irradiation (TBI) using a treatment-planning system (TPS) and to verify TPS results with in vivo dose measurements using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors. Methods and Materials: Clinical and dosimetric data of 10 patients treated with TBI were assessed. Certain radiation parameters were measured using homogenous and regular phantoms at an extended distance of 380 cm, and the results were compared with data from a conventional standard distance of 100 cm. Additionally, dosimetric validation of TPS doses was performed with a Rando phantom using manual calculations. A three-dimensional computed tomography plan was generated involving 18-MV photon beams with a TPS for both open-field and FIF techniques. The midline doses were measured at the head, neck, lung, umbilicus, and pelvis for both open-field and FIF techniques. Results: All patients received planned TBI using the FIF technique with 18-MV photon energies and 2 Gy b.i.d. on 3 consecutive days. The difference in tissue maximum ratios between the extended and conventional distances was <2%. The mean deviation of manual calculations compared with TPS data was +1.6% (range, 0.1-2.4%). A homogenous dose distribution was obtained with 18-MV photon beams using the FIF technique. The mean lung dose for the FIF technique was 79.2% (9.2 Gy; range, 8.8-9.7 Gy) of the prescribed dose. The MOSFET readings and TPS doses in the body were similar (percentage difference range, -0.5% to 2.5%) and slightly higher in the shoulder and lung (percentage difference range, 4.0-5.5%). Conclusion: The FIF technique used for TBI provides homogenous dose distribution and is feasible, simple, and spares time compared with more-complex techniques. The TPS doses were similar to the midline doses obtained from MOSFET readings.

  15. Investigation on using high-energy proton beam for total body irradiation (TBI).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Qin, Nan; Jia, Xun; Zou, Wei J; Khan, Atif; Yue, Ning J

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the possibility of using proton beam for total body irradia-tion (TBI). We hypothesized the broad-slow-rising entrance dose from a monoen-ergetic proton beam can deliver a uniform dose to patient with varied thickness. Comparing to photon-based TBI, it would not require any patient-specific com-pensator or beam spoiler. The hypothesis was first tested by simulating 250 MeV, 275 MeV, and 300 MeV protons irradiating a wedge-shaped water phantom in a paired opposing arrangement using Monte Carlo (MC) method. To allow ± 7.5% dose variation, the maximum water equivalent thickness (WET) of a treatable patient separation was 29 cm for 250 MeV proton, and > 40 cm for 275 MeV and 300 MeV proton. The compared 6 MV photon can only treat patients with up to 15.5 cm water-equivalent separation. In the second step, we simulated the dose deposition from the same beams on a patient's whole-body CT scan. The maximum patient separation in WET was 23 cm. The calculated whole-body dose variations were ± 8.9%, ± 9.0%, ± 9.6%, and ± 14% for 250 MeV proton, 275 MeV proton, 300 MeV proton, and 6 MV photon. At last, we tested the current machine capability to deliver a monoenergetic proton beam with a large uniform field. Experiments were performed on a compact double scattering single-gantry proton system. With its C-shaped gantry design, the source-to-surface distance (SSD) reached 7 m. The measured dose deposition curve had 22 cm relatively flat entrance region. The full width half maximum field size was measured 105 cm. The current scatter filter had to be redesigned to produce a uniform intensity at such treatment distance. In con-clusion, this work demonstrated the possibility of using proton beam for TBI. The current commercially available proton machines would soon be ready for such task. PMID:27685117

  16. Endocrine and reproductive dysfunction following fractionated total body irradiation in adults.

    PubMed

    Littley, M D; Shalet, S M; Morgenstern, G R; Deakin, D P

    1991-03-01

    The endocrine and reproductive sequelae of total body irradiation for haematological malignancy have been studied in 21 patients (11 male) who were treated with 10 Gy in five fractions or 12 or 13.2 Gy in six fractions over 3 days. Eighteen patients (eight male) aged 16-49 years underwent dynamic tests of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis with insulin hypoglycaemia, thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone stimulation and basal measurement of prolactin, sex steroids and thyroid hormones. Growth hormone responses (mean peak 64 +/- 36 mU/l, range 21-146 mU/l) and cortisol responses (mean peak 831 +/- 122 nmol/l, range 626-1105 nmol/l) were all within the normal range. Two patients had minimally elevated serum prolactin levels (445 and 588 mU/l, normal less than 350 mU/l). Serum thyroxine levels (57-133 nmol/l) were normal but six patients had elevated basal thyrotrophin (TSH) levels (6-9 mU/l) and seven had an exaggerated TSH response to thyrotrophin releasing hormone, indicating radiation-induced damage to the thyroid. Amenorrhea developed within 3 months of irradiation in all females and oestradiol levels were low, at 37-108 pmol/l (mean 58 +/- 22 pmol/l). Severe oligospermia or azoospermia was noted in men tested 5-70 months after irradiation and testicular volume was below the normal adult range in five of seven men assessed. Serum testosterone levels (12.4-35 nmol/l) were normal. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-stimulated gonadotrophin levels were elevated in all patients. However, two men have fathered two children each; one has refused semen analysis, but the other has a sperm count of 7 x 10(6)/ml (60 per cent motile, 20 per cent abnormal forms) 70 months after irradiation. When given by the above fractionated regimens, the endocrine sequelae of total body irradiation are limited to gonadal failure requiring oestrogen replacement in women and severe impairment of fertility in men. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has been seen in

  17. Association between body mass index and risk of total knee replacement, the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ying-Ying; Allen, John Carson; Noviani, Maria; Ang, Li-Wei; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Data on the association between body mass index (BMI) and risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) are sparse for Asian populations who are leaner than Western populations. We evaluated the association between BMI and risk of total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe KOA among Chinese in Singapore. Methods We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population based prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women, aged 45–74 years at enrollment from 1993 to 1998. Information on height, weight, diet and lifestyle factors were obtained via in-person interviews. TKR cases for severe KOA were identified via linkage with the nationwide hospital discharge database through 2011. Cox regression and weighted least squares regression were used in the analysis. Results The mean BMI among cohort participants was 23.1 kg/m2, and more than two-thirds had BMI below 25 kg/m2. A total of 1,649 had TKR attributable to severe KOA. Risk of TKR increased in a strong dose-dependent manner with increasing BMI throughout the 15–32 kg/m2 range and became less clear at BMI > 32 kg/m2. In the BMI range 16–27 kg/m2, there was a 27% increase in TKR risk for each unit increase in BMI (p for trend < 0.001). Compared to BMI 19–20 kg/m2, the risk estimates of TKR were all statistically significant with increasing unit of BMI ≥ 21 kg/m2. Results were similar for men and women. Conclusion Our results provided evidence for a constant mechanical mechanism underlying BMI and KOA initiation and/or progression. PMID:25450848

  18. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity after Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for five consecutive days starting within one hour post exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied using an in vitro culture system. Results IGF-1 protected 8 out of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation while only 2 out of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for five days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed up to six hours post irradiation. Compared with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers as well as hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 post-irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of non-irradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitors. Conclusions IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:23021438

  19. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  20. Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Camarata, Andrew S; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Demidenko, Eugene; Flood, Ann B; Swartz, Harold M; Ali, Arif N

    2016-04-01

    Current radiation disaster manuals list the time-to-emesis (TE) as the key triage indicator of radiation dose. The data used to support TE recommendations were derived primarily from nearly instantaneous, high dose-rate exposures as part of variable condition accident databases. To date, there has not been a systematic differentiation between triage dose estimates associated with high and low dose rate (LDR) exposures, even though it is likely that after a nuclear detonation or radiologic disaster, many surviving casualties would have received a significant portion of their total exposure from fallout (LDR exposure) rather than from the initial nuclear detonation or criticality event (high dose rate exposure). This commentary discusses the issues surrounding the use of emesis as a screening diagnostic for radiation dose after LDR exposure. As part of this discussion, previously published clinical data on emesis after LDR total body irradiation (TBI) is statistically re-analyzed as an illustration of the complexity of the issue and confounding factors. This previously published data includes 107 patients who underwent TBI up to 10.5 Gy in a single fraction delivered over several hours at 0.02 to 0.04 Gy min. Estimates based on these data for the sensitivity of emesis as a screening diagnostic for the low dose rate radiation exposure range from 57.1% to 76.6%, and the estimates for specificity range from 87.5% to 99.4%. Though the original data contain multiple confounding factors, the evidence regarding sensitivity suggests that emesis appears to be quite poor as a medical screening diagnostic for LDR exposures. PMID:26910032

  1. Total body burdens and tissue concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and ash in 55 human cadavers

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzman, B.E.; Gross, S.B.; Yeager, D.W.; Meiners, B.G.; Gartside, P.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Trace metal contents of human tissues and total body burdens are useful for studies of nutrition and certain diseases. Data are summarized and analyzed for individuals exposed to the normal Cincinnati environment, for 29 tissues from 55 cadavers for lead and ash concentrations, and from 26 cadavers for cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations. Total body burdens also were calculated and correlated against each other and age. The distributions for ash, copper, and zinc were close to normal, but those for lead and cadmium were closer to lognormal. Bone lead increased with age, whereas soft tissue lead did not. The calculated mean percentage of total body lead in the bones ranged from 78% at age 20 to 96% at age 80. Correlations of blood concentrations with total body burdens were negligible for cadmium and zinc. For copper the correlation coefficient was a poor 0.54. For lead in blood vs soft tissue burden it was a very poor 0.37, and vs total body lead it was negligible. Thus the use of blood samples as a convenient clinical measure of body burdens for these metals may be of limited value. These and other findings provide a useful bank of information for health studies.

  2. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    PubMed

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat.

  3. Speeding up N-body simulations of modified gravity: Vainshtein screening models

    SciTech Connect

    Barreira, Alexandre; Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu E-mail: sownak.bose@durham.ac.uk

    2015-12-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the power of a method to speed up current iterative techniques for N-body modified gravity simulations. Our method is based on the observation that the accuracy of the final result is not compromised if the calculation of the fifth force becomes less accurate, but substantially faster, in high-density regions where it is relatively weak due to screening. We focus on the nDGP model which employs Vainshtein screening, and test our method by running AMR simulations in which the fifth force on the finer levels of the mesh (high density) is not obtained iteratively, but instead interpolated from coarser levels. The calculation of the standard gravity component of the force still employs the full AMR structure. We show that the impact this has on the matter power spectrum is below 1% for k < 5h/Mpc at 0z = , and even smaller at higher redshift. The impact on halo properties is also small (∼< 3% for abundance, profiles, mass; and ∼< 0.05% for positions and velocities). The method can boost the performance of modified gravity simulations by more than a factor of 10. This allows them to run on timescales similar to GR simulations and to push them to resolution levels that were previously hard to achieve.

  4. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution. PMID:27105728

  5. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution.

  6. Effects of supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon immunologic memory

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, N.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Sato, T.; Rapaport, F.T.

    1981-03-01

    The transplantation of bone marrow from prospectively selected genotypically and pedigree DLA-identical donors into supralethally irradiated littermate and nonlittermate recipients within the Copperstown beagle colony has regularly resulted in the establishment of long-term chimerism, with no evidence of graft-versus-host disease in the recipients. It has been demonstrated that irradiated recipients exhibit significant decreases in their ability to muster primary immunological responses during the first months after reconstitution with bone marrow. Beyond the documented capacity of preirradiation blood transfusions to interfere with subsequent engraftment of allogeneic marrow, however, there have been no systematic studies of the possible effects of irradiation and bone marrow transplantation upon immunologic memory. The present study was designed in order to assess this question in greater detail, with particular regard to the effects of irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution upon host sensitization to skin allografts. The results indicate that, within the experimental limitations described, the state of sensitivity produced by first set skin allograft rejection is not affected significantly by supralethal total body irradiation and reconstitution of the recipient with allogeneic bone marrow.

  7. Sublethal fractionated total-body irradiation and donor bone marrow infusion for induction of allograft tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, G.E.; Watts, L.M.; Clancy, J. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    Tolerance to skin allografts across the strong histocompatibility barrier H-2b to H-2d was achieved with sublethal fractionated total-body irradiation, FTBI, delivered to H-2d mice in 3 doses of 250 rads within 24 hr, followed by transfusion of 3 x 10(7) H-2b donor bone marrow (BM) cells. H-2b skin allografts were applied within 48 hr after the initial radiation. 70% of the mice became long-term (greater than 180-day) survivors with fur-bearing grafts. Marked interexperiment variability in survival rates suggested that infection was the major use of death in this model and lower weight gain and survival rates for allogenic BM vs. media-treated controls suggested that graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was also a factor. The observation, however, that long-term survivors (70% of all mice) gained weight and appeared healthy suggested that the GVHD might be self-limiting. Chimeric analysis revealed that approximately 25% of spleen cells were of donor origin, both at short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (greater than 1 year) intervals after tolerance induction. In spite of hematopoietic chimerism, a low incidence of spontaneous tumors, less than 1%, occurred in the long-term survivors.

  8. ACPSEM ROSG TBI working group recommendations for quality assurance in total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nelligan, Raelene; Bailey, Michael; Tran, Thu; Baldwin, Zoë

    2015-06-01

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) radiation oncology specialty group (ROSG) formed a series of working groups in 2011 to develop recommendations for guidance of radiation oncology medical physics practice within the Australasian setting. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance for safe work practices and a suitable level of quality control without detailed work instructions. It is the responsibility of the medical physicist to ensure that locally available equipment and procedures are sufficiently sensitive to establish compliance to these recommendations. The recommendations are endorsed by the ROSG, and have been subject to independent expert reviews. For the Australian audience, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with the tripartite radiation oncology practice standards [1, 2]. This publication presents the recommendations of the ACPSEM total body irradiation working group (TBIWG) and has been developed in alignment with other international associations. However, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with relevant national, state or territory legislation and local requirements, which take precedence over the ACPSEM recommendations. It is hoped that the users of this and other ACPSEM recommendations will contribute to the development of future versions through the ROSG of the ACPSEM. This document serves as a guideline for calibration and quality assurance of equipment used for TBI in Australasia.

  9. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    McDunn, Jonathan E; Muenzer, Jared T; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C; Davis, Christopher G; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2009-05-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5-10 microM) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation.

  10. Monte Carlo optimization of total body irradiation in a phantom and patient geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarova, R.; Müntzing, K.; Krantz, M.; Hedin, E.; Hertzman, S.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this work is to apply a Monte Carlo (MC) accelerator model, validated by experimental data at isocentre distances, to a large-field total body irradiation (TBI) technique and to develop a strategy for individual patient treatment on the basis of MC dose distributions. Calculations are carried out using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code packages for a 15 MV Varian accelerator. Acceptable agreement is obtained between MC data and measurements in a large water phantom behind a spoiler at source-skin distances (SSD) = 460 cm as well as in a CIRS® thorax phantom. Dose distributions in patients are studied when simulating bilateral beam delivery at a distance of 480 cm to the patient central sagittal plane. A procedure for individual improvement of the dose uniformity is suggested including the design of compensators in a conventional treatment planning system (TPS) and a subsequent update of the dose distribution. It is demonstrated that the dose uniformity for the simple TBI technique can be considerably improved. The optimization strategy developed is straightforward and suitable for clinics where the TPS available is deficient to calculate 3D dose distributions at extended SSD.

  11. Final height and gonad function after total body irradiation during childhood.

    PubMed

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Esperou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Lemaire, P; Brauner, R

    2006-09-01

    Short stature and gonad failure can be a side effect of total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the factors influencing final height and gonad function after TBI. Fifty young adults given TBI during childhood were included. Twenty-seven had been treated with growth hormone (GH). Those given single 10 Grays (Gy) or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, GH peaks, final heights and gonad function. After the end of GH treatment, 11/20 patients evaluated had GH peak >10 microg/l. Final height was <-2s.d. in 29 (58%). The height loss between TBI and final height (2.4+/-1.1 s.d.) was greater in those who were younger when irradiated (P<0.0001). When the GH-treated and -untreated patients were analyzed separately, this loss was correlated with the age at TBI at 4-8 years for the GH-treated and at 6-8 years for the untreated. Boys showed negative correlations between testicular volume and plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, P=0.0008) and between plasma FSH and inhibin B (P=0.005) concentrations. We concluded that the indications for GH treatment should be mainly based on the age at irradiation, taking into account the GH peak. The plasma FSH and inhibin B concentrations may predict sperm function.

  12. Oral Interleukin 11 as a Countermeasure to Lethal Total-Body Irradiation in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Alexander F.; Biju, Prabath G.; Lui, Huanli; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Countermeasures against radiation are critically needed. Ideally, these measures would be easy to store, easy to administer and have minimal toxicity. We used oral delivery of interleukin 11 (IL11) in mice exposed to lethal doses of total-body irradiation (TBI). Animals were given IL11 by gavage at various daily doses beginning 24 h after TBI, which continued for 5 days. At a TBI of 9.0 Gy, mice treated with IL11 had a 70% survival at 30 days compared with control group survival of 25% (P = 0.035). At 10.0 Gy, treated animals had 50% survival at 30 days compared with no survivors in the control group. Treated animals had significant improvement in intestinal mucosal surface area and crypt survival. In addition bacterial translocation of coliform bacteria was significantly less in the treated animals. Systemic absorption of IL11 was low in treated animals and effects on the hematopoietic cells were not seen. Serum citrulline levels rebounded significantly faster after irradiation in the IL11 treated animals, indicating quicker recovery of small intestine health. These data suggest that IL11 given orally protects the intestinal mucosa from radiation damage and that this compound is beneficial as a mitigating agent even when started 24 h after radiation exposure. PMID:24219324

  13. An anti-apoptotic peptide improves survival in lethal total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McDunn, Jonathan E.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Dunne, Benjamin; Zhou, Anthony; Yuan, Kevin; Hoekzema, Andrew; Hilliard, Carolyn; Chang, Katherine C.; Davis, Christopher G.; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Hunt, Clayton; Grigsby, Perry; Piwnica-Worms, David; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2009-05-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL-derived BH4 peptide to prevent injury-induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from the SV40 large T antigen has favorable properties for BH4 domain delivery to lymphocytes compared to sequences based on the HIV-1 TAT sequence. While both TAT-BH4 and NLS-BH4 protected primary human mononuclear cells from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death, TAT-BH4 caused persistent membrane damage and even cell death at the highest concentrations tested (5-10 {mu}M) and correlated with in vivo toxicity as intravenous administration of TAT-BH4 caused rapid death. The NLS-BH4 peptide has significantly attenuated toxicity compared to TAT-BH4 and we established a dosing regimen of NLS-BH4 that conferred a significant survival advantage in a post-exposure treatment model of LD90 total body irradiation.

  14. Comparison of total body water estimates from O-18 and bioelectrical response prediction equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Inners, L. Daniel; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Klein, Peter D.; Wong, William W.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Identification of an indirect, rapid means to measure total body water (TBW) during space flight may aid in quantifying hydration status and assist in countermeasure development. Bioelectrical response testing and hydrostatic weighing were performed on 27 subjects who ingested O-18, a naturally occurring isotope of oxygen, to measure true TBW. TBW estimates from three bioelectrical response prediction equations and fat-free mass (FFM) were compared to TBW measured from O-18. A repeated measures MANOVA with post-hoc Dunnett's Test indicated a significant (p less than 0.05) difference between TBW estimates from two of the three bioelectrical response prediction equations and O-18. TBW estimates from FFM and the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation yielded results that were similar to those given by O-18. Strong correlations existed between each prediction method and O-18; however, standard errors, identified through regression analyses, were higher for the bioelectrical response prediction equations compared to those derived from FFM. These findings suggest (1) the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation may provide a valid measure of TBW, (2) other TBW prediction equations need to be identified that have variability similar to that of FFM, and (3) bioelectrical estimates of TBW may prove valuable in quantifying hydration status during space flight.

  15. ACPSEM ROSG TBE working group recommendations for quality assurance in total body electron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nelligan, Raelene; Baldwin, Zoë; Ostwald, Trish; Tran, Thu; Bailey, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) Radiation Oncology Specialty Group (ROSG) formed a series of working groups in 2011 to develop recommendations for guidance of radiation oncology medical physics practice within the Australasian setting. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance for safe work practices and a suitable level of quality control without detailed work instructions. It is the responsibility of the medical physicist to ensure that locally available equipment and procedures are sufficiently sensitive to establish compliance to these recommendations. The recommendations are endorsed by the ROSG, and have been subject to independent expert reviews. For the Australian readers, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with the Tripartite Radiation Oncology Reform Implementation Committee Quality Working Group: Radiation Oncology Practice Standards (2011), and Radiation Oncology Practice Standards Supplementary Guide (2011). This publication presents the recommendations of the ACPSEM ROSG Total Body Electron Irradiation Working Group and has been developed in alignment with other international associations. However, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with relevant national, state or territory legislation and local requirements, which take precedence over the ACPSEM recommendations. It is hoped that the users of this and other ACPSEM recommendations will contribute to the development of future versions through the Radiation Oncology Specialty Group of the ACPSEM. This document serves as a guideline for calibration and quality assurance of equipment used for TBE in Australasia.

  16. Low-dose total body irradiation versus combination chemotherapy for lymphomas with follicular growth pattern.

    PubMed

    Meerwaldt, J H; Carde, P; Burgers, J M; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; Somers, R; Sizoo, W; Glabbeke, M V; Duez, N; de Wolf-Peeters, C

    1991-10-01

    The treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with follicular growth pattern and advanced stage of disease remains controversial. Treatments varying from no initial treatment up to aggressive combination chemotherapy have been advocated. The EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group has performed a randomized prospective trial comparing short duration low dose total body irradiation (TBI) vs combination chemotherapy (CHVmP) + consolidation radiotherapy. Ninety-three patients were entered; of 84 evaluable patients, 44 received TBI and 40 CHVmP. Complete remission (CR) rates were 36%--TBI and 55%--CHVmP, but overall response rates were identical, 76 versus 69%. No significant difference in freedom from progression or survival was observed. No unexpected toxicity was seen. Although numbers are small, we cannot conclude that aggressive combination chemo-radiotherapy resulted in a better survival. Our analysis confirms that there is a constant risk of relapse. Other approaches should be explored if survival benefit is the ultimate goal in treatment of this patient population. PMID:1938514

  17. SU-E-T-540: Volumetric Modulated Total Body Irradiation Using a Rotational Lazy Susan-Like Immobilization System

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X; Hrycushko, B; Lee, H; Lamphier, R; Jiang, S; Abdulrahman, R; Timmerman, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Traditional extended SSD total body irradiation (TBI) techniques can be problematic in terms of patient comfort and/or dose uniformity. This work aims to develop a comfortable TBI technique that achieves a uniform dose distribution to the total body while reducing the dose to organs at risk for complications. Methods: To maximize patient comfort, a lazy Susan-like couch top immobilization system which rotates about a pivot point was developed. During CT simulation, a patient is immobilized by a Vac-Lok bag within the body frame. The patient is scanned head-first and then feet-first following 180° rotation of the frame. The two scans are imported into the Pinnacle treatment planning system and concatenated to give a full-body CT dataset. Treatment planning matches multiple isocenter volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) fields of the upper body and multiple isocenter parallel-opposed fields of the lower body. VMAT fields of the torso are optimized to satisfy lung dose constraints while achieving a therapeutic dose to the torso. The multiple isocenter VMAT fields are delivered with an indexed couch, followed by body frame rotation about the pivot point to treat the lower body isocenters. The treatment workflow was simulated with a Rando phantom, and the plan was mapped to a solid water slab phantom for point- and film-dose measurements at multiple locations. Results: The treatment plan of 12Gy over 8 fractions achieved 80.2% coverage of the total body volume within ±10% of the prescription dose. The mean lung dose was 8.1 Gy. All ion chamber measurements were within ±1.7% compared to the calculated point doses. All relative film dosimetry showed at least a 98.0% gamma passing rate using a 3mm/3% passing criteria. Conclusion: The proposed patient comfort-oriented TBI technique provides for a uniform dose distribution within the total body while reducing the dose to the lungs.

  18. Foraging and vulnerability traits modify predator-prey body mass allometry: freshwater macroinvertebrates as a case study.

    PubMed

    Klecka, Jan; Boukal, David S

    2013-09-01

    1. Predation is often size selective, but the role of other traits of the prey and predators in their interactions is little known. This hinders our understanding of the causal links between trophic interactions and the structure of animal communities. Better knowledge of trophic traits underlying predator-prey interactions is also needed to improve models attempting to predict food web structure and dynamics from known species traits. 2. We carried out laboratory experiments with common freshwater macroinvertebrate predators (diving beetles, dragonfly and damselfly larvae and water bugs) and their prey to assess how body size and traits related to foraging (microhabitat use, feeding mode and foraging mode) and to prey vulnerability (microhabitat use, activity and escape behaviour) affect predation strength. 3. The underlying predator-prey body mass allometry characterizing mean prey size and total predation pressure was modified by feeding mode of the predators (suctorial or chewing). Suctorial predators fed upon larger prey and had ˜3 times higher mass-specific predation rate than chewing predators of the same size and may thus have stronger effect on prey abundance. 4. Strength of individual trophic links, measured as mortality of the focal prey caused by the focal predator, was determined jointly by the predator and prey body mass and their foraging and vulnerability traits. In addition to the feeding mode, interactions between prey escape behaviour (slow or fast), prey activity (sedentary or active) and predator foraging mode (searching or ambush) strongly affected prey mortality. Searching predators was ineffective in capturing fast-escape prey in comparison with the remaining predator-prey combinations, while ambush predators caused higher mortality than searching predators and the difference was larger in active prey. 5. Our results imply that the inclusion of the commonly available qualitative data on foraging traits of predators and vulnerability traits

  19. Foraging and vulnerability traits modify predator-prey body mass allometry: freshwater macroinvertebrates as a case study.

    PubMed

    Klecka, Jan; Boukal, David S

    2013-09-01

    1. Predation is often size selective, but the role of other traits of the prey and predators in their interactions is little known. This hinders our understanding of the causal links between trophic interactions and the structure of animal communities. Better knowledge of trophic traits underlying predator-prey interactions is also needed to improve models attempting to predict food web structure and dynamics from known species traits. 2. We carried out laboratory experiments with common freshwater macroinvertebrate predators (diving beetles, dragonfly and damselfly larvae and water bugs) and their prey to assess how body size and traits related to foraging (microhabitat use, feeding mode and foraging mode) and to prey vulnerability (microhabitat use, activity and escape behaviour) affect predation strength. 3. The underlying predator-prey body mass allometry characterizing mean prey size and total predation pressure was modified by feeding mode of the predators (suctorial or chewing). Suctorial predators fed upon larger prey and had ˜3 times higher mass-specific predation rate than chewing predators of the same size and may thus have stronger effect on prey abundance. 4. Strength of individual trophic links, measured as mortality of the focal prey caused by the focal predator, was determined jointly by the predator and prey body mass and their foraging and vulnerability traits. In addition to the feeding mode, interactions between prey escape behaviour (slow or fast), prey activity (sedentary or active) and predator foraging mode (searching or ambush) strongly affected prey mortality. Searching predators was ineffective in capturing fast-escape prey in comparison with the remaining predator-prey combinations, while ambush predators caused higher mortality than searching predators and the difference was larger in active prey. 5. Our results imply that the inclusion of the commonly available qualitative data on foraging traits of predators and vulnerability traits

  20. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group. PMID:23606949

  1. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO4). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses.

  2. Ethanol consumption modifies the body turnover of cadmium: a study in a rat model of human exposure.

    PubMed

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Galażyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Dzwilewska, Ilona

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol (Et) abusers may also be exposed to excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Thus, the study was aimed at estimating the influence of Et on the body turnover of Cd in a rat model reflecting excessive alcohol consumption in humans chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal. For this purpose, Cd apparent absorption, retention in the body and concentration in the blood, stomach, duodenum, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, testis and femur as well as its fecal and urinary excretion in the rats exposed to 5 and 50mg Cd l(-1) (in drinking water; for 16 weeks from the fifth week of the animal's life) and/or Et (5 g kg(-1) b.w. per 24 h, by oral gavage; for 12 weeks from the ninth week of life) were estimated. Moreover, the duodenal, liver and kidney pool of the nonmetallothionein (Mt)-bound Cd was evaluated. The administration of Et during the exposure to 5 or 50mg Cd l(-1) increased Cd accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and its urinary excretion, and decreased Cd concentration in the blood, femur and numerous soft tissues (including liver and kidney) as well as the total pool of this metal in internal organs. Et modified or not the pool of the non-Mt-bound Cd, depending on the level of treatment with this metal. The results show that excessive Et consumption during Cd exposure may decrease the body burden of this metal, at least partly, by its lower absorption and increased urinary excretion. Based on this study, it can be concluded that Cd concentration in the blood and tissues of alcohol abusers chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal may be lower, whereas its urinary excretion is higher than in their nondrinking counterparts. However, since Et is toxic itself, the decreased body burden of Cd owing to alcohol consumption does not allow for the conclusion that the risk of health damage may be lower at co-exposure to these xenobiotics. In a further study, it will be investigated how the Et

  3. Total Upper Eyelid Reconstruction with Modified Cutler-Beard Procedure Using Autogenous Auricular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, James Christian; Reddy, Shilpa Gillella; Fowler, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malignant tumour in upper lid is a surgical challenge to oculoplastic surgeon. Full thickness defect created after removal of large tumour promptly treated with modified cutler beard procedure using autogenous auricular cartilage. Surgical procedure is two staged: In first stage, removal of the tumour followed by full thickness flap repaired; In second stage, opening the closed lid with lid margin repair. Post-operatively, there is good anatomical, functional and cosmetic restoration of the eyelid similar to the other eye. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of the modified Cutler-Beard procedure using autogenous ear cartilage for tarsal plate reconstruction in the repair of 70-100% upper eyelid defects. Materials and Methods This is a prospective, interventional case series of 16 patients over a period of three years. Patients with upper eyelid defects, secondary to removal of tumour, greater than or equal to 70% were included. Of these patients, those with lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, lower eyelid involvement, corneal infiltration or intra-orbital extension were excluded. FNAC was done in all the cases. Created defect was measured in mm (length and width) and later expressed in percentage. Pre and Post-operative measurement of Levator Palpebrae Superioris (LPS) was done. Pre and Post-operative measurement of Margin to Reflex Distance (MRD1) were also noted. Results Upper eyelid recreation was successful in all patients without complications. Pre-operative LPS action ranged from 0-4 mm, while post-operative LPS action was 12-14 mm. Pre-operative MRD1 ranged from -4 millimeters to -1 mm, while post-operative MRD1 was +3 to +4 millimeters. The follow-up period ranged from six months to two years. Every patient had a successful upper eyelid reconstruction. Conclusion The modified Cutler-Beard procedure using an autogenous auricular cartilage graft is an effective procedure for repair of large upper eyelid defects, with acceptable functional and

  4. Late ophthalmological complications after total body irradiation in non-human primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemer-Tucker, M. M.; Sterk, C. C.; de Wolff-Rouendaal, D.; Lee, A. C.; Lett, J. T.; Cox, A.; Emmanouilidis-van der Spek, K.; Davelaar, J.; Lambooy, A. C.; Mooy, C. M.; Broerse, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term effects of total body irradiation (TBI) on the incidence and time course of ocular complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus monkeys treated with TBI photon doses up to 8.5 Gy and proton doses up to 7.5 Gy were studied at intervals up to 25 years post-irradiation. They were compared with control groups with a similar age distribution. Cataract formation and ocular fundus lesions were scored according to a standardized protocol. Fluorescein angiography and histopathology was performed in selected animals. RESULTS: Cataract formation occurred after a latent period of 3-5 years. Significant cataract induction was observed for photon-doses of 8 and 8.5 Gy and beyond 20 years after proton irradiation. The severity of the lesions represents significant impairment of vision and would require cataract surgery if similar results occurred in human bone marrow transplant patients. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a normal pattern of retinal vessels in 13 out of 14 animals (93%) from the irradiated group and in eight out of nine animals (89%) from the control group. No additional lesions apart from age-related degenerative changes could be demonstrated. Histological evaluation revealed no radiation-associated vasculopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation alone for doses up to 8.5 Gy of photons does not carry a potential risk for fundus pathology, whereas clinically important cataract induction should be anticipated within 5 years after photon doses of 8.0 and 8.5 Gy and proton doses in excess of 2.5 Gy.

  5. Voxel-Based Dose Reconstruction for Total Body Irradiation With Helical TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chao Ming; Penagaricano, Jose; Yan Yulong; Moros, Eduardo G.; Corry, Peter; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have developed a megavoltage CT (MVCT)-based dose reconstruction strategy for total body irradiation (TBI) with helical TomoTherapy (HT) using a deformable registration model to account for the patient's interfraction changes. The proposed technique serves as an efficient tool for delivered dose verification and, potentially, plan adaptation. Methods and Materials: Four patients with acute myelogenous leukemia treated with TBI using HT were selected for this study. The prescription was 12 Gy, 2 Gy/fraction, twice per day, given at least 6 h apart. The original plan achieved coverage of 80% of the clinical target volume (CTV) by the 12 Gy isodose surface. MVCTs were acquired prior to each treatment. Regions of interest were contoured on each MVCT. The dose for each fraction was calculated based on the MVCT using the HT planned adaptive station. B-spline deformable registration was conducted to establish voxel-to-voxel correspondence between the MVCT and the planning CT. The resultant deformation vector was employed to map the reconstructed dose from each fraction to the same point as the plan dose, and a voxel-to-voxel summed dose from all six fractions was obtained. The reconstructed dose distribution and its dosimetric parameters were compared with those of the original treatment plan. Results: While changes in CTV contours occurred in all patients, the reconstructed dose distribution showed that the dose-volume histogram for CTV coverage was close (<1.5%) to that of the original plan. For sensitive structures, the differences between the reconstructed and the planned doses were less than 3.0%. Conclusion: Voxel-based dose reconstruction strategy that takes into account interfraction anatomical changes using MVCTs is a powerful tool for treatment verification of the delivered doses. This proposed technique can also be applied to adaptive TBI therapy using HT.

  6. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications.

  7. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome. PMID:27356057

  8. Development of a Metabolomic Radiation Signature in Urine from Patients Undergoing Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Mak, Tytus D.; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4–6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher’s exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  9. Development of a metabolomic radiation signature in urine from patients undergoing total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Laiakis, Evagelia C; Mak, Tytus D; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A; Barker, Christopher A; Wolden, Suzanne L; Brenner, David J; Fornace, Albert J

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4-6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher's exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  10. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83-90% (93-97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm(2). As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. PMID:27217628

  11. Build-up material requirements in clinical dosimetry during total body irradiation treatments

    PubMed Central

    Butson, Martin; Pope, Dane; Haque, Mamoon; Chen, Tom; Song, Guangli; Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are mainly used in a preparative regimen for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy/6 fraction bi-daily technique using 6MV X-rays at a large extended source to surface distance (SSD). This work investigates and quantifies the dose build-up characteristics and thus the requirements for bolus used for in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. Percentage dose build-up characteristics of photon beams have been investigated at large extended SSDs using ionization chambers and Gafchromic film. Open field measurements at different field sizes and with differing scatter conditions such as the introduction of standard Perspex scattering plates at different distances to the measurement point were made in an effort to determine the required bolus/build-up material required for accurate determination of applied dose. Percentage surface dose values measured for open fields at 300 cm SSD were found to range from 20% up to 65.5% for fields 5 cm × 5 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm, respectively. With the introduction of 1 cm Perspex scattering plates used in TBI treatments, the surface dose values increased up to 83–90% (93–97% at 1 mm depth), depending on the position of the Perspex scattering plate compared to the measurement point. Our work showed that at least 5 mm water equivalent bolus/scatter material should be placed over the EBT3 film for accurate dose assessment for TBI treatments. Results also show that a small but measurable decrease in measured dose occurred with 5 mm water equivalent thick bolus material of areas '3 cm2. As such, we recommend that 3 cm × 3 cm × 5 mm bolus build-up is the smallest size that should be placed over EBT3 Gafchromic film when used for accurate in vivo dosimetry for TBI applications. PMID:27217628

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  13. Adopting a modified pressure calcimeter with temperature compensation for testing total carbonates in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barouchas, Pantelis; Koulos, Vasilios

    2016-04-01

    The total carbonates content of the soil is an important soil quality indicator highly related with soil carbon sequestration and a tool for understanding biogeochemical processes or liming practices. A portable digital pressure calcimeter with multisensory technology was used in order to test total carbonates in soil samples. The concept of the measurement is based on the simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature after the sample reaction with hydrochloric acid in a closed vessel and a built-in module for automatic temperature compensation, so that performs measurements with higher accuracy. For these purposes two stages of analysis followed in order to document the precision of the methodology: (i) Total carbonates testing in Sand/CaCO3 mixtures and (ii) Total carbonates testing in soil samples. The instrument has a typical mean error of ± 0.3% calcium carbonates content of the soil sample and a recovery more than 98% comparing to certified inter-laboratory soil samples (proficiency tests) for quality assurance. The methodology adopts portable capabilities with soil moisture correction in situ, providing to the end-user the advantages of automatic analysis, fast testing operation, fast re-samples for analysis and productivity.

  14. Laser spectroscopy for totally non-intrusive detection of oxygen in modified atmosphere food packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocola, L.; Fedel, M.; Poletto, L.; Tondello, G.

    2015-04-01

    A device for measuring the oxygen concentration inside packages in modified atmosphere working in a completely non-intrusive way has been developed and tested. The device uses tunable diode laser spectroscopy in a geometry similar to a short distance LIDAR: A laser beam is sent through the top film of a food package, and the absorption is measured by detecting the light scattered by the bottom of the container or by a portion of the food herein contained. The device can operate completely in a contactless way from the package, and the distances of absorption both outside and inside the package are measured with a triangulation system. The performances of the device have been tested for various types of containers, and absolute values for the oxygen concentration have been compared with standard albeit destructive measurements.

  15. The Two-Component Model for Calculating Total Body Fat from Body Density: An Evaluation in Healthy Women before, during and after Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2014-01-01

    A possibility to assess body composition during pregnancy is often important. Estimating body density (DB) and use the two-component model (2CM) to calculate total body fat (TBF) represents an option. However, this approach has been insufficiently evaluated during pregnancy. We evaluated the 2CM, and estimated fat-free mass (FFM) density and variability in 17 healthy women before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32, and 2 weeks postpartum based on DB (underwater weighing), total body water (deuterium dilution) and body weight, assessed on these four occasions. TBF, calculated using the 2CM and published FFM density (TBF2CM), was compared to reference estimates obtained using the three-component model (TBF3CM). TBF2CM minus TBF3CM (mean ± 2SD) was −1.63 ± 5.67 (p = 0.031), −1.39 ± 7.75 (p = 0.16), −0.38 ± 4.44 (p = 0.49) and −1.39 ± 5.22 (p = 0.043) % before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum, respectively. The effect of pregnancy on the variability of FFM density was larger in gestational week 14 than in gestational week 32. The 2CM, based on DB and published FFM density, assessed body composition as accurately in gestational week 32 as in non-pregnant adults. Corresponding values in gestational week 14 were slightly less accurate than those obtained before pregnancy. PMID:25526240

  16. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determination of deuterium abundance in body fluids: application to measurement of total-body water in human infants

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Pearson, G.A.; Serfass, R.E.; Roth, C.W.; Finley, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to quantitate abundance of 2H in body water of human infants. This method provides precise measurement of total-body water without the extensive sample preparation requirements of previously described methods for determination of 2H content in body fluids. 2H2O (1 g/kg body weight) was administered to infants and saliva and urine were collected for up to 5 h. An internal standard was added directly to the fluid specimen and 2H enrichment in water was measured by NMR spectroscopy. Working range of deuterium abundance was 0.04-0.32 atom %. Coefficients of variation for saliva samples at 0.20 atom % 2H was 1.97%. 2H content in urine and saliva water reached a plateau by 4 h after administration, and amounts in the two fluids were virtually identical. Mean total-body water determination for six infants was 58.3 +/- 5.8% of body weight (range 53-66%).

  17. Analysis of total polyphenols in wines by FIA with highly stable amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Martínez-Fernández, Marta; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2013-02-15

    The use of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) films for the continuous monitoring of polyphenols in flow systems has been examined. The performance of these modified electrodes was evaluated and compared to bare GCE by cyclic voltammetry experiments and by flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection monitoring the response of gallic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids in 0.050 M acetate buffer pH 4.5 containing 100 mM NaCl. The GCE modified with CNT dispersions in polyethyleneimine (PEI) provided lower overpotentials, higher sensitivity and much higher signal stability under a dynamic regime than bare GCEs. These properties allowed the estimation of the total polyphenol content in red and white wines with a remarkable long-term stability in the measurements despite the presence of potential fouling substances in the wine matrix. In addition, the versatility of the electrochemical methodology allowed the selective estimation of the easily oxidisable polyphenol fraction as well as the total polyphenol content just by tuning the detection potential at +0.30 or 0.70 V, respectively. The significance of the electrochemical results was demonstrated through correlation studies with the results obtained with conventional spectrophotometric assays for polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu, absorbance at 280 nm index and colour intensity index).

  18. Monte Carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  19. Monte carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing prevalence of obesity world-wide has focused attention on the need for accurate body composition assessments, especially of large subjects. However, many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized phantom, often based on the standard Reference Man mode...

  20. Body mass index and colon cancer risk in Chinese people: Menopause as an effect modifier

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu-Tang; Potter, John D.; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2006-01-01

    High body mass index (BMI) has consistently been associated with increased colon cancer risk in men, but not in women. It is hypothesised that menopause-related changes in oestrogen levels play a role in gender-specific risk patterns. Most studies have been conducted in Western countries, where high incidence rates are coupled with a high prevalence of obesity and relatively common use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in post-menopausal women. This study evaluated the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and colon cancer risk in a relatively lean population, comprising 931 cases and 1552 controls, in Shanghai, China, where HRT use was extremely rare among women, during 1990–1993. Among men, colon cancer risk significantly increased with increasing BMI (P-trend = 0.005). Among women, the risk varied with age and menopause status in a similar pattern. Within each menopause stratum, however, the BMI-related risk was similar for those aged under 55 years and those aged 55 years and over, indicating a menopause rather than age effect. Among pre-menopausal women, the odds ratios (ORs) for subjects in the highest versus lowest quintile were 1.9 (95% CI 1.1–4.9) for those under 55 years of age, and 2.2 (95% CI 1.4–8.2) for those aged 55 years and over. Among post-menopausal women, the corresponding ORs were 0.6 (95% CI 0.5–0.91) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.5–0.95), respectively. Our findings suggest that BMI predicts colon cancer risk in both genders. Among women, however, the risk is modified by menopause status, possibly through altered endogenous oestrogen levels. PMID:16321519

  1. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence attachment module modified for analysis in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.; Meirer, F.; Jokubonis, C.; Markowicz, A.; Wegrzynek, D.; Chinea-Cano, E.

    2008-12-01

    Based on the design of the low cost Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence attachment module available since 1986 from Atominstitut (WOBRAUSCHEK-module) which can be attached to existing X-ray equipment, a new version was developed which allows the analysis of samples in vacuum. This design was in particular possible as the Peltier cooled light weight Silicon Drift Detector is following all adjustment procedures for total reflection as angle rotation and linear motion. The detector is mounted through a vacuum feed and O-ring tightening to the small vacuum chamber. The standard 30 mm round quartz, Si-wafer or Plexiglas reflectors are used to carry the samples. The reflectors are placed on the reference plane with the dried sample down looking facing in about 0.5 mm distance the up looking detector window. The reflectors are resting on 3 steel balls defining precisely the reference plane for the adjustment procedure. As the rotation axis of the module is in the plane of the reflector surface, angle dependent experiments can be made to distinguish between film and particulate type contamination of samples. Operating with a Mo anode at 50 kV and 40 mA with a closely attached multilayer monochromator and using a 10 mm 2 KETEK silicon drift detector with 8 μm Be window, a sensitivity of 70 cps/ng for Rb was measured and detection limits of 2 pg were obtained.

  2. Ring strain and total syntheses of modified macrocycles of the isoplagiochin type

    PubMed Central

    Backes, Timo; Hesidens, Kerstin; Kolz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Summary Macrocycles of the bisbibenzyl-type are natural products that are found exclusively in bryophytes (liverworts). The molecular framework of the subtype “isoplagiochin” is of substantial structural interest because of the chirality of the entire molecule, which arises from two biaryl axes in combination with two helical two-carbon units in a cyclic arrangement. From a structural as well as a synthetic point of view we report on the total synthesis of compounds which possess more rigid two-carbon biaryl bridges like stilbene (E or Z) or even tolane moieties which were introduced starting with a Sonogashira protocol. The McMurry method proved to be a powerful tool for the cyclization to these considerably ring-strained macrocycles. PMID:20300508

  3. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink. PMID:20199991

  4. Total body potassium fat free weight and maximal aerobic power in children with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Davies, C T; von Döbeln, W; Fohlin, L; Freyschuss, U; Thorén, C

    1978-03-01

    Body composition and aerobic work performance have been studied in 5 boys and 10 girls suffering from anorexia nervosa. The average ages of the two groups of children were 15.4 (boys) and 15.2 (girls) years respectively. Measurements of body composition included height, weight (W), body potassium (40K), skinfold thickness (SFT) at triceps and subscapularis, blood volume (BV) and femoral condylar and radioulnar breadths. From these measurements estimates of fat free weight (FFW), skeletal weight (S) and lean body mass (LBM) were made. Work performance was assessed by measurement of the maximal aerobic power (VO2 max). The patients had lost on average 26% of their former body weight. The boys had on average greater than 7% of their body weight as fat compared with greater than 9% in the girls. However, the loss of weight was not solely due to loss of body fat, but could also be ascribed to a decrease in soft fatfree tissue. LBM or FFW could be estimated as well from SFT as from 40k. vo2 max averaged 1.43 1/min (35.1 ml/kg/min) in the anorexic boys and 1.24 l/min (33.2 ml/kg/min) in the girls and was associated with FFW and LBM. However, VO2 max was lower in relation to LBM than in healthy children of the same age. Thus it was suggested that the emaciation in anorexia is directly attributable to loss of both fat and muscle and accounts in part for the reduction of aerobic power observed. However, an important factor may be the debilitating effect of starvation on the patient, particularly in its advanced and later stages, which reduces his/her level of habitual physical activity.

  5. Calibration of the Brookhaven National Laboratory delayed gamma neutron activation facility to measure total body calcium.

    PubMed

    Ma, R; Stamatelatos, I E; Yasumura, S

    2000-05-01

    Differences in body size and shape can cause large variances in the in vivo results of neutron activation analysis. To introduce corrections for body size for the delayed gamma neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, "reference man"-sized and "reference woman"-sized phantoms were constructed. Simulation results using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code also provided correction factors for people of different sizes. For individuals with a body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/height (m)2) between 20 and 30, no correction was required. At BMIs greater than 30, the effects of neutron attenuation were significant and a correction factor of CF = -0.0192 x BMI + 1.5635 can be applied. PMID:10865727

  6. Multiple tissue response modifiers to promote angiogenesis and prevent the foreign body reaction around subcutaneous implants.

    PubMed

    Kastellorizios, Michail; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Burgess, Diane J

    2015-09-28

    Dexamethasone-releasing PLGA poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microsphere/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) hydrogel composite coatings have been shown to prevent the foreign body reaction (FBR) to subcutaneous implants in small and large animal models. Such coatings were developed to extend the lifetime of implantable biosensors. However, long-term exposure of tissue to low levels of dexamethasone results in a reduction in blood vessel density due to the anti-angiogenic effect of dexamethasone. This mild effect, while not threatening to the subject's health, may interfere with analyte detection and the sensor response time over the long-term. The present work is focused on the development of coatings that deliver combinations of three tissue response modifiers (TRMs): dexamethasone, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and PDGF (platelet derived growth factor). Dexamethasone, VEGF and PDGF prevent the FBR, increase angiogenesis and promote blood vessel maturation (which increases blood flow), respectively. To minimize any potential interference among these three TRMs (for example, PDGF increases fibrosis), the relative doses of dexamethasone, VEGF and PDGF were adjusted. It was determined that: a) all three TRMs are required for maximum promotion of angiogenesis, blood vessel maturation and prevention of the FBR; b) VEGF has to be administered at higher doses than PDGF; c) an increase in dexamethasone dosing must be accompanied by a proportional increase in growth factor dosing; and d) modification of the TRM ratio can achieve a constant capillary density throughout the implantation period which is important for applications such as biosensors to maintain sensitivity and a stable sensor baseline. Moreover, an osmosis-driven process for encapsulation of proteins in PLGA microspheres that showed low burst release was developed. PMID:26216396

  7. Total body irradiation must be delivered at high dose for efficient engraftment and tolerance in a rhesus stem cell gene therapy model

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Naoya; Weitzel, R Patrick; Shvygin, Anna; Skala, Luke P; Raines, Lydia; Bonifacino, Aylin C; Krouse, Allen E; Metzger, Mark E; Donahue, Robert E; Tisdale, John F

    2016-01-01

    Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) is desirable for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy applications. However, low gene marking was previously observed in gene therapy trials, suggesting that RIC might be insufficient for (i) opening niches for efficient engraftment and/or (ii) inducing immunological tolerance for transgene-encoded proteins. Therefore, we evaluated both engraftment and tolerance for gene-modified cells using our rhesus HSC gene therapy model following RIC. We investigated a dose de-escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) from our standard dose of 10Gy (10, 8, 6, and 4Gy), in which rhesus CD34+ cells were transduced with a VSVG-pseudotyped chimeric HIV-1 vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) (or enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)). At ~6 months after transplantation, higher-dose TBI resulted in higher gene marking with logarithmic regression in peripheral blood cells. We then evaluated immunological tolerance for gene-modified cells, and found that lower-dose TBI allowed vigorous anti-GFP antibody production with logarithmic regression, while no significant anti-VSVG antibody formation was observed among all TBI groups. These data suggest that higher-dose TBI improves both engraftment and immunological tolerance for gene-modified cells. Additional immunosuppression might be required in RIC to induce tolerance for transgene products. Our findings should be valuable for developing conditioning regimens for HSC gene therapy applications.

  8. Total body irradiation must be delivered at high dose for efficient engraftment and tolerance in a rhesus stem cell gene therapy model.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoya; Weitzel, R Patrick; Shvygin, Anna; Skala, Luke P; Raines, Lydia; Bonifacino, Aylin C; Krouse, Allen E; Metzger, Mark E; Donahue, Robert E; Tisdale, John F

    2016-01-01

    Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) is desirable for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy applications. However, low gene marking was previously observed in gene therapy trials, suggesting that RIC might be insufficient for (i) opening niches for efficient engraftment and/or (ii) inducing immunological tolerance for transgene-encoded proteins. Therefore, we evaluated both engraftment and tolerance for gene-modified cells using our rhesus HSC gene therapy model following RIC. We investigated a dose de-escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) from our standard dose of 10Gy (10, 8, 6, and 4Gy), in which rhesus CD34(+) cells were transduced with a VSVG-pseudotyped chimeric HIV-1 vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) (or enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)). At ~6 months after transplantation, higher-dose TBI resulted in higher gene marking with logarithmic regression in peripheral blood cells. We then evaluated immunological tolerance for gene-modified cells, and found that lower-dose TBI allowed vigorous anti-GFP antibody production with logarithmic regression, while no significant anti-VSVG antibody formation was observed among all TBI groups. These data suggest that higher-dose TBI improves both engraftment and immunological tolerance for gene-modified cells. Additional immunosuppression might be required in RIC to induce tolerance for transgene products. Our findings should be valuable for developing conditioning regimens for HSC gene therapy applications. PMID:27652288

  9. Total body irradiation must be delivered at high dose for efficient engraftment and tolerance in a rhesus stem cell gene therapy model

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Naoya; Weitzel, R Patrick; Shvygin, Anna; Skala, Luke P; Raines, Lydia; Bonifacino, Aylin C; Krouse, Allen E; Metzger, Mark E; Donahue, Robert E; Tisdale, John F

    2016-01-01

    Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) is desirable for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy applications. However, low gene marking was previously observed in gene therapy trials, suggesting that RIC might be insufficient for (i) opening niches for efficient engraftment and/or (ii) inducing immunological tolerance for transgene-encoded proteins. Therefore, we evaluated both engraftment and tolerance for gene-modified cells using our rhesus HSC gene therapy model following RIC. We investigated a dose de-escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) from our standard dose of 10Gy (10, 8, 6, and 4Gy), in which rhesus CD34+ cells were transduced with a VSVG-pseudotyped chimeric HIV-1 vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) (or enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)). At ~6 months after transplantation, higher-dose TBI resulted in higher gene marking with logarithmic regression in peripheral blood cells. We then evaluated immunological tolerance for gene-modified cells, and found that lower-dose TBI allowed vigorous anti-GFP antibody production with logarithmic regression, while no significant anti-VSVG antibody formation was observed among all TBI groups. These data suggest that higher-dose TBI improves both engraftment and immunological tolerance for gene-modified cells. Additional immunosuppression might be required in RIC to induce tolerance for transgene products. Our findings should be valuable for developing conditioning regimens for HSC gene therapy applications. PMID:27652288

  10. Total-body calcium estimated by delayed gamma neutron activation analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Aloia, J F; Ma, R; Vaswani, A; Feuerman, M

    1999-01-01

    Total body calcium (TBCa) in 270 black and white women age 21-79 years was measured concurrently by delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (DGNA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The mean value for TBCa calculated from DXA was 933 g compared with 730 g for DGNA. By regression, TBCa(DXA(g)) = 1.35 x TBCa(DGNA(g)) -54 (r = 0. 90, r(2) = 81.4%, SEE = 66.9 g). This remarkable difference of 203 g suggests that one or both these methods is not accurate. Adjustment of the regression of DXA versus DGNA for body mass index or trunk thickness explained 8.5-10% of the variability between methods. The unadjusted slope for the DXA values regressed against the DGNA values was 1.35, indicating significant discordance between the methods. There is greater agreement between the two DGNA facilities (Brookhaven National Laboratory and Baylor College of Medicine) and between the various DXA instruments. Either DGNA underestimates TBCa or DXA overestimates total-body bone mineral content. Resolution of these disparate results may possibly be achieved by concurrent measurement of whole human cadavers of different sizes with chemical determination of the calcium content of the ash. In the interim, cross-calibration equations between DGNA and standardized values for DXA for total-body bone mineral content may be used, which will permit reporting of consistent values for TBCa from the two technologies. PMID:10663353

  11. Total-body creatine pool size and skeletal muscle mass determination by creatine-(methyl-D3) dilution in rats.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; Clifton, Lisa G; Poole, James C; Mohammed, Hussein A; Shearer, Todd W; Waitt, Greg M; Hagerty, Laura L; Remlinger, Katja S; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2012-06-01

    There is currently no direct, facile method to determine total-body skeletal muscle mass for the diagnosis and treatment of skeletal muscle wasting conditions such as sarcopenia, cachexia, and disuse. We tested in rats the hypothesis that the enrichment of creatinine-(methyl-d(3)) (D(3)-creatinine) in urine after a defined oral tracer dose of D(3)-creatine can be used to determine creatine pool size and skeletal muscle mass. We determined 1) an oral tracer dose of D(3)-creatine that was completely bioavailable with minimal urinary spillage and sufficient enrichment in the body creatine pool for detection of D(3)-creatine in muscle and D(3)-creatinine in urine, and 2) the time to isotopic steady state. We used cross-sectional studies to compare total creatine pool size determined by the D(3)-creatine dilution method to lean body mass determined by independent methods. The tracer dose of D(3)-creatine (<1 mg/rat) was >99% bioavailable with 0.2-1.2% urinary spillage. Isotopic steady state was achieved within 24-48 h. Creatine pool size calculated from urinary D(3)-creatinine enrichment at 72 h significantly increased with muscle accrual in rat growth, significantly decreased with dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, was correlated with lean body mass (r = 0.9590; P < 0.0001), and corresponded to predicted total muscle mass. Total-body creatine pool size and skeletal muscle mass can thus be accurately and precisely determined by an orally delivered dose of D(3)-creatine followed by the measurement of D(3)-creatinine enrichment in a single urine sample and is promising as a noninvasive tool for the clinical determination of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:22422801

  12. [Effects of classes in "creative movement and pantomime" and "badminton" on total-body coordination in older dyslexic boys].

    PubMed

    Schneider, F J

    1984-11-01

    Reported previously from a U.S. empirical study of 7th grade high-school students (102 male and 84 female) where statistically significant results had been found relative to total body coordination and body image (Schneider, 1978), the effectiveness of a series of classes in "creative movement and pantomime" was verified in a 7.5-week longitudinal study of 7th grade male students (N = 20) attending remedial education at a special school for dyslexic students in Massachusetts, U.S.A. It has been possible to demonstrate that these classes had achieved statistically significant improvements in overall body coordination of Ss, measured with the body coordination test KTK - Körper-Koordinationstest für Kinder (Schilling, Kiphart, 1974). Findings obtained from the control group (N = 20) who, during that same period, had been taught, and practising, "Badminton" in the regular sports classes, elicited the same specific, statistically significant gains in overall body coordination. These improvements are considered attributable to the additional, specific stimuli for development provided to the dyslexic students by "creative movement and pantomime" classes and the racket sport "Badminton" alike. The findings support the thesis that delayed formation of hemispheric linkage is present in dyslexic persons, and that specific movement programmes provide developmental stimuli that influence overall body coordination.

  13. Measurement of total body water in human infants using deuterium isotope dilution and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Pearson, G.A.; Serfass, R.E.; Roth, C.W.; Finley, J.W.

    1986-03-01

    Total body water (TBW) provides a useful measure of fat-free body mass. Deuterium (D) oxide isotope dilution is a useful method to determine TBW. Various techniques, including density, infrared absorption, mass spectrometry and gas chromatography have been employed to determine D enrichment in body fluids. Each of these methods requires extensive sample preparation (sublimation or distillation of the body fluid). The authors have employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to measure D enrichment in saliva and urine of human infants. No sample preparation was necessary. A standard (dg-t-butanol) was added to 0.5 ml of sample and D enrichment was measured using a JEOL FX-900 NMR spectrometer. Signal acquisition time was 4.7 min. Working range of D enrichment was 0.04-0.32 atom % D (corresponding to an oral dose of approximately 0.25-2.0 g D/sub 2/O/kg body weight). Coefficients of variation (c.v.) for saliva samples at 0.20 and 0.06 atom % enrichment were 1.97% and 4.78%, respectively. Mean (+/-SD) of TBW determinations for 6 infants was 58.5 +/- 5.4% of body weight (range 53-66%). Repeat measurements (3) of TBW for each infant at weekly intervals yielded a mean c.v. of 4.1% (n = 6). This method provides precise measurement of TBW without the extensive sample preparation requirements of previously-described methods.

  14. An amperometric bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor based on functionalized graphene modified electrode and its electrocatalytic activity towards total cholesterol determination.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Shivappa Suresh, Gurukar; Melo, Jose Savio; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2012-09-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto functionalized graphene (FG) modified graphite electrode. Enzymes modified electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FG accelerates the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx. A well defined redox peak was observed, corresponding to the direct electron transfer of the FAD/FADH(2) of ChOx. The electron transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer rate constant (K(s)) were calculated and their values are found to be 0.31 and 0.78 s(-1), respectively. For the free cholesterol determination, ChOx-FG/Gr electrode exhibits a sensitive response from 50 to 350 μM (R=-0.9972) with a detection limit of 5 μM. For total cholesterol determination, co-immobilization of ChEt and ChOx on modified electrode, i.e. (ChEt/ChOx)-FG/Gr electrode showed linear range from 50 to 300 μM (R=-0.9982) with a detection limit of 15 μM. Some common interferents like glucose, ascorbic acid and uric acid did not cause any interference, due to the use of a low operating potential. The FG/Gr electrode exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). A wide linear response to H(2)O(2) ranging from 0.5 to 7 mM (R=-0.9967) with a sensitivity of 443.25 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) has been obtained. PMID:22967556

  15. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4–10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race. PMID:23951544

  16. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  17. Free-running circadian rhythms of muscle strength, reaction time, and body temperature in totally blind people.

    PubMed

    Squarcini, Camila Fabiana Rossi; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; Lopes, Cleide; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Cornelissen-Guillaume, Germaine; Matarazzo, Carolina; Garcia, Danilo; da Silva, Maria Stella Peccin; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2013-01-01

    Light is the major synchronizer of circadian rhythms. In the absence of light, as for totally blind people, some variables, such as body temperature, have an endogenous period that is longer than 24 h and tend to be free running. However, the circadian rhythm of muscle strength and reaction time in totally blind people has not been defined in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the period of the endogenous circadian rhythm of the isometric and isokinetic contraction strength and simple reaction time of totally blind people. The study included six totally blind people with free-running circadian rhythms and four sighted people (control group). Although the control group required only a single session to determine the circadian rhythm, the blind people required three sessions to determine the endogenous period. In each session, isometric strength, isokinetic strength, reaction time, and body temperature were collected six different times a day with an interval of at least 8 h. The control group had better performance for strength and reaction time in the afternoon. For the blind, this performance became delayed throughout the day. Therefore, we conclude that the circadian rhythms of strength and simple reaction time of totally blind people are within their free-running periods. For some professionals, like the blind paralympic athletes, activities that require large physiological capacities in which the maximum stimulus should match the ideal time of competition may result in the blind athletes falling short of their expected performance under this free-running condition.

  18. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534019

  20. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J. )

    1990-07-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier.

  1. Contribution of evening macronutrient intake to total caloric intake and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Baron, Kelly Glazer; Reid, Kathryn J; Horn, Linda Van; Zee, Phyllis C

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep timing and macronutrient intake as an approach towards better understanding of how sleep and eating affect weight regulation. Fifty-two volunteers (25 women) completed 7 days of wrist actigraphy and food logs. "Average sleepers" (56%) were defined as having a midpoint of sleep <5:30 am and "late sleepers" (44%) were defined as having a midpoint of sleep ≥ 5:30 am. Data were analyzed using t-tests, correlations and regression. Late sleepers consumed a greater amount of protein fat and carbohydrates in the evening (defined as after 8:00 pm) but less fat in the 4 h before sleep. Total protein, protein, carbohydrate, and fat consumed after 8:00 pm, protein consumed within 4h of sleep as well as the percentage of fat consumed after 8:00 were associated with higher BMI. The amount of protein and carbohydrates consumed within 4h of sleep and the amount and percentage of carbohydrate and fat consumed after 8:00 pm were associated with greater total calories. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep timing and duration, protein consumed 4 h before sleep was associated with BMI; carbohydrates consumed after 8 pm, protein and carbohydrates consumed 4h before sleep were associated with higher total calories. Results indicate that evening intake of macronutrients and intake before sleep are not synonymous, particularly among late sleepers. Eating in the evening or before sleep may predispose individuals to weight gain through higher total calories.

  2. Multifactorial analysis of human blood cell responses to clinical total body irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, J. M.; Stokes, T. R.; Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis techniques are used to study the effects of therapeutic radiation exposure, number of fractions, and time on such quantal responses as tumor control and skin injury. The potential of these methods for the analysis of human blood cell responses is demonstrated and estimates are given of the effects of total amount of exposure and time of protraction in determining the minimum white blood cell concentration observed after exposure of patients from four disease groups.

  3. Drag and Total Power Reduction for Artificial Heat Input in Front of Hypersonic Blunt Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Raizer, Yu. P.; Shneider, M. N.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of an air-spike in hypersonic flow is considered in the paper. The similarity laws of shape dependence and shock wave parameters, as a function of the strength of the heat source and characteristics of incident flow, are given. The numerical modeling is performed, based on the Euler gasdynamic equations for conditions identical to those tested in the RPI Hypersonic Shock Tunnel (M=10.1), where heat deposition took place with and without a blunt body in the stream. Good agreement between the individual shock wave shapes given by asymptotic theory, numerical modeling, and experiment is demonstrated. Results of numerical modeling show significant drag reduction and confirm the energy efficiency of the air-spike concept.

  4. A comparison of measurements of lean body mass derived by bioelectrical impedance, skinfold thickness and total body potassium. A study in obese and non-obese normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, G R; Farrer, M; Walker, M; Rodham, D; Clayton, B; Alberti, K M

    1991-05-01

    The measurement of body composition is an important part of metabolic and epidemiological research, but most currently available methods are complex and expensive. We have, therefore, compared measurements of fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM), obtained using a commercially available bioelectrical impedance monitor (The Holtain Body Composition Monitor) (IMP), and by measuring skinfold thickness (SFT), with values obtained by measuring total body potassium (TBK). Twenty subjects, 10 with a body mass index (BMI) less than 30 (kg m-2), (non-obese) and 10 with BMI greater than or equal to 30 (obese) took part in the study. There was a strongly significant linear relationship between LBM calculated from TBK and that calculated from impedance (IMP), in both non-obese and obese groups analysed separately (non-obese: r = 0.92; p less than 0.001 and obese: r = 0.92; p less than 0.001) and together (all: r = 0.89; p less than 0.001). LBM calculated from TBK was strongly linearly correlated with values derived from SFT for non-obese (r = 0.91; p less than 0.001) but not for obese subjects. Mean values of LBM of non-obese subjects derived by each method were not significantly different (TBK: 51.3 +/- 10.40 kg; IMP: 53.18 +/- 10.37 kg; SFT: 48.87 +/- 9.48 kg), but significant differences existed when the subjects were obese (TBK: 51.86 +/- 9.65 kg; IMP: 58.69 +/- 8.55 kg; SFT: 67.61 +/- 8.14 kg; p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Propidium iodide (PI) stains Nissl bodies and may serve as a quick marker for total neuronal cell count.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfei; Li, Chunman; Wu, Haihui; Feng, Xianling; Su, Qingning; Li, Shihe; Zhang, Lihong; Yew, David Tai Wai; Cho, Eric Yu Pang; Sha, Ou

    2015-03-01

    Propidium iodide (PI) reacts with both DNA and RNA and is a commonly used fluorescent reagent for nucleic acid staining. The aim of the study was to compare the cellular staining patterns of PI with that of Nissl staining in rat nervous tissues and to report a modified staining method that selectively labels Nissl bodies in neurons. Cryosections and paraffin sections of different tissues of normal Sprague-Dawley rats, including trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, liver, and small intestine, were stained by either PI or the hematoxylin and eosin method. Some sections were treated with RNase or DNase before the above staining, and some were double stained with PI and a Nissl stain. The sections were observed by light, fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Results showed strong PI signals detected as patterns of granules in the neuronal cytoplasm of all nervous tissues, whereas the staining of neuronal nuclei was weaker. In contrast, nuclei of neuroglial cells were strongly stained by PI, while the cytoplasm was not obviously stained. Pretreatment of the neural tissue with RNase abolished the PI signals. Furthermore, the PI positive granules in neuronal cytoplasm co-localized with Nissl bodies stained by the fluorescent Nissl stain. When the tissue was pretreated with DNase, PI only stained the cytoplasmic granules of neurons, but not that of glial cells. Our results show that PI stains Nissl bodies and may serve as an economical and convenient neuron marker for neuronal cell counting when specific neural markers such as antibodies are not readily available.

  6. Improving the precision of our ecosystem calipers: a modified morphometric technique for estimating marine mammal mass and body composition.

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Pearson, Linnea E; Costa, Daniel P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Mass and body composition are indices of overall animal health and energetic balance and are often used as indicators of resource availability in the environment. This study used morphometric models and isotopic dilution techniques, two commonly used methods in the marine mammal field, to assess body composition of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, N = 111). Findings indicated that traditional morphometric models that use a series of circular, truncated cones to calculate marine mammal blubber volume and mass overestimated the animal's measured body mass by 26.9±1.5% SE. However, we developed a new morphometric model that uses elliptical truncated cones, and estimates mass with only -2.8±1.7% error (N = 10). Because this elliptical truncated cone model can estimate body mass without the need for additional correction factors, it has the potential to be a broadly applicable method in marine mammal species. While using elliptical truncated cones yielded significantly smaller blubber mass estimates than circular cones (10.2±0.8% difference; or 3.5±0.3% total body mass), both truncated cone models significantly underestimated total body lipid content as compared to isotopic dilution results, suggesting that animals have substantial internal lipid stores (N = 76). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the minimum number of morphometric measurements needed to reliably estimate animal mass and body composition so that future animal handling times could be reduced. Reduced models estimated body mass and lipid mass with reasonable accuracy using fewer than five morphometric measurements (root-mean-square-error: 4.91% for body mass, 10.90% for lipid mass, and 10.43% for % lipid). This indicates that when test datasets are available to create calibration coefficients, regression models also offer a way to improve body mass and condition estimates in situations where animal handling times must be short and efficient.

  7. Improving the Precision of Our Ecosystem Calipers: A Modified Morphometric Technique for Estimating Marine Mammal Mass and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Shero, Michelle R.; Pearson, Linnea E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Mass and body composition are indices of overall animal health and energetic balance and are often used as indicators of resource availability in the environment. This study used morphometric models and isotopic dilution techniques, two commonly used methods in the marine mammal field, to assess body composition of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, N = 111). Findings indicated that traditional morphometric models that use a series of circular, truncated cones to calculate marine mammal blubber volume and mass overestimated the animal’s measured body mass by 26.9±1.5% SE. However, we developed a new morphometric model that uses elliptical truncated cones, and estimates mass with only −2.8±1.7% error (N = 10). Because this elliptical truncated cone model can estimate body mass without the need for additional correction factors, it has the potential to be a broadly applicable method in marine mammal species. While using elliptical truncated cones yielded significantly smaller blubber mass estimates than circular cones (10.2±0.8% difference; or 3.5±0.3% total body mass), both truncated cone models significantly underestimated total body lipid content as compared to isotopic dilution results, suggesting that animals have substantial internal lipid stores (N = 76). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the minimum number of morphometric measurements needed to reliably estimate animal mass and body composition so that future animal handling times could be reduced. Reduced models estimated body mass and lipid mass with reasonable accuracy using fewer than five morphometric measurements (root-mean-square-error: 4.91% for body mass, 10.90% for lipid mass, and 10.43% for % lipid). This indicates that when test datasets are available to create calibration coefficients, regression models also offer a way to improve body mass and condition estimates in situations where animal handling times must be short and efficient. PMID:24614685

  8. Assessment of contribution of other users to own total whole-body RF absorption in train environment.

    PubMed

    Plets, David; Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vermeeren, Günter; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2015-12-01

    For the first time, the contribution of radio-frequent radiation originating from other people's devices to total own whole-body absorption is assessed in a simulation study. Absorption in a train environment due to base station's downlink is compared with absorption due to uplink (UL) of the user's own mobile device and absorption due to the UL of 0, 1, 5, or 15 other nearby active users. In a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) macro cell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users can cause up to 19% of total absorption when calling yourself and up to 100% when not calling yourself. In a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) femtocell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users contributes to total absorption of a non-calling user for no more than 1.5%. For five other users in the train besides the considered person, median total whole-body Specific Absorption Rate is reduced by a factor of about 400000 when deploying a UMTS femtocell base station instead of relying on the GSM macrocell.

  9. Comparison of automated and manual purification of total RNA for mRNA-based identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Kitayama, Tetsushi; Watanabe, Ken; Sakurada, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Silica column-based RNA purification procedures have widespread use in mRNA profiling for body fluid identification in forensic samples. Also, automated RNA purification systems employing magnetic bead technology have recently become available. In this preliminary study, to ascertain which RNA purification technology is more suitable for the identification of body fluids by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative analyses of the yield and quality of total RNA were performed between automated purification using an EZ1 Advanced Instrument and manual purification using an RNeasy Mini Kit. The yield and size distribution of total RNA were compared by gene expression analysis of two different sized fragments of the β-actin gene. In addition, the relative amounts of several target genes were compared between the purification methods, and the integrity of total RNA was determined by chip-based electrophoresis. The results of this study suggest that RNeasy can purify higher-quality RNA as compared with automated purification using EZ1. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR analysis, however, was higher in the EZ1-purified samples, likely due to the relative efficiency of EZ1 in extracting short-length RNA from degraded samples. We also show that the quantification of relative levels of body fluid-specific genes could be influenced by the purification procedure. Our results indicate that although use of high-quality RNA is generally required for reproducible results in gene expression analysis, the forensic relevance of short RNA fragments in highly degraded samples cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, our results suggest that automated purification procedures as well as silica column-based manual purification procedures can be used for mRNA-based body fluid identification in forensic samples.

  10. Comparison of automated and manual purification of total RNA for mRNA-based identification of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Kitayama, Tetsushi; Watanabe, Ken; Sakurada, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Silica column-based RNA purification procedures have widespread use in mRNA profiling for body fluid identification in forensic samples. Also, automated RNA purification systems employing magnetic bead technology have recently become available. In this preliminary study, to ascertain which RNA purification technology is more suitable for the identification of body fluids by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), comparative analyses of the yield and quality of total RNA were performed between automated purification using an EZ1 Advanced Instrument and manual purification using an RNeasy Mini Kit. The yield and size distribution of total RNA were compared by gene expression analysis of two different sized fragments of the β-actin gene. In addition, the relative amounts of several target genes were compared between the purification methods, and the integrity of total RNA was determined by chip-based electrophoresis. The results of this study suggest that RNeasy can purify higher-quality RNA as compared with automated purification using EZ1. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR analysis, however, was higher in the EZ1-purified samples, likely due to the relative efficiency of EZ1 in extracting short-length RNA from degraded samples. We also show that the quantification of relative levels of body fluid-specific genes could be influenced by the purification procedure. Our results indicate that although use of high-quality RNA is generally required for reproducible results in gene expression analysis, the forensic relevance of short RNA fragments in highly degraded samples cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, our results suggest that automated purification procedures as well as silica column-based manual purification procedures can be used for mRNA-based body fluid identification in forensic samples. PMID:25270217

  11. Modifying the Body: Canadian Men's Perspectives on Appearance and Cosmetic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Rosemary; White, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In postmodern scholarship there has been a temporal shift to thinking of the body as malleable rather than fixed, which has opened space for the remaking of the self via the remaking of the body (Featherstone, 1991; Giddens, 1991). Among men, this process is thought to interact with shifting understandings of masculinity. In this study, 14…

  12. Anticipation of Body-Scaled Action Is Modified in Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardia, Dewi; Lafargue, Gilles; Thomas, Pierre; Dodin, Vincent; Cottencin, Olivier; Luyat, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa frequently believe they are larger than they really are. The precise nature of this bias is not known: is it a false belief related to the patient's aesthetic and emotional attitudes towards her body? Or could it also reflect abnormal processing of the representation of the body in action? We tested this latter…

  13. A model of end-expiratory lung impedance dependency on total extracellular body water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchomel, J.; Sobota, V.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinical monitoring of patients during mechanical ventilation. This study evaluates lung impedance measurements using Dräger PulmoVista 500 EIT system on an animal model. Mechanically ventilated model was created. Vital signs were monitored as well as mechanical ventilation parameters. Extracellular fluid balance and blood volume were handled as follows: 30-40% of total blood volume were removed and returned back, 0.5 to 1 litre of Ringer's solution was injected afterwards. The quantity of injected fluids was recorded for each animal. During this process thoracic electrical impedance measurement was performed. Recorded data from PulmoVista 500 EIT system were analysed using the official Dräger EIT Data Analysis Tool. The dependency of end-expiratory lung impedance on the change of fluid balance was observed. The relation between end-expiratory (minimum impedance value) frames and changes of fluid balance is shown. Preliminary results strongly support the expectation that electrical impedance of thorax can be affected by total extracellular fluid change.

  14. Determination of total body water by a simple and rapid mass spectrometric method.

    PubMed

    Van Kreel, B K; Van der Vegt, F; Meers, M; Wagenmakers, T; Westerterp, K; Coward, A

    1996-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method was developed to determine deuterium enrichment in body fluids. This is achieved by converting water into acetylene. To vacutainer tubes a small amount of calcium carbide is added. The tubes are evacuated and 25 microliters of sample are injected through the stopper. The reaction takes place spontaneously at room temperature in a few seconds. Enrichment at mass 27 compared with mass 26 can be determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry without any interference from the carrier gas helium. A series of D2O samples diluted with increasing amounts of H2O is prepared at the time of measurement of the biological samples and the measured ratios are used to calculate the isotope dilution of the unknown. The relative error of the method is 1.6% when a dose of 25 ml kg-1 is administered to the patient. The method was compared with two different methods in use in other laboratories, by a published method The means of the differences were -0.1 and 0.08 1, respectively, with standard deviations of 0.63 and 3.0.

  15. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  16. Fast Monte Carlo simulation for total body irradiation using a (60)Co teletherapy unit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Lack, Danielle; Rakowski, Joseph T; Knill, Cory; Snyder, Michael

    2013-05-06

    Our institution delivers TBI using a modified Theratron 780 60Co unit. Due to limitations of our treatment planning system in calculating dose for this treatment, we have developed a fast Monte Carlo code to calculate dose distributions within the patient. The algorithm is written in C and uses voxel density information from CT images to calculate dose in heterogeneous media. To test the algorithm, film-based dose measurements were made separately in a simple water phantom with a high-density insert and a RANDO phantom and then compared to doses calculated by the Monte Carlo algorithm. In addition, a separate simulation in GEANT4 was run for the RANDO phantom and compared to both film and the in-house simulation. All results were analyzed using RIT113 film analysis software. Simulations in the water phantom accurately predict the depth of maximum dose in the phantom at 0.5 cm. The measured PDD along the central axis of the beam closely matches the PDD generated from the Monte Carlo code, deviating on average by only 3% along the depth of the water phantom. Dose measured at planes inside the high-density insert had a mean difference of 4.9% on cross-profile measurement. In the RANDO phantom, gamma pass rates vary between 91% and 99% at 3 mm, 3%, and were >99% at 5 mm, 5% for the four film planes measured. Profiles taken across the film and both simulations resulted in mean relative differences of < 2% for all profiles in each slice measured. The Monte Carlo algorithm presented here is potentially a viable method for calculating dose distributions delivered in TBI treatments at our center. While not yet refined enough to be the primary method of treatment planning, the algorithm at its current resolution determines the dose distribution for one patient within a few hours, and provides clinically useful information in planning TBI. With appropriate optimization, the Monte Carlo method presented here could potentially be implemented as a first-line treatment planning

  17. A novel method of studying total body water content using a resonant cavity: experiments and numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Martin P; Clegg, Janet; Stone, Darren A

    2003-01-01

    A novel electromagnetic method of obtaining total body water is proposed, in which the water content is obtained from the dielectric properties as measured by a resonant perturbation technique. A screened room acts as a radio-frequency cavity, in our case resonating at 59 MHz, a frequency at which both real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity of tissues are correlated to their moisture content. The presence of a human subject in the room leads to both a negative shift in the room's resonant frequency and a reduction in its Q-factor. We simulated the room and the body using the transmission line matrix (TLM) method, a computational electromagnetic code which models the problem in the time domain. Experiment and numerical model showed good agreement for two orientations of the subject. The sensitivity of the technique was investigated by measuring the response before and after the subject drank a small quantity of water, less than 2% of body mass. The resulting change in the resonant frequency was significant, and was also predicted by the numerical model. The proposed technique for studying body composition is simple, non-invasive and employs non-ionizing radio waves at low power.

  18. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. Total Body Irradiation in the "Hematopoietic" Dose Range Induces Substantial Intestinal Injury in Non-Human Primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junru; Shao, Lijian; Hendrickson, Howard P; Liu, Liya; Chang, Jianhui; Luo, Yi; Seng, John; Pouliot, Mylene; Authier, Simon; Zhou, Daohong; Allaben, William; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The non-human primate has been a useful model for studies of human acute radiation syndrome (ARS). However, to date structural changes in various parts of the intestine after total body irradiation (TBI) have not been systematically studied in this model. Here we report on our current study of TBI-induced intestinal structural injury in the non-human primate after doses typically associated with hematopoietic ARS. Twenty-four non-human primates were divided into three groups: sham-irradiated control group; and total body cobalt-60 (60Co) 6.7 Gy gamma-irradiated group; and total body 60Co 7.4 Gy gamma-irradiated group. After animals were euthanized at day 4, 7 and 12 postirradiation, sections of small intestine (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and ileum) were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The intestinal mucosal surface length, villus height and crypt depths were assessed by computer-assisted image analysis. Plasma citrulline levels were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Total bone marrow cells were counted and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometer. Histopathologically, all segments exhibited conspicuous disappearance of plicae circulares and prominent atrophy of crypts and villi. Intestinal mucosal surface length was significantly decreased in all intestinal segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.02-P < 0.001). Villus height was significantly reduced in all segments on day 4 and 7 (P = 0.02-0.005), whereas it had recovered by day 12 (P > 0.05). Crypt depth was also significantly reduced in all segments on day 4, 7 and 12 after irradiation (P < 0.04-P < 0.001). Plasma citrulline levels were dramatically reduced after irradiation, consistent with intestinal mucosal injury. Both 6.7 and 7.4 Gy TBI reduced total number of bone marrow cells. And further analysis showed that the number and function of CD45(+)CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitors in bone

  20. Correlation of elimination fraction area under the curve with total body clearance.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Tomasz; Raczyńska-Pawelec, Anna; Starościak, Marcin; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study attempted to determine the area under the curve ([Formula: see text]), which corresponds to the sum of all elimination processes correlated with the total clearance value. The study attempted to determine the [Formula: see text] based on the coordinates known from classic non-compartmental pharmacokinetics for a single administration of the drug. 318 pharmacokinetics profiles were used for the analysis, obtained from 220 healthy subjects over ten studies. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed with the use of Phoenix™ WinNonlin(®) 6.3. The leave-one-out (LOO) method was used for model cross-validation. Squared cross-validated correlation coefficient (Q (2)) parameter and the difference between Q (2) and R (2) were calculated as a measure of the internal performance and model predictive ability. A high correlation between the clearance value and [Formula: see text] was demonstrated (R (2) > 0.65). However, only in the case of four studies was it possible to validate the linear model using the leave-one-out validation procedure (R (2) > 0.86). The present study proposed a method of graphical and mathematical determination of the area under the curve for the drug elimination process after a single dose of the drug. Furthermore, the concept of calculating the statistical moments and mean elimination time (MET) only for elimination processes based on [Formula: see text] was presented. The result of this work is also a new method of determining the half-life of elimination phase based on the MET value.

  1. Effect of body mass index on functional outcome in primary total knee arthroplasty - a single institution analysis of 2180 primary total knee replacements

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Shane C; Butler, Joseph S; Daly, Adam; Lui, Darren F; Kenny, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on short-term functional outcome and complications in primary total knee arthroplasty. METHODS All patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty at a single institution between 2007 and 2013 were identified from a prospective arthroplasty database. 2180 patients were included in the study. Age, gender, BMI, pre- and post-operative functional scores [Western Ontario and McMaster University Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and SF-36], complications and revision rate were recorded. Patients were grouped according to the WHO BMI classification. The functional outcome of the normal weight cohort (BMI < 25) was compared to the overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25) cohort. A separate sub-group analysis was performed comparing all five WHO BMI groups; Normal weight, overweight, class 1 obese, class 2 obese and class 3 obese. RESULTS With a mean age of 67.89 (28-92), 2180 primary total knee replacements were included. 64.36% (1403) were female. The mean BMI was 31.86 (18-52). Ninty-three percent of patients were either overweight or obese. Mean follow-up 19.33 mo (6-60 mo). There was no significant difference in pre or post-operative WOMAC score in the normal weight (BMI < 25) cohort compared to patients with a BMI ≥ 25 (P > 0.05). Sub-group analysis revealed significantly worse WOMAC scores in class 2 obese 30.80 compared to overweight 25.80 (P < 0.01) and class 1 obese 25.50 (P < 0.01). Similarly, there were significantly worse SF-36 scores in class 2 obese 58.16 compared to overweight 63.93 (P < 0.01) and class 1 obese 63.65 (P < 0.01) There were 32 (1.47%) superficial infections, 9 (0.41%) deep infections and 19 (0.87%) revisions overall with no complications or revisions in the normal weight cohort (BMI < 25). CONCLUSION Post-operative functional outcome was not influenced by BMI comparing normal weight individuals with BMI > 25. Patients should not be denied total knee arthroplasty based solely on weight alone.

  2. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2014-02-01

    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns.

  3. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian-Hua; Langley, Sasha A; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E; Celniker, Susan E; Brown, James B; Jansson, Janet K; Karpen, Gary H; Snijders, Antoine M

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. Lastly, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.

  4. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    DOE PAGES

    Mao, Jian -Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Karpen, Gary H.; Snijders, Antoine M.

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However,more » 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. As a result, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.« less

  5. Identification of genetic factors that modify motor performance and body weight using Collaborative Cross mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jian -Hua; Langley, Sasha A.; Huang, Yurong; Hang, Michael; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Jansson, Janet K.; Karpen, Gary H.; Snijders, Antoine M.

    2015-11-09

    Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. As a result, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.

  6. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Followed by Allogeneic Lymphocyte Infusion for Refractory Hematologic Malignancy—an Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    BALLEN, KAREN K.; COLVIN, GERALD; PORTER, DAVID; QUESENBERRY, PETER J.

    2007-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is curative for certain cancers, but the high doses of chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens may lead to severe toxicity. In our initial study, we treated 25 patients with refractory cancers with 100 cGy total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic, non mobilized peripheral blood cells. Eighteen patients received sibling and 7 patients received unrelated cord blood stem cells. None of the 13 patients with solid tumors achieved donor chimerism or had a sustained response. Twelve patients with hematologic malignancies were treated, 1 received a cord blood transplant and 11 received sibling donor cells. Nine of these 11 patients achieved donor chimerism, ranging from 5% to 100%. Four patients had sustained complete remission of their cancers, and 2 are long-term survivors. The development of chimerism correlated with total previous myelotoxic chemotherapy (p < 0.001). This technique is now being extended into the haploidentical setting. PMID:15291347

  7. Total Life Cycle-Based Materials Selection for Polymer Metal Hybrid Body-in-White Automotive Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Sellappan, V.; He, T.; Seyr, Norbert; Obieglo, Andreas; Erdmann, Marc; Holzleitner, Jochen

    2009-03-01

    Over the last dozen of years, polymer metal hybrid (PMH) technologies have established themselves as viable alternatives for use in light-weight automotive body-in-white bolt-on as well as load-bearing (structural) components. Within the PMH technologies, sheet-metal stamped/formed and thermoplastic injection molding subcomponents are integrated into a singular component/module. Due to attending synergetic effects, the performance of the PMH component typically exceeds that attainable by an alternative single-material technologies. In the present work, a total life cycle (TLC) approach to the selection of metallic and thermoplastic materials (as well as the selection of structural adhesives, where appropriate) is considered. The TLC material selection approach considers the consequences and ramifications of material selection at each major stage of the vehicle manufacturing process chain (press shop, injection molding shop, body shop, paint shop, and assembly), as well as relation to the vehicle performance, durability and the end-of-the-life-of-the-vehicle considerations. The approach is next applied to the case of injection overmolding technology to identify the optimal grade of short glass-fiber reinforced nylon when used in a prototypical PMH load-bearing automotive body-in-white component.

  8. Air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and total body water to evaluate body composition in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Crook, Tina A; Armbya, Narain; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M; Andres, Aline

    2012-12-01

    Anthropometrics and body mass index are only proxies in the evaluation of adiposity in the pediatric population. Air displacement plethysmography technology was not available for children aged 6 months to 9 years until recently. Our study was designed to test the precision of air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in measuring body fat mass in children at ages 3 to 5 years compared with a criterion method, deuterium oxide dilution (D(2)O), which estimates total body water and a commonly used methodology, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A prospective, cross-sectional cohort of 66 healthy children (35 girls) was recruited in the central Arkansas region between 2007 and 2009. Weight and height were obtained using standardized procedures. Fat mass (%) was measured using ADP, DXA, and D(2)O. Concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to investigate the precision of the ADP techniques against D(2)O and DXA in children at ages 3 to 5 years. ADP concordance correlation coefficient for fat mass was weak (0.179) when compared with D(2)O. Bland-Altman plots revealed a low accuracy and large scatter of ADP fat mass (%) results (mean=-2.5, 95% CI -20.3 to 15.4) compared with D(2)O. DXA fat mass (%) results were more consistent although DXA systematically overestimated fat mass by 4% to 5% compared with D(2)O. Compared with D(2)O, ADP does not accurately assess percent fat mass in children aged 3 to 5 years. Thus, D(2)O, DXA, or quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance may be considered better options for assessing fat mass in young children.

  9. Inhibition of Heinz body induction in an in vitro model and total antioxidant activity of medicinal Thai plants.

    PubMed

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Soogarun, Suphan; Lertlum, Tamaporn; Pradniwat, Paweena; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2005-01-01

    Herbs have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries and known to possess antioxidant properties that may help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We screen aqueous extracts from 20 medicinal plants in Thailand that were believed to possess anti-tumor activity, help immune-stimulating property and maintain blood stasis. The antioxidant activities were investigated in two bioassays. Firstly, we demonstrated inhibition of Heinz bodies induction caused by oxidants under in vitro condition. The percentages of Heinz body inhibition activity in plant extracts from Terminalia citrina, Cassia timoriensis, and Derris elliptica were the highest followed by Anamirta cocculus, and Oroxylum indicum respectively. In addition, we investigated total antioxidant activity in plant extracts by improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. The total antioxidant activity of the extract from Terminalia citrina was also the highest activity followed by Ficus pubigera, Derris elliptica, Anamirta cocculus, Caesalpinia sappan, and Oroxylum indicum respectively. Our results suggest medicinal Thai plants as valuable sources of antioxidants, which may have a potential anti-carcinogenic activity. PMID:16435991

  10. Low in vitro third-body wear on total hip prostheses induced by calcium sulphate used for local antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, R; Wahl, P; Krieg, J; Gautier, E

    2014-01-01

    In case of implant associated infection, implant preservation is associated with high failure rates. Therefore, a removal or exchange of the implant is most often mandatory for treatment success. Alternatively, under certain conditions, local antibiotic delivery can be applied - preserving the implant, using for example calcium sulphate as a resorbable carrier. In this work, third-body wear on total hip prostheses caused by calcium sulphate particles was tested in a hip simulator. Inlays made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) against 28 mm CoCrMo heads and 36 mm alumina pairings were tested in triplicate, both with and without calcium sulphate particles in the test liquid. Neither the alumina articulations nor the CoCrMo heads were affected by the calcium sulphate particles since calcium sulphate is a relatively soft material. The polyethylene inlays showed 39-89 % higher wear during exposure compared to references, but wear returned to normal when no more particles were added. Thus, calcium sulphate might be used as antibiotic carrier even in the presence of total hip prostheses without fearing excessive third-body wear. PMID:25340804

  11. Recovery of immune functions in dogs after total body irradiation and transplantation of autologous blood or bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pruemmer, O.R.; Raghavachar, A.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1985-10-01

    The restoration of immune functions was followed in dogs for 101 days after fractionated total body irradiation and autologous transfusion of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) or bone marrow (BM) cells. Median numbers of 0.9 X 10(5) granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells per kilogram of body weight were transferred in either group of recipients. The following parameters recovered more rapidly in PBL recipients as opposed to BM recipients: total blood lymphocyte, T- and B-cell counts, serum levels of immunoglobulins IgM and IgA, in vitro blastogenic responses after stimulation with concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen, and in vitro plasma cell formation after polyclonal B-cell activation with pokeweed mitogen with or without lipopolysaccharide. No major differences were noted for the restoration of serum IgG levels. Circulating lymphocyte and T-cell numbers remained subnormal for more than three months in both groups, whereas B-cell numbers and serum levels of IgA continued to be depressed in BM recipients only. Thus, autologous PBL restored immune functions more rapidly than did BM. Transplantation of PBL, alone or in addition to autologous BM, might also shorten the period of immunodeficiency after cytoreduction in a variety of malignancies in man.

  12. Early micro-rheological consequences of single fraction total body low-dose photon irradiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Szluha, Kornelia; Lazanyi, Kornelia; Furka, Andrea; Kiss, Ferenc; Szabo, Imre; Pintye, Eva; Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Despite of the studies on widespread biological effects of irradiation, surprisingly only little number of papers can be found dealing with its in vivo hemorheological impact. Furthermore, other studies suggested that low-dose irradiation might differ from high-dose in more than linear ways. On Balb/c Jackson female adult mice hematological and hemorheological impacts of total body irradiation were investigated 1 hour following 0.002, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 Gy dose irradiation. In case of 0.01 Gy further groups were analyzed 30 minutes, 2, 4, 6, 24 and 48 h after irradiation. According to the results, it seems that the dose-dependent changes of blood micro-rheological parameters are not linear. The irradiation dose of 0.01 Gy acted as a point of 'inflexion', because by this dose we found the most expressed changes in hematological parameters, as well as in red blood cell aggregation, deformability and osmoscan data. The time-dependent changes showed progressive decrease in pH, rise in lactate concentration, further decrease in erythrocyte aggregation index and deformability, with moderate shifting of the optimal osmolarity point and modulation in membrane stability. As conclusion, low-dose total body irradiation may cause micro-rheological changes, being non-linearly correlated with the irradiation dose.

  13. Pretransplant pulmonary function tests predict risk of mortality following fractionated total body irradiation and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anurag K. . E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov; Karimpour, Shervin E.; Savani, Bipin N.; Guion, Peter M.S.; Hope, Andrew J.; Mansueti, John R.; Ning, Holly; Altemus, Rosemary M. Ph.D.; Wu, Colin O.; Barrett, A. John

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) done before peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in predicting mortality after total body irradiation (TBI) performed with or without dose reduction to the lung. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2004, 146 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies received fractionated TBI before PBSCT. With regimen A (n = 85), patients were treated without lung dose reduction to 13.6 gray (Gy). In regimen B (n = 35), total body dose was decreased to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice per day for 4 days) and lung dose was limited to 9 Gy by use of lung shielding. In regimen C (n = 26), lung dose was reduced to 6 Gy. All patients received PFTs before treatment, 90 days after treatment, and annually. Results: Median follow-up was 44 months (range, 12-90 months). Sixty-one patients had combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits defined as both a forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV{sub 1}) and a diffusion capacity of carbon dioxide (DLCO) <100% predicted. In this group, there was a 20% improvement in one-year overall survival with lung dose reduction (70 vs. 50%, log-rank test p = 0.042). Conclusion: Among those with combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits, lung dose reduction during TBI significantly improved survival.

  14. Percutaneous CT-Guided Biopsy of C3 Vertebral Body: Modified Approach for an Old Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei; Chan, Stephen Yung-Wei

    2013-06-15

    Percutaneous biopsy of upper cervical vertebrae is challenging due to the various critical structures in the location and often requires difficult trajectory such as transoral or paramaxillary approaches. The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the utility of head rotation in creating a potential space for direct percutaneous access to C3 vertebral body for safe biopsy.

  15. Age modifies effect of body size on fecundity in Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecundity of mosquitoes can vary with many factors, and can have a strong effect on population growth. This study reports the effects of body size, blood meal size and age on reproductive output of nulliparous Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of arboviruses and other pathogens. Mated adult female m...

  16. Urinary thymidine dimer as a marker of total body burden of UV-inflicted DNA damage in humans.

    PubMed

    Kotova, Natalia; Hemminki, Kari; Segerbäck, Dan

    2005-12-01

    High levels of DNA damage are induced in human skin following exposure to UV radiation. Cyclobutane thymidine dimer (T = T) is the most common of these lesions, which are enzymatically removed as oligonucleotides from DNA and further degraded before excretion in urine. Analysis of such repair products in the urine could serve as a biomarker of total body burden of UV exposure. The aim of this study was to examine the kinetics of T = T excretion following a single tanning session in a commercial solarium and to validate the method by delivering different doses. Ten individuals used the solarium for a total of 35 sessions of body tanning. Urine was collected before UV exposure and daily thereafter (up to 5 or 11 days) and T = T was analyzed using a very sensitive and quantitative (32)P-postlabeling technique combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Following exposure, T = T levels increased dramatically and reached a peak 3 days later; afterwards, the T = T levels gradually decreased. The total amount of T = T excreted differed about 5-fold among subjects given an equal dose. A 50% excretion time was calculated using the excretion data for the first 5 days and it was found to be between 55 and 76 hours for different individuals. There was a good correlation between the amount of T = T excreted during days 1 to 5 and the delivered UV dose. Reducing exposure time to 50% lowered the amount of T = T to 47%; if half of the lamps were covered, T = T decreased to 44%. Our data show that urinary T = T could be a suitable noninvasive biomarker for UV exposure; a finding which could also be applicable to studies in children.

  17. Long-Term Outcome After Static Intensity-Modulated Total Body Radiotherapy Using Compensators Stratified by Pediatric and Adult Cohorts

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Ralf A. Schultze, Juergen; Jensen, J. Martin; Hebbinghaus, Dieter; Galalae, Razvan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcome after total body irradiation with intensity-modulating compensators and allogeneic/autologous transplantation, especially in terms of therapy-related toxicity in pediatric and adult cohorts. Methods and Materials: A total of 257 consecutive patients (40 children and 217 adults) have been treated since 1983 with TBI using static intensity-modulated radiotherapy for hematologic malignancies. The total dose of 12 Gy was applied in six fractions within 3 days before allogeneic (n = 174) or autologous (n = 83) transplantation. The median follow-up was 9.2 years. Results: The 5-year overall survival rate was 47.9% (49.8% for the adults and 37.5% for the children, p = 0.171). The 5-year tumor-related mortality rate was 23%, and the 5-year treatment-related mortality rate 29.2% (29.5% in the adults and 27.5% in the pediatric patients). Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 28 (10.9%) of 257 patients and in 12.5% of the pediatric cohort. The interstitial pneumonitis rate was 25% in pediatric patients treated with a 12-Gy lung dose compared with 4.2% for those treated to an 11-Gy lung dose. The overall survival rate stratified by lung dose was 26.7% for 12 Gy and 52.4% for 11 Gy (p = 0.001). The incidence of veno-occlusive disease and cataract was 5.8% and 6.6% in all patients and 12.5% and 15% in the pediatric patients, respectively (p < 0.05). Secondary malignancies were found in 4.3% of all patients, all in the adult cohort at transplantation. Conclusion: Static intensity-modulated total body irradiation with a total dose of 12 Gy before allogeneic/autologous transplantation is a successful treatment with good long-term outcome and acceptable therapy-related toxicities. Constraining the lung dose to 11 Gy substantially lowered the actuarial treatment-related mortality. This effect was especially striking in the pediatric patients.

  18. Flushing time as a descriptor for heavily modified water bodies classification and management: application to the Huelva Harbour.

    PubMed

    Sámano, María Luisa; Bárcena, Javier F; García, Andrés; Gómez, Aina G; Álvarez, César; Revilla, José Antonio

    2012-09-30

    Since the flushing time is a physical descriptor used to distinguish between different types of heavily modified water bodies (HMWB), the establishment of a methodology for its calculation becomes important. In order to achieve this task, a methodological procedure involving the tide mean value and variable river flow values is proposed. The hydrodynamics were assessed using a two-dimensional model which integrates the depth-averaged mass and momentum equations in the time and space domains and includes a wet-dry point treatment method. The hydrodynamic model calibration and validation were performed on the basis of tidal gauge and velocity current measurements. A reasonable agreement with the field measurements of water elevation and velocity were achieved. On the other hand, a two-dimensional mathematical model, which solves the depth-averaged advection-diffusion equation, was properly calibrated and used to evaluate the behaviour of a conservative tracer within a water body. The transport model calibration was developed according to the field survey data carried out during late spring when the rivers flows are low. This study allowed the flushing time estimation under four scenarios showing that only the estuarine mouth presents a high renewal rate because the current velocities are higher. For heavy rain periods, a flushing time decrease was observed as river flows modify the circulation in the main channel. Neglecting the river forcing was found to be valid for the dry period.

  19. Late Effects of Total-Body Gamma Irradiation on Cardiac Structure and Function in Male Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    DeBo, Ryne J; Lees, Cynthia J; Dugan, Greg O; Caudell, David L; Michalson, Kris T; Hanbury, David B; Kavanagh, Kylie; Cline, J Mark; Register, Thomas C

    2016-07-01

    Heart disease is an increasingly recognized, serious late effect of radiation exposure, most notably among breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease survivors, as well as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the late effects of total-body irradiation (TBI) on cardiac morphology, function and selected circulating biomarkers in a well-established nonhuman primate model. For this study we used male rhesus macaques that were exposed to a single total-body dose of ionizing gamma radiation (6.5-8.4 Gy) 5.6-9.7 years earlier at ages ranging from ∼3-10 years old and a cohort of nonirradiated controls. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed annually for 3 years on 20 irradiated and 11 control animals. Myocardium was examined grossly and histologically, and myocardial fibrosis/collagen was assessed microscopically and by morphometric analysis of Masson's trichrome-stained sections. Serum/plasma from 27 irradiated and 13 control animals was evaluated for circulating biomarkers of cardiac damage [N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic protein (nt-proBNP) and troponin-I], inflammation (CRP, IL-6, MCP-1, sICAM) and microbial translocation [LPS-binding protein (LBP) and sCD14]. A higher prevalence of histological myocardial fibrosis was observed in the hearts obtained from the irradiated animals (9/14) relative to controls (0/3) (P = 0.04, χ(2)). Echocardiographically determined left ventricular end diastolic and systolic diameters were significantly smaller in irradiated animals (repeated measures ANOVA, P < 0.001 and P < 0.008, respectively). Histomorphometric analysis of trichrome-stained sections of heart tissue demonstrated ∼14.9 ± 1.4% (mean ± SEM) of myocardial area staining for collagen in irradiated animals compared to 9.1 ± 0.9 % in control animals. Circulating levels of MCP-1 and LBP were significantly higher in irradiated animals (P < 0.05). A high incidence of diabetes in the irradiated animals was associated

  20. Successful second autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation conditioned with total body irradiation for progressive neuroblastoma after recurrence.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Yokomori, Kinji; Hosoya, Ryohta

    2006-12-01

    A girl with recurrent neuroblastoma was successfully treated with second autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI). This patient was diagnosed as stage IV neuroblastoma at the age of 18 months. Pathological finding was stroma-poor unfavorable histology and amplification of MYCN gene was extremely high (153 copies). In spite of autologous SCT with non-TBI regimen in the status of disease-free, neuroblastoma relapsed at the primary site 6 months later. Second autologous SCT conditioned with TBI and melphalan was performed although the tumor was progressive. Over 3 years after second SCT, she has been well with no evidence of further recurrence of neuroblastoma, but she was complicated with permanent atrophy of left kidney. TBI might be effective for relapsed neuroblastoma who previously received SCT with non-TBI regimen.

  1. High-dose total body irradiation and myeloablative conditioning before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: time to rethink?

    PubMed

    Mohty, Mohamad; Malard, Florent; Savani, Bipin N

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, the care of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has significantly improved, leading to a decrease in deaths related to allo-HCT as well as improved long-term survival. However, for many patients, long-term survivorship is associated with a substantial burden of chronic morbidities. Indeed, malignant and nonmalignant late complications after allo-HCT are numerous and usually multifactorial, with all organs and tissues a potential target. In many cases, these long-term side effects are associated with the use of high-dose total body irradiation, myeloablative conditioning regimens, and the onset of chronic graft-versus-host disease. It appears to be essential to change the natural history of these late effects. This requires the introduction of improved conditioning regimens and the development of lifelong monitoring controls, patient counseling, and preventative treatment measures. This approach will allow us to pursue our efforts to improve patient outcome.

  2. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  3. Total body-surface area as a new prognostic variable in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Silvana; García-Muret, Pilar; Mozos, Anna; Sierra, Jorge; Briones, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) are the most common forms of primary cutaneous T cell lymphomas. We analyzed the applicability of the cutaneous lymphoma international prognostic index (CLIPi) in MF/SS. We introduced the total body-surface area affected (TBSA) and the type of skin lesions at diagnosis as prognostic variables. The overall survival (OS) at median time of follow up (96 months) was 75.6% (CI 95%, 62.0-98.5%). In the univariate analysis, age>60 years, advanced disease, type of skin lesions and TBSA>50 showed poorer OS (p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis there was a significant increased relative risk of death in those patients>60 years, with advanced disease and TBSA>50% (p<0.05). TBSA identified a group of poor prognosis patients with advanced MF/SS that may benefit from novel systemic therapies.

  4. Biogeographic Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Total Body Adiposity among African-American Females: The Boston Area Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Goonesekera, Sunali D.; Fang, Shona C.; Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Florez, Jose C.; McKinlay, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately higher among African-Americans and Hispanics as compared to whites. We investigated the role of biogeographic ancestry (BGA) on adiposity and changes in adiposity in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Methods We evaluated associations between BGA, assessed via Ancestry Informative Markers, and adiposity (body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and changes in adiposity over 7 years for BMI and WHR and 2.5 years for PBF, per 10% greater proportion of BGA using multivariable linear regression. We also examined effect-modification by demographic and socio-behavioral variables. Results We observed positive associations between West-African ancestry and cross-sectional BMI (percent difference=0.62%; 95% CI: 0.04%, 1.20%), and PBF (β=0.35; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.58). We also observed significant effect-modification of the association between West-African ancestry and BMI by gender (p-interaction: <0.002) with a substantially greater association in women. We observed no main associations between Native-American ancestry and adiposity but observed significant effect-modification of the association with BMI by diet (p-interaction: <0.003) with inverse associations among participants with higher Healthy Eating Scores. No associations were observed between BGA and changes in adiposity over time. Conclusion Findings support that West-African ancestry may contribute to high prevalence of total body adiposity among African-Americans, particularly African-American women. PMID:25875902

  5. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Shuman, Anne L.; Diener, Antonia K.; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-04-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for loss of white blood cells (WBCs), which are the body's main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved WBC loss, specifically neutrophils, in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated, irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well as internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses.

  6. Potassium per kilogram fat-free mass and total body potassium: predictions from sex, age, and anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ingrid; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Peltonen, Markku; Sjöström, Lars

    2003-02-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) is located mainly intracellularly and constitutes an index of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim was to examine whether TBK and the TBK-to-FFM ratio (TBK/FFM) can be estimated from sex, age, weight, and height. A primary study group (164 males, 205 females) and a validation group (161 and 206), aged 37-61 yr, were randomly selected from the general population. TBK was determined by whole body counting, and FFM was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; FFM(DEXA)). The primary study group was used to construct sex-specific equations predicting TBK and TBK/FFM from age, weight, and height. The equations were used to estimate TBK and TBK/FFM in the validation group. The estimates were compared with measured values. TBK in different age ranges was predicted, with errors ranging from 5.0 to 6.8%; errors for TBK/FFM ranged from 2.7 to 4.8%, respectively. By adding FFM(DEXA) as a fourth predictor, the error of the TBK prediction decreased by approximately two percentage units. In conclusion, TBK and TBK/FFM can be meaningfully estimated from sex, age, weight, and height.

  7. Bio-Templated Growth of Bone Minerals from Modified Simulated Body Fluid on Nanofibrous Decellularized Natural Tissues.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingying; Wang, Jie; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-04-01

    Small intestine submucosal (SIS) membrane used in this study is a decellularized, naturally occurring nanofibrous scaffold derived from a submucosal layer of porcine small intestine. It is predominantly composed of type I collagen fibers. Here we studied the bio-templated growth of hydroxylapatite (HAP) bone minerals on the SIS membrane from a modified simulated body fluid (1.5 SBF) at the body temperature, namely, under a near-physiological condition, in order to evaluate its bone bioactivity, the capability of the membrane in bonding with bone tissue once implanted in vivo. Minute HAP crystals were successfully nucleated on the SIS membranes from 1.5 SBF at the body temperature. The crystals were preferentially nucleated along the collagen fibers constituting the SIS membranes. HAP was the major crystalline mineral phase formed during the whole period of time and a minor crystalline phase of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) appeared after the membranes were incubated for 96 h. We also found that the mineralization for 8 h most significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by evaluating the formation of osteogenic markers in MSCs including alkaline phosphatase (early stage marker) as well as osteocalcin and osteopontin (late stage markers). Hence, SIS membranes show excellent bone bioactivity and once mineralized, can significantly promote the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. PMID:27301201

  8. Comparison of bio-impedance spectroscopy and multi-frequency bio-impedance analysis for the assessment of extracellular and total body water in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hannan, W J; Cowen, S J; Plester, C E; Fearon, K C; deBeau, A

    1995-12-01

    1. Measurements of extracellular and total body water provide useful information on the nutritional status of surgical patients and may be estimated from whole-body bio-impedance measurements at different frequencies. 2. Resistance and reactance were measured at 50 frequencies from 5kHz to 1MHz in 29 surgical patients (17 males, 12 females) with a wide range of extracellular to total body water ratios. 3. A fit to the spectrum of reactance versus resistance data gave predicted resistances at frequencies zero and infinity. Values of extracellular and total body water determined by this bio-impedance spectroscopy technique were regressed against values obtained from radioisotope dilution. The standard errors of the estimate were 1.8931 and 3.2591 respectively. 4. Resistance indices (height2/resistance) at selected frequencies gave the highest correlations with extracellular and total body water at 5kHz and 200kHz respectively, and prediction equations derived from multiple stepwise regressions also showed these to be the optimum frequencies. The standard errors of the estimate for this multi-frequency bio-impedance analysis method were 1.9371 and 2.6061 for extracellular and total body water respectively. 5. To assess the ability of the two methods to measure changes in extracellular and total body water, reproducibility was assessed from repeat measurements 10 min apart in a subgroup of 15 patients. Bio-impedance spectroscopy gave mean coefficients of variation for extracellular and total body water of 0.9% and 3.0% respectively. For multi-frequency bio-impedance analysis the corresponding coefficients of variation were 0.9% and 0.6%. 6. It is concluded that a simple impedance analyser operating at only two frequencies compares favourably with the more complex spectroscopy technique for the determination of extracellular and total body water in surgical patients. PMID:8549085

  9. Relationship of total body fat mass to weight-bearing bone volumetric density, geometry, and strength in young girls

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8–13 years from the “Jump-In: Building Better Bones” study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2–2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (p < 0.001) to all bone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (p < 0.001) greater in the lowest compared to the middle and highest tertiles of TBFM. Although TBFM is correlated with femur and tibia vBMD, periosteal

  10. Radiation Transport Around Axisymmetric Blunt Body Vehicles Using a Modified Differential Approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartung, Lin C.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    A moment method for computing 3-D radiative transport is applied to axisymmetric flows in thermochemical nonequilibrium. Such flows are representative of proposed aerobrake missions. The method uses the P-1 approximation to reduce the governing system of integro-di erential equations to a coupled set of partial di erential equations. A numerical solution method for these equations given actual variations of the radiation properties in thermochemical nonequilibrium blunt body flows is developed. Initial results from the method are shown and compared to tangent slab calculations. The agreement between the transport methods is found to be about 10 percent in the stagnation region, with the difference increasing along the flank of the vehicle.

  11. The whole body cryostimulation modifies irisin concentration and reduces inflammation in middle aged, obese men.

    PubMed

    Dulian, Katarzyna; Laskowski, Radosław; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kujach, Sylwester; Flis, Damian J; Smaruj, Mirosław; Ziemann, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect induced by exposure to low temperature might trigger the endocrine function of muscle and fat tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the whole body cryostimulation (CRY) on irisin, a myokine which activates oxygen consumption in fat cells as well as thermogenesis. In addition, the relationship between hepcidin (Hpc) - hormone regulating iron metabolism, and inflammation was studied. A group of middle aged men (n = 12, 38 ± 9 years old, BMI > 30 kg m(-2)) participated in the study. Subjects were exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (once a day at 9:30 am, for 3 min, at temperature -110 °C). Blood samples were collected before the first cryostimulation and after completing the last one. Prior to treatment body composition and fitness level were determined. The applied protocol of cryostimulation lead to rise the blood irisin in obese non-active men (338.8 ± 42.2 vs 407.6 ± 118.5 ng mL(-1)), whereas has no effect in obese active men (371.5 ± 30.0 vs 343.3 ± 47.6 ng mL(-1)). Values recorded 24 h after the last cryo-session correlated significantly with the fat tissue, yet inversely with the skeletal muscle mass. Therefore, we concluded the subcutaneous fat tissue to be the main source of irisin in response to cold exposures. The applied cold treatment reduced the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Hpc concentration confirming its anti-inflammatory effect.

  12. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Xu, Weiheng; Qi, Yang; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-08-12

    Hong Shan Capsule (HSC), a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI). Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes) of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage.

  13. Is the Target of 1 Day of Stay per 1% Total Body Surface Area Burned Achieved in Chemical Burns?

    PubMed

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y

    2016-02-01

    The length of hospital stay (LOS) is a standard parameter used to reflect quality and evaluate outcomes in acute burn care. This study aims to assess whether the target of 1 day of stay per 1% total body surface area (TBSA) burned was achieved in acute chemical burns management and factors affecting the LOS. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients who suffered from chemical burn injuries admitted to a university burn center over a continuous 14-year period was performed.A total of 118 patients were admitted over the period for chemical burns. Only 14% of cases achieved the target stated. Factors associated with lengthening of the hospital stay included TBSA, ocular involvement, the cause of injury, and the need for surgery during the same admission.The LOS in chemical burns frequently exceeds 1 day of stay per 1% TBSA burned. Many factors can contribute to a patient's LOS and are worth exploring in order to see if the impact of these factors could be minimized. Early surgical intervention should help to reduce the LOS if reliable methods of burn wound depth assessment are available.

  14. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Xu, Weiheng; Qi, Yang; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Hong Shan Capsule (HSC), a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI). Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes) of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage. PMID:26274957

  15. Exogenous melatonin administration modifies cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to whole body skin cooling in humans.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ken; Zhao, Kun; Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko; Alvarez, Guy E; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Johnson, John M

    2008-03-01

    Humans and other diurnal species experience a fall in internal temperature (T(int)) at night, accompanied by increased melatonin and altered thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow (SkBF). Also, exogenous melatonin induces a fall in T(int), an increase in distal skin temperatures and altered control of the cutaneous active vasodilator system, suggesting an effect of melatonin on the control of SkBF. To test whether exogenous melatonin also affects the more tonically active vasoconstrictor system in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during cooling, healthy males (n = 9) underwent afternoon sessions of whole body skin temperature (T(sk)) cooling (water-perfused suits) after oral melatonin (Mel; 3 mg) or placebo (Cont). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated from SkBF (laser Doppler flowmetry) and non-invasive blood pressure. Baseline T(int) was lower in Mel than in Cont (P < 0.01). During progressive reduction of T(sk) from 35 degrees C to 32 degrees C, forearm CVC was first significantly reduced at T(sk) of 34.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C (P < 0.05) in Cont. In contrast, CVC in Mel was not significantly reduced until T(sk) reached 33.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C (P < 0.01). The decrease in forearm CVC in Mel was significantly less than in Cont at T(sk) of 32.66 +/- 0.01 degrees C and lower (P < 0.05). In Mel, palmar CVC was significantly higher than in Cont above T(sk) of 33.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C, but not below. Thus exogenous melatonin blunts reflex vasoconstriction in nonglabrous skin and shifts vasoconstrictor system control to lower T(int). It provokes vasodilation in glabrous skin but does not suppress the sensitivity to falling T(sk). These findings suggest that by affecting the vasoconstrictor system, melatonin has a causal role in the nocturnal changes in body temperature and its control.

  16. When the body hides the ancestry: phylogeny of morphologically modified epizoic earwigs based on molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Kocarek, Petr; John, Vaclav; Hulva, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a study regarding the phylogenetic positions of two enigmatic earwig lineages whose unique phenotypic traits evolved in connection with ectoparasitic relationships with mammals. Extant earwigs (Dermaptera) have traditionally been divided into three suborders: the Hemimerina, Arixeniina, and Forficulina. While the Forficulina are typical, well-known, free-living earwigs, the Hemimerina and Arixeniina are unusual epizoic groups living on molossid bats (Arixeniina) or murid rodents (Hemimerina). The monophyly of both epizoic lineages is well established, but their relationship to the remainder of the Dermaptera is controversial because of their extremely modified morphology with paedomorphic features. We present phylogenetic analyses that include molecular data (18S and 28S ribosomal DNA and histone-3) for both Arixeniina and Hemimerina for the first time. This data set enabled us to apply a rigorous cladistics approach and to test competing hypotheses that were previously scattered in the literature. Our results demonstrate that Arixeniidae and Hemimeridae belong in the dermapteran suborder Neodermaptera, infraorder Epidermaptera, and superfamily Forficuloidea. The results support the sister group relationships of Arixeniidae+Chelisochidae and Hemimeridae+Forficulidae. This study demonstrates the potential for rapid and substantial macroevolutionary changes at the morphological level as related to adaptive evolution, in this case linked to the utilization of a novel trophic niche based on an epizoic life strategy. Our results also indicate that the evolutionary consequences of the transition to an ectoparazitic mode of living, which is extremely rare in earwigs, have biased previous morphology-based hypotheses regarding the phylogeny of this insect group. PMID:23826171

  17. How many-body effects modify the van der Waals interaction between graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, John; Gould, Tim; Vignale, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Cold undoped graphene sheets were previously predicted, via Random Phase approximation (RPA) arguments, to exhibit an unusual asymptotic van der Waals (vdW) interaction energy E = - KD-3 where D is the (large) separation between the two parallel graphene sheets. This is compared with D - 5 / 2 for 2D metals and D-4 for 2D insulators. Here we show that graphene is the first known system where effects beyond the RPA should make QUALITATIVE changes to the vdW force. For large separations, D > 10 nm where only πz-mediated vdW forces remain, we predict that the vdW interaction is substantially reduced from the RPA prediction, and has a different power law. This new D dependence is very sensitive to the form of the long-wavelength many-body renormalization of the velocity of the massless Dirac fermions, and may provide independent confirmation of the latter. We will briefly discuss issues involved in possible experiments. Work supported by the Australian Research Council, NSF and DIPC.

  18. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 9 (Simian Varicella Virus) Infection after Total-Body Irradiation in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Chappell, Mark G; Christensen, Christine L; Facemire, Paul; Singh, Vijay K; Ossetrova, Natalia I; Srinivasan, Venkataraman; Holt, Rebecca K

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta; male; age, 5 y; weight, 6.7 kg) with anorexia, dehydration, lethargy, ataxia, and generalized skin rashes that occurred 30 d after total-body irradiation at 6.5 Gy (60Co γ-rays). Physical examination revealed pale mucus membranes, a capillary refill time of 4 s, heart rate of 180 bpm. and respirations at 50 breaths per minute. Diffuse multifocal maculopapulovesicular rashes were present on the body, including mucocutaneous junctions. The CBC analysis revealed a Hct of 48%, RBC count of 6.2 × 106/µL, platelet count of 44 × 103/µL, and WBC count of 25 × 103/µL of WBC. The macaque was euthanized in light of a grave prognosis. Gross examination revealed white foci on the liver, multifocal generalized petechiation on serosal and mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and hemorrhagic fluid in the thoracic cavity. Microscopic examination revealed cutaneous vesicular lesions with intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions within the epithelial cells, consistent with herpesvirus. Immunohistochemistry was positive for herpesvirus. The serum sample was negative for antibodies against Macacine herpesvirus 1 and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9 (simian varicella virus, SVV). Samples submitted for PCR-based identification of the etiologic agent confirmed the presence of SVV DNA. PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry, and histology confirmed that lesions were attributed to an active SVV infection in this macaque. This case illustrates the importance of screening for SVV in rhesus macaques, especially those used in studies that involve immunosuppressive procedures. PMID:27053570

  19. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 9 (Simian Varicella Virus) Infection after Total-Body Irradiation in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gulani, Jatinder; Koch, Amory; Chappell, Mark G; Christensen, Christine L; Facemire, Paul; Singh, Vijay K; Ossetrova, Natalia I; Srinivasan, Venkataraman; Holt, Rebecca K

    2016-04-01

    This case report describes a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta; male; age, 5 y; weight, 6.7 kg) with anorexia, dehydration, lethargy, ataxia, and generalized skin rashes that occurred 30 d after total-body irradiation at 6.5 Gy ((60)Co γ-rays). Physical examination revealed pale mucus membranes, a capillary refill time of 4 s, heart rate of 180 bpm. and respirations at 50 breaths per minute. Diffuse multifocal maculopapulovesicular rashes were present on the body, including mucocutaneous junctions. The CBC analysis revealed a Hct of 48%, RBC count of 6.2 × 10(6)/μL, platelet count of 44 × 10(3)/μL, and WBC count of 25 × 10(3)/μL of WBC. The macaque was euthanized in light of a grave prognosis. Gross examination revealed white foci on the liver, multifocal generalized petechiation on serosal and mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and hemorrhagic fluid in the thoracic cavity. Microscopic examination revealed cutaneous vesicular lesions with intranuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions within the epithelial cells, consistent with herpesvirus. Immunohistochemistry was positive for herpesvirus. The serum sample was negative for antibodies against Macacine herpesvirus 1 and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 9 (simian varicella virus, SVV). Samples submitted for PCR-based identification of the etiologic agent confirmed the presence of SVV DNA. PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry, and histology confirmed that lesions were attributed to an active SVV infection in this macaque. This case illustrates the importance of screening for SVV in rhesus macaques, especially those used in studies that involve immunosuppressive procedures.

  20. Dosimetric Study and Verification of Total Body Irradiation Using Helical Tomotherapy and its Comparison to Extended SSD Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Audrey H.; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2010-01-01

    The American College of Radiology practice guideline for total body irradiation (TBI) requires a back-up treatment delivery system. This study investigates the development of helical tomotherapy (HT) for delivering TBI and compares it with conventional extended source-to-surface distance (X-SSD) technique. Four patients' head-to-thigh computed tomographic images were used in this study, with the target defined as the body volume without the left and right lungs. HT treatment plans with the standard TBI prescription (1.2 Gy/fx, 10 fractions) were generated and verified on phantoms. To compare HT plans with X-SSD treatment, the dose distribution of X-SSD technique was simulated using the Eclipse software. The average dose received by 90% of the target volume was 12.3 Gy (range, 12.2-12.4 Gy) for HT plans and 10.3 Gy (range, 10.08-10.58 Gy) for X-SSD plans (p < 0.001). The left and right lung median doses were 5.44 Gy and 5.40 Gy, respectively, for HT plans and 8.34 Gy and 8.95 Gy, respectively, for X-SSD treatment. The treatment planning time was comparable between the two methods. The beam delivery time of HT treatment was longer than X-SSD treatment. In conclusion, HT-based TBI plans have better dose coverage to the target and better dose sparing to the lungs compared with X-SSD technique, which applies dose compensators, lung blocks, and electron boosts. This study demonstrates that HT is possible for delivering TBI. Clinical validation of the feasibility of this approach would be of interest in the future.

  1. Setting the maximum ecological potential of benthic communities, to assess ecological status, in heavily morphologically-modified estuarine water bodies.

    PubMed

    Borja, Ángel; Chust, Guillem; del Campo, Andrea; González, Manuel; Hernández, Carlos

    2013-06-15

    Investigations on setting benthic macroinvertebrates reference conditions in natural waters have increased recently. Under the European Water Framework Directive, importance is given to research in morphological heavily-modified water bodies (HMWBs), which are very common in countries with high human pressure. However, research has not been undertaken on setting the maximum ecological potential (MEP), as a reference in HMWB. The objective of the present investigation is to set the MEP of two metrics (diversity and richness), used in assessing the ecological status in different benthic indices. The Oiartzun estuary (Basque Country) is used as a case study, which changed morphologically in the 19th Century, following harbour construction. Data obtained from 1874 and the present were used to model changes in currents, water residence time, salinity, volume, and intertidal area. Benthic macroinvertebrate data, from 1995 to 2011, were used to predict 19th Century and present MEP. Changes in the estuary were described: loss of all of the intertidal areas; doubling of the volume; residence time, changing from 2 to 95 days; current velocity reduced by 50%; salinity increase. All these factors have led to changes in the benthic communities and the structural variables. Predicted richness and diversity, for 1874, were lower (48-76%) than those at present. Taking into account the differences between natural and modified waters, it is proposed to utilize 75% of the natural reference conditions, as the MEP values for Basque HMWB.

  2. Inflammation Modifies the Paradoxical Association between Body Mass Index and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Gillespie, Iain A; Tunks, Jamie; Addison, Janet; Kronenberg, Florian; Drueke, Tilman B; Marcelli, Daniele; Schernthaner, Guntram; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Floege, Jürgen; Froissart, Marc; Anker, Stefan D

    2016-05-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is paradoxically associated with better outcome in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Persistent inflammation commonly features in clinical conditions where the obesity paradox is described. We examined the relationship between BMI and mortality in HD patients, accounting for inflammation, in a historic cohort study of 5904 incident HD patients enrolled in 2007-2009 (312 facilities; 15 European countries) with ≥3 months of follow-up. Patients were classified by presence (n=3231) or absence (n=2673) of inflammation (C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/l and/or albumin ≤35 g/l). Patients were divided into quintiles by BMI (Q1-Q5: <21.5, 21.5-24.0, >24.0-26.4, >26.4-29.8, and >29.8 kg/m(2), respectively). Noninflamed patients in BMI Q5 formed the reference group. During a median follow-up period of 36.7 months, 1929 deaths occurred (822 cardiovascular), with 655 patients censored for renal transplantation and 1183 for loss to follow-up. Greater mortality was observed in inflamed patients (P<0.001). In fully adjusted time-dependent analyses, the all-cause mortality risk in noninflamed patients was higher only in the lowest BMI quintile (hazard ratio [HR, 1.80; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.26 to 2.56). No protective effect was associated with higher BMI quintiles in noninflamed patients. Conversely, higher BMI associated with lower all-cause mortality risk in inflamed patients (HR [95% CI] for Q1: 5.63 [4.25 to 7.46]; Q2: 3.88 [2.91 to 5.17]; Q3: 2.89 [2.16 to 3.89]; Q4: 2.14 [1.59 to 2.90]; and Q5: 1.77 [1.30 to 2.40]). Thus, whereas a protective effect of high BMI was observed in inflamed patients, this effect was mitigated in noninflamed patients.

  3. In vivo precision of the GE Lunar iDXA densitometer for the measurement of total body composition and fat distribution in adults.

    PubMed

    Hind, K; Oldroyd, B; Truscott, J G

    2011-01-01

    In vivo precision for body composition measurements using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar iDXA, GE Healthcare, Bucks, UK) was evaluated in 52 men and women, aged 34.8 (s.d. 8.4; range 20.1-50.5) years, body mass index (25.8 kg/m(2); range 16.7-42.7 kg/m(2)). Two consecutive total body scans (with re-positioning) were conducted. Precision was excellent for all measurements, particularly for total body bone mineral content and lean tissue mass (root mean square 0.015 and 0.244 kg; coefficients of variation (CV) 0.6 and 0.5%, respectively). Precision error was CV 0.82% for total fat mass and 0.86% for percentage fat. Precision was better for gynoid (root mean square 0.397 kg; CV 0.96%) than for android fat distribution (root mean square 0.780 kg, CV 2.32%). There was good agreement between consecutive measurements for all measurements (slope (s.e.) 0.993-1.002; all R(2) = 0.99). The Lunar iDXA provided excellent precision for total body composition measurements. Research into the effect of body size on the precision of DXA body fat distribution measurements is required.

  4. A phase I study of WR-2721 in combination with total body irradiation (TBI) in patients with refractory lymphoid malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Coia, L.; Krigel, R.; Hanks, G.; Comis, R.; Algazy, K.; Peters, R.; McCulloch, W.; Schien, P. )

    1992-01-01

    This Phase I study was designed to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of WR-2721 when given twice weekly with total body irradiation (TBI) in the treatment of patients with advanced refractory lymphoid malignancies and to define the toxicities of this combination and schedule. Patients eligible for this study had advanced recurrent indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients had symptomatic or progressive disease, a performance status of 0, 1, or 2, and adequate bone marrow, hepatic, and renal function. Only patients failing one or two regimens of prior chemotherapy were eligible. Patients who had received prior extended field irradiation were ineligible. Patients received TBI twice weekly (Tuesday and Friday) to a total of 10 doses at 15 cGy/fx. WR-2721 was given intravenously over 15 min beginning 30 min before irradiation. The escalation of WR-2721 was Level 1: 740 mg/m2 and Level 2: 910 mg/m2. The MTD of WR-2721 was that dose which produced predictable and reversible toxicity and would not interfere with patient well-being. Seven patients were entered onto the study, three at 740 mg/m2 and four at 910 mg/m2. Five patients had CLL and two patients small lymphocytic NHL. No patient had hypotension or nausea requiring reduction in dose level or even interruption of infusion of WR-2721. At 740 mg/m2 no grade 3 or 4 toxicities related to WR-2721 were observed, but two patients could not complete treatment because of TBI-induced prolonged thrombocytopenia following treatments 5 and 8. One patient completed all 10 treatments. At 910 mg/m2 of WR-2721, two patients requested removal from study because of malaise, one after 5 cycles and one after 7 cycles. One patient completed all 10 treatments.

  5. The Sequence of Cyclophosphamide and Myeloablative Total Body Irradiation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients with Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Holter-Chakrabarty, Jennifer L; Pierson, Namali; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Artz, Andrew S; Baron, Frédéric; Bredeson, Christopher N; Dvorak, Christopher C; Epstein, Robert B; Lazarus, Hillard M; Olsson, Richard F; Selby, George B; Williams, Kirsten M; Cooke, Kenneth R; Pasquini, Marcelo C; McCarthy, Philip L

    2015-07-01

    Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI, n = 948; TBICy, n = 821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation who received TBI (1200 to 1500 cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The 2 cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, HLA-matched siblings, stem cell source, antithymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect transplantation-related mortality (24% versus 23% at 3 years, P = .67; relative risk, 1.01; P = .91), leukemia relapse (27% versus 29% at 3 years, P = .34; relative risk, .89, P = .18), leukemia-free survival (49% versus 48% at 3 years, P = .27; relative risk, .93; P = .29), chronic GVHD (45% versus 47% at 1 year, P = .39; relative risk, .9; P = .11), or overall survival (53% versus 52% at 3 years, P = .62; relative risk, .96; P = .57) for CyTBI and TBICy, respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (P = .08), respectively. This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplantation outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning.

  6. Metabolic changes in serum steroids induced by total-body irradiation of female C57B/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Shin, Hee-June; Son, Hyun-Hwa; Lee, Jeongae; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Kyu Hwan; Chung, Bong Chul; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-05-01

    The short- and long-term effects of a single exposure to gamma radiation on steroid metabolism were investigated in mice. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to generate quantitative profiles of serum steroid levels in mice that had undergone total-body irradiation (TBI) at doses of 0Gy, 1Gy, and 4Gy. Following TBI, serum samples were collected at the pre-dose time point and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after TBI. Serum levels of progestins, progesterone, 5β-DHP, 5α-DHP, and 20α-DHP showed a significant down-regulation following short-term exposure to 4Gy, with the exception of 20α-DHP, which was significantly decreased at each of the time points measured. The corticosteroids 5α-THDOC and 5α-DHB were significantly elevated at each of the time points measured after exposure to either 1 or 4Gy. Among the sterols, 24S-OH-cholestoerol showed a dose-related elevation after irradiation that reached significance in the high dose group at the 6- and 9-month time points.

  7. Survival after total body irradiation: Effects of irradiation of exteriorized small intestine. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Vigneulle, R.M.; Kitto, G.; Pelky, T.; Taylor, P.

    1993-12-31

    Rats receiving lethal irradiation to their exteriorized small intestine with pulsed 18 MVp bremsstrahlung radiation live about 4 days longer than rats receiving a dose of total-body irradiation (TBI) causing intestinal death. The LD50 for intestinal irradiation is approximately 6 Gy higher than the LD50 for intestinal death after TBI. Survival time after exteriorized intestinal irradiation can be decreased, by adding abdominal irradiation. Adding thoracic or pelvic irradiation does not alter survival time. Shielding of large intestine improves survival after irradiation of the rest of the abdomen while the small intestine is also shielded. The kinetics of histological changes in small intestinal tissues implicate the release of humoral factors after irradiation of the abdomen. Radiation injury develops faster in the first (proximal) 40 cm of the small intestine and is expressed predominantly as shortening in villus height. In the last (distal) 40 cm of the small intestine, the most pronounced radiation effect is a decrease in the number of crypts per millimeter. Irradiation (20 Gy) of the proximal small intestine causes 92 % mortality (median survival 10 days). Irradiation (20 Gy) of the distal small intestine causes 27% mortality (median survival > 30 days). In addition to depletion of crypt stem cells in the small intestine, other issues (humoral factors, irradiated subsection of the small intestine and shielding of the large intestine) appear to influence radiation-induced intestinal mortality.

  8. Does total body irradiation conditioning improve outcomes of myeloablative human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling transplantations for chronic lymphocytic leukemia?

    PubMed

    Sabloff, Mitchell; Sobecks, Ronald M; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Zhu, Xiaochun; de Lima, Marcos; Brown, Jennifer R; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Holland, H Kent; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Laughlin, Mary J; Kamble, Rammurti T; Hsu, Jack W; Wirk, Baldeep M; Seftel, Matthew; Lewis, Ian D; Arora, Mukta; Alyea, Edwin P; Kalaycio, Matt E; Cortes, Jorge; Maziarz, Richard T; Gale, Robert Peter; Saber, Wael

    2014-03-01

    An allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-identical donor after high-dose (myeloablative) pretransplantation conditioning is an effective therapy for some people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because CLL is a highly radiosensitive cancer, we hypothesized that total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimens may be associated with better outcomes than those without TBI. To answer this, we analyzed data from 180 subjects with CLL receiving myeloablative doses of TBI (n = 126) or not (n = 54), who received transplants from an HLA-identical sibling donor between 1995 and 2007 and reported to the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research. At 5 years, treatment-related mortality was 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39% to 57%) versus 50% (95% CI, 36% to 64%); P = NS. Relapse rates were 17% (95% CI, 11% to 25%) versus 22% (95% CI, 11% to 35%); P = NS. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 34% (95% CI, 26% to 43%) versus 28% (95% CI, 15% to 42%); P = NS and 42% (95% CI, 33% to 51%) versus 33% (95% CI, 19% to 48%); P = NS, respectively. The single most common cause of death in both cohorts was recurrent/progressive CLL. No variable tested in the multivariate analysis was found to significantly affect these outcomes, including having failed fludarabine. Within the limitations of this study, we found no difference in HLA-identical sibling transplantation outcomes between myeloablative TBI and chemotherapy pretransplantation conditioning in persons with CLL.

  9. Microskin autografting in the treatment of burns over 70% of total body surface area: 14 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Lin; Liang, Xun; Sun, Li; Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Wang, Yong-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Despite the fact that early excision and grafting have significantly improved burn outcomes, the management of severely burned patients whose burn size exceeds 70% total body surface area (TBSA) still represents a big challenge for burn surgeons all over the world. During the period of 1997-2010 at our centre, aggressive excision and microskin autografting were performed in 63 severely burned patients. Their burn sizes ranged from 70% to 98% TBSA with a mean of 84.9%. The average full-thickness burn was 66.3% (range, 29-94%). Thirty patients had concomitant inhalation injury. Two to 7 days after burn, these patients underwent aggressive excisions ranging from 25% to 60% TBSA and transplantation of microskin autograft overlaid with allograft. The ratios of donor-site to recipient-site surface area were between 1:6 and 1:18. Signs of epithelialization were shown within 35-55 days. The wound healing rate was 74.9% (176/235), with 51.1% of cases (120/235) healing completely and 23.8% (56/235) improving. Microskin autografting yielded an overall survival rate of 63.5%; only 23 patients died. Our clinical experience in using the microskin autografting for burn coverage suggests that the technique is very effective in covering extensive burns, and that it is particularly useful when graft donor sites are very limited due to its high utilization rate of donor site. The factors affecting the outcome of microskin autografting are discussed herein.

  10. Total body sodium depletion and poor weight gain in children and young adults with an ileostomy: a case series.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Megan; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Harris, Mary Beth

    2014-06-01

    Patients with high-output small bowel ostomies are at risk for total body sodium depletion (TBSD), defined as a urine sodium level <10 mmol/L. Failure to thrive (FTT) as a consequence of TBSD has been reported in neonates with ileostomies; however, this has not been well described in older children. The records of all children beyond the age of infancy with a small bowel ostomy cared for in our Children's Intestinal Rehabilitation Program from 2010-2012 were reviewed. Four patients between the ages of 18 months and 19 years were identified as having TBSD. All 4 patients experienced unintentional weight loss, despite adequate energy intake based on calculated needs, which was associated with a urine sodium level ≤10 mmol/L. With the supplementation of sodium, either enteral or intravenous, all patients demonstrated improved weight gain and correction of TBSD. The following cases suggest that the relationship between TBSD and FTT may extend well beyond the neonatal period and possibly into adulthood. We advise that patients of all ages with high stoma output have routine urine sodium levels checked, particularly in the setting of weight loss or poor gain. Furthermore, instances of TBSD should be treated with sodium supplementation. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between TBSD and FTT and to establish intervention guidelines.

  11. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without total body irradiation for pediatric acute leukemia: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yanshun; Qin, Maoquan; Wang, Bin; Li, Sidan; Zhu, Guanghua; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Kai; Lin, Wei; Zheng, Huyong

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising method for therapy of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. However, less availability of matched donors limited its wide application. Recently, haploidentical HSCT has become a great resource. Here, we have retrospectively reported our experience of 20 pediatric patients with acute leukemia who underwent haploidentical HSCT without total body irradiation (TBI) myeloablative regimen in our center from November 2007 to June 2014. All the patients attained successful HSCT engraftment in terms of myeloid and platelet recovery. Thirteen patients developed grade I–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (a-GVHD). The incidence of grade I–II a-GVHD, grade III–IV a-GVHD, and chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) was 45%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. The mean myeloid and platelet recovery time was 13.20±2.41 and 19.10±8.37 days. The median follow-up time was 43.95±29.26 months. During the follow-up, three patients died. The overall survival (OS) rate was 85%. The present study indicated that haploidentical HSCT without TBI myeloablative regimen significantly improved the OS rate of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. PMID:27217774

  12. Modulation of Total Body Irradiation Induced Life Shortening by Systemic Intravenous MnSOD-Plasmid Liposome Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Epperly, Michael W.; Smith, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Schlesselman, James; Franicola, Darcy; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether systemic administration of MnSOD-PL protected mice from the acute hematopoietic syndrome as well as delayed death following total body irradiation (TBI), C57BL/6J mice received intravenously 100μl liposomes containing 100μg of human MnSOD-transgene plasmid 24 hours prior to 9.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy. The dose of 9.5 Gy was lethal to 42% of irradiated control female and 74% of irradiated control male mice respectively at 30 days with bone marrow hypocellularity consistent with the hematopoietic syndrome. A statistically significant increase in survival was detected in MnSOD-PL treated compared to 9.5 Gy irradiated control female mice out to 400 days, and in male mice out to 340 days. The incidence of tumors was similar between surviving groups. Between 350 to 600 days, outcome was similar for both MnSOD-PL treated and control irradiated groups consistent with aging with no difference in gross or microscopic pathologic evidence of tumors. Male and female mice receiving 1.0 Gy TBI showed irradiation induced life shortening after 120 days that was decreased by MnSOD-PL administration, and was associated with no increase in rate of tumor associated death. Therefore, systemic MnSOD-PL radioprotective gene therapy is not associated with a detectably higher incidence of late carcinogenesis. PMID:19024650

  13. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Shuman, Anne L.; Diener, Antonia K.; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for white blood cell (WBC) loss, which are the body’s main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved white blood cell (WBC), specifically neutrophil, loss in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses. PMID:25909052

  14. Low-dose total body irradiation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: short- and long-term toxicity and prognostic factor.

    PubMed

    De Neve, W J; Lybeert, M L; Meerwaldt, J H

    1990-08-01

    The toxicity of low-dose total body irradiation (LTBI), the prognostic factors related to survival and relapse-free survival, and the efficacy of treatment given for relapse after LTBI were analyzed in 68 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated at the Rotterdamsch Radiotherapeutisch Instituut. All patients received LTBI between 1973 and 1979. The patient material was heterogeneous with respect to malignancy grade, stage, age, and therapy given before or after LTBI; the unifying principle was that all patients received LTBI and had symptomatic NHL. Analysis of prognostic variables with Cox's model revealed grade (p less than 0.001) and age (p = 0.004) as predictors for survival and grade (p less than 0.001) and dose of LTBI (p = 0.056) as predictors for relapse-free survival after LTBI. No subjective toxicity was observed during or after LTBI treatment. Hematologic toxicity was dose-limiting and was increased if patients had received cytotoxic treatment before LTBI. LTBI-related hematologic toxicity was lower in patients with low-grade NHL than in those with intermediate or high-grade NHL, was limited in time, and recovered in all patients. Patients relapsing after LTBI received a variety of therapies. Response rates were high, but of short duration, especially in intermediate or high-grade NHL. Duration of response was progressively shorter after multiple relapses. PMID:2198791

  15. Total Body Irradiation Is Permissive for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated New Bone Formation Following Local Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Herberg, Samuel; Kondrikova, Galina; Hussein, Khaled A.; Periyasamy-Thandavan, Sudharsan; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Elsalanty, Mohammed E.; Shi, Xingming; Hamrick, Mark W.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal injury is a major clinical challenge accentuated by the decrease of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) with age or disease. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have revealed that BMSCs hold great promise for regenerative therapies due to their direct osteogenic potential and indirect trophic/paracrine actions. Increasing evidence suggests that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is involved in modulating the host response to the injury. Common problems with BMSC therapy include poor cell engraftment, which can be addressed by total body irradiation (TBI) prior to transplantation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that direct tibial transplantation of BMSCs drives endogenous bone formation in a dose-dependent manner, which is enhanced by TBI, and investigated the potential role of SDF-1 in facilitating these events. We found that TBI is permissive for transplanted BMSCs to engraft and contribute to new bone formation. Bone marrow (BM) interstitial fluid analysis revealed no differences of SDF-1 splice variants in irradiated animals compared to controls, despite the increased mRNA and protein levels expressed in whole BM cells. This correlated with increased dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and the failure to induce chemotaxis of BMSCs in vitro. We found increased mRNA expression levels of the major SDF-1-cleaving proteases in whole BM cells from irradiated animals suggesting distinct spatial differences within the BM in which SDF-1 may play different autocrine and paracrine signaling roles beyond the immediate cell surface microenvironment. PMID:24914464

  16. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-10-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis.

  17. Distribution and quantitation of skin iron in primary haemochromatosis: correlation with total body iron stores in patients undergoing phlebotomy.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Teresa; Silva, Raquel; Fleming, Rita; Gonçalves, Afonso; Barreiros, Maria A; Silva, João N; Morlière, Patrice; Santus, René; Filipe, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the concentration of iron in the skin, if correlated with total body iron stores, may enable better informed decisions on when to initiate, change or stop therapy in hereditary heamochromatosis. Naïve haemochromatosis patients with iron overload and with C282Y and/or H63D HFE mutations were evaluated at the following time-points: disease diagnosis, end of the therapy programme, and 6 months after the end of therapy. The distribution and concentration of iron in the skin were assessed by quantitative nuclear microscopy methods, in parallel with serum and plasma iron concentration. Iron content in the liver was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Iron accumulated in the epidermis; its concentration increased from outer to inner layers, being maximal in the basal layer (7.33 ± 0.98 µmol/g). At all 3 time-points, most of the iron was associated with the extracellular space. During the phlebotomy programme the iron content of the skin and the liver decreased by a factor of 2. These data suggest that measurements of iron concentration in the epidermis, which is a readily accessible tissue, reflect iron overload in the liver.

  18. The Sequence of Cyclophosphamide and Myeloablative Total Body Irradiation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Patients with Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Holter-Chakrabarty, Jennifer L; Pierson, Namali; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Artz, Andrew S; Baron, Frédéric; Bredeson, Christopher N; Dvorak, Christopher C; Epstein, Robert B; Lazarus, Hillard M; Olsson, Richard F; Selby, George B; Williams, Kirsten M; Cooke, Kenneth R; Pasquini, Marcelo C; McCarthy, Philip L

    2015-07-01

    Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI, n = 948; TBICy, n = 821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation who received TBI (1200 to 1500 cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The 2 cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, HLA-matched siblings, stem cell source, antithymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect transplantation-related mortality (24% versus 23% at 3 years, P = .67; relative risk, 1.01; P = .91), leukemia relapse (27% versus 29% at 3 years, P = .34; relative risk, .89, P = .18), leukemia-free survival (49% versus 48% at 3 years, P = .27; relative risk, .93; P = .29), chronic GVHD (45% versus 47% at 1 year, P = .39; relative risk, .9; P = .11), or overall survival (53% versus 52% at 3 years, P = .62; relative risk, .96; P = .57) for CyTBI and TBICy, respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (P = .08), respectively. This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplantation outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning. PMID:25840335

  19. Low-dose total body irradiation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Short- and long-term toxicity and prognostic factor

    SciTech Connect

    De Neve, W.J.; Lybeert, M.L.; Meerwaldt, J.H. )

    1990-08-01

    The toxicity of low-dose total body irradiation (LTBI), the prognostic factors related to survival and relapse-free survival, and the efficacy of treatment given for relapse after LTBI were analyzed in 68 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) treated at the Rotterdamsch Radiotherapeutisch Instituut. All patients received LTBI between 1973 and 1979. The patient material was heterogeneous with respect to malignancy grade, stage, age, and therapy given before or after LTBI; the unifying principle was that all patients received LTBI and had symptomatic NHL. Analysis of prognostic variables with Cox's model revealed grade (p less than 0.001) and age (p = 0.004) as predictors for survival and grade (p less than 0.001) and dose of LTBI (p = 0.056) as predictors for relapse-free survival after LTBI. No subjective toxicity was observed during or after LTBI treatment. Hematologic toxicity was dose-limiting and was increased if patients had received cytotoxic treatment before LTBI. LTBI-related hematologic toxicity was lower in patients with low-grade NHL than in those with intermediate or high-grade NHL, was limited in time, and recovered in all patients. Patients relapsing after LTBI received a variety of therapies. Response rates were high, but of short duration, especially in intermediate or high-grade NHL. Duration of response was progressively shorter after multiple relapses.

  20. Total body irradiation for stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: ten-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, N.P.; Noyes, W.D.; Million, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1972 and 1977, a prospective study was conducted at the University of Florida on the role of total body irradiation (TBI) in the management of stage II-IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Forty-four consecutive de novo (DN) patients (including ten stage II, 18 stage III, and 16 stage IV), as well as 16 previously treated (PT) patients, were accrued. Twenty of the 44 DN patients were symptomatic at presentation. Complete clinical responses were obtained in 20 of the 27 DN patients with favorable histologies (FH), and six of the 17 with unfavorable histologies (UH). Partial responses were obtained in six patients with FH and 11 patients with UH; only one patient showed no response to TBI. By univariate analysis, PT patients showed a trend for decreased relapse-free survival (P = .066) and decreased survival (P = .093). Multivariate analysis identified the best predictors of response rate to be histology (P = .0146) and marrow involvement (P = .0854); of relapse-free survival, histology (P = .0035), and TBI dose (P = .002); and of absolute survival, age (P = .0012), histology (P = .012), and TBI dose (P = .029). Thirty of the 41 patients who relapsed underwent salvage treatment with either chemotherapy or radiation. Twenty-three of the 30 undergoing salvage therapy obtained a second complete clinical response. There were no treatment-related deaths. The most common complication was thrombocytopenia. The major late complications were myeloproliferative disorders in four patients, which occurred only after cumulative TBI doses in excess of 200 cGy.

  1. Molecular and cellular profiling of acute responses to total body radiation exposure in ovariectomized female cynomolgus macaques

    PubMed Central

    DeBo, Ryne J.; Register, Thomas C.; Caudell, David L.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Dugan, Gregory; Gray, Shauna; Owzar, Kouros; Jiang, Chen; Bourland, J. Daniel; Chao, Nelson J.; Cline, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The threat of radiation exposure requires a mechanistic understanding of radiation-induced immune injury and recovery. The study objective was to evaluate responses to ionizing radiation in ovariectomized (surgically post-menopausal) female cynomolgus macaques. Materials and methods Animals received a single total-body irradiation (TBI) exposure at doses of 0, 2 or 5 Gy with scheduled necropsies at 5 days, 8 weeks and 24 weeks post-exposure. Blood and lymphoid tissues were evaluated for morphologic, cellular, and molecular responses. Results Irradiated animals developed symptoms of acute hematopoietic syndrome, and reductions in thymus weight, thymopoiesis, and bone marrow cellularity. Acute, transient increases in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were observed in 5 Gy animals along with dose-dependent alterations in messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) signatures in thymus, spleen, and lymph node. Expression of T cell markers was lower in thymus and spleen, while expression of macrophage marker CD68 (cluster of differentiation 68) was relatively elevated in lymphoid tissues from irradiated animals. Conclusions Ovariectomized female macaques exposed to moderate doses of radiation experienced increased morbidity, including acute, dose-dependent alterations in systemic and tissue-specific biomarkers, and increased macrophage/T cell ratios. The effects on mortality exceeded expectations based on previous studies in males, warranting further investigation. PMID:25786585

  2. In vivo precision of the GE Lunar iDXA densitometer for the measurement of total-body, lumbar spine, and femoral bone mineral density in adults.

    PubMed

    Hind, Karen; Oldroyd, Brian; Truscott, John G

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of precision is integral to the monitoring of bone mineral density (BMD) changes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We evaluated the precision for bone measurements acquired using a GE Lunar iDXA (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) in self-selected men and women, with mean age of 34.8 yr (standard deviation [SD]: 8.4; range: 20.1-50.5), heterogeneous in terms of body mass index (mean: 25.8 kg/m(2); SD: 5.1; range: 16.7-42.7 kg/m(2)). Two consecutive iDXA scans (with repositioning) of the total body, lumbar spine, and femur were conducted within 1h, for each subject. The coefficient of variation (CV), the root-mean-square (RMS) averages of SDs of repeated measurements, and the corresponding 95% least significant change were calculated. Linear regression analyses were also undertaken. We found a high level of precision for BMD measurements, particularly for scans of the total body, lumbar spine, and total hip (RMS: 0.007, 0.004, and 0.007 g/cm(2); CV: 0.63%, 0.41%, and 0.53%, respectively). Precision error for the femoral neck was higher but still represented good reproducibility (RMS: 0.014 g/cm(2); CV: 1.36%). There were associations between body size and total-body BMD and total-hip BMD SD precisions (r=0.534-0.806, p<0.05) in male subjects. Regression parameters showed good association between consecutive measurements for all body sites (r(2)=0.98-0.99). The Lunar iDXA provided excellent precision for BMD measurements of the total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip.

  3. Biodosimetry Based on γ-H2AX Quantification and Cytogenetics after Partial- and Total-Body Irradiation during Fractionated Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zahnreich, Sebastian; Ebersberger, Anne; Kaina, Bernd; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this current study was to quantitatively describe radiation-induced DNA damage and its distribution in leukocytes of cancer patients after fractionated partial- or total-body radiotherapy. Specifically, the impact of exposed anatomic region and administered dose was investigated in breast and prostate cancer patients receiving partial-body radiotherapy. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were quantified by γ-H2AX immunostaining. The frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations in stimulated lymphocytes was also determined and compared with the frequency of DNA DSBs in the same samples. The frequency of radiation-induced DNA damage was converted into dose, using ex vivo generated calibration curves, and was then compared with the administered physical dose. This study showed that 0.5 h after partial-body radiotherapy the quantity of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci increased linearly with the administered equivalent whole-body dose for both tumor entities. Foci frequencies dropped 1 day thereafter but proportionality to the equivalent whole-body dose was maintained. Conversely, the frequency of radiation-induced cytogenetic damage increased from 0.5 h to 1 day after the first partial-body exposure with a linear dependence on the administered equivalent whole-body dose, for prostate cancer patients only. Only γ-H2AX foci assessment immediately after partial-body radiotherapy was a reliable measure of the expected equivalent whole-body dose. Local tumor doses could be approximated with both assays after one day. After total-body radiotherapy satisfactory dose estimates were achieved with both assays up to 8 h after exposure. In conclusion, the quantification of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci, but not cytogenetic damage in peripheral leukocytes was a sensitive and rapid biodosimeter after acute heterogeneous irradiation of partial body volumes that was able to primarily assess the absorbed equivalent whole-body dose.

  4. Interleukin 1 alpha stimulates hemopoiesis but not tumor cell proliferation and protects mice from lethal total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Constine, L.S.; Harwell, S.; Keng, P.; Lee, F.; Rubin, P.; Siemann, D. )

    1991-03-01

    Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1) is a polypeptide/glycoprotein growth factor with multiple functions including the modulation of hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation. In vivo studies were performed with C57BL/6J mice injected with 0, 0.2, or 2.0 micrograms of IL-1 24 hr before or after lethal total body irradiation (TBI) (9.5 Gy). More mice in the groups administered IL-1 before TBI survived (90% of the 2.0 micrograms group) than those treated 2 or 24 hr after TBI, which was still slightly superior to the uninjected group, which all died within 15 days (p = .0001). Proliferation of bone marrow granulocyte/macrophage colonies following split dose TBI was also greatest for mouse groups treated with IL-1 prior to TBI. These experiments support data from other investigators that IL-1 stimulation of BM is related to IL-1 timing with respect to TBI. Stimulation of hemopoiesis was also assessed in terms of changes in peripheral blood and BM cell numbers and cell cycle kinetics using an electronic particle counter and flow cytometric techniques. Mice injected with 2 micrograms of IL-1 showed an initial decline (at 3-6 hr) and then a selective proliferation (24-48 hr) of early and more committed progenitor cells to 125% and 200% of control values, respectively. Peripheral blood counts rose accordingly. Cells in S and G2/M phases increased over 10 hr and then declined in number. It thus appeared that some synchronization of cell cycling occurred, which might place cells in a more radioresistant phase of the cell cycle. The glutathione (GSH) content and synthesis in BM cells were measured by isocratic paired-ion high performance liquid chromatography and 35S-labelled cysteine incorporation into the GSH tripeptide. An increase in cellular GSH content and synthesis was demonstrated following IL-1 which lasted 24 hr.

  5. The Sequence of Cyclophosphamide and Myeloablative Total Body Irradiation in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Patients with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Holter-Chakrabarty, Jennifer L.; Pierson, Namali; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Artz, Andrew S.; Baron, Frédéric; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Epstein, Robert B.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Olsson, Richard F.; Selby, George B.; Williams, Kirsten M.; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; McCarthy, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Limited clinical data are available to assess whether the sequencing of cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI) changes outcomes. We evaluated the sequence in 1769 (CyTBI N=948, TBICy N=821) recipients of related or unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) who received TBI (1200-1500cGY) for acute leukemia from 2003 to 2010. The two cohorts were comparable for median age, performance score, type of leukemia, first complete remission, Ph+ ALL, HLA matched siblings, stem cell source, anti-thymocyte globulin use, TBI dose, and type of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The sequence of TBI did not significantly affect TRM (24% vs. 23% at 3y, p=0.67; relative risk [RR] 1.01, p=0.91), leukemia relapse (27% vs. 29% at 3y, p=0.34; RR 0.89, p=0.18), leukemia-free survival (49% vs. 48% at3y, p=0.27; RR 0.93, p=0.29), chronic GVHD (45% vs. 47% at 1y, p=0.39; RR 0.9, p=0.11) or overall survival (53% vs. 52% at 3y, p=0.62; RR 0.96, p=0.57) for CyTBI and TBICy respectively. Corresponding cumulative incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome were 4% and 6% at 100 days (p=0.08). This study demonstrates that the sequence of Cy and TBI does not impact transplant outcomes and complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing HCT with myeloablative conditioning. PMID:25840335

  6. Engraftment of a clonal bone marrow stromal cell line in vivo stimulates hematopoietic recovery from total body irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Anklesaria, P; Kase, K; Glowacki, J; Holland, C A; Sakakeeny, M A; Wright, J A; FitzGerald, T J; Lee, C Y; Greenberger, J S

    1987-01-01

    Whether bone marrow stromal cells of donors contribute physiologically to hematopoietic stem cell reconstitution after marrow transplantation is unknown. To determine the transplantability of nonhematopoietic marrow stromal cells, stable clonal stromal cell line (GB1/6) expressing the a isoenzyme of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (Glu6PI-a, D-glucose-6-phosphate ketol-isomerase; EC 5.3.1.9) was derived from murine long-term bone marrow cultures and made resistant to neomycin analogue G418 by retroviral gene transfer. GB1/6 cells were fibronectin+, laminin+, and collagen-type IV+ and collagen type I-; these GB1/6 cells supported in vitro growth of hematopoietic stem cells forming colony-forming units of spleen cells (CFU-S) and of granulocytes, erythrocytes, and macrophage/megakarocytes (CFU-GEMM) in the absence of detectable growth factors interleukin 3 (multi-colony-stimulating factor), granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-stimulating factor, or their poly(A)+ mRNAs. The GB1/6 cells produced macrophage colony-stimulating factor constitutively. Recipient C57BL/6J (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase b) mice that received 3-Gy total-body irradiation and 13 Gy to the right hind limb were injected i.v. with GB1/6 cells. Engrafted mice demonstrated donor-originating Glu6PI-a+ stromal cells in marrow sinuses in situ 2 mo after transplantation and a significantly enhanced hematopoietic recovery compared with control irradiated nontransplanted mice. Continuous (over numerous passages) marrow cultures derived from transplanted mice demonstrated G418-resistant, Glu6PI-a+ stromal colony-forming cells and greater cumulative production of multipotential stem cells of recipient origin compared with cultures established from irradiated, nontransplanted control mice. These data are evidence for physiological function in vivo of a transplanted bone marrow stromal cell line. Images PMID:2890167

  7. Early-response biomarkers for assessment of radiation exposure in a mouse total-body irradiation model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Condliffe, Donald P; Ney, Patrick H; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P; Rahman, Arifur; Sandgren, David J

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. Early biomarkers of radiation injury will be critical for triage, treatment, and follow-up of such individuals. The authors evaluated the utility of multiple blood biomarkers for early-response assessment of radiation exposure using a murine (CD2F1, males) total-body irradiation (TBI) model exposed to ⁶⁰Co γ rays (0.6 Gy min⁻¹) over a broad dose range (0-14 Gy) and timepoints (4 h-5 d). Results demonstrate: 1) dose-dependent changes in hematopoietic cytokines: Flt-3 ligand (Flt3L), interleukin 6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), thrombopoietin (TPO), erythropoietin (EPO), and acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA); 2) dose-dependent changes in blood cell counts: lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, and ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes; 3) protein results coupled with peripheral blood cell counts established very successful separation of groups irradiated to different doses; and 4) enhanced separation of dose was observed as the number of biomarkers increased. Results show that the dynamic changes in the levels of SAA, IL-6, G-CSF, and Flt3L reflect the time course and severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results also demonstrate proof-in-concept that plasma proteins show promise as a complimentary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and, coupled with peripheral blood cell counts, provide early diagnostic information to manage radiation casualty incidents effectively, closing a gap in capabilities to rapidly and effectively assess radiation exposure early, especially needed in case of a mass-casualty radiological incident.

  8. SU-E-T-404: Simple Field-In-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation in Large Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, P; Pinnix, C; Dabaja, B; Wang, C; Aristophanous, M; Tung, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A simple Field-in-Field technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) was developed for traditional AP/PA TBI treatments to improve dosimetric uniformity in patients with large separation. Methods: TBI at our institution currently utilizes an AP/PA technique at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 380cm with patients in left decubitus position during the AP beam and in right decubitus during the PA beam. Patients who have differences in thickness (separation) between the abdomen and head greater than 10cm undergo CT simulation in both left and right decubitus treatment positions. One plan for each CT is generated to evaluate dose to patient midline with both AP and PA fields, but only corresponding AP fields will be exported for treatment for patient left decubitus position and PA fields for patient right decubitus position. Subfields are added by collimating with the x-ray jaws according to separation changes at 5–7% steps to minimize hot regions to less than 10%. Finally, the monitor units (MUs) for the plans are verified with hand calculation and water phantom measurements. Results: Dose uniformity (+/−10%) is achieved with field-in-field using only asymmetric jaws. It is dosimetrically robust with respect to minor setup/patient variations inevitable due to patient conditions. MUs calculated with Pinnacle were verified in 3 clinical cases and only a 2% difference was found compared to homogeneous calculation. In-vivo dosimeters were also used to verify doses received by each patient with and confirmed dose variations less than 10%. Conclusion: We encountered several cases with separation differences that raised uniformity concerns — based on a 1% dose difference per cm separation difference assumption. This could Resultin an unintended hot spot, often in the head/neck, up to 25%. This method allows dose modulation without adding treatment complexity nor introducing radiobiological variations, providing a reasonable solution for this unique

  9. TH-C-12A-04: Dosimetric Evaluation of a Modulated Arc Technique for Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiamas, P; Czerminska, M; Makrigiorgos, G; Karen, M; Zygmanski, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A simplified Total Body Irradiation (TBI) was developed to work with minimal requirements in a compact linac room without custom motorized TBI couch. Results were compared to our existing fixed-gantry double 4 MV linac TBI system with prone patient and simultaneous AP/PA irradiation. Methods: Modulated arc irradiates patient positioned in prone/supine positions along the craniocaudal axis. A simplified inverse planning method developed to optimize dose rate as a function of gantry angle for various patient sizes without the need of graphical 3D treatment planning system. This method can be easily adapted and used with minimal resources. Fixed maximum field size (40×40 cm2) is used to decrease radiation delivery time. Dose rate as a function of gantry angle is optimized to result in uniform dose inside rectangular phantoms of various sizes and a custom VMAT DICOM plans were generated using a DICOM editor tool. Monte Carlo simulations, film and ionization chamber dosimetry for various setups were used to derive and test an extended SSD beam model based on PDD/OAR profiles for Varian 6EX/ TX. Measurements were obtained using solid water phantoms. Dose rate modulation function was determined for various size patients (100cm − 200cm). Depending on the size of the patient arc range varied from 100° to 120°. Results: A PDD/OAR based beam model for modulated arc TBI therapy was developed. Lateral dose profiles produced were similar to profiles of our existing TBI facility. Calculated delivery time and full arc depended on the size of the patient (∼8min/ 100° − 10min/ 120°, 100 cGy). Dose heterogeneity varied by about ±5% − ±10% depending on the patient size and distance to the surface (buildup region). Conclusion: TBI using simplified modulated arc along craniocaudal axis of different size patients positioned on the floor can be achieved without graphical / inverse 3D planning.

  10. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Wang, Yue-Ying; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Li, De-Guan; Meng, Ai-Min

    2016-01-01

    Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI), which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK) on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC) counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. PMID:27338355

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 38: Feasibility of a Table-Top Total Body Irradiation Technique using Robotic Couch Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Erika; Otto, Karl; Hoppe, Richard; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy; Million, Lynn; Xing, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and test the feasibility of a table-top implementation for total body irradiation (TBI) via robotic couch motion and coordinated monitor unit modulation on a standard C-arm linac geometry. Methods: To allow for collision free delivery and to maximize the effective field size, the couch was rotated to 270° IEC and dropped to 150 cm from the vertical radiation source. The robotic delivery was programmed using the TrueBeam STx Developer Mode using custom XML scripting. To assess the dosimetry of a sliding 30×20 cm{sup 2} field, irradiation on a solid water phantom of varying thickness was analyzed using EDR2 radiographic film and OSLDs. Beam modulation was achieved by dividing the couch path into multiple segments of varying dose rates and couch speeds in order to deliver 120 cGy to the midline. Results: The programmed irradiation in conjunction with coordinated couch motion was successfully delivered on a TrueBeam linac. When no beam modulation was employed, the dose difference between two different phantom sections was 17.0%. With simple beam modulation via changing dose rates and couch speeds, the desired prescription dose can be achieved at the centre of each phantom section within 1.9%. However, dose deviation at the junction was 9.2% due to the nonphysical change in the phantom thickness. Conclusions: The feasibility of robotic table-top TBI on a C-arm linac geometry was experimentally demonstrated. To achieve a more uniform dose distribution, inverse-planning allowing for a combination of dose rate modulation, jaw tracking and MLC motion is under investigation.

  12. Relationship between changes in total-body water and fluid distribution with maximal forearm strength in elite judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Analiza M; Fields, David A; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luís B

    2011-09-01

    Among judo athletes, strong grip strength is crucial for performing offensive and defensive maneuvers that rely predominantly on forearm maximal strength (FMS). The study aims were to evaluate changes in total-body water (TBW) and its compartments (extracellular water [ECW] and intracellular water [ICW]) and their relationship with loss of FMS in elite judo athletes. At baseline (weight stability), 27 male elite athletes were evaluated (age: 23.2 ± 2.8 years) and again evaluated 1-3 days before competition. Athletes were free to gain or lose weight based upon their specific competition needs. Using dilution techniques (deuterium and bromide), TBW and ECW were estimated, and ICW was calculated (ICW = TBW - ECW). Fat, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue (LST) were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Handgrip was used to assess FMS. Using a reduction of 2% as a representative outcome for decreased FMS, 10 athletes were identified as having lost FMS, whereas 17 changed <2% or gained. Comparison of means and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results from baseline to before competition indicated that those who lost ≥2% of FMS significantly decreased TBW and ICW by -2.7 ± 3.0 and -4.4 ± 4.2%, respectively. The groups differed in ICW changes (-4.4 ± 4.2 vs. 1.9 ± 6.1%), respectively, for those who lost FMS by ≥2%. The ICW changes, but not in TBW or ECW, significantly predicted the risk of losing FMS (β = 0.206; p = 0.027), even adjusting for weight and arm LST changes. These findings indicated that reductions in ICW increased the risk of losing grip strength in elite judo athletes. PMID:21869630

  13. Total synthesis of trifluorobutyryl-modified, globally protected sialyl Lewis x by a convergent [2+2] approach

    PubMed Central

    Akçay, Gizem; Ramphal, John Y.; d’Alarcao, Marc; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Structural and quantitative changes in the expression of sialic acid residues on the surface of eukaryotic cells profoundly influence a broad range of biological processes including inflammation, antigen recognition, microbial attachment, and tumor metastasis. Uptake and incorporation of sialic acid analogues in mammalian cells enable structure-function studies and perturbation of specific recognition events. Our group has recently shown that a trifluorobutyryl-modified sialic acid metabolite diminishes the adhesion of mammalian cells to E and P-selectin, presumably by leading to the expression of fluorinated sLex epitopes on cell surfaces, and interfering with the sLex-selectin interactions that are well known in mediating tumor cell migration.1 For studies directed towards understanding the molecular basis of this reduced adhesion, chemical synthesis of trifluorobutyrylated sialyl Lewis x (C4F3--sLex) was crucial. We have developed a highly efficient [2+2] approach for the assembly of C4F3-sLex on a preparative scale that contains versatile protective groups allowing the glycan to be surface immobilized or solubilized as needed for biophysical studies to investigate selectin interactions. This strategy can, in principle, be used for preparation of other N-modified sLex analogues. PMID:25530638

  14. A Retinol Isotope Dilution Equation Predicts Both Group and Individual Total Body Vitamin A Stores in Adults Based on Data from an Early Postdosing Blood Sample123

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael H; Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Joanne Balmer; Berry, Philip; Boddy, Alan V; Oxley, Anthony; Lietz, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Background: Retinol isotope dilution (RID) is used to determine vitamin A total body stores (TBS) after an oral dose of a vitamin A stable isotope. The generally accepted prediction equation proposed by Olson’s group in 1989 (Furr et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:713–6) includes factors related to dose absorption and retention, isotope equilibration in plasma compared with stores, catabolism during the mixing period, and the optimal time for measuring plasma isotope enrichment. Objectives: The objectives were 1) to develop a modified RID equation and identify an earlier sampling time for predicting TBS and 2) to improve prediction in individuals as well as groups. Methods: To develop a modified RID equation, we used results of model-based compartmental analysis [the Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software (WinSAAM version 3.0.8; http://www.WinSAAM.org)] of plasma [13C10]retinol kinetic data from 32 previously studied, healthy young adults of European ancestry who had moderate vitamin A intakes and who ingested 2.95 μmol [13C10]retinyl acetate. Results: We examined the time dependence of factors in the prediction equation related to absorption/retention (Fa) and isotope equilibration (S) and determined that 4 or 5 d postdosing was the optimal sampling time. TBS calculated by the equation TBS = Fa x S x (1/SAp), where SAp is plasma retinol specific activity (fraction of dose/μmol), were highly correlated with model-predicted TBS (r = 0.95 and 0.96 for 4 and 5 d, respectively; P < 0.001); predictions for individuals were also highly correlated (Rs = 0.94 and 0.94; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The equation TBS ≈ 0.5 × (1/SAp) accurately predicted vitamin A TBS in this group of 32 healthy young adults and its individual members with the use of data from 1 blood sample taken 4 d after isotope administration. PMID:27511937

  15. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. PMID:25715692

  16. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  17. Electroanalytical quantification of total dsDNA extracted from human sample using, an ionic liquid modified, carbon nanotubes paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Serpi, C; Kovatsi, L; Girousi, S

    2014-02-17

    Direct electrochemistry of dsDNA has been achieved by using an ionic liquid 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode (IL-CNTPE). Oxidation peaks appeared at 0.93 and 1.26 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) on the IL- CNTPE after preconcentration of dsDNA in pH 5.0 acetate buffer, which were attributed to the oxidation of guanine and adenine residues on the dsDNA molecule structure. Based on the signal of guanine, under the optimal conditions, very low levels of dsDNA can be detected after 60s accumulation with detection limits of 0.249 mg L(-) 16 pM. Additionally, human DNA from a healthy volunteer is determined by use of the IL-CNTPE and it is found to be 40±2, 14 pM.

  18. Modified wind chill temperatures determined by a whole body thermoregulation model and human-based facial convective coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabat, Yael Ben; Shitzer, Avraham; Fiala, Dusan

    2014-08-01

    Wind chill equivalent temperatures (WCETs) were estimated by a modified Fiala's whole body thermoregulation model of a clothed person. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients applied in the computations concurrently with environmental radiation effects were taken from a recently derived human-based correlation. Apart from these, the analysis followed the methodology used in the derivation of the currently used wind chill charts. WCET values are summarized by the following equation: Results indicate consistently lower estimated facial skin temperatures and consequently higher WCETs than those listed in the literature and used by the North American weather services. Calculated dynamic facial skin temperatures were additionally applied in the estimation of probabilities for the occurrence of risks of frostbite. Predicted weather combinations for probabilities of "Practically no risk of frostbite for most people," for less than 5 % risk at wind speeds above 40 km h-1, were shown to occur at air temperatures above -10 °C compared to the currently published air temperature of -15 °C. At air temperatures below -35 °C, the presently calculated weather combination of 40 km h-1/-35 °C, at which the transition for risks to incur a frostbite in less than 2 min, is less conservative than that published: 60 km h-1/-40 °C. The present results introduce a fundamentally improved scientific basis for estimating facial skin temperatures, wind chill temperatures and risk probabilities for frostbites over those currently practiced.

  19. Application of modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique on liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning following RTOG 0438 guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Chengyu Chen, Yong; Fang, Deborah; Iannuzzi, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a feasible treatment method for the nonoperable, patient with early-stage liver cancer. Treatment planning for the SBRT is very important and has to consider the simulation accuracy, planning time, treatment efficiency effects etc. The modified dynamic conformal arc (MDCA) technique is a 3-dimensional conformal arc planning method, which has been proposed for liver SBRT planning at our center. In this study, we compared the MDCA technique with the RapidArc technique in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs). The results show that the MDCA technique has comparable plan quality to RapidArc considering PTV coverage, hot spots, heterogeneity index, and effective liver volume. For the 5 PTVs studied among 4 patients, the MDCA plan, when compared with the RapidArc plan, showed 9% more hot spots, more heterogeneity effect, more sparing of OARs, and lower liver effective volume. The monitor unit (MU) number for the MDCA plan is much lower than for the RapidArc plans. The MDCA plan has the advantages of less planning time, no-collision treatment, and a lower MU number.

  20. [Total body MRI in early detection of bone metastasis and its indication in comparison to bone scan and other imaging techniques].

    PubMed

    Luna, Antonio; Vilanova, Joan C; Alcalá Mata, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Bone metastases are a recognized prognostic factor in patients with prostate cancer. Currently, Tc99 bone scan is the most frequently used imaging technique for their detection, showing a high sensitivity but a limited specificity. Thus, new morphological and mainly functional imaging techniques based on PET and MRI, or hybrid techniques such as PET-CT or PET-MRI have been introduced to improve metastases detection, estimation of total tumor load and for therapeutic monitoring. In this clinical scenario, total body MRI has arisen as a very promising technique in detection and therapeutic monitoring of bone metastases of prostate cancer, because it neither uses ionizing radiation nor needs the administration of contrast media. The incorporation of MR diffusion to the morphologic total body MRI protocols provides functional information, improving the sensitivity in oncological lesions detection in general and osteolytic bone metastases of PCa in particular. Its integration in protocols with morphological sequences and its quantification through ADC maps enables us to better understand metastatic bone disease patterns and their changes with different therapies. Total body D MRI enables the early classification of the response to treatment with evident advantages over other imaging techniques and the purely morphological approach with MRI. In any case, prospective and cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to establish the role of total-body D MRI in the management of patients with PCa.

  1. Air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and total body water to evaluate body composition in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropometrics and body mass index are only proxies in the evaluation of adiposity in the pediatric population. Air displacement plethysmography technology was not available for children aged 6 months to 9 years until recently. Our study was designed to test the precision of air displacement plethy...

  2. SU-E-T-260: Pediatric Total Body Irradiation Calculations and In-Vivo Dosimetry Using Diodes and OSLD's

    SciTech Connect

    Chungbin, S; Fatyga, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify that a photon total body irradiation (TBI) calculation method scales properly from adult to pediatric dimensions and to determine TBI in-vivo dosimetry correction factors for diodes and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLD's). Methods: TBI technique used is 400 SAD 18 MV opposed laterals with beam spoiler. Water bags are used to supplement narrower lateral dimensions for patient treatments. To verify that dose calculations scale properly with decreasing dimensions, CAX doses were measured and compared to calculations for different rectangular phantom geometries: (L=length(cm), H=height(cm), d=depth(cm)): L(30)xH(30) (d=3-25), L(30)xH(12)(d=2–20), L(13)xH(13) (d=5–13), L(30)x(H=10–40) d=15, L(30–150) x H(10) (d=15). In infant geometry, measured off axis “leg” dose (L(30)xH(2.5–10.6), d=7)) was compared to CAX (“body” L(30)xH(10)(d=7) adjacent to “leg”). Entrance and exit doses were measured with surface diodes, diodes with buildup, OSLD's, as well as ion chambers for comparison. Correction factors ((ion chamber CAX dose)/(in vivo dose)) were calculated for surface diodes, diodes with buildup, OSLD's, and ion chamber. Results: All rectangular phantom measurements agree with calculated within 2.5%. For L(30)xH(30), L(30)xH(12), L(13)xH(13), L(30)x(H=10–40) and L(30–80)xH(10) agreement was within 1%. For the infant geometry, the ratio of leg dose to CAX varies from 0.956 (h=2.5) to 0.995 (h=10.6). The range of in-vivo dosimetry entrance+exit to CAX dose correction factors varied by dosimeter (diode: 0.883–1.015, surface diode: 1.008–1.214, ion chamber: 0.924–1.084, OSLD: 0.920–1.106). Conclusion: TBI calculations scaled properly to pediatric dimensions. In-vivo dosimetry with various detectors demonstrated similar trends with different magnitudes. OSLD measurements agreed well with ion chamber measurements.

  3. Citrulline as a Biomarker in the Non-human Primate Total- and Partial-body Irradiation Models: Correlation of Circulating Citrulline to Acute and Prolonged Gastrointestinal Injury.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jace W; Bennett, Alexander; Carter, Claire L; Tudor, Gregory; Hankey, Kim G; Farese, Ann M; Booth, Catherine; MacVittie, Thomas J; Kane, Maureen A

    2015-11-01

    The use of plasma citrulline as a biomarker for acute and prolonged gastrointestinal injury via exposure to total- and partial-body irradiation (6 MV LINAC-derived photons; 0.80 Gy min) in nonhuman primate models was investigated. The irradiation exposure covered gastrointestinal injuries spanning lethal, mid-lethal, and sub-lethal doses. The acute gastrointestinal injury was assessed via measurement of plasma citrulline and small intestinal histopathology over the first 15 d following radiation exposure and included total-body irradiation at 13.0 Gy, 10.5 Gy, and 7.5 Gy and partial-body irradiation at 11.0 Gy with 5% bone marrow sparing. The dosing schemes of 7.5 Gy total-body irradiation and 11.0 Gy partial-body irradiation included time points out to day 60 and day 180, respectively, which allowed for correlation of plasma citrulline to prolonged gastrointestinal injury and survival. Plasma citrulline values were radiation-dependent for all radiation doses under consideration, with nadir values ranging from 63-80% lower than radiation-naïve NHP plasma. The nadir values were observed at day 5 to 7 post irradiation. Longitudinal plasma citrulline profiles demonstrated prolonged gastrointestinal injury resulting from acute high-dose irradiation had long lasting effects on enterocyte function. Moreover, plasma citrulline did not discriminate between total-body or partial-body irradiation over the first 15 d following irradiation and was not predictive of survival based on the radiation models considered herein.

  4. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  5. Daily consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato with added fat tends to increase total body vitamin A pool size in vitamin A depleted Bangladeshi women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the affect of daily consumption of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), with or without added fat, on the total body vitamin A (VA) pool size of Bangladeshi women with low initial VA status. Women (n=120) received for 60d either 1) 0 µg RAE/d as boiled white-fleshed sweet potatoes (WFSP) ...

  6. Using electrochemistry - total internal refection imaging ellipsometry to monitor biochemical oxygen demand on the surface tethered polyelectrolyte modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Meng; Lv, Bei'er; Chen, YanYan; Ma, Hongwei; Jin, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Our previous work has proposed an electrochemistry - total internal reflection imaging ellipsometry (EC-TIRIE) technique to observe the dissolved oxygen (DO) reduction on Clark electrode since high interface sensitivity makes TIRIE a useful tool to study redox reactions on the electrode surface. To amplify the optical signal noise ratio (OSNR), a surface tethered weak polyelectrolyte, carboxylated poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-random- 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (abbreviated as carboxylated poly(OEGMA-r-HEMA)), has been introduced on the electrode surface. Since Clark electrode is widely used in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) detection, we use this technique to measure BOD in the sample. The dynamic range of the system is from 0 ˜ 25 mg/L. Two samples have been measured. Compared with the conventional method, the deviation of both optical and electrical signals are less than 10%.

  7. Assessment of mercury and selenium tissular concentrations and total mercury body burden in 6 Steller sea lion pups from the Aleutian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Lucero; Rea, Lorrie D.; Bentzen, Rebecca; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) were measured in several tissue compartments in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups; in addition we determined specific compartment and body burdens of THg. Compartmental and body burdens were calculated by multiplying specific compartment fresh weight by the [THg] (summing compartment burdens equals body burden). In all 6 pup tissue sets 1) highest [THg] was in hair, 2) lowest [THg] was in bone, and 3) pelt, muscle and liver burdens contributed the top three highest percentages of THg body burden. In 5 of 6 pups the Se:Hg molar ratios among compartments ranged from 0.9 to 43.0. The pup with the highest hair [THg] had Se:Hg molar ratios in 9 of 14 compartments that were ≤ 0.7 potentially indicating an inadequate [TSe] relative to [THg]. PMID:24661459

  8. Assessment of mercury and selenium tissular concentrations and total mercury body burden in 6 Steller sea lion pups from the Aleutian Islands.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lucero; Rea, Lorrie D; Bentzen, Rebecca; O'Hara, Todd M

    2014-05-15

    Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) were measured in several tissue compartments in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups; in addition we determined specific compartment and body burdens of THg. Compartmental and body burdens were calculated by multiplying specific compartment fresh weight by the [THg] (summing compartment burdens equals body burden). In all 6 pup tissue sets (1) highest [THg] was in hair, (2) lowest [THg] was in bone, and (3) pelt, muscle and liver burdens contributed the top three highest percentages of THg body burden. In 5 of 6 pups the Se:Hg molar ratios among compartments ranged from 0.9 to 43.0. The pup with the highest hair [THg] had Se:Hg molar ratios in 9 of 14 compartments that were ⩽ 0.7 potentially indicating an inadequate [TSe] relative to [THg]. PMID:24661459

  9. Assessment of mercury and selenium tissular concentrations and total mercury body burden in 6 Steller sea lion pups from the Aleutian Islands.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lucero; Rea, Lorrie D; Bentzen, Rebecca; O'Hara, Todd M

    2014-05-15

    Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) were measured in several tissue compartments in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups; in addition we determined specific compartment and body burdens of THg. Compartmental and body burdens were calculated by multiplying specific compartment fresh weight by the [THg] (summing compartment burdens equals body burden). In all 6 pup tissue sets (1) highest [THg] was in hair, (2) lowest [THg] was in bone, and (3) pelt, muscle and liver burdens contributed the top three highest percentages of THg body burden. In 5 of 6 pups the Se:Hg molar ratios among compartments ranged from 0.9 to 43.0. The pup with the highest hair [THg] had Se:Hg molar ratios in 9 of 14 compartments that were ⩽ 0.7 potentially indicating an inadequate [TSe] relative to [THg].

  10. Impact of MODIS and AIRS total precipitable water on modifying the vertical shear and Hurricane Emily simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Chin; Chen, Shu-Hua; Chien, Fang-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The impact of retrieved total precipitable water (TPW) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) infrared (IR), MODIS near-infrared (NIR), and the combined Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)-IR and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-Microwave channels on simulations of Hurricane Emily was assessed and compared using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and its three-dimensional variation data assimilation (3D-Var) system. After assimilating MODIS IR TPW, the model clearly better reproduced storm tracking, intensity, and the 10 m wind field, while the improvement was limited or nil when assimilating either MODIS NIR TPW or AIRS TPW. After the data assimilation of MODIS IR TPW, a positive moisture increment was present to the east of the simulated storm in 3D-Var analysis (i.e., initial conditions). The positive TPW increment enhanced a convective cloud, which was also observed by satellites. The convective cloud effectively modulated the height and wind fields, resulting in a weakening of the vertical wind shear (VWS) over the region. The weak VWS band was then advected to the north of the storm, preventing the storm from attaching to the strong VWS zone located between 20°N and 30°N. There was no such positive moisture increment, convective cloud, or weak VWS band occurring to the east of the simulated storm in the other data assimilation experiments. This explains why the simulated storm intensified with assimilation of MODIS IR TPW but not for the other experiments.

  11. Fluorescence turn-on detection of iodide, iodate and total iodine using fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate-modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2009-10-01

    Selective turn-on fluorescence detection of I(-) was accomplished using fluorescein isothiocyanate-decorated gold nanoparticles (FITC-AuNPs). FITC molecules, which fluoresce strongly in an alkaline solution, were severely quenched when they were attached to the surface of AuNPs through their isothiocyanate group. Upon the addition of I(-), FITC molecules were detached because of I(-) adsorption on the surface of AuNPs. As a result, released FITC molecules were restored to their original fluorescence intensity. Because I(-) has a higher binding affinity to the surface of Au than do Br(-), Cl(-), or F(-), the FITC-AuNPs obviously have a higher selectivity toward I(-) than toward these other anions. Meanwhile, after IO(3)(-) was reduced to I(-) with ascorbic acid, the detection of IO(3)(-) was successfully achieved using the FITC-AuNPs. Under an optimum pH and AuNP concentration, the lowest detectable concentrations of I(-) and IO(3)(-) using this probe were 10.0 and 50.0 nM, respectively. The FITC-AuNPs provide a number of advantages, including easy preparation, selectivity, sensitivity, and low cost. This unique probe was applied to an analysis of the total iodine in edible salt and seawater.

  12. Determination of fungal activity in modified wood by means of micro-calorimetry and determination of total esterase activity

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pradeep; Dyckmans, Jens; Militz, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Beech and pine wood blocks were treated with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylen urea (DMDHEU) to increasing weight percent gains (WPG). The resistance of the treated specimens against Trametes versicolor and Coniophora puteana, determined as mass loss, increased with increasing WPG of DMDHEU. Metabolic activity of the fungi in the wood blocks was assessed as total esterase activity (TEA) based on the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate and as heat or energy production determined by isothermal micro-calorimetry. Both methods revealed that the fungal activity was related with the WPG and the mass loss caused by the fungi. Still, fungal activity was detected even in wood blocks of the highest WPG and showed that the treatment was not toxic to the fungi. Energy production showed a higher consistency with the mass loss after decay than TEA; higher mass loss was more stringently reflected by higher heat production rate. Heat production did not proceed linearly, possibly due to the inhibition of fungal activity by an excess of carbon dioxide. PMID:18542949

  13. Legacy effects of short-term intentional weight loss on total body and thigh composition in overweight and obese older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chmelo, E A; Beavers, D P; Lyles, M F; Marsh, A P; Nicklas, B J; Beavers, K M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Weight regain following intentional weight loss may negatively impact body composition, accelerating fat regain and increasing risk of physical disability. The purpose of this study was to compare long-term changes in whole body and thigh composition in obese older adults who intentionally lost and then partially regained weight to obese older adults who remained weight stable. Subjects/Methods: This pilot study analyzed total body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and thigh (computed tomography (CT)) composition data collected from 24 older (65–79 years) adults 18 months after completion of a 5-month randomized trial that compared resistance training alone (RT) with RT plus caloric restriction (RT+CR). Results: Mean loss of body mass in the RT+CR group (n=13) was 7.1±2.4 kg during the 5-month intervention (74% fat mass; 26% lean mass; all P<0.01), whereas RT (n=11) remained weight stable (+0.3±1.8 kg; P=0.64). Differential group effects were observed for all DXA and CT body composition measures at 5 months (all P⩽0.01); however, by 23 months, group differences persisted only for total body (RT+CR: 81.6±10.0 kg vs RT: 88.5±14.9 kg; P=0.03) and lean (RT+CR: 50.8±9.3 kg vs RT: 54.4±12.0 kg; P<0.01) mass. All RT+CR participants regained weight from 5 to 23 months (mean gain=+4.8±2.6 kg; P<0.01). Total fat mass and all thigh fat volumes increased, whereas thigh muscle volume decreased, during the postintervention follow-up in RT+CR (all P⩽0.01). In the RT group, body mass did not change from 5 to 23 months (−0.2±0.9 kg; P=0.87). Decreased total thigh volume, driven by the loss of thigh muscle volume, were the only postintervention body composition changes observed in the RT group (both P<0.04). Conclusions: Short-term body composition benefits of an RT+CR intervention may be lost within 18 months after completion of the intervention. PMID:27043417

  14. Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty in Hip Dysplasia with an Extensively Porous-Coated Cylindrical Stem Modified for Asians: A 12-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsutomu; Otani, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hajime; Hayama, Tetsuo; Katsumata, Souichi; Marumo, Keishi

    2015-06-01

    Long-term outcomes of primary cementless total hip arthroplasty were examined for 198 hips of Asian patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip. AML stems were modified for patients' relatively small physique. Stable fixation was achieved despite various proximal femoral deformities. At follow up (mean 12.1 years), radiographs demonstrated fixation in all hips, with 100% stem survivorship. Radiographic changes revealed that the severity of stress-shielding was mild in 55% of hips, moderate in 26%, and severe in 19%. Longer follow up is needed to determine whether these changes will develop into clinical manifestations. A distal fixation stem can be a useful reconstruction option when application of a proximal fixation stem in primary total hip arthroplasty is difficult for various reasons. PMID:25677937

  15. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF): Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Degn, Birte; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF). Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following treatment-cycles and a more favorable outcome. The main objective was to explore if treatment cycle number modifies the outcome when investigating the effect of female Body Mass Index (BMI) on oocyte quantity in IVF. Material and Methods A historical cohort study was conducted on 5,342 treatment-cycles during the period 1999–2009. Exclusion criteria were missing information on BMI or treatment type. Further, women were excluded if they had ovulated before oocyte retrieval. According to baseline BMI, women were divided into four categories following the World Health Organization standards. Multiple linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman. Results Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect modification from cycle number or a factor related to cycle number. The median dose of total follicular stimulating hormone given to the four BMI groups could not straight forwardly explain the less optimal oocyte outcome observed in first treatment cycles. No statistically significant differences were observed in oocyte yield for underweight, overweight and obesity compared to normal weight women when analyzing all treatment-cycles. Overweight women had significantly fewer mature (MII) oocytes (p = 0.009) than normal weight women, whereas no differences was observed for underweight and obese women. Conclusion Our study suggests a possible interaction or effect modification related to treatment cycle number. Investigating the effects of BMI on IVF-results in first treatment-cycles alone

  16. Total and methyl-mercury content in bivalves, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck and Ostrea edulis Linnaeus: relationship of biochemical composition and body size

    SciTech Connect

    Najdek, M.; Sapunar, J.

    1987-07-01

    Mussels and oysters are of interest to pollution ecologists because they are widely distributed, suspension feeding invertebrates and are likely to accumulate pollutants from their environment (Goldberg 1975). Many authors have estimated the relation between the concentration of metals in the flesh and various biotic and abiotic parameters. Body mass (estimated in dry weight) is evidently an important factor governing the uptake of metals by these organisms. The highest concentrations of certain metals were often found in the smallest individuals. The relation between metal content and body size can best be described using Boyden's model which is useful for quantifying any physiological activities in relation to the dry weight of the specimens. In the present paper the authors describe the investigation into the relationship between total and methyl-mercury content and body mass in mussels and oysters.

  17. [Curative Left Pulmonary Resection Combined with Total En Bloc Spondylectomy for Lung Cancer Invading the Second and Third Thoracic Vertebral Bodies].

    PubMed

    Endoh, Makoto; Oizumi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Jun; Watarai, Hikaru; Hamada, Akira; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Nakahashi, Kenta; Funata, Toshiko; Takahashi, Ai; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki

    2016-09-01

    Introduction of spinal surgery into the operation of lung cancer has made extensive surgical treatment feasible with acceptable long-term survival. We report our experience on total en bloc total spondylectomy for lung cancer invading the spine. A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma of the apicodorsal segment of the left lobe with invasion of the 2nd and 3rd thoracic vertebral bodies. After induction chemoradiotherapy, we performed en bloc resection through a posterolateral thoracotomy in the right decubitus position and a posterior median approach in the prone position. The thoracic manipulation was done earlier, making it useful for the dissection of the prevertebral plane from the posterior mediastinum at the upper thoracic level in addition to confirmation of non-N2 disease. Vertebral stabilization was achieved with rod fixation and placement of a titanium mesh cage between the remaining vertebral bodies. PMID:27586310

  18. Total Body Irradiation, Toward Optimal Individual Delivery: Dose Evaluation With Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistors, Thermoluminescence Detectors, and a Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther J. Mijnheer, Ben J.; Verschueren, Tom A.M.; Lambin, Philippe

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To predict the three-dimensional dose distribution of our total body irradiation technique, using a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). In vivo dosimetry, using metal oxide field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), was used to verify the calculated dose distributions. Methods and Materials: A total body computed tomography scan was performed and loaded into our TPS, and a three-dimensional-dose distribution was generated. In vivo dosimetry was performed at five locations on the patient. Entrance and exit dose values were converted to midline doses using conversion factors, previously determined with phantom measurements. The TPS-predicted dose values were compared with the MOSFET and TLD in vivo dose values. Results: The MOSFET and TLD dose values agreed within 3.0% and the MOSFET and TPS data within 0.5%. The convolution algorithm of the TPS, which is routinely applied in the clinic, overestimated the dose in the lung region. Using a superposition algorithm reduced the calculated lung dose by approximately 3%. The dose inhomogeneity, as predicted by the TPS, can be reduced using a simple intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique. Conclusions: The use of a TPS to calculate the dose distributions in individual patients during total body irradiation is strongly recommended. Using a TPS gives good insight of the over- and underdosage in a patient and the influence of patient positioning on dose homogeneity. MOSFETs are suitable for in vivo dosimetry purposes during total body irradiation, when using appropriate conversion factors. The MOSFET, TLD, and TPS results agreed within acceptable margins.

  19. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  20. Cross-sectional neck response of a total human body FE model during simulated frontal and side automobile impacts.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas A; Moreno, Daniel P; Gayzik, F Scott; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Human body finite element (FE) models are beginning to play a more prevalent role in the advancement of automotive safety. A methodology has been developed to evaluate neck response at multiple levels in a human body FE model during simulated automotive impacts. Three different impact scenarios were simulated: a frontal impact of a belted driver with airbag deployment, a frontal impact of a belted passenger without airbag deployment and an unbelted side impact sled test. Cross sections were created at each vertebral level of the cervical spine to calculate the force and moment contributions of different anatomical components of the neck. Adjacent level axial force ratios varied between 0.74 and 1.11 and adjacent level bending moment ratios between 0.55 and 1.15. The present technique is ideal for comparing neck forces and moments to existing injury threshold values, calculating injury criteria and for better understanding the biomechanical mechanisms of neck injury and load sharing during sub-injurious and injurious loading.

  1. Citrulline as a Biomarker in the Murine Total-Body Irradiation Model: Correlation of Circulating and Tissue Citrulline to Small Intestine Epithelial Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jace W; Tudor, Gregory; Li, Fei; Tong, Yan; Katz, Barry; Farese, Ann M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Booth, Catherine; Kane, Maureen A

    2015-11-01

    The use of plasma citrulline as a biomarker for gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome via exposure to total-body irradiation in a murine model was investigated. The radiation exposure covered lethal, mid-lethal, and sub-lethal gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. Plasma citrulline profiles were generated over the first 6 d following total-body irradiation exposure of 6-15 Gy. In addition, plasma citrulline was comprehensively evaluated in the context of matching small intestine citrulline and histopathology. Higher plasma citrulline was significantly associated with lower irradiation doses over the first 6 d following the irradiation insult. Furthermore, higher plasma citrulline was significantly associated with higher crypt survival. The correlation of the plasma citrulline to crypt survival was more robust for higher irradiation doses and for later time points. The data suggested plasma citrulline was most informative for reflecting gastrointestinal injury resulting from exposure to 9-15 Gy total-body irradiation covering time-points 2-5 d post the irradiation insult. PMID:26425905

  2. Citrulline as a Biomarker in the Murine Total-Body Irradiation Model: Correlation of Circulating and Tissue Citrulline to Small Intestine Epithelial Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jace W; Tudor, Gregory; Li, Fei; Tong, Yan; Katz, Barry; Farese, Ann M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Booth, Catherine; Kane, Maureen A

    2015-11-01

    The use of plasma citrulline as a biomarker for gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome via exposure to total-body irradiation in a murine model was investigated. The radiation exposure covered lethal, mid-lethal, and sub-lethal gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome. Plasma citrulline profiles were generated over the first 6 d following total-body irradiation exposure of 6-15 Gy. In addition, plasma citrulline was comprehensively evaluated in the context of matching small intestine citrulline and histopathology. Higher plasma citrulline was significantly associated with lower irradiation doses over the first 6 d following the irradiation insult. Furthermore, higher plasma citrulline was significantly associated with higher crypt survival. The correlation of the plasma citrulline to crypt survival was more robust for higher irradiation doses and for later time points. The data suggested plasma citrulline was most informative for reflecting gastrointestinal injury resulting from exposure to 9-15 Gy total-body irradiation covering time-points 2-5 d post the irradiation insult.

  3. Quantification of modifiers in advanced materials based on zinc oxide by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatova, Daria G.; Alov, Nikolai V.; Vorobyeva, Natalia A.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Sharanov, Pavel Yu.; Seregina, Irina F.; Gaskov, Alexander M.

    2016-04-01

    A novel approach to quantification of Ga and Zn modifiers in advanced materials based on zinc oxide is presented. The approach includes a combination of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination and validation of the results. It is suggested to use aqueous standards for the direct determination of elements in powder samples by TXRF with a relative standard deviation no more than sr = 0.11. The accuracy of these results was proved by ICP-MS after the sample decomposition, sr(In) = 0.05, sr(Ga) = 0.06 and sr(Zn) = 0.06. It was established that there is a possibility to determine indium above 300 ppb on the background of K-M3 line of argon.

  4. [EFFECT OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY ON THE EQUILIBRIUM TIME, BUT NO IN THE TOTAL BODY WATER AND BODY COMPOSITION COMPARTMENTS IN WOMEN SUBJECTS OVER 60 YEARS OF AGE].

    PubMed

    Lizárraga-Cañedo, Jonathan; Robles-Sardin, Alma; Salazar, Gabriela; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el envejecimiento y la obesidad producen cambios en la tasa de recambio de agua, lo que podría afectar al tiempo de equilibrio del óxido de deuterio (2H2O). Objetivo: se evaluó el efecto del sobrepeso y la obesidad sobre el tiempo de equilibrio del isótopo estable de deuterio en muestras de saliva de adultos mayores. Métodos: se incluyeron 18 mujeres entre 63 y 80 años con un índice de masa corporal (IMC) de 20,8 a 40,5 kg/m2. Después de la toma de una muestra de saliva basal se administró una dosis vía oral de 30 g de 2H2O. Se tomaron muestras de saliva a las 2, 2,5, 3, 3,5 y 4 horas post-dosis, las cuales fueron analizadas mediante espectrometría infrarroja con transformada de Fourier. Resultados: el tiempo de equilibrio (plateau) promedio en las mujeres con un IMC normal (18,5-24,9 kg/m2) fue de 3,6 ± 0,2 horas, el cual fue diferente estadísticamente al obtenido en el grupo con sobrepeso (25-29,9 kg/m2) y obesidad (>30 kg/m2) de 2,9 ± 0,4 horas y 2,8 ± 0,4 horas, respectivamente (p0,05). Conclusión: se encontró un efecto de la obesidad sobre el tiempo de equilibrio; sin embargo, no afectó al cálculo del agua corporal total y a la composición corporal en este grupo etario.

  5. Total body irradiation of donors can alter the course of tolerance and induce acute rejection in a spontaneous tolerance rat liver transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YeWei; Zhao, HeWei; Bo, Lin; Yang, YinXue; Lu, Xiang; Sun, JingFeng; Wen, JianFei; He, Xia; Yin, GuoWen

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage liver diseases. Graft rejection occurs unless the recipient receives immunosuppression after transplantation. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of acute rejection of liver allografts in rats pre-treated with total body irradiation to eliminate passenger lymphocytes and to define the role of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in the induction of immunotolerance in the recipient. Male Lewis rats were used as donors and male DA rats were recipients. Rats were randomly assigned to the following four groups: control group, homogeneity liver transplantation group, idio-immunotolerance group and acute rejection group. After transplantation, the survival time of each group, serum alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin levels, number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, expression of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor on T cell subgroups, histopathology of the hepatic graft and spleen cytotoxic T lymphocyte lytic activity were measured. In the acute rejection group, where donors were preconditioned with total body irradiation before liver transplantation, all recipients died between day 17 and day 21. On day 14, serum alanine aminotransferase increased significantly to (459.2±76.9) U L(-1), total bilirubin increased to (124.1±33.7) μmol L(-1) (P<0.05) and the ratio of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells decreased significantly to 1.50%±0.50% (P<0.05) compared with the other groups. Analysis of the T cell subpopulations in the acute rejection group varied from the other groups. Histological analysis showed typical changes of acute rejection in the acute rejection group only. Preconditioning of the donors with total body irradiation eliminated passenger lymphocytes of the liver graft, and thus affected the course of tolerance and induced acute rejection after liver transplantation.

  6. Body size at birth modifies the effect of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Labayen, Idoia; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Dallongeville, Jean; Widhalm, Kurt; Ferrari, Marika; Buyken, Annete; Kersting, Mathilde; Moschonis, George; Turck, Dominique; Gómez, Sonia; Sjostrom, Michael; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-05-01

    The present study was intended to examine whether ponderal index (PI) at birth modifies the effect of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in European adolescents. A total of 628 adolescents aged 14·4 (se 1·3) years (56·8 % female) were recruited. PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length (kg/m³), and the BMI (kg/m²), body fat percentage and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m²) were calculated. The rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped and physical activity assessed by accelerometry. Sex, duration of pregnancy, pubertal status, centre and physical activity were used as confounders in all the analyses. The minor A allele of the FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) but not with PI. Significant interactions between PI and the rs9939609 polymorphism in terms of body fat percentage (P = 0·002) and FMI (P = 0·017) were detected. However, this polymorphism was only significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) in adolescents in the lower PI tertile. Indeed, both body fat percentage and FMI were higher in those adolescents in the lower PI tertile carrying the A allele of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism than in those with the TT genotype (25·0 (se 0·8) v. 22·1 (se 1·0) %, adjusted P = 0·030 and 5·6 (se 0·3) v. 4·6 (se 0·4) kg/m2, P = 0·031, respectively). Our findings suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the A risk allele of the FTO polymorphism on total adiposity content.

  7. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part I: effects of wind and body movement on total insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Chengjiao

    2015-10-01

    In this serial study, 486 thermal manikin tests were carried out to examine the effects of air velocity and walking speed on both total and local clothing thermal insulations. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., one, two, or three layers) were selected for the study. Three different wind speeds (0.15, 1.55, 4.0 m/s) and three levels of walking speed (0, 0.75, 1.2 m/s) were chosen. Thus, there are totally nine different testing conditions. The clothing total insulation and local clothing insulation at different body parts under those nine conditions were determined. In part I, empirical equations for estimating total resultant clothing insulation as a function of the static thermal insulation, relative air velocity, and walking speed were developed. In part II, the local thermal insulation of various garments was analyzed and correction equations on local resultant insulation for each body part were developed. This study provides critical database for potential applications in thermal comfort study, modeling of human thermal strain, and functional clothing design and engineering.

  8. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part I: effects of wind and body movement on total insulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Chengjiao

    2015-10-01

    In this serial study, 486 thermal manikin tests were carried out to examine the effects of air velocity and walking speed on both total and local clothing thermal insulations. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., one, two, or three layers) were selected for the study. Three different wind speeds (0.15, 1.55, 4.0 m/s) and three levels of walking speed (0, 0.75, 1.2 m/s) were chosen. Thus, there are totally nine different testing conditions. The clothing total insulation and local clothing insulation at different body parts under those nine conditions were determined. In part I, empirical equations for estimating total resultant clothing insulation as a function of the static thermal insulation, relative air velocity, and walking speed were developed. In part II, the local thermal insulation of various garments was analyzed and correction equations on local resultant insulation for each body part were developed. This study provides critical database for potential applications in thermal comfort study, modeling of human thermal strain, and functional clothing design and engineering.

  9. Trade-off of ovarian lipids and total body lipids for fecundity and starvation resistance in tropical populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kalra, B; Parkash, R

    2014-11-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, clines of starvation resistance along a latitudinal gradient (south to north) have been reported in India, which matched with their cline for total body lipids (TL ). Nevertheless, producing too many reserves is likely to be costly and a trade-off might exist with life-history traits. Previous studies on starvation resistance and life-history traits of D. melanogaster have mainly focused on quantification of total body lipids, instead of separating ovarian lipids from total body lipids. In the present study, we have quantified absolute ovarian lipids (OL ) versus absolute body lipids excluding ovarian lipids (BL ) and examined associations with fecundity as well as starvation resistance in two latitudinal populations (8.34 vs. 32.43°N) of D. melanogaster. Firstly, we observed a trade-off between BL and OL that matched the trade-off of starvation resistance, longevity versus fecundity and development time in latitudinal populations of D. melanogaster. Southern populations had higher starvation resistance, more BL and lesser OL, whereas northern populations had enhanced fecundity, OL and lesser BL . Secondly, within population, starvation resistance also correlated with BL , and fecundity with OL . However, there was no correlation between starvation resistance and OL . Moreover, there was utilization of BL and nonutilization of OL under starvation stress. Therefore, resources invested for fecundity in the form of OL were independent of evolved starvation resistance in D. melanogaster. Our results suggest that a common pool of energy storage compounds (lipids) are allocated differentially between fecundity and starvation resistance and are consistent with Y-model of resource allocation.

  10. Microbial quality of lamb carcasses during processing and the acridine orange direct count technique (a modified DEFT) for rapid enumeration of total viable counts.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M L; Sheridan, J J; McGuire, L

    1997-04-29

    This study was designed to set up a hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system for sheep slaughtering operations at four different plants in Ireland and to determine the differences between plants in terms of microbial contamination. A single carcass area, the abdomen, was examined by swabbing and a microbiological profile was determined at different stages along the slaughter line. The level of contamination was assessed from the total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria spp. For the total counts, a modified direct epifluorescent filter technique (acridine orange direct count technique (AODC)) was developed and tested. No significant differences were found among plants in the levels of bacterial contamination. This was observed for all groups of organisms. The rapid direct technique (AODC) was found to be very successful. A correlation coefficient of 0.87 was obtained for this method and the standard plate count. Each test could be carried out in about 10-15 min and could be used to predict the standard plate count.

  11. Cyclic voltammetric determination of free and total sulfite in muscle foods using an acetylferrocene-carbon black-poly(vinyl butyral) modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Xu, Lei

    2014-10-22

    A novel method for the selective extraction of free (pH 8.4) and total sulfite (pH 11.0) from muscle foods and the following determination by a voltammetric sensor was reported. The proposed method was based on the eletrocatalytic oxidation of sulfite at modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) fabricated by immobilizing 9 μg of acetylferrocene on the surface of GCE along with 35 μg of carbon black to improve the electron transfer within poly(vinyl butyral) membrane matrix. The external standard calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.03-4.0 mmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 15 μmol L(-1). This method had been applied to the determination of free and total sulfite in shrimp muscle fortified samples and compared with an ion chromatography method. The proposed electrode and analysis methods were proven to be sensitive, accurate, and rapid and exhibited very good reproducibility and stability under the used conditions.

  12. Differential impact of hepatic deficiency and total body inhibition of MTP on cholesterol metabolism and RCT in mice.

    PubMed

    Dikkers, Arne; Annema, Wijtske; de Boer, Jan Freark; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2014-05-01

    Because apoB-containing lipoproteins are pro-atherogenic and their secretion by liver and intestine largely depends on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity, MTP inhibition strategies are actively pursued. How decreasing the secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins affects intracellular rerouting of cholesterol is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of reducing either systemic or liver-specific MTP activity on cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) using a pharmacological MTP inhibitor or a genetic model, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were decreased in both MTP inhibitor-treated and liver-specific MTP knockout (L-Mttp(-/-)) mice (each P < 0.001). With both inhibition approaches, hepatic cholesterol as well as triglyceride content was consistently increased (each P < 0.001), while biliary cholesterol and bile acid secretion remained unchanged. A small but significant decrease in fecal bile acid excretion was observed in inhibitor-treated mice (P < 0.05), whereas fecal neutral sterol excretion was substantially increased by 75% (P < 0.001), conceivably due to decreased intestinal absorption. In contrast, in L-Mttp(-/-) mice both fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion remained unchanged. However, while total RCT increased in inhibitor-treated mice (P < 0.01), it surprisingly decreased in L-Mttp(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that: i) pharmacological MTP inhibition increases RCT, an effect that might provide additional clinical benefit of MTP inhibitors; and ii) decreasing hepatic MTP decreases RCT, pointing toward a potential contribution of hepatocyte-derived VLDLs to RCT.

  13. [Intracardial fungal multiplication of order Mucor in an almost totally carbonised part of a male body found after ten days missing].

    PubMed

    Iannaccone, Silvia Farkašová; Klán, Jaroslav; Lamps, Laura W; Farkaš, Daniel; Švajdler Ml, Marián; Szabo, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Determination of time of death belongs to the most difficult and also the most important issues for the medical examiners, especially those who deal with violent death. Besides the most frequently evaluated postmortal changes it is sometimes possible to perform the evaluation on the basis of less frequently observed findings. One of such findings is for example the fungal multiplication on the body or in the very close vicinity. Knowledge of moulds as well as information about their speed of growth should contribute to confirmation or negation of some information gained during police investigation. In this case report authors describe the macroscopically visible fungal intracardiac multiplication in heart chambers and aorta in an almost totally carbonised body which was missing for only ten days. Based on the molecular examination it was detected that the body belonged to the 64-year-old man who was repeatedly hospitalised in psychiatry for depression with suicidal tendencies. The last hospitalisation was six weeks before death and there was no organic disability. The cause of fire was a naked flame. The cause of death was burn injury or asphyxia. The almost total carbonisation did not allow to perform toxicological investigation. By histological investigation we found the presence of wide long non-septate moulds growing in the heart muscle, which belonged to the order Mucor. Since there was no obvious inflammatory response, we suppose their growth started on the congealed blood after death. PMID:27526266

  14. Total-body irradiation with high-LET particles: acute and chronic effects on the immune system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Although the immune system is highly susceptible to radiation-induced damage, consequences of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation remain unclear. This study evaluated the effects of 0.1 gray (Gy), 0.5 Gy, and 2.0 Gy iron ion (56Fe(26)) radiation on lymphoid cells and organs of C57BL/6 mice on days 4 and 113 after whole body exposure; a group irradiated with 2.0 Gy silicon ions (28Si) was euthanized on day 113. On day 4 after 56Fe irradiation, dose-dependent decreases were noted in spleen and thymus masses and all major leukocyte populations in blood and spleen. The CD19(+) B lymphocytes were most radiosensitive and NK1.1(+) natural killer (NK) cells were most resistant. CD3(+) T cells were moderately radiosensitive and a greater loss of CD3(+)/CD8(+) T(C) cells than CD3(+)/CD4(+) T(H) cells was noted. Basal DNA synthesis was elevated on day 4, but response to mitogens and secretion of interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were unaffected. Signs of anemia were noted. By day 113, high B cell numbers and low T(C) cell and monocyte percents were found in the 2.0 Gy 56Fe group; the 2.0 Gy 2)Si mice had low NK cells, decreased basal DNA synthesis, and a somewhat increased response to two mitogens. Collectively, the data show that lymphoid cells and tissues are markedly affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation at relatively low doses, that some aberrations persist long after exposure, and that different consequences may be induced by various densely ionizing particles. Thus simultaneous exposure to multiple radiation sources could lead to a broader spectrum of immune dysfunction than currently anticipated.

  15. Simultaneous individually controlled upper and lower body perfusion for valve-sparing root and total aortic arch replacement: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Philip; Mayer, Rick; Adams, Corey; Chu, Michael W A

    2011-12-01

    Optimal perfusion strategies for extensive aortic resection in patients with mega-aortic syndromes include: tailored myocardial preservation, antegrade cerebral perfusion, controlled hypothermia and selective organ perfusion. Typically, the aortic arch resection and elephant trunk procedure are performed under hypothermic circulatory arrest with myocardial and cerebral protection. However, mesenteric and systemic ischemia occur during circulatory arrest and commonly rely upon deep hypothermia alone for metabolic protection. We hypothesized that simultaneously controlled mesenteric and systemic perfusion can attenuate some of the metabolic debt accrued during circulatory arrest, which may help improve perioperative outcomes. The perfusion strategy consisted of delivering a 1 to 3 liter per minute flow at 25 degrees C to the head/upper body via right axillary graft and simultaneous perfusion to the lower body/ mesenteric organs of 1 to 3 liters per minute at 30 degrees C via a right femoral arterial graft. We describe our technique of simultaneous mesenteric, systemic, cerebral and myocardial perfusion, and protection utilized for a young male patient with Marfan's syndrome, while undergoing a valve sparing root replacement, total arch replacement and elephant trunk reconstruction. This perfusion technique allowed us to deliver differential flow rates and temperatures to the upper and lower body (cold head/warm lower body perfusion) to minimize ischemic debt and quickly reverse metabolic derangements. PMID:22416605

  16. SU-E-T-515: Field-In-Field Compensation Technique Using Multi-Leaf Collimator to Deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Lakeman, T; Wang, IZ

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been used conventionally to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern field-in-field (FIF) technique with the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the FIF technique to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Treatment fields include one pair of opposed open large fields (collimator=45°) with a specific weighting and a succession of smaller fields (collimator=90°) each with their own weighting. The smaller fields are shaped by moving MLC to block the sections of the patient which have already received close to 100% of the prescribed dose. The weighting factors for each of these fields were calculated using the attenuation coefficient of the initial lead compensators and the separation of the patient in different positions in the axial plane. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the FIF compensation technique. The maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 179.3% to 148.2% in the FIF plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the FIF compensation. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits and exceeded those of the original lead compensation plan by less than 50 MU (only ~1.1% increase). Conclusion: MLC FIF technique for TBI will not significantly increase the beam on time while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup time and the potential risk of errors in manually placing lead compensators.

  17. Postoperative Complications and Cost-effectiveness of Simultaneous and Staged Bilateral Total Hip Arthroplasty Using a Modified Minimally Invasive Two-incision Technique

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Jong Hwan; Park, Kyung Soon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the postoperative complications and cost-effectiveness of simultaneous and staged bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA), using a minimally invasive two-incision technique. Materials and Methods All 206 patients who underwent simultaneous or staged bilateral THA using a modified, minimally invasive two-incision between January 2004 and November 2009 were registered and divided into a simultaneous bilateral THA group (group A, 147 patients) and staged bilateral THA group (group B: 59 patients). Staged THA was performed on group B with interval of at least 2 months between the initial and second surgery. Clinical evaluations, amount of blood loss, need for transfusion, complications and costeffectiveness were compared. Results Perioperative morbidity rates were similar in the two groups (P=0.546) and overall complications were not significant between the groups. Average length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in group A than in group B (average 14.6 days vs. 25.3 days; P<0.001). Total medical cost was significantly higher in group B than in group A (average 9,236 US dollars vs. 11,163 US dollars). Patients in group A required more blood transfusions than those in group B (3.02 vs. 1.90 units; P=0.003), although blood loss in the two groups were similar (892 vs. 917 ml P=0.613). Conclusion Comparison of intra- and postoperative complications support the conclusion that simultaneous bilateral THA compares favorably with staged THA in terms of outcomes, complications and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27536607

  18. Effects of propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia on recurrence and overall survival in patients after modified radical mastectomy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok Hee; Kim, Yunkwang; Kim, Hyun Ah; Kim, Bong Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal combination of anesthetic agent and technique may have an influence on long-term outcomes in cancer surgery. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that propofol independently reduces migration of cancer cells and metastasis. Thus, the authors retrospectively examined the link between propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and recurrence or overall survival in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods A retrospective analysis of the electronic database of all patients undergoing MRM for breast cancer between January 2007 and December 2008 was undertaken. Patients received either propofol-based TIVA (propofol group) or sevoflurane-based anesthesia (sevoflurane group). We analyzed prognostic factors of breast cancer and perioperative factors and compared recurrence-free survival and overall survival between propofol and sevoflurane groups. Results A total of 363 MRMs were carried out during the period of the trial; 325 cases were suitable for analysis (173 cases of propofol group, and 152 cases of sevoflurane group). There were insignificant differences between the groups in age, weight, height, histopathologic results, surgical time, or postoperative treatment (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy). The use of opioids during the perioperative period was greater in propofol group than in sevoflurane group. Overall survival was no difference between the two groups. Propofol group showed a lower rate of cancer recurrence (P = 0.037), with an estimated hazard ratio of 0.550 (95% CI 0.311–0.973). Conclusions This retrospective study provides the possibility that propofol-based TIVA for breast cancer surgery can reduce the risk of recurrence during the initial 5 years after MRM. PMID:27066202

  19. Surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of total aflatoxins from wheat samples after magnetic solid-phase extraction using modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manafi, Mohammad Hanif; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh

    2015-07-01

    The extraction and preconcentration of total aflatoxins (including aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2) using magnetic nanoparticles based solid phase extraction (MSPE) followed by surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection was proposed. Ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient antibody-free adsorbent was successfully applied to extract aflatoxins from wheat samples. High surface area and strong magnetization properties of magnetic nanoparticles were utilized to achieve high enrichment factor (97), and satisfactory recoveries (92-105%) using only 100 mg of the adsorbent. Furthermore, the fast separation time (less than 10 min) avoids many time-consuming cartridge loading or column-passing procedures accompany with the conventional SPE. In determination step, signal enhancement was performed by formation of Triton X-100 micelles around the analytes in 15% (v/v) acetonitrile-water which dramatically increase the sensitivity of the method. Main factors affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement of the analytes including pH of sample solution, desorption conditions, extraction time, sample volume, adsorbent amount, surfactant concentration and volume and time of micelle formation were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, wide linear range of 0.1-50 ng mL-1 with low detection limit of 0.03 ng mL-1 were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxins in three commercially available wheat samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  20. Surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of total aflatoxins from wheat samples after magnetic solid-phase extraction using modified Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manafi, Mohammad Hanif; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh

    2015-07-01

    The extraction and preconcentration of total aflatoxins (including aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2) using magnetic nanoparticles based solid phase extraction (MSPE) followed by surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection was proposed. Ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient antibody-free adsorbent was successfully applied to extract aflatoxins from wheat samples. High surface area and strong magnetization properties of magnetic nanoparticles were utilized to achieve high enrichment factor (97), and satisfactory recoveries (92-105%) using only 100mg of the adsorbent. Furthermore, the fast separation time (less than 10 min) avoids many time-consuming cartridge loading or column-passing procedures accompany with the conventional SPE. In determination step, signal enhancement was performed by formation of Triton X-100 micelles around the analytes in 15% (v/v) acetonitrile-water which dramatically increase the sensitivity of the method. Main factors affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement of the analytes including pH of sample solution, desorption conditions, extraction time, sample volume, adsorbent amount, surfactant concentration and volume and time of micelle formation were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, wide linear range of 0.1-50 ng mL(-1) with low detection limit of 0.03 ng mL(-1) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxins in three commercially available wheat samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  1. Mean Expected Error in Prediction of Total Body Water: A True Accuracy Comparison between Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Single Frequency Regression Equations

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Shirin; Abtahi, Farhad; Ellegård, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Bosaeus, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    For several decades electrical bioimpedance (EBI) has been used to assess body fluid distribution and body composition. Despite the development of several different approaches for assessing total body water (TBW), it remains uncertain whether bioimpedance spectroscopic (BIS) approaches are more accurate than single frequency regression equations. The main objective of this study was to answer this question by calculating the expected accuracy of a single measurement for different EBI methods. The results of this study showed that all methods produced similarly high correlation and concordance coefficients, indicating good accuracy as a method. Even the limits of agreement produced from the Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the performance of single frequency, Sun's prediction equations, at population level was close to the performance of both BIS methods; however, when comparing the Mean Absolute Percentage Error value between the single frequency prediction equations and the BIS methods, a significant difference was obtained, indicating slightly better accuracy for the BIS methods. Despite the higher accuracy of BIS methods over 50 kHz prediction equations at both population and individual level, the magnitude of the improvement was small. Such slight improvement in accuracy of BIS methods is suggested insufficient to warrant their clinical use where the most accurate predictions of TBW are required, for example, when assessing over-fluidic status on dialysis. To reach expected errors below 4-5%, novel and individualized approaches must be developed to improve the accuracy of bioimpedance-based methods for the advent of innovative personalized health monitoring applications. PMID:26137489

  2. Total body water and water turnover rates in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) during the transition from dormancy to activity.

    PubMed

    Harden, Leigh Anne; Duernberger, Kimberly Anne; Jones, T Todd; Williard, Amanda Southwood

    2014-12-15

    Water and salt concentrations in an animal's body fluids can fluctuate with changing environmental conditions, posing osmoregulatory challenges that require behavioral and physiological adjustments. The purpose of this study was to investigate body water dynamics in the estuarine diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), a species that undergoes seasonal dormancy in salt marsh habitats. We conducted a field study to determine the total body water (%TBW), water turnover rate (WTR) and daily water flux (DWF) of female terrapins in south eastern North Carolina pre- and post-emergence from winter dormancy. Terrapins were injected with [(2)H]deuterium on two occasions and washout of the isotope was monitored by taking successive blood samples during the period of transition from dormancy to activity. The WTR and DWF of dormant terrapins were significantly lower than those of active terrapins (WTR(dormant)=49.70±15.94 ml day(-1), WTR(active)=100.20±20.36 ml day(-1), DWF(dormant)=10.52±2.92%TBW day(-1), DWF(active)=21.84±7.30%TBW day(-1)). There was no significant difference in %TBW between dormant and active terrapins (75.05±6.19% and 74.54±4.36%, respectively). The results from this field study provide insight into the terrapin's ability to maintain osmotic homeostasis while experiencing shifts in behavioral and environmental conditions. PMID:25394625

  3. The effects of different schedules of total-body irradiation in heterotopic vascularized bone transplantation. An experimental study in the Lewis rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J. )

    1990-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of irradiation on heterotopically placed vascularized knee isografts, a single dose of 10 Gy of total-body irradiation was given to Lewis donor rats. Irradiation was delivered either 2 or 6 days prior to harvesting or subsequent transplantation, and evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after grafting. Irradiation caused endothelial depopulation of the graft artery, although vascular pedicle patency was maintained throughout the study. Bone graft viability and mineralization were normal. Dramatic changes in the bone marrow were seen that included an increase of its fat content (P less than 0.001), and a concomitant decrease in bone marrow-derived immunocompetent cells. These changes were more prominent in recipients of grafts from day -6 irradiated donor rats. Total-body irradiation did not prejudice the use of vascularized bone grafts, and exhibited an associated immunosuppresant effect over the vascular endothelium and bone marrow. This may be a further rational conditioning procedure to avoid recipient manipulation in vascularized bone allotransplantation.

  4. Continuous infusion cyclophosphamide and low-dose total body irradiation is a safe and effective conditioning regimen for autologous transplant in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Byrne, M; Wingard, J R; Moreb, J S

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a novel conditioning regimen in multiple myeloma (MM) patients undergoing tandem autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). MM patients were enrolled in a prospective phase II clinical trial. After initial ASCT, disease response was assessed by day +100. Patients achieving very good partial remission (VGPR) were offered maintenance therapy. If patients achieved VGPR, they were offered a second ASCT using continuous intravenous cyclophosphamide (CICy) 6 g/m(2) over 4 days and low-dose total body irradiation (ldTBI) 600 rads over 2 days. Total body irradiation was replaced by melphalan 140 mg/m(2) if patients had received prior radiation. Twenty-one patients received tandem ASCT. Three patients received CICy and melphalan. Median duration of neutropenia with CICy/ldTBI was 11 days. Fifteen patients (71.4%) developed febrile neutropenia while grade 1 to 2 diarrhea was the next most common adverse event (42.9%). There was no treatment-related mortality. Four patients had entered complete remission (19%) and 6 achieved VGPR (28.6%). In conclusion, this conditioning regimen is safe and effective and may be useful in patients who do not benefit from first ASCT using more traditional conditioning regimen.

  5. Total body carbon and oxygen masses: evaluation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry estimation by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZiMian; Pierson, Richard N., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon are the first and second abundant elements, respectively, in the human body by mass. Although many physiological and pathological processes are accompanied with alteration of total body oxygen (TBO) and carbon (TBC) masses, in vivo measurements of the two elements are limited. Up to now, almost all available information of TBC and TBO is based on in vivo neutron activation (IVNA) analysis which is very expensive and involves moderate radiation exposure. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate an alternative strategy for TBC and TBO estimation. Mechanistic models were derived for predicting TBC and TBO masses from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and total body water (TBW). Twenty-eight adult subjects were studied. IVNA-measured TBC and TBO masses were used as the criterion. TBC masses predicted by DXA-alone and by DXA-TBW models were 20.8 ± 7.1 kg and 20.6 ± 6.8 kg, respectively, close to the IVNA-measured value (19.5 ± 6.3 kg). There were strong correlations (both with r > 0.95, P < 0.001) between the predicted and measured TBC masses. TBO masses predicted by DXA-alone and by DXA-TBW models were 46.0 ± 9.8 kg and 46.5 ± 9.9 kg, respectively, close to the IVNA-measured value (48.0 ± 10.4 kg). Correlations (both with r > 0.97, P < 0.001) were strong between the predicted and measured TBO masses. Bland-Altman analysis validated the applicability of DXA-based models to predict TBC and TBO masses. As both DXA and TBW dilutions are widely available, low-risk, low-cost techniques, the present study provides a safe and practical method for estimating elemental composition in vivo.

  6. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of the Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Sixteen Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Varshney, Vinay K; Harsh, N S K; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The fruiting bodies and the submerged cultured mycelia of 16 higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms- Agaricus bisporus, Armillaria mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinus tigrinus, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Phellinus linteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Polyporus arcularius, Russula brevipes, Schizophyllum commune, Sparassis crispa, and Spongipellis unicolor-from different taxonomic groups were examined for their antioxidant capacity (AOXC) and total phenolics content (TPC). Extraction of the freeze-dried and pulverized fruiting bodies and mycelia with methanol and water (8:2, v/v), followed by evaporation of the solvent under a vacuum, created their extracts, which were analyzed for their AOXC and TPC using a DPPH· scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The fruiting bodies and the culture mycelia of all the mushroom species exhibited varied antioxidant capacity; however, the fruiting bodies had more potent DPPH· scavenging than the corresponding mycelia irrespective of the mushroom species, as evident by the effective concentrations of extract that scavenges 50% of DPPH· (EC50) of the former (0.56-1.24 mg mL-1) being lower than those of the latter (2.51-8.39 mg mL-1). TPC in the fruiting bodies (6.08-24.85 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE] g-1) were higher than those in the mycelia (4.17-13.34 mg GAE g-1). AOXC of the fruiting bodies (r = -0.755) and the culture mycelia (r = -0.903) also was correlated to their TPC. Among the cultured mycelia, A. bisporus, A. mellea, L. tigrinus, P. ostreatus, and S. crispa were highly promising in terms of their highest TPC (10.55, 13.34, 11.00, 10.37, and 10.19 mg GAE g-1, respectively) and the lowest EC50 values (3.33, 2.85, 2.51, 3.65, and 3.17 mg mL-1, respectively) as they relate to the development of antioxidants.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of the Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Sixteen Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Varshney, Vinay K; Harsh, N S K; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The fruiting bodies and the submerged cultured mycelia of 16 higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms- Agaricus bisporus, Armillaria mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinus tigrinus, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Phellinus linteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Polyporus arcularius, Russula brevipes, Schizophyllum commune, Sparassis crispa, and Spongipellis unicolor-from different taxonomic groups were examined for their antioxidant capacity (AOXC) and total phenolics content (TPC). Extraction of the freeze-dried and pulverized fruiting bodies and mycelia with methanol and water (8:2, v/v), followed by evaporation of the solvent under a vacuum, created their extracts, which were analyzed for their AOXC and TPC using a DPPH· scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The fruiting bodies and the culture mycelia of all the mushroom species exhibited varied antioxidant capacity; however, the fruiting bodies had more potent DPPH· scavenging than the corresponding mycelia irrespective of the mushroom species, as evident by the effective concentrations of extract that scavenges 50% of DPPH· (EC50) of the former (0.56-1.24 mg mL-1) being lower than those of the latter (2.51-8.39 mg mL-1). TPC in the fruiting bodies (6.08-24.85 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE] g-1) were higher than those in the mycelia (4.17-13.34 mg GAE g-1). AOXC of the fruiting bodies (r = -0.755) and the culture mycelia (r = -0.903) also was correlated to their TPC. Among the cultured mycelia, A. bisporus, A. mellea, L. tigrinus, P. ostreatus, and S. crispa were highly promising in terms of their highest TPC (10.55, 13.34, 11.00, 10.37, and 10.19 mg GAE g-1, respectively) and the lowest EC50 values (3.33, 2.85, 2.51, 3.65, and 3.17 mg mL-1, respectively) as they relate to the development of antioxidants. PMID:26756185

  8. PEI modified Leucaena leucocephala seed powder, a potential biosorbent for the decontamination of arsenic species from water bodies: bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Kumar Rohit; Kardam, Abhishek; Srivastava, Shalini

    2013-03-01

    Environmental contamination due to anthropogenic and natural sources is increasing day by day because of increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. Arsenic species released into the environment tend to persist indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain, thus becoming a serious threat to the environment. The present study explores the effectiveness of Leucaena leucocephala seed powder (agricultural waste) in removing arsenic ions from aqueous solution. Batch studies were carried out to characterize As (III) and As (V) removal capability of L. leucocephala seed powder. Maximum biosorption capacity for As (III) and As (V) was found to be 81.88 and 92.61 %, respectively. Amino acid-arsenic interaction has been highlighted on the basis of shifting of FTIR bands of native LLSP. Morphological changes and reduction in pore area have been observed in modified LLSP. Modification on the native LLSP results into the increase in percentage sorption of As (III) and As (V) up to 85 and 99 %, respectively. Enhancement in the percentage sorption is due the increase in the stability of the biosorbent due to increase in the final decomposition temperature of the modified LLSP. The findings showed that L. leucocephala seed powder can easily be envisaged as a new, vibrant, low-cost biosorbent for arsenic clean-up operations.

  9. Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in a Murine Model of the H-ARS: Multiple-Organ Injury Consequent to <10 Gy Total Body Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Unthank, Joseph L; Miller, Steven J; Quickery, Ariel K; Ferguson, Ethan L; Wang, Meijing; Sampson, Carol H; Chua, Hui Lin; DiStasi, Matthew R; Feng, Hailin; Fisher, Alexa; Katz, Barry P; Plett, P Artur; Sandusky, George E; Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Vemula, Sasidhar; Cohen, Eric P; MacVittie, Thomas J; Orschell, Christie M

    2015-11-01

    The threat of radiation exposure from warfare or radiation accidents raises the need for appropriate animal models to study the acute and chronic effects of high dose rate radiation exposure. The goal of this study was to assess the late development of fibrosis in multiple organs (kidney, heart, and lung) in survivors of the C57BL/6 mouse model of the hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). Separate groups of mice for histological and functional studies were exposed to a single uniform total body dose between 8.53 and 8.72 Gy of gamma radiation from a Cs radiation source and studied 1-21 mo later. Blood urea nitrogen levels were elevated significantly in the irradiated mice at 9 and 21 mo (from ∼22 to 34 ± 3.8 and 69 ± 6.0 mg dL, p < 0.01 vs. non-irradiated controls) and correlated with glomerosclerosis (29 ± 1.8% vs. 64 ± 9.7% of total glomeruli, p < 0.01 vs. non-irradiated controls). Glomerular tubularization and hypertrophy and tubular atrophy were also observed at 21 mo post-total body irradiation (TBI). An increase in interstitial, perivascular, pericardial and peribronchial fibrosis/collagen deposition was observed from ∼9-21 mo post-TBI in kidney, heart, and lung of irradiated mice relative to age-matched controls. Echocardiography suggested decreased ventricular volumes with a compensatory increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction. The results indicate that significant delayed effects of acute radiation exposure occur in kidney, heart, and lung in survivors of the murine H-ARS TBI model, which mirrors pathology detected in larger species and humans at higher radiation doses focused on specific organs.

  10. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L; Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20-120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.

  11. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T.; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L.; Migrino, Raymond Q.; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W.; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E.; Baker, John E.

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20–120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.

  12. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T.; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L.; Migrino, Raymond Q.; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W.; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; et al

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9more » days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20–120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.« less

  13. The ability of filgrastim to mitigate mortality following LD50/60 total-body irradiation is administration time-dependent.

    PubMed

    Farese, Ann M; Brown, Cassandra R; Smith, Cassandra P; Gibbs, Allison M; Katz, Barry P; Johnson, Cynthia S; Prado, Karl L; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the optimal administration schedule for an effective medical countermeasure is critical for the effective treatment of individuals exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. The efficacy of filgrastim (Neupogen®), a potential medical countermeasure, to improve survival when initiated at 48 h following total body irradiation in a non-human primate model of the hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome was investigated. Animals were exposed to total body irradiation, antero-posterior exposure, total midline tissue dose of 7.5 Gy, (target lethal dose 50/60) delivered at 0.80 Gy min, using linear accelerator-derived 6 MV photons. All animals were administered medical management. Following irradiation on day 0, filgrastim (10 μg kg d) or the control (5% dextrose in water) was administered subcutaneously daily through effect (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1,000 cells μL for three consecutive days). The study (n = 80) was powered to demonstrate a 25% improvement in survival following the administration of filgrastim or control beginning at 48 ± 4 h post-irradiation. Survival analysis was conducted on the intention-to-treat population using a two-tailed null hypothesis at a 5% significance level. Filgrastim, initiated 48 h after irradiation, did not improve survival (2.5% increase, p = 0.8230). These data demonstrate that efficacy of a countermeasure to mitigate lethality in the hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome can be dependent on the interval between irradiation and administration of the medical countermeasure.

  14. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L; Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20-120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease. PMID:26171225

  15. Corrosion behavior of chromium and oxygen plasma-modified magnesium in sulfate solution and simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ruizhen; Wu, Guosong; Yang, Xiongbo; Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Zhengwei; Sun, Guangyong; Li, Guangyao; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-08-01

    Because of the unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility, magnesium and its alloys have large potential as lightweight structural materials in the industry in addition to being naturally degradable and resorbable biomaterials. However, their corrosion resistance is usually inadequate especially in an aqueous environment. In this work, pure magnesium is implanted with chromium and oxygen by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and the corrosion behavior is systematically investigated in simulated body fluid and sodium sulfate solution by polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Our results reveal that chromium and oxygen ion-implanted magnesium have a lower corrosion rate and exhibit less pitting corrosion in the two solutions.

  16. Clinical and biochemical outcomes for additive mesenteric and lower body perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest for complex total aortic arch replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cleland, A; Adams, C; Chu, M W A

    2012-11-01

    Surgical repair of transverse aortic arch aneurysms frequently employ hypothermia and antegrade cerebral perfusion as protective strategies during circulatory arrest. However, prolonged mesenteric and lower limb ischemia can lead to significant lactic acidosis and end organ dysfunction, which remains a significant cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality. We report our experience with additive warm mesenteric and lower body perfusion (1-3 L/min, 30°C) in addition to continuous cerebral and myocardial perfusion in 5 patients who underwent total aortic arch replacement with trifurcated head vessel re-implantation and distal elephant trunk reconstruction. Concomitant surgical procedures included re-operations (2), aortic root operations (2), coronary artery bypass (2) and descending thoracic aortic replacement (1). Serum lactate levels demonstrated a rapid decline from a peak 9.9 ± 2.6 post circulatory arrest to 3.4 ± 2.0 in the intensive care unit (ICU). The lowest serum bicarbonate levels were 19.3 ± 3.5 mmol/L, intra-operatively, which normalized to 28.4 ± 2.4 mmol/L on return to the ICU. The lowest pH levels were 7.25 ± 0.10, corrected to 7.43 ± 0.04 on return to the ICU. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 361 ± 104 and 253 ± 85 minutes, respectively. Mean cerebral and lower body circulatory arrest times were 0 (0) and 50 ± 35 minutes, respectively. The mean time required for systemic rewarming was 95 ± 66 minutes. There were no in-hospital mortalities and no patient experienced any neurological, mesenteric, renal or lower limb ischemic complications. Two patients required mechanical ventilation >24 hours, and one patient returned for reoperation for bleeding. Median intensive care unit and total hospital lengths of stay were 5 and 16 days, respectively. Our results suggest early serum lactate clearance, normalization of acidosis, and metabolic recovery when utilizing a simultaneous cerebral perfusion and warm body

  17. Effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference on total mortality risk in the Swedish National March Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bellocco, Rino; Jia, Chongqi; Ye, Weimin; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2010-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) have been well documented. However, there is less research investigating whether or not these health benefits might differ among males and females or among subjects characterized by different levels of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC). Baseline total PA, BMI, WHR and waist circumference were measured in 14,585 men and 26,144 women who participated in the Swedish National March. Their effects on all-cause mortality were analyzed with a follow-up time of almost 10 years. Sedentary men with a BMI ≥ 30 had a 98% (95% CI: 30-201%) increased risk of mortality compared to normal weight men with a high level of total PA. The same trend was observed for sedentary men with high WHR or waist circumference, compared to lean and highly active men. Sedentary women with a waist circumference of 88 cm or more had almost doubled, i.e. 97% (95% CI: 35-189%) increased mortality risk compared to physically active women with a waist circumference below 80 cm. BMI in men, but waist circumference in women better forecast all-cause mortality. We found no substantial effect modification between different measures of adiposity and physical activity-physical inactivity and obesity seem to increase total mortality risk independently and additively.

  18. Surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of total aflatoxins from wheat samples after magnetic solid-phase extraction using modified Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manafi, Mohammad Hanif; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh

    2015-07-01

    The extraction and preconcentration of total aflatoxins (including aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2) using magnetic nanoparticles based solid phase extraction (MSPE) followed by surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection was proposed. Ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient antibody-free adsorbent was successfully applied to extract aflatoxins from wheat samples. High surface area and strong magnetization properties of magnetic nanoparticles were utilized to achieve high enrichment factor (97), and satisfactory recoveries (92-105%) using only 100mg of the adsorbent. Furthermore, the fast separation time (less than 10 min) avoids many time-consuming cartridge loading or column-passing procedures accompany with the conventional SPE. In determination step, signal enhancement was performed by formation of Triton X-100 micelles around the analytes in 15% (v/v) acetonitrile-water which dramatically increase the sensitivity of the method. Main factors affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement of the analytes including pH of sample solution, desorption conditions, extraction time, sample volume, adsorbent amount, surfactant concentration and volume and time of micelle formation were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, wide linear range of 0.1-50 ng mL(-1) with low detection limit of 0.03 ng mL(-1) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxins in three commercially available wheat samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method. PMID:25804513

  19. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  20. American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) practice guideline for the performance of total body irradiation (TBI).

    PubMed

    Wolden, Suzanne L; Rabinovitch, Rachel A; Bittner, Nathan H J; Galvin, James M; Giap, Huan B; Schomberg, Paula J; Rosenthal, Seth A

    2013-02-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is a specialized radiotherapy technique. It is frequently used as a component of treatment plans involving hematopoietic stem cell transplant for a variety of disorders, most commonly hematologic malignancies. A variety of treatment delivery techniques, doses, and fractionation schemes can be utilized. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology and American Society for Radiation Oncology has produced a practice guideline for delivery of TBI. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist. Review of the typical indications for TBI is presented, and the importance of integrating TBI into the multimodality treatment plan is discussed. Procedures and special considerations related to the simulation, treatment planning, treatment delivery, and quality assurance for patients treated with TBI are reviewed. This practice guideline can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful TBI program.

  1. American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) practice guideline for the performance of total body irradiation (TBI).

    PubMed

    Wolden, Suzanne L; Rabinovitch, Rachel A; Bittner, Nathan H J; Galvin, James M; Giap, Huan B; Schomberg, Paula J; Rosenthal, Seth A

    2013-02-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is a specialized radiotherapy technique. It is frequently used as a component of treatment plans involving hematopoietic stem cell transplant for a variety of disorders, most commonly hematologic malignancies. A variety of treatment delivery techniques, doses, and fractionation schemes can be utilized. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology and American Society for Radiation Oncology has produced a practice guideline for delivery of TBI. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist. Review of the typical indications for TBI is presented, and the importance of integrating TBI into the multimodality treatment plan is discussed. Procedures and special considerations related to the simulation, treatment planning, treatment delivery, and quality assurance for patients treated with TBI are reviewed. This practice guideline can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful TBI program. PMID:23334484

  2. Master Amino acid Pattern as sole and total substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N; Karbalai, M; Valente, C; Moras, G

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a sole and total substitute of dietary proteins to 500 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' body nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP regimen, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, the sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also prevented were those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, and decreased libido. The use of MAP in conjunction with the ANC/OMP also allowed for mean weight loss of 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) per week, achieved through reduction of excessive fat tissue and elimination of excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment. PMID:14964347

  3. Fatal foreign-body granulomatous pulmonary embolization due to microcrystalline cellulose in a patient receiving total parenteral nutrition: all crystals are not what they seem.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Sarah; Pena, Elena; Walker, Alfredo E

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary foreign-body granulomatous embolization has been described secondary to crystal precipitation in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) as well as when pharmaceutical tablets are crushed and injected intravenously. Extensive granulomatous embolization may cause pulmonary hypertension and death due to acute cor pulmonale. We report the case of a 34-year old woman who had been receiving TPN post-operatively secondary to complications of a paraesophageal hernia repair. During and following receiving TPN, she experienced episodes of hypoxia, tachycardia, fever, and hypotension. Computed tomography scans of the thorax showed centrilobular nodules, tree-in-bud and ground-glass opacities, as well as findings of pulmonary hypertension. Following an episode of hypoxia she was found unresponsive and died despite resuscitative efforts. Microscopic examination of the lungs following post-mortem examination revealed occlusive granulomatous inflammation of the pulmonary arterial vasculature by crystalline material. The morphologic and histochemical patterns of the crystals were suggestive of microcrystalline cellulose, a finding that was confirmed by energy dispersive X-spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Ancillary tests did not support that the crystalline material was the result of TPN precipitation. Foreign-body granulomatous embolization leading to acute core pulmonale may occur as a complication of both intravenous injection of oral medications as well as of TPN crystallization. The source of crystalline material may be difficult to discern based solely on morphological assessment or by histochemical staining. Ancillary studies such as energy dispersive X-spectroscopy or infrared spectroscopy should be performed to definitively discern the two entities.

  4. Total half-body systemic irradiation for occult metastases in non-small cell lung cancer: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology group pilot report

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, O.M.; Scarantino, C.W.; Rubin, P.; Feldstein, M.L.; Keller, B.E.

    1980-11-01

    There is a high probability for patients with locally advanced, unresectable, nonmetastatic, nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma (NSCBC) to harbor subclinical distant metastases at diagnosis. Approximately 30% will disseminate in the first three months and an additional 50% will disseminate before a year has elapsed. Twenty advanced nonmetastatic patients wtith NSCBC were treated with localized split-course chest irradiation (LCI) plus total body (upper and lower half-body) irradiation for occult metastases. Thirty equally advanced, nonmetastatic patients, who were treated with only localized split-course chest irradiation, were matched and served as a retrospective control group. Apparently, the median recurrence free survival, metastatic free interval, and median survival were significantly prolonged, and there was a decrease in the incidence of liver metastases in patients receiving HBI for occult metastases over the patients of the control group. Although elective HBI seems to delay the appearance of distant metastases, it did not prevent their occurrence, alter patterns of first relapse, or significantly improve the overall survival. Nevertheless, a therapeutic gain may have been achieved and is discussed. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis with 800 rad of UHBI corrected for lung transmission was 9%. A hypothesis and a rationale for a more effective combined modality therapy in these patients is given.

  5. Total Body Water, Electrolyte, and Thermoregulatory Responses to Ad Libitum Water Replacement Using Two Different Water Delivery Systems During a 19-km Route March.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Nolte, Kim; van der Meulen, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Hands-free hydration systems are often advocated for improved hydration and performance in military populations. The aim was to assess whether such systems indeed result in improved hydration in exercising soldiers. Subjects were required to complete a route march while consuming water ad libitum from either a hydration bladder (BG) or traditional canteen (CG). Water intakes of 538 ml·h⁻¹ (BG) and 533 ml·h⁻¹ (CG) resulted in no differences for changes in body mass, serum [Na], plasma osmolality, total body water, or time required to complete the march. There were no differences between peak exercise core temperature of the BG (38.9° C) and CG (38.7° C) groups. There were no differences between the groups for fluid balance, thermoregulation, or performance. This is a not a surprising finding because the amount of fluid consumed ad libitum is determined by changes in serum osmolality and not the fluid delivery system as often proposed. PMID:26506205

  6. Morbidity and mortality reduction by supplemental vitamin A or beta-carotene in CBA mice given total-body gamma-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Seifter, E.; Rettura, G.; Padawer, J.; Stratford, F.; Weinzweig, J.; Demetriou, A.A.; Levenson, S.M.

    1984-11-01

    Male CBA mice received graded doses (450-750 rad) of total-body gamma-radiation (TBR) from a dual-beam /sup 137/Cs irradiator. Commencing directly after TBR, 2 days later, or 6 days later, groups of mice received supplemental vitamin A (Vit A) or beta-carotene (beta-Car), compounds previously found to reduce radiation disease in mice subjected to partial-body X-irradiation. Given directly after TBR, supplemental Vit A decreased mortality, evidenced by increases in the radiation dose required to kill 50% of the mice within 30 days (LD50/30). In one experiment, Vit A increased the LD50/30 from 555 to 620 rad; in another experiment, Vit A increased the dose from 505 to 630 rad. Similarly, in a third experiment, supplemental beta-Car increased the LD50/30 from 510 to 645 rad. Additionally, each compound increased the survival times, even of those mice that died within 30 days. In addition to reduction of mortality and prolongation of survival time, supplemental Vit A moderated weight loss, adrenal gland hyperemia, thymus involution, and lymphopenia--all signs of radiation toxicity. Delaying the supplementation for 2 days after irradiation did not greatly reduce the efficacy of Vit A; however, delaying supplementation for 6 days decreased its effect almost completely.

  7. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks123

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants’ usual diets. Objective: This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Methods: Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Results: Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P < 0.05) with changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P < 0.05) among groups that consumed <1.0 (n = 43) vs. ≥1.0 to <1.2 (n = 29) vs. ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 (n = 45). The TPro group with ≥1.0 to <1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 reduced FM and %FM and increased percentage of LM (%LM) compared with the lowest TPro group, whereas the TPro group with ≥1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1 presented intermediate responses on changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. Conclusions: In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. PMID:26246322

  8. Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin E-mail: hu@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl

    2015-09-01

    We present a description for setting initial particle displacements and field values for simulations of arbitrary metric theories of gravity, for perfect and imperfect fluids with arbitrary characteristics. We extend the Zel'dovich Approximation to nontrivial theories of gravity, and show how scale dependence implies curved particle paths, even in the entirely linear regime of perturbations. For a viable choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, initial conditions set at high redshifts are affected at the level of up to 5% at Mpc scales, which exemplifies the importance of going beyond Λ-Cold Dark Matter initial conditions for modifications of gravity outside of the quasi-static approximation. In addition, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description. Our description paves the way for simulations and mock galaxy catalogs under theories of gravity beyond the standard model, crucial for progress towards precision tests of gravity and cosmology.

  9. Variation in the FFAR1 Gene Modifies BMI, Body Composition and Beta-Cell Function in Overweight Subjects: An Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Celia G.; Goff, Louise; Bluck, Les J.; Griffin, Bruce A.; Jebb, Susan A.; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Sanders, Thomas A. B.; Frost, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Background FFAR1 receptor is a long chain fatty acid G-protein coupled receptor which is expressed widely, but found in high density in the pancreas and central nervous system. It has been suggested that FFAR1 may play a role in insulin sensitivity, lipotoxicity and is associated with type 2 diabetes. Here we investigate the effect of three common SNPs of FFAR1 (rs2301151; rs16970264; rs1573611) on pancreatic function, BMI, body composition and plasma lipids. Methodology/Principal Findings For this enquiry we used the baseline RISCK data, which provides a cohort of overweight subjects at increased cardiometabolic risk with detailed phenotyping. The key findings were SNPs of the FFAR1 gene region were associated with differences in body composition and lipids, and the effects of the 3 SNPs combined were cumulative on BMI, body composition and total cholesterol. The effects on BMI and body fat were predominantly mediated by rs1573611 (1.06 kg/m2 higher (P = 0.009) BMI and 1.53% higher (P = 0.002) body fat per C allele). Differences in plasma lipids were also associated with the BMI-increasing allele of rs2301151 including higher total cholesterol (0.2 mmol/L per G allele, P = 0.01) and with the variant A allele of rs16970264 associated with lower total (0.3 mmol/L, P = 0.02) and LDL (0.2 mmol/L, P<0.05) cholesterol, but also with lower HDL-cholesterol (0.09 mmol/L, P<0.05) although the difference was not apparent when controlling for multiple testing. There were no statistically significant effects of the three SNPs on insulin sensitivity or beta cell function. However accumulated risk allele showed a lower beta cell function on increasing plasma fatty acids with a carbon chain greater than six. Conclusions/Significance Differences in body composition and lipids associated with common SNPs in the FFAR1 gene were apparently not mediated by changes in insulin sensitivity or beta-cell function. PMID:21552566

  10. Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Jerry L.

    1981-01-01

    Body composition refers to the types and amounts of tissues which make up the body. The most acceptable method for assessing body composition is underwater weighing. A subcutaneous skinfold provides a quantitative measurement of fat below the skin. The skinfold technique permits a valid estimate of the body's total fat content. (JN)

  11. Apparent total tract digestibility of dietary calcium and phosphorus and their efficiency in bone mineral retention are affected by body mineral status in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, C

    2014-09-01

    Improving dietary P utilization without modifying pig performance is crucial for production sustainability. A feeding program comprising three 28-d phases (20 to 40, 40 to 70, and 70 to 100 kg) was used to feed 72 pigs with an initial BW of 20 kg. The ability of the pigs to modify the digestive and metabolic utilization of P when fed either a control (CON) diet or a low-P (LOW) diet providing 40% less digestible P with a constant Ca:digestible P was studied using different sequences of dietary P and Ca restriction (i.e., depletion [LOW]) and recovery (i.e., repletion [CON]), namely CON-CON-CON, CON-CON-LOW, CON-LOW-LOW, LOW-CON-CON, LOW-LOW-CON, and LOW-LOW-LOW. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the lumbar region (L2-L4) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the beginning and end of each feeding phase. Total feces and urine were collected during phases 2 and 3. At the end of phase 1, BMC was lower in the LOW pigs than in the C pigs (29%; P < 0.001). During phase 2, the BMC gain was greater in the LOW-CON pigs than in the CON-CON pigs (16%; P < 0.001). During phase 3, the LOW-LOW-CON pigs absorbed 26% more Ca (P < 0.001) and retained 56% more BMC (P < 0.001) than the CON-CON-CON pigs did. Digestive and metabolic adaptations allowed the LOW-LOW-CON and LOW-CON-CON pigs to reach BMC similar to that of the CON-CON-CON pigs. These metabolic adaptations are promising, but practical applications of these results requires a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms to fine-tune the degree of depletion, pig age, and the duration of P and Ca depletion and repletion periods.

  12. Effect of sugar on male Anopheles gambiae mating performance, as modified by temperature, space, and body size

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Richard E; Cannon, James W; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2009-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae plant-sugar feeding was thought to be rare and physiologically optional. Unlike adult females, males have no alternative source of energy and soon die with only water, yet they might be competent to inseminate all females within their brief lifespan. This study was designed to detect sugar's effect, if any, on male performance. Methods Males with and without 20% sucrose were evaluated at two body sizes and two temperatures, 23° and 27°C. Survival was recorded twice daily, and sexual behaviour was recorded each night after adult emergence. Insemination at a 2:1 male:female ratio was examined in three cage sizes, including walk-in mesocosms. Results Without sugar, males of both sizes lived longer at 23° than 27°C, and large males lived longer at each temperature. Survival of large males at low temperature averaged 3.7 days, small males at high temperature, 1.9 days. With sugar, males in all four treatments suffered minimal mortality. With sugar, in small cages, large males at 27°C matured most rapidly. A few erected fibrillae and inseminated females on night 1. On night 2, maximal proportions erected fibrillae and swarmed, and over one-third of females became inseminated. Small sugar-fed males at 23°C matured most slowly but had achieved nearly maximal levels of swarming by night 3. By night 5, small males had inseminated more than half the females, and large males had inseminated nearly all of them. Without sugar, large males progressed similarly during the first two nights. On night 3, however, the proportion erecting fibrillae and swarming declined precipitously at 27°C, and to a lesser degree at 23°C. Cumulative insemination never reached high levels. Small males never achieved high levels of fibrillar erection or swarming and inseminated few females, even at 23°C. In larger cages and under more semi-natural conditions, regardless of body size, without sugar male insemination capacity was virtually nonexistent. Conclusion

  13. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT. PMID:27243447

  14. Multiple novel gene-by-environment interactions modify the effect of FTO variants on body mass index.

    PubMed

    Young, Alexander I; Wauthier, Fabian; Donnelly, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies have shown that obesity risk is heritable and that, of the many common variants now associated with body mass index, those in an intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have the largest effect. The size of the UK Biobank, and its joint measurement of genetic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables, offers an unprecedented opportunity to assess gene-by-environment interactions in a way that accounts for the dependence between different factors. We jointly examine the evidence for interactions between FTO (rs1421085) and various lifestyle and environmental factors. We report interactions between the FTO variant and each of: frequency of alcohol consumption (P=3.0 × 10(-4)); deviations from mean sleep duration (P=8.0 × 10(-4)); overall diet (P=5.0 × 10(-6)), including added salt (P=1.2 × 10(-3)); and physical activity (P=3.1 × 10(-4)). PMID:27596730

  15. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT.

  16. Multiple novel gene-by-environment interactions modify the effect of FTO variants on body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Young, Alexander I.; Wauthier, Fabian; Donnelly, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies have shown that obesity risk is heritable and that, of the many common variants now associated with body mass index, those in an intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have the largest effect. The size of the UK Biobank, and its joint measurement of genetic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables, offers an unprecedented opportunity to assess gene-by-environment interactions in a way that accounts for the dependence between different factors. We jointly examine the evidence for interactions between FTO (rs1421085) and various lifestyle and environmental factors. We report interactions between the FTO variant and each of: frequency of alcohol consumption (P=3.0 × 10−4); deviations from mean sleep duration (P=8.0 × 10−4); overall diet (P=5.0 × 10−6), including added salt (P=1.2 × 10−3); and physical activity (P=3.1 × 10−4). PMID:27596730

  17. Selective resistance of CD44hi T cells to p53-dependent cell death results in persistence of immunologic memory after total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhenyu; Jones, Jennifer; Kohrt, Holbrook; Strober, Samuel

    2011-10-15

    Our previous studies showed that treatment of mice with total body irradiation (TBI) or total lymphoid tissue irradiation markedly changes the balance of residual T cell subsets to favor CD4(+)CD44(hi) NKT cells because of the differential resistance of the latter subset to cell death. The object of the current study was to further elucidate the changed balance and mechanisms of differential radioresistance of T cell subsets after graded doses of TBI. The experimental results showed that CD4(+) T cells were markedly more resistant than CD8(+) T cells, and CD44(hi) T cells, including NKT cells and memory T cells, were markedly more resistant than CD44(lo) (naive) T cells. The memory T cells immunized to alloantigens persisted even after myeloablative (1000 cGy) TBI and were able to prevent engraftment of bone marrow transplants. Although T cell death after 1000 cGy was prevented in p53(-/-) mice, there was progressive T cell death in p53(-/-) mice at higher doses. Although p53-dependent T cell death changed the balance of subsets, p53-independent T cell death did not. In conclusion, resistance of CD44(hi) T cells to p53-dependent cell death results in the persistence of immunological memory after TBI and can explain the immune-mediated rejection of marrow transplants in sensitized recipients.

  18. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Xu, Weiheng; Lu, Bin; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2016-05-17

    Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI) in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes) of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  19. Opportunistic virus DNA levels after pediatric stem cell transplantation: serostatus matching, anti-thymocyte globulin, and total body irradiation are additive risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kullberg-Lindh, C; Mellgren, K; Friman, V; Fasth, A; Ascher, H; Nilsson, S; Lindh, M

    2011-04-01

    Viral opportunistic infections remain a threat to survival after stem cell transplantation (SCT). We retrospectively investigated infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6), or adenovirus (AdV) during the first 6-12 months after pediatric SCT. Serum samples from 47 consecutive patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. DNAemia at any time point occurred for CMV in 47%, for EBV in 45%, for HHV6 in 28%, and for AdV in 28%. Three patients (6.3%) died of CMV-, EBV-, or AdV-related complications 4, 9, and 24 weeks after SCT, respectively, representing 21% of total mortality. These 3 cases were clearly distinguishable by DNAemia increasing to high levels. Serum positivity for CMV immunoglobulin G in either recipient or donor at the time of SCT, total body irradiation, and anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning were independent risk factors for high CMV or EBV DNA levels. We conclude that DNAemia levels help to distinguish significant viral infections, and that surveillance and prophylactic measures should be focused on patients with risk factors in whom viral complications rapidly can become fatal.

  20. Clinical significance of the administration of cytarabine or thiotepa in addition to total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Hagihara, Maki; Kawasaki, Rika; Yamazaki, Etsuko; Koharazawa, Hideyuki; Taguchi, Jun; Tomita, Naoto; Fujimaki, Katsumichi; Sakai, Rika; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Shin; Maruta, Atsuo; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kanamori, Heiwa

    2015-10-01

    A multicenter retrospective study was performed to determine the significance of adding cytarabine (CA) or thiotepa (TT) in the context of total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide (CY). A total of 322 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were distributed to the following three groups: TBI/CY (n = 75), TBI/CY/CA (n = 77), and TBI/CY/TT (n = 170). In the TBI/CY/TT group, 164 of patients (96 %) received HCT during the previous year (2000-2005). Multivariate analysis revealed that the TBI/CY/TT group demonstrated a trend of poorer survival rate than the TBI/CY group, [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.99-2.24, P = 0.055] with a higher non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.35-4.06, P = 0.002) rates, while TBI/CY/CA group demonstrated similar outcomes. Even in the subgroup analyses of disease type or disease risk, the outcomes with intensified conditioning regimens were not superior to those with TBI/CY. In conclusion, although the significant bias has to be carefully considered, the clinical benefit of adding CA or TT to the TBI/CY regimen was not demonstrated.

  1. Comparison of dual-photon absorptiometry systems for total-body bone and soft tissue measurements: Dual-energy X-rays versus gadolinium 153

    SciTech Connect

    Russell-Aulet, M.; Wang, J.; Thornton, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. )

    1991-04-01

    A total of 81 subjects (41 males and 40 females) were scanned by dual-photon absorptiometry by 153Gd source (DPA; Lunar DP4) and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Lunar-DPX) within a 24 h period. Total-body bone mineral density (TBMD), calcium content (Ca), and soft tissue mass (ST) were determined with a precision of about 1-1.5% using DPA and 0.5-1.0% using DEXA. Measurements of TBMD, Ca, ST, bone area (area), percentage fat, and regional bone mineral densities (BMD) were compared. Paired t-tests showed small but significant differences between all measurements. Correlations (r) for TBMD, Ca, area, ST, percentage fat, arm BMD, leg BMD, and trunk BMD were 0.99, 0.99, 0.97, 0.99, 0.97, 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98. There were small systematic differences for TBMD (less than 1%), calcium (3%), bone area (3%), soft tissue mass (7%), and percentage fat (9%) between the two approaches. Regression equations are given relating these measurements.

  2. Higher Early Monocyte and Total Lymphocyte Counts Are Associated with Better Overall Survival after Standard Total Body Irradiation, Cyclophosphamide, and Fludarabine Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Double Umbilical Cord Blood Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Bourgeois, Amandine; Peterlin, Pierre; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; Duquesne, Alix; Le Gouill, Steven; Moreau, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad; Campion, Loïc; Chevallier, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    This single-center retrospective study aimed to report the impact of early hematopoietic and immune recoveries after a standard total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and fludarabine (TCF) reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen for double umbilical cord blood (dUCB) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in adults. We analyzed 47 consecutive patients older than 17 years who engrafted after a dUCB TCF allo-SCT performed between January 2006 and April 2013 in our department. Median times for neutrophil and platelet recoveries were 17 (range, 6 to 59) and 37 days (range, 0 to 164), respectively. The 3-year overall (OS) and disease-free survivals, relapse incidence, and nonrelapse mortality were 65.7%, 57.2%, 27.1%, and 19%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, higher day +30 monocyte (≥615/mm(3); hazard ratio [HR], .04; 95% confidence interval [CI], .004 to .36; P < .01) and day +42 lymphocyte (≥395/mm(3); HR, .16; 95% CI, .03 to .78; P = .02) counts were independently associated with better OS. These results suggest that early higher hematopoietic and immune recovery is predictive of survival after dUCB TCF RIC allo-SCT in adults. Factors other than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which was used in all cases, favoring expansion of monocytes or lymphocytes, should be tested in the future as part of the UCB transplantation procedure. PMID:27118570

  3. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia: A case-control study among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized.A case-control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted.After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24-2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44-5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5-29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02-3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27-5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27-6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36-5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25-3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43-5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in women.Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in

  4. SU-C-213-04: Application of Depth Sensing and 3D-Printing Technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Patient Measurement and Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M; Suh, T; Han, B; Xing, L; Jenkins, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate an innovative method of using depth sensing cameras and 3D printing techniques for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatment planning and compensator fabrication. Methods: A tablet with motion tracking cameras and integrated depth sensing was used to scan a RANDOTM phantom arranged in a TBI treatment booth to detect and store the 3D surface in a point cloud (PC) format. The accuracy of the detected surface was evaluated by comparison to extracted measurements from CT scan images. The thickness, source to surface distance and off-axis distance of the phantom at different body section was measured for TBI treatment planning. A 2D map containing a detailed compensator design was calculated to achieve uniform dose distribution throughout the phantom. The compensator was fabricated using a 3D printer, silicone molding and tungsten powder. In vivo dosimetry measurements were performed using optically stimulated luminescent detectors (OSLDs). Results: The whole scan of the anthropomorphic phantom took approximately 30 seconds. The mean error for thickness measurements at each section of phantom compare to CT was 0.44 ± 0.268 cm. These errors resulted in approximately 2% dose error calculation and 0.4 mm tungsten thickness deviation for the compensator design. The accuracy of 3D compensator printing was within 0.2 mm. In vivo measurements for an end-to-end test showed the overall dose difference was within 3%. Conclusion: Motion cameras and depth sensing techniques proved to be an accurate and efficient tool for TBI patient measurement and treatment planning. 3D printing technique improved the efficiency and accuracy of the compensator production and ensured a more accurate treatment delivery.

  5. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  6. Alanine/EPR dosimetry applied to the verification of a total body irradiation protocol and treatment planning dose calculation using a humanoid phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeken, B.; Lelie, S.; Meijnders, P.; Van den Weyngaert, D.; Janssens, H.; Verellen, D.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: To avoid complications in total body irradiation (TBI), it is important to achieve a homogeneous dose distribution throughout the body and to deliver a correct dose to the lung which is an organ at risk. The purpose of this work was to validate the TBI dose protocol and to check the accuracy of the 3D dose calculations of the treatment planning system. Methods: Dosimetry based on alanine/electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to measure dose at numerous locations within an anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson) that was irradiated in a clinical TBI beam setup. The alanine EPR dosimetry system was calibrated against water calorimetry in a Co-60 beam and the absorbed dose was determined by the use of ''dose-normalized amplitudes'' A{sub D}. The dose rate of the TBI beam was checked against a Farmer ionization chamber. The phantom measurements were compared to 3D dose calculations from a treatment planning system (Pinnacle) modeled for standard dose calculations. Results: Alanine dosimetry allowed accurate measurements which were in accordance with ionization chamber measurements. The combined relative standard measurement uncertainty in the Alderson phantom was U{sub r}(A{sub D})=0.6%. The humanoid phantom was irradiated to a reference dose of 10 Gy, limiting the lung dose to 7.5 Gy. The ratio of the average measured dose midplane in the craniocaudal direction to the reference dose was 1.001 with a spread of {+-}4.7% (1 sd). Dose to the lung was measured in 26 locations and found, in average, 1.8% lower than expected. Lung dose was homogeneous in the ventral-dorsal direction but a dose gradient of 0.10 Gy cm{sup -1} was observed in the craniocaudal direction midline within the lung lobe. 3D dose calculations (Pinnacle) were found, in average, 2% lower compared to dose measurements on the body axis and 3% lower for the lungs. Conclusions: The alanine/EPR dosimetry system allowed accurate dose measurements which enabled the authors to validate their TBI

  7. Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. IV. Total mechanical energy changes as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Heglund, N C; Fedak, M A; Taylor, C R; Cavagna, G A

    1982-04-01

    This is the final paper in or series examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. In this paper the kinetic energy of the limbs and body relative to the centre of mass (EKE, tot of paper two) is combined with the potential plus kinetic energy of the centre of mass (ECM, tot of paper three) to obtain the total mechanical energy (excluding elastic energy) of an animal during constant average-speed locomotion. The minimum mass-specific power required of the muscles and tendons to maintain the observed oscillations in total energy, Etot/Mb, can be described by one equation: Etot/Mb = 0.478 . vg 1.53 + 0.685 . vg + 0.072 where Etot/Mb is in W kg-1 and vg is in m s-1. This equation is independent of body size, applying equally as well to a chipmunk or a quail as to a horse or an ostrich. In marked contrast, the metabolic energy consumed by each gram of an animal as it moves along the ground at a constant speed increases linearly with speed and is proportional to Mb-0.3. Thus, we have found that each gram of tissue of a 30 g quail or chipmunk running at 3 m s-1 consumes metabolic energy at a rate about 15 times that of a 100 kg ostrich, horse or human running at the same speed while their muscles are performing work at the same rate. Our measurements demonstrate the importance of storage and recovery of elastic energy in larger animals, but they cannot confirm or exclude the possibility of elastic storage of energy in small animals. It seems clear that the rate at which animals consume energy during locomotion cannot be explained by assuming a constant efficiency between the energy consumed and the mechanical work performed by the muscles. It is suggested that the intrinsic velocity of shortening of the active muscle motor units (which is related to the rate of cycling of the cross bridges between actin and myosin) and the rate at which the muscles are turned on and off are the most important factors in determining the metabolic cost

  8. Results of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation After Treatment With Different High-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Regimens in Five Dutch Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Loes van Kempen-Harteveld, M. Brand, Ronald; Kal, Henk B.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Hofman, Pieter; Schattenberg, Anton V.; Maazen, Richard W. van der; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Eijkenboom, Wil M.H.; Lelie, Johannes P. van der; Oldenburger, Foppe; Barge, Renee M.; Biezen, Anja van; Vossen, Jaak M.J.J.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Struikmans, Henk

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate results of high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI) regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,032 patients underwent TBI in one or two fractions before autologous or allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The TBI regimens were normalized by using the biological effective dose (BED) concept. The BED values were divided into three dose groups. Study end points were relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis was performed, stratified by disease. Results: In the highest TBI dose group, RI was significantly lower and NRM was higher vs. the lower dose groups. However, a significant influence on RFS and OS was not found. Relapses in the eye region were found only after shielding to very low doses. Age was of significant influence on OS, RFS, and NRM in favor of younger patients. The NRM of patients older than 40 years significantly increased, and OS decreased. There was no influence of age on RI. Men had better OS and RFS and lower NRM. Type of transplantation significantly influenced RI and NRM for patients with acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no influence on RFS and OS. Conclusions: Both RI and NRM were significantly influenced by the size of the BED of single-dose or two-fraction TBI regimens; OS and RFS were not. Age was of highly significant influence on NRM, but there was no influence of age on RI. Hyperfractionated TBI with a high BED might be useful, assuming NRM can be reduced.

  9. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  10. Prospective evaluation of pulmonary function in cancer patients treated with total body irradiation, high-dose melphalan, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Gandola, L.; Siena, S.; Bregni, M.; Sverzellati, E.; Piotti, P.; Stucchi, C.; Gianni, A.M.; Lombardi, F. )

    1990-09-01

    Pulmonary function tests (standard vital capacity, SVC; total lung capacity, TLC; forced expiratory volume in 1 second-forced vital capacity ratio, FEV1/FVC; carbon monoxide transfer factor, DLCO) were prospectively evaluated in patients (median age 25 years, 13-52 years; median follow-up 20 months, 6-51 months) with Hodgkin's disease (15 patients), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (9 patients), and inflammatory breast cancer (3 patients) treated with sequential high-dose therapy comprising the following phases over approximately 2 months: (a) cyclophosphamide (7 g/m2); (b) vincristine (1.4 mg/m2), methotrexate (8 g/m2), and cisplatinum (120 mg/m2) or etoposide (2 g/m2); (c) total body irradiation (TBI; 12.5 gy, 5 fractions over 48 hours), intravenous melphalan (120-180 mg/m2), and transplantation of autologous peripheral blood and/or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Within 2 months after transplantation, 12 patients also received 25 Gy radiotherapy boost to mediastinum and clavicular regions. In vivo dosimetry evaluations of fractionated TBI treatments showed that mean radiation dose absorbed by lungs was 12.18 Gy (97.4% of TBI dose). Despite such a high radiation dose, we observed only transient and subclinical decrease of SVC, TLC, and DLCO. The decrease of SVC, TLC, and DLCO was more evident and prolonged in patients receiving radiotherapy boost. All parameters progressively recovered to normal values within 2 years after transplantation. In contrast, FEV1/FVC remained within normal limits in all patients, thus demonstrating the absence of obstructive ventilatory changes. In addition, no interstitial pneumonia was observed.

  11. Effect of component mal-rotation on knee loading in total knee arthroplasty using multi-body dynamics modeling under a simulated walking gait.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenxian; Wang, Ling; Liu, Yaxiong; He, Jiankang; Lian, Qin; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2015-09-01

    Mal-rotation of the components in total knee arthorplasty (TKA) is a major cause of postoperative complications, with an increased propensity for implant loosening or wear leading to revision. A musculoskeletal multi-body dynamics model was used to perform a parametric study of the effects of the rotational mal-alignments in TKA on the knee loading under a simulated walking gait. The knee contact forces were found to be more sensitive to variations in the varus-valgus rotation of both the tibial and the femoral components and the internal-external rotation of the femoral component in TKA. The varus-valgus mal-rotation of the tibial or femoral component and the internal-external mal-rotation of the femoral component with a 5° variation were found to affect the peak medial contact force by 17.8-53.1%, the peak lateral contact force by 35.0-88.4% and the peak total contact force by 5.2-18.7%. Our findings support the clinical observations that a greater than 3° internal mal-rotation of the femoral component may lead to unsatisfactory pain levels and a greater than 3° varus mal-rotation of the tibial component may lead to medial bone collapse. These findings determined the quantitative effects of the mal-rotation of the components in TKA on the contact load. The effect of such mal-rotation of the components of TKA on the kinematics would be further addressed in future studies.

  12. Treatment of aggressive multiple myeloma by high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation followed by blood stem cells autologous graft

    SciTech Connect

    Fermand, J.P.; Levy, Y.; Gerota, J.; Benbunan, M.; Cosset, J.M.; Castaigne, S.; Seligmann, M.; Brouet, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with stage III aggressive multiple myeloma, refractory to current chemotherapy in six cases, were treated by high-dose chemotherapy (nitrosourea, etoposide, and melphalan) (HDC) and total body irradiation (TBI), followed by autografting with blood stem cells. These cells were previously collected by leukapheresis performed during hematologic recovery following cytotoxic drug-induced bone marrow aplasia. Seven patients were alive 9 to 17 months after HDC-TBI and graft. One died at day 40 from cerebral bleeding. All living patients achieved a 90% or greater reduction in tumor mass. In two cases, a complete remission (CR) has persisted at a follow-up of 15 and 16 months. Three patients have been well and off therapy with stable minimal residual disease (RD) since 10, 11, and 17 months, respectively. A patient in apparent CR and another with RD have relapsed 9 to 12 months posttreatment. Autologous blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells induced successful and sustained engraftment in all living patients. These results, although still preliminary, indicate that HDC and TBI, followed by blood stem cells autograft, which has both practical and theoretical interest over allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation, deserve consideration in selected patients with multiple myeloma.

  13. Comparison of outcomes of allogeneic transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia with cyclophosphamide in combination with intravenous busulfan, oral busulfan, or total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Copelan, Edward A; Avalos, Belinda R; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Zhu, Xiaochun; Gale, Robert Peter; Grunwald, Michael R; Hamadani, Mehdi; Hamilton, Betty K; Hale, Gregory A; Marks, David I; Waller, Edmund K; Savani, Bipin N; Costa, Luciano J; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Khoury, H Jean; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kamble, Rammurti T; Schouten, Harry C; Wirk, Baldeep; Litzow, Mark R; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; van Besien, Koen W; Ustun, Celalettin; Bolwell, Brian J; Bredeson, Christopher N; Fasan, Omotayo; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Horowitz, Mary M; Arora, Mukta; Szer, Jeffrey; Loren, Alison W; Alyea, Edwin P; Cortes, Jorge; Maziarz, Richard T; Kalaycio, Matt E; Saber, Wael

    2015-03-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cy) in combination with busulfan (Bu) or total body irradiation (TBI) is the most commonly used myeloablative conditioning regimen in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We used data from the Center for International Bone Marrow Transplantation Research to compare outcomes in adults who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation for CML in first chronic phase after myeloablative conditioning with Cy in combination with TBI, oral Bu, or intravenous (i.v.) Bu. Four hundred thirty-eight adults received human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling grafts and 235 received well-matched grafts from unrelated donors (URD) from 2000 through 2006. Important differences existed between the groups in distribution of donor relation, exposure to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and year of transplantation. In multivariate analysis, relapse occurred less frequently among patients receiving i.v. Bu compared with TBI (relative risk [RR], .36; P = .022) or oral Bu (RR, .39; P = .028), but nonrelapse mortality and survival were similar. A significant interaction was detected between donor relation and the main effect in leukemia-free survival (LFS). Among recipients of HLA-identical sibling grafts, but not URD grafts, LFS was better in patients receiving i.v. Bu (RR, .53; P = .025) or oral Bu (RR, .64; P = .017) compared with TBI. In CML in first chronic phase, Cy in combination with i.v. Bu was associated with less relapse than TBI or oral Bu. LFS was better after i.v. or oral Bu compared with TBI. PMID:25528388

  14. Longitudinal trajectory of sexual functioning after hematopoietic cell transplantation: impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease and total body irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, F. Lennie; Francisco, Liton; Togawa, Kayo; Kim, Heeyoung; Bosworth, Alysia; Atencio, Liezl; Hanby, Cara; Grant, Marcia; Kandeel, Fouad; Forman, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study described the trajectory of sexual well-being from before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to 3 years after in 131 allogeneic and 146 autologous HCT recipients using Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function and Derogatis Global Sexual Satisfaction Index. Sixty-one percent of men and 37% of women were sexually active pre-HCT; the prevalence declined to 51% (P = .01) in men and increased to 48% (P = .02) in women at 3 years post-HCT. After HCT, sexual satisfaction declined in both sexes (P < .001). All sexual function domains were worse in women compared with men (P ≤ .001). Orgasm (P = .002) and drive/relationship (P < .001) declined in men, but sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .01) and sexual behavior/experience (P = .01) improved in women. Older age negatively impacted sexual function post-HCT in both sexes (P < .01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with lower sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .003) and orgasm (P = .006) in men and sexual arousal (P = .05) and sexual satisfaction (P = .005) in women. All male sexual function domains declined after total body irradiation (P < .05). This study identifies vulnerable subpopulations that could benefit from interventional strategies to improve sexual well-being. PMID:24159171

  15. Safety and efficacy of total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and cytarabine as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takehiko; Aisa, Yoshinobu; Kato, Jun; Yamane, Akiko; Nakazato, Tomonori; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2012-04-01

    Disease relapse still greatly interferes with the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study retrospectively evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of a conditioning regimen consisting of total body irradiation (TBI; 12 Gy), cyclophosphamide (CY; 60 mg kg(-1) , two doses), and high-dose cytarabine (Ara-C; 2 g m(-2) ; four doses) for patients with ALL. Fifty-five patients (median age: 31-years old) were evaluated. Stem cells were from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings in 22 patients and from alternative donors in 33. There were no cases of early death before engraftment, and 100-day transplant-related mortality was 7.3%. With a median follow-up period of 9.6 years, 5-year overall and disease-free survival were 63.2% (95% CI: 46.5-79.9%) and 63.6% (95% CI: 47.1-80.1%) in patients with complete remission, respectively, both of which were significantly higher than the values of 27.3% (95% CI: 8.7-46.0%) and 22.7% (95% CI: 5.3-40.1%) for patients in advanced stages (P < 0.01). These results suggest that TBI and CY (TBI-CY) plus Ara-C could be a feasible and effective conditioning regimen for adult patients with ALL both in remission and in advanced stages, and a future study to compare this combination therapy with TBI-CY is required.

  16. Total body irradiation in a patient with fragile X syndrome for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in preparation for stem cell transplantation: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Collins, D T; Mannina, E M; Mendonca, M

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a congenital disorder caused by expansion of CGG trinucleotide repeat at the 5' end of the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 (FMR1) on the X chromosome that leads to chromosomal instability and diminished serum levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Afflicted individuals often have elongated features, marfanoid habitus, macroorchidism and intellectual impairment. Evolving literature suggests the condition may actually protect from malignancy while chromosomal instability would presumably elevate the risk. Increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation should also be predicted by unstable sites within the DNA. Interestingly, in this report, we detail a patient with FXS diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with induction followed by subsequent cycles of hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) with a complete response who then was recommended to undergo peripheral stem cell transplantation. The patient underwent total body irradiation (TBI) as a component of his conditioning regimen and despite the concern of his clinicians, developed minimal acute toxicity and successful engraftment. The pertinent literature regarding irradiation of patients with FXS is also reviewed.

  17. Comparison of outcomes of allogeneic transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia with cyclophosphamide in combination with intravenous busulfan, oral busulfan, or total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Copelan, Edward A; Avalos, Belinda R; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Zhu, Xiaochun; Gale, Robert Peter; Grunwald, Michael R; Hamadani, Mehdi; Hamilton, Betty K; Hale, Gregory A; Marks, David I; Waller, Edmund K; Savani, Bipin N; Costa, Luciano J; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Khoury, H Jean; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kamble, Rammurti T; Schouten, Harry C; Wirk, Baldeep; Litzow, Mark R; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; van Besien, Koen W; Ustun, Celalettin; Bolwell, Brian J; Bredeson, Christopher N; Fasan, Omotayo; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Horowitz, Mary M; Arora, Mukta; Szer, Jeffrey; Loren, Alison W; Alyea, Edwin P; Cortes, Jorge; Maziarz, Richard T; Kalaycio, Matt E; Saber, Wael

    2015-03-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cy) in combination with busulfan (Bu) or total body irradiation (TBI) is the most commonly used myeloablative conditioning regimen in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We used data from the Center for International Bone Marrow Transplantation Research to compare outcomes in adults who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation for CML in first chronic phase after myeloablative conditioning with Cy in combination with TBI, oral Bu, or intravenous (i.v.) Bu. Four hundred thirty-eight adults received human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling grafts and 235 received well-matched grafts from unrelated donors (URD) from 2000 through 2006. Important differences existed between the groups in distribution of donor relation, exposure to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and year of transplantation. In multivariate analysis, relapse occurred less frequently among patients receiving i.v. Bu compared with TBI (relative risk [RR], .36; P = .022) or oral Bu (RR, .39; P = .028), but nonrelapse mortality and survival were similar. A significant interaction was detected between donor relation and the main effect in leukemia-free survival (LFS). Among recipients of HLA-identical sibling grafts, but not URD grafts, LFS was better in patients receiving i.v. Bu (RR, .53; P = .025) or oral Bu (RR, .64; P = .017) compared with TBI. In CML in first chronic phase, Cy in combination with i.v. Bu was associated with less relapse than TBI or oral Bu. LFS was better after i.v. or oral Bu compared with TBI.

  18. Subclinical pulmonary function defects following autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: relationship to total body irradiation and graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, R.C.; Burnett, A.K.; Robertson, A.G.; McNee, S.; Riyami, B.M.; Carter, R.; Stevenson, R.D. )

    1991-06-01

    Pulmonary function results pre- and post-transplant, to a maximum of 4 years, were analyzed in 98 patients with haematological disorders undergoing allogeneic (N = 53) or autologous bone marrow transplantation (N = 45) between 1982 and 1988. All received similar total body irradiation based regimens ranging from 9.5 Gy as a single fraction to 14.4 Gy fractionated. FEV1/FVC as a measure of airway obstruction showed little deterioration except in patients experiencing graft-versus-host disease in whom statistically significant obstructive ventilatory defects were evident by 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). These defects appeared to be permanent. Restrictive ventilatory defects, as measured by reduction in TLC, and defects in diffusing capacity (DLCO and KCO) were also maximal at 6 months post-transplant (p less than 0.01). Both were related, at least in part, to the presence of GVHD (p less than 0.01) or use of single fraction TBI with absorbed lung dose of 8.0 Gy (p less than 0.05). Fractionated TBI resulted in less marked restricted ventilation and impaired gas exchange, which reverted to normal by 2 years, even when the lung dose was increased from 11.0 Gy to between 12.0 and 13.5 Gy. After exclusion of patients with GVHD (30% allografts) there was no significant difference in pulmonary function abnormalities between autograft and allograft recipients.

  19. Mitigating the effects of Xuebijing injection on hematopoietic cell injury induced by total body irradiation with γ rays by decreasing reactive oxygen species levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Deguan; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Junling; Wang, Xiaochun; Xing, Yonghua; Wu, Hongying; Yang, Xiangdong; Shi, Zhexin; Zhao, Mingfeng; Fan, Saijun; Meng, Aimin

    2014-06-12

    Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by γ ray ionizing radiation (IR). Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI). Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg) significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs) and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM) cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM) than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.

  20. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the total protein content of protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium sonia-28 subjected to vitrification.

    PubMed

    Poobathy, Ranjetta; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Xavier, Rathinam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-07-01

    Dendrobium sonia-28 is an important ornamental orchid in the Malaysian flower industry. However, the genus faces both low germination rates and the risk of producing heterozygous progenies. Cryopreservation is currently the favoured long-term storage method for orchids with propagation problems. Vitrification, a frequently used cryopreservation technique, involves the application of pretreatments and cryoprotectants to protect and recover explants during and after storage in liquid nitrogen. However, cryopreservation may cause osmotic injuries and toxicity to cryopreserved explants from the use of highly concentrated additives, and cellular injuries from thawing, devitrification and ice formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring during dehydration and cryopreservation, may also cause membrane damage. Plants possess efficient antioxidant systems such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes to scavenge ROS during low temperature stress. In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Dendrobium sonia-28 were assayed for the total protein content, and both SOD and CAT activities, at each stage of a vitrification exercise to observe for deleterious stages in the protocol. The results indicated that cryopreserved PLBs of Dendrobium sonia-28 underwent excessive post-thawing oxidative stress due to decreased levels of the CAT enzyme at the post-thawing recovery stage, which contributed to the poor survival rates of the cryopreserved PLBs.

  1. Total body irradiation in a patient with fragile X syndrome for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in preparation for stem cell transplantation: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Collins, D T; Mannina, E M; Mendonca, M

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a congenital disorder caused by expansion of CGG trinucleotide repeat at the 5' end of the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 (FMR1) on the X chromosome that leads to chromosomal instability and diminished serum levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Afflicted individuals often have elongated features, marfanoid habitus, macroorchidism and intellectual impairment. Evolving literature suggests the condition may actually protect from malignancy while chromosomal instability would presumably elevate the risk. Increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation should also be predicted by unstable sites within the DNA. Interestingly, in this report, we detail a patient with FXS diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with induction followed by subsequent cycles of hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) with a complete response who then was recommended to undergo peripheral stem cell transplantation. The patient underwent total body irradiation (TBI) as a component of his conditioning regimen and despite the concern of his clinicians, developed minimal acute toxicity and successful engraftment. The pertinent literature regarding irradiation of patients with FXS is also reviewed. PMID:26097012

  2. Failure of donor lymphocyte infusion to prevent graft rejection in dogs given DLA-identical marrow after 1 Gy of total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Baron, Frédéric; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Zellmer, Eustacia; Sorror, Mohamed; Storer, Barry; Storb, Rainer

    2006-08-01

    We investigated in a preclinical canine model of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) whether preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) given 1 month after HCT could prevent late graft rejection that was the rule in historical dogs given suboptimal conditioning with 1 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) before and immunosuppression with cyclosporine (CSP) and either mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; n = 6) or rapamycin (n = 5) after dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical marrow transplantation. Nine dogs given DLA-identical marrow after 1 Gy of TBI followed by postgrafting MMF and CSP were studied. A single DLI was given 28-36 days after HCT, either with (n = 5) or without (n = 4) preceding treatment with the immunosuppressive drug pentostatin. Two of the 4 dogs given DLI only maintained stable mixed donor-host chimera beyond 30 weeks after HCT, whereas 2 rejected their grafts, on weeks 10 and 15 after HCT. One of the 5 dogs given pentostatin before DLI maintained a stable mixed donor-host chimera beyond 30 weeks, whereas 4 rejected their grafts, at weeks 8, 12, 12, and 16 after HCT. The 30-week probability of stable mixed chimerism was 33% among dogs given DLI, versus 0% among 11 historical dogs (P = .003). In conclusion, DLI was only moderately effective in preventing graft rejection in this model. Additional immunosuppression with pentostatin did not improve that outcome. The model might be useful in developing potential strategies aimed at preventing graft rejection in patients with low donor chimerism levels. PMID:16864051

  3. Postgrafting immunosuppression with sirolimus and cyclosporine facilitates stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism in dogs given sublethal total body irradiation before marrow transplantation from DLA-identical littermates.

    PubMed

    Hogan, William J; Little, Marie-Térèse; Zellmer, Eustacia; Friedetzky, Anke; Diaconescu, Razvan; Gisburne, Serina; Lee, Richard; Kuhr, Christian; Storb, Rainer

    2003-08-01

    We studied the value of postgrafting immunosuppression with sirolimus (SRL) and cyclosporine (CSP) in enhancing engraftment of dog leukocyte antigen-identical littermate marrow after nonmyeloablative conditioning in a canine model. Dogs received either 2 Gy (n=7) or 1 Gy (n=5) total body irradiation (TBI), followed by postgrafting immunosuppression with SRL and CSP. In the first cohort, all 7 dogs showed rapid initial engraftment. One engrafted dog died on day 21 due to hemorrhagic pneumonitis. Durable engraftment was seen in 5 of 6 remaining dogs, with a median follow-up of >48 (range, >32 to >56) weeks. The sixth dog rejected the marrow graft (as assessed by variable number of tandem repeats) at 11 weeks; however, a subsequent skin graft from the same marrow donor did not undergo acute cellular rejection, suggesting donor-specific tolerance. In the second cohort, all 5 dogs rejected the marrow graft at a median of 9 weeks (range, 3-11 weeks). We conclude that SRL/CSP is as effective as a previously studied combination of mycophenolate mofetil and CSP at establishing durable marrow engraftment after sublethal conditioning. PMID:12931117

  4. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Agarwal, Rajni; Modlin, Leslie A.; Gray, Christine C.; Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn; Kiamanesh, Eileen F.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  5. Reduced-intensity conditioning regimen using low-dose total body irradiation before allogeneic transplant for hematologic malignancies: Experience from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, Yazid . E-mail: y-belkacemi@o-lambret.fr; Labopin, Myriam; Hennequin, Christophe; Hoffstetter, Sylvette; Mungai, Raffaello; Wygoda, Marc; Lundell, Marie; Finke, Jurgen; Aktinson, Chris; Lorchel, Frederic; Durdux, Catherine; Basara, Nadezda

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: The high rate of toxicity is the limitation of myelobalative regimens before allogeneic transplantation. A reduced intensity regimen can allow engraftment of stem cells and subsequent transfer of immune cells for the induction of a graft-vs.-tumor reaction. Methods and Materials: The data from 130 patients (80 males and 50 females) treated between 1998 and 2003 for various hematologic malignancies were analyzed. The median patient age was 50 years (range, 3-72 years). Allogeneic transplantation using peripheral blood or bone marrow, or both, was performed in 104 (82%), 22 (17%), and 4 (3%) patients, respectively, from HLA identical sibling donors (n = 93, 72%), matched unrelated donors (n = 23, 18%), mismatched related donors (4%), or mismatched unrelated donors (6%). Total body irradiation (TBI) at a dose of 2 Gy delivered in one fraction was given to 101 patients (78%), and a total dose of 4-6 Gy was given in 29 (22%) patients. The median dose rate was 14.3 cGy/min (range, 6-16.4). Results: After a median follow-up period of 20 months (range, 1-62 months), engraftment was obtained in 122 patients (94%). Acute graft-vs.-host disease of Grade 2 or worse was observed in 37% of patients. Multivariate analysis showed three favorable independent factors for event-free survival: HLA identical sibling donor (p < 0.0001; relative risk [RR], 0.15), complete remission (p < 0.0001; RR, 3.08), and female donor to male patient (p = 0.006; RR 2.43). For relapse, the two favorable prognostic factors were complete remission (p < 0.0001, RR 0.11) and HLA identical sibling donor (p = 0.0007; RR 3.59). Conclusions: In this multicenter study, we confirmed high rates of engraftment and chimerism after the reduced intensity regimen. Our results are comparable to those previously reported. Radiation parameters seem to have no impact on outcome. However, the lack of a statistically significant difference in terms of dose rate may have been due, in part, to the small population

  6. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin; Ono, Maiko; Fang, Yaqun; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Begum, Nasrin; Higuchi, Makoto; Fujimori, Akira; Uehara, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Suhara, Tetsuya; Ono, Tetsuya; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with 11C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice. PMID:23908553

  7. In vitro quantitation of lethal and physiologic effects of total body irradiation on stromal and hematopoietic stem cells in continuous bone marrow cultures from Rf mice

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberger, J.S.; Eckner, R.J.; Otten, J.A.; Tennant, R.W.

    1982-07-01

    The effects of in vivo total body irradiation (TBI) and interval from TBI to explant of marrow on: stromal cell proliferation in vitro; stromal cell support of hematopoiesis in continuous bone marrow culture; and generation of WEHI-3 growth factor (GF)-dependent lines of hematopoietic progenitor cells were evaluated. Explant of marrow at 2, 4, 5, or 6 months after single fraction TBI (300-800 rad) was associated with decreased longevity of hemopoiesis and a decrease in the proliferative capacity of fibroblastic adherent-stromal colony forming cells (CFUf) as measured by colony size at 14 days and number of colonies per 10/sup 6/ cells plated. In contrast, explant of marrow 8 to 24 months after TBI produced cultures with longevity that was indistinguishable from age-matched control cultures (19-24 weeks). Marrow from irradiated first and second generation recipients of serially transferred marrow demonstrated a similar 7-month in vivo recovery period; however, the plateau maximum duration of hemopoiesis did not return to control levels. Purified stromal cell cultures were prepared by corticosteroid-deprivation of explanted marrow for 28 days and were then engrafted in vitro with marrow from C57BL/6J or RfM/UN mice that had been irradiated 1 month previously. Hemopoiesis in these cultures was restored, and they produced GM-CFUc and granulocytes for 15-24 weeks. Thus, healthy stroma supported growth of recently irradiated hemopoietic cells in vitro. Indirect effects of x-irradiation on hemopoietic stem cells through damage and repair in the stromal cell compartment can be effectively studied with the present bone marrow culture system. (JMT)

  8. High-Level Expression of Toll-Like Receptors on Dendritic Cells in Adult Patients with Burns on ≥90% of Total Body Surface Area (TBSA)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Na; Meng, Yan; Zhang, Renjing; Bian, Jinjun; Yao, Ying; Li, Jinbao; Deng, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Background As a serious clinical problem, severe burn injury disturbs the immune system, resulting in progressive suppression of immune response. TLRs are associated with immune system activation, but the effect of TLRs levels on circulating cDCs of severe burn injury patients has not been fully assessed. Material/Methods Ten patients with total body surface area (TBSA) burned >90% admitted to our institution were enrolled in this study. We analyzed TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 expression on the circulating cDCs by using multicolor flow cytometric analysis in patients at 14 days to 28 days after burn injury according to mortality, and We also assessed Demographics, clinical outcomes, organ function, and inflammatory and acute-phase responses. Results No difference in TBSA, sex, age, or number of operations before the first 14 days after injury were observed between surviving and non-surviving burn patients. The levels of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 in circulating cDCs were significantly and consistently elevated in all patients compared to age-matched healthy volunteers, and survivors exhibited higher TLR2 and TLR4 values than non-survivors. Of the survivors, TLR2 and TLR4 levels were higher at 28 days than at 14 days after injury, while the difference in TLR9 levels was not significant. TLR2 levels of non-survivors at 28 days after injury decreased, and the TLR4 and TLR9 levels showed no significant difference. Conclusions TLRs levels in circulating cDCs are highly activated in severe burn injury patients up to 28 days after injury. The low expression of TLR2 in cDCs may be useful as a potential marker predicting the poor prognosis of severe burn patients. PMID:27686145

  9. Total Body Irradiation Compared With BEAM: Long-Term Outcomes of Peripheral Blood Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Seftel, Matthew D.; Rubinger, Morel; Szwajcer, David; Demers, Alain

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: The optimal preparative regimen for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) is unknown. We compared a total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimen with a chemotherapy-alone regimen. Methods and Materials: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a Canadian cancer center. The TBI regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and TBI 12 Gy in six fractions (CY/E/TBI). The chemotherapy-alone regimen consisted of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM). We compared the acute and long-term toxicities, disease relapse-free survival, and overall survival (OS). Results: Of 73 patients, 26 received CY/E/TBI and 47 received BEAM. The median follow-up for the CY/E/TBI group was 12.0 years and for the BEAM group was 7.3 years. After PBSCT, no differences in acute toxicity were seen between the two groups. The 5-year disease relapse-free survival rate was 50.0% and 50.7% in the CY/E/TBI and BEAM groups, respectively (p = .808). The 5-year OS rate was 53.9% and 63.8% for the CY/E/TBI and BEAM groups, respectivey (p = .492). The univariate analysis results indicated that patients with Stage IV, with chemotherapy-resistant disease, and who had received PBSCT before 2000 had inferior OS. A three-way categorical analysis revealed that transplantation before 2000, rather than the conditioning regimen, was a more important predictive factor of long-term outcome (p = .034). Conclusion: A 12-Gy TBI-based conditioning regimen for PBSCT for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma resulted in disease relapse-free survival and OS similar to that after BEAM. PBSCT before 2000, and not the conditioning regimen, was an important predictor of long-term outcomes. TBI was not associated with more acute toxicity or pneumonitis. We found no indication that the TBI regimen was inferior or superior to BEAM.

  10. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil after nonmyeloablative matched-sibling donor allogeneic stem-cell transplantations conditioned with fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Yago; Patton, Nigel; Hawkins, Timothy; Spearing, Ruth; Bearman, Scott I; Jones, Roy B; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Zeng, Chan; Barón, Anna; McSweeney, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    We evaluated tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after a nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation (NST) from a matched sibling donor (MSD). Thirty-two patients (median age, 57 years) with advanced hematologic malignancies, who were poor candidates for a conventional myeloablative transplantation, received fludarabine (30 mg/m(2), day -4 to day -2), total-body irradiation (TBI) (200 cGy, day 0), infusion of donor peripheral blood progenitor cells (day 0), oral tacrolimus 0.06 mg/kg twice daily (from day 3), and oral MMF at 15 mg/kg twice daily (days 0-+27). Tacrolimus was tapered from day +100 to day +180 in those patients with indolent malignancies (n = 25), and from day +35 to day +56 in those with aggressive tumors (n = 7). Regimen toxicities and myelosuppression were mild, allowing 75% of patients to have entirely outpatient transplantations. One patient (3%) experienced a nonfatal graft rejection. Rates of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15.6% and 3%, respectively. Acute GVHD was diagnosed at median day +78 (range, days +31-+84). Extensive chronic GVHD was observed in 10 of 24 evaluable patients (41.6%) at a median onset of day +198 (range, days +128-+277), either spontaneously (n = 5) or elicited after tumor progression (n = 5). Five patients experienced transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (15.6%) from either acute GVHD-related multiorgan failure (MOF) (n = 3) or infectious complications (n = 2). At median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-41 months), the overall survival, progression-free survival, and disease-free survival rates are 62.5%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, the use of tacrolimus/MMF after MSD NST is associated with encouraging rates of GVHD control.

  11. Mechanisms Involved in the Development of the Chronic Gastrointestinal Syndrome in Nonhuman Primates after Total-Body Irradiation with Bone Marrow Shielding.

    PubMed

    Shea-Donohue, Terez; Fasano, Alessio; Zhao, Aiping; Notari, Luigi; Yan, Shu; Sun, Rex; Bohl, Jennifer A; Desai, Neemesh; Tudor, Greg; Morimoto, Motoko; Booth, Catherine; Bennett, Alexander; Farese, Ann M; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    In this study, nonhuman primates (NHPs) exposed to lethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI) within the gastrointestinal (GI) acute radiation syndrome range, sparing ∼5% of bone marrow (TBI-BM5), were used to evaluate the mechanisms involved in development of the chronic GI syndrome. TBI increased mucosal permeability in the jejunum (12-14 Gy) and proximal colon (13-14 Gy). TBI-BM5 also impaired mucosal barrier function at doses ranging from 10-12.5 Gy in both small intestine and colon. Timed necropsies of NHPs at 6-180 days after 10 Gy TBI-BM5 showed that changes in small intestine preceded those in the colon. Chronic GI syndrome in NHPs is characterized by continued weight loss and intermittent GI syndrome symptoms. There was a long-lasting decrease in jejunal glucose absorption coincident with reduced expression of the sodium-linked glucose transporter. The small intestine and colon showed a modest upregulation of several different pro-inflammatory mediators such as NOS-2. The persistent inflammation in the post-TBI-BM5 period was associated with a long-lasting impairment of mucosal restitution and a reduced expression of intestinal and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Mucosal healing in the postirradiation period is dependent on sparing of stem cell crypts and maturation of crypt cells into appropriate phenotypes. At 30 days after 10 Gy TBI-BM5, there was a significant downregulation in the gene and protein expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5 but no change in the gene expression of enterocyte or enteroendocrine lineage markers. These data indicate that even a threshold dose of 10 Gy TBI-BM5 induces a persistent impairment of both mucosal barrier function and restitution in the GI tract and that ALP may serve as a biomarker for these events. These findings have important therapeutic implications for the design of medical countermeasures. PMID:27223826

  12. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin; Ono, Maiko; Fang, Yaqun; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Maruyama, Kouichi; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Begum, Nasrin; Higuchi, Makoto; Fujimori, Akira; Uehara, Yoshihiko; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Suhara, Tetsuya; Ono, Tetsuya; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with (11)C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice.

  13. Rituximab, fludarabine, and total body irradiation as conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-term prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Socié, Gerard; Mohty, Mohamad; Sobh, Mohamad; Bay, Jacques-O; Morisset, Stéphane; Labussière-Wallet, Hélène; Tabrizi, Reza; Milpied, Noel; Bordigoni, Pierre; El-Cheikh, Jean; Blaise, Didier

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) combining fludarabine, low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) and rituximab before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from human leucocyte antigen (HLA) identical siblings, we conducted a prospective study in patients ≤65 years old with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) stage B or C in response after a salvage treatment. Conditioning included rituximab (375 mg/m² on day 5), fludarabine (30 mg/m² from day 4 to day 2), TBI (2 Gy on day 0), and rituximab (500 mg/m² on days 1 and 8). Forty patients were included, 34 (85%) were male with a median age of 54 years (range, 35-65 years), 38 (95%) were in B stage, and 2 were in stage C; only 7 patients (17%) were in complete response. Seven (17%) patients did not receive rituximab. Thirty-nine (98%) patients engrafted, 17 patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade ≥II with a cumulative incidence at 3 months of 44% (36-52) with a significant protective effect of rituximab (p = 0.02). The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 29% (21-36) at 12 months for both limited and extensive forms. The median overall survival was not reached with 5-years probability of 55% (41-74). The multivariate analysis showed a positive effect of rituximab on overall survival and event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.1 [0-0.6], p = 0.02; and HR = 0.1 [0-0.4], p = 0.035, respectively). The association of fludarabine, TBI, and rituximab is feasible, well tolerated, and allows better outcomes in advanced CLL.

  14. Adoptive transfer of Mammaglobin-A epitope specific CD8 T cells combined with a single low dose of total body irradiation eradicates breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Lerret, Nadine M; Rogozinska, Magdalena; Jaramillo, Andrés; Marzo, Amanda L

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy has proven to be beneficial in a number of tumor systems by targeting the relevant tumor antigen. The tumor antigen targeted in our model is Mammaglobin-A, expressed by approximately 80% of human breast tumors. Here we evaluated the use of adoptively transferred Mammaglobin-A specific CD8 T cells in combination with low dose irradiation to induce breast tumor rejection and prevent relapse. We show Mammaglobin-A specific CD8 T cells generated by DNA vaccination with all epitopes (Mammaglobin-A2.1, A2.2, A2.4 and A2.6) and full-length DNA in vivo resulted in heterogeneous T cell populations consisting of both effector and central memory CD8 T cell subsets. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from all Mammaglobin-A2 immunized mice into tumor-bearing SCID/beige mice induced tumor regression but this anti-tumor response was not sustained long-term. Additionally, we demonstrate that only the adoptive transfer of Mammaglobin-A2 specific CD8 T cells in combination with a single low dose of irradiation prevents tumors from recurring. More importantly we show that this single dose of irradiation results in the down regulation of the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 on dendritic cells within the tumor and reduces lipid uptake by tumor resident dendritic cells potentially enabling the dendritic cells to present tumor antigen more efficiently and aid in tumor clearance. These data reveal the potential for adoptive transfer combined with a single low dose of total body irradiation as a suitable therapy for the treatment of established breast tumors and the prevention of tumor recurrence.

  15. Renal Shielding and Dosimetry for Patients With Severe Systemic Sclerosis Receiving Immunoablation With Total Body Irradiation in the Scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide or Transplantation Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Craciunescu, Oana I.; Steffey, Beverly A.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Larrier, Nicole A.; Paarz-Largay, Cathy J.; Prosnitz, Robert G.; Chao, Nelson; Chute, John; Gasparetto, Cristina; Horwitz, Mitchell; Long, Gwynn; Rizzieri, David; Sullivan, Keith M.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To describe renal shielding techniques and dosimetry in delivering total body irradiation (TBI) to patients with severe systemic sclerosis (SSc) enrolled in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant protocol. Methods and Materials: The Scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide or Transplantation (SCOT) protocol uses a lymphoablative preparative regimen including 800 cGy TBI delivered in two 200-cGy fractions twice a day before CD34{sup +} selected autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Lung and kidney doses are limited to 200 cGy to protect organs damaged by SSc. Kidney block proximity to the spinal cord was investigated, and guidelines were developed for acceptable lumbar area TBI dosing. Information about kidney size and the organ shifts from supine to standing positions were recorded using diagnostic ultrasound (US). Minimum distance between the kidney blocks (dkB) and the lumbar spine region dose was recorded, and in vivo dosimetry was performed at several locations to determine the radiation doses delivered. Results: Eleven patients were treated at our center with an anteroposterior (AP)/posteroanterior (PA) TBI technique. A 10% to 20% dose inhomogeneity in the lumbar spine region was achieved with a minimum kidney block separation of 4 to 5 cm. The average lumbar spine dose was 179.6 {+-} 18.1 cGy, with an average dkB of 5.0 {+-} 1.0 cm. Kidney block shield design was accomplished using a combination of US and noncontrast computerized tomography (CT) or CT imaging alone. The renal US revealed a wide range of kidney displacement from upright to supine positions. Overall, the average in vivo dose for the kidney prescription point was 193.4 {+-} 5.1 cGy. Conclusions: The dose to the kidneys can be attenuated while maintaining a 10% to 20% dose inhomogeneity in the lumbar spine area. Kidneys were localized more accurately using both US and CT imaging. With this technique, renal function has been preserved, and the study continues to enroll patients.

  16. CD154 blockade and donor-specific transfusions in DLA-identical marrow transplantation in dogs conditioned with 1-Gy total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Christoph; Beste, Mechthild; Zellmer, Eustacia; Graves, Scott S; Storb, Rainer

    2007-02-01

    Stable mixed donor/host chimerism has been reliably established in dogs given a sublethal dose (2 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) before and immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or rapamycin combined with cyclosporine (CSP) after marrow transplantation from dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical littermates (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT]). When TBI was reduced to 1 Gy, only transient engraftment was observed. Here we investigated whether stable engraftment after 1-Gy TBI could be accomplished by reducing host-versus-donor immune responsiveness through preceding CD154 blockade and infusion of donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that the anti-human CD154 antibody, 5c8, cross-reacted with canine lymphocytes and blocked alloimmune responses in vitro. Based on pharmacokinetic studies, 6 dogs received a single intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg anti-CD154 antibody (on day -5), followed 1 day later by donor PBMCs. On day 0, the dogs were given 1 Gy of TBI and underwent DLA-identical marrow grafts. Postgraft immunosuppression consisted of MMF and CSP. All 6 dogs demonstrated initial engraftment; 3 dogs sustained the engraftment for >26 weeks, whereas 3 dogs rejected their grafts, after 9, 22, and 24 weeks, and survived with autologous recovery. Graft survival was significantly improved over that in 11 historical controls conditioned with 1-Gy TBI and given either MMF or rapamycin with CSP after HCT, all of which rejected their grafts between 3 and 12 weeks (P = .03). Preceding donor PBMC infusion and CD154 blockade improved survival of DLA-identical marrow grafts after 1-Gy TBI. PMID:17241922

  17. Standardised mortality ratio based on the sum of age and percentage total body surface area burned is an adequate quality indicator in burn care: An exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Steinvall, Ingrid; Elmasry, Moustafa; Fredrikson, Mats; Sjoberg, Folke

    2016-02-01

    Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) based on generic mortality predicting models is an established quality indicator in critical care. Burn-specific mortality models are preferred for the comparison among patients with burns as their predictive value is better. The aim was to assess whether the sum of age (years) and percentage total body surface area burned (which constitutes the Baux score) is acceptable in comparison to other more complex models, and to find out if data collected from a separate burn centre are sufficient for SMR based quality assessment. The predictive value of nine burn-specific models was tested by comparing values from the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and a non-inferiority analysis using 1% as the limit (delta). SMR was analysed by comparing data from seven reference sources, including the North American National Burn Repository (NBR), with the observed mortality (years 1993-2012, n=1613, 80 deaths). The AUC values ranged between 0.934 and 0.976. The AUC 0.970 (95% CI 0.96-0.98) for the Baux score was non-inferior to the other models. SMR was 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.88) for the most recent five-year period compared with NBR based data. The analysis suggests that SMR based on the Baux score is eligible as an indicator of quality for setting standards of mortality in burn care. More advanced modelling only marginally improves the predictive value. The SMR can detect mortality differences in data from a single centre. PMID:26700877

  18. Pretreatment Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score Predicts Clinical Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Takahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori Ueki, Nami; Iizuka, Yusuke; Nakamura, Akira; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Data from 165 patients who underwent SBRT for stage I NSCLC with histologic confirmation from January 1999 to September 2010 were collected retrospectively. Factors, including age, performance status, histology, Charlson comorbidity index, mGPS, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class based on sex and T stage, were evaluated with regard to overall survival (OS) using the Cox proportional hazards model. The impact of the mGPS on cause of death and failure patterns was also analyzed. Results: The 3-year OS was 57.9%, with a median follow-up time of 3.5 years. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with poor OS (P<.001). The 3-year OS of lower mGPS patients was 66.4%, whereas that of higher mGPS patients was 44.5%. On multivariate analysis, mGPS and RPA class were significant factors for OS. A higher mGPS correlated significantly with lung cancer death (P=.019) and distant metastasis (P=.013). Conclusions: The mGPS was a significant predictor of clinical outcomes for SBRT in NSCLC patients.

  19. Electronic and optical properties of pure and modified diamondoids studied by many-body perturbation theory and time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Demján, Tamás; Vörös, Márton; Palummo, Maurizia; Gali, Adam

    2014-08-14

    Diamondoids are small diamond nanoparticles (NPs) that are built up from diamond cages. Unlike usual semiconductor NPs, their atomic structure is exactly known, thus they are ideal test-beds for benchmarking quantum chemical calculations. Their usage in spintronics and bioimaging applications requires a detailed knowledge of their electronic structure and optical properties. In this paper, we apply density functional theory (DFT) based methods to understand the electronic and optical properties of a few selected pure and modified diamondoids for which accurate experimental data exist. In particular, we use many-body perturbation theory methods, in the G0W0 and G0W0+BSE approximations, and time-dependent DFT in the adiabatic local density approximation. We find large quasiparticle gap corrections that can exceed thrice the DFT gap. The electron-hole binding energy can be as large as 4 eV but it is considerably smaller than the GW corrections and thus G0W0+BSE optical gaps are about 50% larger than the Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT gaps. We find significant differences between KS time-dependent DFT and GW+BSE optical spectra on the selected diamondoids. The calculated G0W0 quasiparticle levels agree well with the corresponding experimental vertical ionization energies. We show that nuclei dynamics in the ionization process can be significant and its contribution may reach about 0.5 eV in the adiabatic ionization energies. PMID:25134572

  20. Total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide plus antithymocyte globulin regimen is well tolerated and promotes stable engraftment as a preparative regimen before T cell-replete haploidentical transplantation for acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haixia; Xu, Lanping; Liu, Daihong; Liu, Kaiyan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Huan; Chen, Yuhong; Han, Wei; Wang, Yu; Wang, Jingzhi; Wang, Fengrong; Huang, Xiaojun

    2014-08-01

    We compared total body irradiation (TBI, 700 cGy)/cyclophosphamide (Cy, 3.6 g/m(2))/simustine (250 mg/m(2)) plus antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (TBI/Cy plus ATG) with cytarabine (8 g/m(2))/i.v. busulfan (Bu, 9.6 mg/kg)/Cy (3.6 g/m(2))/simustine (250 mg/m(2)) plus ATG (modified Bu/Cy plus ATG) as preparative therapy in T cell-replete haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) for acute leukemia. From August 2009 to August 2013, 38 consecutive patients using TBI/Cy plus ATG regimen for T cell-replete haplo-HSCT (TBI group) at our center were eligible, which contained 28 high-risk and 10 standard-risk patients. A nested case-control study was designed. Seventy-seven patients using modified Bu/Cy plus ATG regimen (Bu group) were randomly selected in a 1 to 3:1 ratio matching for age, disease and status, year of HSCT (±2 years), and length of follow-up. Only 1 graft failure occurred in the TBI group. The incidence and time of neutrophil and platelet engraftment were comparable between the 2 groups. Severe grades III/IV graft-versus-host disease was observed in 13.4% of Bu group and only 2.6% of TBI group (P = .083). More toxicity of the liver (37.7% versus 10.5%; P = .002) and more hemorrhagic cystitis occurred in the Bu group (49.3% versus 23.7%, P = .008). Diarrhea was more common in the TBI group (44.7% versus 22.1%; P = .031). No significant differences were found in the 2-year incidences of relapse (26.5% for TBI group versus 32.3% for Bu group, P = .742), 1-year transplant-related mortality (12.6% versus 16.2%, P = .862), 2-year overall survival (60.2% versus 57.0%, P = .937), and 2-year incidence of disease-free survival (57.9% versus 56.6%, P = .845) between the 2 groups. We conclude that the TBI/Cy plus ATG regimen seems to be feasible in T cell-replete haplo-HSCT, which promotes stable engraftment and a lower incidence of liver toxicity and hemorrhagic cystitis. However, longer follow-up is necessary to

  1. Modified Senning Procedure for Correction of Atrioventricular Discordance With Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return, Atrial Situs Inversus, Dextrocardia, and Bilateral Superior Venae Cavae.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Vinod A; Guleserian, Kristine J; Juraszek, Amy; Kane, Colin; Hamzeh, Rabih; Forbess, Joseph M

    2015-10-01

    The Senning and Mustard baffles remain important techniques for the treatment of congenitally corrected transposition (cc-TGA), isolated ventricular inversion, and D-transposition of the great arteries with delayed presentation. We describe the treatment of an 8-month old infant with atrioventricular discordance, ventriculoarterial concordance, and dextrocardia with atrial situs inversus. A modified Senning procedure was performed through the "left-sided" atrium. Modifications of the Senning and Mustard baffles remain important tools in the treatment of rare conditions like isolated ventricular inversion.

  2. "If You Miss the Ball, You Look Like a Total Muppet!" Boys Investing in Their Bodies in Physical Education and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Connections have been drawn between masculinity, muscularity and physical or social status in sport. Not only are sporting bodies often related to masculinity but also to whiteness, leading to the devaluing of Asian boys' bodies and sporting experiences. This paper draws on three British Asian teenage boys' visual and verbal narratives to enquire…

  3. Modified total variation norm for the maximum a posteriori ordered subsets expectation maximization reconstruction in fan-beam SPECT brain perfusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Andrzej; Yang, Zhaoxia; Xu, Yuesheng; Wismüller, Axel; Feiglin, David H.

    2011-03-01

    The anisotropic geometry of Fan-Beam Collimator (FBC) Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) is used in brain perfusion imaging with clinical goals to quantify regional cerebral blood flow and to accurately determine the location and extent of the brain perfusion defects. One of the difficult issues that need to be addressed is partial volume effect. The purpose of this study was to minimize the partial volume effect while preserving the optimal tradeoff between noise and bias, and maintaining spatial resolution in the reconstructed images acquired in FBC geometry. We modified conventional isotropic TV (L1) norm, which has only one hyperparameter, and replaced it with two independent TV (L1u) norms (TVxy and TVz) along two orthogonal basis vectors (XY, Z) in 3D reconstruction space. We investigated if the anisotropic norm with two hyperparameters (βxy and βz, where z is parallel to the axis-of-rotation) performed better in FBC-SPECT reconstruction, as compared to the conventional isotropic norm with one hyperparameter (β) only. We found that MAP-OSEM reconstruction with modified TV norm produced images with smaller partial volume effect, as compared to the conventional TV norm at a cost of slight increase in the bias and noise.

  4. [French experience in paediatric total body irradiation: A study from the radiotherapy committee of the Société française des cancers de l'enfant (SFCE)].

    PubMed

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, C; Supiot, S; Claude, L; Carrie, C; Mazeron, R; Helfré, S; Alapetite, C; Jouin, A; Coche, B; Padovani, L; Muracciole, X; Bernier, V; Vigneron, C; Noël, G; Leseur, J; Le Prisé, É; Stefan, D; Habrand, J L; Kerr, C; Bondiau, P Y; Ruffier, A; Chapet, S; Mahé, M A

    2016-06-01

    A survey was conducted in 2015 in France on the care of children in radiotherapy services. We present the results for total body irradiation in children, a specific technique of radiation treatment, which needs dedicated controls for this particular population. Of the 17 centres interviewed, 16 responded, and 13 practiced total body irradiation. Patients are positioned in lateral decubitus in 11 centres and supine/prone in two centres. Doses used for total body irradiation in myeloablative bone marrow transplantation are the same in all centres (12Gy); treatments are always fractionated. Lung shielding is positioned to limit the dose at an average of 8Gy with extremes ranging from 6 to 10Gy. The shape of the shieldings varies depending on departments' protocol, with a smaller size in case of mediastinal mass. Four centres have experience of total body irradiation under general anaesthesia, despite twice-daily fractions. In total, practice is relatively homogeneous throughout France and is inspired by the knowledge obtained in adults.

  5. Similar Survival for Patients Undergoing Reduced-Intensity Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Versus Myeloablative TBI as Conditioning for Allogeneic Transplant in Acute Leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Mikell, John L.; Waller, Edmund K.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Rangaraju, Sravanti; Ali, Zahir; Graiser, Michael; Hall, William A.; Langston, Amelia A.; Esiashvili, Natia; Khoury, H. Jean; Khan, Mohammad K.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the mainstay of treatment for adults with acute leukemia. Total body irradiation (TBI) remains an important part of the conditioning regimen for HCST. For those patients unable to tolerate myeloablative TBI (mTBI), reduced intensity TBI (riTBI) is commonly used. In this study we compared outcomes of patients undergoing mTBI with those of patients undergoing riTBI in our institution. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with acute leukemia who underwent TBI-based conditioning, using a prospectively acquired database of HSCT patients treated at our institution. Patient data including details of the transplantation procedure, disease status, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), response rates, toxicity, survival time, and time to progression were extracted. Patient outcomes for various radiation therapy regimens were examined. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Between June 1985 and July 2012, 226 patients with acute leukemia underwent TBI as conditioning for HSCT. Of those patients, 180 had full radiation therapy data available; 83 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 94 had acute myelogenous leukemia; 45 patients received riTBI, and 135 received mTBI. Median overall survival (OS) was 13.7 months. Median relapse-free survival (RFS) for all patients was 10.2 months. Controlling for age, sex, KPS, disease status, and diagnosis, there were no significant differences in OS or RFS between patients who underwent riTBI and those who underwent mTBI (P=.402, P=.499, respectively). Median length of hospital stay was shorter for patients who received riTBI than for those who received mTBI (16 days vs 23 days, respectively; P<.001), and intensive care unit admissions were less frequent following riTBI than mTBI (2.22% vs 12.69%, respectively, P=.043). Nonrelapse survival rates were also similar (P=.186). Conclusions: No differences in OS or RFS were seen between

  6. A study of thiotepa, etoposide and fractionated total body irradiation as a preparative regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation for poor prognosis patients with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kamani, N; August, C S; Bunin, N; Leahey, A; Bayever, E; Goldwein, J; Zusman, J; Evans, A E; Angio, G D

    1996-06-01

    We report the toxicity and efficacy of a new conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children with poor prognosis neuroblastoma (NBL). Twenty-seven patients with poor prognosis NBL were treated with teniposide (360 mg/m2) or etoposide (500 mg/m2), thiotepa (600-900 mg/m2), and 1200 cGy fractionated total body irradiation (fTBI) followed by autologous marrow rescue (n = 19) or allogeneic BMT from HLA-identical siblings (n = 8). The two patients who received teniposide, 600 mg/m2 thiotepa and fTBI had minimal toxicity but relapsed 4 and 12 months post-auto BMT. The next two patients received 750 mg/m2 thiotepa, 500 mg/m2 etoposide and TBI. They tolerated the conditioning regimen well and are alive and in remission 77 and 75 months post-BMT. At the next thiotepa dose level (900 mg/m2), the first two allograft recipients both experienced fatal regimen-related toxicity. All subsequent allograft recipients received 750 mg/m2 thiotepa and autograft recipients received 900 mg/m2 thiotepa. As of 1 April 1995, eight of the 19 patients who received autologous marrow are surviving disease-free 21 to 77 months post-BMT. Nine autograft recipients relapsed at 2 to 37 months following transplantation. One patient died of hepatic veno-occlusive disease 2 months after auto BMT, and one of pneumonia 6 months post-transplantation. Three allograft recipients have relapsed at 6, 10 and 39 months post-transplant and three are alive and in remission 75, 53 and 27 months post-BMT. Overall, 11/27 patients (41%) are alive and in remission 21-77 months (median 47 months) following BMT. A conditioning regimen consisting of 500 mg/m2 etoposide, thiotepa (750 mg/m2 for allograft recipients and 900 mg/m2 for autograft recipients) and 1200 cGy fTBI has acceptable toxicity and is at least as effective as melphalan-containing regimens in the treatment of high-risk NBL.

  7. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Chang, Daniel T.; Raman, Siva P.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan; Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Tryggestad, Erik; Pawlik, Timothy; Laheru, Daniel A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Koong, Albert C.; and others

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver{sub mean} + [2 × Liver{sub sd}]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm{sup 3} or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in

  8. Total Body Irradiation-Based Myeloablative Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Safe and Effective Alternative to Unrelated Donor Transplantation in Patients Without Matched Sibling Donors.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Scott R; Sizemore, Connie A; Sanacore, Melissa; Zhang, Xu; Brown, Stacey; Holland, H Kent; Morris, Lawrence E; Bashey, Asad

    2015-07-01

    We enrolled 30 patients on a prospective phase II trial utilizing a total body irradiation (TBI)-based myeloablative preparative regimen (fludarabine 30 mg/m2/day × 3 days and TBI 150 cGy twice per day on day -4 to -1 [total dose 1200 cGy]) followed by infusion of unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cells from a haploidentical family donor (haplo). Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day on days 3 and 4, mycophenolate mofetil through day 35, and tacrolimus through day 180. Median patient age was 46.5 years (range, 24 to 60). Transplantation diagnosis included acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 16), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 5), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 2). Using the Dana Farber/Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research/Disease Risk Index (DRI), patients were classified as low (n = 4), intermediate (n = 12), high (n = 11), and very high (n = 3) risk. All patients engrafted with a median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery of 16 and 25 days, respectively. All evaluable patients achieved sustained complete donor T cell and myeloid chimerism by day +30. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV and III and IV was seen in 43% and 23%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 56% (severe in 10%). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the estimated 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), nonrelapse mortality, and relapse rate were 78%, 73%, 3%, and 24%, respectively. Two-year DFS and relapse rate in patients with low/intermediate risk disease was 100% and 0%, respectively, compared with 39% and 53% for patients with high/very high risk disease. When compared with a contemporaneously treated cohort of patients at our institution receiving myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation (acute myelogenous leukemia [n = 17], acute lymphoblastic leukemia [n = 15

  9. Electronic and optical properties of pure and modified diamondoids studied by many-body perturbation theory and time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Demján, Tamás; Vörös, Márton; Palummo, Maurizia; Gali, Adam

    2014-08-14

    Diamondoids are small diamond nanoparticles (NPs) that are built up from diamond cages. Unlike usual semiconductor NPs, their atomic structure is exactly known, thus they are ideal test-beds for benchmarking quantum chemical calculations. Their usage in spintronics and bioimaging applications requires a detailed knowledge of their electronic structure and optical properties. In this paper, we apply density functional theory (DFT) based methods to understand the electronic and optical properties of a few selected pure and modified diamondoids for which accurate experimental data exist. In particular, we use many-body perturbation theory methods, in the G{sub 0}W{sub 0} and G{sub 0}W{sub 0}+BSE approximations, and time-dependent DFT in the adiabatic local density approximation. We find large quasiparticle gap corrections that can exceed thrice the DFT gap. The electron-hole binding energy can be as large as 4 eV but it is considerably smaller than the GW corrections and thus G{sub 0}W{sub 0}+BSE optical gaps are about 50% larger than the Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT gaps. We find significant differences between KS time-dependent DFT and GW+BSE optical spectra on the selected diamondoids. The calculated G{sub 0}W{sub 0} quasiparticle levels agree well with the corresponding experimental vertical ionization energies. We show that nuclei dynamics in the ionization process can be significant and its contribution may reach about 0.5 eV in the adiabatic ionization energies.

  10. Genetically modified crops in a 10-generation feeding trial on Japanese quails--Evaluation of its influence on birds' performance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Sartowska, K E; Korwin-Kossakowska, A; Sender, G

    2015-12-01

    The effect of genetically modified (GM) feed components comprising soya bean meal and maize on the performance indices (reproduction, survival rate, growth, egg production, relative weight of chosen internal organs, and basic chemical composition of breast muscle and egg yolk) of Japanese quails was investigated during a 10-generation trial. A total number of 8,438 healthy quail chicks were used in the course of the trial. In each generation, birds were maintained in 3 experimental groups differing in the main feed components, i.e. 1) GM soya (Roundup Ready) and non-GM maize, 2) GM maize (MON810) and non-GM soya, and 3) non-GM soya and maize. The different feeds used did not influence any of the biological hatch indices, survival rate, or BW of young or adult quails. With regard to egg-laying performance, the GM maize group showed a better laying percentage and a higher egg mass production compared to the other groups; the GM soya group showed reduced average egg mass compared to the other groups, whereas the overall egg production level was the same as in the control group. Results showed a higher relative weight of breast muscle and gizzard in birds fed GM maize compared to the control group, whereas live BW and the relative weights of liver and heart were not different among groups. Meat from the GM soya group showed higher protein and lower fat levels compared to the control group. In the case of egg yolk, its chemical composition in the experimental groups did not differ from the control group. Even though some differences were found among the feeding groups, none could be judged as a negative influence of GM maize or GM soya in feed on the birds or final consumer products over 10 generations of Japanese quails. PMID:26475068

  11. Determination of Total Mercury in Whole-Body Fish and Fish Muscle Plugs Collected from the South Fork of the Humboldt River, Nevada, September 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in whole-body fish and fish muscle plugs from the South Fork of the Humboldt River near Elko in the Te-Moak Indian Reservation. A single muscle plug was collected from beneath the dorsal fin area in each of the three whole-body fish samples. After homogenization and lyophilization of the muscle plugs and whole-body fish samples, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in whole-body fish ranged from 0.048 to 0.061 microgram per gram wet weight, and 0.061 to 0.082 microgram per gram wet weight in muscle plugs. All sample mercury concentrations were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  12. Inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Decker, J.R.; Lai, Y.L.; Lauhala, K.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Hiastala, M.P.; McGee, D.R.; Park, J.F.; Kuffel, E.G.; Ragan, H.A.; Cannon, W.C.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1988-08-01

    Rats and beagle dogs were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or body burdens of /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses of both species within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell concentrations and by long-term loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in animals of both species that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled plutonium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in both species, but its only effect on blood cell concentrations was lymphocytopenia in dogs. Combined gamma irradiation and plutonium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Plutonium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the long-term effect of plutonium lung burdens in both species. Rats were less sensitive to both kinds of radiation, whether administered alone or in combination. 71 refs., 105 figs., 48 tabs.

  13. Thermal manipulation of the embryo modifies the physiology and body composition of broiler chickens reared in floor pens without affecting breast meat processing quality.

    PubMed

    Loyau, T; Berri, C; Bedrani, L; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Collin, A

    2013-08-01

    Selection in broiler chickens has increased muscle mass without similar development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, resulting in limited ability to sustain high ambient temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine the long-lasting effects of heat manipulation of the embryo on the physiology, body temperature (Tb), growth rate and meat processing quality of broiler chickens reared in floor pens. Broiler chicken eggs were incubated in control conditions (37.8°C, 56% relative humidity; RH) or exposed to thermal manipulation (TM; 12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH) from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis. This study was planned in a pedigree design to identify possible heritable characters for further selection of broiler chickens to improve thermotolerance. Thermal manipulation did not affect hatchability but resulted in lower Tb at hatching and until d 28 post-hatch, with associated changes in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. At d 34, chickens were exposed to a moderate heat challenge (5 h, 32°C). Greater O2 saturation and reduced CO2 partial pressure were observed (P < 0.05) in the venous blood of TM than in that of control chickens, suggesting long-term respiratory adaptation. At slaughter age, TM chickens were 1.4% lighter and exhibited 8% less relative abdominal fat pad than controls. Breast muscle yield was enhanced by TM, especially in females, but without significant change in breast meat characteristics (pH, color, drip loss). Plasma glucose/insulin balance was affected (P < 0.05) by thermal treatments. The heat challenge increased the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio in controls (P < 0.05) but not in TM birds, possibly reflecting a lower stress status in TM chickens. Interestingly, broiler chickens had moderate heritability estimates for the plasma triiodothyronine/thyroxine concentration ratio at d 28 and comb temperature during the heat challenge on d 34 (h(2) > 0.17). In conclusion, TM of the embryo modified the physiology of broilers in the long

  14. Regional, but not total, body composition changes in overweight and obese adults consuming a higher protein, energy-restricted diet are sex specific.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minghua; Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2013-08-01

    Secondary analyses of data from 2 studies were used to assess the effects of protein intake and sex on diet-induced changes in body composition. The primary hypothesis was that the changes of body composition via energy restriction (ie, lean body mass [LBM], fat mass [FM], and bone) would be sex and diet specific. For 12 weeks, 43 male (study 1) and 45 female (study 2) overweight and obese adults consumed an energy-deficit diet (750 kcal/d less than energy needs) containing either 0.8 (normal protein [NP], 21 men and 23 women) or 1.4 g protein∙kg(-1)∙d(-1) (high protein [HP], 22 men and 22 women). Body composition measurements were performed at preintervention and postintervention. Over time, all research participants lost weight, LBM, and FM. Independent of protein intake, the men lost more LBM in the trunk (-0.9 vs -0.5 kg) and less in the legs (-1.5 vs -1.1 kg) compared with the women (P < .05). Independent of sex, the HP group lost less LBM in the trunk and legs than the NP group. These sex and protein intake responses resulted in the NP men losing the most LBM in the legs and the NP women losing the most LBM in the trunk. Over time, men lost more FM (-5.0 vs -3.9 kg) from the trunk and less from legs (-1.7 vs -2.1 kg) than women (P < .05), which resulted in a greater decrease of the android-to-gynoid fat ratio for the men. Protein intake did not influence these sex-specific responses or have any independent effects on changes in FM. In addition, protein intake did not influence bone mineral density responses over time; bone mineral density was reduced in women, but not in men. These findings indicate that higher protein intake during weight loss promotes the retention of LBM in both the trunk and legs despite the sex-specific changes in these body regions. PMID:23890352

  15. The Pro12Ala Polymorphism of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene Modifies the Association of Physical Activity and Body Mass Changes in Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Zarebska, Aleksandra; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Leonska-Duniec, Agata; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Sawczuk, Marek; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is a key regulator of adipogenesis, responsible for fatty acid storage and maintaining energy balance in the human body. Studies on the functional importance of the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphic variants indicated that the observed alleles may influence body mass measurements; however, obtained results were inconsistent. We have decided to check if body mass changes observed in physically active participants will be modulated by the PPARG Pro12Ala genotype. The genotype distribution of the PPARG Pro12Ala allele was examined in a group of 201 Polish women measured for selected body mass variables before and after the completion of a 12-week training program. The results of our experiment suggest that PPARG genotype can modulate training-induced body mass measurements changes: after completion of the training program, Pro12/Pro12 homozygotes were characterised by a greater decrease of body fat mass measurements in comparison with 12Ala allele carriers. These results indicate that the PPARG 12Ala variant may impair the training-induced positive effects on body mass measurements; however, the detailed mechanism of such interaction remained unclear and observed correlation between PPARG genotype and body mass differential effects should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25371663

  16. Total-body contrast-enhanced MRA on a short, wide-bore 1.5-T system: intra-individual comparison of Gd-BOPTA and Gd-DOTA.

    PubMed

    Rasmus, M; Bremerich, J; Egelhof, T; Huegli, R W; Bongartz, G; Bilecen, D

    2008-10-01

    Total-body contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) provides information of the entire vascular system according to a one-stop-shop approach. Short, wide-bore scanners have not yet been used for total-body CE-MRA, probably due to their restricted field of view in the z-direction. The purpose of this feasibility study is to introduce an image protocol for total-body MRA on a short, wide-bore system. The protocol includes five to six table-moving steps and two injection runs. Two pharmacologically different contrast materials (CM) were applied in ten healthy volunteers in view of possible CM-dependent influences on the protocol outcome (Gd-Bopta, Gd-Dota). Differences consisted of significantly higher CNR with Gd-Bopta with a mean of 73.8+/-38.7 versus 69.1+/-34.3 (p=0.008), significantly better arterial visualization values with Gd-Dota with a mean of 1.26+/-0.44 versus 1.53+/-0.73 (p=0.003) and a tendency to less venous overlay with Gd-Dota, mean 1.19+/-0.44 and 1.34+/-0.72, respectively (p=0.065) (two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs test). Overall 94% of the steps were valued as qualitatively excellent or good. The good results with both CM suggest a transfer to further patient evaluation.

  17. Assessing the ecotoxicological effects of long-term contaminated mine soils on plants and earthworms: relevance of soil (total and available) and body concentrations.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Esteban, Elvira; Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Fernández, María Dolores

    2014-09-01

    The interactions and relevance of the soil (total and available) concentrations, accumulation, and acute toxicity of several essential and non-essential trace elements were investigated to determine their importance in environmental soil assessment. Three plant species (T. aestivum, R. sativum, and V. sativa) and E. fetida were simultaneously exposed for 21 days to long-term contaminated soils collected from the surroundings of an abandoned pyrite mine. The soils presented different levels of As and metals, mainly Zn and Cu, and were tested at different soil concentrations [12.5, 25, 50, and 100% of contaminated soil/soil (w/w)] to increase the range of total and available soil concentrations necessary for the study. The total concentrations in the soils (of both As and metals) were better predictors of earthworm uptake than were the available concentrations. In plants, the accumulation of metals was related to the available concentrations of Zn and Cu, which could indicate that plants and earthworms accumulate elements from different pools of soil contaminants. Moreover, Zn and Cu, which are essential elements, showed controlled uptake at low concentrations. The external metal concentrations predicted earthworm mortality, whereas in plants, the effects on growth were correlated to the As and metal contents in the plants. In general, the bioaccumulation factors were lower at higher exposure levels, which implies the existence of auto-regulation in the uptake of both essential and non-essential elements by plants and earthworms.

  18. Assessing the ecotoxicological effects of long-term contaminated mine soils on plants and earthworms: relevance of soil (total and available) and body concentrations.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Esteban, Elvira; Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Fernández, María Dolores

    2014-09-01

    The interactions and relevance of the soil (total and available) concentrations, accumulation, and acute toxicity of several essential and non-essential trace elements were investigated to determine their importance in environmental soil assessment. Three plant species (T. aestivum, R. sativum, and V. sativa) and E. fetida were simultaneously exposed for 21 days to long-term contaminated soils collected from the surroundings of an abandoned pyrite mine. The soils presented different levels of As and metals, mainly Zn and Cu, and were tested at different soil concentrations [12.5, 25, 50, and 100% of contaminated soil/soil (w/w)] to increase the range of total and available soil concentrations necessary for the study. The total concentrations in the soils (of both As and metals) were better predictors of earthworm uptake than were the available concentrations. In plants, the accumulation of metals was related to the available concentrations of Zn and Cu, which could indicate that plants and earthworms accumulate elements from different pools of soil contaminants. Moreover, Zn and Cu, which are essential elements, showed controlled uptake at low concentrations. The external metal concentrations predicted earthworm mortality, whereas in plants, the effects on growth were correlated to the As and metal contents in the plants. In general, the bioaccumulation factors were lower at higher exposure levels, which implies the existence of auto-regulation in the uptake of both essential and non-essential elements by plants and earthworms. PMID:24875255

  19. Determination of trace amounts of hexavalent chromium in drinking waters by dispersive microsolid-phase extraction using modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes combined with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadir, Z.; Bulut, V. N.; Hidalgo, M.; Soylak, M.; Marguí, E.

    2015-05-01

    A methodology based on the combination of dispersive microsolid-phase extraction (DMSPE) with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry is proposed for the determination of hexavalent chromium in drinking waters. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified with the anionic exchanger tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) were used as solid sorbents. After the sorption process of Cr(VI) on the modified MWCNTs, the aqueous sample was separated by centrifugation and the loaded MWCNTs were suspended using a small volume of an internal standard solution and analyzed directly by a benchtop TXRF spectrometer, without any elution step. Parameters affecting the extraction process (pH and volume of the aqueous sample, amount of MWCNTs, extraction time) and TXRF analysis (volume of internal standard, volume of deposited suspension on the reflector, drying mode, and instrumental parameters) have been carefully evaluated to test the real capability of the developed methodology for the determination of Cr(VI) at trace levels. Using the best analytical conditions, it was found that the minimum Cr(VI) content that can be detected in an aqueous solution was 3 μg L- 1. This value is almost 20 times lower than the maximum hexavalent chromium content permissible in drinking waters, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Recoveries for spiked tap and mineral water samples were, in most cases, in the range of 101-108% which demonstrates the suitability of the TXRF methodology for monitoring Cr(VI) at trace levels in drinking water samples.

  20. Influence of total-body mass on the scaling of S-factors for patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traino, A. C.; Ferrari, M.; Cremonesi, M.; Stabin, M. G.

    2007-09-01

    To perform patient-specific, blood-based red-marrow dosimetry, dose conversion factors (the S factors in the MIRD formalism) have to be scaled by patients' organ masses. The dose to red marrow includes both self-dose and cross-irradiation contributions. Linear mass scaling for the self-irradiation term only is usually applied as a first approximation, whereas the cross-irradiation term is considered to be mass independent. Recently, the need of a mass scaling correction on both terms, not necessarily linear and dependent on the radionuclide, has been highlighted in the literature. S-factors taking into account different mass adjustments of organs are available in the OLINDA/EXM code. In this paper, a general algorithm able to fit the mass-dependent factors Srm<--tb and Srm<--rm is suggested and included in a more general equation for red-marrow dose calculation. Moreover, parameters to be considered specifically for therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I, 90Y and 177Lu are reported. The red-marrow doses calculated by the traditional and new algorithms are compared for 131I in ablation therapy (14 pts), 177Lu- (13 pts) and 90Y- (11 pts) peptide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours, and 90Y-Zevalin therapy for NHL (21 pts). The range of differences observed is as follows: -36% to -10% for 131I ablation, -22% to 5% for 177Lu-DOTATATE, -9% to 11% for 90Y-DOTATOC and -8% to 6% for 90Y-Zevalin. All differences are mostly due to the activity in the remainder of the body contributing to cross-irradiation. This paper quantifies the influence of mass scaling adjustment on usually applied therapies and shows how to derive the appropriate parameters for other radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals.

  1. Maternal body mass index during early pregnancy, gestational weight gain, and risk of autism spectrum disorders: Results from a Swedish total population and discordant sibling study

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Renee M; Lee, Brian K; Magnusson, Cecilia; Rai, Dheeraj; Frisell, Thomas; Karlsson, Håkan; Idring, Selma; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal environmental factors such as maternal adiposity may influence the risk of offspring autism spectrum disorders (ASD), though current evidence is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of parental BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) with risk of offspring ASD in a population-based cohort study using family-based study designs. Methods: The cohort was based in Stockholm County, Sweden, including 333 057 individuals born 1984–2007, of whom 6420 were diagnosed with an ASD. We evaluated maternal body mass index (BMI) at first antenatal visit, GWG and paternal BMI at the time of conscription into the Swedish military as exposures using general estimating equation (GEE) models with logit link. Results: At the population level, maternal overweight/obesity was associated with increased risk of offspring ASD [odds ratio (OR)25 ≤ BMI < 30 1.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.21–1.41; ORBMI ≥ 30 1.94, 1.72–2.17], as was paternal underweight (ORBMI < 18.5, 1.19, 1.06–1.33) and obesity (ORBMI ≥ 30 1.47, 1.12–1.92) in mutually adjusted models. However, in matched sibling analyses, the relationship between elevated maternal BMI and ASD risk was not apparent. GWG had a U-shaped association with offspring ASD at the population level (ORinsufficient 1.22, 1.07–1.40; ORexcessive 1.23, 1.08–1.40). Matched sibling analyses were suggestive of elevated risk with excessive GWG (ORinsufficient 1.12, 0.68–1.84; ORexcessive 1.48, 0.93–2.38). Conclusions: Whereas population-level results suggested that maternal BMI was associated with ASD, sibling analyses and paternal BMI analyses indicate that maternal BMI may also be a proxy marker for other familial risk factors. Evidence is