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Sample records for modified unex group

  1. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  2. Modified Group Debate in Introductory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.

    This classroom exercise presents a scaled-down version of traditional debate for students enrolled in introductory public speaking or small group communication courses at the university level. The exercise project involves two weeks, the first week for preparation and the second week for conducting in-class debates, and is presented in a…

  3. Fundamental Chemistry of the Universal Extractant (UNEX) for the Simultaneous Separation of Major Radionuclides (Cesium, Strontium, Actinides, and Lanthanides) from Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R. Scott; Peterman, Dean R.; Luther, Thomas A.; Garn, Troy G.; Tillotson, Richard D.; Babain, Vasily A.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Stoyanov, Evgenii S.

    2004-03-28

    4 Scientists at the INEEL and KRI collaboratively developed and validated the concept of a Universal Extractant (UNEX) for simultaneously removing the major radionuclides (Cs, Sr, actinides and lanthanides) from acidic radioactive waste in a single solvent extraction process. The UNEX solvent incorporates three active extractants: chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, polyethylene glycol and a carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide derivative, dissolved in a suitable organic diluent to simultaneously extract target radionuclides. The process chemistry is unique, but complicated, since the extractants operate synergistically to extract the radionuclides. Results indicate that water dissolved in the organic phase dramatically impacts the process chemistry. In order to investigate this phenomenon, we have varied the amount of water dissolved in the organic phase by using several different organic diluents. The results of 137Cs and 89Sr batch distribution studies for the different organic diluents will be presented. These data and data from other spectroscopic techniques will be used to elucidate the details of the extraction mechanism.

  4. Improving Student Group Marketing Presentations: A Modified Pecha Kucha Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jason; Kowalczyk, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Student presentations can often seem like a formality rather than a lesson in representing oneself or group in a professional manner. To improve the quality of group presentations, the authors modified the popular presentation style of Pecha Kucha (20 slides, 20 seconds per slide) for marketing courses to help students prepare and deliver…

  5. Demonstration of the UNEX Process for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Actual INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Todd, Terry Allen; Romanovskiy, V.; Smirnov, I.; Babain, V.; Zaitsev, B.; Esimantovskiy, V.

    1999-11-01

    A universal solvent extraction (UNEX) process for the simultaneous separation of cesium, strontium, and the actinides from actual radioactive acidic tank waste was demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste solution used in the countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was obtained from tank WM-185. The UNEX process uses a tertiary solvent containing 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, 0.5% polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoyl phosphine oxide (Ph2Bu2CMPO) in a diluent consisting of phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13). The countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was performed in a shielded cell facility using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. Removal efficiencies of 99.4%, 99.995%, and 99.96% were obtained for 137Cs, 90Sr, and total alpha, respectively. This is sufficient to reduce the activities of 137Cs, 90Sr, and actinides in the WM-185 waste to below NRC Class A LLW requirements. Flooding and/or precipitate formation were not observed during testing. Significant amounts of the Zr (87%), Ba (>99%), Pb (98.8%), Fe (8%), Ca (10%), Mo (32%), and K (28%) were also removed from the feed with the universal solvent extraction flowsheet. 99Tc, Al, Hg, and Na were essentially inextractable (<1% extracted).

  6. Fundamental Chemistry of the Universal Extractant (UNEX) for the Simultaneous Separation of Major Radionuclides (Cesium, Strontium, Actinides, and Lanthanides) from Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R. Scott; Peterman, Dean R.; Luther, Thomas A.; Babain, Vasily A.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Stoyanov, Evgenii S.

    2003-09-10

    Scientists at the INEEL and KRI collaboratively developed and validated the concept of a Universal Extractant (UNEX) for simultaneously removing the major radionuclides (Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic radioactive waste in a single solvent extraction process. The UNEX solvent incorporates three active extractants: chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, polyethylene glycol, and a carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide derivative, dissolved in a suitable organic diluent to simultaneously extract target radionuclides. The process chemistry is unique, but complicated, since the extractants operate synergistically to extract the radionuclides. Furthermore, interactions with the diluent are quite important as the diluent strongly influences the extraction properties of the solvent system. We are currently studying the fundamental chemical phenomena responsible for the selective extraction of the different species to understand the underlying mechanisms and facilitate enhancements i n process chemistry. Our efforts to date have relied on a combination of classical chemistry techniques, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to identify and explain the structures formed in the organic phase, elucidate the operative chemical mechanisms, and evaluate the diluent effects on extraction properties.

  7. Limiting case of modified electroweak model for contracted gauge group

    SciTech Connect

    Gromov, N. A.

    2011-06-15

    The modification of the Electroweak Model with 3-dimensional spherical geometry in the matter fields space is suggested. The Lagrangian of this model is given by the sum of the free (without any potential term) matter fields Lagrangian and the standard gauge fields Lagrangian. The vector boson masses are generated by transformation of this Lagrangian from Cartesian coordinates to coordinates on the sphere S{sup 3}. The limiting case of the bosonic part of the modified model, which corresponds to the contracted gauge group SU(2; j) x U(1) is discussed. Within framework of the limit model Z boson and electromagnetic fields can be regarded as external ones with respect to W-boson fields in the sence that W-boson fields do not effect on these external fields. The masses of all particles of the Electroweak Model remain the same, but field interactions in contracted model are more simple as compared with the standard Electroweak Model.

  8. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-06-15

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had β-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the β-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends.

  9. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  10. The mathematical model of dye diffusion and adsorption on modified cellulose with triazine derivatives containing cationic and anionic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, K.; Hou, A.; Chen, Y.

    2008-02-01

    Cellulose fabric is chemically modified with the compounds containing cationic and anionic groups. The molecular chains of modified cellulose have both cationic and anionic groups. Dye diffusion properties on modified cellulose are discussed. The dye adsorption and diffusion on modified cellulose are higher than those on unmodified cellulose. The diffusion properties of dyes at different temperature are discussed. Compared with unmodified cellulose, the diffusion processing of dyes in the modified cotton cellulose shows significant change.

  11. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  12. A Modified Frequency Estimation Equating Method for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou; Brennan, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Frequency estimation, also called poststratification, is an equating method used under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. A modified frequency estimation method is proposed here, based on altering one of the traditional assumptions in frequency estimation in order to correct for equating bias. A simulation study was carried out to…

  13. Immobilization of modified papain with anhydride groups on activated cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Nie, Huali; Zhu, Limin; Li, Shubai; Zhang, Haitao

    2010-01-01

    Papain (EC 3.4.22.2) has been chemically modified using two novel reagents including different anhydrides of 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic and pyromellitic acids. Then, the modified papain was immobilized on the activated cotton fabric by a two-step method. The number of free amino groups in the modified protein was investigated through the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid method. Energy dispersive spectrometer was used to characterize papain immobilization. Some parameters of both modified and native papain immobilized on cotton fabric, such as optimum temperature, optimum pH, and the stabilities for reservation in various detergents were studied and compared. The resultant papain had its optimum pH shifted from 6.0 to 9.0. Compared with immobilized native papain, the thermal stability and the resistance to alkali and washing detergent of immobilized modified enzyme were improved considerably. When the concentration of detergent was 20 mg/ml, the activity of the immobilized pyromellitic papain retained about 40% of its original activity, whereas the native papain was almost inhibited. This work demonstrated that the cotton fabric immobilized modified papain has potential applications in the functional textiles field.

  14. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-06-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field.

  15. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed Central

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-01-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field. PMID:12826486

  16. The synthesis of monomers with pendent ethynyl group for modified high performance thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nwokogu, Godson C.; Antoine, Miquel D.; Ansong, Omari

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop synthetic schemes for the following classes of modified monomers: (1) difunctional triarylethanes with pendent acetylenic groups; and (2) tertiary aspartimides with terminal acetylene groups at the two ends. Our efforts have resulted in the successful development of high yield schemes for the syntheses of several diamino and bisphenolic analogs of difunctional triarylethanes with pendent ethynyl group. A scheme for one new tertiary aspartimide was also established. Multi-gram samples of all prepared new monomers were provided to our technical contact at NASA-LaRC and preliminary polymerization studies were encouraging. Details of the accomplished work within the last four years are described.

  17. Group size modifies the patterns and muscle carbohydrate effects of aggression in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Haller, J

    1992-08-01

    Aggressive encounters of previously isolated individuals were investigated in dyads and groups of five. Fights were longer and more intense when they were performed in dyads compared to fights involving five fishes. During aggressive encounters, an elevation in carbohydrate catabolism was noticed in both dyads and groups. Losing a fight resulted in a reduction in glycogen content and an increase in glycogen synthesis. Similar changes in winners did not appear; thus, the metabolic response in losers was different from that noticed in winners, both in dyads and groups. In dyadic contest winners, a marked increase in the free glucose content and glucose consumption was noticed (without changes in losers). In groups, free glucose content of the winners was not modified, while glucose consumption was enhanced both in winners and losers. Thus, the differences existing between winners and losers were greater in dyads compared to those noticed in groups. The energy cost of aggression seems to be different in dyads compared to groups of five. The rate of glucose oxidation was strongly reduced in dyads (there were no differences between winners and losers in this respect), while in groups, this parameter was not modified.

  18. XPS study of PBO fiber surface modified by incorporation of hydroxyl polar groups in main chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Dayong; Jin, Junhong; Yang, Shenglin; Li, Guang; Jiang, Jianming

    2010-01-01

    Dihydroxy poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (DHPBO), a modified poly(p-phenylene benzoxazole) (PBO) polymer containing double hydroxyl groups in polymer chains, was synthesized by copolymerization of 4,6-diamino resorcinol dihydrochloride (DAR), purified terephthalic acid (TA) and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid (DHTA). DHPBO fibers were prepared by dry-jet wet-spinning method. The effects of hydroxyl polar groups on the surface elemental compositions of PBO fiber were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the ratio of oxygen/carbon on the surface of DHPBO fibers is higher than that on the surface of PBO fibers, which indicates the content of polar groups on the surface of DHPBO fiber increase compared with PBO fiber.

  19. Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-03

    The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.

  20. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  1. Long range ordered alloys modified by group IV-B metals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1983-01-01

    Ductile long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the (V,M)(Fe,Ni,Co).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 20.6%-22.6% V, 14-50% Fe, 0-64% Co, and 0-40% Ni, and 0.4-1.4% M, where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, and their mixtures. These modified alloys have an electron density no greater than 8.00 and exhibit marked increases at elevated temperature in ductility and other mechanical properties over previously known ordered alloys.

  2. Geometric and Electronic Properties of Graphene Modified by “External” N-Containing Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xinde; Cai, Qiuxia; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Mei, Donghai; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Jianguo

    2014-10-14

    By means of the first-principles spin polarized density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we investigated structures and electronic properties of “external” nitrogen-containing groups (pyridine derivatives) modified graphene via single or double bonding mode. This study of single-bond pyridine derivatives modified graphene (SBPG) shows that the ortho-carbon is the most favorable adsorption site for pyridine derivatives on graphene, as confirmed by bader charge analysis. The external stability of pyridine derivatives on graphene by [2+2] cycloaddition is caused by the match between frontier orbitals of pyridine derivatives and those of graphene, which leading to the formation of stronger chemical bonds. Interestingly, electronic structure analysis reveals that the spin-up and spin-down parts DOS of SBPG clearly split, while it is not found for double-bonds pyridine derivatives modified graphene (DBPG). This work was supported by the 973 project (2013CB733501) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 21101137, 21136001, 21176221, 21306169 and 91334013). D. Mei is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  3. The Use of a Modified Marathon in Conjunction with Group Counseling in Short-term Treatment of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, G. M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Two conclusions drawn from the application of the modified marathon to a short term treatment center were that the modified marathon had the advantages of holding" alcoholics for treatment once they were sober and it enhanced the quality of typical group counseling and therapy treatment. (Author)

  4. Full symmetry implementation in condensed matter and molecular physics-Modified group projector technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damnjanović, Milan; Milošević, Ivanka

    2015-06-01

    Symmetry is well established as one of the fundamental concepts in physics, accurately extracting relevant characteristics of the studied object, giving deep and transparent insight to its properties. In the solid state and molecular physics the most abundant application is reduction of the dimension of the eigenproblem of the Hamiltonian, with the resulting eigenvectors labeled by good quantum numbers, forming the so called symmetry adapted basis. Such a basis is the starting point for subsequent analysis of the physical properties of the system, performed usually by applying adequate perturbation technique. Standard procedure for finding a symmetry adapted basis involves Wigner operators, which are sums of the operators acting in the quantum state space (Hilbert space, most usually) over all elements of the symmetry group of the systems. However, both the dimension of the state space and the number of the symmetry transformations are infinite even in the simplest approximate models in crystal physics making obstacles for direct application of the standard Wigner projector technique, and its numerical implementation. On the other hand, there is a minimal part of the system, the full symmetry elementary cell (symcell), from which the whole system can be built by action of the full symmetry group elements on it. A clear heuristic idea, that symcell and full symmetry group, determine the properties of the entire system, is fully realized within modified group projector technique. Namely, when applying this technique, the full symmetry of the system is used to provide reduction of calculations to the symcell only, singling out its state space (of a finite dimension!) as the effective state space to be worked in. Physical observables, expressed through their irreducible tensor components, obtain their counterparts in this finite-dimensional space of a symcell. It remains to consider only the symmetry transformations which leave the symcell invariant. This is absolutely

  5. Organic thin-film transistors based on solution-processable benzodithiophene dimers modified with hexyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Takeshi; Toake, Hitoshi; Osuga, Hideji; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    Benzodithiophene dimers modified with hexyl groups (2C6-BDT-dimer) were investigated as solution-processable organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). Since 2C6-BDT-dimer crystals have an anisotropic shape, flow coating was adopted to grow polycrystalline films. The flow-coated films were inferior to the vacuum-evaporated ones in terms of their crystallinity estimated from X-ray diffraction data. However, the hole mobility of the OTFTs with the flow-coated films, which was 1.7 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 at maximum, was higher than that of the OTFTs with vacuum-evaporated films because the one-dimensional thin crystals of the flow-coated films were aligned in the flow-coating direction.

  6. Impact modification of polyamide 11 by the reactive blending with epoxy group modified polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Oono, Yuko; Li, Yongjin; Nakayama, Kazuo; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Polyamide 11 (PA11) and epoxy group modified polyethylene (EGMA) were melt-blended in a segment mixer at 230 degrees C. The reactive nature of the blend is reflected in the mixing torque behavior of the blend at different compositions. The dynamic mechanical analysis reveals shifted glass transition temperatures for both PAl 1 and EGMA, indicating the improved miscibility by the reactive blending. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that EGMA is precisely dispersed in PAl 1 matrix with the domain size of several hundred nanometers for the reactive blends. The mechanical properties were also measured for the obtained material and it exhibits greatly improved impact strength as compared with the neat PA11. In addition, the toughening mechanism for the blend system was also studied.

  7. Exact Group Invariant Solutions and Conservation Laws of the Complex Modified Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnpillai, Andrew G.; Kara, Abdul H.; Biswas, Anjan

    2013-09-01

    We study the scalar complex modified Korteweg-de Vries (cmKdV) equation by analyzing a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) from the Lie symmetry point of view. These systems of PDEs are obtained by decomposing the underlying cmKdV equation into real and imaginary components. We derive the Lie point symmetry generators of the system of PDEs and classify them to get the optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras of the Lie symmetry algebra of the system of PDEs. These subalgebras are then used to construct a number of symmetry reductions and exact group invariant solutions to the system of PDEs. Finally, using the Lie symmetry approach, a couple of new conservation laws are constructed. Subsequently, respective conserved quantities from their respective conserved densities are computed.

  8. Modified white-light Mach-Zehnder interferometer for direct group-delay measurements.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; Grover, C P

    1998-07-01

    A modified white-light Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a single beam splitter is described for direct group-delay measurements. The arms of the interferometer are folded in such a manner that a single beam splitter can be used to split the incoming beam and combine the outgoing beams. This method offers a twofold advantage: The measuring range of the interferometer is twice as large as that of the Michelson interferometer, and the systematic error that is associated with the beam splitter is minimized because of the configuration. We report the results of measurements on various optical components performed in the 555-630-nm spectral region and propose a scheme for the processing of the experimental data. We present a comparison of the data analyzed by the proposed processing scheme along with the theoretical calculations.

  9. The dynamics of the local group as a probe of Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of the Local Group (LG) within the context of cosmological models beyond General Relativity (GR). Using observable kinematic quantities to identify candidate pairs we build up samples of simulated LG-like objects drawing from f(R), symmetron, DGP and quintessence N-body simulations together with their ΛCDM counterparts featuring the same initial random phase realisations. The variables and intervals used to define LG-like objects are referred to as Local Group model; different models are used throughout this work and adapted to study their dynamical and kinematic properties. The aim is to determine how well the observed LG-dynamics can be reproduced within cosmological theories beyond GR, We compute kinematic properties of samples drawn from alternative theories and ΛCDM and compare them to actual observations of the LG mass, velocity and position. As a consequence of the additional pull, pairwise tangential and radial velocities are enhanced in modified gravity and coupled dark energy with respect to ΛCDM inducing significant changes to the total angular momentum and energy of the LG. For example, in models such as f(R) and the symmetron this increase can be as large as 60%, peaking well outside of the 95% confidence region allowed by the data. This shows how simple considerations about the LG dynamics can lead to clear small-scale observational signatures for alternative scenarios, without the need of expensive high-resolution simulations.

  10. Estimating the immunogenicity of blood group antigens: a modified calculation that corrects for transfusion exposures.

    PubMed

    Stack, Gary; Tormey, Christopher A

    2016-10-01

    Calculations of blood group antigen immunogenicity have been based on antigen and antibody frequencies in transfused populations, with the assumption of a single red blood cell (RBC) unit exposure per patient. Given that patients are usually transfused >1 RBC unit, antigen exposures will be greater than assumed, resulting in inaccurate immunogenicity calculations. As such, the goal of this study was to modify the calculation to correct for RBC exposures. To further improve accuracy, we used an empirically-derived immunogenicity for the reference antigen, K, in calculations of absolute immunogencity and eliminated anamnestic and pre-existing antibodies (i.e., antibodies induced outside the study site) from the calculation. Alloantibody numbers for the top 12 specificities and mean RBCs (MRBC) transfused per patient were obtained from the records of a hospital transfusion service. A revised immunogenicity calculation, incorporating a correction for MRBC, was developed. This correction resulted in up to a 4-fold increase in the immunogenicity of relatively high frequency antigens, with smaller increases for lower frequency antigens, yielding the following revised immunogenicity ranking: K>Jk(a) >Lu(a) >E>P1>c>M>Le(b) >C>Le(a) >Fy(a) >S. Use of an empirical value for K immunogenicity resulted in a 1·9-fold increase in absolute immunogenicities for all antigens. In summary, the calculation of blood group antigen immunogenicity has been further refined.

  11. Multinuclear group 4 catalysis: olefin polymerization pathways modified by strong metal-metal cooperative effects.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Jennifer P; Delferro, Massimiliano; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-08-19

    homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, macromolecules with dramatically altered properties, and large-scale industrial processes. It is noteworthy that many metalloenzymes employ multiple active centers operating in close synergistic proximity to achieve high activity and selectivity. Such enzymes were the inspiration for the research discussed in this Account, focused on the properties of multimetallic olefin polymerization catalysts. Here we discuss how modifications in organic ligand architecture, metal···metal proximity, and cocatalyst can dramatically modify polyolefin molecular weight, branch structure, and selectively for olefinic comonomer enchainment. We first discuss bimetallic catalysts with identical group 4 metal centers and then heterobimetallic systems with either group 4 or groups 4 + 6 catalytic centers. We compare and contrast the polymerization properties of the bimetallic catalysts with their monometallic analogues, highlighting marked cooperative enchainment effects and unusual polymeric products possible via the proximate catalytic centers. Such multinuclear olefin polymerization catalysts exhibit the following distinctive features: (1) unprecedented levels of polyolefin branching; (2) enhanced enchainment selectivity for linear and encumbered α-olefin comonomers; (3) enhanced polyolefin tacticity and molecular weight; (4) unusual 1,2-insertion regiochemistry for styrenic monomers; (5) modified chain transfer kinetics, such as M-polymer β-hydride transfer to the metal or incoming monomer; (6) LLDPE synthesis with a single binuclear catalyst and ethylene.

  12. Genetic modifiers of ambulation in the cooperative international Neuromuscular research group Duchenne natural history study

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Luca; Kesari, Akanchha; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cnaan, Avital; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Punetha, Jaya; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik K; Pegoraro, Elena; McDonald, Craig M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied the effects of LTBP4 and SPP1 polymorphisms on age at loss of ambulation (LoA) in a multiethnic Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cohort. Methods We genotyped SPP1 rs28357094 and LTBP4 haplotype in 283 of 340 participants in the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study (CINRG-DNHS). Median ages at LoA were compared by Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test. We controlled polymorphism analyses for concurrent effects of glucocorticoid corticosteroid (GC) treatment (time-varying Cox regression) and for population stratification (multidimensional scaling of genome-wide markers). Results Hispanic and South Asian participants (n = 18, 41) lost ambulation 2.7 and 2 years earlier than Caucasian subjects (p = 0.003, <0.001). The TG/GG genotype at SPP1 rs28357094 was associated to 1.2-year-earlier median LoA (p = 0.048). This difference was greater (1.9 years, p = 0.038) in GC-treated participants, whereas no difference was observed in untreated subjects. Cox regression confirmed a significant effect of SPP1 genotype in GC-treated participants (hazard ratio = 1.61, p = 0.016). LTBP4 genotype showed a direction of association with age at LoA as previously reported, but it was not statistically significant. After controlling for population stratification, we confirmed a strong effect of LTBP4 genotype in Caucasians (2.4 years, p = 0.024). Median age at LoA with the protective LTBP4 genotype in this cohort was 15.0 years, 16.0 for those who were treated with GC. Interpretation SPP1 rs28357094 acts as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of GC response, and LTBP4 haplotype modifies age at LoA in the CINRG-DNHS cohort. Adjustment for GC treatment and population stratification appears crucial in assessing genetic modifiers in DMD. PMID:25641372

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Largazole Analogues with Modified Surface Recognition Cap Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bhansali, Pravin; Hanigan, Christin L.; Perera, Lalith; Casero, Robert A.; Viranga Tillekeratne, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Several largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups were synthesized and their HDAC inhibitory activities were determined. The C7-epimer 12 caused negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. Although previous studies have shown some degree of tolerance of structural changes at C7 position of largazole, these data show the negative effect of conformational change accompanying change of configuration at this position. Similarly, analogue 16a with D-1-naphthylmethyl side chain at C2 too had negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. In contrast, the L-allyl analogue 16b and the L-1-naphthylmethyl analogue 16c were potent HDAC inhibitors, showing robust induction of global H3 acetylation and significant effect on cell growth. The data suggest that even bulky substituents are tolerated at this position, provided the stereochemistry at C2 is retained. With bulky substituents, inversion of configuration at C2 results in loss of inhibitory activity. The activity profiles of 16b and 16c on Class I HDAC1 vs Class II HDAC6 are similar to those of largazole and, taken together with x-ray crystallography information of HDAC8-largazole complex, may suggest that the C2 position of largazole is not a suitable target for structural optimization to achieve isoform selectivity. The results of these studies may guide the synthesis of more potent and selective HDAC inhibitors. PMID:25203782

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups.

    PubMed

    Bhansali, Pravin; Hanigan, Christin L; Perera, Lalith; Casero, Robert A; Tillekeratne, L M Viranga

    2014-10-30

    Several largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups were synthesized and their HDAC inhibitory activities were determined. The C7-epimer 12 caused negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. Although previous studies have shown some degree of tolerance of structural changes at C7 position of largazole, these data show the negative effect of conformational change accompanying change of configuration at this position. Similarly, analogue 16a with D-1-naphthylmethyl side chain at C2 too had negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. In contrast, the L-allyl analogue 16b and the L-1-naphthylmethyl analogue 16c were potent HDAC inhibitors, showing robust induction of global H3 acetylation and significant effect on cell growth. The data suggest that even bulky substituents are tolerated at this position, provided the stereochemistry at C2 is retained. With bulky substituents, inversion of configuration at C2 results in loss of inhibitory activity. The activity profiles of 16b and 16c on Class I HDAC1 vs Class II HDAC6 are similar to those of largazole and, taken together with x-ray crystallography information of HDAC8-largazole complex, may suggest that the C2 position of largazole is not a suitable target for structural optimization to achieve isoform selectivity. The results of these studies may guide the synthesis of more potent and selective HDAC inhibitors.

  15. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Tarasevich, B.J.; Rieke, P.C.

    1998-06-02

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups. 5 figs.

  16. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Rieke, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups.

  17. Defining Quality Criteria for Online Continuing Medical Education Modules Using Modified Nominal Group Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortt, S. E. D.; Guillemette, Jean-Marc; Duncan, Anne Marie; Kirby, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The rapid increase in the use of the Internet for continuing education by physicians suggests the need to define quality criteria for accredited online modules. Methods: Continuing medical education (CME) directors from Canadian medical schools and academic researchers participated in a consensus process, Modified Nominal Group…

  18. Edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode covalently modified with 2-anthraquinonyl groups: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Kozub, Barbara R; Henstridge, Martin C; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Compton, Richard G

    2011-10-24

    An edge plane pyrolitic graphite (EPPG) electrode was modified by electrochemical reduction of anthraquinone-2-diazonium tetrafluoroborate (AQ2-N(2)(+)BF(4)(-)), giving an EPPG-AQ2-modified electrode of a surface coverage below a monolayer. Cyclic voltammograms simulated using Marcus-Hush theory for 2e(-) process assuming a uniform surface gave unrealistically low values of reorganisation energies, λ, for both electron transfer steps. Subsequently, two models of surface inhomogeneity based on Marcus-Hush theory were investigated: a distribution of formal potentials, E', and a distribution of electron tunneling distances, r(0). The simulation of cyclic voltammograms involving the distribution of formal potentials showed a better fit than the simulation with the distribution of tunneling distances. Importantly the reorganization energies used for the simulation of E' distribution were similar to the literature values for adsorbed species.

  19. Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, L.W.

    1993-07-01

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

  20. Detection of phosphatidylserine with a modified polar head group in human keratinocytes exposed to the radical generator AAPH.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Elisabete; Neves, Bruno M; Santinha, Deolinda; Reis, Ana; Domingues, Pedro; Teresa Cruz, M; Pitt, Andrew R; Spickett, Corinne M; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2014-04-15

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is preferentially located in the inner leaflet of the cell membrane, and translocation of PS oxidized in fatty acyl chains to the outside of membrane has been reported as signaling to macrophage receptors to clear apoptotic cells. It was recently shown that PS can be oxidized in serine moiety of polar head-group. In the present work, a targeted lipidomic approach was applied to detecting OxPS modified at the polar head-group in keratinocytes that were exposed to the radical generator AAPH. Glycerophosphoacetic acid derivatives (GPAA) were found to be the major oxidation products of OxPS modified at the polar head-group during oxidation induced by AAPH-generated radicals, similarly to previous observations for the oxidation induced by OH radical. The neutral loss scan of 58Da and a novel precursor ion scan of m/z 137.1 (HOPO3CH2COOH) allowed the recognition of GPAA derivatives in the total lipid extracts obtained from HaCaT cells treated with AAPH. The positive identification of serine head group oxidation products in cells under controlled oxidative conditions opens new perspectives and justifies further studies in other cellular environments in order to understand fully the role of PS polar head-group oxidation in cell homeostasis and disease.

  1. Designing a balanced scorecard for a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan: a modified Delphi group exercise.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Jafri, Syed M Wasim; Abbas, Farhat; Shah, Mairaj; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Brommels, Mats; Tomson, Goran

    2010-01-01

    Balanced Scorecards (BSC) are being implemented in high income health settings linking organizational strategies with performance data. At this private university hospital in Pakistan an elaborate information system exists. This study aimed to make best use of available data for better performance management. Applying the modified Delphi technique an expert panel of clinicians and hospital managers reduced a long list of indicators to a manageable size. Indicators from existing documents were evaluated for their importance, scientific soundness, appropriateness to hospital's strategic plan, feasibility and modifiability. Panel members individually rated each indicator on a scale of 1-9 for the above criteria. Median scores were assigned. Of an initial set of 50 indicators, 20 were finally selected to be assigned to the four BSC quadrants. These were financial (n = 4), customer or patient (n = 4), internal business or quality of care (n = 7) and innovation/learning or employee perspectives (n = 5). A need for stringent definitions, international benchmarking and standardized measurement methods was identified. BSC compels individual clinicians and managers to jointly work towards improving performance. This scorecard is now ready to be implemented by this hospital as a performance management tool for monitoring indicators, addressing measurement issues and enabling comparisons with hospitals in other settings.

  2. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks.

  3. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective • To investigate pathological and short-term outcomes since the most recent Gleason system modifications by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) in an attempt to divide the current Gleason grading system into prognostically accurate Gleason grade groups. Patients and Methods • We queried the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database (1982–2011), approved by the institutional review board, for men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) without a tertiary pattern since 2004 and identified 7869 men. • Multivariable models were created using preoperative and postoperative variables; prognostic grade group (Gleason grade ≤6; 3 + 4; 4 + 3; 8; 9–10) was among the strongest predictors of biochemical recurrence-free (BFS) survival. Results • Significant differences were noted among the Gleason grade groups at biopsy; differences were noted in the race, PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores at biopsy and the maximum percentage of positive cores among the Gleason grade groups at RP. • With a median (range) follow-up of 2 (1–7) years, 5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9–10 tumours at biopsy were 94.6, 82.7, 65.1, 63.1 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend); and 96.6, 88.1, 69.7, 63.7 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001), based on RP pathology. Conclusions • The 2005 ISUP modifications to the Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma accurately categorize patients by pathological findings and short-term biochemical outcomes but, while retaining the essence of the Gleason system, there is a need for a change in its reporting to more closely reflect tumour behaviour. • We propose reporting Gleason grades, including prognostic grade groups which accurately reflect prognosis as follows: Gleason score ≤6 (prognostic grade group I); Gleason score 3+4=7 (prognostic grade group II); Gleason score 4+3=7 (prognostic grade group III); Gleason score 4+4=8 (prognostic grade

  4. Polarity of an MCM-41 adsorbent surface modified with methyl and phenyl groups based on data from gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhareva, D. A.; Gus'kov, V. Yu.; Karpov, S. I.; Kudasheva, F. Kh.; Roessner, F.; Borodina, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The polarity of an MCM-41 adsorbent surface and organosilylated composites based on it with grafted trimethylsilane and dimethylphenylsilane groups is studied via inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution. The dispersion and specific components of the value proportional to the Helmholtz adsorption energy are calculated, and a comparative analysis of the surface polarity of MCM-41 and its modified analogs relative to the commercially available C-120 silica gel is performed. The electrostatic and donor-acceptor components of the specific Helmholtz adsorption energy are calculated through linear decomposition of the adsorption energy. It is established that MCM-41 is less polar than C-120. The modification of the initial adsorbent surface leads to a reduction in polarity, due mainly to the weakening of induction and orientation interactions. It is concluded that the surfaces of the modified samples retain the ability to form hydrogen bonds.

  5. Magneto-Sensitive Adsorbents Modified by Functional Nitrogen-Containing Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnyk, Inna V.; Gdula, Karolina; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Zub, Yuriy L.

    2016-02-01

    In order to obtain amino-functionalized silica materials with magnetic core, one-step synthesis was carried out. Several materials, differ in number and structure of amino groups, were synthesized on the basis of sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were examined by several analytical techniques. The presence and content of amino groups were measured by using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy and acid-base titration, respectively. Specific surface areas were measured by nitrogen/adsorption desorption isotherms. It was proved that sol-gel approach leads to obtain materials with high content of amino groups built into their surfaces (in the range 1.6-2.7 mmol/g). As-obtained materials were tested as potential adsorbents for copper(II) ions. The received maximum adsorption capacities were in the range 0.4-0.7 mmol/g.

  6. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance

    PubMed Central

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-01-01

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines. PMID:27713417

  7. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance.

    PubMed

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-07

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  8. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-01

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  9. Synthesis of clarithromycin ketolides chemically modified at the unreactive C10-methyl group.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Hany Fakhry; Andrei, Mioara; Undheim, Kjell

    2017-04-15

    Chemoselective substitutions in the C10-methyl group of erythromycin A ketolides is reported. The C10-methyl group in the clarithromycin derived substrate 10,11-anhydro-O(6)-methyl-descladinosylerythromycin was activated by conversion into an allyl acetate and thereafter to the corresponding allylic cyanide. Both the allylic acetate and the cyanide reacted with carbonyldiimidazole and ammonia to afford a C11,C12-cyclic carbamate with concurrent elimination of the allylic function to yield a methylene α,β-unsaturated ketone. Conjugate addition with amines resulted in stereoselective C-N bond formation between the terminal methylene carbon and the amino nitrogen. Carbylation in the methylene group was effected under Stille conditions for cross-coupling with Pd-catalysis. With anion stabilized nucleophiles, such as a sodium salt of a malonate, stereoselectivity was observed in the formation of the 10-substituent. Stereoselective cycloaddition with trimethylsilyldiazomethane afforded a spirane where the C10 carbon of the macrolide skeleton had become a quaternary spirocarbon. Antibacterial in vitro data for a selected group of compounds against strains of respiratory pathogens S. pneumoniae and S. aureus are reported. Most of the compounds tested showed improved activities over CLA as a reference compound against efflux resistant S. pneumoniae as well as against efflux and inducibly resistant strains of S. aureus.

  10. Colloidal crystallization of colloidal silica modified with ferrocenyl group-contained polymers in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kohji; Shigeta, Maki; Komune, Seishu; Mouri, Emiko; Nakai, Akemi

    2007-01-15

    Surface modification of colloidal silica with ferrocenyl-grafted polymer and colloidal crystallization of the particles in organic solvent were studied. Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-vinylferrocene)-grafted silica never formed colloidal crystals in polar solvent, such as acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), while poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ferrocenyl acrylate)-grafted silica gave colloidal crystallization in DMF. The particles prepared by grafting of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-vinylferrocene), with vinylferrocene (Vfc) mole fraction of 1/13 and 1/23, were observed to give the crystallization in ethanol and DMF over particle volume fraction of 0.058. Further, silica modified with copolymer of Vfc and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, N-vinylcarbazole or N-isopropylacrylamide formed colloidal crystals in ethanol and DMF. Especially, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Vfc)-grafted silica, which was composed of the highest mole fraction of vinylferrocene, 1/3, afforded colloidal crystallization in ethanol over particle volume fraction of 0.053. Relatively high polar vinylferrocene copolymer grafting of silica resulted in colloidal polymerization in organic solvents.

  11. The synthesis of monomers with pendent ethynyl groups for modified high performance thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nwokogu, Godson C.; Antoine, Miquel D.; Ansong, Omari

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic schemes were developed and optimized for twelve new monomers possessing unique structural features and one aspartimide. Two synthetic pathways were compared for preparation of the triarylethane monomers with pendent ethynyl groups. The results show that one of these pathways can be generally applied. The alternative pathway was applicable to the preparation of only one of the twelve compounds, the problem being secondary reactions of the initially formed desired product.

  12. Parentage outcomes in response to estrogen exposure are modified by social grouping in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Coe, Tobias S; Hamilton, Patrick B; Hodgson, David; Paull, Gregory C; Tyler, Charles R

    2009-11-01

    Evidence has recently emerged that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect various behaviors, including dominance and aggression in social groups, including fish. This study investigated the effect of short-term exposure of male adult zebrafish to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) on subsequent reproductive output and parentage in colonies with differing numbers of competing males. It was predicted that impacts of EDCs might differ in social groups of fish of differing size because of the greater costs of maintaining dominance hierarchies in large groups. Adult male zebrafish were exposed for 14 days to clean water, 2 ng/L EE(2) or 10 ng/L via the water, prior to placement into colonies in clean water with unexposed females. Exposure to EE(2) at the concentrations adopted prior to the breeding trials did not significantly affect subsequent colony reproductive output. The reproductive success of the most reproductively successful (MRS) male within colonies containing two males (relative to controls) was also unaffected. There was, however, a significant impact of previous EE(2) exposure in tanks containing four males, resulting in a reduction in paternity for the most successful male. Hence, nonlethal behavioral impacts of even short-term exposure to EDCs can have significant impacts on social dominance hierarchies and population genetic diversity.

  13. Synthesis and DNA transfection properties of new head group modified malonic acid diamides.

    PubMed

    Wölk, Christian; Heinze, Martin; Kreideweiss, Patrick; Dittrich, Matthias; Brezesinski, Gerald; Langner, Andreas; Dobner, Bodo

    2011-05-16

    Malonic acid diamides with two long hydrophobic alkyl chains and a basic polar head group as a new class of non-viral gene transferring compounds have shown high transfection efficiency and moderate toxicity. Based on the results obtained with saturated and unsaturated alkyl residues new derivatives with a more complex head group structure have been synthesized. For this purpose, cationic respectively basic groups were introduced by one or two lysine residues bound via tris(aminoethyl)amine spacer to the malonic acid diamide backbone. By studying in vitro gene delivery an increase of transfection efficacy was observed when using lipids with at least one unsaturated alkyl chain. This leads to cationic lipids exhibiting comparable or even higher transfection efficacies compared to the commercially available transfection agents LipofectAmine™ and SuperFect™. Phase transitions and phase structures of selected compounds have been analyzed and discussed in terms of transfection abilities. Particle size and zeta potential of liposomes and lipoplexes were also determined.

  14. Human-modified habitats change patterns of population genetic structure and group relatedness in Peter's tent-roosting bats.

    PubMed

    Sagot, Maria; Phillips, Caleb D; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    Although coloniality is widespread among mammals, it is still not clear what factors influence composition of social groups. As animals need to adapt to multiple habitat and environmental conditions throughout their range, variation in group composition should be influenced by adaptive adjustment to different ecological factors. Relevant to anthropogenic disturbance, increased habitat modification by humans can alter species' presence, density, and population structure. Therefore, it is important to understand the consequences of changes to landscape composition, in particular how habitat modification affects social structure of group-forming organisms. Here, we combine information on roosting associations with genetic structure of Peter's tent-roosting bats, Uroderma bilobatum to address how different habitat characteristics at different scales affect structure of social groups. By dividing analyses by age and sex, we determined that genetic structure was greater for adult females than adult males or offspring. Habitat variables explained 80% of the variation in group relatedness (mainly influenced by female relatedness) with roost characteristics contributing the most explained variation. This suggests that females using roosts of specific characteristics exhibit higher relatedness and seem to be philopatric. These females mate with more males than do more labile female groups. Results describe ecological and microevolutionary processes, which affect relatedness and social structure; findings are highly relevant to species distributions in both natural and human-modified environments.

  15. Preparation of gemini-type amphiphiles bearing cyclitol head groups and their application as high-performance modifiers for lipases.

    PubMed

    Mine, Yurie; Fukunaga, Kimitoshi; Samejima, Ken-ichi; Yoshimoto, Makoto; Nakao, Katsumi; Sugimura, Yoshiaki

    2004-02-25

    Five gemini-type amphiphiles bearing cyclitol head groups, which have abundance of axial hydroxy groups, are newly synthesized. The syntheses are based on a common mixed anhydride method utilizing N,N'-[iminobis(trimethylene)]bisquinamide, prepared from iminobispropylamine and quino-1,5-lactone, and dialkyl N-(3-carboxypropanoyl)-L-glutamates as polar and hydrophobic components, respectively. Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) and Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PCL) are co-lyophilized with these synthesized gemini-type amphiphiles, and their transesterification activities in organic solvents are evaluated. The modified PCL and CRL prepared by using each amphiphile showed highly enhanced and moderately enhanced enzyme activity, respectively. These results are discussed in terms of the increased preferential exclusion of the hydrophilic heads of the amphiphile and of the topological view of the amphiphile.

  16. Enhanced piezoelectricity and modified dielectric screening of two-dimensional group-IV monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Lídia C.; Carvalho, A.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    We use first-principles calculations to investigate the lattice properties of group-IV monochalcogenides. These include static dielectric permittivity, elastic and piezoelectric tensors. For the monolayer, it is found that the static permittivity, besides acquiring a dependence on the interlayer distance, is comparatively higher than in the 3D system. In contrast, it is found that elastic properties are little changed by the lower dimensionality. Poisson ratios relating in-plane deformations are close to zero, and the existence of a negative Poisson ratio is also predicted for the GeS compound. Finally, the monolayer shows piezoelectricity, with piezoelectric constants higher than those recently predicted to occur in other 2D systems, such as hexagonal BN and transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers.

  17. Large-scale climate variation modifies the winter grouping behavior of endangered Indiana bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Power laws describe the functional relationship between 2 quantities, such as the frequency of a group as the multiplicative power of group size. We examined whether the annual size of well-surveyed wintering populations of endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) followed a power law, and then leveraged this relationship to predict whether the aggregation of Indiana bats in winter was influenced by global climate processes. We determined that Indiana bat wintering populations were distributed according to a power law (mean scaling coefficient α = −0.44 [95% confidence interval {95% CI} = −0.61, −0.28). The antilog of these annual scaling coefficients ranged between 0.67 and 0.81, coincident with the three-fourths power found in many other biological phenomena. We associated temporal patterns in the annual (1983–2011) scaling coefficient with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in August (βNAOAugust = −0.017 [90% CI = −0.032, −0.002]), when Indiana bats are deciding when and where to hibernate. After accounting for the strong effect of philopatry to habitual wintering locations, Indiana bats aggregated in larger wintering populations during periods of severe winter and in smaller populations in milder winters. The association with August values of the NAO indicates that bats anticipate future winter weather conditions when deciding where to roost, a heretofore unrecognized role for prehibernation swarming behavior. Future research is needed to understand whether the three-fourths–scaling patterns we observed are related to scaling in metabolism.

  18. Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group

    PubMed Central

    Nunoura, Takuro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Kakuta, Jungo; Nishi, Shinro; Sugahara, Junichi; Kazama, Hiromi; Chee, Gab-Joo; Hattori, Masahira; Kanai, Akio; Atomi, Haruyuki; Takai, Ken; Takami, Hideto

    2011-01-01

    The domain Archaea has historically been divided into two phyla, the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Although regarded as members of the Crenarchaeota based on small subunit rRNA phylogeny, environmental genomics and efforts for cultivation have recently revealed two novel phyla/divisions in the Archaea; the ‘Thaumarchaeota’ and ‘Korarchaeota’. Here, we show the genome sequence of Candidatus ‘Caldiarchaeum subterraneum’ that represents an uncultivated crenarchaeotic group. A composite genome was reconstructed from a metagenomic library previously prepared from a microbial mat at a geothermal water stream of a sub-surface gold mine. The genome was found to be clearly distinct from those of the known phyla/divisions, Crenarchaeota (hyperthermophiles), Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Korarchaeota. The unique traits suggest that this crenarchaeotic group can be considered as a novel archaeal phylum/division. Moreover, C. subterraneum harbors an ubiquitin-like protein modifier system consisting of Ub, E1, E2 and small Zn RING finger family protein with structural motifs specific to eukaryotic system proteins, a system clearly distinct from the prokaryote-type system recently identified in Haloferax and Mycobacterium. The presence of such a eukaryote-type system is unprecedented in prokaryotes, and indicates that a prototype of the eukaryotic protein modifier system is present in the Archaea. PMID:21169198

  19. Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Kakuta, Jungo; Nishi, Shinro; Sugahara, Junichi; Kazama, Hiromi; Chee, Gab-Joo; Hattori, Masahira; Kanai, Akio; Atomi, Haruyuki; Takai, Ken; Takami, Hideto

    2011-04-01

    The domain Archaea has historically been divided into two phyla, the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Although regarded as members of the Crenarchaeota based on small subunit rRNA phylogeny, environmental genomics and efforts for cultivation have recently revealed two novel phyla/divisions in the Archaea; the 'Thaumarchaeota' and 'Korarchaeota'. Here, we show the genome sequence of Candidatus 'Caldiarchaeum subterraneum' that represents an uncultivated crenarchaeotic group. A composite genome was reconstructed from a metagenomic library previously prepared from a microbial mat at a geothermal water stream of a sub-surface gold mine. The genome was found to be clearly distinct from those of the known phyla/divisions, Crenarchaeota (hyperthermophiles), Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Korarchaeota. The unique traits suggest that this crenarchaeotic group can be considered as a novel archaeal phylum/division. Moreover, C. subterraneum harbors an ubiquitin-like protein modifier system consisting of Ub, E1, E2 and small Zn RING finger family protein with structural motifs specific to eukaryotic system proteins, a system clearly distinct from the prokaryote-type system recently identified in Haloferax and Mycobacterium. The presence of such a eukaryote-type system is unprecedented in prokaryotes, and indicates that a prototype of the eukaryotic protein modifier system is present in the Archaea.

  20. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors modify N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors via Src kinase

    PubMed Central

    Trepanier, Catherine; Lei, Gang; Xie, Yu-Feng; MacDonald, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) have emerged as important targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. Since hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has also been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether postsynaptic mGluR2/3 regulate NMDAR function. Activation of mGluR2/3 significantly decreased the ratio of AMPA-to-NMDA excitatory postsynaptic currents at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapses and enhanced the peak of NMDA-evoked currents in acutely isolated CA1 neurons. The mGluR2/3-mediated potentiation of NMDAR currents was selective for GluN2A-containing NMDARs and was mediated by the Src family kinase Src. Activation of mGluR2/3 inhibited the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway and thereby activated Src by inhibiting its regulatory C-terminal Src kinase (Csk). We suggest a novel model of regulation of NMDARs by Gi/o-coupled receptors whereby inhibition of the cAMP-PKA pathway via mGluR2/3 activates Src kinase and potentiates GluN2A-containing NMDAR currents. This represents a potentially novel mechanism to correct the hypoglutamatergic state found in schizophrenia. PMID:23378895

  1. Distribution of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within granules of modified sweet potato starches as determined after chemical peeling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Schols, Henk A; Chen, Zhenghong; Jin, Zhengyu; Buwalda, Piet; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-11-05

    The distributions of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within granules of cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starches were investigated. Chemical surface peeling of starch granules was performed after sieving of native and modified starches into large-size (diameter ≥ 20 μm) and small-size (diameter < 20 μm) fractions. Starch granules were surface gelatinized in a 4M calcium chloride solution at different levels. After the peeling step, the remaining starch granules were analysed for the content of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups. The phosphorus level of the parental starch gradually decreased from periphery to core of the granules. The increase in phosphorus content after cross-linking in periphery was higher than that in core. The subsequent hydroxypropylation reaction resulted in lower phosphate levels. Hydroxypropylation resulted in a gradient of hydroxypropyl group concentration from periphery to core. Cross-linking prior to the hydroxypropylation resulted in lower levels of hydroxypropyl groups and less pronounced differences between periphery and core.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of 2-hydroxy-pyridine modified Group 4 alkoxides

    DOE PAGES

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Sivonxay, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Here, the reaction of Group 4 metal alkoxides ([M(OR)4]) with the potentially bidentate ligand, 2-hydroxy-pyridine (2-HO-(NC5H4) or H-PyO), led to the isolation of a family of compounds. The products isolated from the reaction of [M(OR)4] [where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf; OR = OPri (OCH(CH3)2), OBut (OC(CH3)3), or ONep (OCH2C(CH3)3] under a variety of stoichiometries with H-PyO were identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction as [(OPri)2(PyO-κ2(O,N))Ti(μ-OPri)]2, [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-ONep)Ti(ONep)3], [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)(μ-O)Ti(ONep)2]2, [H][(PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(O)-PyO)Ti(ONep)3], [(OR)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-OR)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [(OR)2Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [[(OBut)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-(κ2(N,O))(μ(O,N)-PyO)2Zr(OBut)](μ3-O)]2, [[(ONep)(PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(ONep)](μ3-O)]2, [(OBut)(PyO-κ2(O,N))Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2((μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OBut)3], [(OBut)2Hf(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ-OBut)Hf(OBut)3], [(OR)2 M(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)M(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), and [(ONep)3Hf(μ-ONep)(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)]2Hf(ONep)2·tol. The structural diversity of the binding modes ofmore » the PyO led to a number of novel structure types in comparison to other pyridine alkoxy derivatives. The majority of compounds adopt a dinuclear arrangement but oxo-based tetra-, tri-, and monomers were observed as well. Compounds 1–12 were further characterized using a variety of analytical techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.« less

  3. Synthesis and characterization of 2-hydroxy-pyridine modified Group 4 alkoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Sivonxay, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Here, the reaction of Group 4 metal alkoxides ([M(OR)4]) with the potentially bidentate ligand, 2-hydroxy-pyridine (2-HO-(NC5H4) or H-PyO), led to the isolation of a family of compounds. The products isolated from the reaction of [M(OR)4] [where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf; OR = OPri (OCH(CH3)2), OBut (OC(CH3)3), or ONep (OCH2C(CH3)3] under a variety of stoichiometries with H-PyO were identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction as [(OPri)2(PyO-κ2(O,N))Ti(μ-OPri)]2, [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-ONep)Ti(ONep)3], [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)(μ-O)Ti(ONep)2]2, [H][(PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(O)-PyO)Ti(ONep)3], [(OR)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-OR)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [(OR)2Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [[(OBut)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-(κ2(N,O))(μ(O,N)-PyO)2Zr(OBut)](μ3-O)]2, [[(ONep)(PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(ONep)](μ3-O)]2, [(OBut)(PyO-κ2(O,N))Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2((μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OBut)3], [(OBut)2Hf(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ-OBut)Hf(OBut)3], [(OR)2 M(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)M(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), and [(ONep)3Hf(μ-ONep)(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)]2Hf(ONep)2·tol. The structural diversity of the binding modes of the PyO led to a number of novel structure types in comparison to other pyridine alkoxy derivatives. The majority of

  4. Composition of a Vision Screen for Servicemembers With Traumatic Brain Injury: Consensus Using a Modified Nominal Group Technique

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Marsha; Llanos, Imelda; Scheiman, Mitchell; Wagener, Sharon Gowdy

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common in the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including among service members whose brain injuries occurred during deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan. Occupational therapy practitioners provide routine vision screening to inform treatment planning and referral to vision specialists, but existing methods are lacking because many tests were developed for children and do not screen for vision dysfunction typical of TBI. An expert panel was charged with specifying the composition of a vision screening protocol for servicemembers with TBI. A modified nominal group technique fostered discussion and objective determinations of consensus. After considering 29 vision tests, the panel recommended a nine-test vision screening that examines functional performance, self-reported problems, far–near acuity, reading, accommodation, convergence, eye alignment and binocular vision, saccades, pursuits, and visual fields. Research is needed to develop reliable, valid, and clinically feasible vision screening protocols to identify TBI-related vision disorders in adults. PMID:25005505

  5. Composition of a vision screen for servicemembers with traumatic brain injury: consensus using a modified nominal group technique.

    PubMed

    Radomski, Mary Vining; Finkelstein, Marsha; Llanos, Imelda; Scheiman, Mitchell; Wagener, Sharon Gowdy

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common in the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including among service members whose brain injuries occurred during deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan. Occupational therapy practitioners provide routine vision screening to inform treatment planning and referral to vision specialists, but existing methods are lacking because many tests were developed for children and do not screen for vision dysfunction typical of TBI. An expert panel was charged with specifying the composition of a vision screening protocol for servicemembers with TBI. A modified nominal group technique fostered discussion and objective determinations of consensus. After considering 29 vision tests, the panel recommended a nine-test vision screening that examines functional performance, self-reported problems, far-near acuity, reading, accommodation, convergence, eye alignment and binocular vision, saccades, pursuits, and visual fields. Research is needed to develop reliable, valid, and clinically feasible vision screening protocols to identify TBI-related vision disorders in adults.

  6. Synthesis and properties of fused-ring-expanded porphyrins that were core-modified with Group 16 heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Jun; Mack, John; Wu, Di; Xue, Zhao-Li; Descalzo, Ana B; Rurack, Knut; Kobayashi, Nagao; Shen, Zhen

    2012-12-21

    The synthesis of a series of novel core-modified and fused-ring-expanded tetraphenylporphyrins is reported. Theoretical calculations and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were used to analyze the effect of core modification with Group 16 oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium atoms on the optical properties and electronic structures of the porphyrins. Marked redshifts of the Q and B bands and accelerated intersystem-crossing rates were observed, thus making these compounds potentially suitable for use in a variety of applications. The scope for further fine-tuning of these optical properties based on additional structural modifications, such as the incorporation of fused benzene rings to form ABAB structures by using a thiophene precursor with a fused bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene ring and the introduction of various substituents onto the meso-phenyl rings, is also examined.

  7. Group versus modified individual standard-setting on multiple-choice questions with the Angoff method for fourth-year medical students in the internal medicine clerkship

    PubMed Central

    Senthong, Vichai; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Aekphachaisawat, Noppadol; Chaowattanapanit, Suteeraporn; Limpawattana, Panita; Choonhakarn, Charoen; Sookprasert, Aumkhae

    2013-01-01

    Background The Angoff method is one of the preferred methods for setting a passing level in an exam. Normally, group meetings are required, which may be a problem for busy medical educators. Here, we compared a modified Angoff individual method to the conventional group method. Methods Six clinical instructors were divided into two groups matched by teaching experience: modified Angoff individual method (three persons) and conventional group method (three persons). The passing scores were set by using the Angoff theory. The groups set the scores individually and then met to determine the passing score. In the modified Angoff individual method, passing scores were judged by each instructor and the final passing score was adjusted by the concordance method and reliability index. Results There were 94 fourth-year medical students who took the test. The mean (standard deviation) test score was 65.35 (8.38), with a median of 64 (range 46–82). The three individual instructors took 45, 60, and 60 minutes to finish the task, while the group spent 90 minutes in discussion. The final passing score in the modified Angoff individual method was 52.18 (56.75 minus 4.57) or 52 versus 51 from the standard group method. There was not much difference in numbers of failed students by either method (four versus three). Conclusion The modified Angoff individual method may be a feasible way to set a standard passing score with less time consumed and more independent rather than group work by instructors. PMID:24101890

  8. Preparation of carboxyl group-modified palladium nanoparticles in an aqueous solution and their conjugation with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhifei; Li, Hongying; Zhen, Shuang; He, Nongyue

    2012-05-01

    The use of nanomaterials in biomolecular labeling and their corresponding detection has been attracting much attention, recently. There are currently very few studies on palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) due to their lack of appropriate surface functionalities for conjugation with DNA. In this paper, we thus firstly present an approach to prepare carboxyl group-modified Pd NPs (with an average size of 6 nm) by the use of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA) as a stabilizer in the aqueous solution. The effect of the various reducing reaction conditions on the morphology of the Pd NPs was investigated. The particles were further characterized by TEM, UV-vis, FT-IR and XPS techniques. DNA was finally covalently conjugated to the surface of the Pd NPs through the activation of the carboxyl group, which was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and fluorescence analysis. The resulting Pd NPs-DNA conjugates show high single base pair mismatch discrimination capabilities. This work therefore sets a good foundation for further applications of Pd NPs in bio-analytical research.

  9. Two new polyoxometalate-based hybrids consisting of Keggin-type cluster modified by (Ag{sub 4}) group

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaofang; Sun, Xiaowei; Han, Zhangang; Zhao, Chuan; Yu, Haitao; Zhai, Xueliang

    2013-11-15

    Two new supramolecular polyoxometalate compounds [Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}][Ag(mbpy){sub 2}][PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] (1) and [Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}]{sub 2}[SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] (2) (mbpy=4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridyl), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR, TG, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The structural feature of 1–2 is in the cationic moiety of a tetra-core (Ag{sub 4}) cluster through weak Ag…Ag interactions. The silver(I) centers show three-, four- and five-coordinated geometries. In 1 the tetrameric silver atoms in ([Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}]{sub 2}){sup 4+} covalently bind to [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3−} anion via Ag3O bonds, while there is only intermolecular hydrogen bonding between ([Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}]{sub 2}){sup 4+} and [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4−} in 2. The coordination environments of the tetrameric silver cations have a great influence on the structure richness of the Keggin-based hybrids. The fluorescence properties of compounds 1 and 2 also have been discussed. - Graphical abstract: New polyoxometalate-based hybrids consisting of Keggin-type clusters modified by (Ag{sub 4}) groups had been synthesized and characterized, and their photoluminescence properties were also discussed. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two Keggin-type polyoxometalates consisting of (Ag{sub 4}) clusters through weak Ag…Ag interactions have been synthesized. • There exist face-to-face and dot-to-face π…π interactions in (Ag-ligand){sub 4} fragment. • The fluorescence properties of (Ag{sub 4}) modified POMs are also discussed.

  10. Enhanced angiogenesis of growth factor-free porous biodegradable adhesive made with hexanoyl group-modified gelatin.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Keiko; Mizuta, Ryo; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2015-09-01

    The bonding behavior of hexanoyl (Hx: C6) group-modified alkaline-treated gelatin (HxAlGltn) porous films ((P)HxAlGltn) on the porcine intestine was evaluated. (P)HxAlGltns with various porosities were prepared by the salt-leaching method for various solid-liquid ratios. (P)HxAlGltns bonded more strongly to porcine intestine surfaces than did porous AlGltn films ((P)AlGltns). L929 cells cultured on (P)HxAlGltns showed adhesivity than cells cultured on (P)AlGltns. Faster tissue infiltration and a shorter degradation time of highly porous (P)HxAlGltns were observed after implantation in rat subcutaneous tissues. The angiogenic markers CD34 and α-SMA were highly expressed around (P)HxAlGltns that had high porosity. These results indicated that highly porous (P)HxAlGltns have advantages with respect to not only bonding strength on wet soft tissues, but also angiogenesis.

  11. Opinion dynamics of modified Hegselmann-Krause model in a group-based population with heterogeneous bounded confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guiyuan; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Zhijun

    2015-02-01

    Continuous opinion dynamics in a group-based population with heterogeneous bounded confidences is considered in this paper. A slightly modified Hegselmann-Krause model is proposed, and agents are classified into three categories: open-minded-, moderate-minded-, and closed-minded-agents, while the whole population is divided into three subgroups accordingly. We study how agents of each category and the population size can affect opinion dynamics. It is observed that the number of final opinion clusters is dominated by the closed-minded agents; open-minded agents cannot contribute to forming opinion consensus and the existence of open-minded agents may diversify the final opinions instead; for the fixed population size and proportion of closed-minded agents, the relative size of the largest final opinion cluster varies along concave-parabola-like curve as the proportion of open-minded agents increases, and there is a tipping point when the number of open-minded agents is almost equal to that of moderate-minded agents; for the fixed proportion of the three categories in the population, as the population size becomes larger, the number of final opinion clusters will reach a plateau. Some of the results are different from the previous studies.

  12. Seismic Investigations of the O'Higgins Seamount Group: Aseismic Ridge Emplacement and Hydration of Hot Spot Modified Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, H.; Flueh, E. R.; Papenberg, C.; Klaeschen, D.; Scientists, S.

    2003-12-01

    The segmentation of the South American continental margin has been linked to the subduction of bathymetric elevations on the oceanic plate. Offshore Valparaiso, Chile, the subduction of the hot spot generated aseismic Juan Fernandez Ridge correlates with the southern segment boundary of the Chilean flat slab. A causative relationship has been attributed to the enhanced buoyancy of anomalous crust and the shallowing of the Wadati-Benioff zone. In 2001, the SPOC project set out to investigate the effects of subducting aseismic ridges on the seismicity and structure of the Chilean margin. A seismic study along the easternmost extent of the Juan Fernandez Ridge reveals a magmatic origin dominated by extrusive processes for the O'Higgins Seamount Group. Hot spot magmatic processes have only moderately added to the crust of the Juan Fernandez Ridge. Thus only limited increased buoyancy may be expected from crustal thickening, insufficient to cause the shallowing of the subduction zone in the flat slab segment. The modest size of the volcanic edifices causes a flexural bending of the upper crust underneath O'Higgins Guyot, but does not affect the trend of the crust-mantle boundary. The off-axis aseismic ridge emplacement caused deficiencies of the lithosphere. These syngenetic structures are reactivated in the outer rise setting and evolve to ridge-parallel fracture zones with vertical offsets exceeding 800 m. Tomographic inversion of seismic mantle phases reveals reduced uppermost mantle velocities indicative of mineral alterations in the hot spot modified lithosphere. Uppermost mantle hydration is solely limited to the flawed lithosphere of the Juan Fernandez Ridge and is linked to the reactivation of hot spot induced fractures. Enhanced buoyancy due to crustal and upper mantle hydration may represent an important additional mechanism for shallow subduction.

  13. Poly (hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) films modified with different functional groups: In vitro interactions with platelets and rat stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Bitirim, Verda; Tunali, Yagmur; Arica, Mehmet Yakup; Akcali, Kamil Can

    2013-03-01

    Copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) with glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) in the presence of α-α'-azoisobisbutyronitrile (AIBN) resulted in the formation of hydrogel films carrying reactive epoxy groups. Thirteen kinds of different molecules with pendant NH2 group were used for modifications of the p(HEMA-GMA) films. The NH2 group served as anchor binding site for immobilization of functional groups on the hydrogel film via direct epoxy ring opening reaction. The modified hydrogel films were characterized by FTIR, and contact angle studies. In addition, mechanical properties of the hydrogel films were studied, and modified hydrogel films showed improved mechanical properties compared with the non-modified film, but they are less elastic than the non-modified film. The biological activities of these films such as platelet adhesion, red blood cells hemolysis, and swelling behavior were studied. The effect of modified hydrogel films, including NH2, (using different aliphatic CH2 chain lengths) CH3, SO3H, aromatic groups with substituted OH and COOH groups, and amino acids were also investigated on the adhesion, morphology and survival of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The MTT colorimetric assay reveals that the p(HEMA-GMA)-GA-AB, p(HEMA-GMA)-GA-Phe, p(HEMA-GMA)-GA-Trp, p(HEMA-GMA)-GA-Glu formulations have an excellent biocompatibility to promote the cell adhesion and growth. We anticipate that the fabricated p(HEMA-GMA) based hydrogel films with controllable surface chemistry and good stable swelling ratio may find extensive applications in future development of tissue engineering scaffold materials, and in various biotechnological areas.

  14. Use of Modified SOAP Notes and Peer-Led Small-Group Discussion in a Medical Physiology Course: Addressing the Hidden Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Jonathan; Hansen, Penelope A.; Nelson, Loren

    2006-01-01

    Peer leading of small-group discussion of cases; use of modified subjective, objective, assessment of physiology (SOAP) notes; and opportunities for self-assessment were introduced into a Medical Physiology course to increase students' awareness and practice of professional behaviors. These changes arose from faculty members' understanding of the…

  15. Molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on amine group modified graphene covalently linked electrode for 4-nonylphenol detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Cai, Rong; Chen, Xing; Liu, Yu-Nan; Rao, Wei; Yao, Shou-Zhuo

    2013-10-15

    In this work, an imprinted electrochemical sensor based on electrochemical reduced graphene covalently modified carbon electrode was developed for the determination of 4-nonylphenol (NP). An amine-terminated functional graphene oxide was covalently modified onto the electrode surface with diazonium salt reactions to improve the stability and reproducibility of the imprinted sensor. The electrochemical properties of each modified electrodes were investigated with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The electrochemical characteristic of the imprinted sensor was also investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in detail. The response currents of the imprinted electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward 4-nonylphenol concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10(-11) to 1.0 × 10(-8) gm L(-1) with the detection limit of 3.5 × 10(-12) gm L(-1) (S/N=3). The fabricated electrochemical imprinted sensor was successfully applied to the detection of 4-nonylphenol in rain and lake water samples.

  16. Heterocyclic tri-urea isocyanurate bridged groups modified periodic mesoporous organosilica synthesized for Fe(III) adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Vijay Kumar; Selvaraj, M.; Parambadath, Surendran; Chu, Sang-Wook; Park, Sung Soo; Mishra, Satyendra; Singh, Raj Pal; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2012-10-15

    To achieve a high level of heavy metal adsorption, 1,1 Prime ,1 Double-Prime -(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(3-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)urea) (TTPU) was synthesized as a novel melamine precursor and incorporated on the silica surface of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). The melamine modified PMOs (MPMOs) were synthesized under acidic conditions using TTPU, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and Pluronic P123 as a template and the modified PMOs were characterized using the relevant instrumental techniques. The characteristic materials were used as adsorbents for the adsorption of Fe(III) ions. Fe(III) adsorption studies revealed MPMO-7.5 to be a good absorbent with higher adsorption efficiency than other MPMOs. - Graphical Abstract: A new organosilica precursor, TTPU, has been successfully synthesized and characterized to incorporate on the silica surface of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). The melamine modified PMOs (MPMOs), in particular, the MPMO-7.5 was found to exhibit good adsorption efficiency for Fe(III). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of new melamine modified periodic mesoporous organosilicas (MPMOs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new organosilica precursor, TTPU, has been successfully synthesized for the MPMOs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MPMOs were characterized by the relevant instrumental techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPMO-7.5 exhibits higher adsorption efficiency for Fe(III) ions than other MPMOs.

  17. Half-metallicity and electronic structures for carbon-doped group III-nitrides: Calculated with a modified Becke-Johnson potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shuai-wei; Wang, Ri-gao; Xu, Pemg

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structures and magnetism for carbon-doped group III-nitrides are investigated by utilizing the first principle method with the modified Becke-Johnson potential. Calculations show that carbon substituting cations (anions) would induce the group III-nitrides to be paramagnetic metals (half-metallic ferromagnets). Single carbon substituting nitrogen could produce 1.00μB magnetic moment. Electronic structures indicate that the carriers-mediated double-exchange interaction plays a crucial role in forming the ferromagnetism. Based on the mean-field theory, the Curie temperature for carbon-doped group III-nitrides would be above the room temperature. Negative chemical pair interactions imply that carbon dopants tend to form clustering distribution in group III-nitrides. The nitrogen vacancy would make the carbon-doped group III-nitrides lose the half-metallic ferromagnetism.

  18. Electrochemical anion sensing using electrodes chemically modified with Au(I)-Cu(I) heterotrimetallic alkynyl cluster complexes containing ferrocenyl groups.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Antonio; Koshevoy, Igor O; Montoya, Noemí; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2010-07-01

    A novel family of electrochemical anion sensors operating in aqueous media, based on the heterometallic Au(I)-Cu(I) [{Au(3)Cu(2)(C(2)R)(6)}Au(3)(PPh(2)C(6)H(4)PPh(2))(3)](PF(6))(2) (L1, R = Fc; L2, R = C(6)H(4)Fc) alkynyl cluster complexes, is presented. Upon attachment to graphite and gold electrodes, these compounds exhibit a well-defined, essentially reversible, solid-state electrochemistry in contact with aqueous media, based on ferrocenyl-centered oxidation processes involving anion insertion, leading to distinctive pH-independent electrochemical responses for fluoride, chloride, bromide, perchlorate, bicarbonate, carbonate, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, and nitrate anions. Cluster-modified electrodes can be used as potentiometric sensors as a result of the reversible, diffusion-controlled electrochemistry obtained for the anion-assisted electrochemical oxidation of L1 and L2.

  19. Identification and Prioritization of Important Attributes of Disease-Modifying Drugs in Decision Making among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Nominal Group Technique and Best-Worst Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Ingrid E. H.; van der Weijden, Trudy; van de Kolk, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Understanding the preferences of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for disease-modifying drugs and involving these patients in clinical decision making can improve the concordance between medical decisions and patient values and may, subsequently, improve adherence to disease-modifying drugs. This study aims first to identify which characteristics–or attributes–of disease-modifying drugs influence patients´ decisions about these treatments and second to quantify the attributes’ relative importance among patients. Methods First, three focus groups of relapsing-remitting MS patients were formed to compile a preliminary list of attributes using a nominal group technique. Based on this qualitative research, a survey with several choice tasks (best-worst scaling) was developed to prioritize attributes, asking a larger patient group to choose the most and least important attributes. The attributes’ mean relative importance scores (RIS) were calculated. Results Nineteen patients reported 34 attributes during the focus groups and 185 patients evaluated the importance of the attributes in the survey. The effect on disease progression received the highest RIS (RIS = 9.64, 95% confidence interval: [9.48–9.81]), followed by quality of life (RIS = 9.21 [9.00–9.42]), relapse rate (RIS = 7.76 [7.39–8.13]), severity of side effects (RIS = 7.63 [7.33–7.94]) and relapse severity (RIS = 7.39 [7.06–7.73]). Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in preference of patients. For example, side effect-related attributes were statistically more important for patients who had no experience in using disease-modifying drugs compared to experienced patients (p < .001). Conclusions This study shows that, on average, patients valued effectiveness and unwanted effects as most important. Clinicians should be aware of the average preferences but also that attributes of disease-modifying drugs are valued differently by different patients. Person-centred clinical

  20. Does a modified STarT Back Tool predict outcome with a broader group of musculoskeletal patients than back pain? A secondary analysis of cohort data

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J C; Afolabi, E K; Lewis, M; Roddy, E; van der Windt, D A; Foster, N E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The STarT Back Tool has good predictive performance for non-specific low back pain in primary care. We therefore aimed to investigate whether a modified STarT Back Tool predicted outcome with a broader group of musculoskeletal patients, and assessed the consequences of using existing risk-group cut-points across different pain regions. Setting Secondary analysis of prospective data from 2 cohorts: (1) outpatient musculoskeletal physiotherapy services (PhysioDirect trial n=1887) and (2) musculoskeletal primary–secondary care interface services (SAMBA study n=1082). Participants Patients with back, neck, upper limb, lower limb or multisite pain with a completed modified STarT Back Tool (baseline) and 6-month physical health outcome (Short Form 36 (SF-36)). Outcomes Area under the receiving operator curve (AUCs) tested discriminative abilities of the tool's baseline score for identifying poor 6-month outcome (SF-36 lower tertile Physical Component Score). Risk-group cut-points were tested using sensitivity and specificity for identifying poor outcome using (1) Youden's J statistic and (2) a clinically determined rule that specificity should not fall below 0.7 (false-positive rate <30%). Results In PhysioDirect and SAMBA, poor 6-month physical health was 18.5% and 28.2%, respectively. Modified STarT Back Tool score AUCs for predicting outcome in back pain were 0.72 and 0.79, neck 0.82 and 0.88, upper limb 0.79 and 0.86, lower limb 0.77 and 0.83, and multisite pain 0.83 and 0.82 in PhysioDirect and SAMBA, respectively. Differences between pain region AUCs were non-significant. Optimal cut-points to discriminate low-risk and medium-risk/high-risk groups depended on pain region and clinical services. Conclusions A modified STarT Back Tool similarly predicts 6-month physical health outcome across 5 musculoskeletal pain regions. However, the use of consistent risk-group cut-points was not possible and resulted in poor sensitivity (too many with long

  1. [Amino acid and peptide derivatives of the tylosin family of macrolide antibiotics modified at the aldehyde group].

    PubMed

    Sumbatian, N V; Kuznetsova, I V; Karpenko, V V; Fedorova, N V; Chertkov, V A; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen new functionally active amino acid and peptide derivatives of the antibiotics tylosin, desmycosin, and 5-O-mycaminosyltylonolide were synthesized in order to study the interaction of the growing polypeptide chain with the ribosomal tunnel. The conjugation of various amino acids and peptides with a macrolide aldehyde group was carried out by two methods: direct reductive amination with the isolation of the intermediate Schiff bases or through binding via oxime using the preliminarily obtained derivatives of 2-aminooxyacetic acid.

  2. Modified-release prednisone for polymyalgia rheumatica: a multicentre, randomised, active-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Hopp, Michael; Liebscher, Stefan; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of modified-release (MR) versus immediate-release (IR) prednisone in newly diagnosed glucocorticoid (GC)-naïve patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Methods Patients were randomised to double-blind MR prednisone (taken at approximately 22:00) or IR prednisone (taken in the morning), 15 mg/day for 4 weeks. The primary end point was complete response rate (≥70% reduction in PMR visual analogue scale, duration of morning stiffness and C reactive protein (CRP) (or CRP <2× upper limit of normal (ULN))) at week 4. Non-inferiority was decided if the lower 95% confidence limit (MR vs IR prednisone) was above −15%. 400 patients were planned but only 62 were enrolled due to difficulties in recruiting GC-naïve patients with PMR with CRP ≥2×ULN. Results The percentage of complete responders at week 4 was numerically greater for MR prednisone (53.8%) than for IR prednisone (40.9%). Non-inferiority of MR versus IR prednisone was not proven in the primary analysis on the per protocol population (N=48; treatment difference: 12.22%; 95% CI −15.82% to 40.25%). However, sensitivity analysis on the full analysis population showed an evident trend favouring MR prednisone (N=62; treatment difference: 15.56%; 95% CI −9.16% to 40.28%). Adverse events were generally mild and transient with no unexpected safety observations. Conclusions The study showed a clear trend for favourable short-term efficacy of MR prednisone versus IR prednisone in early treatment of PMR. Further studies are warranted. Trial registration number EudraCT number 2011-002353-57; Results.

  3. Influence of exchange group of modified glycidyl methacrylate polymer on phenol removal: A study by batch and continuous flow processes.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Thiago Muza; da Silva, Carla Michele Frota; da Rocha, Paulo Cristiano Silva; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of water by phenol is potentially a serious problem due to its high toxicity and its acid character. In this way some treatment process to remove or reduce the phenol concentration before contaminated water disposal on the environment is required. Currently, phenol can be removed by charcoal adsorption, but this process does not allow easy regeneration of the adsorbent. In contrast, polymeric resins are easily regenerated and can be reused in others cycles of adsorption process. In this work, the interaction of phenol with two polymeric resins was investigated, one of them containing a weakly basic anionic exchange group (GD-DEA) and the other, a strongly basic group (GD-QUAT). Both ion exchange resins were obtained through chemical modifications from a base porous resin composed of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinyl benzene (DVB). Evaluation tests with resins were carried out with 30 mg/L of phenol in water solution, at pH 6 and 10, employing two distinct processes: (i) batch, to evaluate the effect of temperature, and (ii) continuous flow, to assess the breakthrough of the resins. Batch tests revealed that the systems did not follow the model proposed by Langmuir due to the negative values obtained for the constant b and for the maximum adsorption capacity, Q0. However, satisfactory results for the constants KF and n allowed assuming that the behavior of systems followed the Freundlich model, leading to the conclusion that resin GD-DEA had the best interaction with the phenol when in a solution having pH 10 (phenoxide ions). The continuous flow tests corroborated this conclusion since the performance of GD-DEA in removing phenol was also best at pH 10, indicating that the greater availability of the electron pair in the resin with the weakly basic donor group contributed to enhance the resin's interaction with the phenoxide ions.

  4. K+ conductance modified by a titratable group accessible to protons from the intracellular side of the squid axon membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, E; Carbone, E; Testa, P L

    1979-01-01

    In the range of pH examined (5.2-10), variations of internal pH from high to low values result in a reversible decrease of the conductance of the open K channels, without significantly affecting the kinetics parameters. A linear plot of the conductance versus internal pH suggests the existence of a titratable group that has an apparent pKa of about 6.9, and that is accessible to protons only from the intracellular side of the membrane. PMID:45399

  5. Proteome Informatics Research Group (iPRG)_2012: A Study on Detecting Modified Peptides in a Complex Mixture*

    PubMed Central

    Chalkley, Robert J.; Bandeira, Nuno; Chambers, Matthew C.; Clauser, Karl R.; Cottrell, John S.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Kapp, Eugene A.; Lam, Henry H. N.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Neubert, Thomas A.; Sun, Rui-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The proteome informatics research group of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities conducted a study to assess the community's ability to detect and characterize peptides bearing a range of biologically occurring post-translational modifications when present in a complex peptide background. A data set derived from a mixture of synthetic peptides with biologically occurring modifications combined with a yeast whole cell lysate as background was distributed to a large group of researchers and their results were collectively analyzed. The results from the twenty-four participants, who represented a broad spectrum of experience levels with this type of data analysis, produced several important observations. First, there is significantly more variability in the ability to assess whether a results is significant than there is to determine the correct answer. Second, labile post-translational modifications, particularly tyrosine sulfation, present a challenge for most researchers. Finally, for modification site localization there are many tools being employed, but researchers are currently unsure of the reliability of the results these programs are producing. PMID:24187338

  6. Metal-organic frameworks post-synthetically modified with ferrocenyl groups: framework effects on redox processes and surface conduction.

    PubMed

    Halls, Jonathan E; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Burrows, Andrew D; Marken, Frank

    2012-02-07

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials based on zinc(II) and aluminium(III) dicarboxylate frameworks with covalently attached ferrocene functional redox groups were synthesised by post-synthetic modification and investigated by voltammetry in aqueous and non-aqueous media. In the voltammetry experiments, ferrocene oxidation occurs in all cases, but chemically reversible and stable ferrocene oxidation without decay of the voltammetric response requires a "mild" dichloroethane solvent environment. The voltammetric response in this case is identified as "surface-confined" with fast surface-hopping of electrons and without affecting the bulk of MOF microcrystals. In aqueous media a more complex pH-dependent multi-stage redox process is observed associated with chemically irreversible bulk oxidation and disintegration of the MOF framework. A characteristic 30 mV per pH unit dependence of redox potentials is observed attributed to a "framework effect": the hydroxide-driven MOF framework dissolution.

  7. Variability of control data and relevance of observed group differences in five oral toxicity studies with genetically modified maize MON810 in rats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidtke, Jörg; Schmidt, Paul; Kohl, Christian; Wilhelm, Ralf; Schiemann, Joachim; van der Voet, Hilko; Steinberg, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The data of four 90-day feeding trials and a 1-year feeding trial with the genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 in Wistar Han RCC rats performed in the frame of EU-funded project GRACE were analysed. Firstly, the data obtained from the groups having been fed the non-GM maize diets were combined to establish a historical control data set for Wistar Han RCC rats at the animal housing facility (Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia). The variability of all parameters is described, and the reference values and ranges have been derived. Secondly, the consistency of statistically significant differences found in the five studies was analysed. In order to do so, the body weight development, organ weight, haematology and clinical biochemistry data were compared between the studies. Based on the historical control data, equivalence ranges for these parameters were defined, and the values measured in the GM maize-fed groups were compared with these equivalence ranges. Thirdly, the (statistical) power of these feeding studies with whole food/feed was assessed and detectable toxicologically relevant group differences were derived. Linear mixed models (LMM) were applied, and standardized effect sizes (SES) were calculated in order to compare different parameters as well as to provide an overall picture of group and study differences at a glance. The comparison of the five feeding trials showed a clear study effect in the control data. It also showed inconsistency both in the frequency of statistically significant differences and in the difference values between control and test groups.

  8. Self-assembly and sensing-group graft of pre-modified CNTs on resonant micro-cantilevers for specific detection of volatile organic compound vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Liu, Min; Li, Jungang

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports MWCNT (multi-wall carbon nano-tube)-modified resonant micro-cantilever chemical sensors for detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) vapor. The MWCNTs are pre-modified and then area-selectively self-assembled at the free-end gold pad of a micro-cantilever, in which a resonance-exciting heater and a signal-readout piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge are integrated. Featuring a high specific surface area, the MWCNTs are further functionalized with TNT-sensitive groups by grafting onto the sidewalls of the MWCNTs. To lower the non-specific absorption of water and other small organic molecules, the SiO2 surface of the micro-cantilever was also pre-treated for hydrophobicity and oleophobicity by self-assembling a monolayer of heptadecafluorodecyltrimethoxysilane. The results of our sensing experiments have shown a capability to rapidly detect ppb-level TNT vapor, and a high specificity of the functionalized groups to TNT molecules. The experiment has also confirmed a good long-term stability in detecting sensitivity.

  9. Transcriptional Response of Polycomb Group Genes to Status Epilepticus in Mice is Modified by Prior Exposure to Epileptic Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, James P; Miller-Delaney, Suzanne F C; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Sano, Takanori; McKiernan, Ross C; Simon, Roger P; Henshall, David C

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of the brain to brief, non-harmful seizures can activate protective mechanisms that temporarily generate a damage-refractory state. This process, termed epileptic tolerance, is associated with large-scale down-regulation of gene expression. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are master controllers of gene silencing during development that are re-activated by injury to the brain. Here, we explored the transcriptional response of genes associated with polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 (Ring1A, Ring1B, and Bmi1) and PRC2 (Ezh1, Ezh2, and Suz12), as well as additional transcriptional regulators Sirt1, Yy1, and Yy2, in a mouse model of status epilepticus (SE). Findings were contrasted to changes after SE in mice previously given brief seizures to evoke tolerance. Real-time quantitative PCR showed SE prompted an early (1 h) increase in expression of several genes in PRC1 and PRC2 in the hippocampus, followed by down-regulation of many of the same genes at later times points (4, 8, and 24 h). Spatio-temporal differences were found among PRC2 genes in epileptic tolerance, including increased expression of Ezh2, Suz12, and Yy2 relative to the normal injury response to SE. In contrast, PRC1 complex genes including Ring 1B and Bmi1 displayed differential down-regulation in epileptic tolerance. The present study characterizes PcG gene expression following SE and shows prior seizure exposure produces select changes to PRC1 and PRC2 composition that may influence differential gene expression in epileptic tolerance.

  10. Assessing the factorial structure and measurement invariance of PTSD by gender and ethnic groups in Sri Lanka: An analysis of the modified Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ).

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Jayasuriya, Dinuk; Silove, Derrick

    2017-02-03

    The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) remains the most widely used screening measure for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the refugee and post-conflict field. The present study is the first to test the factorial structure and measurement invariance of the HTQ according to DSM-5 criteria across gender and ethnic groups in the ethnically diverse society of post-conflict Sri Lanka. The survey sample included 5136 participants (86% response rate) followed up 12 months after a baseline nationally representative survey undertaken in Sri Lanka in 2014. Exposure to conflict-related traumatic experiences (TEs) generating a trauma count (TC), and symptoms of PTSD were assessed using a modified version of the HTQ adapted to the local context. The final analytic sample included 4260 participants after excluding records with missing data on key variables. We conducted Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MG-CFA) to test the four-factor (DSM-5 consistent) and three-factor (DSM-IV-TR) models of PTSD, then assessing measurement invariance of the four factor model by gender and ethnic groups. The three-factor and four-factor DSM-5 model each produced a good fit across the sample as a whole. In addition, there was configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the four-factor model both by gender and ethnicity. The trauma count was directly associated with each of the symptom domains of the four factor model. Our findings provide support for the capacity of the modified HTQ to measure the DSM5 construct of PTSD across gender and key ethnic groupings in Sri Lanka. Confirmation of our findings in other cultures will be important.

  11. Magnetic adsorbent of Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles modified with thiol group for chloroauric ion adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roto, Roto; Yusran, Yusran; Kuncaka, Agus

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic adsorbent of Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles modified with thiol group was synthesized for chloroauric ([AuCl4]-) adsorption. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method under mechanical stirring and coated with SiO2 by acid hydrolysis of Na2SiO3 under N2 purging. The coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with SiO2 prevents particles' agglomeration by forming Fe3O4 Fe3O4 Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell and avoids dissolution of the Fe3O4 core in the acidic medium. The coated Fe3O4 particle was modified with a thiol group using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane via silanization reaction. The results suggest that SiO2-coated Fe3O4 particles have a size of 10-20 nm. The FTIR and EDX data indicate that the thiol groups are successfully attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. The [AuCl4]- ion adsorption by the Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles followed Langmuir isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 115 mg/g and free energy (ΔG°) of 24.8 kJ/mol. The thiourea solution can be used to desorb most of the adsorbed [AuCl4]- ion. The adsorption using magnetic compounds provides easy access to the separation for both preparation and recovery.

  12. A modified group I intron can function as both a ribozyme and a 5' exon in a trans-exon ligation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tasiouka, K I; Burke, J M

    1994-06-24

    Here, we show that a single RNA molecule derived from a group-I intron can provide the catalytic activity, the substrate recognition domain and the attacking nucleophile in a reaction that mimics the exon ligation step of splicing. To accomplish this reaction, we have linked a 5' exon sequence to the 3' end of an attenuated form of the self-splicing Tetrahymena rRNA intron. The ribozyme (I-E1) attacks an oligoribonucleotide analog of the 3' splice site (I'-E2) to generate a product containing ligated exons (I-E1-E2) and a small intron fragment (I'). Two modified introns were constructed and tested for activity. A construct designed to interact with the 3' splice site through intermolecular P9.0 and P10 helices was found to be inactive due to failure to form a stable ribozyme-substrate complex. A second modified intron and substrate combination was engineered, in which the complex was further stabilized by an intermolecular P9.2 helix. In this case, stable complexes and reaction products were identified. The reaction efficiency was low compared to splicing of the unmodified intron-containing precursor, and will be optimized in future experiments. Following optimization, we believe that this system may be exploited to examine the functional consequences of a wide variety of 3' splice-site modifications, and may provide the basis for development of highly selective trans-acting ribozymes.

  13. Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, C; Haughton, A J; Osborne, J L; Roy, D B; Clark, S J; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Bohan, D A; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Dewar, A M; Heard, M S; Woiwod, I P; Daniels, R E; Young, M W; Parish, A M; Scott, R J; Firbank, L G; Squire, G R

    2003-01-01

    Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and conventional crop management on invertebrate trophic groups (herbivores, detritivores, pollinators, predators and parasitoids) were compared in beet, maize and spring oilseed rape sites throughout the UK. These trophic groups were influenced by season, crop species and GMHT management. Many groups increased twofold to fivefold in abundance between early and late summer, and differed up to 10-fold between crop species. GMHT management superimposed relatively small (less than twofold), but consistent, shifts in plant and insect abundance, the extent and direction of these effects being dependent on the relative efficacies of comparable conventional herbicide regimes. In general, the biomass of weeds was reduced under GMHT management in beet and spring oilseed rape and increased in maize compared with conventional treatments. This change in resource availability had knock-on effects on higher trophic levels except in spring oilseed rape where herbivore resource was greatest. Herbivores, pollinators and natural enemies changed in abundance in the same directions as their resources, and detritivores increased in abundance under GMHT management across all crops. The result of the later herbicide application in GMHT treatments was a shift in resource from the herbivore food web to the detritivore food web. The Farm Scale Evaluations have demonstrated over 3 years and throughout the UK that herbivores, detritivores and many of their predators and parasitoids in arable systems are sensitive to the changes in weed communities that result from the introduction of new herbicide regimes. PMID:14561321

  14. Role of the concentration and nature of grafted groups in the adsorption of hydrocarbon vapors on silica modified by monofunctional polyfluoroalkylsilanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchina, T. M.; Shoniya, N. K.; Tayakina, O. Ya.; Tkachenko, O. P.; Kustov, L. M.; Bernardoni, F.; Fadeev, A. Y.

    2012-03-01

    The role of the grafting density of monofunctional polyfluoroalkylsilanes of the C n F2 n - 1(CH2) m Si(CH3)2Cl general formula (where n = 3, 4, and 6; and m = 2 and 3) and their composition in intermolecular interactions of the molecules of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons with a surface of chemically modified silica is studied by means of IR spectroscopy and adsorption-static and gas chromatography. It is shown that the higher the concentration and the shorter the length of the grafted chain, the greater (by a factor of 2 to 25) the drop in the adsorption values of hydrocarbons as a result of modifications, due to an increase in the degree of oleophobization of surface upon the formation of polyorganofluorine coatings. The high specificity of the surface with respect to benzene, which is due to the active participation of the polar fragment of a grafted chain in adsorption process, is related to the features of a relatively low-density sample with a concentration of grafted perfluorobutyl groups of 1.7 nm-2. It is shown that the thermodestruction of polyfluoroalkyl silica remains virtually unobserved upon heating to 523 K in an argon flow.

  15. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  16. Modified cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  17. Histo-blood group gene polymorphisms as potential genetic modifiers of the development of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, K; Ihara, K; Ikeda, K; Nagata, H; Mizuno, Y; Hara, T

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal immunological responses to certain microbial agents may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD). The association studies between histo-blood group genes (Lewis and ABO blood types) and various types of infectious diseases or vasculopathy have been carried out based on the fact that glycosylated antigens could directly mediate microbial infections. We attempted to clarify the role of blood type antigens in the development of KD and coronary artery lesions in KD patients. The subjects included 164 KD patients enrolled from 1998 to 2003 (1st group), 232 patients from 2004 to 2009 (2nd group), and 223 healthy children and 118 patients with growth hormone deficiency as controls. The genotyping of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes, and ABO genotypes, was determined with the TaqMan SNP assay and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. No significant differences were observed in the genotypes and allele frequencies of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes between the groups. The frequency of the BB blood genotype was significantly higher in KD patients with coronary artery lesions in the 1st and 2nd groups than in the controls (17% and 14% vs. 5%, P = 0.0020). This is the first report to investigate the roles of ABO and Lewis blood types in the development of KD, and in the formation of coronary artery lesions in KD patients. These data suggest that the ABO blood type may play a role in the development of coronary artery lesions in KD patients.

  18. A Consensus for Classification and Pathologic Reporting of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Associated Appendiceal Neoplasia: The Results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) Modified Delphi Process.

    PubMed

    Carr, Norman J; Cecil, Thomas D; Mohamed, Faheez; Sobin, Leslie H; Sugarbaker, Paul H; González-Moreno, Santiago; Taflampas, Panos; Chapman, Sara; Moran, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a complex disease with unique biological behavior that usually arises from appendiceal mucinous neoplasia. The classification of PMP and its primary appendiceal neoplasia is contentious, and an international modified Delphi consensus process was instigated to address terminology and definitions. A classification of mucinous appendiceal neoplasia was developed, and it was agreed that "mucinous adenocarcinoma" should be reserved for lesions with infiltrative invasion. The term "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was supported and it was agreed that "cystadenoma" should no longer be recommended. A new term of "high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was proposed for lesions without infiltrative invasion but with high-grade cytologic atypia. Serrated polyp with or without dysplasia was preferred for tumors with serrated features confined to the mucosa with an intact muscularis mucosae. Consensus was achieved on the pathologic classification of PMP, defined as the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia characterized by the redistribution phenomenon. Three categories of PMP were agreed-low grade, high grade, and high grade with signet ring cells. Acellular mucin should be classified separately. It was agreed that low-grade and high-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei should be considered synonymous with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, respectively. A checklist for the pathologic reporting of PMP and appendiceal mucinous neoplasms was also developed. By adopting the classifications and definitions that were agreed, different centers will be able to use uniform terminology that will allow meaningful comparison of their results.

  19. Peroxide-Dependent Analyte Conversion by the Heme Prosthetic Group, the Heme Peptide “Microperoxidase-11” and Cytochrome c on Chitosan Capped Gold Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yarman, Aysu; Neumann, Bettina; Bosserdt, Maria; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad; Scheller, Frieder W.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the role ascribed to the peroxidatic activity of degradation products of cytochrome c (cyt c) in the processes of apoptosis, we investigate the catalytic potential of heme and of the cyt c derived heme peptide MP-11 to catalyse the cathodic reduction of hydrogen peroxide and to oxidize aromatic compounds. In order to check whether cyt c has an enzymatic activity in the native state where the protein matrix should suppress the inherent peroxidatic activity of its heme prosthetic group, we applied a biocompatible immobilization matrix and very low concentrations of the co-substrate H2O2. The biocatalysts were entrapped on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode in a biocompatible chitosan layer which contained gold nanoparticles. The electrochemical signal for the peroxide reduction is generated by the redox conversion of the heme group, whilst a reaction product of the substrate oxidation is cathodically reduced in the substrate indication. The catalytic efficiency of microperoxidase-11 is sufficient for sensors indicating HRP substrates, e.g., p-aminophenol, paracetamol and catechol, but also the hydroxylation of aniline and dehalogenation of 4-fluoroaniline. The lower limit of detection for p-aminophenol is comparable to previously published papers with different enzyme systems. The peroxidatic activity of cyt c immobilized in the chitosan layer for catechol was found to be below 1 per mill and for p-aminophenol about 3% as compared with that of heme or MP-11. PMID:25585710

  20. Modifying the Chemical Structure of a Porphyrin Small Molecule with Benzothiophene Groups for the Reproducible Fabrication of High Performance Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tianxiang; Xiao, Liangang; Gao, Ke; Xu, Wenzhan; Peng, Xiaobin; Cao, Yong

    2017-03-01

    A porphyrin-based molecule DPPEZnP-BzTBO with bulky benzothiophene groups was designed and synthesized as an electron donor material for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The optimized devices under thermal annealing (TA) and then chloroform solvent vapor anneanling (SVA) for 80 s exhibited an outstanding power conversion efficiencie (PCE) of 9.08%. Contrasted with the smaller thienyl substituted analogues we reported previously, DPPEZnP-BzTBO-based BHJ solar cells exhibited a higher open circuit voltage due to the lower highest occupied molecular orbital energy level. The TA post-treatment of the active layers induced the formation of more crystallized components, and the subsequent SVA provided a driving force for the domain growth, resulting in more obvious phase segregation between the donor and the acceptor in nanoscale. Furthermore, the PCEs kept above 95% upon the further SVA treatment within the time range of 60 to 95 s probably because the bulky benzothiophene groups retard the too quick change of crystallinity, providing a wide processing window for the reproducible device fabrication.

  1. Prospective randomized multicenter adjuvant dermatologic cooperative oncology group trial of low-dose interferon alfa-2b with or without a modified high-dose interferon alfa-2b induction phase in patients with lymph node-negative melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Axel; Weichenthal, Michael; Rass, Knuth; Linse, Ruthild; Ulrich, Jens; Stadler, Rudolf; Volkenandt, Matthias; Grabbe, Stephan; Proske, Ulrike; Schadendorf, Dirk; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Vogt, Thomas; Rompel, Rainer; Kaufmann, Roland; Kaatz, Martin; Näher, Helmut; Mohr, Peter; Eigentler, Thomas; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Garbe, Claus

    2009-07-20

    PURPOSE Interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) has shown clinical efficacy in the adjuvant treatment of patients with high-risk melanoma in several clinical trials, but optimal dosing and duration of treatment are still under discussion. It has been argued that in high-dose IFN-alpha (HDI), the intravenous (IV) induction phase might be critical for the clinical benefit of the regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS In an attempt to investigate the potential role of a modified high-dose induction phase, lymph node-negative patients with resected primary malignant melanoma of more than 1.5-mm tumor thickness were included in this prospective randomized multicenter Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group trial. Six hundred seventy-four patients were randomly assigned to receive 4 weeks of a modified HDI scheme. This schedule consisted of 5 times weekly 10 MU/m(2) IFN-alpha-2b IV for 2 weeks and 5 times weekly 10 MU/m(2) IFN-alpha-2b administered subcutaneously (SC) for another 2 weeks followed by 23 months of low-dose IFN-alpha-2b (LDI) 3 MU SC three times a week (arm A). LDI 3 MU three times a week was given for 24 months in arm B. Results Of 650 assessable patients, there were 92 relapses among the 321 patients receiving high-dose induction as compared with 95 relapses among the 329 patients receiving LDI only. Five-year relapse-free survival rates were 68.0% (arm A) and 67.1% (arm B), respectively. Likewise, melanoma-related fatalities were similar between both groups, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of 80.2% (arm A) and 82.9% (arm B). CONCLUSION The addition of a 4-week modified HDI induction phase to a 2-year low-dose adjuvant IFN-alpha-2b treatment schedule did not improve the clinical outcome.

  2. How can rotaxanes be modified by varying functional groups at the axle?--a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of thermochemistry and electronic effects.

    PubMed

    Spickermann, Christian; Felder, Thorsten; Schalley, Christoph A; Kirchner, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    We present theoretically as well as experimentally determined thermochemical data of the non-covalent interactions in different axle-substituted pseudorotaxanes. The overall interaction energy lies in the region of 35 kJ mol(-1), independent of the substitution pattern at the axle. Because rearrangement energies of 7 and 3 kJ mol(-1) are required for wheel and axle, respectively, the sum of the net interactions of individual non-covalent bonds must exceed 10 kJ mol(-1) to achieve a successful host-guest interaction. The geometrical analysis shows three hydrogen bonds, and the close inspection of the individual dipole moments as well as the individual hydrogen bonds reveals trends according to the different functional groups at the axle. The individual trends for the different hydrogen bonds almost lead to a cancellation of the substitution effects. From solvent-effect considerations it can be predicted that the pseudorotaxane is stable in CHCl(3) and CH(2)Cl(2), whereas it would dethread in water. Comparing experimentally and theoretically calculated Gibbs free enthalpies, we find reasonable agreement if an exchange reaction of one solvent molecule instead of the direct formation reaction is considered.

  3. Platinum Group Elements, 187OS/188OS and 87SR/86SR Isotope Systematics in Depleted Fluid-Modified Mariana Fore-Arc Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Savov, I. P.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.; Mock, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    The serpentine mud volcanoes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc, collected during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195 [1], contain hard-rock clasts of serpentine sampled from close to the décollement, which separates the down-going Pacific slab from the overlying mantle wedge. These clasts preserve evidence for melt depletion (>25 % melt extraction in many instances) in a sub-arc environment, and extensive (40 - 100%) serpentinization due to subsequent fluid / peridotite interaction, e.g. [2]. Platinum-group element (PGE) abundances are not consistent with melt-depletion alone [3]. Fractionation between I-PGE (Os, Ir, Ru) has resulted in groups of IBM serpentinites with either a high chondrite-normalized Os/Ir ratio (OsN/IrN) or a low OsN/IrN ratio. Similarly, fractionation of P-PGE (Pt, Pd) is marked, and distinguishes the IBM serpentinites from worldwide abyssal peridotites. Interaction with high-pH fluids [4] may have partially oxidized mantle sulphide, the major primary host for PGE in these rocks, leading to partial breakdown to sulphate and the selective redistribution of certain PGE (Os, Ru, Pt), a feature normally associated with sub-aerial weathering [5], but which likely prevails in other oxidizing environments. In particular, the Re-Os systematics of the high (OsN/IrN) IBM serpentinites have been disturbed by the addition of Os. Unlike peridotite xenoliths associated with magmatic regions of subduction zones where subduction-related Os-addition is unequivocally radiogenic and derived from crustal material [6][7], where Os has been added to the IBM serpentinites it is unradiogenic and was most likely derived from within the oceanic mantle. IBM serpentinites therefore preserve osmium isotope ratios that are exclusively sub-chondritic (187Os/188Os ≤ 0.127), as previously reported [8]. These serpentinized peridotites were produced by at least a three-step process: melt depletion, serpentinization, and the mobilization of Os, Ru and Pt to produce low Os

  4. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pershina, V; Borschevsky, A; Iliaš, M; Türler, A

    2014-08-14

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl4, MOCl2, MCl6(-), and MOCl4(2) with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl4, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH(sub), of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH(sub)(RfCl4) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl2 on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl4 on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl2 or MOCl4(2-) complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl4 on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl6(2-) surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the "one-atom-at-a-time" gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  5. Tuning of the vinyl groups' spacing at surface of modified silica in preparation of high density imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles: a dispersive solid-phase extraction materials for chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Chen, Xuemei; Nie, Li; Luo, Jing; Jiang, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Hu, Qin; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping

    2010-05-15

    This paper reports the preparation of high density imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles toward selective recognition and fast enrichment of chlorpyrifos (CP) from complicated matrices. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were successfully coated at the surface of modified silica through using the chemical immovable vinyl groups at the nanoparticles' surface, followed by the graft copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of templates CP. It has been demonstrated that the space of end vinyl groups at the surface of silica can be controlled by changing the condition of chemical modification, regulating the thickness of imprinted shells and the density of efficient imprinted sites. After removal of templates by solvent extraction, the recognition sites of CP were created in the polymer coating layer. The CP-imprinted nanoparticles exhibited high recognition selectivity and binding affinity to CP analyte. When the CP-imprinted nanoparticles were used as dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) materials, the high recovery yields of 76.1-93.5% from various spiked samples with only 1microg/mL analyte were achieved by one-step extraction. These results reported herein provide the possibility for the separation and enrichment of CP from complicated matrices by the molecular imprinting modification at the surface of common silica nanoparticles.

  6. The modified extended Hansen method to determine partial solubility parameters of drugs containing a single hydrogen bonding group and their sodium derivatives: benzoic acid/Na and ibuprofen/Na.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, P; Pena, M A; Barra, J

    2000-01-20

    Sodium salts are often used in drug formulation but their partial solubility parameters are not available. Sodium alters the physical properties of the drug and the knowledge of these parameters would help to predict adhesion properties that cannot be estimated using the solubility parameters of the parent acid. This work tests the applicability of the modified extended Hansen method to determine partial solubility parameters of sodium salts of acidic drugs containing a single hydrogen bonding group (ibuprofen, sodium ibuprofen, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate). The method uses a regression analysis of the logarithm of the experimental mole fraction solubility of the drug against the partial solubility parameters of the solvents, using models with three and four parameters. The solubility of the drugs was determined in a set of solvents representative of several chemical classes, ranging from low to high solubility parameter values. The best results were obtained with the four parameter model for the acidic drugs and with the three parameter model for the sodium derivatives. The four parameter model includes both a Lewis-acid and a Lewis-base term. Since the Lewis acid properties of the sodium derivatives are blocked by sodium, the three parameter model is recommended for these kind of compounds. Comparison of the parameters obtained shows that sodium greatly changes the polar parameters whereas the dispersion parameter is not much affected. Consequently the total solubility parameters of the salts are larger than for the parent acids in good agreement with the larger hydrophilicity expected from the introduction of sodium. The results indicate that the modified extended Hansen method can be applied to determine the partial solubility parameters of acidic drugs and their sodium salts.

  7. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study of the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tocilizumab versus intravenous tocilizumab in combination with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (SUMMACTA study)

    PubMed Central

    Burmester, Gerd R; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Cantagrel, Alain; Hall, Stephen; Leszczynski, Piotr; Feldman, Daniel; Rangaraj, Madura J; Roane, Georgia; Ludivico, Charles; Lu, Peng; Rowell, Lucy; Bao, Min; Mysler, Eduardo F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study compared the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous (SC) versus intravenous (IV) formulations of tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD). Methods Patients (n=1262) were randomly assigned to receive tocilizumab-SC 162 mg weekly+placebo-IV every 4 weeks or tocilizumab-IV 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks+placebo-SC weekly in combination with traditional DMARD. The primary outcome was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of tocilizumab-SC to tocilizumab-IV with regard to the proportion of patients in each group achieving an American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response at week 24 using a 12% non-inferiority margin (NIM). Secondary outcomes were disease activity score using 28 joints (DAS28), ACR responses, health assessment questionnaire scores and safety assessments. Results At week 24, 69.4% (95% CI 65.5 to 73.2) of tocilizumab-SC-treated patients versus 73.4% (95% CI 69.6 to 77.1) of tocilizumab-IV-treated patients achieved an ACR20 response (weighted difference between groups −4.0%, 95% CI −9.2 to 1.2); the 12% NIM was met. ACR50/70 responses, DAS28 and physical function improvements were comparable between the tocilizumab-SC and tocilizumab-IV groups. The safety profiles of tocilizumab-SC and tocilizumab-IV were similar, and the most common adverse event was infection. Injection-site reactions (ISR) occurred more frequently in the tocilizumab-SC group than in the tocilizumab-IV (placebo-SC) group. No anaphylaxis was reported over the 24 weeks. Conclusions Tocilizumab-SC 162 mg weekly demonstrated comparable efficacy to tocilizumab-IV 8 mg/kg. The safety profile of tocilizumab-SC is consistent with the known and well-established safety profile of tocilizumab-IV, with the exception of a higher incidence of ISR, which were more common with tocilizumab-SC administration. PMID:23904473

  8. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Türler, A.

    2014-08-14

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl{sub 4}, MOCl{sub 2}, MCl{sub 6}{sup −}, and MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2} with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl{sub 4}, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH{sub sub}, of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH{sub sub}(RfCl{sub 4}) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl{sub 2} on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl{sub 2} or MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2−} complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the “one-atom-at-a-time” gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  9. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  10. Modified Composite Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

  11. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  12. Non-randomized confirmatory trial of modified radical hysterectomy for patients with tumor diameter 2 cm or less FIGO Stage IB1 uterine cervical cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG1101).

    PubMed

    Kunieda, Futoshi; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Arimoto, Takahide; Onda, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Shibata, Taro; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Kamura, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    A non-randomized confirmatory trial was started in Japan to evaluate the efficacy of modified radical hysterectomy in patients with tumor diameter 2 cm or less FIGO Stage IB1 uterine cervical cancer, for which the current standard is radical hysterectomy. This study began in January 2013 and a total of 240 patients will be accrued from 37 institutions within 3 years. The primary endpoint is 5-year survival. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, local relapse-free survival, percent completion of modified radical hysterectomy, percent local relapse, percent pathological parametrial involvement, days until self-urination and residual urine disappearance, blood loss, operation time, percent post-operative radiation therapy, adverse events and severe adverse events. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN 000009726 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/).

  13. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  14. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA.

  15. Synthesis of a stationary phase based on silica modified with branched octadecyl groups by Michael addition and photoinduced thiol-yne click chemistry for the separation of basic compounds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guang; Ou, Junjie; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Yongsheng; Wan, Hao; Zhang, Zhang; Peng, Xiaojun; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-04-01

    A novel silica-based stationary phase with branched octadecyl groups was prepared by the sequential employment of the Michael addition reaction and photoinduced thiol-yne click chemistry with 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica microspheres as the initial material. The resulting stationary phase denoted as SiO2 -N(C18)4 was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the existence of branched octadecyl groups in silica microspheres. The separations of benzene homologous compounds, acid compounds and amine analogues were conducted, demonstrating mixed-mode separation mechanism on SiO2 -N(C18)4 . Baseline separation of basic drugs mixture was acquired with the mobile phase of acetonitrile/H2 O (5%, v/v). SiO2 -N(C18)4 was further applied to separate Corydalis yanhusuo Wang water extracts, and more baseline separation peaks were obtained for SiO2 -N(C18)4 than those on Atlantis dC18 column. It can be expected that this new silica-based stationary phase will exhibit great potential in the analysis of basic compounds.

  16. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  17. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  18. How to find the optimal partner--studies of snurportin 1 interactions with U snRNA 5' TMG-cap analogues containing modified 2-amino group of 7-methylguanosine.

    PubMed

    Piecyk, Karolina; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Ferenc-Mrozek, Aleksandra; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena

    2015-08-01

    Snurportin 1 is an adaptor protein that mediates the active nuclear import of uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (U snRNA) by the importin-β receptor pathway. Its cellular activity influences the overall transport yield of small ribonucleoprotein complexes containing N(2),N(2),7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) capped U snRNA. So far little is still known about structural requirements related to molecular recognition of the trimethylguanosine moiety by snurportin in solution. Since these interactions are of a great biomedical importance, we synthesized a series of new 7-methylguanosine cap analogues with extended substituents at the exocyclic 2-amino group to gain a deeper insight into how the TMG-cap is adapted into the snurportin cap-binding pocket. Prepared chemical tools were applied in binding assays using emission spectroscopy. Surprisingly, our results revealed strict selectivity of snurportin towards the TMG-cap structure that relied mainly on its structural stiffness and compactness.

  19. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  20. Home Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahler, Theresa M.

    All students enrolled in the entry level foundations course in the College of Education of Kutztown University (Pennsylvania) participate in home groups, a cooperative learning strategy. Each student is assigned to a five- or six-person home group on the first day of class. Although group placements are made on the basis of class lists, every…

  1. Organically modified silicas on metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dean, Stacey L; Stapleton, Joshua J; Keating, Christine D

    2010-09-21

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling.

  2. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  3. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  4. Whitehead Groups of Spinor Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrnyĭ, A. P.; Yanchevskiĭ, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The Whitehead groups of spinor groups are studied. The known Kneser-Tits conjecture for spinor groups is reduced to a spinor analogue of the Tannaka-Artin problem, namely, to the question of whether the group K1Spin(D), where D is a division ring of exponent 2 , is trivial. A counterexample to the Kneser-Tits problem is constructed in the class of spinor groups. The group K1Spin(D) is computed. The stability of the Whitehead groups of spinor groups under purely transcendental extensions of the ground field is established. The R-equivalence on the k-points of spinor groups and the weak approximation problem are considered. The study of spinor group completes the study of the Whitehead groups of algebraic groups of classical type, that was started in studying reduced K-theory (V.P. Platonov) and was continued for reduced unitary K-theory (V.I. Yanchevskiĭ) and Hermitian K-theory (Platonov and Yanchevskiĭ). Bibliography: 50 titles.

  5. Group Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian

    The group interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the group will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…

  6. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  7. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  8. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  9. Automata representation for Abelian groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Wan Heng; Gan, Yee Siang; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2013-04-01

    A finite automaton is one of the classic models of recognition devices, which is used to determine the type of language a string belongs to. A string is said to be recognized by a finite automaton if the automaton "reads" the string from the left to the right starting from the initial state and finishing at a final state. Another type of automata which is a counterpart of sticker systems, namely Watson-Crick automata, is finite automata which can scan the double-stranded tapes of DNA strings using the complimentary relation. The properties of groups have been extended for the recognition of finite automata over groups. In this paper, two variants of automata, modified deterministic finite automata and modified deterministic Watson-Crick automata are used in the study of Abelian groups. Moreover, the relation between finite automata diagram over Abelian groups and the Cayley table is introduced. In addition, some properties of Abelian groups are presented in terms of automata.

  10. Modifiers of Perceived Spaciousness and Crowding among Different Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; And Others

    Two studies of graduate students living in a 13-story dormitory examined the effects of natural lighting, usable space, sex, culture, and floor height on perceptions of spaciousness, personalization of space, crowding, and lightness. Previous research had indicated differences between males and females in this area, but had not considered cultural…

  11. Modifying toxicokinetics with antidotes.

    PubMed

    Baud, F J; Borron, S W; Bismuth, C

    1995-12-01

    Five approaches may be described through which antidotes can modify toxicokinetics: (1) Decreased bioavailability of the toxins; (2) Cellular redistribution of the toxin in the organism; (3) Promotion of elimination in an unchanged form; (4) Slowing of metabolic activation pathways; (5) Acceleration of metabolic deactivation pathways. However, the ability to modify toxicokinetics with a new treatment, while demonstrating an understanding of the mechanism of action, must never be construed to be, in and of itself, the goal of therapy. The ultimate evaluation of an antidote modifying toxicokinetics is strictly clinical.

  12. Cystic fibrosis modifier genes.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jane; Alton, Eric; Griesenbach, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Since the recognition that CFTR genotype was not a good predictor of pulmonary disease severity in CF, several candidate modifier genes have been identified. It is unlikely that a single modifier gene will be found, but more probable that several haplotypes in combination may contribute, which in itself presents a major methodological challenge. The aims of such studies are to increase our understanding of disease pathogenesis, to aid prognosis and ultimately to lead to the development of novel treatments. PMID:16025767

  13. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  14. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  15. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  16. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  17. Healthy Thinking: A Group Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; Carty, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    A "Healthy Thinking" group, based on a modified Aaron Beck Cognitive Therapy model, teaches depressed clients to realistically appraise their experiences by monitoring and changing distorted thinking. Clients learn that situational stress activates long held assumptions (negative beliefs) leading to distorted thinking and ultimately…

  18. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  19. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  20. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  1. Group-Oriented Behavior Management Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of group oriented behavior management strategies to modify classroom behavior problems is suggested. Advantages, disadvantages, and implementation guidelines for the group response cost system, the good behavior game, the group timeout ribbon, hero method, peer-mediated extinction, and peer confrontation. (DB)

  2. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  3. Modifying Cookbook Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert, L.; Clough, Michael P.; Berg, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Modifies an extended lab activity from a cookbook approach for determining the percent mass of water in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals to one which incorporates students' prior knowledge, engenders active mental struggling with prior knowledge and new experiences, and encourages metacognition. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  4. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R. E.

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  5. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  6. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  7. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  8. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  9. Modified entropic force

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun

    2010-04-15

    The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

  10. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications.

  11. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  12. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  13. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term.

  14. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  15. [Adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto modified activated carbons].

    PubMed

    Tong, Xi-Zhen; Shi, Bao-You; Xie, Yue; Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Modified coal and coconut shell based powdered activated carbons (PACs) were prepared by FeCl3 and medium power microwave treatment, respectively. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto original and modified PACs. Based on pore structure and surface functional groups characterization, the adsorption behaviors of modified and original PACs were compared. The competitive adsorption of humic acid (HA) and PFOS on original and modified coconut shell PACs were also investigated. Results showed that both Fe3+ and medium power microwave treatments changed the pore structure and surface functional groups of coal and coconut shell PACs, but the changing effects were different. The adsorption of PFOS on two modified coconut shell-based PACs was significantly improved. While the adsorption of modified coal-based activated carbons declined. The adsorption kinetics of PFOS onto original and modified coconut shell-based activated carbons were the same, and the time of reaching adsorption equilibrium was about 6 hours. In the presence of HA, the adsorption of PFOS by modified PAC was reduced but still higher than that of the original.

  16. Organically modified silicate aerogels, ``Aeromosils``

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.J.; Mackenzie, J.D.; Rubio-Alonso, F.

    1996-12-31

    Aerogels derived from sol-gel oxides such as silica have become quite scientifically popular because of their extremely low densities, high surface areas, and their interesting optical, dielectric, thermal and acoustic properties. However, their commercial applicability has thus far been rather limited, due in great part to their brittleness and hydrophilicity. In prior work by the research group, modifying silicate gel structures with flexible, organic containing polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane imparted significant compliance (even rubbery behavior) and hydrophobicity. These materials have been referred to as Ormosils. This study expounds on the current effort to extend these desirable properties to aerogels, and in-so-doing, creating novel ``Aeromosils``. Reactive incorporation of hydroxy-terminal polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into silica sol-gels was made using both acid and two-step acid/base catalyzed processes. Aerogels were derived by employing the supercritical CO{sub 2} technique. Analyses of microstructure were made using nitrogen adsorption (BET surface area and pore size distribution), and some mechanical strengths were derived from tensile strength testing. Interesting Aeromosil properties obtained include optical transparency, surface areas of up to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g, rubberiness, and better strength than corresponding silica aerogels with elongations at break exceeding 5% in some cases.

  17. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  18. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  19. Do Values Change in an Encounter Group? An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Lawrence V.

    Encounter groups represent an attempt to apply group methods for the enhancement of personal awareness and the acceleration of personal growth among "normal" people. The extent to which an individual's moral values are modified by disclosure and discussion of these values in an encounter group setting was investigated with a group of nine…

  20. [Biotechnology using modified microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Deshayes, A F

    1992-11-01

    Few microorganisms, as compare to their high diversity, are used for human needs. They can produce molecules of interest, process fermentation, protect crops, treat wastes or clean environment. Molecular technics and genetic engineering are new tools offer to geneticists which breed microorganisms for years. Using them, it is now possible, theoretically, to introduce any gene in any organism. Some examples are given concerning genetic modifications in yeasts and lactic acid bacteria to optimize agrofood processes and to improve nutritive and flavour characteristics of fermented products like bread, beer, wine, cheese, meat, vegetable juices... In spite of scientific and industrial interest of the new technologies, limiting factors can explain that genetically modified microorganisms are not routinely used in agrofood yet. First, risks assessment on human health and environment are still in debate, but their is a consensus, within the scientific community, to consider that new characteristics of improved microorganisms are more important than the technics used for their construction. Second, regulations turn out to impose constraints susceptible to discourage technological innovations. At least, the public perception about the new technologies appears, actually, as the major factor to limit their development.

  1. Distinguishing modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.

  2. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  3. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy.

  4. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  5. On a modified electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Reiss, H R

    2012-09-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.

  6. [Hygienic characteristics of foodstuffs containing genetically modified components].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, E N; Ivanov, A A; Fokin, M V

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzes the results of the investigations of raw foods, foodstuffs for genetically modified components, conducted by the state sanitary and epidemiological service of the Russian Federation during its current sanitary inspection. The presented materials cover 2003-2004. The findings suggest that there is a great deal of foods containing genetically modified sources on the market and show the priority groups of foodstuffs and the distribution of these foods on the territory of the Russian Federation.

  7. [Comorbid autoimmune pathology in patients treated with disease modifying drugs].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Z A; Sizyakina, L P; Belovolova, R A; Megeryan, V A

    2016-01-01

    Because of intensive growth of the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases (AID) during the last years, the comorbidity of MS and AID is not a rarity. In this literature review, the development of comorbid AID in patients with MS is considered to be the probable complication of disease modifying therapy with drugs of different groups. The authors present the own data on the prevalence of comorbid autoimmune pathology in patients with MS treated with disease modifying drugs.

  8. Characterization of silica particles modified with γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Wang; Shen, Haiying; Wang, Jiamin; Cao, Jinzhen

    2017-03-01

    The surface of hydrophilic silica particles was modified with different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS). The hydrophobicity and hygroscopicity of unmodified and modified silica were investigated through water contact angle (WCA) tests and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method, respectively. The results showed that the surface properties of silica were closely related with the MPTS concentration. Within the range of MPTS concentration applied, 8% MPTS modified silica showed the least aggregation. With the increasing MPTS concentration, the WCAs on modified silica film increased correspondingly, and finally exceeded 90° at 6% and 8% concentrations. The equilibrium moisture contents (EMCs) of modified silica also decreased with the increasing MPTS concentration. The improvement on hydrophobicity can be correlated with the reduction of residual hydroxyl groups (-OH) on modified silica. The self-condensation of MPTS began to occur at concentrations higher than 4%, especially at 8%. Owing to this effect, the modified silica with 8% MPTS showed a slightly higher EMC than 6% MPTS within low relative humidity (RH) range up to 40%. At a higher RH ranging from 40 to 90%, 8% group showed the lowest EMCs because of its highest hydrophobicity and low specific surface area. A mechanism concerning the MPTS modification of silica was also proposed in this study based on the research results.

  9. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  10. Chemically modified opals as thin permselective nanoporous membranes.

    PubMed

    Newton, Michael R; Bohaty, Andrew K; White, Henry S; Zharov, Ilya

    2005-05-25

    Thin-film opals comprising three layers of 440 nm diameter SiO2 spheres were assembled on Pt electrodes and modified with amino groups on the silica surface. Diffusion of anionic, cationic, and neutral redox species through the opals was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The chemically modified opal membranes demonstrate high molecular throughput and, at low pH, selectively block transport of a cationic redox species relative to that of anionic and neutral redox species. This permselective behavior is attributed to the electrostatic interactions that are enhanced by the tortuous pathway within the opal and by the high surface area of the chemically modified spheres.

  11. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to older adults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to older adults.

  12. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  13. Constructing Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents guidelines for constructing group learning activities, describes group learning methods (discussion, gaming, role play, simulation, projects), and provides tips for facilitating group activities. (SK)

  14. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  15. Phenolic removal using phenylamine modified montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiyantoko, Bayu; Lail, Jamalul; Kurniawati, Puji; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Nurrohmah, Ashri; Kurniandari, Safitri

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis, characterization, and application of phenylamine modified montmorillonite have been studied. Preparation of phenylamine modified montmorillonite was conducted by intercalation process using simple amine compound. The changes in physical and chemical properties were observed through the crystal structure, functional groups and acidity as well as the application as an adsorbent for phenolic compound. The diffractogram showed characteristic basal spacing of montmorillonite at 2θ = 7.0710° and 19.8856°, also peaks with sharp intense around 20-30° were 2θ = 28.6181° and 35.0112°. The reflection pattern of phenylamine modified montmorillonite exhibited the shifting of d001 basal spacing at 2θ = 7.0710° into 7.1624° that implied the phenylamine was attached to the surface of montmorillonite. The spectra of FTIR gave the difference of wave number for -OH stretching, -OH bending also Mg-O-Al vibration that distinguished between natural montmorillonite and prepared material. The prepared material has lower acidity value and different surface characters which confirmed by gravimetric and infrared spectrum. The phenolic adsorption using prepared material gave maximum pH at 5 and optimum contact time around 2 hours with adsorption capacity was 24.48%.

  16. Organic intercalation of structure modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nian; Wu, Limei; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng

    2015-11-01

    The experiment used cationic surfactants of different chain lengths to intercalate structure modified vermiculites. The influences of structure modification, chain length and dosage of surfactants on the intercalation behavior of vermiculites were studied, and intercalation mechanism and features of interlayer chemical reactions were discussed. Results indicate that structure modified vermiculites with different layer charge have different intercalation behavior. The basal spacing of the organic intercalated modified vermiculite is the largest when acid concentration used in structure modification is 0.003 mol/L, and increases with increasing the chain length and dosage of the organics. Molecular dynamics simulation verifies that interlayer organics align almost parallel to structure layer of vermiculite, with alkyl chain stretching to the middle of interlayer space. -N(+) groups of the three surfactants locate above the leached [SiO4], which has stronger interaction with interlayer organic cations. Electrostatic force is the main interaction force between interlayer organics and structure layer of vermiculite, and then is Van der Waals force, no chemical bond formed.

  17. Modified polymers for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Christensen, W.; Mayer, L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric materials are modified to serve as stationary phase in chromatographic columns used for separation of atmospheric gases. Materials simplify and improve separation of atmospheric gases in terms of time, quantity of material needed, and sharpness of separation.

  18. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  19. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  20. Propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Zółtowski, R; Pawlak, R; Matys, T; Pietraszek, M; Buczko, W

    2002-06-01

    Though the mechanisms for the vascular actions of vasodilatory beta-blockers are mostly determined, some of their interactions with monoaminergic systems are not elucidated. Because there are evidences supporting a possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in the actions of beta-blockers, we studied the effect of propranolol on peripheral serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and Goldblatt two-kidney - one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. In both groups of animals propranolol decreased systolic blood pressure, significantly increased whole blood serotonin concentration and at the same time it decreased platelet serotonin level. The uptake of the amine by platelets from hypertensive animals was lower than that of normotensive animals and it was decreased by propranolol only in the latter. In both groups propranolol inhibited potentiation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by serotonin. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and renal hypertensive rats.

  1. Selection of DNA aptamers with two modified bases

    PubMed Central

    Gawande, Bharat N.; Rohloff, John C.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; von Carlowitz, Ira; Zhang, Chi; Schneider, Daniel J.; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2017-01-01

    The nucleobases comprising DNA and RNA aptamers provide considerably less chemical diversity than protein-based ligands, limiting their versatility. The introduction of novel functional groups at just one of the four bases in modified aptamers has recently led to dramatic improvement in the success rate of identifying nucleic acid ligands to protein targets. Here we explore the benefits of additional enhancement in physicochemical diversity by selecting modified DNA aptamers that contain amino-acid–like modifications on both pyrimidine bases. Using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 as a representative protein target, we identify specific pairwise combinations of modifications that result in higher affinity, metabolic stability, and inhibitory potency compared with aptamers with single modifications. Such doubly modified aptamers are also more likely to be encoded in shorter sequences and occupy nonoverlapping epitopes more frequently than aptamers with single modifications. These highly modified DNA aptamers have broad utility in research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. PMID:28265062

  2. Selection of DNA aptamers with two modified bases.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Bharat N; Rohloff, John C; Carter, Jeffrey D; von Carlowitz, Ira; Zhang, Chi; Schneider, Daniel J; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2017-03-14

    The nucleobases comprising DNA and RNA aptamers provide considerably less chemical diversity than protein-based ligands, limiting their versatility. The introduction of novel functional groups at just one of the four bases in modified aptamers has recently led to dramatic improvement in the success rate of identifying nucleic acid ligands to protein targets. Here we explore the benefits of additional enhancement in physicochemical diversity by selecting modified DNA aptamers that contain amino-acid-like modifications on both pyrimidine bases. Using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 as a representative protein target, we identify specific pairwise combinations of modifications that result in higher affinity, metabolic stability, and inhibitory potency compared with aptamers with single modifications. Such doubly modified aptamers are also more likely to be encoded in shorter sequences and occupy nonoverlapping epitopes more frequently than aptamers with single modifications. These highly modified DNA aptamers have broad utility in research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications.

  3. The precursor strategy: terminus methoxyoxalamido modifiers for single and multiple functionalization of oligodeoxyribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Polushin, Nikolai N.

    2000-01-01

    Synthesis of new terminus modifiers, bearing, along with a phosphoramidite moiety, one, two or four methoxyoxalamido (MOX) precursor groups, is described. These modifiers are introduced onto the 5′-end of a synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide as the last step of an automated synthesis to form the MOX precursor oligonucleotide. The MOX groups are then post-synthetically derivatized with an appropriate primary amine to construct a 5′-modified oligonucleotide. The efficiency and simplicity of the novel modifying strategy were demonstrated in the synthesis of a number of 5′-functionalized oligonucleotides. PMID:10931928

  4. Can Groups Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Lotan, Rachel A.; Abram, Percy L.; Scarloss, Beth A.; Schultz, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the work of sixth grade students' creative problem-solving groups, proposing that providing students with specific guidelines about what makes an exemplary group product would improve the character of the discussion and quality of the group product. Student groups did learn as a result of their discussions and creation of group products.…

  5. Small Groups in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suessmuth, Patrick

    1974-01-01

    Small groups can sometimes be difficult to set up and work with properly. A number of tips for small group instruction are divided into seven areas: (1) presenting tasks; (2) group seating; (3) task time; (4) answering questions; (5) teacher's role in observing groups; (6) group noise level patterns; and (7) serial take-ups. (BP)

  6. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  7. Group Time: Building Language at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    This article features energizing and surprising activities for children at group time. In the drawing activity, children are asked to give instructions on how to draw a picture using vocabulary and descriptive language. In the mailbox activity, children will be surprised to discover that they have mail at group time. Mailboxes can be used for…

  8. Stellar oscillations in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-12-01

    Starting from the equations of modified gravity hydrodynamics, we derive the equations of motion governing linear, adiabatic, radial perturbations of stars in scalar-tensor theories. There are two new features: first, the eigenvalue equation for the period of stellar oscillations is modified such that the eigenfrequencies are always larger than predicted by general relativity. Second, the general relativity condition for stellar instability is altered so that the adiabatic index can fall below 4/3 before unstable modes appear. Stars are more stable in modified gravity theories. Specializing to the case of chameleonlike theories, we investigate these effects numerically using both polytropic Lane-Emden stars and models coming from modified gravity stellar structure simulations. We find that the change in the oscillation period of Cepheid star models can be as large as 30% for order-one matter couplings and the change in the inferred distance using the period-luminosity relation can be up to three times larger than if one had only considered the modified equilibrium structure. We discuss the implications of these results for recent and upcoming astrophysical tests and estimate that previous methods can produce new constraints such that the modifications are screened in regions of Newtonian potential of O(10-8).

  9. Model selection for modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N

    2011-12-28

    In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity.

  10. Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions OverviewWhat is group B strep?Group B streptococcus, or group B strep for short, is a ... can develop an infection of the lungs (called pneumonia), bloodstream (called sepsis), or the fluid around the ...

  11. Ion binding capacity of enzyme modified citrus peel and pectin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide ranging group of enzyme modified pectin and polygalacturonic acid (PGA) samples were tested for their biosorption potential, specifically their ability to bind Pb. Two sample sets were the pH 4.5 and 7.5 demethylated series obtained from demethylation of a model homogalacturonan produced usi...

  12. Computer-Based Screening for the New Modified Alternate Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    The final regulations of the "No Child Left Behind" Act (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a, 2007b) indicate that a small group of students with disabilities can be counted as proficient through an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards. This new policy gives individualized education program teams the…

  13. Highly Branched Polyethylenes as Lubricant Viscosity and Friction Modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, John T.; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylenes (BPE) were prepared and used in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The lubricating performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants’ performance, which provide scientific insights for polymer design in future lubricant development.

  14. Autoimmunity and oxidatively modified autoantigens

    PubMed Central

    Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative damage mediated by reactive oxygen species results in the generation of deleterious by-products. The oxidation process itself and the proteins modified by these molecules are important mediators of cell toxicity and disease pathogenesis. Aldehydic products, mainly the 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, form adducts with proteins and make them highly immunogenic. Proteins modified in this manner have been shown to induce pathogenic antibodies in a variety of diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), alcoholic liver disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 8-oxodeoxyguanine (oxidatively modified DNA) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) occur in SLE, a disease in which premature atherosclerosis is a serious problem. In addition, immunization with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) modified 60 kD Ro autoantigen induces an accelerated epitope spreading in an animal model of SLE. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and AGE modified IgG have been shown to correlate with RA disease activity. Oxidatively modified glutamic acid decarboxylase is important in type 1 DM, while autoantibodies against oxidized LDL are prevalent in Behcet’s disease. The fragmentation of scleroderma specific autoantigens occurs as a result of oxidative modification and is thought to be responsible for the production of autoantibodies through the release of cryptic epitopes. The administration of antioxidants is a viable untried alternative for preventing or ameliorating autoimmune disease, particularly on account of the overwhelming evidence for the involvement of oxidative damage in autoimmunity. However, this should be viewed in the light of disappointing results obtained with the use of antioxidants in cardiovascular disease. PMID:18625446

  15. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  16. Effects of rooting via out-groups on in-group topology in phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Margareta; Brown, Daniel G; Loker, David

    2014-01-01

    Users of phylogenetic methods require rooted trees, because the direction of time depends on the placement of the root. While phylogenetic trees are typically rooted by using an out-group, this mechanism is inappropriate when the addition of an out-group changes the in-group topology. We perform a formal analysis of phylogenetic algorithms under the inclusion of distant out-groups. It turns out that linkage-based algorithms (including UPGMA) and a class of bisecting methods do not modify the topology of the in-group when an out-group is included. By contrast, the popular neighbour joining algorithm fails this property in a strong sense: every data set can have its structure destroyed by some arbitrarily distant outlier. Furthermore, including multiple outliers can lead to an arbitrary topology on the in-group. The standard rooting approach that uses out-groups may be fundamentally unsuited for neighbour joining.

  17. 40 CFR 63.1428 - Process vent requirements for group determination of PMPUs using a nonepoxide organic HAP to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination of PMPUs using a nonepoxide organic HAP to make or modify the product. 63.1428 Section 63.1428... group determination of PMPUs using a nonepoxide organic HAP to make or modify the product. (a) Process... with the use of nonepoxide organic HAP to make or modify the product is a Group 1 combination of...

  18. The Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of group dynamics and leadership activities is a component of the CORE Standards for the Master's degree curriculum in Rehabilitation Counseling. A group experience is often included as a learning activity in rehabilitation counselor education curricula as an instructional method of imparting knowledge of group dynamics. Group experience…

  19. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  20. Modifying Students' Tastes in Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, John Edward

    To test whether student tastes in poetry could be modified by a particular method of teaching it, the poetic preferences of 751 eighth grade students were pretested and compared with the poetic choices made by a panel of English educators, 35 student teachers in English, and the students' own English teachers. Consistently, poems selected by any…

  1. BLASTO: a tool for searching orthologous groups

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Landweber, Laura F.

    2007-01-01

    We present BLAST on Orthologous groups (BLASTO), a modified BLAST tool for searching orthologous group data. It treats each orthologous group as a unit and outputs a ranked list of orthologous groups instead of single sequences. By filtering out redundancy and putative paralogs, sequence comparisons to orthologous groups, instead of to single sequences in the database, can improve both functional prediction and phylogenetic inference. BLASTO computes the significance score of each orthologous group based on the individual BLAST hits in the orthologous group, using the number of taxa in the group as an optional weight. This allows users to control the species diversity of the orthologous groups. BLASTO incorporates the best-known multispecies ortholog databases, including NCBI Clusters of Orthologous Group, NCBI euKaryotic Orthologous Group database, OrthoMCL, MultiParanoid and TIGR Eukaryotic Gene Orthologues database, and offers a useful platform to integrate orthology information into functional inference and evolutionary studies of individual sequences. BLASTO is accessible online at http://oxytricha.princeton.edu/BlastO. PMID:17483516

  2. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  3. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  4. 2003 Agribusiness Group Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    contested political issue as the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms ( GMO ) dominates discussion in this critical...available documentation regarding scientific research, production methods, and GMO achievements demonstrate that there are no scientifically valid...concerns about GMO food safety. The US readily accepts and uses GMOs while nations of the European Union remain uncomfortable. In the near term

  5. Improved MCNP Memory Locality by Neutron Grouping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, Aaron

    This research presents new code for Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) to achieve an improved time during criticality calculations. Modifications implementing the grouping and sorting of neutrons takes advantage of memory locality by processing all neutrons in a group to achieve the temporal reuse of cross section data. This prevents unnecessary data lookups. Various groupings and their results are compared. The modified code utilizing neutron energy groups provided the best result of a 16.7% +/- 0.5% speedup for a criticality determination of a two slab tank experiment. This is a savings of 2 ½ hours for a system that normally takes approximately 15 ½ hours to execute. The code implemented was chosen to require minimal modifications to the MCNP program thus avoiding the need to rewrite a new version. Verification and validation is still needed in order to show that a speedup using neutron groups can be achieved in all cases.

  6. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  7. Using host response modifiers in the treatment of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Novak, M John; Donley, Timothy G

    2002-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the result of a complex interaction between microbial plaque, the host's inflammatory response to the plaque, and host modifying factors (e.g., smoking, diabetes, genetics) that may have an impact on the disease process. It is known that plaque initiates periodontal disease but that the host response is responsible for the destruction of periodontal tissues. This article describes why host response modifiers may be used to help control inflammation and tissue destruction as part of the initial phase of periodontal therapy in selected patient groups.

  8. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  9. N-Modified Carbon-Based Materials: Nanoscience for Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Prati, Laura; Chan-Thaw, Carine E; Campisi, Sebastiano; Villa, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Carbon-based materials constitute a large family of materials characterized by some peculiarities such as resistance to both acidic and basic environments, flexibility of structure, and surface chemical groups. Moreover, they can be deeply modified by simple organic reactions (acid-base or redox) to acquire different properties. In particular, the introduction of N-containing groups, achieved by post-treatments or during preparation of the material, enhances the basic properties. Moreover, it has been revealed that the position and chemical nature of the N-containing groups is important in determining the interaction with metal nanoparticles, and thus, their reactivity. The modified activity was addressed to a different metal dispersion. Moreover, experiments on catalysts, showing the same metal dispersion, demonstrated that the best results were obtained when N was embedded into the carbon structure and not very close to the metal active site.

  10. Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    cycloadditions to modify reactive groups within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst ...within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst , the azide, and the alkyne, affect the...the copper catalyst , the azide, and the alkyne, affect the location and yield of the resulting product in the phospholipid membrane. 2. Reasons why

  11. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  12. Working with Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes nine Canadian programs for counseling groups of students. Topics include introducing computer-assisted guidance, future challenges for counselors, sociometry, sexuality, parent counseling, reluctant students, shyness, peer groups, education for living, and guidance advisory committees. (JAC)

  13. What Makes Groups Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allcorn, Seth

    1985-01-01

    By reviewing this analysis of the behavior of both groups and individuals in groups, human resources managers can learn to tell whether committees, task forces, and departments may be encouraging or inhibiting the work they set out to do. (Author)

  14. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some ...

  15. The group selection controversy.

    PubMed

    Leigh, E G

    2010-01-01

    Many thought Darwinian natural selection could not explain altruism. This error led Wynne-Edwards to explain sustainable exploitation in animals by selection against overexploiting groups. Williams riposted that selection among groups rarely overrides within-group selection. Hamilton showed that altruism can evolve through kin selection. How strongly does group selection influence evolution? Following Price, Hamilton showed how levels of selection interact: group selection prevails if Hamilton's rule applies. Several showed that group selection drove some major evolutionary transitions. Following Hamilton's lead, Queller extended Hamilton's rule, replacing genealogical relatedness by the regression on an actor's genotypic altruism of interacting neighbours' phenotypic altruism. Price's theorem shows the generality of Hamilton's rule. All instances of group selection can be viewed as increasing inclusive fitness of autosomal genomes. Nonetheless, to grasp fully how cooperation and altruism evolve, most biologists need more concrete concepts like kin selection, group selection and selection among individuals for their common good.

  16. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  17. Modified gravity inside astrophysical bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Ryo; Langlois, David; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Gleyzes, Jérôme E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr

    2015-06-01

    Many theories of modified gravity, including the well studied Horndeski models, are characterized by a screening mechanism that ensures that standard gravity is recovered near astrophysical bodies. In a recently introduced class of gravitational theories that goes beyond Horndeski, it has been found that new derivative interactions lead to a partial breaking of the Vainshtein screening mechanism inside any gravitational source, although not outside. We study the impact of this new type of deviation from standard gravity on the density profile of a spherically symmetric matter distribution, in the nonrelativistic limit. For simplicity, we consider a polytropic equation of state and derive the modifications to the standard Lane-Emden equations. We also show the existence of a universal upper bound on the amplitude of this type of modified gravity, independently of the details of the equation of state.

  18. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2016-12-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  19. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2017-04-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  20. The Toolbox for Modified Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Sergey A; Chudinov, Alexander V; Timofeev, Edward N

    2016-02-01

    Aptamers are nucleic acid-based scaffolds that can bind with high affinity to a variety of biological targets. Aptamers are identified from large DNA or RNA libraries through a process of directed molecular evolution (SELEX). Chemical modification of nucleic acids considerably increases the functional and structural diversity of aptamer libraries and substantially increases the affinity of the aptamers. Additionally, modified aptamers exhibit much greater resistance to biodegradation. The evolutionary selection of modified aptamers is conditioned by the possibility of the enzymatic synthesis and replication of non-natural nucleic acids. Wild-type or mutant polymerases and their non-natural nucleotide substrates that can support SELEX are highlighted in the present review. A focus is made on the efforts to find the most suitable type of nucleotide modifications and the engineering of new polymerases. Post-SELEX modification as a complementary method will be briefly considered as well.

  1. Practice and Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although learning has always been a central topic for philosophy of education, little attention has been paid to the notion of group learning. This article outlines and discusses some plausible examples of group learning. Drawing on these examples, various principles and issues that surround the notion of group learning are identified and…

  2. Customizing Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; Oxman, Elaine

    The group therapy context provides unparalleled opportunities for cost effective learning. However, within group meetings, therapists must strive to tailor psychological services to address the particular needs of individual patients. Creative means of customizing patients experiences within group are needed in order to address consumer needs…

  3. Internet Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses newsgroups, listservs, and Web-based discussion groups. Highlights include major categories of international USENET discussion groups; newsgroups versus mailing lists; newsreaders; news servers; newsgroup subscriptions; newsgroups versus Web discussion groups; linking newsgroups, mailing lists, and the Web; and setting up a news host. A…

  4. Parent Group Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parenting for High Potential, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This issue's "Parent Group Spotlight" features Deborah Simon, president of West Sound Gifted, Talented & Twice-Exceptional (WSGT2e), who started a parent group in Washington in 2013. In just one year, this small, but mighty group has held community forums, attended school board meetings, and helped influence local gifted programming.…

  5. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  6. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused…

  7. The influence of unstable modified wall squat exercises on the posture of female university students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonmi

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of unstable modified wall squat exercises on the posture of female university students. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 female university students who were equally and randomly allocated to an unstable modified wall squat exercises group the experimental group and a stable modified wall squat exercises group the control group. [Methods] Both groups performed their respective exercises for 30 minutes three times per week over a six-week period. Using BackMapper, trunk inclination, trunk imbalance, pelvic position, pelvic torsion, pelvic rotation, and position of the scapulae were evaluated. [Results] The unstable modified wall squat exercises group obtained significant results for trunk inclination, trunk imbalance, pelvic position, pelvic torsion, position of the scapulae, while the stable modified wall squat exercises group obtained significant results for trunk imbalance and pelvic position. [Conclusion] Unstable modified wall squat exercises may be applied as a method to correct the posture of average adults.

  8. Changing Group and Organizational Cultures To Support Healthy Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Group and organizational cultures play an important role in helping people to adopt healthier lifestyles. Culture can be assessed by looking at social expectations for behavior, called group norms. Cultural norms can be changed to support healthy lifestyles through a systematic and participatory process. Such a change effort would modify: (1)…

  9. Imide Modified Epoxy Matrix Resin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    the bisimide amine cured epoxies (IME’s) were considerably lower than the state-of-the-art epoxies . The strain-to-failure of the control resin system ...nine epoxy resin systems which were prepared from tetraglycidyl methylenedianiline (MY 720) cured with a stoichiometric quantity of bisimide-amine and...graphite imide modified cured epoxy resin composites. The designation for each material is also listed in Table 1. The composition of each resin system

  10. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The third-difference approach to modified Allan variance (MVAR) leads to a tractable formula for a measure of MVAR estimator confidence, the equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), in the presence of power-law phase noise. The effect of estimation stride on edf is tabulated. A simple approximation for edf is given, and its errors are tabulated. A theorem allowing conservative estimates of edf in the presence of compound noise processes is given.

  11. Political Subculture: A Resilience Modifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    A RESILIENCE MODIFIER by Gordon S. Hunter September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr. Second Reader...Approved by: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr., DPA Thesis Advisor Lauren S. Fernandez, DSc Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chair...addition, I must acknowledge the continued support, guidance, and encouragement of Dr. Sam Clovis and Dr. Lauren Fernandez who have led me on the path to

  12. Evaluation of Asphalt Binder Modifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    level of two different high -molecular-weight polymers. Since the two- component polymer modified materials did not perform as favorably as the other two... high - and low- temperature performance is suggested from these laboratory test results. Field test results indicate that improved resistance to...AVAILABILITY OF REPORT . Approved for public release; distribution 2b. DECLASSIFICATION I DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE unlimited. 4. PERFORMiNG ORGANIZATION REPORT

  13. Chemically Modified Electrodes for Electrocatalysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-08

    TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 18 CHEMICALLY MODIFIED ELECTRODES FOR ELECTROCATALYSIS BY Royce W. Murray Prepared for Publication in the Philosophical Transactions of...Report) 0~. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTF.3 13. KEY WORDS (Continue, on favors. side 11 neceasey sad Idenifi by block nsumber) electrocatalysis , redox polymer...electrocataWlytic behavior of monomolecular and multimolecular layers are discussed; electrocatalysi * in the latter circumstance can include reaction rate elements

  14. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-04-18

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  15. Comment on Modified Stokes Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D.M.; Utku, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is common practice in passive microwave remote sensing (microwave radiometry) to express observables as temperatures and in the case of polarimetric radiometry to use what are called "Modified Stokes Parameters in Brightness Temperature" to describe the scene. However, definitions with slightly different normalization (with and without division by bandwidth) have appeared in the literature. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an analysis to clarify the meaning of terms in the definition and resolve the question of the proper normalization.

  16. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers was initiated in an effort to identify common genetic variants that modify... GWAS of 1250 BRCA1 mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer and 1250 unaffected BRCA1 carriers using Human660W-Quad arrays. The 1250 unaffected...cancer on H uman660W-Quad arrays. In addition we acquired GWAS genotype data for 120 additional BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with ovarian

  17. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer...cancer and 1,000 age-matched unaffected BRCA1 carriers. As outlined in detail in our previous annual report, we recently conducted a GWAS of BRCA1...between ovarian cancer risk and SNPs implicated in Aim 1 by genotyping 1,500 BRCA1 ovarian cancer cases and 1,500 unaffected BRCA1 carriers. GWAS

  18. Modified World Café Discussion Model for Conference and Course Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Alice; Fox, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    A group facilitation technique called World Café usually involves dividing a large number of people into smaller groups at tables, exploring a variety of topics around a key focus, and collecting ideas from the discussions to debrief later as a large group. We used a modified version of World Café during the new Cracker Barrel session format at…

  19. A fluorene-modified porphyrin for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hua; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Shang-Hao; Wang, Chin-Li; Kuo, Hshin-Hui; Chu, Yang-Yun; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Lin, Ching-Yao

    2012-05-07

    Porphyrins bearing a polyaromatic or a heterocyclic group are prepared to study their fundamental and photovoltaic properties. Solar cells sensitized with a fluorene-modified porphyrin outperform other dyes in the series, reaching ~90% efficiency of N719 dye.

  20. Spin line groups.

    PubMed

    Lazić, Nataša; Milivojević, Marko; Damnjanović, Milan

    2013-11-01

    Spin line groups describe the symmetries of spin arrangements in quasi-one-dimensional systems. These groups are derived for the first family of line groups. Among them, magnetic groups are singled out as a special case. Spin arrangements generated by the derived groups are first discussed for single-orbit systems and then the conclusions are extended to multi-orbit cases. The results are illustrated by the examples of a CuO2 zigzag chain, a (13)C nanotube and the hexaferrite Ba2Mg2Fe12O22. Applications to neutron diffraction and classical ground-state determination are indicated.

  1. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  2. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  3. Physicochemical studies on cetylammonium bromide and its modified (mono-, di-, and trihydroxyethylated) head group analogues. Their micellization characteristics in water and thermodynamic and structural aspects of water-in-oil microemulsions formed with them along with n-hexanol and isooctane.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Debolina; Chakraborty, Indranil; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Moulik, Satya P; Roy, Sangita; Das, Debapratim; Das, Prasanta K

    2006-06-15

    The micellization behavior of cetylammonium bromide and its mono-, di-, and trihydroxyethylated head group analogues and water/oil (w/o) microemulsion formation with them have been studied with detailed thermodynamic and structural considerations. The critical micellar concentration, micellar aggregation number, and behavior of the surfactants at the air/solution interface have been studied in detail. The results have been analyzed and discussed. The formation of the w/o microemulsion stabilized by the aforesaid surfactants in conjunction with the cosurfactant n-hexanol in isooctane has been investigated by the dilution method. The energetics of the transfer of cosurfactant from oil to the interface has been estimated. The structural parameters, namely, droplet dimension, droplet number, and population of surfactant and cosurfactant on the droplet surface, have also been estimated. The efficacy of the surfactants in respect to water dispersion in oil and cosurfactant concentration level at the oil/water interface has been worked out. Such microemulsions are prospective compartmentalized systems to assist enzyme activities. In this respect, the trihydroxyethylated head group analogue in the above series has been found to be a better performer for the preparation and stabilization of microemulsions that has correlated well with its performance than the others in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-n-hexanoate by the enzyme Chromobacterium viscosum lipase.

  4. Evaluation of resin composites modified with nanogold and nanosilver.

    PubMed

    ŁSokołowski, Jerzy; Szynkowska, Małgorzata Iwona; Kleczewska, Joanna; Kowalski, Zygmunt; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sokołowski, Krzysztof; Łukomska-Szymańska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Silver and gold have been used for centuries as antimicrobial agents. The aim of the study was to investigate diametral tensile strength, microhardness, ion release and light transmission of experimental resin composites. Flowable dental composite SDR (Dentsply, United Kingdom) was modified by nanogold, nanosilver and silica addition. The metal ion release, light transmission study, microhardness, Diametral Tensile Strength were evaluated. The experimental nanosilver-containing composites released significant amounts of Al, Si, Sr and Ba ions up to 30 days, and negligible silver ion amounts. Significant Ag ion release occurred in nanosilver- and nanogoldmodified composite. Resin composites modified with nanogold and nanosilver deposited on silica carrier exhibit lower light transmission and have opaque appearance. All experimental composites exhibited higher microhardness in comparison to non-modified resin composites. Diametral Tensile Strength of the experimental composites was comparable to the control group.

  5. Peptide inhibitor modified magnetic particles for pepsin separation.

    PubMed

    Filuszová, Michaela; Kucerová, Zdenka; Tichá, Marie

    2009-06-01

    Synthetic heptapeptide containing D-amino acid residues (Val-D-Leu-Pro-Phe-Phe-Val-D-Leu) was coupled to glyoxal-activated magnetic agarose particles via the free peptide amino group. The peptide-modified magnetic particles were used for the separation of pepsins. Porcine pepsin A and human pepsin A were adsorbed to the magnetic peptide-modified affinity carrier, while the rat pepsin C and human pepsin C did not interact with the immobilized ligand. Conditions of pepsin adsorption to peptide-modified magnetic particles, as well as elution buffers were optimized. Porcine pepsin A did not interact with the immobilized peptide in the presence of pepsin inhibitor pepstatin A, indicating that the enzyme binding site is involved in the studied interaction. The elaborated method represents a rapid and simple technique not only for the separation of pepsins but also, in combination with MS, for the enzyme detection and determination.

  6. Surface hardness properties of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and polyacid-modified composite resins.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2004-11-15

    In this study the top and bottom surface hardness of two polyacid-modified composite resins (PMCRs), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and one composite resin were evaluated. The affect of water storage on their hardness was also investigated. The study was conducted using four different groups, each having five specimens obtained from fiberglass die molds with a diameter of 5 mm and a height of 2 mm. Measurements were made on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and recorded after 24 hours and again at 60 days. All tested materials showed different hardness values, and the values of top surfaces of the specimens were found to be higher than the bottom surface in all test groups. There was no statistical difference in the Vickers hardness (HV) values when the test specimens were kept in water storage. In conclusion Hytac displayed microhardness values higher than Vitremer and Dyract. We found the order of HV values to be Surfil > Hytac > Dyract > Vitremer, respectively. Vitremer presented the lowest microhardness level and Surfil the highest.

  7. Role of original and modified Frey's procedures in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chun-Lu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Min; Li, Shao-Jun; Liu, Xu-Bao; Li, Ke-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    AIM To retrospectively review patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) treated with Frey’s procedures between January 2009 and January 2014. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of patients with CP treated with Frey’s procedures between January 2009 and January 2014 in the Department of Pancreatic Surgery. A cross-sectional study of postoperative pain relief, quality of life (QoL), and alcohol and nicotine abuse was performed by clinical interview, letters and telephone interview in January 2016. QoL of patients was evaluated with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) version 3.0. The patients were requested to fill in the questionnaires by themselves via correspondence or clinical interview. RESULTS A total of 80 patients were enrolled for analysis, including 44 who underwent the original Frey’s procedure and 36 who underwent a modified Frey’s procedure. The mean age was 46 years in the original group and 48 years in the modified group. Thirty-five male patients (80%) were in the original group and 33 (92%) in the modified group. There were no differences in the operating time, blood loss, and postoperative morbidity and mortality between the two groups. The mean follow-up was 50.3 mo in the original group and 48.7 mo in the modified group. There were no differences in endocrine and exocrine function preservation between the two groups. The original Frey’s procedure resulted in significantly better pain relief, as shown by 5-year follow-up (P = 0.032), better emotional status (P = 0.047) and fewer fatigue symptoms (P = 0.028). When stratifying these patients by the M-ANNHEIM severity index, no impact was found on pain relief after the two types of surgery. CONCLUSION The original Frey’s procedure is as safe as the modified procedure, but the former yields better pain relief. The severity of CP does not affect postoperative pain relief. PMID:28058022

  8. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

  9. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  10. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  11. Removal of fluoride from aqueous environment by modified Amberlite resin.

    PubMed

    Solangi, Imam Bakhsh; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, M I

    2009-11-15

    Fluoride in drinking water above permissible level is responsible for human being affected by skeletal fluorosis. In this study, Amberlite XAD-4 has been modified by introducing amino group onto the aromatic ring for its application in fluoride remediation. Characterization of the modified resin was made by, FT-IR and elemental analysis (CHNS) techniques. The pH 9 was optimum value for quantitative sorption of fluoride in both batch and column experiments. The desorption of fluoride was achieved by using 10% HCl. The batch and column sorption studies of fluoride with modified resin were carried out to evaluate sorption isotherms too. Thus equation isotherms such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) were successfully used to model the experimental data. The sorption capacity of modified Amberlite XAD-4 resin was found as 5.04 x 10(-3) mol g(-1). From the D-R isotherm parameters, it has been evaluated that the uptake of fluoride by modified resin occurs through ion exchange adsorption mechanism. The study will contribute toward the removal of fluoride from the aqueous environment as well as in the field of analytical and environmental chemistry.

  12. Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.

  13. What's your group worth?

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M R

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of acquisitions and mergers of healthcare organizations, it has become necessary for medical group practices to know what they are worth. The traditional balance sheet valuation ignores what is perhaps the most important consideration of all: a group's earning potential. Discussed in this article are the many facets of the complex valuation process, including both tangible and intangible assets, and the author provides a method for adequately determining a range of values for a medical group.

  14. E-Group Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Group E at Uaxactún has long been considered an ancient Maya observatory in which an observer could see the sun rise along architectural alignments at the solstices and equinoxes. E-Groups named for the architectural complex list identified in Group E at Uaxactún, typically consist of a large radial pyramid on their west side and three temples on a raised platform on their east side.

  15. Immersive group-to-group telepresence.

    PubMed

    Beck, Stephan; Kunert, André; Kulik, Alexander; Froehlich, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel immersive telepresence system that allows distributed groups of users to meet in a shared virtual 3D world. Our approach is based on two coupled projection-based multi-user setups, each providing multiple users with perspectively correct stereoscopic images. At each site the users and their local interaction space are continuously captured using a cluster of registered depth and color cameras. The captured 3D information is transferred to the respective other location, where the remote participants are virtually reconstructed. We explore the use of these virtual user representations in various interaction scenarios in which local and remote users are face-to-face, side-by-side or decoupled. Initial experiments with distributed user groups indicate the mutual understanding of pointing and tracing gestures independent of whether they were performed by local or remote participants. Our users were excited about the new possibilities of jointly exploring a virtual city, where they relied on a world-in-miniature metaphor for mutual awareness of their respective locations.

  16. CVD aluminiding process for producing a modified platinum aluminide bond coat for improved high temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraj, Bangalore A. (Inventor); Williams, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of depositing by chemical vapor deposition a modified platinum aluminide diffusion coating onto a superalloy substrate comprising the steps of applying a layer of a platinum group metal to the superalloy substrate; passing an externally generated aluminum halide gas through an internal gas generator which is integral with a retort, the internal gas generator generating a modified halide gas; and co-depositing aluminum and modifier onto the superalloy substrate. In one form, the modified halide gas is hafnium chloride and the modifier is hafnium with the modified platinum aluminum bond coat comprising a single phase additive layer of platinum aluminide with at least about 0.5 percent hafnium by weight percent and about 1 to about 15 weight percent of hafnium in the boundary between a diffusion layer and the additive layer. The bond coat produced by this method is also claimed.

  17. Surface-modified bacterial nanofibrillar PHB scaffolds for bladder tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Demirbilek, Murat; Şam, Mesut; Sağlam, Necdet; Mızrak, Alpay Koray; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is in vitro investigation of the feasibility of surface-modified bacterial nanofibrous poly [(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) graft for bladder reconstruction. In this study, the surface of electrospun bacterial PHB was modified with PEG- or EDA via radio frequency glow discharge method. After plasma modification, contact angle of EDA-modified PHB scaffolds decreased from 110 ± 1.50 to 23 ± 0.5 degree. Interestingly, less calcium oxalate stone deposition was observed on modified PHB scaffolds compared to that of non-modified group. Results of this study show that surface-modified scaffolds not only inhibited calcium oxalate growth but also enhanced the uroepithelial cell viability and proliferation.

  18. Cosmological tests of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  19. Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Miyasaki, Eriksen Koji; Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; Stroppa, Valter Luís Zuliani; de Oliveira, Glazieli Marangoni; Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter

    2015-07-01

    Crystallization of fats is a determinant physical event affecting the structure and properties of fat-based products. The stability of these processed foods is regulated by changes in the physical state of fats and alterations in their crystallization behavior. Problems like polymorphic transitions, oil migration, fat bloom development, slow crystallization and formation of crystalline aggregates stand out. The change of the crystallization behavior of lipid systems has been a strategic issue for the processing of foods, aiming at taylor made products, reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing the applicability and stability of different industrial fats. In this connection, advances in understanding the complex mechanisms that govern fat crystallization led to the development of strategies in order to modulate the conventional processes of fat structuration, based on the use of crystallization modifiers. Different components have been evaluated, such as specific triacyglycerols, partial glycerides (monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols), free fatty acids, phospholipids and emulsifiers. The knowledge and expertise on the influence of these specific additives or minor lipids on the crystallization behavior of fat systems represents a focus of current interest for the industrial processing of oils and fats. This article presents a comprehensive review on the use of crystallization modifiers in lipid systems, especially for palm oil, cocoa butter and general purpose fats, highlighting: i) the removal, addition or fractionation of minor lipids in fat bases; ii) the use of nucleating agents to modify the crystallization process; iii) control of crystallization in lipid bases by using emulsifiers. The addition of these components into lipid systems is discussed in relation to the phenomena of nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, thermal behavior and polymorphism, with the intention of providing the reader with a complete panorama of the associated mechanisms

  20. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  1. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  2. EXPERIMENTS IN GROUP PREDICTION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GROUP DYNAMICS, *ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY)), (*PREDICTIONS, ACCURACY), PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION MAKING, CONFORMITY , QUESTIONNAIRES, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, FEEDBACK, RELIABILITY, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

  3. Insights into the electrocatalysis of nitrobenzene using chemically-modified carbon nanotube electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Yutao; Wang, Baoyan; Wang, Qinchao; Zhao, George; Guo, Peizhi

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of nitrobenzene and its derivatives at chemically-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified electrodes was studied. Experimental results showed that hydroxyl-containing MWNTs exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity among the used MWNTs because of its weak capacitive features and oxygen-containing functional groups. The cycle voltammetrys of nitrobenzene derivatives on the MWNTs modified electrodes can be easily tuned by changing the substituted groups of nitrobenzene. Based on the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of nitrobenzene and its derivatives on the MWNTs modified electrodes have been discussed and analyzed. PMID:25204889

  4. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation by percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and modified PLDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiao fei; Li, Hong zhi; Wu, Ru zhou; Sui, Yun xian

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To study the micro-invasive operative method and to compare the effect of treatment of PLDD and modified PLDD for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Method: Vaporized part of the nucleus pulposus in single or multiple point after acupuncture into lumbar disc, to reach the purpose of the decompression of the lumbar disc. Result: Among the 19 cases of the regular PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 63.2%, and among the 40 cases of the modified PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: The modified PLDD has good effect on the treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  5. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  6. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  7. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    A paper at the 1992 FCS showed how to express the modified Allan variance (mvar) in terms of the third difference of the cumulative sum of time residuals. Although this reformulated definition was presented merely as a computational trick for simplifying the calculation of mvar estimates, it has since turned out to be a powerful theoretical tool for deriving the statistical quality of those estimates in terms of their equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), defined for an estimator V by edf V = 2(EV)2/(var V). Confidence intervals for mvar can then be constructed from levels of the appropriate 2 distribution.

  8. Dark matter in modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuragawa, Taishi; Matsuzaki, Shinya

    2017-02-01

    We explore a new horizon of modified gravity from the viewpoint of particle physics. As a concrete example, we take the F (R ) gravity to raise a question: can a scalar particle ("scalaron") derived from the F (R ) gravity be a dark matter candidate? We place the limit on the parameter in a class of F (R ) gravity model from the constraint on the scalaron as a dark matter. The role of the screening mechanism and compatibility with the dark energy problem are addressed.

  9. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  10. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Modified Norway Post Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement... existing bilateral agreement for inbound competitive services with Posten Norge AS (Modified Norway...

  11. The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Passanisi, Alessia; Jonsson, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However…

  12. The case for modifying adolescents' cognitive self-statements.

    PubMed

    Lamke, L K; Lujan, B M; Showalter, J M

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a cognitive-behavior modification program designed to change adolescents' self-statements and increase their levels of self-esteem. Subjects were 27 ninth graders, 18 in the experimental group and 9 in the no-contact control group. Students in the experimental group were given 14 hours of training designed to modify their self-statements to be more positive. Results indicated a significant increase in positive self-statements for the experimental group as compared with the control group immediately after training and three months following training. There were no significant changes in self-esteem. Discussion focused on the relative merits of the program and on the implications of the findings for future research.

  13. Applicability of chemically modified capillaries in chiral capillary electrophoresis for methamphetamine profiling.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Yuko T; Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-10

    We examined the applicability of chemically modified capillaries on the chiral capillary electrophoresis of essential compounds for methamphetamine (MA) profiling (MA, amphetamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine) using highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector. Four types of chemically modified capillaries, namely, FunCap-CE/Type D (possessing diol groups), Type A (amino groups), Type C (carboxyl groups), and Type S (sulfate groups), were evaluated. Repeatability, speed, and good chiral resolution sufficient for routine MA profiling were achieved with the Type S capillary.

  14. Universe Without Singularities A Group Approach to De Sitter Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Ignazio

    2006-05-01

    In the last years the traditional scenario of ``Big Bang'' has been deeply modified by the study of the quantum features of the Universe evolution, proposing again the problem of using ``local'' physical laws on cosmic scale, with particular regard to the cosmological constant role. The ``group extention'' method shows that the De Sitter group univocally generalizes the Poincaré group, formally justifies the cosmological constant use and suggests a new interpretation for Hartle-Hawking boundary conditions in Quantum Cosmology.

  15. Posttranslationally modified small-peptide signals in plants.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2014-01-01

    Cell-to-cell signaling is essential for many processes in plant growth and development, including coordination of cellular responses to developmental and environmental cues. Cumulative studies have demonstrated that peptide signaling plays a greater-than-anticipated role in such intercellular communication. Some peptides act as signals during plant growth and development, whereas others are involved in defense responses or symbiosis. Peptides secreted as signals often undergo posttranslational modification and proteolytic processing to generate smaller peptides composed of approximately 10 amino acid residues. Such posttranslationally modified small-peptide signals constitute one of the largest groups of secreted peptide signals in plants. The location of the modification group incorporated into the peptides by specific modification enzymes and the peptide chain length defined by the processing enzymes are critical for biological function and receptor interaction. This review covers 20 years of research into posttranslationally modified small-peptide signals in plants.

  16. Polythioether Particles Armored with Modifiable Graphene Oxide Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Bradley J; Mosher, Eric P; Burton, Spencer T; Matthews, Rachael; Pentzer, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Facile and scalable fabrication methods are attractive to prepare materials for diverse applications. Herein, a method is presented to prepare cross-linked polymeric nanoparticles with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets covalently attached to the surface. Alkene-modified GO serves as a surfactant in a miniemulsion polymerization, and the alkene functionalities of GO exposed to the oil-phase are incorporated into the polymer particle through thiol-ene reactions, leaving the unreacted alkene functional groups of the other face of GO available for further functionalization. The surface of GO-armored polymer particles is then modified with a small molecule fluorophore or carboxylic acid functional groups that bind to Fe2 O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. This methodology provides a facile route to preparing complex hybrid composite materials.

  17. Democratic Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  18. User Working Group Members

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    User Working Group Members   Mail for the entire group may be directed to:  larc-asdc-uwg@lists.nasa.gov   Member Status Affiliation E-mail Contact Bob Holz (Co-Chair in 2010) Co-Chair University of ...

  19. Beam dynamics group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the activities of the beam dynamics working group of the LHC Collective Effects Workshop that was held in Montreux in 1994. It reviews the presentations that were made to the group, the discussions that ensued, and the consensuses that evolved.

  20. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  1. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  2. Topologies on Abelian Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyuk, E. G.; Protasov, I. V.

    1991-04-01

    A filter phi on an abelian group G is called a T-filter if there exists a Hausdorff group topology under which phi converges to zero. G{phi} will denote the group G with the largest topology among those making phi converge to zero. This method of defining a group topology is completely equivalent to the definition of an abstract group by defining relations. We shall obtain characterizations of T-filters and of T-sequences; among these, we shall pay particular attention to T-sequences on the integers. The method of T-sequences will be used to construct a series of counterexamples for several open problems in topological algebra. For instance there exists, on every infinite abelian group, a topology distinguishing between sequentiality and the Fréchet-Urysohn property (this solves a problem posed by V.I. Malykhin) we also find a topology on the group of integers admitting no nontrivial continuous character, thus solving a problem of Nienhuys. We show also that on every infinite abelian group there exists a free ultrafilter which is not a T-ultrafilter.

  3. Grouping for Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…

  4. Physically detached 'compact groups'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A small fraction of galaxies appear to reside in dense compact groups, whose inferred crossing times are much shorter than a Hubble time. These short crossing times have led to considerable disagreement among researchers attempting to deduce the dynamical state of these systems. In this paper, we suggest that many of the observed groups are not physically bound but are chance projections of galaxies well separated along the line of sight. Unlike earlier similar proposals, ours does not require that the galaxies in the compact group be members of a more diffuse, but physically bound entity. The probability of physically separated galaxies projecting into an apparent compact group is nonnegligible if most galaxies are distributed in thin filaments. We illustrate this general point with a specific example: a simulation of a cold dark matter universe, in which hydrodynamic effects are included to identify galaxies. The simulated galaxy distribution is filamentary and end-on views of these filaments produce apparent galaxy associations that have sizes and velocity dispersions similar to those of observed compact groups. The frequency of such projections is sufficient, in principle, to explain the observed space density of groups in the Hickson catalog. We discuss the implications of our proposal for the formation and evolution of groups and elliptical galaxies. The proposal can be tested by using redshift-independent distance estimators to measure the line-of-sight spatial extent of nearby compact groups.

  5. Modified Synthesis of Erlotinib Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Barghi, Leila; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Valizadeh, Hadi; Barar, Jaleh; Asgari, Davoud

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An improved and economical method has been described for the synthesis of erlotinib hydrochloride, as a useful drug in treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Method: Erlotinib hydrochloride was synthesized in seven steps starting from 3, 4-dihydroxy benzoic acid. In this study, we were able to modify one of the key steps which involved the reduction of the 6-nitrobenzoic acid derivative to 6-aminobenzoic acid derivative. An inexpensive reagent such as ammonium formate was used as an in situ hydrogen donor in the presence of palladium/charcoal (Pd/C) instead of hydrogen gas at high pressure. Result: This proposed method proceeded with 92% yield at room temperature. Synthesis of erlotinib was completed in 7 steps with overall yield of 44%. Conclusion: From the results obtained it can be concluded that the modified method eliminated the potential danger associated with the use of hydrogen gas in the presence of flammable catalysts. It should be mentioned that the catalyst was recovered after the reaction and could be used again. PMID:24312780

  6. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  7. Investigation of modified asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimich, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Currently the problem of improving the asphalt quality is very urgent. It is used primarily as topcoats exposed to the greatest relative to the other layers of the road, dynamic load - impact and shear. The number of cars on the road, the speed of their movement, as well as the traffic intensity increase day by day. We have to upgrade motor roads, which entails a huge cost. World experience shows that the issue is urgent not only in Russia, but also in many countries in Europe, USA and Asia. Thus, the subject of research is the resistance of asphalt concrete to water and its influence on the strength of the material at different temperatures, and resistance of pavement to deformation. It is appropriate to search for new modifiers for asphaltic binder and mineral additives for asphalt mix to form in complex the skeleton of the future asphalt concrete, resistant to atmospheric condensation, soil characteristics of the road construction area, as well as the growing road transport load. The important task of the work is searching special modifying additives for bitumen binder and asphalt mixture as a whole, which will improve the quality of highways, increasing the period between repairs. The methods described in the normative-technical documentation were used for the research. The conducted research allowed reducing the frequency of road maintenance for 7 years, increasing it from 17 to 25 years.

  8. Perceiving persons and groups.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  9. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  10. Highly branched polyethylenes as lubricant viscosity and friction modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, J. Timothy; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylene (BPE) were prepared and evaluated in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants' performance with respect to viscosity index and friction reduction. In conclusion, this study provides scientific insights into polymer design for future lubricant development activities.

  11. The effect of modified cervical exercise on smartphone users with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong- Soo; Kim, Yu- Mi; Shim, Je-myung

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of modified cervical exercise and determine whether such exercise improves the range of motion of the cervical movement in smartphone users with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Some 32 subjects with forward head posture participated in this study. They were randomly allocated to three groups, and the modified cervical exercises were performed either once, twice, or three times per day. The exercise program was followed for four weeks and then the joint range of motion of the participants was measured. [Results] A significantly increased range of motion was seen in all three groups that performed the modified cervical exercises. The analysis of the effects among the three groups indicated that the greatest effect was seen in Group C, members of which performed the modified exercises three times per day. In addition, a significant difference was found between Group A and Group C in terms of the inter-group results. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, although the modified cervical exercises were performed for only a relatively short duration (four weeks), the exercises brought about an improvement in the forward head posture that was induced by using a smartphone. PMID:28265167

  12. Groups and Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavnani, Ravi; Miodownik, Dan; Riolo, Rick

    Violence can take place along a multitude of cleavages, e.g., (1) between political groups like the Kach Movement, pitting West Bank settlers against Israeli governments supporting the land-for-peace agenda; (2) between religious groups, such as Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian cities of Jos and Kaduna; (3) along class lines, as in India between Dalits and members of the Brahminical upper castes, upwardly mobile intermediate castes, and even other backward castes such as the Thevars; and (4) between ethnic groups such as the Hutu and Tutsi, both within and across state boundaries in Rwanda and neighboring Burundi.

  13. Group key management

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  14. Conformal Carroll groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    Conformal extensions of Lévy-Leblond's Carroll group, based on geometric properties analogous to those of Newton-Cartan space-time are proposed. The extensions are labeled by an integer k. This framework includes and extends our recent study of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) and Newman-Unti (NU) groups. The relation to conformal Galilei groups is clarified. Conformal Carroll symmetry is illustrated by ‘Carrollian photons’. Motion both in the Newton-Cartan and Carroll spaces may be related to that of strings in the Bargmann space.

  15. Cyclic soft groups and their applications on groups.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Hacı; Özlü, Serif

    2014-01-01

    In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  16. UnitedHealth Group

    Cancer.gov

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  17. SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group

    ScienceCinema

    Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.

    2016-07-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory, Atmospheric Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.

  18. Indictment of Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce

    1972-01-01

    The use of ability grouping restricts students to interact with others who have been identified as similar in ability and carries with it the stigma of failure and the operation of the self-fulfilling prophecy. (Author)

  19. Building Bunk Group Buddies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Denise Cabrero

    2000-01-01

    Describes how camp counselors can foster camaraderie among campers through participative decision making, name games, listening, adventure courses, storytelling, spending time in nature, decorating cabins, avoiding favoritism, setting rules, admitting faults, setting group goals, and praising sincere efforts. (TD)

  20. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  1. Group Support Systems (GSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamel, Gary P.; Wijesinghe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware is a term describing an emerging computer software technology enhancing the ability of people to work together as a group, (a software driven 'group support system'). This project originated at the beginning of 1992 and reports were issued describing the activity through May 1995. These reports stressed the need for process as well as technology. That is, while the technology represented a computer assisted method for groups to work together, the Group Support System (GSS) technology als required an understanding of the facilitation process electronic meetings demand. Even people trained in traditional facilitation techniques did not necessarily aimlessly adopt groupware techniques. The latest phase of this activity attempted to (1) improve the facilitation process by developing training support for a portable groupware computer system, and (2) to explore settings and uses for the portable groupware system using different software, such as Lotus Notes.

  2. Is Group Counseling Neglected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Susanne M.

    1972-01-01

    Group counseling is valuable for the psychological and social readjustment of newly disabled persons and their families, with the counselor and physician having major roles in personal rehabilitation. (AG)

  3. User Working Group Charter

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... Amended 2010   The Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) User Working Group (UWG) is chartered by the Earth Observing ... of the ASDC user interface, development of the Information Management System (IMS), and ASDC user conferences requirements for and ...

  4. SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.

    2016-05-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory, Atmospheric Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.

  5. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Baskes, M.I.

    1994-08-01

    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideally suited for examining the interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how the parameters of the MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examines the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show non-uniform deformation of the fiber.

  6. Chern-Simons Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiou, P.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation will be based on my, undergraduate, thesis at Aristotle University of Thessoliniki with the same subject, supervised by Professor Demetrios Papadopoulos. I will first present the general mathematical formulation of the Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, which is split in a dynamical and a non-dynamical context, and the different physical theories which suggest this modification. Then proceed by examing the possibility that the CS theory shares solutions with General Relativity in both contexts. In the non-dynamical context I will present a new, undocumented solution as well as all the other possible solutions found to date. I will conclude by arguing that General Relativity and CS Theory share any solutions in the dynamical context.

  7. Method of modifying a surface

    DOEpatents

    Renk, Timothy J.; Sorensen, Neil R.; Senft, Donna Cowell; Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G.; Thompson, Michael O.; Grabowski, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

  8. Time reversal for modified oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero-Soto, R.; Suslov, S. K.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a new completely integrable case of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in ®n with variable coefficients for a modified oscillator that is dual (with respect to time reversal) to a model of the quantum oscillator. We find a second pair of dual Hamiltonians in the momentum representation. The examples considered show that in mathematical physics and quantum mechanics, a change in the time direction may require a total change of the system dynamics to return the system to its original quantum state. We obtain particular solutions of the corresponding nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We also consider a Hamiltonian structure of the classical integrable problem and its quantization.

  9. Group Capability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  10. Magnetograph group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.

    1989-01-01

    The Magnetograph Group focussed on the techniques and many practical problems of interleaving ground-based measurements of magnetic fields from diverse sites and instruments to address the original scientific objectives. The predominant view of the discussion group was that present instrumentation and analysis resources do not warrant immediate, specific plans for further worldwide campaigns of cooperative magnetograph observing. The several reasons for this view, together with many caveats, qualifications, and suggestions for future work are presented.

  11. Basic Pile Group Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    geotechnical engineer to obtain the values of the soil modulus and the coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction. The methods provided in this Appendix must...describes a computerized method for pile group design and analysis as practiced in the Corps of Engineers and proposes criteria for sys- tematizing... Engineers , and to propose criteria for systematizing this method in a computer program. This paper describes a computerized method of pile group analysis

  12. SUMMARY OF 2009 RHEOLOGY MODIFIER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.

    2009-12-08

    The overall objective of the EM-31 Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents program is to utilize commercially available rheology modifiers to increase the solids fraction of radioactive sludge based waste streams, resulting in an increase in throughput and decreasing the overall processing time. The program first investigates the impact of rheology modifiers on slurry simulants and then utilizes the most effective rheology modifiers on radioactive slurries. The work presented in this document covers the initial investigation of rheology modifier testing with simulants. This task is supported by both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The SRNL EM-31 task, for this year, was to investigate the use of rheology modifiers on simulant Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feeds. The task is to determine, based on the impact of the rheology modifier, if there are rheology modifiers that could reduce the water content of the slurry going to the DWPF melter, hence increasing the melt rate by decreasing the water loading. The rheology modifier in essence would allow a higher solids content slurry to have the same type of rheology or pumpability of a lower solids slurry. The modifiers selected in this report were determined based on previous modifiers used in high level waste melter feed simulants, on-going testing performed by counterparts at PNNL, and experiences gain through use of modifiers in other Department of Energy (DOE) processes such as grout processing. There were 12 rheology modifiers selected for testing, covering both organic and inorganic types and they were tested at four different concentrations for a given melter feed. Five different DWPF melter feeds were available and there was adequate material in one of the melter feeds to increase the solids concentration, resulting in a total of six simulants for testing. The mass of melter feed available in each simulant was not adequate for

  13. Stopping Disease-Modifying Therapy in Nonrelapsing Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are of benefit only in people with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS). Thus, safely stopping DMTs in people with secondary progressive MS may be possible. Methods: Two groups of patients with MS were studied. Group A consisted of 77 patients with secondary progressive MS and no evidence of acute central nervous system inflammation for 2 to 20 years. These patients were advised to stop DMTs. Group B consisted of 17 individuals with RMS who stopped DMTs on their own. Both groups were evaluated at treatment cessation and for a minimum of 1 year thereafter. Multiple variables were assessed to determine those that predicted recurrent acute disease. Results: Nine patients in group A (11.7%) and ten patients in group B (58.8%) had recurrent acute disease, almost always within 1 to 2 years of stopping treatment. The only variable of significance in group A distinguishing stable and relapsing patients was age (P = .0003), with relapsing patients being younger. Group B patients were younger and had significantly lower Expanded Disability Status Scale scores than group A, with no significant differences in age between relapsed and stable patients. Conclusions: The DMTs can be stopped safely in older patients with MS (≥7 decades) with no evidence of acute disease for 2 years or longer, with an almost 90% probability of remaining free of acute recurrence. The high proportion of untreated patients with RMS experiencing recurrent acute disease is consistent with published data. PMID:28243181

  14. Difficulty modifying a sustained motor response in prodromal Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T; Peavy, Guerry M; Jacobson, Mark W; Goldstein, Jody L; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the nature of motor symptoms in the preclinical stage of Huntington's disease. Individuals with the CAG expanded repeat of Huntington's disease (prHD) and two control groups were tested on a task requiring a releasing movement (releasing a depressed button) followed by a ballistic movement (pressing a different button). Movement times were measured separately for releasing and ballistic movements. The mean reaction time of the prHD group was significantly longer when releasing a movement than that of the other groups. The groups, however, did not differ significantly on movement time for ballistic movements. Our results show that motor slowing is evident prior to the clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease and may reflect difficulty in modifying a sustained motor program.

  15. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  16. Coordinating Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup.

  17. Efficacy of a biological response modifier in preventing Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections after calving.

    PubMed

    Zecconi, A; Bronzo, V; Casula, A; Luzzago, C; Moroni, P; Piccinini, R; Spreafico, G

    1999-10-01

    A change in the epidemiology of mastitis in recent years has emphasized the role of the udder immune system in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, if the bovine or udder immune capability could be enhanced, susceptibility to Staph. aureus could be reduced and antibiotic efficacy could be increased. Immune system defense mechanisms could be enhanced by vaccination and by biological response modifiers. Within this latter group, a biological response modifier obtained from Parapox ovis that was attenuated over 200 tissue culture passages was recently developed and commercialized in some European countries. This study reports the results of a field trial on the efficacy of this biological response modifier in reducing Staph. aureus intramammary infection (IMI) after calving in primiparous and pluriparous cows. The trial included 106 cows sampled six times (55 cows from herd A and 51 from herd B) for a total of 2544 quarter milk samples. The analysis of IMI prevalence showed that 25.09% of samples were bacteriologically positive in the placebo group, and 23.17% of the positive samples were observed in the biological response modifier group. Staphylococcus aureus IMI had a frequency of 11.44% in the placebo group and 6.00% in the biological response modifier group. The dynamic of the hazards showed significantly lower rates in the biological response modifier group than in the placebo group (risk ratio = 0.47). Treatment with the parapox-containing biological response modifier showed significant reduction of Staph. aureus IMI around calving, and this reduction was attributed to an increase in immune defenses.

  18. Modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery for thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    YU, HUI; GE, XIN; PAN, WEIKANG; WANG, HUAIJIE; HUANG, QIANG; DONG, YU; GAO, YA; YU, JIANJUN

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), originally described by Miccoli, is considered to be the most widely practiced and easily reproducible procedure for selected patients with benign and/or malignant thyroid nodules. Modified techniques based on MIVAT, namely modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery (MMTS), were developed based on MIVAT. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary results of MMTS compared with those of MIVAT. The enrolling criteria included a benign nodule <3.5 cm in diameter, a malignant tumor <2 cm, no previous neck surgery and no evidence of any suspected lymph node metastasis or local invasion. Unilateral lobectomy was considered for benign lesions and the additional dissection of central compartment (level VI) lymph nodes was applied for malignant disease. The modified techniques included carefully selecting the operative incision, expanding the operative space, embedding a drainage tube in situ and delicately suturing every layer inwards and crosswise, as well as measuring cervical motion. In addition to the comparison of surgical outcomes between MMTS and MIVAT, other surgical parameters, including operative time, blood loss, postoperative drainage, cosmetic satisfaction, peak angle of cervical rotation, length of hospitalization and complications, were retrospectively analyzed. A consecutive series of 70 patients, including 54 cases of benign and 16 cases of malignant disease, initially underwent MIVAT between April, 2008 and May, 2012, while 127 patients, including 98 benign and 29 malignant cases, subsequently underwent MMTS between September, 2011 and October, 2014. Patients who received MMTS exhibited significantly less blood loss (20.3±11.3 vs. 32.3±12.6 ml, P<0.01), lower volume of postoperative drainage (42.77±15.2 vs. 50.48±23.2 ml, P<0.01) and higher cosmetic satisfaction (94.6±3.5 vs. 88.9±2.7%, P<0.01), but a longer operative time (102±36 vs. 50.48±23.2 min, P<0.01) when compared with MIVAT. In addition, a

  19. Older people with dysphagia: transitioning to texture-modified food.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sandra; Crichton, Jonathan

    Older people with dysphagia are at high risk of malnutrition. To maintain safe oral and nutritional intake, solid food may be texture-modified. Little is known about the transition experiences of older people who move from normal to texture-modified foods. The aim of this study was to describe residents' experiences as they transitioned from normal food to texture-modified food. The study used a qualitative descriptive design and individual interviews were conducted with a study group of 28 participants (residents, family members, nursing and care staff, and speech and language therapists). The interviews were thematically analysed. The findings suggest that transition creates the risk of distress, reducing eating to a matter of necessity and hunger, and that the process is perceived as abrupt, and characterised by lack of communication and awareness of the need for change. A key finding is that the language used during transition can be adversely affected by the management of risk. This language promotes a culture of care that emphasises the limitations of residents, reduces their motivation to eat and hinders the delivery of person-centred care. The findings suggest that care facilities for older people need to revisit their dysphagia management protocols to ensure that they support a person-centred approach for recipients of texture-modified food.

  20. Immobilization of urease onto chemically modified acrylonitrile copolymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Godjevargova, T; Gabrovska, K

    2003-06-26

    Poly (acrylonitrile-methylmethacrylate-sodium vinylsulfonate) membranes were subjected to seven different chemical modifications. The amounts of new groups incorporated in the membranes with the modifications were determined. Urease was covalently immobilized on the modified membranes. Both the amount of bound protein and relative activity of immobilized urease were measured. The highest activity was found for urease bound to membranes modified with hydroxylammonium sulfate (68%) and hydrazinium sulfate (67%). Optimum pH of free urease was determined to be 5.8. For positively charged membranes, pH optimum was shifted to higher values, while for negatively charged membranes-to lower pH. The charge of the matrix affected also the rate of the enzyme reaction. The highest rate was measured with urease immobilized on membranes modified with hydroxylammonium sulfate and hydrazinium sulfate. The major part of the immobilized enzyme on different modified membranes remained stable-only ca. 20% of enzyme activity was lost for 4 h at 70 degrees C while the free enzyme was totally inactivated.

  1. Modified fractal model and rheological properties of colloidal networks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongming; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2008-02-15

    The scaling relationship between the storage modulus (G(')) and the volume fraction of solids (Phi) in fat crystal networks has been explained by the fractal model developed by our group. However, many experimental results and simulation studies suggest that the stress distribution within a colloidal network is dramatically heterogeneous, which means that a small part of the network carries most of the stress, while the other part of the network does not contribute much to the elastic properties of the system. This concept was introduced into a modified fractal model. The volume fraction of solids term (Phi) in the original fractal model was replaced by Phi(e), the effective volume fraction of solids, in the modified fractal model, which represents the volume fraction of stress-carrying solids. A proposed expression for Phi(e) is given and a modified expression for the scaling relationship between G(') and Phi is obtained. The modified fractal model fits the experiment data well and successfully explains the sometimes observed nonlinear log-log behavior between the storage modulus of colloidal networks and their volume fraction of solids.

  2. Bouncing universe with modified dispersion relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, employing the modified dispersion relation, we have derived the general modified Friedmann equations and the corresponding modified entropy relations for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe. In this setup, we find that when the big bounce happens, its energy scale and its corresponding modified entropy behavior are sensitive to the value of k. In contrast to the previous work with k=0, our work mainly demonstrates that the bouncing behavior for the closed Universe with k=1 appears at the normal energy limit of the modified dispersion relation introduced, and when bouncing phenomenon is in presence, its modified entropy is just equal to zero. Surprisingly, when k=-1, the bouncing behavior is in absence.

  3. Transcriptional Regulation by Trithorax-Group Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, Robert E.; Tamkun, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The trithorax group of genes (trxG) was identified in mutational screens that examined developmental phenotypes and suppression of Polycomb mutant phenotypes. The protein products of these genes are primarily involved in gene activation, although some can also have repressive effects. There is no central function for these proteins. Some move nucleosomes about on the genome in an ATP-dependent manner, some covalently modify histones such as methylating lysine 4 of histone H3, and some directly interact with the transcription machinery or are a part of that machinery. It is interesting to consider why these specific members of large families of functionally related proteins have strong developmental phenotypes. PMID:25274705

  4. Instructions to working groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    The key to the success of this workshop is your active participation in the working group process. The goals of this workshop are to address four major questions regarding Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) Training. To some extent the working group topic areas parallel these issues, but in some cases they do not. However, it is important for all of the working groups to keep these general questions in mind during their deliberations: (1) What are the essential elements of an optimal CRM Training program; (2) What are the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches to CRM Training; (3) How can CRM Training best be implemented, and what barriers exist; and (4) Is CRM Training effective, do we know, and if not, how can we find out.

  5. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    SciTech Connect

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  6. Safety advantage of modified minimally invasive cardiac surgery for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Keisuke; Matsushita, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Shiori; Tambara, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Taira; Morita, Terumasa; Inaba, Hirotaka; Kuwaki, Kenji; Amano, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) using a small surgical incision in children provides less physical stress. However, concern about safety due to the small surgical field has been noted. Recently, the authors developed a modified MICS procedure to extend the surgical field. This report assesses the safety and benefit of this modified procedure by comparing three procedures: the modified MICS (group A), conventional MICS (group B), and traditional open heart surgery (group C). A retrospective analysis was performed with 111 pediatric patients (age, 0-9 years; weight, 5-30 kg) who underwent cardiac surgery for simple cardiac anomaly during the period 1996-2010 at Juntendo University Hospital. The modified MICS method to extend the surgical view has been performed since 2004. A skin incision within 5 cm was made below the nipple line, and the surgical field was easily moved by pulling up or down using a suture or a hemostat. The results showed no differences in terms of gender, age, weight, or aortic cross-clamp time among the groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences in mean time before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), CPB time, operation time, and bleeding. According to the indices, modified MICS was similar to traditional open surgery and shorter time or lower bleeding volume than conventional MICS. No major mortality or morbidity occurred. In conclusion, the modified MICS procedure, which requires no special techniques, was as safe as conventional open heart surgery and even reduced perioperative morbidity.

  7. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  8. Microstructure of Hydrophobically Modified Alkyl Acrylamide Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun; Seery, T. A. P.; Weiss, R. A.

    2002-03-01

    Hydrophobically modified water soluble polymers of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-2-(N-ethylfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl acrylate) (polyDMA/FOSA) with different compositions were prepared by solution free radical polymerization. The molecular weights ranged from Mw/Mn=53000/23000 to 95000/40000. The intrinsic viscosity decreased with the increasing FOSA content. The glass transition temperature of the copolymer decreased with FOSA content, and exhibited positive deviation from that predicted by the Fox equation. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) curves exhibited a peak that indicated the copolymer had a microphase separated structure, presumably due to hydrophobic association of FOSA groups. The SAXS peak position shifted to higher q value with the increasing FOSA content in the dry polymers, while for the water swollen gel, it shifted to lower q value with the increasing water uptake in the gels. These results suggested that the origin of the peak was related to the spacing between hydrophobic microdomains. The failure of time-temperature superposition of the dynamic shear moduli supported the conclusion of a microphase separated structure in the copolymer.

  9. STELLAR STRUCTURE AND TESTS OF MODIFIED GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Philip; Hui, Lam E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu

    2011-05-01

    Theories that attempt to explain cosmic acceleration by modifying gravity typically introduces a long-range scalar force that needs to be screened on small scales. One common screening mechanism is the chameleon, where the scalar force is screened in environments with a sufficiently deep gravitational potential, but acts unimpeded in regions with a shallow gravitational potential. This leads to a variation in the overall gravitational G with environment. We show that such a variation can occur within a star itself, significantly affecting its evolution and structure, provided that the host galaxy is unscreened. The effect is most pronounced for red giants, which would be smaller by a factor of tens of percent and thus hotter by hundreds of Kelvin, depending on the parameters of the underlying scalar-tensor theory. Careful measurements of these stars in suitable environments (nearby dwarf galaxies not associated with groups or clusters) would provide constraints on the chameleon mechanism that are four orders of magnitude better than current large-scale structure limits and two orders of magnitude better than present solar system tests.

  10. Modifying agricultural crops for improved nutrition.

    PubMed

    McGloughlin, Martina Newell

    2010-11-30

    The first generation of biotechnology products commercialized were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits whose value was often opaque to consumers. The coming generations of crop plants can be grouped into four broad areas each presenting what, on the surface, may appear as unique challenges and opportunities. The present and future focus is on continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and abiotic stress resistance in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and "bio-synthetics"; value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production factories for therapeutics and industrial products. From a consumer perspective, the focus on value-added traits, especially improved nutrition, is undoubtedly one of the areas of greatest interest. From a basic nutrition perspective, there is a clear dichotomy in demonstrated need between different regions and socioeconomic groups, the starkest being inappropriate consumption in the developed world and under-nourishment in Less Developed Countries (LDCs). Dramatic increases in the occurrence of obesity and related ailments in affluent regions are in sharp contrast to chronic malnutrition in many LDCs. Both problems require a modified food supply, and the tools of biotechnology have a part to play. Developing plants with improved traits involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory and indeed perception hurdles inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex traits modifications. Continuing improvements in molecular and genomic technologies are contributing to the acceleration of product development to produce plants with the appropriate quality traits for the different regions and needs. Crops with improved traits in the pipeline, the evolving technologies and the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead are covered.

  11. Modified π π amplitude with σ pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydžovský, P.; Kamiński, R.; Nazari, V.

    2014-12-01

    A set of well-known once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition is used to modify unitary multichannel S (π π , K K ¯, and η η ) and P (π π , ρ 2 π , and ρ σ ) wave amplitudes mostly below 1 GeV. Before the modifications, these amplitudes significantly did not satisfy the crossing symmetry condition and did not describe the π π threshold region. Moreover, the pole of the S wave amplitude related with the f0(500 ) meson (former f0(600 ) or σ ) had much smaller imaginary part and bigger real one in comparison with those in the newest Particle Data Group Tables. Here, these amplitudes are supplemented by near threshold expansion polynomials and refitted to the experimental data in the effective two pion mass from the threshold to 1.8 GeV and to the dispersion relations up to 1.1 GeV. In result the self consistent, i.e., unitary and fulfilling the crossing symmetry condition, S and P wave amplitudes are formed and the σ pole becomes much narrower and lighter. To eliminate doubts about the uniqueness of the so obtained sigma pole position short and purely mathematical proof of the uniqueness of the results is also presented. This analysis is addressed to a wide group of physicists and aims at providing a very effective and easy method of modification of, many presently used, π π amplitudes with a heavy and broad σ meson without changing of their original mathematical structure.

  12. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    preference may be due to the presence of oviposition pheromones or oviposition attractants and repellents in natural habitats. These oviposition -modifying...LfD-R125 421 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES(U) 11 I CALIFORNIA UNIV RIVERSIDE DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY Y HWANG I 91 JUL 81 DANDi?7-79-C...STANDARDS- 1963-A ." !’, -b b’, -1 I- I 1. AD__ _ _ _ * N 3 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES Final Report Yih-Shen Hwang * July 1, 1981

  13. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD C: 2 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES Annual Summary Report YIH-SHEN HWANG * ’September 1, 1980 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL...NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES...nd identify by block number) MOSQUITOES/ OVIPOSITION -ATTRACTANTS/ OVIPOSITION -REPELLENTS/ OVIPOSITION - MODIFYING-SUBSTANCES/CARBOXYLIC-ACIDS/OCTANOIC

  14. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  15. Bell, group and tangle

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A. I.

    2010-03-15

    The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.

  16. Health Profile of U.S. Navy Pilots of Electronically Modified Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cardiovascular disease and alcoholism in the control group whereas no significant increases were noted for pilots of electronic models. Pilots in the latter group had low rates for conditions postulated as related to radiation exposure. Such results indicated that pilots of electronically modified aircraft were not at increased risk for illness or injury because of the aircraft models they primarily flew.

  17. [Therapeutic approaches using genetically modified cells].

    PubMed

    Anliker, Brigitte; Renner, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal products containing genetically modified cells are, in most cases, classified as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products. Although no medicinal product containing genetically modified cells has been licensed in Europe yet, a variety of therapeutic strategies using genetically modified cells are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. In this chapter, several examples of promising approaches are presented, with an emphasis on gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiencies and on tumour immunotherapy with genetically modified T-cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor or a recombinant T-cell receptor.

  18. Contact Stress of Modified Curvilinear Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Gu, Ming-Lune

    2010-10-01

    The contact characteristics of a modified curvilinear gear set were investigated based on finite element analysis in this study. Firstly, the mathematical model of the modified curvilinear gears was developed based on the theory of gearing. Then a solid model of a modified curvilinear gear set was built by utilizing computer-aided design software. Finite element analysis enabled us to investigate the contact stress of a contact teeth pair. The variation and distribution of the contact stresses and bending stresses are also studied under different gear design parameters. Finally, illustrative examples were presented to demonstrate the contact characteristics of the modified curvilinear gears.

  19. Optimum design of amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic groups for both cell surface ligand presentation and intercellular cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Masafumi; Li, Cuicui; Matsuda, Masayoshi; Nagai, Hiroko; Hatanaka, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic alkyl groups are expected to be applicable for both ligand presentation on the cell surface and intercellular crosslinking. To explore the optimum design for each application, we synthesized eight different acyl-modified dextrans with varying molecular weight, alkyl length, and alkyl modification degree. We found that the behenate-modified polymers retained on the cell surface longer than the palmitate-modified ones. Since the polymers were also modified with biotin, streptavidin can be presented on the cell surface through biotin-streptavidin recognition. The duration of streptavidin on the cell surface is longer in the behenate-modified polymer than the palmitate-modified one. As for the intercellular crosslinking, the palmitate-modified polymers were more efficient than the behenate-modified polymers. The findings in this research will be helpful to design the acyl-modified polymers for the cell surface engineering.

  20. Migrating Huns and modified heads: Eigenshape analysis comparing intentionally modified crania from Hungary and Georgia in the Migration Period of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mayall, Peter; Bitadze, Liana

    2017-01-01

    An intentionally modified head is a visually distinctive sign of group identity. In the Migration Period of Europe (4th– 7th century AD) the practice of intentional cranial modification was common among several nomadic groups, but was strongly associated with the Huns from the Carpathian Basin in Hungary, where modified crania are abundant in archaeological sites. The frequency of modified crania increased substantially in the Mtskheta region of Georgia in this time period, but there are no records that Huns settled here. We compare the Migration Period modified skulls from Georgia with those from Hungary to test the hypothesis that the Huns were responsible for cranial modification in Georgia. We use extended eigenshape analysis to quantify cranial outlines, enabling a discriminant analysis to assess group separation and identify morphological differences. Twenty-one intentionally modified skulls from Georgia are compared with sixteen from Hungary, using nineteen unmodified crania from a modern population as a comparative baseline. Results indicate that modified crania can be differentiated from modern unmodified crania with 100% accuracy. The Hungarian and Georgian crania show some overlap in shape, but can be classified with 81% accuracy. Shape gradations along the main eigenvectors indicate that the Hungarian crania show little variation in cranial shape, in accordance with a two-bandage binding technique, whereas the Georgian crania had a wider range of variation, fitting with a diversity of binding styles. As modification style is a strong signifier of social identity, our results indicate weak Hunnic influence on cranial modification in Georgia and are equivocal about the presence of Huns in Georgia. We suggest instead that other nomadic groups such as Alans and Sarmatians living in this region were responsible for modified crania in Georgia. PMID:28152046

  1. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment.

  2. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  3. Biological Response Modifiers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reang, Purabi; Gupta, Madhur; Kohli, Kamlesh

    2006-01-01

    We have seen a surge in the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Biological response modifiers can act passively by enhancing the immunologic response to tumor cells or actively by altering the differentiation/growth of tumor cells. Active immunotherapy with cytokines such as interferons (IFNs) and interleukins (IL-2) is a form of nonspecific active immune stimulation. The use of IL-2 has recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and metastatic colorectal cancer. Considerable success has been achieved with the use of immunotherapy, especially in the area of passive immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies – in particular, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. In addition to the various monoclonal antibodies that have been used in clinical trials, other strategies such as the use of antiangiogenic agents and matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMPIs) have also met with some success. Recently, the FDA approved bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This review also sheds light on the various angiogenesis inhibitors in clinical trials, the increasing use of thalidomide in cancer, and the upcoming potential cancer vaccines designed to activate cell-mediated immune responses against tumor antigens. PMID:17415315

  4. Nonderivative modified gravity: a classification

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@irb.hr

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the theories of gravity modified by a generic nonderivative potential built from the metric, under the minimal requirement of unbroken spatial rotations. Using the canonical analysis, we classify the potentials V according to the number of degrees of freedom (DoF) that propagate at the nonperturbative level. We then compare the nonperturbative results with the perturbative DoF propagating around Minkowski and FRW backgrounds. A generic V implies 6 propagating DoF at the non-perturbative level, with a ghost on Minkowski background. There exist potentials which propagate 5 DoF, as already studied in previous works. Here, no V with unbroken rotational invariance admitting 4 DoF is found. Theories with 3 DoF turn out to be strongly coupled on Minkowski background. Finally, potentials with only the 2 DoF of a massive graviton exist. Their effect on cosmology is simply equivalent to a cosmological constant. Potentials with 2 or 5 DoF and explicit time dependence appear to be a further viable possibility.

  5. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  6. Chemical modification of amino groups and guanidino groups of trypsin. Preparation of stable and soluble derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Nureddin, A; Inagami, T

    1975-01-01

    1. Isoionic chemical modification of amino groups of trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) was studied for the purpose of obtaining a well-defined modified trypsin with minimum changes in physicochemical properties and with sufficient stability at neutral pH. Acetamidination with methyl acetimidate hydrochloride proceeded very rapidly at pH9.8 and 5degrees C and all 14 epsilon-amino groups were modified in 2h. The reaction was limited to epsilon-amino groups. The alpha-amino group of N-terminal isoleucine was modified only by repeated reactions in the presence of 5.5 M-guanidine or 8 M-urea. 2. The epsilon-acetamidinated derivative of beta-trypsin retained enzymic activity at values comparable with those of native enzyme tested with alpha-N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester and alpha-N-benzoyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide as substrates; it also showed substrate activation comparable with that of native enzyme. The acetamidination of alpha-trypsin resulted in approx. 50% decrease in its esterolytic activity. 3. The epsilon-acetamidinated beta-trypsin was very stable at pH8 and 25degrees C in the absence of Ca2+. The activity of 0.04% (W/V) enzyme solution remained practically unchanged for 10h, and after 24h 90% of the activity was still retained. Possible autolytic cleavage of peptide bonds of acetamidinated enzymes was followed by N-terminal analysis by using automated Edman degradation. Only the Arg(105)-Val(106) bond was found to be cleaved to an appreciable extent. Thus beta-trypsin can be stabilized simply by complete acetamidination of epsilon-amino groups without modifying guanidino groups of arginine residues. Acetamidinated alpha-trypsin was unstable, but its inactivation at a neutral pH could not be attributed to the cleavage of a single specific peptide bond. 4. The acetamidination of the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal isoleucine results in the inactivation of esterolytic activity. However, this enzyme retained the ability to react with p-nitrophenyl p

  7. Valuing Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziosi, Elena

    2010-01-01

    For people living with or caring for someone with a disability, being able to talk to someone who can relate to their feelings of frustration during difficult times, offer practical advice on an issue, or even understand the importance of a small success, can make a difference. Support groups are a mainstay for individuals coping with daily…

  8. Internet Cancer Support Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Lin, Li-Chen; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) are an emerging form of support group on Internet specifically for cancer patients. Previous studies have indicated the effectiveness of ICSGs as a research setting or a data-collection method. Yet recent studies have also indicated that ICSGs tend to serve highly educated, high-income White males who tend to be at an early stage of cancer. In this article, a total of 317 general ICSGs and 229 ethnic-specific ICSGs searched through Google.com, Yahoo.com, http://Msn.com, AOL.com, and ACOR.org are analyzed from a feminist perspective. The written records of group discussions and written memos by the research staff members were also analyzed using content analysis. The idea categories that emerged about these groups include (a) authenticity issues; (b) ethnicity and gender issues; (c) intersubjectivity issues; and (d) potential ethical issues. The findings suggest that (a) researchers adopt multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet sites and/or real settings; (b) researchers raise their own awareness of the potential influences of the health-related resources provided by ICSGs and regularly update their knowledge related to the federal and state standards and/or policies related to ICSGs; and (c) researchers consider adopting a quota-sampling method. PMID:15681976

  9. LCDs Revolutionize Group Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Mel

    1987-01-01

    Describes a screen projector based on liquid crystal display (LCD) that duplicates the monitor of a microcomputer and may be used in group training sessions for demonstration purposes. Suggestions of what features to look for and a buyer's guide are provided. (CLB)

  10. Test Group Rethinks Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A group that is developing tests for half the states in the nation has dramatically reduced the length of its assessment in a bid to balance the desire for a more meaningful and useful exam with concerns about the amount of time spent on testing. The decision by the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium reflects months of conversation among its…

  11. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P.

    2013-10-16

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  12. Dimensions of Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawidowicz, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The correlation between positive and negative group interactions and one or another of individuals' attitudes or characteristics--moral development, critical thinking, resilience, and self efficacy--has been examined previously. However, no systemic examination of individuals' development of patterns of these characteristics and those patterns'…

  13. American Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Thomas, Ed.; Collins, Lynn D., Ed.

    The essays in this volume focus on the historical and social evolution of six American ethnic groups. Thomas Sowell discusses similarities and differences in the experiences of antebellum "free persons of color," emancipated slaves and their descendants, and West Indian immigrants, and examines trends in the socioeconomic status of black…

  14. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  15. Leukosis/Sarcoma Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leukosis/sarcoma (L/S) group of diseases designates a variety of transmissible benign and malignant neoplasms of chickens caused by members that belong to the family Retroviridae. Because the expansion of the literature on this disease, it is no longer feasible to cite all relevant publications ...

  16. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  17. The Pressure Group Cooker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Administrators across the nation have encountered vigorous challenges against textbooks, practices, and procedures that critics find laden with occult and New Age values. Attacks are becoming more aggressive, better organized, and well financed. This article and accompanying sidebars discuss pressure group tactics and ways to counter them. The…

  18. National Melon Research Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Melon Research Group met with the Cucurbitaceae 2010 conference in Charleston, South Carolina at 7:00 P.M. on November 17. The discussion was focused solely on cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM). Several reported increased problem with CPM or apparent changes in race. Ales Lebeda (Palacký Un...

  19. Ground Rules for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    Tips for effective groups include the following: test assumptions, share relevant information, focus on interests, be specific, agree on meanings, explain reasons, disagree openly, invite feedback, jointly design solutions, discuss nondiscussable issues, keep focused, eliminate distractions, expect all to participate, decide by consensus, and…

  20. Modeling Small Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draskovic, I.; Holdrinet, R.; Bulte, J.; Bolhuis, S.; Van Leeuwe, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents findings from an empirical study on the relations between the variables comprising learning mechanisms in small collaborative groups. Variables comprising the central learning mechanisms component were "task related interactions," "knowledge elaborations," and "subjective estimation of knowledge acquisition." Student related…

  1. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  2. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  3. Grouping Illumination Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovic, Suncica; Economou, Elias; Gilchrist, Alan

    2012-01-01

    According to Koffka (1935), the lightness of a target surface is determined by the relationship between the target and the illumination frame of reference to which it belongs. However, each scene contains numerous illumination frames, and judging each one separately would lead to an enormous amount of computing. Grouping those frames that are in…

  4. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  5. External Interest Group Impingements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    The history of the interrelation among state approval, accreditation, and institutional eligibility is considered. It is suggested that faculty and college administrators can be either an internal or external group in relationship to the planning process. The federal government, or the state government, passes legislation that may have both…

  6. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the…

  7. An Intergenerational Women's Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Janet

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Intergenerational Women's Group, formed to provide social support and an interchange of ideas between women of different generations. Provides a model for such a program that may be offered in geriatric medical clinics. Discusses the impact of intergenerational support for both the old and the young. (Author/BHK)

  8. Media Criticism Group Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To integrate speaking practice with rhetorical theory. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: 100 points (i.e., 30 points based on peer evaluations, 30 points based on individual performance, 40 points based on the group presentation), which is 25% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 7-10; (b) Length: 20-30 minutes; (c)…

  9. Preservation properties of in situ modified CaCO3-chitosan composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Wen-ting; Li, Jian-rong; Dong, Zhi-jian; Wu, Chao-ling

    2015-09-15

    To improve the dispersibility, hydrophilia constraints of primitive particle size, and reduce the economic cost, in situ modified CaCO3-chitosan composite coatings were prepared by tape-casting with different modifiers. The coating structures were characterised, and the preservation properties of the coatings were evaluated by fresh indices of Sciaenops ocellatus. The results revealed that the coatings were homogeneous and compact when the in situ modifier was sodium stearate. Besides, the amide I group of chitosan disappeared and hydrogen bonds were formed between the nano-CaCO3 and the chitosan. Meanwhile, the preservation effects to S. ocellatus of the coatings modified in situ by sodium stearate and sodium citrate were better. This was because the coatings effectively prevented oxygen and bacteria from reaching S. ocellatus, and thus inhibited the degradation of the proteins and lipids. The in situ modified method is conducive to chitosan coating properties, which will be widely used in the food preservation field.

  10. Structural, thermal and rheological characterization of modified Dalbergia sissoo gum--A medicinal gum.

    PubMed

    Munir, Hira; Shahid, Muhammad; Anjum, Fozia; Mudgil, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    Dalbergia sissoo gum was purified by ethanol precipitation. The purified gum was modified and hydrolyzed. Gum was modified by performing polyacrylamide grafting and carboxymethylation methods. The hydrolysis was carried out by using mannanase, barium hydroxide and trifluoroacetic acid. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The decrease in viscosity was studied by performing the flow test. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were thermally stable as compared to crude gum. There was increase in crystallinity after modification and hydrolysis, determined through XRD. FTIR analysis exhibits no major transformation of functional group, only there was change in the intensity of transmittance. It is concluded that the modified and hydrolyzed gum can be used for pharmaceutical and food industry.

  11. Modified SBA-15 as the carrier for metoprolol and papaverine: Adsorption and release study

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, MichaL; Laniecki, Marek

    2011-07-15

    A series of modified SBA-15 materials were applied in drug delivery systems. The internal surface of siliceous hexagonal structure of SBA-15 was modified with different amount of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and oxidized in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The sulfonated material was loaded with metoprolol tartrate or papaverine hydrochloride. Both drugs indicated strong chemical interaction with modified mesoporous surface. The characteristic of the obtained materials was performed with XRD and DRUV-vis spectrometry, themogravimetry and nitrogen adsorption (BET) measurements. The obtained results show that modification of the mesoporous materials leads towards significant decrease of the drug delivery rate. - Graphical abstract: XRD and DSC of the -SO{sub 3}H modified SBA-15 loaded with metoprolol. Highlights: > Modification of SBA-15 internal channels with SO{sub 3}H groups. > Adsorption of metoprolol and papaverine on modified SBA-15. > Uniform and homogeneous distribution of the drugs inside the mesoporous structure of SBA-15. > Release of the supported drugs.

  12. Efficiency of colored modified box traps for sampling of tabanids

    PubMed Central

    Krčmar, Stjepan; Radolić, Vanja; Lajoš, Petar; Lukačević, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of ten differently colored modified box traps for collecting tabanids was studied in the Monjoroš Forest in eastern Croatia. A total of 5,436 specimens belonging to 16 species of tabanids grouped into six genera were collected. The genus Tabanus was the most represented with 98% of all collected tabanids. Tabanus bromius comprised 90% of tabanids collected, and was the most abundant species collected in all box traps. The majority of tabanids (74%) were collected from black, brown, bordeaux, red, and blue traps (dark group), whereas 26% were collected from green, light violet, white, orange, and yellow traps (light group). The black modified trap was the most successful and collected 20% of all collected tabanids, whereas the yellow trap was the least effective with 1%. The number of collected specimens of species T. bromius differed significantly between the dark and light group of traps. Traps with lower reflectance from green color collected 77% of T. bromius. The most species of tabanids (12) was collected in the brown trap, whereas the least number of species (6) was collected in the yellow trap. PMID:25514593

  13. Modification of membrane sulfhydryl groups in bacteriostatic action of nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Buchman, G.W. III; Hansen, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which nitrite inhibits outgrowing spores of bacillus cereus T was examined by using techniques developed earlier for nitrite analogs. The morphological stage of inhibition, cooperativity effects, effect of pH on inhibition, kinetics of protection against tritiated iodoacetate incorporation into membrane sulfhydryl groups, and protection against the bacteriocidal effect of carboxymethylation of iodoacetate indicate that nitrite acts as a membrane-directed sulfhydryl agent. The mechanism by which nitrite modifies the chemical reactivity of the sulfhyrdyl group could be either direct covalent modification or inactivation through communication with another modified membrane component. Profiles of pH effects suggest that the active agent is the protonated form of nitrite. The nitrite concentrations which modify membrane sulfhydryl activity coincide with those which have a bacteriostatic effect. These results are consistent with membrane sulfhydryl modification as a component of the mechanism of nitrite-induced bacteriostasis in this aerobic sporeformer.

  14. Nucleic acids encoding modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M consensus envelope glycoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Gao, Feng [Durham, NC; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Shaw, George M [Birmingham, AL; Kothe, Denise [Birmingham, AL; Li, Ying Ying [Hoover, AL; Decker, Julie [Alabaster, AL; Liao, Hua-Xin [Chapel Hill, NC

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates, in general, to an immunogen and, in particular, to an immunogen for inducing antibodies that neutralizes a wide spectrum of HIV primary isolates and/or to an immunogen that induces a T cell immune response. The invention also relates to a method of inducing anti-HIV antibodies, and/or to a method of inducing a T cell immune response, using such an immunogen. The invention further relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the present immunogens.

  15. Modified MCM-41 as a drug delivery system for acetylsalicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskočilová, Eliška; Luštická, Ivana; Paterová, Iva; Machová, Libuše; Červený, Libor

    2014-12-01

    The modification of prepared MCM-41 by different groups (amino, chloro and oxo) was studied. Prepared materials were treated by acetylsalicylic acid and hybrid materials were characterized, compared from the point of view of immobilized amount of active substance. The highest amount of acetylsalicylic acid was detected using methyl-tert- butyl ether as a solvent and MCM-41 without modification after 1 h (0.35 g per 1 g of the support) or MCM modified by amino group after 5 h (0.37 g per 1 g of the support) as a support. Using amino modified MCM, the longer treatment by acetylsalicylic acid converged to the equilibrium and after 24 h the immobilized amount was 0.3 g per 1 g. A dissolution in vitro study was carried out, comparing the stability of formed interactions. The slowest dissolution was detected using non-modified MCM-41 and oxo modified material.

  16. Rheology and microstructure of MDI PEG reactive prepolymer-modified bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, F. J.; Partal, P.; Martínez-Boza, F.; Gallegos, C.; Bordado, J. C. M.; Diogo, A. C.

    2006-12-01

    This paper deals with the use of a new bitumen modifier, a reactive prepolymer, based on the reaction of 4,4‧-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and a low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG). The rheological and thermal behaviours of modified bitumen containing a low MDI PEG concentration, as well as its morphology, have been studied. A relatively low amount of MDI PEG (0.5 to 1.5% wt.) yields a significant improvement in the modified bitumen rheological properties, mainly in the high in-service temperature region. In this range of temperature, the rheological properties are clearly affected by curing time at room temperature. These results indicate that chemical changes, due to the reaction of MDI isocyanate groups with the most polar groups ( OH; NH) of asphaltenes and resins, are produced. Thus, new chemical structures, non-visible by optical microscopy, slowly develop in MDI PEG modified bitumen when samples are cured at room temperature.

  17. Modifying factors in sports-related concussion: dangerous style of play.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Alex B; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-09-01

    In its third iteration, the Concussion in Sport Group identified 10 modifying factors that were presumed clinically to influence the investigation and management of concussions in sports. "Dangerous style of play" was delineated as one of these factors, most likely based on clinical lore. These modifying factors were retained in a more recent Concussion in Sport Group statement. To date, there has been no concerted effort to support or refute the inclusion of this constellation of behaviors as a modifying factor in sports-related concussion. This article reviews and summarizes the limited evidence related to a dangerous style of play in sports-related concussion, offers a preliminary assessment of its relevance as a modifying factor, and provides additional information on other aspects of player, coach, and governing body behavior and their potential effect(s) on reducing concussive injuries.

  18. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces

  19. Fabrication of bulk-modified carbon paste electrode containing alpha-PW12O40(3-) polyanion supported on modified silica gel: Preparation, electrochemistry and electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hassan; Shams, Esmaeil; Yadollahi, Bahram; Esfahani, Farhad Kabiri

    2008-01-15

    Alpha-PW(12)O(40)(3-) (PW(12)) supported on the surface of silica gel derivatized by 3-aminopropyl(triethoxy)silane (devoted briefly as SiNH(3)PW(12)) was synthesized and used as bulk modifier to fabricate a renewable three-dimensional chemically modified electrode. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. There is an ionic bonding character between PW(12) and the surface amino groups of modified silica, which greatly improves the stability of SiNH(3)PW(12)-modified carbon paste electrode due to insolubility of silica gel in water. The SiNH(3)PW(12) bulk-modified carbon paste electrode not only maintains the electrochemical activity of PW(12), but also exhibits remarkable advantages of renewability, as well as simple preparation and inexpensive material. The modified electrode offers an excellent and stable electrocatalytic response for the reduction of IO(3)(-) and hydrogen peroxide. The SiNH(3)PW(12)-CPE is successfully applied as an electrochemical detector to monitor IO(3)(-) in flow injection analysis (FIA). The catalytic peak current was found to be linear with the IO(3)(-) concentration in the range 5x10(-6) to 1x10(-3)molL(-1). The detection limit of the proposed method was found to be 3.1x10(-6)molL(-1) for IO(3)(-) determination.

  20. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  1. A modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii modeling method for hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruili; Tan, Yonghong

    2009-05-01

    A modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii modeling method for rate-independent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators is proposed in this paper. In this method, a generalized backlash operator (GBO) regarded as the elementary operator is introduced into the model so as to be more flexible for modeling of complex hysteresis. Moreover, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the model. Thus, all the parameters of the modified PI model can be determined automatically. From this way, it avoids the tedious procedure for the selection of the operator parameters by trial and error. Then, a group of proper Clarke subgradients of the GBO outputs with respect to their parameters at a non-smooth point is obtained based on the bundle method. Finally, the experimental results of applying the proposed method to the modeling of hysteresis in a piezoelectric actuator and an ultrasonic motor (USM) are illustrated, respectively.

  2. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  3. Modified therapeutic communities and adherence to traditional elements.

    PubMed

    Dye, Meredith Huey; Ducharme, Lori J; Johnson, J Aaron; Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2009-09-01

    Traditional therapeutic communities (TCs) are characterized by confrontational group therapy, treatment phases, a tenure-based resident hierarchy, and long-term residential care. Many TCs have modified the structure and intensity of the traditional model, tailored services for specific client populations, and hired more professionally trained staff. This study examines the extent to which modified TCs are able to retain the underlying core technology of the TC. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 380 self-identified TCs, six traditional TC elements are identified. Results from a structural equation model indicate that offering services for specific populations and professionalization of staff has limited impact on the six TC elements. Modifications to structure and intensity of TC programming evidenced the strongest effect. Specifically, outpatient-only TCs showed significantly lower adherence to five of the six elements. Short-term residential programs showed a similar negative trend. Findings suggest selected modifications are possible without significantly impacting the TC model's core technology.

  4. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A.; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C. R.; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  5. Strength of biodegradable polypropylene tapes filled with a modified starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinidiktova, N. S.; Ermolovich, O. A.; Goldade, V. A.; Pinchuk, L. S.

    2006-05-01

    The possibility of creating composite materials with high deformation and strength characteristics based on polypropylene (PP) and a natural polysaccharide in the form of a modified starch (MS) has been studied. The modified starch is shown to interact chemically with functional groups of PP, thereby positively affecting the physicomechanical properties, structure, and water absorption properties of films and oriented flat fibers based on starch-filled PP. The strength characteristics of both oriented and unoriented composites are 1.5-2.0 times as high as those of the initial PP. The water absorption ability of the materials varies symbatically with content of MS, which points to the dominant contribution of interactions at the PP-MS interface. The introduction of MS into synthetic polymers offers a possibility of producing new ecologically safe materials with high strength characteristics.

  6. Parent Groups in Behavior Modification: Training or Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Paul M.; And Others

    This paper describes a model in which parents were taught to modify the behavior of their children. Parents were referred to the group after only brief screening consisting of a lengthy questionnaire, an intake interview with a clinician at a mental health center, and perhaps a brief discussion of the case at a disposition conference. Referrals to…

  7. Chemical modification of corn fiber with ion-exchanging groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreated corn fiber was chemically modified with quaternary ammonium group or/and sulfonated with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid under vacuum or at ambient pressure. The soluble fraction was dialyzed through 1 kDa MWCO dialysis tubing and the material retained inside the tubing was filtere...

  8. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear

  9. The in-situ generation of silica reinforcement in modified polydimethylsiloxane elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Prabakar, S; Bates, S.E.; Black, E.P.; Ulibarri, T.A.

    1996-06-01

    Structure and properties of a series of modified polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers reinforced by {ital in situ} generated silic particles were investigated. The PDMS elastomer was modified by systematically varying the molecular weight between reactive groups incorporated into the backbone. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and partial hydrolyzate of TEOS were used to generate silic particles. Chemistry and phase structure of the materials were investigated by {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and swelling experiments.

  10. Functional group analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.T. Jr.; Patterson, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    Analytical methods for functional group analysis are reviewed. Literature reviewed is from the period of December 1983 through November 1985 and presents methods for determining the following compounds: acids, acid halides, active hydrogen, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, amines, amino acids, anhydrides, aromatic hydrocarbons, azo compounds, carbohydrates, chloramines, esters, ethers, halogen compounds, hydrazines, isothiocyanates, nitro compounds, nitroso compounds, organometallic compounds, oxiranes, peroxides, phenols, phosphorus compounds, quinones, silicon compounds, sulfates, sulfonyl chlorides, thioamides, thiols, and thiosemicarbazones. 150 references.

  11. Management Agenda Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Report FY04-4 • Recommendations related to business management priorities for the Secretary of Defense February...Business Board (DBB) formed this Task Group to assess and make recommendations to the Department of Defense on management priorities for the next four...This list should be drawn from the four primary areas of DBB focus over the past three years: human resources, financial management, acquisition

  12. Endogenous Group Formation via Unproductive Costs

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, Jason A.; Iannaccone, Laurence R.; Makowsky, Michael D.; Rubin, Jared

    2013-01-01

    Sacrifice is widely believed to enhance cooperation in churches, communes, gangs, clans, military units, and many other groups. We find that sacrifice can also work in the lab, apart from special ideologies, identities, or interactions. Our subjects play a modified VCM game—one in which they can voluntarily join groups that provide reduced rates of return on private investment. This leads to both endogenous sorting (because free-riders tend to reject the reduced-rate option) and substitution (because reduced private productivity favours increased club involvement). Seemingly unproductive costs thus serve to screen out free-riders, attract conditional cooperators, boost club production, and increase member welfare. The sacrifice mechanism is simple and particularly useful where monitoring difficulties impede punishment, exclusion, fees, and other more standard solutions. PMID:24808623

  13. Study on oil absorbency of succinic anhydride modified banana cellulose in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wenting; Sheng, Zhanwu; Shen, Yixiao; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Lili; Yang, Jingsong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-05-05

    Banana cellulose contained number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups which were succinylated to be hydrophobic groups with high oil affinity. Succinic anhydride was used to modify banana cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in this study. The modified banana cellulose had a high oil absorption capacity. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and molar ratio of succinic anhydride to anhydroglucose on the degree of substitution of modified banana cellulose were evaluated. The optimal reaction condition was at a ratio of succinic anhydride and anhydroglucose 6:1 (m:m), reaction time 60min and temperature 90°C. The maximum degree of acylation reaction reached to 0.37. The characterization analysis of the modified banana cellulose was performed using X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetry. The oil absorption capacity and kinetics of the modified banana cellulose were evaluated at the modified cellulose dose (0.025-0.3g), initial oil amount (5-30g), and temperature (15-35°C) conditions. The maximum oil absorption capacity was 32.12g/g at the condition of the cellulose dose (0.05g), initial oil amount (25g) and temperature (15°C). The kinetics of oil absorption of the cellulose followed a pseudo-second-order model. The results of this study demonstrated that the modified banana cellulose could be used as an efficient bio-sorbent for oil adsorption.

  14. Modified LaRC(TM)-IA Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.; Hou, Tan H.; Working, Dennis C.

    1994-01-01

    Modified versions of thermoplastic polyimide LaRC(TM)-IA incorporate various amounts of additional, rigid moieties into backbones of LaRC(TM)-IA molecules. Modified versions more resistant to solvents and exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures, yet retain melt-flow processability of unmodified LaRC(TM)-IA.

  15. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for 70+ Adults. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. I...

  16. Evaluating Zeolite-Modified Sensors: towards a faster set of chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berna, A. Z.; Vergara, A.; Trincavelli, M.; Huerta, R.; Afonja, A.; Parkin, I. P.; Binions, R.; Trowell, S.

    2011-09-01

    The responses of zeolite-modified sensors, prepared by screen printing layers of chromium titanium oxide (CTO), were compared to unmodified tin oxide sensors using amplitude and transient responses. For transient responses we used a family of features, derived from the exponential moving average (EMA), to characterize chemo-resistive responses. All sensors were tested simultaneously against 20 individual volatile compounds from four chemical groups. The responses of the two types of sensors showed some independence. The zeolite-modified CTO sensors discriminated compounds better using either amplitude response or EMA features and CTO-modified sensors also responded three times faster.

  17. Functionalized graphene with polymer toughener as novel interface modifier for property-tailored poly(lactic acid)/graphene nanocomposites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, an effective strategy for engineering the interfacial compatibility between graphene and polylactic acid (PLA) was developed by manipulating the functionalization of graphene and introducing an epoxy-containing elastomer modifier. Curing between the functional groups of the modified gr...

  18. Group Variables and Gaming Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dwight R.; Niebuhr, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study designed to determine the effects of group cohesiveness on group performance in a management game and, to examine the effects voluntary v assigned group membership has on the cohesiveness of the group. (Author/LLS)

  19. Viscosity function in polymer-modified asphalts.

    PubMed

    Stastna, J; Zanzotto, L; Vacin, O J

    2003-03-01

    Asphalt is a multidisperse micellar system with rheological behavior resembling that of a low-molecular-weight polymer. Nowadays, asphalt is frequently modified by blending it with various polymers. Such modified asphalt has rheological properties that differ from the properties of the base asphalt. It is quite common to study asphalt in dynamic experiments. Such studies, however useful, cannot reveal all characteristic features of polymer-modified asphalts. Asphalt modification by polymers is strongly manifested in the region of transitions from a viscoelastic fluid to the Newtonian fluid. The viscosity study in this region can reveal behavior characteristic of the used polymer modifier, thus complementing the dynamic studies of these materials. The viscosity of base asphalt modified by styrene-butadiene-styrene and by ethylene-vinyl acetate polymers (in several concentrations) is studied and discussed in this note.

  20. Genistein Modified Polymer Blends for Hemodialysis Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Teng; Kyu, Thein; Define, Linda; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    A soybean-derived phytochemical called genistein was used as a modifying agent to polyether sulfone/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PES/PVP) blends to produce multi-functional hemodialysis membranes. With the aid of phase diagrams of PES/PVP/genistein blends, asymmetric porous membranes were fabricated by coagulating in non-solvent. Both unmodified and genistein modified PES/PVP membranes were shown to be non-cytotoxic to the blood cells. Unmodified PES/PVP membranes were found to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, whereas the genistein modified membranes exhibited suppression for ˜60% of the ROS levels. Also, the genistein modified membranes revealed significant suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Moreover, addition of PVP to PES showed the reduced trend of platelet adhesion and then leveled off. However, the modified membranes exhibited suppression of platelet adhesion at low genistein loading, but beyond 15 wt%, the platelet adhesion level rised up.

  1. Aspergillus awamori Feeding Modifies Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Ahmed A.; Ohtsuka, Akira; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kunioki

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, an experiment was conducted to show that A. awamori modifies lipid metabolism in mammals. A total number of 24 rats at 6 weeks of age were divided into 2 groups (10% and 30% fat dietary groups), and each group was further divided into control and experimental groups (6 rats per group). Rats in the experimental groups were given diets containing 0.05% A. awamori. The diets were administered for 3 weeks to evaluate the effects of A. awamori on growth, plasma lipid profile, and the expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver. After the rats were fed A. awamori, body weight gain was increased, while food intake was decreased; therefore, food efficiency was increased in both A. awamori groups. Plasma triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and glucose levels were decreased, but plasma HDL cholesterol levels were increased. Furthermore, saturated fatty acids were decreased while; unsaturated fatty acids were increased in the liver. The liver mRNA levels of FAS, ACC, delta-6-desaturase, and HMG-CoA reductase were increased, while the mRNA level of LDL receptor was decreased. From these data, it is proposed that A. awamori could be used as an effective probiotic to prevent lifestyle-related diseases in humans. PMID:23841078

  2. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  3. [Modified Rives technic in the treatment of recurrent inguinal hernia].

    PubMed

    Zuvela, M; Milićević, M; Galun, D; Bulajić, P; Raznatović, Z; Lekić, N; Basarić, D; Palibrk, I; Petrović, M

    2003-01-01

    After the introduction of prosthetic material in hernia surgery the fundamental changes in operative strategy occurred. This is because the coverage of myopectineal orifitium with non-absorbable prosthesis decreases the incidence of recurrences. Because of the appearance of lateral re-recurrences after the classical Rives procedure, we modified the operative technique. The modified Rives technique consists of the following: always polypropilen mesh 15x10 cm; creation of the new internal inguinal ring between Poupart's ligament and mesh; no lateral notching the mesh and anchoring mesh 2-3 cm from the medial, inferior, lateral and superior edge. During the period January 2001-December 2003, 34 cases of recurrent hernias were operated on 7th dept. of I Surgical Clinic of CCS. The recurrences were managed by classical (10/34) or modified Rives technique through direct inguinal approach (22/34), less frequently Lichtenstein procedure (1/34) and McVay (1/34) technique. Among 10 patients with recurrent inguinal hernias managed by classical Rives technique 2 re-recurrences appeared (indirect and interstitial) and 2 cases of infection (immediately after the operation or 7 months after the operation), and in the group of 22 cases with recurrent inguinal hernias managed by modified Rives technique the aim complications didn't appear. Using the modified Rives technique we managed the primary hernias in 56 cases without recurrences and infections. The modified Rives technique, because of the way of mesh fixation (all around), no lateral notching of mesh and remaining hem in all directions secures abdominal wall protection 2-3 cm from the line of fixation and prevents any movement of the mesh. This procedure enables management of all inguinal hernias regardless to their size and full protection of the medial, femoral and lateral inguinal triangle. The modified Rives technique is the technique of choice for big multiple defects (giant inguino-scrotal and re

  4. A randomized comparative study on modified Joel-Cohen incision versus Pfannenstiel incision for cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Shyama Prasad; Bhattarcharjee, Nabendu; Das Mahanta, Sabysachi; Naskar, Animesh; Bhattacharyya, Sanjoy Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pfanennstiel incision is the most commonly used incision for cesarean section, but may not be the best. This study compared the modified Joel-Cohen incision with the Pfannenstiel incision to evaluate whether techniques to open the abdomen might influence operative time, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Material and Methods: In a randomized comparative trial, 302 women with gestational age >34 weeks, requiring cesarean section, were randomly assigned to either modified Joel-Cohen incision or Pfannenstiel incision for entry into the peritoneal cavity. The primary outcome measure was total time required for performing operation and secondary outcome measures were baby extraction time, number of haemostatic procedures used in the abdominal wall, postoperative morbidity, postoperative hospital stay and neonatal outcome. Results: Mean total operative time was significantly less in the modified Joel-Cohen group as compared to the Pfannenstiel group (29.81 vs 32.67 min, p<0.0001, 95%CI=2.253 to 3.467). Time taken to deliver the baby and haemostatic procedures required during operation were also significantly less in the modified Joel-Cohen group as compared to the Pfannenstiel group. Requirement of strong analgesics was higher in the Pfannenstiel group (53.64% vs 21.85%, p<0.0001). There was no statically significant difference in the incidence of postoperative wound complications but postoperative stay in hospital was significantly less in the modified Joel-Cohen group (p=0.002). Neonatal outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion: The modified Joel-Cohen incision for entry into peritoneal cavity during cesarean section is associated with reduced mean total operative and baby extraction times with less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay, which may be beneficial and cost effective. PMID:24592067

  5. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  6. Asymmetry of the Modified Illinois Change of Direction Test Impacts Young Elite Soccer Players’ Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rouissi, Mehdi; Chtara, Moktar; Berriri, Ahmed; Owen, Adam; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Background The modified Illinois change of direction test (MICODT) is an asymmetrical test because the numbers of changes of direction performed to the right and to the left are unequal. Therefore, it is possible that the asymmetry of this test may influence agility performance testing. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare two opposite/mirrored versions of the modified Illinois change of direction test. Patients and Methods Forty-six right-footed soccer players (17.2 ± 1.6 years-old) participated in the study. Players performed a modified Illinois change of direction test and a mirrored version of this test “inverted modified Illinois change of direction test” (I/MICODT) in a randomized and counter-balanced order. Paired t-test was used to determine whether significant differences existed between time performances of the tests as a within-subjects measure. Players were thereafter stratified into MICODT group or I/MICODT group according to their best performance and independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups. Results The analysis revealed no significant difference in time performance between the two versions of test as a within-subjects measure (P > 0.05, ES = 0.05). However, significant better time performances among inverted modified Illinois change of direction group (52% of players) were found when compared to the modified Illinois change of direction group (48% of players) (P < 0.04, ES = 0.66). Conclusions The modified Illinois change of direction test must be considered as an asymmetrical test because it underestimates more than half of the players’ agility performances. Therefore, fitness coaches should take these results into account when using this test. PMID:27625760

  7. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  8. Chemical synthesis of long RNAs with terminal 5'-phosphate groups.

    PubMed

    Pradère, Ugo; Halloy, François; Hall, Jonathan

    2017-03-12

    Long structured RNAs are useful biochemical and biological tools. They are usually prepared enzymatically, but this precludes their site-specific modification with functional groups for chemical biology studies. One solution is to perform solid-phase synthesis of multiple RNAs loaded with 5'-terminal phosphate groups, so that RNAs can be concatenated using template ligation reactions. However, there are currently no readily available reagents suitable for the incorporation of the phosphate group into long RNAs by solid-phase synthesis. Here we describe an easy-to-prepare phosphoramidite reagent suitable for the chemical introduction of 5'-terminal phosphate groups into long RNAs. The phosphate is protected by a dinitrobenzhydryl group that serves as an essential lipophilic group for the separation of oligonucleotide by-products. The phosphate is unmasked quantitatively by brief UV irradiation. We demonstrate the value of this reagent in the preparation of a library of long structured RNAs that are site-specifically modified with functional groups.

  9. Local Group Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Delgado, David

    2013-11-01

    List of contributors; List of participants; Preface; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1. The formation of the Milky Way in the CDM paradigm Ken Freeman; 2. Dark matter content and tidal effects in Local Group dwarf galaxies Steven R. Majewski; 3. Notes on the missing satellites problem James Bullock; 4. The Milky Way satellite galaxies Pavel Kroupa; 5. Stellar tidal streams Rodrigo Ibata; 6. Tutorial: the analysis of colour-magnitude diagrams David Valls-Gabaud; 7. Tutorial: modeling tidal streams using N-body simulations Jorge Peñarrubia.

  10. Theory and modeling group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Theory and Modeling Group meeting was to identify scientists engaged or interested in theoretical work pertinent to the Max '91 program, and to encourage theorists to pursue modeling which is directly relevant to data which can be expected to result from the program. A list of participants and their institutions is presented. Two solar flare paradigms were discussed during the meeting -- the importance of magnetic reconnection in flares and the applicability of numerical simulation results to solar flare studies.

  11. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  12. Systems special investigation group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An interim report concerning the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is presented by a Boeing Systems special investigation group (SIG). The SIG activities were divided into five engineering disciplines: electrical, mechanical, optics, thermal, and batteries/solar cells. The responsibilities of the SIG included the following areas: support de-integration at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); testing of hardware at Boeing; review of principal investigator (PI) test plans and test results; support of test activities at PI labs; and collation of all test results into the SIG database.

  13. Investigating GM Risk Perceptions: A Survey of Anti-GM and Environmental Campaign Group Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Clare; Moran, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates how members of anti-GM campaign groups and environment groups perceive the risks and benefits of genetically modified (GM) technology in food and agriculture. The study targeted these groups as the most risk-averse sector of society when considering GM technology. Survey respondents were asked to rank the current and future…

  14. Influences on Member Assimilation in Work Groups in High-Reliability Organizations: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Karen Kroman; McPhee, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    This multilevel investigation examined the effect of group interaction and its influence on individual-level membership variables and group assimilation. The study is based on a model of group socialization developed by Moreland and Levine (1982) and was modified in this study to investigate the development and maintenance of highly interdependent…

  15. Highly efficient adsorption of chlorophenols onto chemically modified chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang-Chun; Meng, Xiang-Guang; Fu, Jing-Wei; Yang, Yu-Chong; Yang, Peng; Mi, Chun

    2014-02-01

    A novel chemically modified chitosan CS-SA-CD with phenol and β-cyclodextrin groups was prepared. The adsorptions of phenol, 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on the functional chitosan from aqueous solution were investigated. CS-SA-CD exhibited excellent adsorption ability for chlorophenols especially for DCP and TCP. The maximum adsorption capacities of phenol, 2-CP, 4-CP, DCP and TCP on CS-SA-CD were 59.74, 70.52, 96.43, 315.46 and 375.94 mg/g, respectively. The scanning electron microscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses revealed that the introduction of phenol group changed the surface morphology and surface properties of chitosan. The modified chitosan CS-SA-CD possesses larger surface areas (4.72 m2/g), pore volume (7.29 × 10-3 mL/g) and average pore diameter (59.99 Å) as compared to those of chitosan 3.27 m2/g, 2.00 × 10-3 mL/g and 15.95 Å, respectively. The enhanced adsorption of chlorophenols was also attributed to the interaction of hydrogen bond between Cl atom and sbnd OH group. The adsorption of chlorophenols on CS-SA-CD followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Adsorbent could be regenerated easily and the regenerated CS-SA-CD remained 80-91% adsorption efficiency.

  16. Arginine feeding modifies cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed Central

    De Nicola, L; Thomson, S C; Wead, L M; Brown, M R; Gabbai, F B

    1993-01-01

    Glycine (G) infusion causes renal vasodilation mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity is characterized by preglomerular vasoconstriction and decreased efferent arteriolar tone probably related to reduced NO and angiotensin II, respectively. L-Arginine (ARG) is a precursor to NO. To test the hypothesis that chronic CsA decreases renal NO activity, we compared the glomerular hemodynamic response to glycine infusion in rats after 8 d of CsA (30 mg/kg per d s.c.), CsA and ARG (1.6 g/kg per d p.o.) (A/CsA), and in two groups of pair-fed controls (CON, A/CON). Single nephron GFR (SNGFR), single nephron plasma flow (SNPF), glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure gradient (delta P), proximal tubular reabsorption (APR), and kidney tissue angiotensin II (AIIk) were measured before and during G. CsA was associated with baseline decrements in SNGFR, SNPF, delta P, and AIIk, and with a blunted hemodynamic response to G. In CON, ARG did not affect baseline hemodynamics or modify the response to G. In CsA, ARG decreased baseline preglomerular resistance and restored the glomerular hemodynamic response to G. G was associated with a significant increase in AIIk in both CON and CsA. These findings suggest that (a) CsA is associated with decreased AIIk, and (b) CsA may diminish NO activity within the kidney, and that this capacity may be partially restored by arginine feeding. PMID:8408638

  17. AO Group Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2005-10-04

    The Adaptive Optics (AO) Group in I Division develops and tests a broad range of advanced wavefront control technologies. Current applications focus on: Remote sensing, High power lasers, Astronomy, and Human vision. In the area of remote sensing, the AO Group leads a collaborative effort with LLNL's Nonproliferation, Arms Control & International Security (NAI) Directorate on Enhanced Surveillance Imaging. The ability to detect and identify individual people or vehicles from long-range is an important requirement for proliferation detection and homeland security. High-resolution imaging along horizontal paths through the atmosphere is limited by turbulence, which blurs and distorts the image. For ranges over {approx}one km, visible image resolution can be reduced by over an order of magnitude. We have developed an approach based on speckle imaging that can correct the turbulence-induced blurring and provide high resolution imagery. The system records a series of short exposure images which freeze the atmospheric effects. We can then estimate the image magnitude and phase using a bispectral estimation algorithm which cancels the atmospheric effects while maintaining object information at the diffraction limit of the imaging system.

  18. Group Processes in Experiential Training Groups in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitza, Amy

    2011-01-01

    While group counseling has the potential to be an effective form of intervention in sub-Saharan Africa, research on group processes that would help guide group interventions in the region is scarce. This study investigated therapeutic factors and group climate in experiential training groups in Botswana. The Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ;…

  19. Group Psychotherapy and Group Methods in Community Mental Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, E. Mansell

    An ad hoc committee of the American Group Psychotherapy Association (AGPA) was charged to investigate the use of group methods in Community mental health centers (CMHC), to assess the conceptual basis for the use of various group methods, to relate the use of group methods to group psychotherapy, and to evaluate trends in this area of mental…

  20. Group Development in Self-Help Groups for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuehrer, Ann E.; Keys, Christopher B.

    Research on mutual-aid groups has begun to examine reasons for joining and outcomes, but few investigations have focused on the processes of group development or interaction. The applicability of a therapy-group development model to student mutual-aid groups was examined to determine the extent to which specified formal group structure and…

  1. A modified siphon sampler for shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    A modified siphon sampler (or 'single-stage sampler') was developed to sample shallow water at closely spaced vertical intervals. The modified design uses horizontal rather than vertical sample bottles. Previous siphon samplers are limited to water about 20 centimeters (cm) or more in depth; the modified design can sample water 10 cm deep. Several mounting options were used to deploy the modified siphon sampler in shallow bedrock streams of Middle Tennessee, while minimizing alteration of the stream bed. Sampling characteristics and limitations of the modified design are similar to those of the original design. Testing showed that the modified sampler collects unbiased samples of suspended silt and clay. Similarity of the intake to the original siphon sampler suggests that the modified sampler would probably take downward-biased samples of suspended sand. Like other siphon samplers, it does not sample isokinetically, and the efficiency of sand sampling can be expected to change with flow velocity. The sampler needs to be located in the main flow of the stream, and is subject to damage from rapid flow and floating debris. Water traps were added to the air vents to detect the flow of water through the sampler, which can cause a strong upward bias in sampled suspended-sediment concentration. Water did flow through the sampler, in some cases even when the top of the air vent remained above water. Air vents need to be extended well above maximum water level to prevent flow through the sampler.

  2. Genetically modified pig models for human diseases.

    PubMed

    Fan, Nana; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-02-20

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies. Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases, some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology. Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy, physiology, and genome. Thus, pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases. This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological, cardiovascular, and diabetic disorders. We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  3. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that some lifestyle factors are linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many of these are potentially modifiable and include smoking, physical activity, education, social engagement, cognitive stimulation, and diet. Modification of most of these factors has other health advantages, increasing the potential benefits of modifying the individual's lifestyle. Unfortunately, most of the current evidence is based on observational data, and where human trials have been performed they have used surrogate outcomes rather than the development of Alzheimer's disease. For many of these modifiable lifestyle factors, such trials may never be performed, and an individual's choice may need to be based on the available evidence.

  4. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

  5. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  6. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-30

    As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)'s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed - a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not

  7. Sofia Science Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to enable the Principal Investigator (P.I.) to travel to and participate in the meetings and activities of the NASA SOFIA Science Working Group (SSWG), and to spend time working on some of the associated technical issues relating to the SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. The SOFIA Science Working Group was established to help develop the plans and specifications for the next-generation airborne observatory ("SOFIA"), which is now under development. The P.I. was asked to serve on the SSWG due to his experience in airborne astronomy: he has developed several astronomical instruments for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory NASA's previous airborne astronomy platform (which was decommissioned in 1995 in preparation for SOFIA). SOFIA, which will be a 747 SP aircraft carrying a 2.7 meter diameter telescope, is a joint project sponsored by NASA and DLR (the German space agency), and is now under development by a consortium including Universities Space Research Association (USRA), Raytheon, Sterling Software, and United Airlines. Further details on the SOFIA project can be found on the internet at http: //sofia. arc. nasa. gov. Rather than develop the SOFIA observatory in-house, NASA decided to privatize the project by issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP). The respondents to this RFP were consortia of private organizations which together had the required facilities and expertise to be able to carry out the project; the winner was the group led by USRA. One of the main roles of the SSWG was to help develop the technical specifications for the SOFIA observatory. In particular, the SSWG provided advice to NASA on the specifications that were written into the RFP, particularly those which had an important impact on the scientific productivity of the observatory. These specifications were discussed at the meetings of the SSWG, which were held primarily at NASA/Ames (in California) and at NASA Headquarters (in Washington

  8. Activated Carbon Modified with Copper for Adsorption of Propanethiol

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Tirano, Joaquín; Salamanca, Brisa; Giraldo, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbons were characterized texturally and chemically before and after treatment, using surface area determination in the BET model, Boehm titration, TPR, DRX and immersion calorimetry. The adsorption capacity and the kinetics of sulphur compound removal were determined by gas chromatography. It was established that the propanethiol retention capacity is dependent on the number of oxygenated groups generated on the activated carbon surface and that activated carbon modified with CuO at 0.25 M shows the highest retention of propanethiol. Additionally is proposed a mechanism of decomposition of propenothiol with carbon-copper system. PMID:20479992

  9. New functionalizable alkyltrichlorosilane surface modifiers for biosensor and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Blaszykowski, Christophe; Sheikh, Sonia; Benvenuto, Pasquale; Thompson, Michael

    2012-02-07

    We report herein three unprecedented alkyltrichlorosilane surface modifiers bearing pentafluorophenyl ester (PFP), benzothiosulfonate (BTS), or novel β-propiolactone (BPL) functionalizable terminal groups. Evidence is provided that these molecules can be prepared in very high purity (as assessed by NMR) through a last synthetic step of Pt-catalyzed alkene hydrosilylation then directly employed, without further purification, for the surface modification of quartz and medical grade stainless steel. Subsequent on-surface functionalizations with amine and thiol model molecules demonstrate the potential of these molecular adlayers to be important platforms for future applications in the bioanalytical and biomedical fields.

  10. Multispectral Video-Microscope Modified for Skin Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubins, U.; Zaharans, J.; Ļihačova, I.; Spigulis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial DinoLite AD413 digital microscope was modified for skin diagnostics purposes. The original LED ring (4 white and 4 ultraviolet light emitters) of microscope was replaced by a custom-designed 16-LED ring module consisting of four LED groups (450, 545, 660 and 940 nm), and an onboard LED controller with USB hub was added. The video acquisition and LED switching are performed using custom-designed Matlab software which provides real-time spectral analysis of multi-spectral images and calculation of skin chromophore optical density. The developed multispectral video-microscope is mainly meant for diagnostics of skin malformations, e.g. skin cancerous lesions.

  11. Accurate Critical Parameters for the Modified Lennard-Jones Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Fuchizaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    The critical parameters of the modified Lennard-Jones system were examined. The isothermal-isochoric ensemble was generated by conducting a molecular dynamics simulation for the system consisting of 6912, 8788, 10976, and 13500 particles. The equilibrium between the liquid and vapor phases was judged from the chemical potential of both phases upon establishing the coexistence envelope, from which the critical temperature and density were obtained invoking the renormalization group theory. The finite-size scaling enabled us to finally determine the critical temperature, pressure, and density as Tc = 1.0762(2), pc = 0.09394(17), and ρc = 0.331(3), respectively.

  12. Female sexual function following a novel transobturator sling procedure without paraurethral dissection (modified-TOT)

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Burak; Onuk, Ozkan; Eroglu, Ali; Gezmis, Tugrul Cem; Aydın, Memduh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To determine whether there is a difference in sexual function after modified and classical TOT procedures. Materials and Methods Of the 80 sexually active women with SUI, 36 underwent an original outside-in TOT as described by Delorme, and 44 underwent modified TOT procedure, between 2011 and 2015. The severity of incontinence and sexual function were evaluated using International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires preoperatively and 3 months after surgery. Results The postoperative ICIQ-SF score was significantly lower than the preoperative ICIQ-SF score in both groups (p=0.004 for modified TOT and p=0.002 for classical TOT). There was no significant difference in the ICIQ-SF score reduction between the two groups (14.1±2.1 vs. 14.4±1.9; p=0.892). Complication rates according to the Clavien-Dindo classification were also similar in both groups. In both groups, difference between preoperative and postoperative FSFI scores revealed a statistically significant improvement in all domains. Comparison of postoperative 3-month FSFI scores of modified and classical TOT groups showed statistically significant differences in arousal, lubrication and orgasm domains. Desire, satisfaction, pain and total FSFI scores did not differ significantly between two groups. Conclusion The modified TOT technique is a simple, reliable and minimal invasive procedure. The cure rate of incontinence and complication rates are the same as those of the classical TOT technique. However, due to the positive effects of minimal tissue damage on sexual arousal and orgasmic function, modified TOT has an advantage over the classical TOT. PMID:28124537

  13. Cytotoxicity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with chlorhexidine digluconate on primary cultured human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Shi, Qi; Qing, Ying; Yao, Yi-chen; Cao, Ying-guang

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and to evaluate the biosecurity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX as a new method of root canal treatment. Tissue samples taken from human gingiva were primarily cultured and passaged. Cells from passages 3-7 were used. HGFs were treated by modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX for 0 min (control group), 30 s, 1 min, 1.5 min, 3 min, 5 min, and 10 min, respectively, and then they were incubated for 0, 24, and 48 h. After that, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was applied to analyze the cytotoxicity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX on HGFs. There was no significant difference between the 0 h group treated with the modified nonequilibrium plasma for 1 min and the control group (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences between all the other treated groups and the control group (P<0.05). When treated for 1.5 min or shorter, the cell viability was obviously increased; while treated for 3 min or longer, it was obviously reduced. Moreover, when successively cultured for 0, 24, and 48 h, cell viability was decreased at first and then increased in the 3-min-treated and 5-min-treated groups. The modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX was of no influence on cell viability in 1.5 min treatment, and it could be safely used on root canal treatment.

  14. Renormalization Group Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    Complex physical systems sometimes have statistical behavior characterized by power- law dependence on the parameters of the system and spatial variability with no particular characteristic scale as the parameters approach critical values. The renormalization group (RG) approach was developed in the fields of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory to derive quantitative predictions of such behavior in cases where conventional methods of analysis fail. Techniques based on these ideas have since been extended to treat problems in many different fields, and in particular, the behavior of turbulent fluids. This lecture will describe a relatively simple but nontrivial example of the RG approach applied to the diffusion of photons out of a stellar medium when the photons have wavelengths near that of an emission line of atoms in the medium.

  15. NOSS science working group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The members of the NOSS Science Working Group are John Apel, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratories/NOAA; Tim Barnett, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Francis Bretherton (chairman), National Center for Atmospheric Research; Otis Brown, University of Miami; Joost Businger, University of Washington; Garrett Campbell, NCAR; Mark Cane, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Robert Edwards, National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA; James Mueller, Naval Postgraduate School; Peter Niiler, Oregon State University; James J. O'Brien, Florida State University; Norman Phillips, National Meteorological Center/NOAA; Owen Phillips, The Johns Hopkins University; Stephen Piacsek, NSTL Station, NORDA; Trevor Platt, Bedford Institute of Oceanography; Stephen Pond, University of British Columbia; Stanley Ruttenberg (executive secretary), NCAR; William Schmitz, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Jerry Schubel, State University of New York; Robert Stewart, Scripps; Norbert Untersteiner, NOAA; and Alan Weinstein, Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility.

  16. Working Group Report: Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  17. SOFIA Science Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuldzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The SOFIA Science Working Group was established to help develop the plans and specifications for the next-generation airborne observatory ("SOFIA"), which is now under development. The P.I. has developed several astronomical instruments for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, NASA's previous airborne astronomy platform (which was decommisioned in 1995 in preparation for SOFIA). SOFIA, which will be a 747 SP aircraft carrying a 2.7 meter diameter telescope, is a joint project sponsored by NASA and DLR (the German space agency), and is now under development by a consortium including Universities Space Research Association (USRA), Raytheon, Sterling Software, and United Airlines. Rather than develop the SOFIA observatory in-house, NASA decided to privatize the project by issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP). The respondents to this RFP were consortia of private organizations which together had the required facilities and expertise to be able to carry out the project; the winner was the group led by USRA. One of the main roles of the SSWG was to help develop the technical specifications for the SOFIA observatory. In particular, the SSWG provided advice to NASA on the specifications that were written into the RFP, particularly those which had an important impact on the scientific productivity of the observatory. These specifications were discussed at the meetings of the SSWG, which were held primarily at NASA/Ames (in California) and at NASA Headquarters (in Washington DC). Apart from these meetings, members of the SSWG were expected to perform more detailed analyses of the impact of certain parameters and specifications on the performance of astronomical instruments. The SSWG ended its activities with the selection of the USRA team in January 1997.

  18. Thermosensitive polymer-modified gold nanoparticles with sensitive fluorescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chunhua; Dong, Qiujing; Qian, Meijuan; Zhang, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Two types of thermosensitive polymer-modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs), P(DMAM-co-MADMAC)-modified GNPs (GNPs@PDM) and P(NIPAM-co-MADMAC)-modified GNPs (GNPs@PNM), are fabricated by the "grafting through" polymerization technique. The as-prepared GNPs are characterized by UV-vis, TEM, XPS, TGA, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The thermosensitivity and fluorescence of the GNPs are investigated. It is found that all GNPs aqueous solutions but GNPs@PDM1 exhibit thermosensitivity originated from thermosensitive polymer chains and sensitive fluorescence from the dimethylaminochalcone group. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the GNPs decreases with the increasing content of MADMAC unit in the GNPs. The GNPs aqueous solution shows weak fluorescence after the temperature increases from 25 °C to 45 °C, or after β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is added. Furthermore, it exhibits strong fluorescence when the solvent is changed to ethanol or chloroform, and the fluorescent wavelength undergoes a blue shift from ethanol to chloroform.

  19. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zakkar, Mustafa; Guida, Gustavo; Angelini, Gianni D

    2015-03-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was the impact of modified ultrafiltration on adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in terms of inflammatory and metabolic changes, blood loss and early clinical outcomes. A total of 155 papers were identified using the search as described below. Of these, six papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question as they reported data to reach conclusions regarding the issues of interest for this review. The author, date and country of publication, patient group, study type and weaknesses and relevant outcomes were tabulated. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery seems to attenuate the levels of inflammatory molecules associated with surgery, reduces blood loss and blood transfusion and improves cardiac output, index and systemic vascular resistance. However, this was not translated in any reduction in length of stay in intensive care unit or hospital. Most studies were single-centre prospective non-blinded trials that included a small cohort of elective coronary artery bypass grafting patients, which makes it underpowered to provide unbiased evidence regarding clinical outcomes. Properly designed and conducted prospective randomized studies are required to answer whether the beneficial effect of modified ultrafiltration on systemic inflammatory molecules associated with surgery can translate with improvement in clinical outcome.

  20. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  1. The Group Tree of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ping, Ki

    1994-01-01

    Describes a group activity that uses a tree as a metaphor to reflect both group and personal growth during adventure activities. The tree's roots represent the group's formation, the branches and leaves represent the group's diversity and capabilities, and the seeds represent the personal learning and growth that took place within the group.…

  2. New Developments in Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T., Ed.

    Group counseling is a rapidly changing field. This collection of 31 digests examines various aspects of group process and group counseling. The digests are arranged under different subject headings. In section 1, the nature of group work is examined, along with the evolution of group work training since 1990. The second section looks at…

  3. Naive Theories of Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined children's (ages 3-10, Total N = 235) naive theories of social groups, in particular, their expectations about how group memberships constrain social interactions. After introduction to novel groups of people, preschoolers (ages 3-5) reliably expected agents from one group to harm members of the other group (rather than…

  4. The Neuroscience of Group Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Samantha; Decety, Jean; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to uncover the neural activity associated with specific in-group and out-group word related stimuli, to examine the neuroanatomical basis of group membership concept representation, and investigate to what extent neural processes represent "in-group" differently from "out-group". Participants' brain activity was measured…

  5. Effects of modifiers on the hydrophobicity of SiO2 films from nano-husk ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kejing; Sun, Qingwen; Guo, Yanqing; Dong, Shuhua

    2013-07-01

    Nano-husk ashes were prepared by burning rice-husk with self-propagating method. The super-hydrophobic SiO2 films from nano-husk ash were prepared by sol-gel method using hydroxy silicone oil (HSO), hexamethyldisilazane (HMS), or methyl triethoxysilane (MTS) as modifiers. The effects of modifiers on the hydrophobic property of SiO2 films were studied, and the performances were characterized by the XRD, UV-vis, BET, EDS, SEM, IR, and Contact Angle Analyzer. The results showed that the contact angle of SiO2 films was more than 160° when volume ratio of the modifiers to silicon-sodium solution (SSS) was 0.15. The mechanism of modifiers on SiO2 surfaces is a graft copolymerization. The hydrophobic groups in the modifiers replace the hydroxy groups on SiO2 surfaces and make SiO2 surfaces present super-hydrophobicity.

  6. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared from refined beef fat; butterfat...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  12. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    SciTech Connect

    Lundie, P. |; McLeod, N.

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  13. Compatibilizer for crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Labib, M.E.; Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The United States of America discards more than 300 million tires each year, and out of that a large fraction of the tires is dumped into stock piles. This large quantity of tires creates an environmental problem. The use of scrap tires is limited. There is a usage potential in such fields as fuel for combustion and Crumb Rubber-Modified Asphalt binder (CRMA). The use of crumb rubber in modifying asphalt is not a new technique; it is been used since early 1960 by pavement engineers. Crumb rubber is a composite of different blends of natural and synthetic rubber (natural rubber, processing oils, polybutadiene, polystyrene butadiene, and filler). Prior research had concluded that the performance of crumb rubber modified asphalt is asphalt dependent. In some cases it improves the Theological properties and in some cases it degrades the properties of modified asphalt.

  14. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013 (historical) Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Altering a key protein involved in the development ... pigmentation loss associated with the skin disorder in mice, according to recent research funded by the NIH’s ...

  15. Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, K; Beidler, L M

    1968-09-20

    The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet.

  16. Small molecule modifiers of circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2013-08-01

    Circadian clocks orchestrate 24-h oscillations of essential physiological and behavioral processes in response to daily environmental changes. These clocks are remarkably precise under constant conditions yet highly responsive to resetting signals. With the molecular composition of the core oscillator largely established, recent research has increasingly focused on clock-modifying mechanisms/molecules. In particular, small molecule modifiers, intrinsic or extrinsic, are emerging as powerful tools for understanding basic clock biology as well as developing putative therapeutic agents for clock-associated diseases. In this review, we will focus on synthetic compounds capable of modifying the period, phase, or amplitude of circadian clocks, with particular emphasis on the mammalian clock. We will discuss the potential of exploiting these small molecule modifiers in both basic and translational research.

  17. A flame-resistant modified polystyrene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karle, D. W.; Kratze, R. H.; Pacioren, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    Several modified polystyrenes have been developed that are self-extinguishing in air. Information is included in report that also describes molding and fabrication properties, toxicology, and thermal behavior of the polymers.

  18. A Modified Personalized Image-Based Drill Guide Template for Atlantoaxial Pedicle Screw Placement: A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lianghai; Dong, Liang; Tan, Mingsheng; Qi, Yingna; Yang, Feng; Yi, Ping; Tang, Xiangsheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Atlantoaxial posterior pedicle screw fixation has been widely used for treatment of atlantoaxial instability (AAI). However, precise and safe insertion of atlantoaxial pedicle screws remains challenging. This study presents a modified drill guide template based on a previous template for atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement. Material/Methods Our study included 54 patients (34 males and 20 females) with AAI. All the patients underwent posterior atlantoaxial pedicle screw fixation: 25 patients underwent surgery with the use of a modified drill guide template (template group) and 29 patients underwent surgery via the conventional method (conventional group). In the template group, a modified drill guide template was designed for each patient. The modified drill guide template and intraoperative fluoroscopy were used for surgery in the template group, while only intraoperative fluoroscopy was used in the conventional group. Results Of the 54 patients, 52 (96.3%) completed the follow-up for more than 12 months. The template group had significantly lower intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency (p<0.001) and higher accuracy of screw insertion (p=0.045) than the conventional group. There were no significant differences in surgical duration, intraoperative blood loss, or improvement of neurological function between the 2 groups (p>0.05). Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is feasible to use the modified drill guide template for atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement. Using the template can significantly lower the screw malposition rate and the frequency of intraoperative fluoroscopy. PMID:28301445

  19. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    high degree of pre- ference in selecting specific oviposition sites in the general area of their breeding sources. This preference may be due to the...7 -Ai5 419 OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR MOSQUITOES(U) /7, CALIFORNIA UNIV RIVERSIDE DEPT OF ENTOMOLOGY Y HWANGICLRSFE 91 SEP 79 DAMD7-?9-C...9026 FO63 N - . L’. ! 1111112. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESr CHART NATIONAt BURAU Of S1ANDARDS 196J A -17 * 0) AD __ OVIPOSITION -MODIFYING SUBSTANCES FOR

  20. Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    September 1995 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings 6. AUTHOR(S) T. Sugama, N. Carciello and C.I...ADVANCED POLYELECTROLYTE-MODIFIED ZINC PHOSPHATE COATINGS ft PAL - ?y- 3 $> Phase I. Annual Report (October 1994 - September 1995) ^ by T. Sugama, N...and Cr-nitrates, 3 ) the substitution of environmentally safe polyelectrolyte for the conventional chrome-based compounds in the rinsing process, 4

  1. Measures of discrimination for latent group-based trajectory models.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nilesh H; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Chang, Chung-Chou H

    2015-01-01

    In clinical research, patient care decisions are often easier to make if patients are classified into a manageable number of groups based on homogeneous risk patterns. Investigators can use latent group-based trajectory modeling to estimate the posterior probabilities that an individual will be classified into a particular group of risk patterns. Although this method is increasingly used in clinical research, there is currently no measure that can be used to determine whether an individual's group assignment has a high level of discrimination. In this study, we propose a discrimination index and provide confidence intervals of the probability of the assigned group for each individual. We also propose a modified form of entropy to measure discrimination. The two proposed measures were applied to assess the group assignments of the longitudinal patterns of conduct disorders among young adolescent girls.

  2. Doxycycline-encapsulated nanotube-modified dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, S A; Palasuk, J; Kamocki, K; Geraldeli, S; Gregory, R L; Platt, J A; Windsor, L J; Bottino, M C

    2014-12-01

    This article presents details of fabrication, biological activity (i.e., anti-matrix metalloproteinase [anti-MMP] inhibition), cytocompatibility, and bonding characteristics to dentin of a unique doxycycline (DOX)-encapsulated halloysite nanotube (HNT)-modified adhesive. We tested the hypothesis that the release of DOX from the DOX-encapsulated nanotube-modified adhesive can effectively inhibit MMP activity. We incorporated nanotubes, encapsulated or not with DOX, into the adhesive resin of a commercially available bonding system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [SBMP]). The following groups were tested: unmodified SBMP (control), SBMP with nanotubes (HNT), and DOX-encapsulated nanotube-modified adhesive (HNT+DOX). Changes in degree of conversion (DC) and microtensile bond strength were evaluated. Cytotoxicity was examined on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). To prove the successful encapsulation of DOX within the adhesives-but, more important, to support the hypothesis that the HNT+DOX adhesive would release DOX at subantimicrobial levels-we tested the antimicrobial activity of synthesized adhesives and the DOX-containing eluates against Streptococcus mutans through agar diffusion assays. Anti-MMP properties were assessed via β-casein cleavage assays. Increasing curing times (10, 20, 40 sec) led to increased DC values. There were no statistically significant differences (p > .05) in DC within each increasing curing time between the modified adhesives compared to SBMP. No statistically significant differences in microtensile bond strength were noted. None of the adhesives eluates were cytotoxic to the human dental pulp stem cells. A significant growth inhibition of S. mutans by direct contact illustrates successful encapsulation of DOX into the experimental adhesive. More important, DOX-containing eluates promoted inhibition of MMP-1 activity when compared to the control. Collectively, our findings provide a solid background for further testing of encapsulated MMP

  3. Phosphate-Modified Nucleotides for Monitoring Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed

    Ermert, Susanne; Marx, Andreas; Hacker, Stephan M

    2017-04-01

    Nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been proven to be interesting entities to study the activity of a variety of different protein classes. In this chapter, we present various types of modifications that were attached as reporter molecules to the phosphate chain of nucleotides and briefly describe the chemical reactions that are frequently used to synthesize them. Furthermore, we discuss a variety of applications of these molecules. Kinase activity, for instance, was studied by transfer of a phosphate modified with a reporter group to the target proteins. This allows not only studying the activity of kinases, but also identifying their target proteins. Moreover, kinases can also be directly labeled with a reporter at a conserved lysine using acyl-phosphate probes. Another important application for phosphate-modified nucleotides is the study of RNA and DNA polymerases. In this context, single-molecule sequencing is made possible using detection in zero-mode waveguides, nanopores or by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based mechanism between the polymerase and a fluorophore-labeled nucleotide. Additionally, fluorogenic nucleotides that utilize an intramolecular interaction between a fluorophore and the nucleobase or an intramolecular FRET effect have been successfully developed to study a variety of different enzymes. Finally, also some novel techniques applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based detection of nucleotide cleavage or the detection of the cleavage of fluorophosphates are discussed. Taken together, nucleotides modified at the terminal phosphate position have been applied to study the activity of a large diversity of proteins and are valuable tools to enhance the knowledge of biological systems.

  4. Doxycycline-Encapsulated Nanotube-Modified Dentin Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, S.A.; Palasuk, J.; Kamocki, K.; Geraldeli, S.; Gregory, R.L.; Platt, J.A.; Windsor, L.J.; Bottino, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents details of fabrication, biological activity (i.e., anti–matrix metalloproteinase [anti-MMP] inhibition), cytocompatibility, and bonding characteristics to dentin of a unique doxycycline (DOX)–encapsulated halloysite nanotube (HNT)–modified adhesive. We tested the hypothesis that the release of DOX from the DOX-encapsulated nanotube-modified adhesive can effectively inhibit MMP activity. We incorporated nanotubes, encapsulated or not with DOX, into the adhesive resin of a commercially available bonding system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [SBMP]). The following groups were tested: unmodified SBMP (control), SBMP with nanotubes (HNT), and DOX-encapsulated nanotube-modified adhesive (HNT+DOX). Changes in degree of conversion (DC) and microtensile bond strength were evaluated. Cytotoxicity was examined on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). To prove the successful encapsulation of DOX within the adhesives—but, more important, to support the hypothesis that the HNT+DOX adhesive would release DOX at subantimicrobial levels—we tested the antimicrobial activity of synthesized adhesives and the DOX-containing eluates against Streptococcus mutans through agar diffusion assays. Anti-MMP properties were assessed via β-casein cleavage assays. Increasing curing times (10, 20, 40 sec) led to increased DC values. There were no statistically significant differences (p > .05) in DC within each increasing curing time between the modified adhesives compared to SBMP. No statistically significant differences in microtensile bond strength were noted. None of the adhesives eluates were cytotoxic to the human dental pulp stem cells. A significant growth inhibition of S. mutans by direct contact illustrates successful encapsulation of DOX into the experimental adhesive. More important, DOX-containing eluates promoted inhibition of MMP-1 activity when compared to the control. Collectively, our findings provide a solid background for further testing of

  5. Cluster functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) has become a diverse and powerful tool to derive effective low-energy scattering vertices of interacting many-body systems. Starting from a free expansion point of the action, the flow of the RG parameter Λ allows us to trace the evolution of the effective one- and two-particle vertices towards low energies by taking into account the vertex corrections between all parquet channels in an unbiased fashion. In this work, we generalize the expansion point at which the diagrammatic resummation procedure is initiated from a free UV limit to a cluster product state. We formulate a cluster FRG scheme where the noninteracting building blocks (i.e., decoupled spin clusters) are treated exactly, and the intercluster couplings are addressed via RG. As a benchmark study, we apply our cluster FRG scheme to the spin-1/2 bilayer Heisenberg model (BHM) on a square lattice where the neighboring sites in the two layers form the individual two-site clusters. Comparing with existing numerical evidence for the BHM, we obtain reasonable findings for the spin susceptibility, the spin-triplet excitation energy, and quasiparticle weight even in coupling regimes close to antiferromagnetic order. The concept of cluster FRG promises applications to a large class of interacting electron systems.

  6. The analytic renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  7. A Comparison of Workplace Groups with Groups in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; James, Joyce E.

    The use of groups in both the workplace and schools has been increasing. In the workplace, groups reflective of a growing trend toward worker participation in management have been variously referred to as self-managing work teams, self-directed work groups, quality circles, autonomous work groups, and cross-functional teams. Schools have used many…

  8. Group Time: Taking a "Humor Break" at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    January is a perfect time to insert a strong dose of humor into group time gatherings. Oftentimes, children have tired of the predictable pattern of group meetings and need some change. Humor-filled group time activities can be the best secret remedy. Not only will children become more interested in the group time meetings (and therefore listen…

  9. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  10. Post-Disaster Social Justice Group Work and Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses post-disaster group counseling and group supervision using a social justice orientation for working with post-disaster survivors from underserved populations. The Disaster Cross-Cultural Counseling model is a culturally responsive group counseling model that infuses social justice into post-disaster group counseling and…

  11. Sonochemical synthesis of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-modified monodispersed silica nanoparticles for protein immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Shou-Cang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chia, Leonard; Dong, Yuan-Cai; Tan, Reginald B.H.

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified monodispersed silica nanoparticles were synthesized by rapid sonochemical co-condensation to achieve high capability for protein immobilization. Highlights: {yields} Amino-modified monodispersed silica nanoparticles were synthesized by rapid co-condensation. {yields} Strong positive charge was created by aminopropyl-modification. {yields} Capability for immobilization of negatively charged protein was enhanced. {yields} Electrostatic interaction between proteins and surface contributed to the enhanced adsorption. -- Abstract: 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified monodispersed silica nanoparticles were synthesized by a rapid sonochemical co-condensation synthesis procedure. The chemical nature of surface organic modifier on the obtained modified silica nanoparticle was characterized by {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si MAS Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)- differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Due to the strengthened positive surface charge of the silica nanoparticles by the modification with aminopropyl groups, the capability for bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption was significantly increased as compared with bare silica nanoparticles. 80 mg/g BSA was adsorbed on modified silica nanoparticles, whereas only 20 mg/g BSA could be loaded on pure silica nanoparticles. The enhanced positive surface charge repelled proteins with net positive charge and the modified silica nanoparticles exhibited negligible adsorption of lysozyme, thus a selective adsorption of proteins could be achieved.

  12. Modified totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Is it an effective and safe treatment option for renal and upper ureteral stones?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ho Seok; Yu, Ho Song; Hwang, Eu Chang; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that modified totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) without indwelling ureteral stent would minimize postoperative discomfort without complications. Aim To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and morbidity of standard, tubeless, and modified totally tubeless PNL as well as the usefulness of modified totally tubeless PNL. Material and methods From November 2011 to February 2015, 211 patients who underwent PNL consecutively were enrolled in this study and divided into 3 groups (group 1: standard, group 2: tubeless, group 3: modified totally tubeless PNL). Patient and stone characteristics, operation time, hemoglobin change, length of hospitalization, stone-free rate, analgesic requirement, and perioperative complications were analyzed and compared among the 3 groups. Results There were no significant differences in preoperative patient characteristics among the three groups. In the postoperative analysis, the three groups had similar operation time, stone-free rate, perioperative fever and transfusion rate, but group 2 showed superior results in terms of length of hospitalization (p = 0.001). Group 2 and group 3 had a lower analgesic requirement (p = 0.010). Immediate postoperative hemoglobin change (p = 0.001) and tube site complications (p = 0.001) were more common in group 1. Conclusions Modified totally tubeless PNL was not inferior in terms of postoperative outcomes and safety compared with the standard and tubeless PNL, and avoided the postoperative stent-related symptoms and cystoscopy for double-J stent removal. Modified totally tubeless PNL could be an alternative treatment of choice for management of renal or upper ureteral stones in selected patients. PMID:28194243

  13. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  14. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, Eugene; Butler, Joel; Dawson, Sally; Edwards, Helen; Himel, Thomas; Holmes, Stephen; Kim, Young-Kee; Lankford, Andrew; McGinnis, David; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  15. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  16. Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Peptide and Modified Jeffamine Organogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel; Richardson, Adam

    2011-03-01

    In these studies, we present two systems whereby supramolecular assembly results in rigid organogels. First, a series of AB diblock copolymers consisting of poly(Lysine(Z)) (P(Lys(Z)) blocks were synthesized and found to form stable, rigid organogels in THF (ca. 1 - 1.5 wt.% solutions) and chloroform at room temperature. In these systems, the protecting group on the P(Lys) side-chains remains intact and gel formation results from the assembly of the solventphobic P(Lys(Z)) chains through intermolecular beta-sheet formation. The non-peptide block was found to have an effect on organogel properties due to interfacial frustration, which disrupts H-bonding. Second, Jeffamine polymers were modified in a facile way to incorporate intermolecular H-bonding groups to yield networks able to gel various solvents as well as mineral and canola oil. We present the physical and rheological properties of the organogels produced.

  17. Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.

    PubMed

    Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2006-12-01

    Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively.

  18. Engineering Synthetically Modified Insulin for Glucose-Responsive Diabetes Therapy.

    PubMed

    Webber, Matthew J; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert

    Though a suite of different insulin variants have been used clinically to provide greater control over pharmacokinetics, no clinically used insulin can tune its potency and/or bioavailability in a glucose-dependent manner. In order to improve therapy for diabetic patients, a vision has been the development of autonomous closed-loop approaches. Toward this goal, insulin has been synthetically modified with glucose-sensing groups or groups that can compete with free glucose for binding to glucose-binding proteins and evaluated in pre-clinical models. Specifically, it was demonstrated that site-specific modification of insulin with phenylboronic acid can result in glucose-responsive activity, leading to faster recovery in diabetic mice following a glucose challenge but with less observed hypoglycemia in healthy mice. This strategy, along with several others being pursued, holds promise to improve the fidelity in glycemic control with routine insulin therapy.

  19. Engineering Synthetically Modified Insulin for Glucose-Responsive Diabetes Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Matthew J.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Summary Though a suite of different insulin variants have been used clinically to provide greater control over pharmacokinetics, no clinically used insulin can tune its potency and/or bioavailability in a glucose-dependent manner. In order to improve therapy for diabetic patients, a vision has been the development of autonomous closed-loop approaches. Toward this goal, insulin has been synthetically modified with glucose-sensing groups or groups that can compete with free glucose for binding to glucose-binding proteins and evaluated in pre-clinical models. Specifically, it was demonstrated that site-specific modification of insulin with phenylboronic acid can result in glucose-responsive activity, leading to faster recovery in diabetic mice following a glucose challenge but with less observed hypoglycemia in healthy mice. This strategy, along with several others being pursued, holds promise to improve the fidelity in glycemic control with routine insulin therapy. PMID:27570535

  20. Metabolic Glycoengineering with N-Acyl Side Chain Modified Mannosamines.

    PubMed

    Wratil, Paul R; Horstkorte, Rüdiger; Reutter, Werner

    2016-08-08

    In metabolic glycoengineering (MGE), cells or animals are treated with unnatural derivatives of monosaccharides. After entering the cytosol, these sugar analogues are metabolized and subsequently expressed on newly synthesized glycoconjugates. The feasibility of MGE was first discovered for sialylated glycans, by using N-acyl-modified mannosamines as precursor molecules for unnatural sialic acids. Prerequisite is the promiscuity of the enzymes of the Roseman-Warren biosynthetic pathway. These enzymes were shown to tolerate specific modifications of the N-acyl side chain of mannosamine analogues, for example, elongation by one or more methylene groups (aliphatic modifications) or by insertion of reactive groups (bioorthogonal modifications). Unnatural sialic acids are incorporated into glycoconjugates of cells and organs. MGE has intriguing biological consequences for treated cells (aliphatic MGE) and offers the opportunity to visualize the topography and dynamics of sialylated glycans in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo (bioorthogonal MGE).

  1. System configured for applying a modifying agent to a non-equidimensional substrate

    DOEpatents

    Janikowski, Stuart K.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Argyle, Mark D.; Fox, Robert V.; Propp, W. Alan; Miller, David L.

    2003-09-23

    The present invention is related to systems and methods for modifying various non-equidimensional substrates with modifying agents. The system comprises a processing chamber configured for passing the non-equidimensional substrate therethrough, wherein the processing chamber is further configured to accept a treatment mixture into the chamber during movement of the non-equidimensional substrate through the processing chamber. The treatment mixture can comprise of the modifying agent in a carrier medium, wherein the carrier medium is selected from the group consisting of a supercritical fluid, a near-critical fluid, a superheated fluid, a superheated liquid, and a liquefied gas. Thus, the modifying agent can be applied to the non-equidimensional substrate upon contact between the treatment mixture and the non-equidimensional substrate.

  2. System configured for applying a modifying agent to a non-equidimensional substrate

    DOEpatents

    Janikowski; Stuart K. , Argyle; Mark D. , Fox; Robert V. , Propp; W. Alan , Toth; William J. , Ginosar; Daniel M. , Allen; Charles A. , Miller; David L.

    2007-07-10

    The present invention is related to systems and methods for modifying various non-equidimensional substrates with modifying agents. The system comprises a processing chamber configured for passing the non-equidimensional substrate therethrough, wherein the processing chamber is further configured to accept a treatment mixture into the chamber during movement of the non-equidimensional substrate through the processing chamber. The treatment mixture can comprise of the modifying agent in a carrier medium, wherein the carrier medium is selected from the group consisting of a supercritical fluid, a near-critical fluid, a superheated fluid, a superheated liquid, and a liquefied gas. Thus, the modifying agent can be applied to the non-equidimensional substrate upon contact between the treatment mixture and the non-equidimensional substrate.

  3. Comparisons of modified Vasco X-2 and AISI 9310 gear steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Endurance tests were conducted with four groups of spur gears manufactured from three heats of consumable electrode vacuum melted (CVM) modified Vasco X-2. Endurance tests were also conducted with gears manufactured from CVM AISI 9310. Bench type rolling element fatigue tests were conducted with both materials. Hardness measurements were made to 811 K. There was no statistically significant life difference between the two materials. Life differences between the different heats of modified Vasco X-2 can be attributed to heat treat variation and resultant hardness. Carburization of gear flanks only can eliminate tooth fracture as a primary failure mode for modified Vasco X-2. However, a tooth surface fatigue spall can act as a nucleus of a tooth fracture failure for the modified Vasco X-2.

  4. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  5. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  6. Surface-modified zeolite-filled chitosan membranes for pervaporation dehydration of ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Honglei; Lu, Lianyu; Chen, Xue; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2008-06-01

    Surface-modified zeolite-filled chitosan (CS) membranes were prepared by incorporating 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS)-modified H-ZSM-5 zeolite into chitosan for pervaporation dehydration of aqueous ethanol solution. The physicochemical characterization by XPS, FT-IR, XRD, DMA and SEM showed that -SO 3H group was readily grafted on the surface of H-ZSM-5 with the mediation of MPTMS and hydrogen peroxide, and the accompanying ion-ion interaction between -SO 3H group on surface-modified H-ZSM-5 and -NH 3+ group on chitosan substantially eliminated the nonselective voids at the chitosan-H-ZSM-5 interface of the filled membranes. The experimental results also revealed that H-ZSM-5 exhibited desirable size-selective and preferential adsorption effects for aqueous ethanol solution. As a result, modified H-ZSM-5 filled membranes showed higher swelling degree and permeation flux, and improved selectivity for aqueous ethanol solution. In comparison between chitosan control membrane (permeation flux 54.18 g/(m 2 h) and separation factor 158.02 for 90 wt.% aqueous ethanol solution at 80 °C), the modified H-ZSM-5 filled membrane with 8 wt.% filling content exhibited a remarkably improved pervaporation performance with permeation flux 278.54 g/(m 2 h) and separation factor 274.46 under the identical experimental condition.

  7. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health.

  8. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  9. Modified Transtibial versus Anteromedial Portal Technique in Single Bundle ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Emiliano Alvarez; Etcheto, Horacio Rivarola; Blanchod, Cristian Collazo; Escobar, Gonzalo; Zordan, Jesuan; Autorino, Carlos María

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine whether it is possible to achieves a similar anatomical placement of the femoral tunnel with a modified transtibial ACL single bundle reconstruction tecnique compared to anteromedial transportal technique. Results were evaluated by tomographic comparisons between patients from both groups. Methods: 36 patients (36 knees) who were candidates for an ACL single bundle reconstruction with patellar bone graft were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated using a computerized sequence into two groups. 18 patients were assigned each group (modified transtibial vs AM transportal technique). Surgery was performed by the same surgical team in both groups. Femoral tunnel quadrant placement, oblicuity in the coronal and sagittal planes and diameter of the femoral tunnel were assesed tomographically blinded by two observers and statistical comparison between groups was realized. Results: Average distance measured from posterior edge of the condyle to the femoral tunnel ( measured as a proportion respect to the T line) was similar in both groups ( Group I : 32.7 % +- 5.1% ; Group 2: 32.4 % +-4.4% , p = 0.85). Average distance measured from the Blumensaat line to the femoral tunnel (measured as a proportion respect to the H line) was similar in both groups ( Group I: 28.5% 4.49 % Group II , 31.5% of 4.83% p = 0.06). Average angulation values of the femoral tunnel in the coronal plane were lower in Group I than in Group II (Group I = 34.8 ° range 32.7 ° - 38.6 ° and 41.2 ° range Group II 36.7 ° - 43.1 ° P = 0.0016 ). Average angulation values of the femoral tunnel in the sagittal plane were similar in both groups (Group I 40.2 ° range 38.4 ° - 43.4 ° ; Group II 38 1 ° range 36.6 ° - 40.2 ° p = 0.17).. The average diameter of the femoral tunnel was significantly higher in group I than in Group II (Group I 11 mm 0.84 mm and 10.2 mm Group II 0.65mm p = 0.007) . Conclusion: The modified transtibial technique

  10. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  11. Quorum sensing in group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread phenomenon in the microbial world that has important implications in the coordination of population-wide responses in several bacterial pathogens. In Group A Streptococcus (GAS), many questions surrounding QS systems remain to be solved pertaining to their function and their contribution to the GAS lifestyle in the host. The QS systems of GAS described to date can be categorized into four groups: regulator gene of glucosyltransferase (Rgg), Sil, lantibiotic systems, and LuxS/AI-2. The Rgg family of proteins, a conserved group of transcription factors that modify their activity in response to signaling peptides, has been shown to regulate genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and competence. The sil locus, whose expression is regulated by the activity of signaling peptides and a putative two-component system (TCS), has been implicated on regulating genes involved with invasive disease in GAS isolates. Lantibiotic regulatory systems are involved in the production of bacteriocins and their autoregulation, and some of these genes have been shown to target both bacterial organisms as well as processes of survival inside the infected host. Finally AI-2 (dihydroxy pentanedione, DPD), synthesized by the LuxS enzyme in several bacteria including GAS, has been proposed to be a universal bacterial communication molecule. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of these four systems, the putative functions of their targets, and pose critical questions for future studies. PMID:25309879

  12. Using spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy in substance dependence treatment: therapists' and clients' perceptions of the presumed benefits and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R; Lietz, Cynthia A

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that has been modified to incorporate clients' spiritual beliefs and practices has been used to treat a variety of problems. This study examines the utility of this modality with the treatment of alcohol dependence and other forms of substance abuse. Toward this end, six focus groups (three therapist groups and three client groups) were conducted to identify the presumed benefits and limitations of using spiritually modified CBT in substance dependence treatment. In terms of benefits, spiritually modified CBT was perceived to enhance outcomes through operationalizing horizontal and vertical sources of social support, divine coping resources, and spiritual motivation. Potential challenges include the risk of therapists inadvertently imposing their own beliefs during the modification process and the possibility of offending clients when conflicts in belief systems emerge, particularly in group setting. The article concludes by providing suggestions for incorporating spiritually modified CBT into treatment and develops a number of illustrative examples of spiritually modified CBT self-statements.

  13. Causal Network Inference Via Group Sparse Regularization

    PubMed Central

    Bolstad, Andrew; Van Veen, Barry D.; Nowak, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of inferring sparse causal networks modeled by multivariate autoregressive (MAR) processes. Conditions are derived under which the Group Lasso (gLasso) procedure consistently estimates sparse network structure. The key condition involves a “false connection score” ψ. In particular, we show that consistent recovery is possible even when the number of observations of the network is far less than the number of parameters describing the network, provided that ψ < 1. The false connection score is also demonstrated to be a useful metric of recovery in nonasymptotic regimes. The conditions suggest a modified gLasso procedure which tends to improve the false connection score and reduce the chances of reversing the direction of causal influence. Computational experiments and a real network based electrocorticogram (ECoG) simulation study demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. PMID:21918591

  14. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  15. A Typology for Finite Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tou, Erik R

    2013-01-01

    This project classifies groups of small order using a group's center as the key feature. Groups of a given order "n" are typed based on the order of each group's center. Students are led through a sequence of exercises that combine proof-writing, independent research, and an analysis of specific classes of finite groups…

  16. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  17. 2010 Chemical Working Group Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2010-01-01

    The Steering Group for the Interagency Advanced Power Group (IAPG) held their business meeting on November 30-December 1st in McLean, Virginia. Status reports were presented from each of the IAPG's Working Groups. These charts contain a brief summary of the IAPG Chemical Working Group's activities during 2010 and its plans for 2011.

  18. Task Group for Orthodontics Report.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, K W; Brown, D V; Edler, R J; Kirschen, R H; Macadam, T S; Stephens, C D

    1998-08-01

    The UK Specialist Review Group of the General Dental Council's Education Committee has been charged with taking forward the recommendations in the Chief Dental Officer's report 'UK Specialist Dental Training'. The Specialist Review Group has, in turn, established a number of specialty task groups. This report is from the Task Group for Orthodontics. It was submitted in May 1996.

  19. Quantum cosmology, polymer matter, and modified collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreienbuehl, Andreas

    In this dissertation I address the following three questions: 1) how do different clocks compare in regard of the avoidance of the big bang singularity, 2) what is the high energy behavior of polymer quantized matter, and 3) how do quantum gravity effects modify the formation and the properties of black holes? To discuss 1), I consider an isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology sourced by a non-negative cosmological constant and a massless scalar field. I choose the scale factor as clock and, using a trick by Dirac, Schrodinger quantize the reduced square root Hamiltonian. From the resulting spinor equation I show that no semiclassical wave packet avoids the big bang. I compare this work with that in loop quantum cosmology, where the scalar field is chosen as time variable and the big bang is avoided. As for 2), I explain the details of a project with Professor Husain in which we study a scalar field on a curved background and perform a polymer Fock quantization of the matter degrees of freedom. The quantization is based on the assumption that the underlying field space is discrete and it therefore comes with a fundamental scale. This renders the usual operators on the Fock space scale dependent and causes a transition from a bosonic to a fermionic behavior in the ultraviolet regime. Finally for 3), I present work with Professor Husain and Professor Seahra on a modification of the Hamiltonian formulation of a massless scalar field minimally coupled to a spherically symmetric spacetime. The modification is designed to mimic polymer quantum effects in the region where the scalar field collapses and it is implemented in such a way that the symmetry group of general relativity is preserved. This causes a drastic change in the way black holes form and, thus, in their properties. Namely, the scalar field has to overcome a repulsion and black holes form with a finite mass. Furthermore, the modification gives rise to oscillations in the relation between the black

  20. Modeling void abundance in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Lima, Marcos; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2017-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f (R ) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surveys, the combination of void and halo statistics including their abundances, profiles and correlations should be effective in distinguishing modified gravity models that display different screening mechanisms.