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Sample records for modified unex group

  1. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  2. Diamide derivatives of di-picolinic acid as actinide and lanthanide extractants in a variation of the UNEX process

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, D.R.; Herbst, R.S.; Law, J.D.; Tillotson, R.D.; Garn, T.G.; Todd, T.A.; Romanovskiy, V.N.; Babain, V.A.; Alyapyshev, M. Yu.; Smirnov, I.V.

    2007-07-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl- N,N-di-n-butyl-carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (Ph{sub 2}CMPO) in the diluent tri-fluoro-methyl-phenyl sulfone (CF{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}SO{sub 2}, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO{sub 3} solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of {approx} 0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of di-picolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetra-butyl-diamide of di-picolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process. (authors)

  3. Modified Group Debate in Introductory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.

    This classroom exercise presents a scaled-down version of traditional debate for students enrolled in introductory public speaking or small group communication courses at the university level. The exercise project involves two weeks, the first week for preparation and the second week for conducting in-class debates, and is presented in a…

  4. Modified Group Debate in Introductory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.

    This classroom exercise presents a scaled-down version of traditional debate for students enrolled in introductory public speaking or small group communication courses at the university level. The exercise project involves two weeks, the first week for preparation and the second week for conducting in-class debates, and is presented in a…

  5. Improving Student Group Marketing Presentations: A Modified Pecha Kucha Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jason; Kowalczyk, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Student presentations can often seem like a formality rather than a lesson in representing oneself or group in a professional manner. To improve the quality of group presentations, the authors modified the popular presentation style of Pecha Kucha (20 slides, 20 seconds per slide) for marketing courses to help students prepare and deliver…

  6. Improving Student Group Marketing Presentations: A Modified Pecha Kucha Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jason; Kowalczyk, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Student presentations can often seem like a formality rather than a lesson in representing oneself or group in a professional manner. To improve the quality of group presentations, the authors modified the popular presentation style of Pecha Kucha (20 slides, 20 seconds per slide) for marketing courses to help students prepare and deliver…

  7. Demonstration of the UNEX Process for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Actual INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Todd, Terry Allen; Romanovskiy, V.; Smirnov, I.; Babain, V.; Zaitsev, B.; Esimantovskiy, V.

    1999-11-01

    A universal solvent extraction (UNEX) process for the simultaneous separation of cesium, strontium, and the actinides from actual radioactive acidic tank waste was demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste solution used in the countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was obtained from tank WM-185. The UNEX process uses a tertiary solvent containing 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, 0.5% polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoyl phosphine oxide (Ph2Bu2CMPO) in a diluent consisting of phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13). The countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was performed in a shielded cell facility using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. Removal efficiencies of 99.4%, 99.995%, and 99.96% were obtained for 137Cs, 90Sr, and total alpha, respectively. This is sufficient to reduce the activities of 137Cs, 90Sr, and actinides in the WM-185 waste to below NRC Class A LLW requirements. Flooding and/or precipitate formation were not observed during testing. Significant amounts of the Zr (87%), Ba (>99%), Pb (98.8%), Fe (8%), Ca (10%), Mo (32%), and K (28%) were also removed from the feed with the universal solvent extraction flowsheet. 99Tc, Al, Hg, and Na were essentially inextractable (<1% extracted).

  8. Distinct genetic regions modify specific muscle groups in muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Heydemann, Ahlke; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic expression in the muscular dystrophies is variable, even with the identical mutation, providing strong evidence that genetic modifiers influence outcome. To identify genetic modifier loci, we used quantitative trait locus mapping in two differentially affected mouse strains with muscular dystrophy. Using the Sgcg model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy that lacks the dystrophin-associated protein γ-sarcoglycan, we evaluated chromosomal regions that segregated with two distinct quantifiable characteristics of muscular dystrophy, membrane permeability and fibrosis. We previously identified a single major locus on murine chromosome 7 that influences both traits of membrane permeability and fibrosis in the quadriceps muscle. Using a larger cohort, we now found that this same interval strongly associated with both traits in all limb skeletal muscle groups studied, including the gastrocnemius/soleus, gluteus/hamstring, and triceps muscles. In contrast, the muscles of the trunk were modified by distinct genetic loci, possibly reflecting the embryological origins and physiological stressors unique to these muscle groups. A locus on chromosome 18 was identified that modified membrane permeability of the abdominal muscles, and a locus on chromosome 3 was found that regulated diaphragm and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Fibrosis in the heart associated with a region on chromosome 9 and likely reflects differential function between cardiac and skeletal muscle. These data underscore the complexity of inheritance and penetrance of single-gene disorders. PMID:20959497

  9. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with degree of substitution of 0.018 (OS-S-L) and 0.092 (OS-S-H) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in an aqueous slurry system. The substitution distribution of OS groups was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatogr...

  10. Limiting case of modified electroweak model for contracted gauge group

    SciTech Connect

    Gromov, N. A.

    2011-06-15

    The modification of the Electroweak Model with 3-dimensional spherical geometry in the matter fields space is suggested. The Lagrangian of this model is given by the sum of the free (without any potential term) matter fields Lagrangian and the standard gauge fields Lagrangian. The vector boson masses are generated by transformation of this Lagrangian from Cartesian coordinates to coordinates on the sphere S{sup 3}. The limiting case of the bosonic part of the modified model, which corresponds to the contracted gauge group SU(2; j) x U(1) is discussed. Within framework of the limit model Z boson and electromagnetic fields can be regarded as external ones with respect to W-boson fields in the sence that W-boson fields do not effect on these external fields. The masses of all particles of the Electroweak Model remain the same, but field interactions in contracted model are more simple as compared with the standard Electroweak Model.

  11. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-06-15

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had β-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the β-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  13. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  14. Influence of hydrophobic groups on thickening and emulsification properties of hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Bian, He; Zhang, Huiming

    2017-09-01

    Hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides can be used to enhance oil recovery in tertiary oil recovery process because they have good thickening and emulsification properties. Hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides with different hydrophobic groups were synthesized using micellar polymerization. Above CAC, elastic polymer gel is formed by the aggregation of hydrophobic groups. Hydrophobicity of hydrophobic groups plays a substantially important role in properties of HMPAMs solutions. Higher hydrophobicity of hydrophobic groups leads to more intensive intermolecular association and thus helps to enhance the apparent viscosity of HMPAMs solutions and form stronger elastic polymer gel network structures in HMPAMs solutions which can enhance the stability of the O/W crude oil emulsions stabilized by HMPAMs.

  15. Oligo-2'-deoxyribonucleotides containing uracil modified at the 5-position with linkers ending with guanidinium groups.

    PubMed

    Roig, Victoria; Asseline, Ulysse

    2003-04-16

    We report here the synthesis and binding studies of oligo-2'-deoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) containing 2'-deoxyuridines, modified at the 5-position by linkers ending with either one or two guanidinium groups. Comparison was made with ODNs containing 2'-deoxyuridines modified at the 5-position with linkers ending with either two or one amino groups. One or two modified 2'-deoxyuridines were incorporated into pyrimidine strands, and their influence on the stability of duplex (with both DNA and RNA targets) and triplex structures was studied. The strongest stabilization was obtained with modified ODNs containing guanidinium groups. This result confirms that the reduction of the global negative charge number on one strand is an important parameter in the stability of duplex and triplex structures.

  16. The mathematical model of dye diffusion and adsorption on modified cellulose with triazine derivatives containing cationic and anionic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, K.; Hou, A.; Chen, Y.

    2008-02-01

    Cellulose fabric is chemically modified with the compounds containing cationic and anionic groups. The molecular chains of modified cellulose have both cationic and anionic groups. Dye diffusion properties on modified cellulose are discussed. The dye adsorption and diffusion on modified cellulose are higher than those on unmodified cellulose. The diffusion properties of dyes at different temperature are discussed. Compared with unmodified cellulose, the diffusion processing of dyes in the modified cotton cellulose shows significant change.

  17. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  18. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    On the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  19. A Modified Frequency Estimation Equating Method for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou; Brennan, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Frequency estimation, also called poststratification, is an equating method used under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. A modified frequency estimation method is proposed here, based on altering one of the traditional assumptions in frequency estimation in order to correct for equating bias. A simulation study was carried out to…

  20. A Modified Frequency Estimation Equating Method for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou; Brennan, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Frequency estimation, also called poststratification, is an equating method used under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. A modified frequency estimation method is proposed here, based on altering one of the traditional assumptions in frequency estimation in order to correct for equating bias. A simulation study was carried out to…

  1. Immobilization of modified papain with anhydride groups on activated cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Nie, Huali; Zhu, Limin; Li, Shubai; Zhang, Haitao

    2010-01-01

    Papain (EC 3.4.22.2) has been chemically modified using two novel reagents including different anhydrides of 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic and pyromellitic acids. Then, the modified papain was immobilized on the activated cotton fabric by a two-step method. The number of free amino groups in the modified protein was investigated through the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid method. Energy dispersive spectrometer was used to characterize papain immobilization. Some parameters of both modified and native papain immobilized on cotton fabric, such as optimum temperature, optimum pH, and the stabilities for reservation in various detergents were studied and compared. The resultant papain had its optimum pH shifted from 6.0 to 9.0. Compared with immobilized native papain, the thermal stability and the resistance to alkali and washing detergent of immobilized modified enzyme were improved considerably. When the concentration of detergent was 20 mg/ml, the activity of the immobilized pyromellitic papain retained about 40% of its original activity, whereas the native papain was almost inhibited. This work demonstrated that the cotton fabric immobilized modified papain has potential applications in the functional textiles field.

  2. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed Central

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-01-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field. PMID:12826486

  3. Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: breakout group reports.

    PubMed

    Germolec, Dori R; Kimber, Ian; Goldman, Lynn; Selgrade, MaryJane

    2003-06-01

    On the final afternoon of the workshop "Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods," held 10-12 December 2001 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of use of human clinical data, animal models to assess food allergy, biomarkers of exposure and effect, sensitive populations, dose-response assessment, and postmarket surveillance. Each group addressed general questions regarding allergenicity of genetically modified foods and specific questions for each subject area. This article is a brief summary of the discussions of each of the six breakout groups regarding our current state of knowledge and what information is needed to advance the field.

  4. The synthesis of monomers with pendent ethynyl group for modified high performance thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nwokogu, Godson C.; Antoine, Miquel D.; Ansong, Omari

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to develop synthetic schemes for the following classes of modified monomers: (1) difunctional triarylethanes with pendent acetylenic groups; and (2) tertiary aspartimides with terminal acetylene groups at the two ends. Our efforts have resulted in the successful development of high yield schemes for the syntheses of several diamino and bisphenolic analogs of difunctional triarylethanes with pendent ethynyl group. A scheme for one new tertiary aspartimide was also established. Multi-gram samples of all prepared new monomers were provided to our technical contact at NASA-LaRC and preliminary polymerization studies were encouraging. Details of the accomplished work within the last four years are described.

  5. Highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles on chemically modified graphene with aminophenyl groups for formic acid oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Su-Dong; Shen, Cheng-Min; Tong, Hao; He, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2011-11-01

    A novel electrode material based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) with aminophenyl groups is covalently functionalized by a nucleophilic ring-opening reaction between the epoxy groups of graphene oxide and the aminophenyl groups of p-phenylenediamine. Palladium nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm are deposited on the CMG by a liquid-phase borohydride reduction. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Pd/CMG composite towards formic acid oxidation are found to be higher than those of reduced graphene oxide and commercial carbon materials such as Vulcan XC-72 supported Pd electrocatalysts.

  6. Group size modifies the patterns and muscle carbohydrate effects of aggression in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Haller, J

    1992-08-01

    Aggressive encounters of previously isolated individuals were investigated in dyads and groups of five. Fights were longer and more intense when they were performed in dyads compared to fights involving five fishes. During aggressive encounters, an elevation in carbohydrate catabolism was noticed in both dyads and groups. Losing a fight resulted in a reduction in glycogen content and an increase in glycogen synthesis. Similar changes in winners did not appear; thus, the metabolic response in losers was different from that noticed in winners, both in dyads and groups. In dyadic contest winners, a marked increase in the free glucose content and glucose consumption was noticed (without changes in losers). In groups, free glucose content of the winners was not modified, while glucose consumption was enhanced both in winners and losers. Thus, the differences existing between winners and losers were greater in dyads compared to those noticed in groups. The energy cost of aggression seems to be different in dyads compared to groups of five. The rate of glucose oxidation was strongly reduced in dyads (there were no differences between winners and losers in this respect), while in groups, this parameter was not modified.

  7. Immobilization of Candida antarctic lipase B on MWNTs modified by ionic liquids with different functional groups.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaomei; Xiang, Xinran; Tang, Susu; Yu, Dinghua; Huang, He; Hu, Yi

    2017-09-18

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were modified by imidazole-based ionic liquids with different kinds of functional groups such as alkyl, carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl. The supports were used to immobilize Candida antarctic lipase B (CALB) and the influence of different functional groups of ionic liquids on enzymatic properties was investigated by the hydrolysis reaction of triacetin. The results revealed that the functionalization process did not destroy the structural integrity of MWNTs, and the enzymatic properities of CALB which immobilized on the MWNTs modified by ionic liquids with different kinds of functional groups were all improved. The hydroxyl functionalized ionic liquids which exhibited the best enzymatic properities was selected to investigate the effects of different carbon chain length on the enzymatic properties of immobilized CALB. Among them, CALB which immobilized on MWNTs modified by hydroxyl functionalized ionic liquid with suitable chain length (MWNTs-IL(8C)-OH-CALB) had the highest specific activity, with a specific activity of 18.11 times that of MWNTs-CALB. Furthermore, it also presented best thermal stability and reusability. The residual activity of MWNTs-IL(8C)-OH-CALB held over 64.01% of the initial activity after being incubated for 20min at 70°C, and the residual activity was 85.56% after 4 cycles of use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. XPS study of PBO fiber surface modified by incorporation of hydroxyl polar groups in main chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Dayong; Jin, Junhong; Yang, Shenglin; Li, Guang; Jiang, Jianming

    2010-01-01

    Dihydroxy poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (DHPBO), a modified poly(p-phenylene benzoxazole) (PBO) polymer containing double hydroxyl groups in polymer chains, was synthesized by copolymerization of 4,6-diamino resorcinol dihydrochloride (DAR), purified terephthalic acid (TA) and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid (DHTA). DHPBO fibers were prepared by dry-jet wet-spinning method. The effects of hydroxyl polar groups on the surface elemental compositions of PBO fiber were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the ratio of oxygen/carbon on the surface of DHPBO fibers is higher than that on the surface of PBO fibers, which indicates the content of polar groups on the surface of DHPBO fiber increase compared with PBO fiber.

  9. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephen T; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando; Small, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI), which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways) of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years), 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years), and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years) adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other dementias later in life remains to be determined.

  10. Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-03

    The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.

  11. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  12. Long range ordered alloys modified by group IV-B metals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1983-01-01

    Ductile long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the (V,M)(Fe,Ni,Co).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 20.6%-22.6% V, 14-50% Fe, 0-64% Co, and 0-40% Ni, and 0.4-1.4% M, where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf, and their mixtures. These modified alloys have an electron density no greater than 8.00 and exhibit marked increases at elevated temperature in ductility and other mechanical properties over previously known ordered alloys.

  13. Geometric and Electronic Properties of Graphene Modified by “External” N-Containing Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xinde; Cai, Qiuxia; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Mei, Donghai; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Jianguo

    2014-10-14

    By means of the first-principles spin polarized density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we investigated structures and electronic properties of “external” nitrogen-containing groups (pyridine derivatives) modified graphene via single or double bonding mode. This study of single-bond pyridine derivatives modified graphene (SBPG) shows that the ortho-carbon is the most favorable adsorption site for pyridine derivatives on graphene, as confirmed by bader charge analysis. The external stability of pyridine derivatives on graphene by [2+2] cycloaddition is caused by the match between frontier orbitals of pyridine derivatives and those of graphene, which leading to the formation of stronger chemical bonds. Interestingly, electronic structure analysis reveals that the spin-up and spin-down parts DOS of SBPG clearly split, while it is not found for double-bonds pyridine derivatives modified graphene (DBPG). This work was supported by the 973 project (2013CB733501) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 21101137, 21136001, 21176221, 21306169 and 91334013). D. Mei is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  14. Group Invariance Properties of the Inviscid Compressible Flow Equations for a Modified Tait Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Scott; Baty, Roy

    2015-11-01

    This work considers the group invariance properties of the inviscid compressible flow equations (Euler equations) under the assumptions of one-dimensional symmetry and a modified Tait equation of state (EOS) closure model. When written in terms of an adiabatic bulk modulus, a transformed version of these equations is found to be identical to that for an ideal gas EOS. As a result, the Lie group invariance structure of these equations - and their subsequent reduction to a lower-order system - is identical to the published results for the ideal gas case. Following the reduction of the Euler equations to a system of ordinary differential equations, a variety of elementary closed-form solutions are derived. These solutions are then used in conjunction with the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions to construct discontinuous shock wave and free surface solutions that are analogous to the classical Noh, Sedov, Guderley, and Hunter similarity solutions of the Euler equations for an ideal gas EOS. The versions of these problems for the modified Tait EOS are found to be semi-analytic in that a transcendental root extraction (and in some cases numerical integration of ordinary differential equations) enables solution of the relevant equations.

  15. Thermal decomposition behavior of amino groups modified bimodal mesoporous silicas as aspirin carrier.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Zhang, Li; Li, Yuzhen; Ren, Bo

    2011-12-01

    Two kinds of amino groups were employed to functionalize bimodal mesoporous silicas and related drug carriers were prepared. The characterization results of XRD, N2 adsorption and desorption, FT-IR and TG all confirmed the structural integrity of the bimodal mesopore architecture after introduction treatment of functional groups and the successful adsorption of aspirin. In order to investigate the interaction among the mesoporous structure, the functional groups grafted onto the mesoporous surface and the existential microenvironment of the drug molecules inside the mesoporous channels, the thermal decomposition behaviors of amino groups modified and aspirin loaded carriers were studied based on the thermogravimetric analysis in details. According to the thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry results, the apparent activation energies E(a) of thermal decomposition for all related samples have been evaluated by Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. Meanwhile, their thermal decomposition mechanisms have been suggested by using Coats and Redfern methods. All these featured consequence could provide a deeper understanding for large loading capacity and controlled release of drug-carriers in the pharmaceutical application.

  16. Revisiting the modifiers: how should the evaluation and management of acute concussions differ in specific groups?

    PubMed

    Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin; Jordan, Barry; Patricios, Jon; Purcell, Laura; Putukian, Margot

    2013-04-01

    One of the key difficulties while managing concussion in sport is that there are few prognostic factors to reliably predict clinical outcome. The aims of the current paper are to review the evidence for concussion modifiers and to consider how the evaluation and management of concussion may differ in specific groups. A qualitative review of the literature on concussion was conducted with a focus on prognostic factors and specific groups including children, female athletes and elite versus non-elite players. PubMed, MEDLINE and SportsDiscus databases were reviewed. The literature demonstrates that number and severity of symptoms and previous concussions are associated with prolonged recovery and/or increased risk of complications. Brief loss of consciousness (LOC) and/or impact seizures do not reliably predict outcomes following a concussion, although a cautious approach should be adopted in an athlete with prolonged LOC or impact seizures (ie, >1 min). Children generally take longer to recover from concussions and assessment batteries have yet to be validated in the younger age group. Currently, there are insufficient data on the influence of genetics and gender on outcomes following a concussion. Several modifiers are associated with prolonged recovery or increased risk of complications following a concussion and have important implications for management. Children with concussion should be managed conservatively, with an emphasis on return to learn as well as return to sport. In cases of concussions managed with limited resources (eg, non-elite players), a conservative approach should also be taken. There should be an emphasis on concussion education in all sports and at all levels, particularly in junior and community-based competitions.

  17. The Use of a Modified Marathon in Conjunction with Group Counseling in Short-term Treatment of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, G. M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Two conclusions drawn from the application of the modified marathon to a short term treatment center were that the modified marathon had the advantages of holding" alcoholics for treatment once they were sober and it enhanced the quality of typical group counseling and therapy treatment. (Author)

  18. The Use of a Modified Marathon in Conjunction with Group Counseling in Short-term Treatment of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, G. M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Two conclusions drawn from the application of the modified marathon to a short term treatment center were that the modified marathon had the advantages of holding" alcoholics for treatment once they were sober and it enhanced the quality of typical group counseling and therapy treatment. (Author)

  19. Full symmetry implementation in condensed matter and molecular physics-Modified group projector technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damnjanović, Milan; Milošević, Ivanka

    2015-06-01

    Symmetry is well established as one of the fundamental concepts in physics, accurately extracting relevant characteristics of the studied object, giving deep and transparent insight to its properties. In the solid state and molecular physics the most abundant application is reduction of the dimension of the eigenproblem of the Hamiltonian, with the resulting eigenvectors labeled by good quantum numbers, forming the so called symmetry adapted basis. Such a basis is the starting point for subsequent analysis of the physical properties of the system, performed usually by applying adequate perturbation technique. Standard procedure for finding a symmetry adapted basis involves Wigner operators, which are sums of the operators acting in the quantum state space (Hilbert space, most usually) over all elements of the symmetry group of the systems. However, both the dimension of the state space and the number of the symmetry transformations are infinite even in the simplest approximate models in crystal physics making obstacles for direct application of the standard Wigner projector technique, and its numerical implementation. On the other hand, there is a minimal part of the system, the full symmetry elementary cell (symcell), from which the whole system can be built by action of the full symmetry group elements on it. A clear heuristic idea, that symcell and full symmetry group, determine the properties of the entire system, is fully realized within modified group projector technique. Namely, when applying this technique, the full symmetry of the system is used to provide reduction of calculations to the symcell only, singling out its state space (of a finite dimension!) as the effective state space to be worked in. Physical observables, expressed through their irreducible tensor components, obtain their counterparts in this finite-dimensional space of a symcell. It remains to consider only the symmetry transformations which leave the symcell invariant. This is absolutely

  20. Exact Group Invariant Solutions and Conservation Laws of the Complex Modified Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnpillai, Andrew G.; Kara, Abdul H.; Biswas, Anjan

    2013-09-01

    We study the scalar complex modified Korteweg-de Vries (cmKdV) equation by analyzing a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) from the Lie symmetry point of view. These systems of PDEs are obtained by decomposing the underlying cmKdV equation into real and imaginary components. We derive the Lie point symmetry generators of the system of PDEs and classify them to get the optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras of the Lie symmetry algebra of the system of PDEs. These subalgebras are then used to construct a number of symmetry reductions and exact group invariant solutions to the system of PDEs. Finally, using the Lie symmetry approach, a couple of new conservation laws are constructed. Subsequently, respective conserved quantities from their respective conserved densities are computed.

  1. Modified white-light Mach-Zehnder interferometer for direct group-delay measurements.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; Grover, C P

    1998-07-01

    A modified white-light Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a single beam splitter is described for direct group-delay measurements. The arms of the interferometer are folded in such a manner that a single beam splitter can be used to split the incoming beam and combine the outgoing beams. This method offers a twofold advantage: The measuring range of the interferometer is twice as large as that of the Michelson interferometer, and the systematic error that is associated with the beam splitter is minimized because of the configuration. We report the results of measurements on various optical components performed in the 555-630-nm spectral region and propose a scheme for the processing of the experimental data. We present a comparison of the data analyzed by the proposed processing scheme along with the theoretical calculations.

  2. Organic thin-film transistors based on solution-processable benzodithiophene dimers modified with hexyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Takeshi; Toake, Hitoshi; Osuga, Hideji; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    Benzodithiophene dimers modified with hexyl groups (2C6-BDT-dimer) were investigated as solution-processable organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). Since 2C6-BDT-dimer crystals have an anisotropic shape, flow coating was adopted to grow polycrystalline films. The flow-coated films were inferior to the vacuum-evaporated ones in terms of their crystallinity estimated from X-ray diffraction data. However, the hole mobility of the OTFTs with the flow-coated films, which was 1.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 at maximum, was higher than that of the OTFTs with vacuum-evaporated films because the one-dimensional thin crystals of the flow-coated films were aligned in the flow-coating direction.

  3. Impact modification of polyamide 11 by the reactive blending with epoxy group modified polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Oono, Yuko; Li, Yongjin; Nakayama, Kazuo; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Polyamide 11 (PA11) and epoxy group modified polyethylene (EGMA) were melt-blended in a segment mixer at 230 degrees C. The reactive nature of the blend is reflected in the mixing torque behavior of the blend at different compositions. The dynamic mechanical analysis reveals shifted glass transition temperatures for both PAl 1 and EGMA, indicating the improved miscibility by the reactive blending. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that EGMA is precisely dispersed in PAl 1 matrix with the domain size of several hundred nanometers for the reactive blends. The mechanical properties were also measured for the obtained material and it exhibits greatly improved impact strength as compared with the neat PA11. In addition, the toughening mechanism for the blend system was also studied.

  4. Tourism forecasting using modified empirical mode decomposition and group method of data handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahya, N. A.; Samsudin, R.; Shabri, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a hybrid model using modified Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) model is proposed for tourism forecasting. This approach reconstructs intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) produced by EMD using trial and error method. The new component and the remaining IMFs is then predicted respectively using GMDH model. Finally, the forecasted results for each component are aggregated to construct an ensemble forecast. The data used in this experiment are monthly time series data of tourist arrivals from China, Thailand and India to Malaysia from year 2000 to 2016. The performance of the model is evaluated using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) where conventional GMDH model and EMD-GMDH model are used as benchmark models. Empirical results proved that the proposed model performed better forecasts than the benchmarked models.

  5. Modified H-statistic with adaptive Winsorized mean in two groups test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Kian Wooi; Abdullah, Suhaida; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yusof, Zahayu Md

    2014-06-01

    t-test is a commonly used test statistics when comparing two independent groups. The computation of this test is simple yet it is powerful under normal distribution and equal variance dataset. However, in real life data, sometimes it is hard to get dataset which has this package. The violation of assumptions (normality and equal variances) will give the devastating effect on the Type I error rate control to the t-test. On the same time, the statistical power also will be reduced. Therefore in this study, the adaptive Winsorised mean with hinge estimator in H-statistic (AWM-H) is proposed. The H-statistic is one of the robust statistics that able to handle the problem of nonnormality in comparing independent group. This procedure originally used Modified One-step M (MOM) estimator which employed trimming process. In the AWM-H procedure, the MOM estimator is replaced with the adaptive Winsorized mean (AWM) as the central tendency measure of the test. The Winsorization process is based on hinge estimator HQ or HQ1. Overall results showed that the proposed method performed better than the original method and the classical method especially under heavy tailed distribution.

  6. The dynamics of the local group as a probe of Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of the Local Group (LG) within the context of cosmological models beyond General Relativity (GR). Using observable kinematic quantities to identify candidate pairs we build up samples of simulated LG-like objects drawing from f(R), symmetron, DGP and quintessence N-body simulations together with their ΛCDM counterparts featuring the same initial random phase realisations. The variables and intervals used to define LG-like objects are referred to as Local Group model; different models are used throughout this work and adapted to study their dynamical and kinematic properties. The aim is to determine how well the observed LG-dynamics can be reproduced within cosmological theories beyond GR, We compute kinematic properties of samples drawn from alternative theories and ΛCDM and compare them to actual observations of the LG mass, velocity and position. As a consequence of the additional pull, pairwise tangential and radial velocities are enhanced in modified gravity and coupled dark energy with respect to ΛCDM inducing significant changes to the total angular momentum and energy of the LG. For example, in models such as f(R) and the symmetron this increase can be as large as 60%, peaking well outside of the 95% confidence region allowed by the data. This shows how simple considerations about the LG dynamics can lead to clear small-scale observational signatures for alternative scenarios, without the need of expensive high-resolution simulations.

  7. Estimating the immunogenicity of blood group antigens: a modified calculation that corrects for transfusion exposures.

    PubMed

    Stack, Gary; Tormey, Christopher A

    2016-10-01

    Calculations of blood group antigen immunogenicity have been based on antigen and antibody frequencies in transfused populations, with the assumption of a single red blood cell (RBC) unit exposure per patient. Given that patients are usually transfused >1 RBC unit, antigen exposures will be greater than assumed, resulting in inaccurate immunogenicity calculations. As such, the goal of this study was to modify the calculation to correct for RBC exposures. To further improve accuracy, we used an empirically-derived immunogenicity for the reference antigen, K, in calculations of absolute immunogencity and eliminated anamnestic and pre-existing antibodies (i.e., antibodies induced outside the study site) from the calculation. Alloantibody numbers for the top 12 specificities and mean RBCs (MRBC) transfused per patient were obtained from the records of a hospital transfusion service. A revised immunogenicity calculation, incorporating a correction for MRBC, was developed. This correction resulted in up to a 4-fold increase in the immunogenicity of relatively high frequency antigens, with smaller increases for lower frequency antigens, yielding the following revised immunogenicity ranking: K>Jk(a) >Lu(a) >E>P1>c>M>Le(b) >C>Le(a) >Fy(a) >S. Use of an empirical value for K immunogenicity resulted in a 1·9-fold increase in absolute immunogenicities for all antigens. In summary, the calculation of blood group antigen immunogenicity has been further refined.

  8. Multinuclear group 4 catalysis: olefin polymerization pathways modified by strong metal-metal cooperative effects.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Jennifer P; Delferro, Massimiliano; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-08-19

    homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, macromolecules with dramatically altered properties, and large-scale industrial processes. It is noteworthy that many metalloenzymes employ multiple active centers operating in close synergistic proximity to achieve high activity and selectivity. Such enzymes were the inspiration for the research discussed in this Account, focused on the properties of multimetallic olefin polymerization catalysts. Here we discuss how modifications in organic ligand architecture, metal···metal proximity, and cocatalyst can dramatically modify polyolefin molecular weight, branch structure, and selectively for olefinic comonomer enchainment. We first discuss bimetallic catalysts with identical group 4 metal centers and then heterobimetallic systems with either group 4 or groups 4 + 6 catalytic centers. We compare and contrast the polymerization properties of the bimetallic catalysts with their monometallic analogues, highlighting marked cooperative enchainment effects and unusual polymeric products possible via the proximate catalytic centers. Such multinuclear olefin polymerization catalysts exhibit the following distinctive features: (1) unprecedented levels of polyolefin branching; (2) enhanced enchainment selectivity for linear and encumbered α-olefin comonomers; (3) enhanced polyolefin tacticity and molecular weight; (4) unusual 1,2-insertion regiochemistry for styrenic monomers; (5) modified chain transfer kinetics, such as M-polymer β-hydride transfer to the metal or incoming monomer; (6) LLDPE synthesis with a single binuclear catalyst and ethylene.

  9. Perchlorate adsorption onto orange peel modified by cross-linking amine groups from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixiang; Yang, Zhiquan; Li, Ting; Zhou, Shaoqi; Wu, Zhenyi

    2015-01-01

    Orange peel was made into a highly efficient bio-sorbent by modification with cross-linking amine groups for perchlorate removal. Bench-scale experiments were performed to explore the factors affecting the perchlorate adsorption onto the modified orange peel (MOP). Perchlorate could be removed effectively at a wide range of pH (from 1.5 to 11). The maximum adsorption capacity of MOP for perchlorate was calculated as 154.1 mg/g within 15 min. The Redlich-Peterson model was fitted to the adsorption isotherm very well (R2>0.99). The adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic, which was proved by thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs energy and enthalpy). The pseudo-second-order kinetic model could provide satisfactory fitting of the experimental data (R2>0.99). The scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the surface of MOP became smooth and the contents of N and Cl in MOP were increased during the modification process. Elemental analysis results showed that the nitrogen content in MOP was increased to 5.5%, while it was 1.06% in orange peel. The adsorption mechanism was also explored using zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Ion exchange was the primary mechanism responsible for uptake of perchlorate onto MOP.

  10. Renormalization group scale-setting from the action—a road to modified gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domazet, Silvije; Štefančić, Hrvoje

    2012-12-01

    The renormalization group (RG) corrected gravitational action in Einstein-Hilbert and other truncations is considered. The running scale of the RG is treated as a scalar field at the level of the action and determined in a scale-setting procedure recently introduced by Koch and Ramirez for the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. The scale-setting procedure is elaborated for other truncations of the gravitational action and applied to several phenomenologically interesting cases. It is shown how the logarithmic dependence of the Newton's coupling on the RG scale leads to exponentially suppressed effective cosmological constant and how the scale-setting in particular RG-corrected gravitational theories yields the effective f(R) modified gravity theories with negative powers of the Ricci scalar R. The scale-setting at the level of the action at the non-Gaussian fixed point in Einstein-Hilbert and more general truncations is shown to lead to universal effective action quadratic in the Ricci tensor.

  11. Genetic modifiers of ambulation in the cooperative international Neuromuscular research group Duchenne natural history study

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Luca; Kesari, Akanchha; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Cnaan, Avital; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Punetha, Jaya; Duong, Tina; Henricson, Erik K; Pegoraro, Elena; McDonald, Craig M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied the effects of LTBP4 and SPP1 polymorphisms on age at loss of ambulation (LoA) in a multiethnic Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) cohort. Methods We genotyped SPP1 rs28357094 and LTBP4 haplotype in 283 of 340 participants in the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study (CINRG-DNHS). Median ages at LoA were compared by Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test. We controlled polymorphism analyses for concurrent effects of glucocorticoid corticosteroid (GC) treatment (time-varying Cox regression) and for population stratification (multidimensional scaling of genome-wide markers). Results Hispanic and South Asian participants (n = 18, 41) lost ambulation 2.7 and 2 years earlier than Caucasian subjects (p = 0.003, <0.001). The TG/GG genotype at SPP1 rs28357094 was associated to 1.2-year-earlier median LoA (p = 0.048). This difference was greater (1.9 years, p = 0.038) in GC-treated participants, whereas no difference was observed in untreated subjects. Cox regression confirmed a significant effect of SPP1 genotype in GC-treated participants (hazard ratio = 1.61, p = 0.016). LTBP4 genotype showed a direction of association with age at LoA as previously reported, but it was not statistically significant. After controlling for population stratification, we confirmed a strong effect of LTBP4 genotype in Caucasians (2.4 years, p = 0.024). Median age at LoA with the protective LTBP4 genotype in this cohort was 15.0 years, 16.0 for those who were treated with GC. Interpretation SPP1 rs28357094 acts as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of GC response, and LTBP4 haplotype modifies age at LoA in the CINRG-DNHS cohort. Adjustment for GC treatment and population stratification appears crucial in assessing genetic modifiers in DMD. PMID:25641372

  12. The dynamics of the Local Group as a probe of dark energy and modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the dynamics of the Local Group (LG) within the context of cosmological models beyond General Relativity (GR). Using observable kinematic quantities to identify candidate pairs, we build up samples of simulated LG-like objects drawing from f(R), symmetron, Dvali, Gabadadze & Porrati and quintessence N-body simulations together with their Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) counterparts featuring the same initial random phase realizations. The variables and intervals used to define LG-like objects are referred to as LG model; different models are used throughout this work and adapted to study their dynamical and kinematic properties. The aim is to determine how well the observed LG dynamics can be reproduced within cosmological theories beyond GR, We compute kinematic properties of samples drawn from alternative theories and ΛCDM and compare them to actual observations of the LG mass, velocity and position. As a consequence of the additional pull, pairwise tangential and radial velocities are enhanced in modified gravity and coupled dark energy with respect to ΛCDM inducing significant changes to the total angular momentum and energy of the LG. For example, in models such as f(R) and the symmetron this increase can be as large as 60 per cent, peaking well outside of the 95 per cent confidence region allowed by the data. This shows how simple considerations about the LG dynamics can lead to clear small-scale observational signatures for alternative scenarios, without the need of expensive high-resolution simulations.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Largazole Analogues with Modified Surface Recognition Cap Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bhansali, Pravin; Hanigan, Christin L.; Perera, Lalith; Casero, Robert A.; Viranga Tillekeratne, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Several largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups were synthesized and their HDAC inhibitory activities were determined. The C7-epimer 12 caused negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. Although previous studies have shown some degree of tolerance of structural changes at C7 position of largazole, these data show the negative effect of conformational change accompanying change of configuration at this position. Similarly, analogue 16a with D-1-naphthylmethyl side chain at C2 too had negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. In contrast, the L-allyl analogue 16b and the L-1-naphthylmethyl analogue 16c were potent HDAC inhibitors, showing robust induction of global H3 acetylation and significant effect on cell growth. The data suggest that even bulky substituents are tolerated at this position, provided the stereochemistry at C2 is retained. With bulky substituents, inversion of configuration at C2 results in loss of inhibitory activity. The activity profiles of 16b and 16c on Class I HDAC1 vs Class II HDAC6 are similar to those of largazole and, taken together with x-ray crystallography information of HDAC8-largazole complex, may suggest that the C2 position of largazole is not a suitable target for structural optimization to achieve isoform selectivity. The results of these studies may guide the synthesis of more potent and selective HDAC inhibitors. PMID:25203782

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups.

    PubMed

    Bhansali, Pravin; Hanigan, Christin L; Perera, Lalith; Casero, Robert A; Tillekeratne, L M Viranga

    2014-10-30

    Several largazole analogues with modified surface recognition cap groups were synthesized and their HDAC inhibitory activities were determined. The C7-epimer 12 caused negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. Although previous studies have shown some degree of tolerance of structural changes at C7 position of largazole, these data show the negative effect of conformational change accompanying change of configuration at this position. Similarly, analogue 16a with D-1-naphthylmethyl side chain at C2 too had negligible inhibition of HDAC activity, failed to induce global histone 3 (H3) acetylation in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line and demonstrated minimal effect on growth. In contrast, the L-allyl analogue 16b and the L-1-naphthylmethyl analogue 16c were potent HDAC inhibitors, showing robust induction of global H3 acetylation and significant effect on cell growth. The data suggest that even bulky substituents are tolerated at this position, provided the stereochemistry at C2 is retained. With bulky substituents, inversion of configuration at C2 results in loss of inhibitory activity. The activity profiles of 16b and 16c on Class I HDAC1 vs Class II HDAC6 are similar to those of largazole and, taken together with x-ray crystallography information of HDAC8-largazole complex, may suggest that the C2 position of largazole is not a suitable target for structural optimization to achieve isoform selectivity. The results of these studies may guide the synthesis of more potent and selective HDAC inhibitors.

  15. Electronic structure and nonlinear optical properties of model push-pull polyenes with modified indanone groups: a theoretical investigation

    PubMed

    Szymusiak; Zielinski; Domagalska; Wilk

    2000-05-01

    Several model polyenes with modified indanone groups were studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-31G*, ab initio HF/3-21G* and semiempirical AM1 methods. We investigated the effect of several substituents upon the relationship between the structure, spatial distribution of the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied pi-MOs, a concept of the global softness and the global hardness as well as both linear and nonlinear polarizabilities for the set of pi-electron chromophores represented by the short-chain model polyene (butadiene) carrying out p-methoxyphenyl group on the one end and several modified indanone groups on the opposite end of the molecule. As probing endocyclic groups used to modify the structure of indanone the following substituents: > CH2; > C=O; > SO2, > C=CH(NO2) and > C=C(CN)2 were selected. The cubic relationship between the polarizability and the global softness was found. The highest polarizabilities (alpha, beta, gamma) are predicted for the derivatives with > C=C(CN)2 group. It was found that the value of beta depends mainly on the difference between dipole moments in the excited and ground states of the molecules. In the case of > SO2 group the results of AMI calculations significantly deviate from relationships found for other derivatives. Experimental IR and Raman spectra of newly synthesized indandione derivative of cinnamaldehyde were compared with computed ones.

  16. Defining Quality Criteria for Online Continuing Medical Education Modules Using Modified Nominal Group Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortt, S. E. D.; Guillemette, Jean-Marc; Duncan, Anne Marie; Kirby, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The rapid increase in the use of the Internet for continuing education by physicians suggests the need to define quality criteria for accredited online modules. Methods: Continuing medical education (CME) directors from Canadian medical schools and academic researchers participated in a consensus process, Modified Nominal Group…

  17. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Tarasevich, B.J.; Rieke, P.C.

    1998-06-02

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups. 5 figs.

  18. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOEpatents

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Rieke, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups.

  19. Effect of hydrophobic groups on the adsorption conformation of modified polycarboxylate superplasticizer investigated by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Wang, Yanwei; Yang, Yong; Shu, Xin; Yan, Han; Ran, Qianping

    2017-06-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the adsorption conformations of hydrophobically-modified comb-shaped polycarboxylate ether-based (PCE) superplasticizer molecules on a model surface of dicalcium silicate (C2S) in vacuum and in an explicit solution, respectively. Three different hydrophobic modifying groups, namely, the ethyl group, the n-butyl group and the phenyl group, decorated to the backbone, were examined. Comparing the hydrophobically-modified PCEs to the unmodified one, differences were found in the binding energy, the adsorption conformation and the water density at the interface. The interaction between PCE molecules and C2S was weakened in a solution with explicit solvents than that obtained from vacuum-based simulations. The presence of hydrophobic groups lowered the polymer-surface binding energy, decreased the radius of gyration (Rg) of the adsorbed polymer, increased the peak position in the heavy-atom density profiles in the direction perpendicular to the surface, and also caused the adsorbed conformations to be more globular in shape. The parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the surface plane) of the geometric sizes of the adsorbed polymers were calculated, and the results showed that the presence of hydrophobically modifying groups decreased the in-plane radius while increased the adsorption layer thickness compared to the unmodified control. The presence of PCEs perturbed the dense water layer above the C2S surface and lowered the water density. Perturbations to the interfacial water density were found to correlate nicely with the adsorbed conformations of PCEs.

  20. Edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode covalently modified with 2-anthraquinonyl groups: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Kozub, Barbara R; Henstridge, Martin C; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Compton, Richard G

    2011-10-24

    An edge plane pyrolitic graphite (EPPG) electrode was modified by electrochemical reduction of anthraquinone-2-diazonium tetrafluoroborate (AQ2-N(2)(+)BF(4)(-)), giving an EPPG-AQ2-modified electrode of a surface coverage below a monolayer. Cyclic voltammograms simulated using Marcus-Hush theory for 2e(-) process assuming a uniform surface gave unrealistically low values of reorganisation energies, λ, for both electron transfer steps. Subsequently, two models of surface inhomogeneity based on Marcus-Hush theory were investigated: a distribution of formal potentials, E', and a distribution of electron tunneling distances, r(0). The simulation of cyclic voltammograms involving the distribution of formal potentials showed a better fit than the simulation with the distribution of tunneling distances. Importantly the reorganization energies used for the simulation of E' distribution were similar to the literature values for adsorbed species.

  1. Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, L.W.

    1993-07-01

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

  2. Designing a balanced scorecard for a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan: a modified Delphi group exercise.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Jafri, Syed M Wasim; Abbas, Farhat; Shah, Mairaj; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Brommels, Mats; Tomson, Goran

    2010-01-01

    Balanced Scorecards (BSC) are being implemented in high income health settings linking organizational strategies with performance data. At this private university hospital in Pakistan an elaborate information system exists. This study aimed to make best use of available data for better performance management. Applying the modified Delphi technique an expert panel of clinicians and hospital managers reduced a long list of indicators to a manageable size. Indicators from existing documents were evaluated for their importance, scientific soundness, appropriateness to hospital's strategic plan, feasibility and modifiability. Panel members individually rated each indicator on a scale of 1-9 for the above criteria. Median scores were assigned. Of an initial set of 50 indicators, 20 were finally selected to be assigned to the four BSC quadrants. These were financial (n = 4), customer or patient (n = 4), internal business or quality of care (n = 7) and innovation/learning or employee perspectives (n = 5). A need for stringent definitions, international benchmarking and standardized measurement methods was identified. BSC compels individual clinicians and managers to jointly work towards improving performance. This scorecard is now ready to be implemented by this hospital as a performance management tool for monitoring indicators, addressing measurement issues and enabling comparisons with hospitals in other settings.

  3. Detection of phosphatidylserine with a modified polar head group in human keratinocytes exposed to the radical generator AAPH.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Elisabete; Neves, Bruno M; Santinha, Deolinda; Reis, Ana; Domingues, Pedro; Teresa Cruz, M; Pitt, Andrew R; Spickett, Corinne M; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2014-04-15

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is preferentially located in the inner leaflet of the cell membrane, and translocation of PS oxidized in fatty acyl chains to the outside of membrane has been reported as signaling to macrophage receptors to clear apoptotic cells. It was recently shown that PS can be oxidized in serine moiety of polar head-group. In the present work, a targeted lipidomic approach was applied to detecting OxPS modified at the polar head-group in keratinocytes that were exposed to the radical generator AAPH. Glycerophosphoacetic acid derivatives (GPAA) were found to be the major oxidation products of OxPS modified at the polar head-group during oxidation induced by AAPH-generated radicals, similarly to previous observations for the oxidation induced by OH radical. The neutral loss scan of 58Da and a novel precursor ion scan of m/z 137.1 (HOPO3CH2COOH) allowed the recognition of GPAA derivatives in the total lipid extracts obtained from HaCaT cells treated with AAPH. The positive identification of serine head group oxidation products in cells under controlled oxidative conditions opens new perspectives and justifies further studies in other cellular environments in order to understand fully the role of PS polar head-group oxidation in cell homeostasis and disease.

  4. Photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles chemically modified by alkyl groups and dispersed in low-polar liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikov, Yury V.; Alekseev, Sergei A.; Lysenko, Vladimir; Bremond, Georges; Bluet, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    A detailed comparative analysis of photoluminescence behavior of silicon nanoparticles in air and dispersed in low-polar liquids is reported. Efficient dispersion and excellent stability of the chemically modified nanoparticles in low-polar liquids are achieved. Influence of the chemical functionalization and of the low-polar liquids on steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of the silicon nanoparticles is investigated. Role of low-polar liquids on recombination mechanisms taking place in the nanoparticles is discussed in terms of Förster resonant energy transfer processes. Effect of exciting laser power on photoluminescence spectra of the silicon nanoparticles both in air and in low-polar liquids is investigated and the electronic mechanisms involved into the observed phenomena are discussed.

  5. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks.

  6. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective • To investigate pathological and short-term outcomes since the most recent Gleason system modifications by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) in an attempt to divide the current Gleason grading system into prognostically accurate Gleason grade groups. Patients and Methods • We queried the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database (1982–2011), approved by the institutional review board, for men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) without a tertiary pattern since 2004 and identified 7869 men. • Multivariable models were created using preoperative and postoperative variables; prognostic grade group (Gleason grade ≤6; 3 + 4; 4 + 3; 8; 9–10) was among the strongest predictors of biochemical recurrence-free (BFS) survival. Results • Significant differences were noted among the Gleason grade groups at biopsy; differences were noted in the race, PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores at biopsy and the maximum percentage of positive cores among the Gleason grade groups at RP. • With a median (range) follow-up of 2 (1–7) years, 5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9–10 tumours at biopsy were 94.6, 82.7, 65.1, 63.1 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend); and 96.6, 88.1, 69.7, 63.7 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001), based on RP pathology. Conclusions • The 2005 ISUP modifications to the Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma accurately categorize patients by pathological findings and short-term biochemical outcomes but, while retaining the essence of the Gleason system, there is a need for a change in its reporting to more closely reflect tumour behaviour. • We propose reporting Gleason grades, including prognostic grade groups which accurately reflect prognosis as follows: Gleason score ≤6 (prognostic grade group I); Gleason score 3+4=7 (prognostic grade group II); Gleason score 4+3=7 (prognostic grade group III); Gleason score 4+4=8 (prognostic grade

  7. Macroporous modified poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with charged groups for tissue engineering: Preparation and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Drozdova, Maria G; Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria S; Akasov, Roman A; Golunova, Anna S; Artyukhov, Alexander A; Udartseva, Olga O; Andreeva, Elena R; Lisovyy, Denis E; Shtilman, Michael I; Markvicheva, Elena A

    2017-06-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels are widely employed for various biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, due to their biocompatibility, high water solubility, low protein adsorption, and chemical stability. However, non-charged surface of PVA-based hydrogels is not optimal for cell adhesion and spreading. Here, cross-linked macroporous hydrogels based on low molecular weight acrylated PVA (Acr-PVA) was synthesized by modification of the pendant alcohol groups on the PVA with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). To enhance cell affinity, charged groups were introduced to the hydrogel composition. For this purpose, Acr-PVA was copolymerized with either negatively charged acrylic acid (AA) or positively charged 2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) monomers. A surface charge of the obtained hydrogels was found to be in function of the co-monomer type and content. Confocal microscopy observations confirmed that adhesion and spreading of both mouse fibroblasts (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on the modified Acr-PVA-AA and Acr-PVA-DEAEMA hydrogels were better than those on the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel. The increase of DEAEMA monomer content from 5 to 15mol% resulted in the enhancement of cell viability which was 1.5-fold higher for Acr-PVA-DEAEMA-15 hydrogel than that of the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Magneto-Sensitive Adsorbents Modified by Functional Nitrogen-Containing Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnyk, Inna V.; Gdula, Karolina; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Zub, Yuriy L.

    2016-02-01

    In order to obtain amino-functionalized silica materials with magnetic core, one-step synthesis was carried out. Several materials, differ in number and structure of amino groups, were synthesized on the basis of sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were examined by several analytical techniques. The presence and content of amino groups were measured by using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy and acid-base titration, respectively. Specific surface areas were measured by nitrogen/adsorption desorption isotherms. It was proved that sol-gel approach leads to obtain materials with high content of amino groups built into their surfaces (in the range 1.6-2.7 mmol/g). As-obtained materials were tested as potential adsorbents for copper(II) ions. The received maximum adsorption capacities were in the range 0.4-0.7 mmol/g.

  9. Polarity of an MCM-41 adsorbent surface modified with methyl and phenyl groups based on data from gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhareva, D. A.; Gus'kov, V. Yu.; Karpov, S. I.; Kudasheva, F. Kh.; Roessner, F.; Borodina, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The polarity of an MCM-41 adsorbent surface and organosilylated composites based on it with grafted trimethylsilane and dimethylphenylsilane groups is studied via inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution. The dispersion and specific components of the value proportional to the Helmholtz adsorption energy are calculated, and a comparative analysis of the surface polarity of MCM-41 and its modified analogs relative to the commercially available C-120 silica gel is performed. The electrostatic and donor-acceptor components of the specific Helmholtz adsorption energy are calculated through linear decomposition of the adsorption energy. It is established that MCM-41 is less polar than C-120. The modification of the initial adsorbent surface leads to a reduction in polarity, due mainly to the weakening of induction and orientation interactions. It is concluded that the surfaces of the modified samples retain the ability to form hydrogen bonds.

  10. Colloidal crystallization of colloidal silica modified with ferrocenyl group-contained polymers in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kohji; Shigeta, Maki; Komune, Seishu; Mouri, Emiko; Nakai, Akemi

    2007-01-15

    Surface modification of colloidal silica with ferrocenyl-grafted polymer and colloidal crystallization of the particles in organic solvent were studied. Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-vinylferrocene)-grafted silica never formed colloidal crystals in polar solvent, such as acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), while poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ferrocenyl acrylate)-grafted silica gave colloidal crystallization in DMF. The particles prepared by grafting of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-vinylferrocene), with vinylferrocene (Vfc) mole fraction of 1/13 and 1/23, were observed to give the crystallization in ethanol and DMF over particle volume fraction of 0.058. Further, silica modified with copolymer of Vfc and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, N-vinylcarbazole or N-isopropylacrylamide formed colloidal crystals in ethanol and DMF. Especially, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Vfc)-grafted silica, which was composed of the highest mole fraction of vinylferrocene, 1/3, afforded colloidal crystallization in ethanol over particle volume fraction of 0.053. Relatively high polar vinylferrocene copolymer grafting of silica resulted in colloidal polymerization in organic solvents.

  11. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance

    PubMed Central

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-01-01

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines. PMID:27713417

  12. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-01

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  13. Social learning strategies modify the effect of network structure on group performance.

    PubMed

    Barkoczi, Daniel; Galesic, Mirta

    2016-10-07

    The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members. We show that efficient networks outperform inefficient networks when individuals rely on conformity by copying the most frequent solution among their contacts. However, inefficient networks are superior when individuals follow the best member by copying the group member with the highest payoff. In addition, groups relying on conformity based on a small sample of others excel at complex tasks, while groups following the best member achieve greatest performance for simple tasks. Our findings reconcile contradictory results in the literature and have broad implications for the study of social learning across disciplines.

  14. Synthesis of clarithromycin ketolides chemically modified at the unreactive C10-methyl group.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Hany Fakhry; Andrei, Mioara; Undheim, Kjell

    2017-04-15

    Chemoselective substitutions in the C10-methyl group of erythromycin A ketolides is reported. The C10-methyl group in the clarithromycin derived substrate 10,11-anhydro-O(6)-methyl-descladinosylerythromycin was activated by conversion into an allyl acetate and thereafter to the corresponding allylic cyanide. Both the allylic acetate and the cyanide reacted with carbonyldiimidazole and ammonia to afford a C11,C12-cyclic carbamate with concurrent elimination of the allylic function to yield a methylene α,β-unsaturated ketone. Conjugate addition with amines resulted in stereoselective C-N bond formation between the terminal methylene carbon and the amino nitrogen. Carbylation in the methylene group was effected under Stille conditions for cross-coupling with Pd-catalysis. With anion stabilized nucleophiles, such as a sodium salt of a malonate, stereoselectivity was observed in the formation of the 10-substituent. Stereoselective cycloaddition with trimethylsilyldiazomethane afforded a spirane where the C10 carbon of the macrolide skeleton had become a quaternary spirocarbon. Antibacterial in vitro data for a selected group of compounds against strains of respiratory pathogens S. pneumoniae and S. aureus are reported. Most of the compounds tested showed improved activities over CLA as a reference compound against efflux resistant S. pneumoniae as well as against efflux and inducibly resistant strains of S. aureus.

  15. Plant Functional Group Composition Modifies the Effects of Precipitation Change on Grassland Ecosystem Function

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Ellen L.; Manning, Pete; Allen, David G. P.; Hurst, Alex; Everwand, Georg; Rimmler, Martin; Power, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Temperate grassland ecosystems face a future of precipitation change, which can alter community composition and ecosystem functions through reduced soil moisture and waterlogging. There is evidence that functionally diverse plant communities contain a wider range of water use and resource capture strategies, resulting in greater resistance of ecosystem function to precipitation change. To investigate this interaction between composition and precipitation change we performed a field experiment for three years in successional grassland in southern England. This consisted of two treatments. The first, precipitation change, simulated end of century predictions, and consisted of a summer drought phase alongside winter rainfall addition. The second, functional group identity, divided the plant community into three groups based on their functional traits- broadly described as perennials, caespitose grasses and annuals- and removed these groups in a factorial design. Ecosystem functions related to C, N and water cycling were measured regularly. Effects of functional groupidentity were apparent, with the dominant trend being that process rates were higher under control conditions where a range of perennial species were present. E.g. litter decomposition rates were significantly higher in plots containing several perennial species, the group with the highest average leaf N content. Process rates were also very strongly affected by the precipitation change treatmentwhen perennial plant species were dominant, but not where the community contained a high abundance of annual species and caespitose grasses. This contrasting response could be attributable to differing rooting patterns (shallower structures under annual plants, and deeper roots under perennials) and faster nutrient uptake in annuals compared to perennials. Our results indicate that precipitation change will have a smaller effect on key process rates in grasslandscontaining a range of perennial and annual species

  16. Plant functional group composition modifies the effects of precipitation change on grassland ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Fry, Ellen L; Manning, Pete; Allen, David G P; Hurst, Alex; Everwand, Georg; Rimmler, Martin; Power, Sally A

    2013-01-01

    Temperate grassland ecosystems face a future of precipitation change, which can alter community composition and ecosystem functions through reduced soil moisture and waterlogging. There is evidence that functionally diverse plant communities contain a wider range of water use and resource capture strategies, resulting in greater resistance of ecosystem function to precipitation change. To investigate this interaction between composition and precipitation change we performed a field experiment for three years in successional grassland in southern England. This consisted of two treatments. The first, precipitation change, simulated end of century predictions, and consisted of a summer drought phase alongside winter rainfall addition. The second, functional group identity, divided the plant community into three groups based on their functional traits- broadly described as perennials, caespitose grasses and annuals- and removed these groups in a factorial design. Ecosystem functions related to C, N and water cycling were measured regularly. Effects of functional groupidentity were apparent, with the dominant trend being that process rates were higher under control conditions where a range of perennial species were present. E.g. litter decomposition rates were significantly higher in plots containing several perennial species, the group with the highest average leaf N content. Process rates were also very strongly affected by the precipitation change treatmentwhen perennial plant species were dominant, but not where the community contained a high abundance of annual species and caespitose grasses. This contrasting response could be attributable to differing rooting patterns (shallower structures under annual plants, and deeper roots under perennials) and faster nutrient uptake in annuals compared to perennials. Our results indicate that precipitation change will have a smaller effect on key process rates in grasslandscontaining a range of perennial and annual species

  17. The synthesis of monomers with pendent ethynyl groups for modified high performance thermoplastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nwokogu, Godson C.; Antoine, Miquel D.; Ansong, Omari

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic schemes were developed and optimized for twelve new monomers possessing unique structural features and one aspartimide. Two synthetic pathways were compared for preparation of the triarylethane monomers with pendent ethynyl groups. The results show that one of these pathways can be generally applied. The alternative pathway was applicable to the preparation of only one of the twelve compounds, the problem being secondary reactions of the initially formed desired product.

  18. Parentage outcomes in response to estrogen exposure are modified by social grouping in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Coe, Tobias S; Hamilton, Patrick B; Hodgson, David; Paull, Gregory C; Tyler, Charles R

    2009-11-01

    Evidence has recently emerged that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can affect various behaviors, including dominance and aggression in social groups, including fish. This study investigated the effect of short-term exposure of male adult zebrafish to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) on subsequent reproductive output and parentage in colonies with differing numbers of competing males. It was predicted that impacts of EDCs might differ in social groups of fish of differing size because of the greater costs of maintaining dominance hierarchies in large groups. Adult male zebrafish were exposed for 14 days to clean water, 2 ng/L EE(2) or 10 ng/L via the water, prior to placement into colonies in clean water with unexposed females. Exposure to EE(2) at the concentrations adopted prior to the breeding trials did not significantly affect subsequent colony reproductive output. The reproductive success of the most reproductively successful (MRS) male within colonies containing two males (relative to controls) was also unaffected. There was, however, a significant impact of previous EE(2) exposure in tanks containing four males, resulting in a reduction in paternity for the most successful male. Hence, nonlethal behavioral impacts of even short-term exposure to EDCs can have significant impacts on social dominance hierarchies and population genetic diversity.

  19. Synthesis and DNA transfection properties of new head group modified malonic acid diamides.

    PubMed

    Wölk, Christian; Heinze, Martin; Kreideweiss, Patrick; Dittrich, Matthias; Brezesinski, Gerald; Langner, Andreas; Dobner, Bodo

    2011-05-16

    Malonic acid diamides with two long hydrophobic alkyl chains and a basic polar head group as a new class of non-viral gene transferring compounds have shown high transfection efficiency and moderate toxicity. Based on the results obtained with saturated and unsaturated alkyl residues new derivatives with a more complex head group structure have been synthesized. For this purpose, cationic respectively basic groups were introduced by one or two lysine residues bound via tris(aminoethyl)amine spacer to the malonic acid diamide backbone. By studying in vitro gene delivery an increase of transfection efficacy was observed when using lipids with at least one unsaturated alkyl chain. This leads to cationic lipids exhibiting comparable or even higher transfection efficacies compared to the commercially available transfection agents LipofectAmine™ and SuperFect™. Phase transitions and phase structures of selected compounds have been analyzed and discussed in terms of transfection abilities. Particle size and zeta potential of liposomes and lipoplexes were also determined.

  20. Use of focus groups to understand African-Americans’ dietary practices: Implications for modifying a food frequency questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.; Dawkin, Norma; Pace, Ralphenia D.; Shikany, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To generate information about dietary practices, food preferences and food preparation methods from African-Americans in Macon County, Alabama, as a precursor to an intervention designed to modify an existing dietary health questionnaire (DHQ). Method African-American males (30) and females (31) ages 20 to 75 years participated in eight focus groups in Macon County Alabama between June and July, 2007. Results The core topics identified were dietary practices; food preferences; food preparation methods; fast food practices; and seasonal/specialty foods. The younger focus group participants reported consuming mostly fast foods such as hamburgers for lunch. Fruits, vegetables, salads, fish, chicken and sandwiches were the most common lunch foods for the older males and females. Across the groups, rice, cornbread and potatoes were reportedly the most commonly consumed starchy foods at dinner. Frying and baking were the most common cooking methods. Fewer participants reported removing the skin when cooking chicken versus those who did not remove. Traditional foods including fried green tomatoes and cracklings were selected for addition to the modified DHQ, while those not commonly consumed, were deleted. Conclusions Participants described high-fat traditional food preferences, common frying and addition of salted meats to vegetables, which informed the modification of a DHQ. PMID:19285101

  1. Human-modified habitats change patterns of population genetic structure and group relatedness in Peter's tent-roosting bats.

    PubMed

    Sagot, Maria; Phillips, Caleb D; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    Although coloniality is widespread among mammals, it is still not clear what factors influence composition of social groups. As animals need to adapt to multiple habitat and environmental conditions throughout their range, variation in group composition should be influenced by adaptive adjustment to different ecological factors. Relevant to anthropogenic disturbance, increased habitat modification by humans can alter species' presence, density, and population structure. Therefore, it is important to understand the consequences of changes to landscape composition, in particular how habitat modification affects social structure of group-forming organisms. Here, we combine information on roosting associations with genetic structure of Peter's tent-roosting bats, Uroderma bilobatum to address how different habitat characteristics at different scales affect structure of social groups. By dividing analyses by age and sex, we determined that genetic structure was greater for adult females than adult males or offspring. Habitat variables explained 80% of the variation in group relatedness (mainly influenced by female relatedness) with roost characteristics contributing the most explained variation. This suggests that females using roosts of specific characteristics exhibit higher relatedness and seem to be philopatric. These females mate with more males than do more labile female groups. Results describe ecological and microevolutionary processes, which affect relatedness and social structure; findings are highly relevant to species distributions in both natural and human-modified environments.

  2. Performance of Bond Coats Modified by Platinum Group Metals for Applications in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.; Alhems, Luai M.; Aboelfotoh, M. O.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the partial replacement of Pt with other less expensive Pt group metals on the properties of γ' + γ bond coats used in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) deposited on a nickel-base superalloy. The microstructure, thermal stability, oxidation behavior and performance in TBC systems of bond coats synthesized with Pt + Ru, Pt + Ir and Pt + Rh are compared with those of a reference bond coat synthesized with Pt. Yttria-stabilized zirconia has been employed as top coat in all coating systems. It is shown that at high temperatures all bond coats are degraded by interdiffusion and oxidation, however, with different kinetics. The lifetime of each TBC system is found to be limited by the cohesion between the thermally grown oxide and underlying bond coat. Differences in the behavior of various bond coats are correlated with their properties. Among the three Pt group metals investigated, the properties of the Pt + Ru bond coat are shown to closely approach those of the Pt bond coat. It is concluded that Ru with much lower cost presents a potential candidate for reducing the consumption of Pt.

  3. Enhanced piezoelectricity and modified dielectric screening of two-dimensional group-IV monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Lídia C.; Carvalho, A.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    We use first-principles calculations to investigate the lattice properties of group-IV monochalcogenides. These include static dielectric permittivity, elastic and piezoelectric tensors. For the monolayer, it is found that the static permittivity, besides acquiring a dependence on the interlayer distance, is comparatively higher than in the 3D system. In contrast, it is found that elastic properties are little changed by the lower dimensionality. Poisson ratios relating in-plane deformations are close to zero, and the existence of a negative Poisson ratio is also predicted for the GeS compound. Finally, the monolayer shows piezoelectricity, with piezoelectric constants higher than those recently predicted to occur in other 2D systems, such as hexagonal BN and transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers.

  4. Large-scale climate variation modifies the winter grouping behavior of endangered Indiana bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Power laws describe the functional relationship between 2 quantities, such as the frequency of a group as the multiplicative power of group size. We examined whether the annual size of well-surveyed wintering populations of endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) followed a power law, and then leveraged this relationship to predict whether the aggregation of Indiana bats in winter was influenced by global climate processes. We determined that Indiana bat wintering populations were distributed according to a power law (mean scaling coefficient α = −0.44 [95% confidence interval {95% CI} = −0.61, −0.28). The antilog of these annual scaling coefficients ranged between 0.67 and 0.81, coincident with the three-fourths power found in many other biological phenomena. We associated temporal patterns in the annual (1983–2011) scaling coefficient with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in August (βNAOAugust = −0.017 [90% CI = −0.032, −0.002]), when Indiana bats are deciding when and where to hibernate. After accounting for the strong effect of philopatry to habitual wintering locations, Indiana bats aggregated in larger wintering populations during periods of severe winter and in smaller populations in milder winters. The association with August values of the NAO indicates that bats anticipate future winter weather conditions when deciding where to roost, a heretofore unrecognized role for prehibernation swarming behavior. Future research is needed to understand whether the three-fourths–scaling patterns we observed are related to scaling in metabolism.

  5. Preparation of gemini-type amphiphiles bearing cyclitol head groups and their application as high-performance modifiers for lipases.

    PubMed

    Mine, Yurie; Fukunaga, Kimitoshi; Samejima, Ken-ichi; Yoshimoto, Makoto; Nakao, Katsumi; Sugimura, Yoshiaki

    2004-02-25

    Five gemini-type amphiphiles bearing cyclitol head groups, which have abundance of axial hydroxy groups, are newly synthesized. The syntheses are based on a common mixed anhydride method utilizing N,N'-[iminobis(trimethylene)]bisquinamide, prepared from iminobispropylamine and quino-1,5-lactone, and dialkyl N-(3-carboxypropanoyl)-L-glutamates as polar and hydrophobic components, respectively. Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) and Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PCL) are co-lyophilized with these synthesized gemini-type amphiphiles, and their transesterification activities in organic solvents are evaluated. The modified PCL and CRL prepared by using each amphiphile showed highly enhanced and moderately enhanced enzyme activity, respectively. These results are discussed in terms of the increased preferential exclusion of the hydrophilic heads of the amphiphile and of the topological view of the amphiphile.

  6. Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Kakuta, Jungo; Nishi, Shinro; Sugahara, Junichi; Kazama, Hiromi; Chee, Gab-Joo; Hattori, Masahira; Kanai, Akio; Atomi, Haruyuki; Takai, Ken; Takami, Hideto

    2011-04-01

    The domain Archaea has historically been divided into two phyla, the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Although regarded as members of the Crenarchaeota based on small subunit rRNA phylogeny, environmental genomics and efforts for cultivation have recently revealed two novel phyla/divisions in the Archaea; the 'Thaumarchaeota' and 'Korarchaeota'. Here, we show the genome sequence of Candidatus 'Caldiarchaeum subterraneum' that represents an uncultivated crenarchaeotic group. A composite genome was reconstructed from a metagenomic library previously prepared from a microbial mat at a geothermal water stream of a sub-surface gold mine. The genome was found to be clearly distinct from those of the known phyla/divisions, Crenarchaeota (hyperthermophiles), Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Korarchaeota. The unique traits suggest that this crenarchaeotic group can be considered as a novel archaeal phylum/division. Moreover, C. subterraneum harbors an ubiquitin-like protein modifier system consisting of Ub, E1, E2 and small Zn RING finger family protein with structural motifs specific to eukaryotic system proteins, a system clearly distinct from the prokaryote-type system recently identified in Haloferax and Mycobacterium. The presence of such a eukaryote-type system is unprecedented in prokaryotes, and indicates that a prototype of the eukaryotic protein modifier system is present in the Archaea.

  7. Core/shell-type nanorods of Tb3+-doped LaPO4, modified with amine groups, revealing reduced cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runowski, Marcin; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Grzyb, Tomasz; Miernikiewicz, Paulina; Lis, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    A simple co-precipitation reaction between Ln3+ cations (Ln = lanthanide) and phosphate ions in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), including post-treatment under hydrothermal conditions, leads to the formation of Tb3+-doped LaPO4 crystalline nanorods. The nanoparticles obtained can be successfully coated with amorphous and porous silica, forming core/shell-type nanorods. Both products reveal intensive green luminescence under UV lamp irradiation. The surface of the core/shell-type product can also be modified with -NH2 groups via silylation procedure, using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as a modifier. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy confirm the desired structure and needle-like shape of the products synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area measurements by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method reveal a successful surface modification with amine groups of the core/shell-type nanoparticles prepared. The nanomaterials synthesized exhibit green luminescence characteristic of Tb3+ ions, as solid powders and aqueous colloids, examined by spectrofluorometry. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies reveal different degree toxicity of the products. LaPO4:Tb3+@SiO2@NH2 exhibits the smallest toxicity against B16F0 mouse melanoma cancer cells and human skin microvascular endothelial cell lines, in contrast to the most toxic LaPO4:Tb3+@SiO2.

  8. Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group

    PubMed Central

    Nunoura, Takuro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Kakuta, Jungo; Nishi, Shinro; Sugahara, Junichi; Kazama, Hiromi; Chee, Gab-Joo; Hattori, Masahira; Kanai, Akio; Atomi, Haruyuki; Takai, Ken; Takami, Hideto

    2011-01-01

    The domain Archaea has historically been divided into two phyla, the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Although regarded as members of the Crenarchaeota based on small subunit rRNA phylogeny, environmental genomics and efforts for cultivation have recently revealed two novel phyla/divisions in the Archaea; the ‘Thaumarchaeota’ and ‘Korarchaeota’. Here, we show the genome sequence of Candidatus ‘Caldiarchaeum subterraneum’ that represents an uncultivated crenarchaeotic group. A composite genome was reconstructed from a metagenomic library previously prepared from a microbial mat at a geothermal water stream of a sub-surface gold mine. The genome was found to be clearly distinct from those of the known phyla/divisions, Crenarchaeota (hyperthermophiles), Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Korarchaeota. The unique traits suggest that this crenarchaeotic group can be considered as a novel archaeal phylum/division. Moreover, C. subterraneum harbors an ubiquitin-like protein modifier system consisting of Ub, E1, E2 and small Zn RING finger family protein with structural motifs specific to eukaryotic system proteins, a system clearly distinct from the prokaryote-type system recently identified in Haloferax and Mycobacterium. The presence of such a eukaryote-type system is unprecedented in prokaryotes, and indicates that a prototype of the eukaryotic protein modifier system is present in the Archaea. PMID:21169198

  9. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors modify N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors via Src kinase

    PubMed Central

    Trepanier, Catherine; Lei, Gang; Xie, Yu-Feng; MacDonald, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) have emerged as important targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. Since hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has also been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether postsynaptic mGluR2/3 regulate NMDAR function. Activation of mGluR2/3 significantly decreased the ratio of AMPA-to-NMDA excitatory postsynaptic currents at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapses and enhanced the peak of NMDA-evoked currents in acutely isolated CA1 neurons. The mGluR2/3-mediated potentiation of NMDAR currents was selective for GluN2A-containing NMDARs and was mediated by the Src family kinase Src. Activation of mGluR2/3 inhibited the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway and thereby activated Src by inhibiting its regulatory C-terminal Src kinase (Csk). We suggest a novel model of regulation of NMDARs by Gi/o-coupled receptors whereby inhibition of the cAMP-PKA pathway via mGluR2/3 activates Src kinase and potentiates GluN2A-containing NMDAR currents. This represents a potentially novel mechanism to correct the hypoglutamatergic state found in schizophrenia. PMID:23378895

  10. Synthesis and characterization of 2-hydroxy-pyridine modified Group 4 alkoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Sivonxay, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Here, the reaction of Group 4 metal alkoxides ([M(OR)4]) with the potentially bidentate ligand, 2-hydroxy-pyridine (2-HO-(NC5H4) or H-PyO), led to the isolation of a family of compounds. The products isolated from the reaction of [M(OR)4] [where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf; OR = OPri (OCH(CH3)2), OBut (OC(CH3)3), or ONep (OCH2C(CH3)3] under a variety of stoichiometries with H-PyO were identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction as [(OPri)2(PyO-κ2(O,N))Ti(μ-OPri)]2, [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-ONep)Ti(ONep)3], [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)(μ-O)Ti(ONep)2]2, [H][(PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(O)-PyO)Ti(ONep)3], [(OR)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-OR)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [(OR)2Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [[(OBut)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-(κ2(N,O))(μ(O,N)-PyO)2Zr(OBut)](μ3-O)]2, [[(ONep)(PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(ONep)](μ3-O)]2, [(OBut)(PyO-κ2(O,N))Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2((μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OBut)3], [(OBut)2Hf(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ-OBut)Hf(OBut)3], [(OR)2 M(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)M(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), and [(ONep)3Hf(μ-ONep)(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)]2Hf(ONep)2·tol. The structural diversity of the binding modes of the PyO led to a number of novel structure types in comparison to other pyridine alkoxy derivatives. The majority of

  11. Synthesis and characterization of 2-hydroxy-pyridine modified Group 4 alkoxides

    DOE PAGES

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Sivonxay, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Here, the reaction of Group 4 metal alkoxides ([M(OR)4]) with the potentially bidentate ligand, 2-hydroxy-pyridine (2-HO-(NC5H4) or H-PyO), led to the isolation of a family of compounds. The products isolated from the reaction of [M(OR)4] [where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf; OR = OPri (OCH(CH3)2), OBut (OC(CH3)3), or ONep (OCH2C(CH3)3] under a variety of stoichiometries with H-PyO were identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction as [(OPri)2(PyO-κ2(O,N))Ti(μ-OPri)]2, [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-ONep)Ti(ONep)3], [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)(μ-O)Ti(ONep)2]2, [H][(PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(O)-PyO)Ti(ONep)3], [(OR)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-OR)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [(OR)2Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [[(OBut)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-(κ2(N,O))(μ(O,N)-PyO)2Zr(OBut)](μ3-O)]2, [[(ONep)(PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(ONep)](μ3-O)]2, [(OBut)(PyO-κ2(O,N))Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2((μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OBut)3], [(OBut)2Hf(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ-OBut)Hf(OBut)3], [(OR)2 M(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)M(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), and [(ONep)3Hf(μ-ONep)(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)]2Hf(ONep)2·tol. The structural diversity of the binding modes ofmore » the PyO led to a number of novel structure types in comparison to other pyridine alkoxy derivatives. The majority of compounds adopt a dinuclear arrangement but oxo-based tetra-, tri-, and monomers were observed as well. Compounds 1–12 were further characterized using a variety of analytical techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.« less

  12. Synthesis and characterization of 2-hydroxy-pyridine modified Group 4 alkoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Sivonxay, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Here, the reaction of Group 4 metal alkoxides ([M(OR)4]) with the potentially bidentate ligand, 2-hydroxy-pyridine (2-HO-(NC5H4) or H-PyO), led to the isolation of a family of compounds. The products isolated from the reaction of [M(OR)4] [where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf; OR = OPri (OCH(CH3)2), OBut (OC(CH3)3), or ONep (OCH2C(CH3)3] under a variety of stoichiometries with H-PyO were identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction as [(OPri)2(PyO-κ2(O,N))Ti(μ-OPri)]2, [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-ONep)Ti(ONep)3], [(ONep)2Ti(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)(μ-O)Ti(ONep)2]2, [H][(PyO-κ2(O,N))(η1(O)-PyO)Ti(ONep)3], [(OR)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ-OR)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [(OR)2Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), [[(OBut)2Zr(μ(O)-PyO-(κ2(N,O))(μ(O,N)-PyO)2Zr(OBut)](μ3-O)]2, [[(ONep)(PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(μ(O,N)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))Zr(ONep)](μ3-O)]2, [(OBut)(PyO-κ2(O,N))Zr(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(O,N))2((μ(O,N)-PyO)Zr(OBut)3], [(OBut)2Hf(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ-OBut)Hf(OBut)3], [(OR)2 M(μ(O)-PyO-κ2(N,O))2(μ(O,N)-PyO)M(OR)3] (OR = OBut, ONep), and [(ONep)3Hf(μ-ONep)(η1(N),μ(O)-PyO)]2Hf(ONep)2·tol. The structural diversity of the binding modes of the PyO led to a number of novel structure types in comparison to other pyridine alkoxy derivatives. The majority of

  13. Distribution of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within granules of modified sweet potato starches as determined after chemical peeling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Schols, Henk A; Chen, Zhenghong; Jin, Zhengyu; Buwalda, Piet; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-11-05

    The distributions of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups within granules of cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starches were investigated. Chemical surface peeling of starch granules was performed after sieving of native and modified starches into large-size (diameter ≥ 20 μm) and small-size (diameter < 20 μm) fractions. Starch granules were surface gelatinized in a 4M calcium chloride solution at different levels. After the peeling step, the remaining starch granules were analysed for the content of phosphorus and hydroxypropyl groups. The phosphorus level of the parental starch gradually decreased from periphery to core of the granules. The increase in phosphorus content after cross-linking in periphery was higher than that in core. The subsequent hydroxypropylation reaction resulted in lower phosphate levels. Hydroxypropylation resulted in a gradient of hydroxypropyl group concentration from periphery to core. Cross-linking prior to the hydroxypropylation resulted in lower levels of hydroxypropyl groups and less pronounced differences between periphery and core. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing different brain metastasis grading systems in stereotactic radiosurgery: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group's RPA, SIR, BSBM, GPA, and modified RPA.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Hirai, Tatsuo; Ono, Junichi; Saeki, Naokatsu; Miyakawa, Akifumi

    2012-12-01

    The authors conducted validity testing of the 5 major reported indices for radiosurgically treated brain metastases- the original Radiation Therapy Oncology Group's Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA), the Score Index for Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases (SIR), the Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BSBM), the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), and the subclassification of RPA Class II proposed by Yamamoto-in nearly 2500 cases treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), focusing on the preservation of neurological function as well as the traditional endpoint of overall survival. The authors analyzed data from 2445 cases treated with GKS by the first author (T.S.), the primary surgeon. The patient group consisted of 1716 patients treated between January 1998 and March 2008 (the Chiba series) and 729 patients treated between April 2008 and December 2011 (the Tokyo series). The interval from the date of GKS until the date of the patient's death (overall survival) and impaired activities of daily living (qualitative survival) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, while the absolute risk for two adjacent classes of each grading system and both hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. For overall survival, there were highly statistically significant differences between each two adjacent patient groups characterized by class or score (all p values < 0.001), except for GPA Scores 3.5-4.0 and 3.0. The SIR showed the best statistical results for predicting preservation of neurological function. Although no other grading systems yielded statistically significant differences in qualitative survival, the BSBM and the modified RPA appeared to be better than the original RPA and GPA. The modified RPA subclassification, proposed by Yamamoto, is well balanced in scoring simplicity with respect to case number distribution and statistical results for overall survival. However, a new or revised grading system is

  15. Is modified brief assertiveness training for nurses effective? A single-group study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nakamura, Yohei; Tanoue, Hiroki; MacLiam, Fionnula; Aoishi, Keiko; Shiraishi, Yuko

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of modified brief assertiveness training (with cognitive techniques) for nurses. Most assertiveness training takes a long time to conduct; thus, briefer training is required for universal on-the-job training in the workplace. In this single-group study, nurses received two 90-min training sessions with a 1-month interval between sessions. The degree of assertiveness was assessed by using the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule as the primary outcome, at four time points: pre- and post-training, 3-month follow-up and 6-month follow-up. A total of 33 nurses received the training, and the mean Rathus Assertiveness Schedule score improved from -14.2 (SD = 16.5) pre-training to -10.5 (SD = 18.0) post-training (p < .05). These improvements were maintained until the 6-month follow-up. The pre-post effect size of 0.22 (indicating small effect) was larger than the effect sizes ranging from -0.56 to 0.17 (no effect) reported in previous studies that used brief training. Modified brief assertiveness training seems feasible and may achieve long-term favourable outcomes in improving assertiveness among nurses. The ease of implementation of assertiveness training is important because creating an open environment for communication leads to improved job satisfaction, improved nursing care and increased patient safety. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Effectiveness of a modified parent training of smaller groups and shorter schedules for children with pervasive developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Okuno, Hiroko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Mohri, Ikuko; Yoshizaki, Arika; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Sakai, Saeko; Iwasaka, Hidemi; Taniike, Masako

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported the modified parent training of smaller groups and shorter schedules (PTSS). In this study, we applied PTSS to the mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and revealed the new evidence for its effectiveness. The participants were 30 mothers of children with PDD aged from 4.2 to 9.6 years. The effectiveness of PTSS was assessed with the confidence degree questionnaire (CDQ) and the child behavior checklist (CBCL), before and after each PTSS course. The recorded interviews were qualitatively analyzed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) methods. Average CDQ scores were clearly improved as previously reported. In addition, the CBCL total T-score was significantly improved, which was not observed in the previous study. About KJ methods, six factors that change of mothers recognition were identified. Our findings provides additional evidence for the usefulness of PTSS for children with PDD.

  17. Composition of a Vision Screen for Servicemembers With Traumatic Brain Injury: Consensus Using a Modified Nominal Group Technique

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Marsha; Llanos, Imelda; Scheiman, Mitchell; Wagener, Sharon Gowdy

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common in the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including among service members whose brain injuries occurred during deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan. Occupational therapy practitioners provide routine vision screening to inform treatment planning and referral to vision specialists, but existing methods are lacking because many tests were developed for children and do not screen for vision dysfunction typical of TBI. An expert panel was charged with specifying the composition of a vision screening protocol for servicemembers with TBI. A modified nominal group technique fostered discussion and objective determinations of consensus. After considering 29 vision tests, the panel recommended a nine-test vision screening that examines functional performance, self-reported problems, far–near acuity, reading, accommodation, convergence, eye alignment and binocular vision, saccades, pursuits, and visual fields. Research is needed to develop reliable, valid, and clinically feasible vision screening protocols to identify TBI-related vision disorders in adults. PMID:25005505

  18. Synthesis and properties of fused-ring-expanded porphyrins that were core-modified with Group 16 heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Jun; Mack, John; Wu, Di; Xue, Zhao-Li; Descalzo, Ana B; Rurack, Knut; Kobayashi, Nagao; Shen, Zhen

    2012-12-21

    The synthesis of a series of novel core-modified and fused-ring-expanded tetraphenylporphyrins is reported. Theoretical calculations and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were used to analyze the effect of core modification with Group 16 oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium atoms on the optical properties and electronic structures of the porphyrins. Marked redshifts of the Q and B bands and accelerated intersystem-crossing rates were observed, thus making these compounds potentially suitable for use in a variety of applications. The scope for further fine-tuning of these optical properties based on additional structural modifications, such as the incorporation of fused benzene rings to form ABAB structures by using a thiophene precursor with a fused bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene ring and the introduction of various substituents onto the meso-phenyl rings, is also examined.

  19. Development and evaluation of a modified brief assertiveness training for nurses in the workplace: a single-group feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yohei; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Tanoue, Hiroki; Kato, Sayaka; Nakamura, Sayoko; Aoishi, Keiko; Shiraishi, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Effective communication has a great impact on nurses' job satisfaction, team relationships, as well as patient care/safety. Previous studies have highlighted the various beneficial effects of enhancing communication through assertiveness training programs for nurses. However, most programs take a long time to implement; thus, briefer programs are urgently required for universal on-the-job-training in the workplace. The purpose of this feasibility study was to develop and evaluate a modified brief assertiveness training program (with cognitive techniques) for nurses in the workplace. This study was carried out as a single-group, open trial (pre-post comparison without a control group). Registered nurses and assistant nurses, working at two private psychiatric hospitals in Miyazaki Prefecture in Japan, were recruited. After enrolling in the study, participants received a program of two 90-min sessions with a 1-month interval between sessions. The primary outcome was the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), with secondary measurements using the Brief Version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE) and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Assessments were conducted at baseline and after a 1-month interval (pre- and post-intervention). A total of 22 participants enrolled in the study and completed the program. The mean total score on the primary outcome (RAS) significantly improved from -12.9 (SD = 17.2) to -8.6 (SD = 18.6) (p = 0.01). The within-group effect size at the post-intervention was Cohen's d = 0.24; this corresponds to the small effect of the program. Regarding secondary outcomes, there were no statistically significant effects on the BFNE or any of the BJSQ subscales (job-stressors, psychological distress, physical distress, worksite support, and satisfaction). This single-group feasibility study demonstrated that our modified brief assertiveness training for nurses seems feasible and may achieve a favorable outcome in improving their

  20. Improved activity and stability of alkaline phosphatases from psychrophilic and mesophilic organisms by chemically modifying aliphatic or amino groups using tetracarboxy-benzophenone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, K S; Poljak, A; Cavicchioli, R

    2004-07-01

    The activity-stability-structure relationship of the cold-active alkaline phosphatase from Red Arctic shrimp, Pandalus borealis (SAP) was studied by chemically modifying aliphatic (C-H) or amino (NH2) groups using benzophenone tetracarboxylic derivatives in either a light (UV-A) or dark reaction. The response of the cold-adapted enzyme was compared to a similarly modified calf alkaline phosphatase (CAP). MALDI-TOF-MS was used to determine the extent and nature of the modifications in both SAP and CAP. On average 2 to 4 amino acid residues were linked to a BP-modifier, with up to 18 to 21 amino acids modified in a smaller portion of the material. The effect of the modifications on kinetic and thermodynamic properties varied with the enzyme and type of modification. The aliphatic-group modified SAP demonstrated typical characteristics of a mesophilic enzyme, consistent with an activity-stability trade-off where gain in thermostability was attained at the expense of decreased activity. In contrast, the activity of the amino-group modified SAP attained an even more psychrophilic character with respect to its kinetic (increase in kcat and Km) and thermodynamic (reduction in deltaH#) properties. Interestingly, the amino-group modified SAP also acquired higher thermostability, thus demonstrating that both activity and stability can be simultaneously enhanced using chemical modification. The study demonstrates the applicability of benzophenone chemical modification for improving the thermal properties of enzymes from psychrophiles and mesophiles.

  1. Group versus modified individual standard-setting on multiple-choice questions with the Angoff method for fourth-year medical students in the internal medicine clerkship

    PubMed Central

    Senthong, Vichai; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Aekphachaisawat, Noppadol; Chaowattanapanit, Suteeraporn; Limpawattana, Panita; Choonhakarn, Charoen; Sookprasert, Aumkhae

    2013-01-01

    Background The Angoff method is one of the preferred methods for setting a passing level in an exam. Normally, group meetings are required, which may be a problem for busy medical educators. Here, we compared a modified Angoff individual method to the conventional group method. Methods Six clinical instructors were divided into two groups matched by teaching experience: modified Angoff individual method (three persons) and conventional group method (three persons). The passing scores were set by using the Angoff theory. The groups set the scores individually and then met to determine the passing score. In the modified Angoff individual method, passing scores were judged by each instructor and the final passing score was adjusted by the concordance method and reliability index. Results There were 94 fourth-year medical students who took the test. The mean (standard deviation) test score was 65.35 (8.38), with a median of 64 (range 46–82). The three individual instructors took 45, 60, and 60 minutes to finish the task, while the group spent 90 minutes in discussion. The final passing score in the modified Angoff individual method was 52.18 (56.75 minus 4.57) or 52 versus 51 from the standard group method. There was not much difference in numbers of failed students by either method (four versus three). Conclusion The modified Angoff individual method may be a feasible way to set a standard passing score with less time consumed and more independent rather than group work by instructors. PMID:24101890

  2. H-statistic with winsorized modified one-step M-estimator for two independent groups design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xao, Ong Gie; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Abdullah, Suhaida; Yusof, Zahayu Md

    2014-07-01

    Two-sample independent t-test is a classical method which is widely used to test the equality of two groups. However, this test is easily affected by any deviation in normality, more obvious when heterogeneity of variances and group sizes exist. It is well known that the violation in the assumption of these tests will lead to inflation in Type I error rate and depression in statistical test power. In mitigating the problem, robust methods can be used as alternatives. One such method is H-statistic. When used with modified one-step M-estimator (MOM), this test statistic (MOM-H) produce good control of Type I error even under small sample size but inconsistent across certain conditions investigated. Furthermore, power of the test is low which might be due to the trimming process. In this study, MOM is winsorized (WMOM) to sustain the original sample size. The H-statistic with WMOM as the central tendency measures (denoted as WMOM-H) showed better control of Type I error as compared to MOM-H especially under balance design regardless of the shapes of distribution investigated in the study. It also performed well under highly skewed and heavy tailed distribution for unbalanced design. In general, this study demonstrated that winsorization process (WMOM) could improve the performance of H-statistic in terms of Type I error rate control.

  3. Hydrophilic group formation and cell culturing on polystyrene Petri-dish modified by ion-assisted reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Cho, Jun-Sik; Choi, Doo-Jin; Koh, Seok-Keun

    2001-04-01

    Polystyrene (PS) Petri-dishes were modified by an ion-assisted reaction (IAR) to improve wettability and to supply a suitable surface for cell culturing. Low energy Ar + ions with 1000 eV were irradiated on the surface of PS in oxygen gas environment. Water contact angles of PS were not reduced much by ion irradiation without oxygen gas and had a value of 40°. In the case of ion irradiation with flowing oxygen gas, however, the water contact angles were dropped significantly from 73° to 19°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the hydrophilic groups were formed on the surface of PS by a chemical reaction between unstable chains induced by ion irradiation and the oxygen gas. Newly formed hydrophilic groups were identified as -(C-O)-, -(CO)- and -(CO)-O- bonds. The influence of the surface modification on growth of the rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was investigated. The IAR-treated PS surfaces showed enhanced attachment and growth in PC12 cell culture test.

  4. Preparation of carboxyl group-modified palladium nanoparticles in an aqueous solution and their conjugation with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhifei; Li, Hongying; Zhen, Shuang; He, Nongyue

    2012-05-01

    The use of nanomaterials in biomolecular labeling and their corresponding detection has been attracting much attention, recently. There are currently very few studies on palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) due to their lack of appropriate surface functionalities for conjugation with DNA. In this paper, we thus firstly present an approach to prepare carboxyl group-modified Pd NPs (with an average size of 6 nm) by the use of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA) as a stabilizer in the aqueous solution. The effect of the various reducing reaction conditions on the morphology of the Pd NPs was investigated. The particles were further characterized by TEM, UV-vis, FT-IR and XPS techniques. DNA was finally covalently conjugated to the surface of the Pd NPs through the activation of the carboxyl group, which was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and fluorescence analysis. The resulting Pd NPs-DNA conjugates show high single base pair mismatch discrimination capabilities. This work therefore sets a good foundation for further applications of Pd NPs in bio-analytical research.

  5. Two new polyoxometalate-based hybrids consisting of Keggin-type cluster modified by (Ag{sub 4}) group

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaofang; Sun, Xiaowei; Han, Zhangang; Zhao, Chuan; Yu, Haitao; Zhai, Xueliang

    2013-11-15

    Two new supramolecular polyoxometalate compounds [Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}][Ag(mbpy){sub 2}][PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] (1) and [Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}]{sub 2}[SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] (2) (mbpy=4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridyl), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR, TG, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The structural feature of 1–2 is in the cationic moiety of a tetra-core (Ag{sub 4}) cluster through weak Ag…Ag interactions. The silver(I) centers show three-, four- and five-coordinated geometries. In 1 the tetrameric silver atoms in ([Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}]{sub 2}){sup 4+} covalently bind to [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3−} anion via Ag3O bonds, while there is only intermolecular hydrogen bonding between ([Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}]{sub 2}){sup 4+} and [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4−} in 2. The coordination environments of the tetrameric silver cations have a great influence on the structure richness of the Keggin-based hybrids. The fluorescence properties of compounds 1 and 2 also have been discussed. - Graphical abstract: New polyoxometalate-based hybrids consisting of Keggin-type clusters modified by (Ag{sub 4}) groups had been synthesized and characterized, and their photoluminescence properties were also discussed. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two Keggin-type polyoxometalates consisting of (Ag{sub 4}) clusters through weak Ag…Ag interactions have been synthesized. • There exist face-to-face and dot-to-face π…π interactions in (Ag-ligand){sub 4} fragment. • The fluorescence properties of (Ag{sub 4}) modified POMs are also discussed.

  6. Comparatively studying the ultrasound present in a mild two-stage approach on the content of functional groups in modified MWCNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Run; Liang, Shaolei; Li, Guangfen; Zhang, Yanxia; Shi, Le

    2016-04-01

    A two-stage approach assisted with ultrasound for oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with ultra-high content of functional groups was utilized. The effect of ultrasound on the content of functional groups of the modified MWCNTs from different stages was analyzed by FE-SEM, HR-TEM, FTIR, Raman, TGA, XPS and triple double-backward titration method. The results confirm that more oxygen-containing functional groups were grafted on MWCNT with little damage to the structure integrity of nanotubes. The particle size distribution and the dispersion photography of MWCNTs in water and in ethanol further show a better dispersion of modified MWCNTs in polar solvent.

  7. Opinion dynamics of modified Hegselmann-Krause model in a group-based population with heterogeneous bounded confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guiyuan; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Zhijun

    2015-02-01

    Continuous opinion dynamics in a group-based population with heterogeneous bounded confidences is considered in this paper. A slightly modified Hegselmann-Krause model is proposed, and agents are classified into three categories: open-minded-, moderate-minded-, and closed-minded-agents, while the whole population is divided into three subgroups accordingly. We study how agents of each category and the population size can affect opinion dynamics. It is observed that the number of final opinion clusters is dominated by the closed-minded agents; open-minded agents cannot contribute to forming opinion consensus and the existence of open-minded agents may diversify the final opinions instead; for the fixed population size and proportion of closed-minded agents, the relative size of the largest final opinion cluster varies along concave-parabola-like curve as the proportion of open-minded agents increases, and there is a tipping point when the number of open-minded agents is almost equal to that of moderate-minded agents; for the fixed proportion of the three categories in the population, as the population size becomes larger, the number of final opinion clusters will reach a plateau. Some of the results are different from the previous studies.

  8. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) Conjugation Impedes Transcriptional Silencing by the Polycomb Group Repressor Sex Comb on Midleg*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew; Mallin, Daniel R.; Simon, Jeffrey A.; Courey, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Sex Comb on Midleg (Scm) is a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), a set of transcriptional repressors that maintain silencing of homeotic genes during development. Recent findings have identified PcG proteins both as targets for modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein and as catalytic components of the SUMO conjugation pathway. We have found that the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 binds to Scm and that this interaction, which requires the Scm C-terminal sterile α motif (SAM) domain, is crucial for the efficient sumoylation of Scm. Scm is associated with the major Polycomb response element (PRE) of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), and efficient PRE recruitment requires an intact Scm SAM domain. Global reduction of sumoylation augments binding of Scm to the PRE. This is likely to be a direct effect of Scm sumoylation because mutations in the SUMO acceptor sites in Scm enhance its recruitment to the PRE, whereas translational fusion of SUMO to the Scm N terminus interferes with this recruitment. In the metathorax, Ubx expression promotes haltere formation and suppresses wing development. When SUMO levels are reduced, we observe decreased expression of Ubx and partial haltere-to-wing transformation phenotypes. These observations suggest that SUMO negatively regulates Scm function by impeding its recruitment to the Ubx major PRE. PMID:21278366

  9. Composition of a vision screen for servicemembers with traumatic brain injury: consensus using a modified nominal group technique.

    PubMed

    Radomski, Mary Vining; Finkelstein, Marsha; Llanos, Imelda; Scheiman, Mitchell; Wagener, Sharon Gowdy

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common in the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including among service members whose brain injuries occurred during deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan. Occupational therapy practitioners provide routine vision screening to inform treatment planning and referral to vision specialists, but existing methods are lacking because many tests were developed for children and do not screen for vision dysfunction typical of TBI. An expert panel was charged with specifying the composition of a vision screening protocol for servicemembers with TBI. A modified nominal group technique fostered discussion and objective determinations of consensus. After considering 29 vision tests, the panel recommended a nine-test vision screening that examines functional performance, self-reported problems, far-near acuity, reading, accommodation, convergence, eye alignment and binocular vision, saccades, pursuits, and visual fields. Research is needed to develop reliable, valid, and clinically feasible vision screening protocols to identify TBI-related vision disorders in adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Seismic Investigations of the O'Higgins Seamount Group: Aseismic Ridge Emplacement and Hydration of Hot Spot Modified Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, H.; Flueh, E. R.; Papenberg, C.; Klaeschen, D.; Scientists, S.

    2003-12-01

    The segmentation of the South American continental margin has been linked to the subduction of bathymetric elevations on the oceanic plate. Offshore Valparaiso, Chile, the subduction of the hot spot generated aseismic Juan Fernandez Ridge correlates with the southern segment boundary of the Chilean flat slab. A causative relationship has been attributed to the enhanced buoyancy of anomalous crust and the shallowing of the Wadati-Benioff zone. In 2001, the SPOC project set out to investigate the effects of subducting aseismic ridges on the seismicity and structure of the Chilean margin. A seismic study along the easternmost extent of the Juan Fernandez Ridge reveals a magmatic origin dominated by extrusive processes for the O'Higgins Seamount Group. Hot spot magmatic processes have only moderately added to the crust of the Juan Fernandez Ridge. Thus only limited increased buoyancy may be expected from crustal thickening, insufficient to cause the shallowing of the subduction zone in the flat slab segment. The modest size of the volcanic edifices causes a flexural bending of the upper crust underneath O'Higgins Guyot, but does not affect the trend of the crust-mantle boundary. The off-axis aseismic ridge emplacement caused deficiencies of the lithosphere. These syngenetic structures are reactivated in the outer rise setting and evolve to ridge-parallel fracture zones with vertical offsets exceeding 800 m. Tomographic inversion of seismic mantle phases reveals reduced uppermost mantle velocities indicative of mineral alterations in the hot spot modified lithosphere. Uppermost mantle hydration is solely limited to the flawed lithosphere of the Juan Fernandez Ridge and is linked to the reactivation of hot spot induced fractures. Enhanced buoyancy due to crustal and upper mantle hydration may represent an important additional mechanism for shallow subduction.

  11. Double-Fold C-H Oxygenation of Arenes Using PyrDipSi: a General and Efficient Traceless/Modifiable Silicon-Tethered Directing Group

    PubMed Central

    Gulevich, Anton V.; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S.; Sarkar, Dhruba; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The efficient Pd-catalyzed double-fold C-H oxygenation of arenes into resorcinols using newly developed 2-pyrimidyldiisopropylsilyl (PyrDipSi) directing group is described. Its employment allows for a sequential introduction of OAc and OPiv groups in a one-pot manner to produce orthogonally protected resorcinol derivatives. PyrDipSi group is superior over the previously developed 2-pyridyldiisopropylsilyl (PyDipSi) group, as it is efficient for monooxygenation of ortho-substituted arenes. Notably, PyrDipSi group can be easily installed into arene molecule and can be easily removed or modified after the oxygenation reaction. PMID:22414133

  12. Use of Modified SOAP Notes and Peer-Led Small-Group Discussion in a Medical Physiology Course: Addressing the Hidden Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Jonathan; Hansen, Penelope A.; Nelson, Loren

    2006-01-01

    Peer leading of small-group discussion of cases; use of modified subjective, objective, assessment of physiology (SOAP) notes; and opportunities for self-assessment were introduced into a Medical Physiology course to increase students' awareness and practice of professional behaviors. These changes arose from faculty members' understanding of the…

  13. Use of Modified SOAP Notes and Peer-Led Small-Group Discussion in a Medical Physiology Course: Addressing the Hidden Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Jonathan; Hansen, Penelope A.; Nelson, Loren

    2006-01-01

    Peer leading of small-group discussion of cases; use of modified subjective, objective, assessment of physiology (SOAP) notes; and opportunities for self-assessment were introduced into a Medical Physiology course to increase students' awareness and practice of professional behaviors. These changes arose from faculty members' understanding of the…

  14. Molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on amine group modified graphene covalently linked electrode for 4-nonylphenol detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Cai, Rong; Chen, Xing; Liu, Yu-Nan; Rao, Wei; Yao, Shou-Zhuo

    2013-10-15

    In this work, an imprinted electrochemical sensor based on electrochemical reduced graphene covalently modified carbon electrode was developed for the determination of 4-nonylphenol (NP). An amine-terminated functional graphene oxide was covalently modified onto the electrode surface with diazonium salt reactions to improve the stability and reproducibility of the imprinted sensor. The electrochemical properties of each modified electrodes were investigated with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The electrochemical characteristic of the imprinted sensor was also investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in detail. The response currents of the imprinted electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward 4-nonylphenol concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10(-11) to 1.0 × 10(-8) gm L(-1) with the detection limit of 3.5 × 10(-12) gm L(-1) (S/N=3). The fabricated electrochemical imprinted sensor was successfully applied to the detection of 4-nonylphenol in rain and lake water samples.

  15. Heterocyclic tri-urea isocyanurate bridged groups modified periodic mesoporous organosilica synthesized for Fe(III) adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Vijay Kumar; Selvaraj, M.; Parambadath, Surendran; Chu, Sang-Wook; Park, Sung Soo; Mishra, Satyendra; Singh, Raj Pal; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2012-10-15

    To achieve a high level of heavy metal adsorption, 1,1 Prime ,1 Double-Prime -(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(3-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)urea) (TTPU) was synthesized as a novel melamine precursor and incorporated on the silica surface of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). The melamine modified PMOs (MPMOs) were synthesized under acidic conditions using TTPU, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and Pluronic P123 as a template and the modified PMOs were characterized using the relevant instrumental techniques. The characteristic materials were used as adsorbents for the adsorption of Fe(III) ions. Fe(III) adsorption studies revealed MPMO-7.5 to be a good absorbent with higher adsorption efficiency than other MPMOs. - Graphical Abstract: A new organosilica precursor, TTPU, has been successfully synthesized and characterized to incorporate on the silica surface of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). The melamine modified PMOs (MPMOs), in particular, the MPMO-7.5 was found to exhibit good adsorption efficiency for Fe(III). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of new melamine modified periodic mesoporous organosilicas (MPMOs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new organosilica precursor, TTPU, has been successfully synthesized for the MPMOs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MPMOs were characterized by the relevant instrumental techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPMO-7.5 exhibits higher adsorption efficiency for Fe(III) ions than other MPMOs.

  16. Heterocyclic tri-urea isocyanurate bridged groups modified periodic mesoporous organosilica synthesized for Fe(III) adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vijay Kumar; Selvaraj, M.; Parambadath, Surendran; Chu, Sang-Wook; Park, Sung Soo; Mishra, Satyendra; Singh, Raj Pal; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2012-10-01

    To achieve a high level of heavy metal adsorption, 1,1',1″-(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(3-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)urea) (TTPU) was synthesized as a novel melamine precursor and incorporated on the silica surface of periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). The melamine modified PMOs (MPMOs) were synthesized under acidic conditions using TTPU, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and Pluronic P123 as a template and the modified PMOs were characterized using the relevant instrumental techniques. The characteristic materials were used as adsorbents for the adsorption of Fe(III) ions. Fe(III) adsorption studies revealed MPMO-7.5 to be a good absorbent with higher adsorption efficiency than other MPMOs.

  17. Practical Recommendations for Long-term Management of Modifiable Risks in Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients: A Guidance Report and Clinical Checklist by the Consensus on Managing Modifiable Risk in Transplantation (COMMIT) Group.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, James M; Bechstein, Wolf O; Kuypers, Dirk R J; Burra, Patrizia; Citterio, Franco; De Geest, Sabina; Duvoux, Christophe; Jardine, Alan G; Kamar, Nassim; Krämer, Bernhard K; Metselaar, Herold J; Nevens, Frederik; Pirenne, Jacques; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel L; Samuel, Didier; Schneeberger, Stefan; Serón, Daniel; Trunečka, Pavel; Tisone, Giuseppe; van Gelder, Teun

    2017-04-01

    Short-term patient and graft outcomes continue to improve after kidney and liver transplantation, with 1-year survival rates over 80%; however, improving longer-term outcomes remains a challenge. Improving the function of grafts and health of recipients would not only enhance quality and length of life, but would also reduce the need for retransplantation, and thus increase the number of organs available for transplant. The clinical transplant community needs to identify and manage those patient modifiable factors, to decrease the risk of graft failure, and improve longer-term outcomes.COMMIT was formed in 2015 and is composed of 20 leading kidney and liver transplant specialists from 9 countries across Europe. The group's remit is to provide expert guidance for the long-term management of kidney and liver transplant patients, with the aim of improving outcomes by minimizing modifiable risks associated with poor graft and patient survival posttransplant.The objective of this supplement is to provide specific, practical recommendations, through the discussion of current evidence and best practice, for the management of modifiable risks in those kidney and liver transplant patients who have survived the first postoperative year. In addition, the provision of a checklist increases the clinical utility and accessibility of these recommendations, by offering a systematic and efficient way to implement screening and monitoring of modifiable risks in the clinical setting.

  18. Half-metallicity and electronic structures for carbon-doped group III-nitrides: Calculated with a modified Becke-Johnson potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shuai-wei; Wang, Ri-gao; Xu, Pemg

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structures and magnetism for carbon-doped group III-nitrides are investigated by utilizing the first principle method with the modified Becke-Johnson potential. Calculations show that carbon substituting cations (anions) would induce the group III-nitrides to be paramagnetic metals (half-metallic ferromagnets). Single carbon substituting nitrogen could produce 1.00μB magnetic moment. Electronic structures indicate that the carriers-mediated double-exchange interaction plays a crucial role in forming the ferromagnetism. Based on the mean-field theory, the Curie temperature for carbon-doped group III-nitrides would be above the room temperature. Negative chemical pair interactions imply that carbon dopants tend to form clustering distribution in group III-nitrides. The nitrogen vacancy would make the carbon-doped group III-nitrides lose the half-metallic ferromagnetism.

  19. The use of modified ride-on cars to maximize mobility and improve socialization-a group design.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiang-Han; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2017-02-01

    To examine the effects of ride-on car (ROC) training versus conventional therapy on mobility and social function in young children with disabilities in a hospital-based environment. Twenty young children with disabilities, aged 1-3 years, were recruited. The treatment group (n=10) received ROC training of 2h/session, 2 sessions/week for a total of 9 weeks in the hospital environment. The control group (n=10) received conventional therapy alone. Assessments included the Chinese version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and the Parenting Stress Index. After a 9-week intervention, the treatment group showed improvements in mobility and social function, whereas the control group showed improvements in social function alone. Four children in the treatment group had clinically meaningful changes in mobility and 3 in social function, as compared to 2 and 1, respectively, in the control group. This is the first group study that demonstrated the potential benefits of ROC training on mobility and social function in young children with disabilities in the hospital environment. Future studies should include a larger sample size to detect any differences between ROC training and conventional therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The index case is not enough: Variation among individuals, groups and social networks modify bacterial transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Carl N; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Ziemba, Michael J; Kothamasu, Krishna S; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2017-07-10

    The traits of the index case of an infectious disease outbreak, and the circumstances for their aetiology, potentially influence the trajectory of transmission dynamics. However, these dynamics likely also depend on the traits of the individuals with whom the index case interacts. We used the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola to test how the traits of the index case, group phenotypic composition and group size interact to facilitate the transmission of a GFP-labelled cuticular bacterium. We also compared bacterial transmission across experimentally generated "daisy-chain" vs. "star" networks of social interactions. Finally, we compared social network structure across groups of different sizes. Groups of 10 spiders experienced more bacterial transmission events compared to groups of 30 spiders, regardless of groups' behavioural composition. Groups containing only one bold spider experienced the lowest levels of bacterial transmission regardless of group size. We found no evidence for the traits of the index case influencing any transmission dynamics. In a second experiment, bacteria were transmitted to more individuals in experimentally induced star networks than in daisy-chains, on which transmission never exceeded three steps. In both experimental network types, transmission success depended jointly on the behavioural traits of the interacting individuals; however, the behavioural traits of the index case were only important for transmission on star networks. Larger social groups exhibited lower interaction density (i.e. had a low ratio of observed to possible connections) and were more modular, i.e. they had more connections between nodes within a subgroup and fewer connections across subgroups. Thus, larger groups may restrict transmission by forming fewer interactions and by isolating subgroups that interacted with the index case. These findings suggest that accounting for the traits of single exposed hosts has less power in predicting transmission dynamics

  1. Electrochemical anion sensing using electrodes chemically modified with Au(I)-Cu(I) heterotrimetallic alkynyl cluster complexes containing ferrocenyl groups.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Antonio; Koshevoy, Igor O; Montoya, Noemí; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2010-07-01

    A novel family of electrochemical anion sensors operating in aqueous media, based on the heterometallic Au(I)-Cu(I) [{Au(3)Cu(2)(C(2)R)(6)}Au(3)(PPh(2)C(6)H(4)PPh(2))(3)](PF(6))(2) (L1, R = Fc; L2, R = C(6)H(4)Fc) alkynyl cluster complexes, is presented. Upon attachment to graphite and gold electrodes, these compounds exhibit a well-defined, essentially reversible, solid-state electrochemistry in contact with aqueous media, based on ferrocenyl-centered oxidation processes involving anion insertion, leading to distinctive pH-independent electrochemical responses for fluoride, chloride, bromide, perchlorate, bicarbonate, carbonate, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, and nitrate anions. Cluster-modified electrodes can be used as potentiometric sensors as a result of the reversible, diffusion-controlled electrochemistry obtained for the anion-assisted electrochemical oxidation of L1 and L2.

  2. Modified risk stratification grouping using standard clinical and biopsy information for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: Results from SEARCH.

    PubMed

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Chen, Zinan; Howard, Lauren E; Amling, Christopher L; Aronson, William J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Spratt, Daniel E; Sandler, Howard M; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-10-10

    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and risk stratification systems have been proposed to guide treatment decisions. However, significant heterogeneity remains for those with unfavorable-risk disease. This study included 3335 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy in the SEARCH database. High-risk patients were dichotomized into standard and very high-risk (VHR) groups based on primary Gleason pattern, percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC), number of NCCN high-risk factors, and stage T3b-T4 disease. Similarly, intermediate-risk prostate cancer was separated into favorable and unfavorable groups based on primary Gleason pattern, PPBC, and number of NCCN intermediate-risk factors. Median follow-up was 78 months. Patients with VHR prostate cancer had significantly worse PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS, P < 0.001), distant metastasis (DM, P = 0.004), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM, P = 0.015) in comparison to standard high-risk (SHR) patients in multivariable analyses. By contrast, there was no significant difference in PSA-RFS, DM, or PCSM between SHR and unfavorable intermediate-risk (UIR) patients. Therefore, we propose a novel risk stratification system: Group 1 (low-risk), Group 2 (favorable intermediate-risk), Group 3 (UIR and SHR), and Group 4 (VHR). The c-index of this new grouping was 0.683 for PSA-RFS and 0.800 for metastases, compared to NCCN-risk groups which yield 0.666 for PSA-RFS and 0.764 for metastases. Patients classified as VHR have markedly increased rates of PSA relapse, DM, and PCSM in comparison to SHR patients, whereas UIR and SHR patients have similar prognosis. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed for patients with VHR, likely involving multimodality therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Identification and Prioritization of Important Attributes of Disease-Modifying Drugs in Decision Making among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Nominal Group Technique and Best-Worst Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Ingrid E. H.; van der Weijden, Trudy; van de Kolk, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Understanding the preferences of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for disease-modifying drugs and involving these patients in clinical decision making can improve the concordance between medical decisions and patient values and may, subsequently, improve adherence to disease-modifying drugs. This study aims first to identify which characteristics–or attributes–of disease-modifying drugs influence patients´ decisions about these treatments and second to quantify the attributes’ relative importance among patients. Methods First, three focus groups of relapsing-remitting MS patients were formed to compile a preliminary list of attributes using a nominal group technique. Based on this qualitative research, a survey with several choice tasks (best-worst scaling) was developed to prioritize attributes, asking a larger patient group to choose the most and least important attributes. The attributes’ mean relative importance scores (RIS) were calculated. Results Nineteen patients reported 34 attributes during the focus groups and 185 patients evaluated the importance of the attributes in the survey. The effect on disease progression received the highest RIS (RIS = 9.64, 95% confidence interval: [9.48–9.81]), followed by quality of life (RIS = 9.21 [9.00–9.42]), relapse rate (RIS = 7.76 [7.39–8.13]), severity of side effects (RIS = 7.63 [7.33–7.94]) and relapse severity (RIS = 7.39 [7.06–7.73]). Subgroup analyses showed heterogeneity in preference of patients. For example, side effect-related attributes were statistically more important for patients who had no experience in using disease-modifying drugs compared to experienced patients (p < .001). Conclusions This study shows that, on average, patients valued effectiveness and unwanted effects as most important. Clinicians should be aware of the average preferences but also that attributes of disease-modifying drugs are valued differently by different patients. Person-centred clinical

  4. Does a modified STarT Back Tool predict outcome with a broader group of musculoskeletal patients than back pain? A secondary analysis of cohort data

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J C; Afolabi, E K; Lewis, M; Roddy, E; van der Windt, D A; Foster, N E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The STarT Back Tool has good predictive performance for non-specific low back pain in primary care. We therefore aimed to investigate whether a modified STarT Back Tool predicted outcome with a broader group of musculoskeletal patients, and assessed the consequences of using existing risk-group cut-points across different pain regions. Setting Secondary analysis of prospective data from 2 cohorts: (1) outpatient musculoskeletal physiotherapy services (PhysioDirect trial n=1887) and (2) musculoskeletal primary–secondary care interface services (SAMBA study n=1082). Participants Patients with back, neck, upper limb, lower limb or multisite pain with a completed modified STarT Back Tool (baseline) and 6-month physical health outcome (Short Form 36 (SF-36)). Outcomes Area under the receiving operator curve (AUCs) tested discriminative abilities of the tool's baseline score for identifying poor 6-month outcome (SF-36 lower tertile Physical Component Score). Risk-group cut-points were tested using sensitivity and specificity for identifying poor outcome using (1) Youden's J statistic and (2) a clinically determined rule that specificity should not fall below 0.7 (false-positive rate <30%). Results In PhysioDirect and SAMBA, poor 6-month physical health was 18.5% and 28.2%, respectively. Modified STarT Back Tool score AUCs for predicting outcome in back pain were 0.72 and 0.79, neck 0.82 and 0.88, upper limb 0.79 and 0.86, lower limb 0.77 and 0.83, and multisite pain 0.83 and 0.82 in PhysioDirect and SAMBA, respectively. Differences between pain region AUCs were non-significant. Optimal cut-points to discriminate low-risk and medium-risk/high-risk groups depended on pain region and clinical services. Conclusions A modified STarT Back Tool similarly predicts 6-month physical health outcome across 5 musculoskeletal pain regions. However, the use of consistent risk-group cut-points was not possible and resulted in poor sensitivity (too many with long

  5. Modified-release prednisone for polymyalgia rheumatica: a multicentre, randomised, active-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Hopp, Michael; Liebscher, Stefan; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of modified-release (MR) versus immediate-release (IR) prednisone in newly diagnosed glucocorticoid (GC)-naïve patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Methods Patients were randomised to double-blind MR prednisone (taken at approximately 22:00) or IR prednisone (taken in the morning), 15 mg/day for 4 weeks. The primary end point was complete response rate (≥70% reduction in PMR visual analogue scale, duration of morning stiffness and C reactive protein (CRP) (or CRP <2× upper limit of normal (ULN))) at week 4. Non-inferiority was decided if the lower 95% confidence limit (MR vs IR prednisone) was above −15%. 400 patients were planned but only 62 were enrolled due to difficulties in recruiting GC-naïve patients with PMR with CRP ≥2×ULN. Results The percentage of complete responders at week 4 was numerically greater for MR prednisone (53.8%) than for IR prednisone (40.9%). Non-inferiority of MR versus IR prednisone was not proven in the primary analysis on the per protocol population (N=48; treatment difference: 12.22%; 95% CI −15.82% to 40.25%). However, sensitivity analysis on the full analysis population showed an evident trend favouring MR prednisone (N=62; treatment difference: 15.56%; 95% CI −9.16% to 40.28%). Adverse events were generally mild and transient with no unexpected safety observations. Conclusions The study showed a clear trend for favourable short-term efficacy of MR prednisone versus IR prednisone in early treatment of PMR. Further studies are warranted. Trial registration number EudraCT number 2011-002353-57; Results.

  6. [Amino acid and peptide derivatives of the tylosin family of macrolide antibiotics modified at the aldehyde group].

    PubMed

    Sumbatian, N V; Kuznetsova, I V; Karpenko, V V; Fedorova, N V; Chertkov, V A; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen new functionally active amino acid and peptide derivatives of the antibiotics tylosin, desmycosin, and 5-O-mycaminosyltylonolide were synthesized in order to study the interaction of the growing polypeptide chain with the ribosomal tunnel. The conjugation of various amino acids and peptides with a macrolide aldehyde group was carried out by two methods: direct reductive amination with the isolation of the intermediate Schiff bases or through binding via oxime using the preliminarily obtained derivatives of 2-aminooxyacetic acid.

  7. Influence of exchange group of modified glycidyl methacrylate polymer on phenol removal: A study by batch and continuous flow processes.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Thiago Muza; da Silva, Carla Michele Frota; da Rocha, Paulo Cristiano Silva; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of water by phenol is potentially a serious problem due to its high toxicity and its acid character. In this way some treatment process to remove or reduce the phenol concentration before contaminated water disposal on the environment is required. Currently, phenol can be removed by charcoal adsorption, but this process does not allow easy regeneration of the adsorbent. In contrast, polymeric resins are easily regenerated and can be reused in others cycles of adsorption process. In this work, the interaction of phenol with two polymeric resins was investigated, one of them containing a weakly basic anionic exchange group (GD-DEA) and the other, a strongly basic group (GD-QUAT). Both ion exchange resins were obtained through chemical modifications from a base porous resin composed of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinyl benzene (DVB). Evaluation tests with resins were carried out with 30 mg/L of phenol in water solution, at pH 6 and 10, employing two distinct processes: (i) batch, to evaluate the effect of temperature, and (ii) continuous flow, to assess the breakthrough of the resins. Batch tests revealed that the systems did not follow the model proposed by Langmuir due to the negative values obtained for the constant b and for the maximum adsorption capacity, Q0. However, satisfactory results for the constants KF and n allowed assuming that the behavior of systems followed the Freundlich model, leading to the conclusion that resin GD-DEA had the best interaction with the phenol when in a solution having pH 10 (phenoxide ions). The continuous flow tests corroborated this conclusion since the performance of GD-DEA in removing phenol was also best at pH 10, indicating that the greater availability of the electron pair in the resin with the weakly basic donor group contributed to enhance the resin's interaction with the phenoxide ions.

  8. Inversion group (IG) fitting: A new T1 mapping method for modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) that allows arbitrary inversion groupings and rest periods (including no rest period).

    PubMed

    Sussman, Marshall S; Yang, Issac Y; Fok, Kai-Ho; Wintersperger, Bernd J

    2016-06-01

    The Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) technique is used for T1 mapping in the heart. However, a drawback of this technique is that it requires lengthy rest periods in between inversion groupings to allow for complete magnetization recovery. In this work, a new MOLLI fitting algorithm (inversion group [IG] fitting) is presented that allows for arbitrary combinations of inversion groupings and rest periods (including no rest period). Conventional MOLLI algorithms use a three parameter fitting model. In IG fitting, the number of parameters is two plus the number of inversion groupings. This increased number of parameters permits any inversion grouping/rest period combination. Validation was performed through simulation, phantom, and in vivo experiments. IG fitting provided T1 values with less than 1% discrepancy across a range of inversion grouping/rest period combinations. By comparison, conventional three parameter fits exhibited up to 30% discrepancy for some combinations. The one drawback with IG fitting was a loss of precision-approximately 30% worse than the three parameter fits. IG fitting permits arbitrary inversion grouping/rest period combinations (including no rest period). The cost of the algorithm is a loss of precision relative to conventional three parameter fits. Magn Reson Med 75:2332-2340, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. K+ conductance modified by a titratable group accessible to protons from the intracellular side of the squid axon membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, E; Carbone, E; Testa, P L

    1979-01-01

    In the range of pH examined (5.2-10), variations of internal pH from high to low values result in a reversible decrease of the conductance of the open K channels, without significantly affecting the kinetics parameters. A linear plot of the conductance versus internal pH suggests the existence of a titratable group that has an apparent pKa of about 6.9, and that is accessible to protons only from the intracellular side of the membrane. PMID:45399

  10. Proteome Informatics Research Group (iPRG)_2012: A Study on Detecting Modified Peptides in a Complex Mixture*

    PubMed Central

    Chalkley, Robert J.; Bandeira, Nuno; Chambers, Matthew C.; Clauser, Karl R.; Cottrell, John S.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Kapp, Eugene A.; Lam, Henry H. N.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Neubert, Thomas A.; Sun, Rui-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The proteome informatics research group of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities conducted a study to assess the community's ability to detect and characterize peptides bearing a range of biologically occurring post-translational modifications when present in a complex peptide background. A data set derived from a mixture of synthetic peptides with biologically occurring modifications combined with a yeast whole cell lysate as background was distributed to a large group of researchers and their results were collectively analyzed. The results from the twenty-four participants, who represented a broad spectrum of experience levels with this type of data analysis, produced several important observations. First, there is significantly more variability in the ability to assess whether a results is significant than there is to determine the correct answer. Second, labile post-translational modifications, particularly tyrosine sulfation, present a challenge for most researchers. Finally, for modification site localization there are many tools being employed, but researchers are currently unsure of the reliability of the results these programs are producing. PMID:24187338

  11. [The consequences of the demographic revolution and of the aging of society: restructuring the age groups and modifying intergenerational relations].

    PubMed

    Loriaux, M

    1995-01-01

    The consequences of demographic aging in developed societies are examined. The author notes that "demographic aging has intensified over the last decades, bringing with it a significant modification in relationships between age groups and the sexes.... These changes in demographic structures bring with them the reorganization in intergenerational relations, the most spectacular instance of which...[is] the coexistence at the same time and in the same place of four or five generations of direct descendants." The author develops the hypothesis that a new attitude toward old age is needed in which "the social status of the elderly must be reinstated, and everything must be brought into play to encourage the integration of different age groups and intergenerational solidarity, so as to arrive in the best possible conditions at what [can be termed] the 'era of old age'...which will accompany the coming of the post-industrial society with its orientation toward the mass production of leisure and of services." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  12. Metal-organic frameworks post-synthetically modified with ferrocenyl groups: framework effects on redox processes and surface conduction.

    PubMed

    Halls, Jonathan E; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Burrows, Andrew D; Marken, Frank

    2012-02-07

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials based on zinc(II) and aluminium(III) dicarboxylate frameworks with covalently attached ferrocene functional redox groups were synthesised by post-synthetic modification and investigated by voltammetry in aqueous and non-aqueous media. In the voltammetry experiments, ferrocene oxidation occurs in all cases, but chemically reversible and stable ferrocene oxidation without decay of the voltammetric response requires a "mild" dichloroethane solvent environment. The voltammetric response in this case is identified as "surface-confined" with fast surface-hopping of electrons and without affecting the bulk of MOF microcrystals. In aqueous media a more complex pH-dependent multi-stage redox process is observed associated with chemically irreversible bulk oxidation and disintegration of the MOF framework. A characteristic 30 mV per pH unit dependence of redox potentials is observed attributed to a "framework effect": the hydroxide-driven MOF framework dissolution.

  13. Self-assembly and sensing-group graft of pre-modified CNTs on resonant micro-cantilevers for specific detection of volatile organic compound vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Liu, Min; Li, Jungang

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports MWCNT (multi-wall carbon nano-tube)-modified resonant micro-cantilever chemical sensors for detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) vapor. The MWCNTs are pre-modified and then area-selectively self-assembled at the free-end gold pad of a micro-cantilever, in which a resonance-exciting heater and a signal-readout piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge are integrated. Featuring a high specific surface area, the MWCNTs are further functionalized with TNT-sensitive groups by grafting onto the sidewalls of the MWCNTs. To lower the non-specific absorption of water and other small organic molecules, the SiO2 surface of the micro-cantilever was also pre-treated for hydrophobicity and oleophobicity by self-assembling a monolayer of heptadecafluorodecyltrimethoxysilane. The results of our sensing experiments have shown a capability to rapidly detect ppb-level TNT vapor, and a high specificity of the functionalized groups to TNT molecules. The experiment has also confirmed a good long-term stability in detecting sensitivity.

  14. Role of surface hydroxyl groups in promoting room temperature CO sensing by Pd-modified nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Marikutsa, Artem V.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Yashina, Lada V.; Gaskov, Alexander M.

    2010-10-15

    SnO{sub 2}/Pd nanocomposites were synthesized via sol-gel method followed by variable processing procedures. The materials are sensitive to CO gas in the concentration range 2-100 ppm at room operating temperature. It was shown that modification of nanocrystalline tin dioxide by Pd changes the temperature dependence of sensor response, decreasing the temperature of maximal signal. To understand the mechanism of room temperature CO sensitivity, a number of SnO{sub 2}/Pd materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET, XPS and TPR techniques. From the results of FTIR, impedance and sensing measurements under variable ambient conditions it was concluded that improvement in CO sensitivity for Pd-modified SnO{sub 2} is due to alteration of CO oxidation pathway. The reaction of CO with surface OH-groups at room temperature was proposed, the latter being more reactive than oxygen species due to the possible chain character of the reactions. It was proposed that Pd additive may initiate chain processes at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} modified by PdO/Pd clusters exhibit high CO sensitivity at room temperature. An extensive study revealed surface OH-groups participation in CO oxidation on SnO{sub 2} leading to enhanced sensitivity at low operating temperature (25-150 {sup o}C). PdO/Pd clusters supposedly initiate a chain of CO reactions with surface hydroxyls.

  15. Variability of control data and relevance of observed group differences in five oral toxicity studies with genetically modified maize MON810 in rats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidtke, Jörg; Schmidt, Paul; Kohl, Christian; Wilhelm, Ralf; Schiemann, Joachim; van der Voet, Hilko; Steinberg, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The data of four 90-day feeding trials and a 1-year feeding trial with the genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 in Wistar Han RCC rats performed in the frame of EU-funded project GRACE were analysed. Firstly, the data obtained from the groups having been fed the non-GM maize diets were combined to establish a historical control data set for Wistar Han RCC rats at the animal housing facility (Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia). The variability of all parameters is described, and the reference values and ranges have been derived. Secondly, the consistency of statistically significant differences found in the five studies was analysed. In order to do so, the body weight development, organ weight, haematology and clinical biochemistry data were compared between the studies. Based on the historical control data, equivalence ranges for these parameters were defined, and the values measured in the GM maize-fed groups were compared with these equivalence ranges. Thirdly, the (statistical) power of these feeding studies with whole food/feed was assessed and detectable toxicologically relevant group differences were derived. Linear mixed models (LMM) were applied, and standardized effect sizes (SES) were calculated in order to compare different parameters as well as to provide an overall picture of group and study differences at a glance. The comparison of the five feeding trials showed a clear study effect in the control data. It also showed inconsistency both in the frequency of statistically significant differences and in the difference values between control and test groups.

  16. Transcriptional Response of Polycomb Group Genes to Status Epilepticus in Mice is Modified by Prior Exposure to Epileptic Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, James P; Miller-Delaney, Suzanne F C; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Sano, Takanori; McKiernan, Ross C; Simon, Roger P; Henshall, David C

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of the brain to brief, non-harmful seizures can activate protective mechanisms that temporarily generate a damage-refractory state. This process, termed epileptic tolerance, is associated with large-scale down-regulation of gene expression. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are master controllers of gene silencing during development that are re-activated by injury to the brain. Here, we explored the transcriptional response of genes associated with polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 (Ring1A, Ring1B, and Bmi1) and PRC2 (Ezh1, Ezh2, and Suz12), as well as additional transcriptional regulators Sirt1, Yy1, and Yy2, in a mouse model of status epilepticus (SE). Findings were contrasted to changes after SE in mice previously given brief seizures to evoke tolerance. Real-time quantitative PCR showed SE prompted an early (1 h) increase in expression of several genes in PRC1 and PRC2 in the hippocampus, followed by down-regulation of many of the same genes at later times points (4, 8, and 24 h). Spatio-temporal differences were found among PRC2 genes in epileptic tolerance, including increased expression of Ezh2, Suz12, and Yy2 relative to the normal injury response to SE. In contrast, PRC1 complex genes including Ring 1B and Bmi1 displayed differential down-regulation in epileptic tolerance. The present study characterizes PcG gene expression following SE and shows prior seizure exposure produces select changes to PRC1 and PRC2 composition that may influence differential gene expression in epileptic tolerance.

  17. Impact of ethnicity on gestational diabetes identified with the WHO and the modified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jenum, Anne K; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Sletner, Line; Vangen, Siri; Vange, Siri; Torper, Johan L; Nakstad, Britt; Voldner, Nanna; Rognerud-Jensen, Odd H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Mosdøl, Annhild; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Vårdal, Mari H; Holme, Ingar; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Birkeland, Kåre I

    2012-02-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recently proposed new criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We compared prevalence rates, risk factors, and the effect of ethnicity using the World Health Organization (WHO) and modified IADPSG criteria. This was a population-based cohort study of 823 (74% of eligible) healthy pregnant women, of whom 59% were from ethnic minorities. Universal screening was performed at 28±2 weeks of gestation with the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous plasma glucose (PG) was measured on site. GDM was diagnosed as per the definition of WHO criteria as fasting PG (FPG) ≥7.0 or 2-h PG ≥7.8 mmol/l; and as per the modified IADPSG criteria as FPG ≥5.1 or 2-h PG ≥8.5 mmol/l. OGTT was performed in 759 women. Crude GDM prevalence was 13.0% with WHO (Western Europeans 11%, ethnic minorities 15%, P=0.14) and 31.5% with modified IADPSG criteria (Western Europeans 24%, ethnic minorities 37%, P< 0.001). Using the WHO criteria, ethnic minority origin was an independent predictor (South Asians, odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.97); Middle Easterners, OR 2.13 (1.12-4.08)) after adjustments for age, parity, and prepregnant body mass index (BMI). This increased OR was unapparent after further adjustments for body height (proxy for early life socioeconomic status), education and family history of diabetes. Using the modified IADPSG criteria, prepregnant BMI (1.09 (1.05-1.13)) and ethnic minority origin (South Asians, 2.54 (1.56-4.13)) were independent predictors, while education, body height and family history had little impact. GDM prevalence was overall 2.4-times higher with the modified IADPSG criteria compared with the WHO criteria. The new criteria identified many subjects with a relatively mild increase in FPG, strongly associated with South Asian origin and prepregnant overweight.

  18. Magnetic adsorbent of Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles modified with thiol group for chloroauric ion adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roto, Roto; Yusran, Yusran; Kuncaka, Agus

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic adsorbent of Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles modified with thiol group was synthesized for chloroauric ([AuCl4]-) adsorption. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method under mechanical stirring and coated with SiO2 by acid hydrolysis of Na2SiO3 under N2 purging. The coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with SiO2 prevents particles' agglomeration by forming Fe3O4 Fe3O4 Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell and avoids dissolution of the Fe3O4 core in the acidic medium. The coated Fe3O4 particle was modified with a thiol group using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane via silanization reaction. The results suggest that SiO2-coated Fe3O4 particles have a size of 10-20 nm. The FTIR and EDX data indicate that the thiol groups are successfully attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. The [AuCl4]- ion adsorption by the Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles followed Langmuir isotherm model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 115 mg/g and free energy (ΔG°) of 24.8 kJ/mol. The thiourea solution can be used to desorb most of the adsorbed [AuCl4]- ion. The adsorption using magnetic compounds provides easy access to the separation for both preparation and recovery.

  19. Assessing the factorial structure and measurement invariance of PTSD by gender and ethnic groups in Sri Lanka: An analysis of the modified Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ).

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Jayasuriya, Dinuk; Silove, Derrick

    2017-04-01

    The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) remains the most widely used screening measure for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the refugee and post-conflict field. The present study is the first to test the factorial structure and measurement invariance of the HTQ according to DSM-5 criteria across gender and ethnic groups in the ethnically diverse society of post-conflict Sri Lanka. The survey sample included 5136 participants (86% response rate) followed up 12 months after a baseline nationally representative survey undertaken in Sri Lanka in 2014. Exposure to conflict-related traumatic experiences (TEs) generating a trauma count (TC), and symptoms of PTSD were assessed using a modified version of the HTQ adapted to the local context. The final analytic sample included 4260 participants after excluding records with missing data on key variables. We conducted Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MG-CFA) to test the four-factor (DSM-5 consistent) and three-factor (DSM-IV-TR) models of PTSD, then assessing measurement invariance of the four factor model by gender and ethnic groups. The three-factor and four-factor DSM-5 model each produced a good fit across the sample as a whole. In addition, there was configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the four-factor model both by gender and ethnicity. The trauma count was directly associated with each of the symptom domains of the four factor model. Our findings provide support for the capacity of the modified HTQ to measure the DSM5 construct of PTSD across gender and key ethnic groupings in Sri Lanka. Confirmation of our findings in other cultures will be important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A modified group I intron can function as both a ribozyme and a 5' exon in a trans-exon ligation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tasiouka, K I; Burke, J M

    1994-06-24

    Here, we show that a single RNA molecule derived from a group-I intron can provide the catalytic activity, the substrate recognition domain and the attacking nucleophile in a reaction that mimics the exon ligation step of splicing. To accomplish this reaction, we have linked a 5' exon sequence to the 3' end of an attenuated form of the self-splicing Tetrahymena rRNA intron. The ribozyme (I-E1) attacks an oligoribonucleotide analog of the 3' splice site (I'-E2) to generate a product containing ligated exons (I-E1-E2) and a small intron fragment (I'). Two modified introns were constructed and tested for activity. A construct designed to interact with the 3' splice site through intermolecular P9.0 and P10 helices was found to be inactive due to failure to form a stable ribozyme-substrate complex. A second modified intron and substrate combination was engineered, in which the complex was further stabilized by an intermolecular P9.2 helix. In this case, stable complexes and reaction products were identified. The reaction efficiency was low compared to splicing of the unmodified intron-containing precursor, and will be optimized in future experiments. Following optimization, we believe that this system may be exploited to examine the functional consequences of a wide variety of 3' splice-site modifications, and may provide the basis for development of highly selective trans-acting ribozymes.

  1. Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, C; Haughton, A J; Osborne, J L; Roy, D B; Clark, S J; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Bohan, D A; Brooks, D R; Champion, G T; Dewar, A M; Heard, M S; Woiwod, I P; Daniels, R E; Young, M W; Parish, A M; Scott, R J; Firbank, L G; Squire, G R

    2003-01-01

    Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and conventional crop management on invertebrate trophic groups (herbivores, detritivores, pollinators, predators and parasitoids) were compared in beet, maize and spring oilseed rape sites throughout the UK. These trophic groups were influenced by season, crop species and GMHT management. Many groups increased twofold to fivefold in abundance between early and late summer, and differed up to 10-fold between crop species. GMHT management superimposed relatively small (less than twofold), but consistent, shifts in plant and insect abundance, the extent and direction of these effects being dependent on the relative efficacies of comparable conventional herbicide regimes. In general, the biomass of weeds was reduced under GMHT management in beet and spring oilseed rape and increased in maize compared with conventional treatments. This change in resource availability had knock-on effects on higher trophic levels except in spring oilseed rape where herbivore resource was greatest. Herbivores, pollinators and natural enemies changed in abundance in the same directions as their resources, and detritivores increased in abundance under GMHT management across all crops. The result of the later herbicide application in GMHT treatments was a shift in resource from the herbivore food web to the detritivore food web. The Farm Scale Evaluations have demonstrated over 3 years and throughout the UK that herbivores, detritivores and many of their predators and parasitoids in arable systems are sensitive to the changes in weed communities that result from the introduction of new herbicide regimes. PMID:14561321

  2. Probing the exposure of the phosphate group in modified amino acids and peptides by ion-molecule reactions with triethoxyborane in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lanucara, Francesco; Fornarini, Simonetta; Eyers, Claire E; Crestoni, Maria Elisa

    2014-05-30

    Intramolecular hydrogen bonds between a phosphate group and charged residues play a crucial role in the chemistry of phosphorylated peptides, driving the species to specific conformations and affecting the exposure of the phosphate moiety. The nature and extent of these interactions can be investigated by measuring the reactivity of phosphate groups toward selected substrates in the gas phase. We used Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) to perform a systematic study on the gas-phase ionic reactivity of phosphorylated amino acids and peptides with triethoxyborane (TEB). Ions of interest were generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), isolated in the cell of the FT-ICR mass spectrometer, and allowed to react with a stationary pressure of TEB. The temporal evolution of the reaction was monitored and thermal rate constants were derived. The structure of the ionic products was confirmed by Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). TEB was found to react with the phosphate of protonated phosphorylated amino acids and peptides by an addition-elimination pathway. The kinetic efficiency of the reaction showed a positive correlation with the charge state of the reagent ion, suggesting the existence of charge-state-dependent exposure of the phosphate groups towards the incoming neutral during the reaction. Isomeric phosphorylated peptides, only differing for the position of the modified serine residue, showed markedly different kinetic efficiencies. The ability of a phosphorylated species to react with TEB depends on the ease of access to the phosphate moiety in the corresponding gaseous ion. Measuring the kinetic efficiency of such reactions can represent a valuable tool to explore the accessibility of phosphate groups in biomolecules. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Preparation of magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups for the extraction and analysis of lead in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Huanhuan; Tang, Jie; Ye, Guiqin; Ge, Huali; Hu, Xiaoya

    2015-08-15

    A novel magnetic metal organic frameworks adsorbent modified with mercapto groups was synthesized and developed for extraction and spectrophotometric determination of trace lead. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results indicated the adsorbents exhibited high adsorption capacities for lead due to the chelation mechanism between metal cations and mercapto groups. Meanwhile, the lead sorption onto the adsorbents could be easily separated from aqueous solution using a magnetic separation method. Under the optimal conditions, a linear calibration curve in the range from 1 to 20 μg L(-1) was achieved with an enrichment factor of 100. The limits of detection and quantitation for lead were found to be 0.29 and 0.97 μg L(-1), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of lead in food samples and certified reference material with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of the concentration and nature of grafted groups in the adsorption of hydrocarbon vapors on silica modified by monofunctional polyfluoroalkylsilanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchina, T. M.; Shoniya, N. K.; Tayakina, O. Ya.; Tkachenko, O. P.; Kustov, L. M.; Bernardoni, F.; Fadeev, A. Y.

    2012-03-01

    The role of the grafting density of monofunctional polyfluoroalkylsilanes of the C n F2 n - 1(CH2) m Si(CH3)2Cl general formula (where n = 3, 4, and 6; and m = 2 and 3) and their composition in intermolecular interactions of the molecules of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons with a surface of chemically modified silica is studied by means of IR spectroscopy and adsorption-static and gas chromatography. It is shown that the higher the concentration and the shorter the length of the grafted chain, the greater (by a factor of 2 to 25) the drop in the adsorption values of hydrocarbons as a result of modifications, due to an increase in the degree of oleophobization of surface upon the formation of polyorganofluorine coatings. The high specificity of the surface with respect to benzene, which is due to the active participation of the polar fragment of a grafted chain in adsorption process, is related to the features of a relatively low-density sample with a concentration of grafted perfluorobutyl groups of 1.7 nm-2. It is shown that the thermodestruction of polyfluoroalkyl silica remains virtually unobserved upon heating to 523 K in an argon flow.

  5. Sulfonate group-modified FePtCu nanoparticles as a selective probe for LDI-MS analysis of oligopeptides from a peptide mixture and human serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Hideya; Akira, Tarui; Watanabe, Takehiro; Nozaki, Kazuyoshi; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2009-11-01

    Bare FePtCu nanoparticles (NPs) are first prepared for laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy (LDI-MS) analysis as affinity probes to selectively trap oppositely charged analytes from a sample solution. Our present results demonstrate bare FePtCu NPs to be a potentially useful matrix for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy (SALDI-MS), for the analysis of small proteins and peptides. The upper detectable mass range of peptides was approximately 5 kDa, and the detection limit for peptides approximately 5 fmol. Sulfonate group-modified FePtCu nanoparticles (FePtCu-SO(3)(-) NPs), with ionization being independent of the solution pH, can interact with a positively charged analyte, and the analyte-bound NPs can be separated from the reaction supernatant by centrifugation or an external magnetic field. An oligopeptide, Gly-Gly-Tyr-Arg (GGYR) from an oligopeptide mixture containing Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp (DDDD), Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly (GGGG) and GGYR, was detected using SALDI-MS with FePtCu-SO(3)(-) NPs employing electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, FePtCu-SO(3)(-) NPs can detect lysozyme (Lyz) in human serum through the electrostatic attraction between positively charged Lyz and FePtCu-SO(3)(-) NPs at pH 8, while detection of negatively charged albumin in human serum is not possible.

  6. Coordination chemistry of N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(3,5-substituted benzyl-2-oxide)-2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanamine modified Group 4 metal alkoxides.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Timothy J; Yonemoto, Daniel T; Steele, Leigh Anna; Farrell, Joshua; Renehan, Peter; Huhta, Taylor

    2012-11-05

    The coordination behavior of a set of (ethylenedioxy)diethanamine-based tetraphenol ligands with a series of Group 4 metal alkoxides ([M(OR)(4)]) was determined. The ligands were synthesized from a modified Mannich reaction and fully characterized as N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(3,5-tert-butyl-benzyl-2-hydroxy)-2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanamine, termed H(4)-OEA-DBP(4) (1), and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(3,5-chloro-benzyl-2-hydroxy)-2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanamine, termed H(4)-OEA-DCP(4) (2). The reaction of 1 with a set of [M(OR)(4)] [M = Ti, Zr, or Hf; OR = iso-propoxide (OPr(i)), neo-pentoxide (ONep), or tert-butoxide (OBu(t))] precursors led to the isolation of [(OPr(i))(2)Ti](2)(μ-OEA-DBP(4)) (3), [(ONep)(2)Ti](2)(μ-OEA-DBP(4)) (4), and [(OBu(t))(2)M](2)(μ-OEA-DBP(4)) where M = Ti (5), Zr (6), or Hf (7). In addition, the [(ONep)(2)Ti](2)(μ-OEA-DCP(4)) (4a) derivative was isolated from the reaction of 2 and [Ti(ONep)(4)], demonstrating the similarity of coordination behavior between the two OEA-R(4) ligands. For 3-7, the metal center adopts a slightly distorted octahedral geometry by binding the two O atoms of the phenoxide moiety, as well as one N and one O atom from the OEA moieties, while retaining two of the original OR ligands. Solution NMR demonstrates inequivalent protons for the majority of the bound OEA ligands, which argues for retention of structure in solution. The synthesis and characterization of these compounds are presented in detail.

  7. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  8. Modified cyanobacteria

    DOEpatents

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  9. A Consensus for Classification and Pathologic Reporting of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Associated Appendiceal Neoplasia: The Results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) Modified Delphi Process.

    PubMed

    Carr, Norman J; Cecil, Thomas D; Mohamed, Faheez; Sobin, Leslie H; Sugarbaker, Paul H; González-Moreno, Santiago; Taflampas, Panos; Chapman, Sara; Moran, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a complex disease with unique biological behavior that usually arises from appendiceal mucinous neoplasia. The classification of PMP and its primary appendiceal neoplasia is contentious, and an international modified Delphi consensus process was instigated to address terminology and definitions. A classification of mucinous appendiceal neoplasia was developed, and it was agreed that "mucinous adenocarcinoma" should be reserved for lesions with infiltrative invasion. The term "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was supported and it was agreed that "cystadenoma" should no longer be recommended. A new term of "high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was proposed for lesions without infiltrative invasion but with high-grade cytologic atypia. Serrated polyp with or without dysplasia was preferred for tumors with serrated features confined to the mucosa with an intact muscularis mucosae. Consensus was achieved on the pathologic classification of PMP, defined as the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia characterized by the redistribution phenomenon. Three categories of PMP were agreed-low grade, high grade, and high grade with signet ring cells. Acellular mucin should be classified separately. It was agreed that low-grade and high-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei should be considered synonymous with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, respectively. A checklist for the pathologic reporting of PMP and appendiceal mucinous neoplasms was also developed. By adopting the classifications and definitions that were agreed, different centers will be able to use uniform terminology that will allow meaningful comparison of their results.

  10. Histo-blood group gene polymorphisms as potential genetic modifiers of the development of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, K; Ihara, K; Ikeda, K; Nagata, H; Mizuno, Y; Hara, T

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal immunological responses to certain microbial agents may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD). The association studies between histo-blood group genes (Lewis and ABO blood types) and various types of infectious diseases or vasculopathy have been carried out based on the fact that glycosylated antigens could directly mediate microbial infections. We attempted to clarify the role of blood type antigens in the development of KD and coronary artery lesions in KD patients. The subjects included 164 KD patients enrolled from 1998 to 2003 (1st group), 232 patients from 2004 to 2009 (2nd group), and 223 healthy children and 118 patients with growth hormone deficiency as controls. The genotyping of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes, and ABO genotypes, was determined with the TaqMan SNP assay and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. No significant differences were observed in the genotypes and allele frequencies of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes between the groups. The frequency of the BB blood genotype was significantly higher in KD patients with coronary artery lesions in the 1st and 2nd groups than in the controls (17% and 14% vs. 5%, P = 0.0020). This is the first report to investigate the roles of ABO and Lewis blood types in the development of KD, and in the formation of coronary artery lesions in KD patients. These data suggest that the ABO blood type may play a role in the development of coronary artery lesions in KD patients.

  11. Modifying the Chemical Structure of a Porphyrin Small Molecule with Benzothiophene Groups for the Reproducible Fabrication of High Performance Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tianxiang; Xiao, Liangang; Gao, Ke; Xu, Wenzhan; Peng, Xiaobin; Cao, Yong

    2017-03-01

    A porphyrin-based molecule DPPEZnP-BzTBO with bulky benzothiophene groups was designed and synthesized as an electron donor material for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The optimized devices under thermal annealing (TA) and then chloroform solvent vapor anneanling (SVA) for 80 s exhibited an outstanding power conversion efficiencie (PCE) of 9.08%. Contrasted with the smaller thienyl substituted analogues we reported previously, DPPEZnP-BzTBO-based BHJ solar cells exhibited a higher open circuit voltage due to the lower highest occupied molecular orbital energy level. The TA post-treatment of the active layers induced the formation of more crystallized components, and the subsequent SVA provided a driving force for the domain growth, resulting in more obvious phase segregation between the donor and the acceptor in nanoscale. Furthermore, the PCEs kept above 95% upon the further SVA treatment within the time range of 60 to 95 s probably because the bulky benzothiophene groups retard the too quick change of crystallinity, providing a wide processing window for the reproducible device fabrication.

  12. Peroxide-Dependent Analyte Conversion by the Heme Prosthetic Group, the Heme Peptide “Microperoxidase-11” and Cytochrome c on Chitosan Capped Gold Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yarman, Aysu; Neumann, Bettina; Bosserdt, Maria; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad; Scheller, Frieder W.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the role ascribed to the peroxidatic activity of degradation products of cytochrome c (cyt c) in the processes of apoptosis, we investigate the catalytic potential of heme and of the cyt c derived heme peptide MP-11 to catalyse the cathodic reduction of hydrogen peroxide and to oxidize aromatic compounds. In order to check whether cyt c has an enzymatic activity in the native state where the protein matrix should suppress the inherent peroxidatic activity of its heme prosthetic group, we applied a biocompatible immobilization matrix and very low concentrations of the co-substrate H2O2. The biocatalysts were entrapped on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode in a biocompatible chitosan layer which contained gold nanoparticles. The electrochemical signal for the peroxide reduction is generated by the redox conversion of the heme group, whilst a reaction product of the substrate oxidation is cathodically reduced in the substrate indication. The catalytic efficiency of microperoxidase-11 is sufficient for sensors indicating HRP substrates, e.g., p-aminophenol, paracetamol and catechol, but also the hydroxylation of aniline and dehalogenation of 4-fluoroaniline. The lower limit of detection for p-aminophenol is comparable to previously published papers with different enzyme systems. The peroxidatic activity of cyt c immobilized in the chitosan layer for catechol was found to be below 1 per mill and for p-aminophenol about 3% as compared with that of heme or MP-11. PMID:25585710

  13. Prospective randomized multicenter adjuvant dermatologic cooperative oncology group trial of low-dose interferon alfa-2b with or without a modified high-dose interferon alfa-2b induction phase in patients with lymph node-negative melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Axel; Weichenthal, Michael; Rass, Knuth; Linse, Ruthild; Ulrich, Jens; Stadler, Rudolf; Volkenandt, Matthias; Grabbe, Stephan; Proske, Ulrike; Schadendorf, Dirk; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Vogt, Thomas; Rompel, Rainer; Kaufmann, Roland; Kaatz, Martin; Näher, Helmut; Mohr, Peter; Eigentler, Thomas; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Garbe, Claus

    2009-07-20

    PURPOSE Interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) has shown clinical efficacy in the adjuvant treatment of patients with high-risk melanoma in several clinical trials, but optimal dosing and duration of treatment are still under discussion. It has been argued that in high-dose IFN-alpha (HDI), the intravenous (IV) induction phase might be critical for the clinical benefit of the regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS In an attempt to investigate the potential role of a modified high-dose induction phase, lymph node-negative patients with resected primary malignant melanoma of more than 1.5-mm tumor thickness were included in this prospective randomized multicenter Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group trial. Six hundred seventy-four patients were randomly assigned to receive 4 weeks of a modified HDI scheme. This schedule consisted of 5 times weekly 10 MU/m(2) IFN-alpha-2b IV for 2 weeks and 5 times weekly 10 MU/m(2) IFN-alpha-2b administered subcutaneously (SC) for another 2 weeks followed by 23 months of low-dose IFN-alpha-2b (LDI) 3 MU SC three times a week (arm A). LDI 3 MU three times a week was given for 24 months in arm B. Results Of 650 assessable patients, there were 92 relapses among the 321 patients receiving high-dose induction as compared with 95 relapses among the 329 patients receiving LDI only. Five-year relapse-free survival rates were 68.0% (arm A) and 67.1% (arm B), respectively. Likewise, melanoma-related fatalities were similar between both groups, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of 80.2% (arm A) and 82.9% (arm B). CONCLUSION The addition of a 4-week modified HDI induction phase to a 2-year low-dose adjuvant IFN-alpha-2b treatment schedule did not improve the clinical outcome.

  14. How can rotaxanes be modified by varying functional groups at the axle?--a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of thermochemistry and electronic effects.

    PubMed

    Spickermann, Christian; Felder, Thorsten; Schalley, Christoph A; Kirchner, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    We present theoretically as well as experimentally determined thermochemical data of the non-covalent interactions in different axle-substituted pseudorotaxanes. The overall interaction energy lies in the region of 35 kJ mol(-1), independent of the substitution pattern at the axle. Because rearrangement energies of 7 and 3 kJ mol(-1) are required for wheel and axle, respectively, the sum of the net interactions of individual non-covalent bonds must exceed 10 kJ mol(-1) to achieve a successful host-guest interaction. The geometrical analysis shows three hydrogen bonds, and the close inspection of the individual dipole moments as well as the individual hydrogen bonds reveals trends according to the different functional groups at the axle. The individual trends for the different hydrogen bonds almost lead to a cancellation of the substitution effects. From solvent-effect considerations it can be predicted that the pseudorotaxane is stable in CHCl(3) and CH(2)Cl(2), whereas it would dethread in water. Comparing experimentally and theoretically calculated Gibbs free enthalpies, we find reasonable agreement if an exchange reaction of one solvent molecule instead of the direct formation reaction is considered.

  15. The Universal Solvent Extraction (UNEX) Process I: Development of the UNEX Process Solvent for the Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Acidic Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Todd, Terry Allen; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Brewer, Ken Neal; Romanovskiy, V. N.; Smirnov, I. V.; Babain, V. A.

    2001-01-01

    A synergistic extraction mixture containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD), carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been investigated for the simultaneous recovery of cesium, strontium, lanthanides, and actinides from highly acidic media. The extraction properties of this mixture depend on the concentration ratio of the components. For recovery of all major radionuclides, the optimal ratio of [CCD]:[PEG]: [CMPO] = 5:1:1 should be used. The use of diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide and PEG-400 provides the most efficient recovery of cesium, strontium, lanthanides, and actinides. The possibility of using polyfluorinated ethers, esters, ketones, and sulfones as diluents was examined. Phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone was the most suitable diluent tested. The use of this diluent allows good extraction properties, chemical and radiation stability, excellent explosion/fire-safety properties, and favorable hydrodynamic characteristics. The extraction of radionuclides from HNO3 media by mixtures of CCD:PEG:CMPO in phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone and the subsequent stripping behavior were evaluated.

  16. Platinum Group Elements, 187OS/188OS and 87SR/86SR Isotope Systematics in Depleted Fluid-Modified Mariana Fore-Arc Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Savov, I. P.; Shirey, S. B.; Horan, M. F.; Mock, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    The serpentine mud volcanoes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) fore-arc, collected during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 195 [1], contain hard-rock clasts of serpentine sampled from close to the décollement, which separates the down-going Pacific slab from the overlying mantle wedge. These clasts preserve evidence for melt depletion (>25 % melt extraction in many instances) in a sub-arc environment, and extensive (40 - 100%) serpentinization due to subsequent fluid / peridotite interaction, e.g. [2]. Platinum-group element (PGE) abundances are not consistent with melt-depletion alone [3]. Fractionation between I-PGE (Os, Ir, Ru) has resulted in groups of IBM serpentinites with either a high chondrite-normalized Os/Ir ratio (OsN/IrN) or a low OsN/IrN ratio. Similarly, fractionation of P-PGE (Pt, Pd) is marked, and distinguishes the IBM serpentinites from worldwide abyssal peridotites. Interaction with high-pH fluids [4] may have partially oxidized mantle sulphide, the major primary host for PGE in these rocks, leading to partial breakdown to sulphate and the selective redistribution of certain PGE (Os, Ru, Pt), a feature normally associated with sub-aerial weathering [5], but which likely prevails in other oxidizing environments. In particular, the Re-Os systematics of the high (OsN/IrN) IBM serpentinites have been disturbed by the addition of Os. Unlike peridotite xenoliths associated with magmatic regions of subduction zones where subduction-related Os-addition is unequivocally radiogenic and derived from crustal material [6][7], where Os has been added to the IBM serpentinites it is unradiogenic and was most likely derived from within the oceanic mantle. IBM serpentinites therefore preserve osmium isotope ratios that are exclusively sub-chondritic (187Os/188Os ≤ 0.127), as previously reported [8]. These serpentinized peridotites were produced by at least a three-step process: melt depletion, serpentinization, and the mobilization of Os, Ru and Pt to produce low Os

  17. The EULAR Study Group for Registers and Observational Drug Studies: comparability of the patient case mix in the European biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug registers.

    PubMed

    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Závada, Jakub; Hetland, Merete Lund; Nordström, Dan C; Aaltonen, Kalle J; Listing, Joachim; Zink, Angela; Gati, Tamas; Rojkovich, Bernadette; Iannone, Florenzo; Gremese, Elisa; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Martinus A F J; Lie, Elisabeth; Kvien, Tore K; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E; Rotar, Žiga; Loza, Estibaliz; Carmona, Loreto; Askling, Johan; Johansson, Kari; Finckh, Axel; Dixon, William G; Hyrich, Kimme L

    2015-06-01

    Under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), a study group of investigators representing European biologic DMARD (bDMARD) registers was convened. The purpose of this initial assessment was to collect and compare a cross section of patient characteristics and collate information on the availability of potential confounders within these registers. Baseline characteristics of patients starting their first bDMARD in an arbitrary year (2008) for the treatment of RA, including demographic and disease characteristics, bDMARD drug details and co-morbidities, were collected and compared across 14 European bDMARD registers. A total of 5320 patients were included. Half the registers had restricted recruitment to certain bDMARDs during the study year. All registers` collected data on age, gender, disease duration, seropositivity for IgM-RF and 28-joint DAS (DAS28). The mean DAS28 ranged from 4.2 to 6.6 and the mean HAQ from 0.8 to 1.9. Current smoking ranged from 9% to 34%. Nine registers reported co-morbidities with varying prevalence. In addition to demonstrating European-wide collaboration across rheumatology bDMARD registers, this assessment identified differences in prescribing patterns, recruitment strategies and data items collected. These differences need to be considered when applying strategies for combined analysis. The lack of a common data model across Europe calls for further work to harmonize data collection across registers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    PubMed

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  19. Modified SEAGULL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuehn, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Original version of program incorporated into program SRGULL (LEW-15093) for use on National Aero-Space Plane project, its duty being to model forebody, inlet, and nozzle portions of vehicle. However, real-gas chemistry effects in hypersonic flow fields limited accuracy of that version, because it assumed perfect-gas properties. As a result, SEAGULL modified according to real-gas equilibrium-chemistry methodology. This program analyzes two-dimensional, hypersonic flows of real gases. Modified version of SEAGULL maintains as much of original program as possible, and retains ability to execute original perfect-gas version.

  20. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pershina, V; Borschevsky, A; Iliaš, M; Türler, A

    2014-08-14

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl4, MOCl2, MCl6(-), and MOCl4(2) with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl4, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH(sub), of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH(sub)(RfCl4) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl2 on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl4 on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl2 or MOCl4(2-) complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl4 on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl6(2-) surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the "one-atom-at-a-time" gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  1. Tuning of the vinyl groups' spacing at surface of modified silica in preparation of high density imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles: a dispersive solid-phase extraction materials for chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Chen, Xuemei; Nie, Li; Luo, Jing; Jiang, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Hu, Qin; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping

    2010-05-15

    This paper reports the preparation of high density imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles toward selective recognition and fast enrichment of chlorpyrifos (CP) from complicated matrices. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were successfully coated at the surface of modified silica through using the chemical immovable vinyl groups at the nanoparticles' surface, followed by the graft copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of templates CP. It has been demonstrated that the space of end vinyl groups at the surface of silica can be controlled by changing the condition of chemical modification, regulating the thickness of imprinted shells and the density of efficient imprinted sites. After removal of templates by solvent extraction, the recognition sites of CP were created in the polymer coating layer. The CP-imprinted nanoparticles exhibited high recognition selectivity and binding affinity to CP analyte. When the CP-imprinted nanoparticles were used as dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) materials, the high recovery yields of 76.1-93.5% from various spiked samples with only 1microg/mL analyte were achieved by one-step extraction. These results reported herein provide the possibility for the separation and enrichment of CP from complicated matrices by the molecular imprinting modification at the surface of common silica nanoparticles.

  2. The modified extended Hansen method to determine partial solubility parameters of drugs containing a single hydrogen bonding group and their sodium derivatives: benzoic acid/Na and ibuprofen/Na.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, P; Pena, M A; Barra, J

    2000-01-20

    Sodium salts are often used in drug formulation but their partial solubility parameters are not available. Sodium alters the physical properties of the drug and the knowledge of these parameters would help to predict adhesion properties that cannot be estimated using the solubility parameters of the parent acid. This work tests the applicability of the modified extended Hansen method to determine partial solubility parameters of sodium salts of acidic drugs containing a single hydrogen bonding group (ibuprofen, sodium ibuprofen, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate). The method uses a regression analysis of the logarithm of the experimental mole fraction solubility of the drug against the partial solubility parameters of the solvents, using models with three and four parameters. The solubility of the drugs was determined in a set of solvents representative of several chemical classes, ranging from low to high solubility parameter values. The best results were obtained with the four parameter model for the acidic drugs and with the three parameter model for the sodium derivatives. The four parameter model includes both a Lewis-acid and a Lewis-base term. Since the Lewis acid properties of the sodium derivatives are blocked by sodium, the three parameter model is recommended for these kind of compounds. Comparison of the parameters obtained shows that sodium greatly changes the polar parameters whereas the dispersion parameter is not much affected. Consequently the total solubility parameters of the salts are larger than for the parent acids in good agreement with the larger hydrophilicity expected from the introduction of sodium. The results indicate that the modified extended Hansen method can be applied to determine the partial solubility parameters of acidic drugs and their sodium salts.

  3. Modifiability Tactics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    about purchasing paper copies of SEI reports, please visit the publications portion of our Web site (http://www.sei.cmu.edu/ publications /pubweb.html...architects need to understand how architectural tactics and patterns relate and how to use them effectively. In this report, we explore the relation ...architecture transformations that support the achievement of modifiability [Bass 2003]. In this report, we relate coupling and cohesion to tactics

  4. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study of the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tocilizumab versus intravenous tocilizumab in combination with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (SUMMACTA study)

    PubMed Central

    Burmester, Gerd R; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Cantagrel, Alain; Hall, Stephen; Leszczynski, Piotr; Feldman, Daniel; Rangaraj, Madura J; Roane, Georgia; Ludivico, Charles; Lu, Peng; Rowell, Lucy; Bao, Min; Mysler, Eduardo F

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study compared the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous (SC) versus intravenous (IV) formulations of tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD). Methods Patients (n=1262) were randomly assigned to receive tocilizumab-SC 162 mg weekly+placebo-IV every 4 weeks or tocilizumab-IV 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks+placebo-SC weekly in combination with traditional DMARD. The primary outcome was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of tocilizumab-SC to tocilizumab-IV with regard to the proportion of patients in each group achieving an American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response at week 24 using a 12% non-inferiority margin (NIM). Secondary outcomes were disease activity score using 28 joints (DAS28), ACR responses, health assessment questionnaire scores and safety assessments. Results At week 24, 69.4% (95% CI 65.5 to 73.2) of tocilizumab-SC-treated patients versus 73.4% (95% CI 69.6 to 77.1) of tocilizumab-IV-treated patients achieved an ACR20 response (weighted difference between groups −4.0%, 95% CI −9.2 to 1.2); the 12% NIM was met. ACR50/70 responses, DAS28 and physical function improvements were comparable between the tocilizumab-SC and tocilizumab-IV groups. The safety profiles of tocilizumab-SC and tocilizumab-IV were similar, and the most common adverse event was infection. Injection-site reactions (ISR) occurred more frequently in the tocilizumab-SC group than in the tocilizumab-IV (placebo-SC) group. No anaphylaxis was reported over the 24 weeks. Conclusions Tocilizumab-SC 162 mg weekly demonstrated comparable efficacy to tocilizumab-IV 8 mg/kg. The safety profile of tocilizumab-SC is consistent with the known and well-established safety profile of tocilizumab-IV, with the exception of a higher incidence of ISR, which were more common with tocilizumab-SC administration. PMID:23904473

  5. Theoretical predictions of properties and volatility of chlorides and oxychlorides of group-4 elements. II. Adsorption of tetrachlorides and oxydichlorides of Zr, Hf, and Rf on neutral and modified surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Iliaš, M.; Türler, A.

    2014-08-14

    With the aim to interpret results of gas-phase chromatography experiments on volatility of group-4 tetrachlorides and oxychlorides including those of Rf, adsorption enthalpies of these species on neutral, and modified quartz surfaces were estimated on the basis of relativistic, two-component Density Functional Theory calculations of MCl{sub 4}, MOCl{sub 2}, MCl{sub 6}{sup −}, and MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2} with the use of adsorption models. Several mechanisms of adsorption were considered. In the case of physisorption of MCl{sub 4}, the trend in the adsorption energy in the group should be Zr > Hf > Rf, so that the volatility should change in the opposite direction. The latter trend complies with the one in the sublimation enthalpies, ΔH{sub sub}, of the Zr and Hf tetrachlorides, i.e., Zr < Hf. On the basis of a correlation between these quantities, ΔH{sub sub}(RfCl{sub 4}) was predicted as 104.2 kJ/mol. The energy of physisorption of MOCl{sub 2} on quartz should increase in the group, Zr < Hf < Rf, as defined by increasing dipole moments of these molecules along the series. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on quartz by chemical forces, formation of the MOCl{sub 2} or MOCl{sub 4}{sup 2−} complexes on the surface can take place, so that the sequence in the adsorption energy should be Zr > Hf > Rf, as defined by the complex formation energies. In the case of adsorption of MCl{sub 4} on a chlorinated quartz surface, formation of the MCl{sub 6}{sup 2−} surface complexes can occur, so that the trend in the adsorption strength should be Zr ≤ Hf < Rf. All the predicted sequences, showing a smooth change of the adsorption energy in the group, are in disagreement with the reversed trend Zr ≈ Rf < Hf, observed in the “one-atom-at-a-time” gas-phase chromatography experiments. Thus, currently no theoretical explanation can be found for the experimental observations.

  6. Comparison and evaluation of five types of imidazole-modified silica adsorbents for the removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol from water samples with the methyl group at different positions of imidazolium ring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhike; Ye, Cunling; Li, Juan; Wang, Heping; Zhang, Han

    2013-09-15

    The objective of this work was to improve the understanding the influence of the methyl group at different positions of imidazolium ring on the adsorption behaviors of imidazole-modified silica adsorbents. Five adsorbents named as SilprImCl, SilprM₁ImCl, SilprM₂ImCl, SilprM₄ImCl and SilprM₁M₂ImCl were synthesized using imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, 2-methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole and 1,2-dimethylimidazole, respectively. These adsorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscope, infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and BET analysis. Firstly, phenol, 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 3-nitrophenol (3-NP), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) were used as adsorbates to investigate the selectivity of SilprImCl and its adsorption capacities followed the order of 2,4-DNP≫4-NP>2-NP≫3-NP>phenol. Therefore, 2,4-DNP was used to investigate the adsorption behaviors of the five adsorbents. It was inferred that the adsorbents are of primary anion-exchange and electrostatic nature. The electrostatic nature was affected significantly by the methyl group at different positions of imidazolium ring. The adsorbed amounts of 2,4-DNP decreased in the order of: SilprM₁M₂ImCl≈SilprM₁ImCl>SilprM4ImCl>SilprM₂ImCl>SilprImCl. The adsorption-elution experiments indicated that 2,4-DNP can be removed from aqueous solutions by a SilprM₄ImCl packed column and the recovery of 91.6% was obtained. The adsorbent could be regenerated and reused ten times at least by simple washings with HCl and water in turn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  8. Modified Composite Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

  9. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  10. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  11. Non-randomized confirmatory trial of modified radical hysterectomy for patients with tumor diameter 2 cm or less FIGO Stage IB1 uterine cervical cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG1101).

    PubMed

    Kunieda, Futoshi; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Arimoto, Takahide; Onda, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Shibata, Taro; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Kamura, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    A non-randomized confirmatory trial was started in Japan to evaluate the efficacy of modified radical hysterectomy in patients with tumor diameter 2 cm or less FIGO Stage IB1 uterine cervical cancer, for which the current standard is radical hysterectomy. This study began in January 2013 and a total of 240 patients will be accrued from 37 institutions within 3 years. The primary endpoint is 5-year survival. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, local relapse-free survival, percent completion of modified radical hysterectomy, percent local relapse, percent pathological parametrial involvement, days until self-urination and residual urine disappearance, blood loss, operation time, percent post-operative radiation therapy, adverse events and severe adverse events. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN 000009726 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  13. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA.

  14. Percutaneous permeation modifiers: enhancement versus retardation.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Diksha; Batheja, Priya; Kilfoyle, Brian; Rai, Vishwas; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2008-05-01

    The use of permeation enhancers to compromise the barrier properties of skin has been ongoing for decades. However, toxicity associated with certain xenobiotics has led to the development of permeation retardants. Since both enhancers and retardants modify the surface layer of the skin, they can be collectively referred to as penetration modifiers. This review attempts to outline a comparison of two types of penetration modifiers: enhancers and retardants. In addition to reports of enhancement and retardation by modifiers, we also provide evidence as to why we should group these compounds together, since we have found that retardants can become enhancers in different formulation environments. Since modifiers influence drug delivery, further exploration of these compounds is required to understand their modifying action on the properties of skin.

  15. How to find the optimal partner--studies of snurportin 1 interactions with U snRNA 5' TMG-cap analogues containing modified 2-amino group of 7-methylguanosine.

    PubMed

    Piecyk, Karolina; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Ferenc-Mrozek, Aleksandra; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena

    2015-08-01

    Snurportin 1 is an adaptor protein that mediates the active nuclear import of uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (U snRNA) by the importin-β receptor pathway. Its cellular activity influences the overall transport yield of small ribonucleoprotein complexes containing N(2),N(2),7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) capped U snRNA. So far little is still known about structural requirements related to molecular recognition of the trimethylguanosine moiety by snurportin in solution. Since these interactions are of a great biomedical importance, we synthesized a series of new 7-methylguanosine cap analogues with extended substituents at the exocyclic 2-amino group to gain a deeper insight into how the TMG-cap is adapted into the snurportin cap-binding pocket. Prepared chemical tools were applied in binding assays using emission spectroscopy. Surprisingly, our results revealed strict selectivity of snurportin towards the TMG-cap structure that relied mainly on its structural stiffness and compactness.

  16. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a new 15-mg modified-release tablet formulation of metoclopramide versus a 10-mg immediate-release tablet: a single- and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study in healthy Mexican male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bernardo-Escudero, Roberto; Alonso-Campero, Rosalba; de Jesús Francisco-Doce, María Teresa; Cortés-Fuentes, Myriam; Villa-Vargas, Miriam; Angeles-Uribe, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Metoclopramide is a prokinetic and antiemetic agent. The goal of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of a new, modified-release metoclopramide tablet and compare it with an immediate-release tablet to obtain marketing approval from the Mexican regulatory agency. This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, single- and multiple-dose, pharmacokinetic study. Investigational products were administered to healthy Mexican male volunteers for 3 consecutive days: one 15-mg modified-release tablet every 12 hours or one 10-mg immediate-release tablet every 8 hours. Multiple blood samples were collected after the first and last doses of metoclopramide over a 24-hour period. Plasma metoclopramide concentrations were determined by using a validated HPLC method. Safety and tolerability were assessed by measurement of vital signs, clinical evaluations, and spontaneous reports from study subjects. All 26 subjects were included in the analyses (mean [SD] age: 25 [6] years [range, 18-40 years]; body mass index, 23.44 [2.31] kg/m(2) [range, 18.26-27.49 kg/m2]). Peak plasma concentrations were lower (C(max), 33.13 [7.25] vs 46.04 [17.27] ng/mL after the first dose [P < 0.05]; C(max,ss), 48.60 [8.52] vs 75.23 [21.27] ng/mL after the last dose [P < 0.05]) and occurred later (P < 0.05) with the modified-release formulation. In terms of average plasma concentrations (C(avgτ), 20.98 [3.94] vs 23.38 [7.35] ng/mL after the first dose; C(avg,ss), 22.20 [5.64] vs 23.02 [7.77] ng/mL after the last dose), differences did not reach the level of statistical significance (P > 0.05). Four adverse events were reported in the test group (abdominal distention [n = 2], epigastric pain [n = 1], and somnolence [n = 1]), and 3 were reported in the reference group (epigastric pain [n = 1], diarrhea [n = 1], and hiccups [n = 1]). This study in a sample of selected healthy Mexican male volunteers suggests that the metoclopramide15-mg modified-release tablets have features

  17. Organically modified silicas on metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dean, Stacey L; Stapleton, Joshua J; Keating, Christine D

    2010-09-21

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling.

  18. Organically Modified Silicas on Metal Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling. PMID:20715881

  19. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  20. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  1. Modifying Curriculum. Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petch, Beverly

    This module on modifying curriculum is 1 in a series of 10 modules written for vocational education teacher education programs. It is designed to prepare the learner to identify the varying learning styles of learners and to modify curriculum by providing alternative techniques for curriculum modification. Introductory materials include the…

  2. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  3. Home Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahler, Theresa M.

    All students enrolled in the entry level foundations course in the College of Education of Kutztown University (Pennsylvania) participate in home groups, a cooperative learning strategy. Each student is assigned to a five- or six-person home group on the first day of class. Although group placements are made on the basis of class lists, every…

  4. Hot Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived,…

  5. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  6. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  7. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  8. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  9. Whitehead Groups of Spinor Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrnyĭ, A. P.; Yanchevskiĭ, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The Whitehead groups of spinor groups are studied. The known Kneser-Tits conjecture for spinor groups is reduced to a spinor analogue of the Tannaka-Artin problem, namely, to the question of whether the group K1Spin(D), where D is a division ring of exponent 2 , is trivial. A counterexample to the Kneser-Tits problem is constructed in the class of spinor groups. The group K1Spin(D) is computed. The stability of the Whitehead groups of spinor groups under purely transcendental extensions of the ground field is established. The R-equivalence on the k-points of spinor groups and the weak approximation problem are considered. The study of spinor group completes the study of the Whitehead groups of algebraic groups of classical type, that was started in studying reduced K-theory (V.P. Platonov) and was continued for reduced unitary K-theory (V.I. Yanchevskiĭ) and Hermitian K-theory (Platonov and Yanchevskiĭ). Bibliography: 50 titles.

  10. Modifying toxicokinetics with antidotes.

    PubMed

    Baud, F J; Borron, S W; Bismuth, C

    1995-12-01

    Five approaches may be described through which antidotes can modify toxicokinetics: (1) Decreased bioavailability of the toxins; (2) Cellular redistribution of the toxin in the organism; (3) Promotion of elimination in an unchanged form; (4) Slowing of metabolic activation pathways; (5) Acceleration of metabolic deactivation pathways. However, the ability to modify toxicokinetics with a new treatment, while demonstrating an understanding of the mechanism of action, must never be construed to be, in and of itself, the goal of therapy. The ultimate evaluation of an antidote modifying toxicokinetics is strictly clinical.

  11. Modifiers of Perceived Spaciousness and Crowding among Different Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasar, Jack L.; And Others

    Two studies of graduate students living in a 13-story dormitory examined the effects of natural lighting, usable space, sex, culture, and floor height on perceptions of spaciousness, personalization of space, crowding, and lightness. Previous research had indicated differences between males and females in this area, but had not considered cultural…

  12. Cystic fibrosis modifier genes.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jane; Alton, Eric; Griesenbach, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Since the recognition that CFTR genotype was not a good predictor of pulmonary disease severity in CF, several candidate modifier genes have been identified. It is unlikely that a single modifier gene will be found, but more probable that several haplotypes in combination may contribute, which in itself presents a major methodological challenge. The aims of such studies are to increase our understanding of disease pathogenesis, to aid prognosis and ultimately to lead to the development of novel treatments. PMID:16025767

  13. Group Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian

    The group interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the group will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…

  14. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  15. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  16. Enamel wear of modified porcelains.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Suzuki, S; Fukushima, S

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the wear of three different modified ceramics along with a conventional porcelain and the wear of opposing enamel at initial wear cycle on a two-body and a three-body wear simulation. Modified ceramics used in this study included a low fusing/low crystal porcelain (Finesse), a high fusing/low crystal porcelain (Softspar), and a heat-pressable ceramic (IPS Empress). A conventional porcelain (Ceramco II) was used as the control material. Hemispherical shaped ceramic styli (1/8 inch in diameter) made of respective materials were fabricated according to the manufacturers' directions. Proximal surfaces of non-carious human molars were ground flat within the enamel with a silicon carbide paper to 600 grit with copious irrigation. They were perpendicularly opposed to each other with or without intermediate material as a food bolus and subjected to in vitro wear test by a UAB wear simulator. A 75.6 N load was applied vertically onto the surface at 1.2 Hz. The surface was duplicated after respective wear cycles. Seven specimens were tested for each group of both simulations. The enamel wear loss when opposing the modified ceramics was less than the Ceramco II control which exhibited the greatest values. The IPS Empress material showed the least amount of wear among them. Statistically significant differences were seen between the IPS Empress and the Ceramco II for every cycle interval evaluated (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Although the enamel wear loss when opposing the IPS Empress was significantly less (ANOVA, P < 0.05) than the others until 20,000 wear cycles, no significant differences were found among the modified ceramics at the end of 50,000 wear cycles. The concentric wear patterns were already prominent at 5,000 wear cycles on two-body wear, however, the wear facet of the three-body wear was smaller (the wear depth of 0-5 microm) than the two-body wear test, as it was quite similar to the one of the two-body wear test at 100 wear cycles. On the other hand

  17. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  18. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  19. Automata representation for Abelian groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Wan Heng; Gan, Yee Siang; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2013-04-01

    A finite automaton is one of the classic models of recognition devices, which is used to determine the type of language a string belongs to. A string is said to be recognized by a finite automaton if the automaton "reads" the string from the left to the right starting from the initial state and finishing at a final state. Another type of automata which is a counterpart of sticker systems, namely Watson-Crick automata, is finite automata which can scan the double-stranded tapes of DNA strings using the complimentary relation. The properties of groups have been extended for the recognition of finite automata over groups. In this paper, two variants of automata, modified deterministic finite automata and modified deterministic Watson-Crick automata are used in the study of Abelian groups. Moreover, the relation between finite automata diagram over Abelian groups and the Cayley table is introduced. In addition, some properties of Abelian groups are presented in terms of automata.

  20. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  1. Modifying Cookbook Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert, L.; Clough, Michael P.; Berg, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Modifies an extended lab activity from a cookbook approach for determining the percent mass of water in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals to one which incorporates students' prior knowledge, engenders active mental struggling with prior knowledge and new experiences, and encourages metacognition. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  2. Modifying Cookbook Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert, L.; Clough, Michael P.; Berg, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Modifies an extended lab activity from a cookbook approach for determining the percent mass of water in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals to one which incorporates students' prior knowledge, engenders active mental struggling with prior knowledge and new experiences, and encourages metacognition. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  3. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R. E.

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  4. A Modified Impress Method for Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Russell W., Jr.

    A modified impress approach to teaching reading has been successfully used in a program involving first grade students. The program was multisensory and included aural, oral, visual, and kinesthetic learning experiences gained through listening, group discussions, dramatic play, art activities, audience reading, and recorded oral reading. These…

  5. Cantor Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Ben; Dow, Chris; Livshits, Leo

    2011-01-01

    The Cantor subset of the unit interval [0, 1) is "large" in cardinality and also "large" algebraically, that is, the smallest subgroup of [0, 1) generated by the Cantor set (using addition mod 1 as the group operation) is the whole of [0, 1). In this paper, we show how to construct Cantor-like sets which are "large" in cardinality but "small"…

  6. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  7. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  8. Healthy Thinking: A Group Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; Carty, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    A "Healthy Thinking" group, based on a modified Aaron Beck Cognitive Therapy model, teaches depressed clients to realistically appraise their experiences by monitoring and changing distorted thinking. Clients learn that situational stress activates long held assumptions (negative beliefs) leading to distorted thinking and ultimately…

  9. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  10. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  11. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  12. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  13. Modified entropic force

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun

    2010-04-15

    The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

  14. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  15. Group-Oriented Behavior Management Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of group oriented behavior management strategies to modify classroom behavior problems is suggested. Advantages, disadvantages, and implementation guidelines for the group response cost system, the good behavior game, the group timeout ribbon, hero method, peer-mediated extinction, and peer confrontation. (DB)

  16. Making Writing Groups Work: Modifying Elbow's Teacherless Writing Group for the Classroom, 1977-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Roger

    Peter Elbow's concepts of "pointing,""summarizing,""telling," and "showing" can form an effective method for training students to give reader-based feedback to peer writing. In pointing, students jot down all the words and phrases they can remember from an oral reading of a draft. These lists stimulate…

  17. Chemical Synthesis of Modified Hyaluronic Acid Disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mende, Marco; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan

    2017-09-07

    Herein we report a chemical synthesis towards new modified hyaluronic acid oligomers by using only commercially available d-glucose and d-glucosamine hydrochloride. The various protected hyaluronic acid disaccharides were synthesized bearing new functional groups at C-6 of the β-d-glucuronic acid moiety with a view to structure-related biological activity tests. The orthogonal protecting group pattern allows ready access to the corresponding higher oligomers. Also, (1) H NMR studies of the new derivatives demonstrated the effect of the various functional groups on the intramolecular electronic environment. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  19. Histone Modifiers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Idan; Poręba, Elżbieta; Kamieniarz, Kinga; Schneider, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Covalent modifications of histones can regulate all DNA-dependent processes. In the last few years, it has become more and more evident that histone modifications are key players in the regulation of chromatin states and dynamics as well as in gene expression. Therefore, histone modifications and the enzymatic machineries that set them are crucial regulators that can control cellular proliferation, differentiation, plasticity, and malignancy processes. This review discusses the biology and biochemistry of covalent histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and evaluates the dual role of their modifiers in cancer: as oncogenes that can initiate and amplify tumorigenesis or as tumor suppressors. PMID:21941619

  20. Modified harmony search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  1. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications.

  2. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  3. [Research of modified rat laryngeal transplantation model].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Peng, Han-wei; Zeng, Zong-yuan; Guo, Zhu-ming

    2006-07-01

    To study modified rat laryngeal transplantation model. Eighty isogeneic histocompatible F344 rats were randomized into control and experimental groups. Strome model of laryngeal transplantation was established in the the control group, and in the experimental group, the ascending pharyngeal artery was preserved and the base of the tongue, larynx and pharyngolarynx were harvested as a complex allograft followed by end-to-end anastomosis of the both allograft common carotid arteries with the recipient common carotid artery and the anterior jugular vein, respectively. The arterial and nenous patency rate and allograft viability rate were compared between the two groups. The artery and vein patency rates and graft survival rate were 30%, 15%, and 30% in the control group, and 75%, 65%, and 80% in the experimental group, respectively, showing significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). In modified rat laryngeal transplantation model, the allograft viability rate and vessel patency rate are improved, which provides a good model for immunological study of larynx transplantation.

  4. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  5. Wave propagation in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, Jan Ø.; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the propagation of scalar waves induced by matter sources in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity which include screening mechanisms for the scalar degree of freedom. The usual approach when studying these theories in the nonlinear regime of cosmological perturbations is based on the assumption that scalar waves travel at the speed of light. Within general relativity this approximation is valid and leads to no loss of accuracy in the estimation of observables. We find, however, that mass terms and nonlinearities in the equations of motion lead to propagation and dispersion velocities significantly different from the speed of light. As the group velocity is the one associated with the propagation of signals, a reduction of its value has direct impact on the behavior and dynamics of nonlinear structures within modified gravity theories with screening. For instance, the internal dynamics of galaxies and satellites submerged in large dark matter halos could be affected by the fact that the group velocity is smaller than the speed of light. It is therefore important, within such a framework, to take into account the fact that different parts of a galaxy will see changes in the environment at different times. A full nonstatic analysis may be necessary under those conditions.

  6. Acid-degradable and bioerodible modified polyhydroxylated materials

    DOEpatents

    Frechet, Jean M. J.; Bachelder, Eric M.; Beaudette, Tristan T.; Broaders, Kyle E.

    2017-05-09

    Compositions and methods of making a modified polyhydroxylated polymer comprising a polyhydroxylated polymer having reversibly modified hydroxyl groups, whereby the hydroxyl groups are modified by an acid-catalyzed reaction between a polydroxylated polymer and a reagent such as acetals, aldehydes, vinyl ethers and ketones such that the modified polyhydroxylated polymers become insoluble in water but freely soluble in common organic solvents allowing for the facile preparation of acid-sensitive materials. Materials made from these polymers can be made to degrade in a pH-dependent manner. Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cargoes were successfully loaded into particles made from the present polymers using single and double emulsion techniques, respectively. Due to its ease of preparation, processability, pH-sensitivity, and biocompatibility, of the present modified polyhydroxylated polymers should find use in numerous drug delivery applications.

  7. Modified double burst stimulation of varying stimulating currents.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Y; Fujii, Y; Makita, K; Tanaka, H; Amaha, K

    1998-08-01

    Using modified double burst stimulation (modified DBS), sufficient level of recovery from neuromuscular blockade (train-of-four (TOF) ratio > 0.7) can properly be diagnosed. Modified DBS may often be applied in awake patients in the postanesthetic care unit. As the stimulating current decreases, the neurostimulation-induced discomfort becomes less for awake subjects. It is relevant to investigate the usefulness of the modified DBS delivered at low currents. One hundred and twenty-one adult patients undergoing nitrous oxide-oxygen-isoflurane anesthesia were randomly divided into one of four groups: group 50 (n = 40), group 30 (n = 40), group 20 (n = 40), and supramaximality group (n = 1). After administration of vecuronium, in one hand and forearm (fixed arm), the degree of neuromuscular blockade was quantified mechanically. In the contralateral arm (free arm), modified DBS stimuli were delivered at 50, 30, and 20 mA in groups 50, 30, and 20, respectively. An observer determined tactilely on the free arm the presence or absence of fade in response to the modified DBS applied at 50, 30, and 20 mA. In one patient (the supramaximality group), modified DBS ratios (D2/D1) were examined at 50, 40, 30, 20, and 10 mA before administration of vecuronium. Moreover, discomfort associated with modified DBS applied at 50, 30, and 20 mA was evaluated using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) in 15 awake volunteers. Probabilities of detection of fade in response to modified DBS in groups 50, 30, and 20 were 90, 86, and 96% (TOF ratios of 0.61-0.70), 62, 73, 94*#% (0.71-0.80), 26, 39, and 79*#% (0.81-0.90), and 4, 33*, and 51*#% (0.91-1.00), respectively. *P < 0.05 as compared to group 50. #P < 0.05 as compared to group 30. Supramaximal responses to D1 and D2 could be elicited at a current > or = 30 mA. The mean VAS scores were 8.7, 6.5*, and 4.1* when stimulated at 50, 30, and 20 mA, respectively. *P < 0.05 as compared to 50 mA. #P < 0.05 as compared to 30 mA. Modified DBS

  8. Polysaccharide biological response modifiers.

    PubMed

    Leung, M Y K; Liu, C; Koon, J C M; Fung, K P

    2006-06-15

    Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances which augment immune response. BRMs can be cytokines which are produced endogenously in our body by immune cells or derivatives of bacteria, fungi, brown algae, Aloe vera and photosynthetic plants. Such exogeneous derivatives (exogeneous BRMs) can be nucleic acid (CpG), lipid (lipotechoic acid), protein or polysaccharide in nature. The receptors for these exogeneous BRMs are pattern recognition receptors. The binding of exogeneous BRMs to pattern recognition receptors triggers immune response. Exogenous BRMs have been reported to have anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, and anti-tumor activities. Among different exogeneous BRMs, polysaccharide BRMs have the widest occurrence in nature. Some polysaccharide BRMs have been tested for their therapeutic properties in human clinical trials. An overview of current understandings of polysaccharide BRMs is summarized in this review.

  9. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  10. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term.

  11. [Adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto modified activated carbons].

    PubMed

    Tong, Xi-Zhen; Shi, Bao-You; Xie, Yue; Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Modified coal and coconut shell based powdered activated carbons (PACs) were prepared by FeCl3 and medium power microwave treatment, respectively. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) onto original and modified PACs. Based on pore structure and surface functional groups characterization, the adsorption behaviors of modified and original PACs were compared. The competitive adsorption of humic acid (HA) and PFOS on original and modified coconut shell PACs were also investigated. Results showed that both Fe3+ and medium power microwave treatments changed the pore structure and surface functional groups of coal and coconut shell PACs, but the changing effects were different. The adsorption of PFOS on two modified coconut shell-based PACs was significantly improved. While the adsorption of modified coal-based activated carbons declined. The adsorption kinetics of PFOS onto original and modified coconut shell-based activated carbons were the same, and the time of reaching adsorption equilibrium was about 6 hours. In the presence of HA, the adsorption of PFOS by modified PAC was reduced but still higher than that of the original.

  12. Distinguishing modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.

  13. [Biotechnology using modified microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Deshayes, A F

    1992-11-01

    Few microorganisms, as compare to their high diversity, are used for human needs. They can produce molecules of interest, process fermentation, protect crops, treat wastes or clean environment. Molecular technics and genetic engineering are new tools offer to geneticists which breed microorganisms for years. Using them, it is now possible, theoretically, to introduce any gene in any organism. Some examples are given concerning genetic modifications in yeasts and lactic acid bacteria to optimize agrofood processes and to improve nutritive and flavour characteristics of fermented products like bread, beer, wine, cheese, meat, vegetable juices... In spite of scientific and industrial interest of the new technologies, limiting factors can explain that genetically modified microorganisms are not routinely used in agrofood yet. First, risks assessment on human health and environment are still in debate, but their is a consensus, within the scientific community, to consider that new characteristics of improved microorganisms are more important than the technics used for their construction. Second, regulations turn out to impose constraints susceptible to discourage technological innovations. At least, the public perception about the new technologies appears, actually, as the major factor to limit their development.

  14. Organically modified silicate aerogels, ``Aeromosils``

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.J.; Mackenzie, J.D.; Rubio-Alonso, F.

    1996-12-31

    Aerogels derived from sol-gel oxides such as silica have become quite scientifically popular because of their extremely low densities, high surface areas, and their interesting optical, dielectric, thermal and acoustic properties. However, their commercial applicability has thus far been rather limited, due in great part to their brittleness and hydrophilicity. In prior work by the research group, modifying silicate gel structures with flexible, organic containing polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane imparted significant compliance (even rubbery behavior) and hydrophobicity. These materials have been referred to as Ormosils. This study expounds on the current effort to extend these desirable properties to aerogels, and in-so-doing, creating novel ``Aeromosils``. Reactive incorporation of hydroxy-terminal polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into silica sol-gels was made using both acid and two-step acid/base catalyzed processes. Aerogels were derived by employing the supercritical CO{sub 2} technique. Analyses of microstructure were made using nitrogen adsorption (BET surface area and pore size distribution), and some mechanical strengths were derived from tensile strength testing. Interesting Aeromosil properties obtained include optical transparency, surface areas of up to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g, rubberiness, and better strength than corresponding silica aerogels with elongations at break exceeding 5% in some cases.

  15. On a modified electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Reiss, H R

    2012-09-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.

  16. On a modified electrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The ‘gauge-invariant electrodynamics’ of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics. PMID:23105173

  17. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  18. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  19. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  20. Modifying School Attendance of Special Education High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licht, Barbara G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Study evaluated a program to modify school attendance for 20 special education high school students. A treatment group received social and tangible rewards for good attendance, and their parents received notices about absences. They showed no decline in attendance over a semester, whereas control group students showed significant declines. (SM)

  1. Modifying the communicative effectiveness of fire prevention signs

    Treesearch

    William S. Folkman

    1966-01-01

    Two versions of a commonly used U.S. Forest Service sign ('America Needs Productive Forests') were tested on four adult special-interest groups in Butte County, California. Half the members were shown the regularly used sign; the other half, a modified sign that included the Smokey Bear symbol. Responses to questionnaires by both groups suggested that each...

  2. Modified Gravity and Coupled Quintessence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, Christof

    The distinction between modified gravity and quintessence or dynamical dark energy is difficult. Many models of modified gravity are equivalent to models of coupled quintessence by virtue of variable transformations. This makes an observational differentiation between modified gravity and dark energy very hard. For example, the additional scalar degree of freedom in f(R)-gravity or non-local gravity can be interpreted as the cosmon of quintessence. Nevertheless, modified gravity can shed light on questions of interpretation, naturalness and simplicity. We present a simple model where gravity is modified by a field dependent Planck mass. It leads to a universe with a cold and slow beginning. This cosmology can be continued to the infinite past such that no big bang singularity occurs. All observables can be described equivalently in a hot big bang picture with inflation and early dark energy.

  3. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy.

  4. Characterization of silica particles modified with γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Wang; Shen, Haiying; Wang, Jiamin; Cao, Jinzhen

    2017-03-01

    The surface of hydrophilic silica particles was modified with different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS). The hydrophobicity and hygroscopicity of unmodified and modified silica were investigated through water contact angle (WCA) tests and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method, respectively. The results showed that the surface properties of silica were closely related with the MPTS concentration. Within the range of MPTS concentration applied, 8% MPTS modified silica showed the least aggregation. With the increasing MPTS concentration, the WCAs on modified silica film increased correspondingly, and finally exceeded 90° at 6% and 8% concentrations. The equilibrium moisture contents (EMCs) of modified silica also decreased with the increasing MPTS concentration. The improvement on hydrophobicity can be correlated with the reduction of residual hydroxyl groups (-OH) on modified silica. The self-condensation of MPTS began to occur at concentrations higher than 4%, especially at 8%. Owing to this effect, the modified silica with 8% MPTS showed a slightly higher EMC than 6% MPTS within low relative humidity (RH) range up to 40%. At a higher RH ranging from 40 to 90%, 8% group showed the lowest EMCs because of its highest hydrophobicity and low specific surface area. A mechanism concerning the MPTS modification of silica was also proposed in this study based on the research results.

  5. Modified lumbar artery perforator flaps for gluteal pressure sore reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chi Sun; Yim, Ji Hong; Kim, Min Ho; Ha, Won; Kim, Kyu Nam

    2016-03-21

    Gluteal perforator flaps (GPFs) are the most useful for gluteal region pressure sore reconstruction. However, application is difficult if the surrounding area has scar tissue from previous operations or trauma, especially with recurrent sores. We describe the use of modified lumbar artery perforator flaps when GPFs cannot be used. Between May 2009 and April 2014, 51 patients underwent gluteal pressure sore reconstructions with gluteal (n = 39) or modified lumbar artery (n = 12) perforator flaps. Patients in the modified lumbar artery perforator group had scar tissue from trauma or previous surgery. In this retrospective review, we analyzed patient age and sex, defect size and location, operative time, follow-up duration, immediate postoperative issues, flap necrosis, dehiscence, re-operation, donor-site morbidity and recurrence. Complications and clinical outcomes were compared between groups. We found no significant differences in patient demographics, surgical complications or clinical outcomes. There were eight cases of temporary congestion (20.51%) and four of partial flap necrosis (10.25%) in the gluteal perforator group. In the modified lumbar artery perforator group, there were three cases of temporary congestion (25%) and one of partial flap necrosis (8.33%). No pressure sores recurred during follow-up in either group. GPFs are the gold standards for gluteal pressure sores, but modified lumbar artery perforator flaps are relatively easy and useful when GPFs cannot be used due to scar tissue. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. [Comorbid autoimmune pathology in patients treated with disease modifying drugs].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Z A; Sizyakina, L P; Belovolova, R A; Megeryan, V A

    2016-01-01

    Because of intensive growth of the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases (AID) during the last years, the comorbidity of MS and AID is not a rarity. In this literature review, the development of comorbid AID in patients with MS is considered to be the probable complication of disease modifying therapy with drugs of different groups. The authors present the own data on the prevalence of comorbid autoimmune pathology in patients with MS treated with disease modifying drugs.

  7. [Hygienic characteristics of foodstuffs containing genetically modified components].

    PubMed

    Beliaev, E N; Ivanov, A A; Fokin, M V

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzes the results of the investigations of raw foods, foodstuffs for genetically modified components, conducted by the state sanitary and epidemiological service of the Russian Federation during its current sanitary inspection. The presented materials cover 2003-2004. The findings suggest that there is a great deal of foods containing genetically modified sources on the market and show the priority groups of foodstuffs and the distribution of these foods on the territory of the Russian Federation.

  8. Immobilization of β-galactosidase on modified polypropilene membranes.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Nastya; Iotov, Vladislav; Ivanov, Yavor; Godjevargova, Tzonka; Kotia, Nana

    2012-12-01

    A new immobilized system: β-galactosidase-modified polypropylene membrane was created. It was obtained 13 different carriers by chemical modification of polypropylene membranes by two stages. The first stage is treatment with K(2)Cr(2)O(7) to receive carboxylic groups on membrane surface. The second stage is treatment with different modified agents ethylendiamine, hexamethylenediamine, hydrazine dihydrochloride, hydroxylamine, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylenediamine, N,N'-dibenzyl ethylenediamine diacetate to receive amino groups. The quantity of the amino groups, carboxylic groups and the degree of hydrophilicity of unmodified and modified polypropilene membranes were determined. β-Galactosidase was chemically immobilized on the obtained carries by glutaraldehyde. The highest relative activity of immobilized enzyme was recorded at membrane modified with 10% hexamethylenediamine (Membrane 5) - 92.77%. The properties of immobilized β-galactosidase on different modified membranes - pH optimum, temperature optimum, pH stability and thermal stability were investigated and compared with those of free enzyme. The storage stability of all immobilized systems was studied. It was found that the most stable system is immobilized enzyme on Membrane 5. The system has kept 90% of its initial activity at 300th day (pH=6.8; 4°C). The stability of the free and immobilized β-galactosidase on the modified membrane 5 with 10% HMDA in aqueous solutions of alcohols - mono-, diol and triol was studied. The kinetics of enzymatic reaction of free and immobilized β-galactosidase on the modified membrane 5 at 20°C and 40°C and at the optimal pH for both forms of the enzyme were investigated. It was concluded that the modified agent - hexamethylenediamine, with long aliphatic chain ensures the best immobilized β-galactosidase system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemically modified opals as thin permselective nanoporous membranes.

    PubMed

    Newton, Michael R; Bohaty, Andrew K; White, Henry S; Zharov, Ilya

    2005-05-25

    Thin-film opals comprising three layers of 440 nm diameter SiO2 spheres were assembled on Pt electrodes and modified with amino groups on the silica surface. Diffusion of anionic, cationic, and neutral redox species through the opals was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The chemically modified opal membranes demonstrate high molecular throughput and, at low pH, selectively block transport of a cationic redox species relative to that of anionic and neutral redox species. This permselective behavior is attributed to the electrostatic interactions that are enhanced by the tortuous pathway within the opal and by the high surface area of the chemically modified spheres.

  10. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  11. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to older adults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to older adults.

  12. Modified PIOPED criteria used in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Freitas, J E; Sarosi, M G; Nagle, C C; Yeomans, M E; Freitas, A E; Juni, J E

    1995-09-01

    To assess the use of modified PIOPED scintigraphic criteria for lung scan (V/Q) interpretation to detect pulmonary embolism (PE), we prospectively applied these criteria in suspected PE patients referred for V/Q from 9/1/92 to 2/7/94. PIOPED criteria were modified by placing a moderate segmental perfusion mismatch in the intermediate instead of low probability of PE category and using the "stripe sign." Patients were studied by six-view V/Q imaging using 74 MBq (2 mCi) 99mTc-MAA followed by 148-370 MBq (4-10 mCi) 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, contrast pulmonary selective angiography and Doppler sonography with leg compression as needed. Patients underwent follow-up (mean 13.9 mo) to detect subsequent thromboembolic events. In this study group, 1000 patients were studied by V/Q followed by angiography in 133 patients. The distribution of V/Q-assigned PE probabilities was: high probability 5.7%, intermediate 17.4%, low 41.4% and normal 35.5%. Group A patients (133) underwent angiography, which resulted in the determination of a 27.1% PE prevalence. Group B patients (867) did not have angiograms; the clinical prevalence of PE was 7.5%. In the total study population, the positive predictive value of a high probability V/Q study for PE (10.1% prevalence) was 98.2%, intermediate probability V/Q study for PE was 24.1% and a low probability study for PE was only 0.5%. Modified PIOPED V/Q interpretation criteria afford better angioproven PE discrimination between intermediate (31.8% PE prevalence) and low (5.5% PE prevalence) probability V/Q results than reported for PIOPED intermediate (32.6% PE prevalence) and low (16.3% PE prevalence) probability V/Q interpretation criteria.

  13. Do Values Change in an Encounter Group? An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Lawrence V.

    Encounter groups represent an attempt to apply group methods for the enhancement of personal awareness and the acceleration of personal growth among "normal" people. The extent to which an individual's moral values are modified by disclosure and discussion of these values in an encounter group setting was investigated with a group of nine…

  14. Do Values Change in an Encounter Group? An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Lawrence V.

    Encounter groups represent an attempt to apply group methods for the enhancement of personal awareness and the acceleration of personal growth among "normal" people. The extent to which an individual's moral values are modified by disclosure and discussion of these values in an encounter group setting was investigated with a group of nine…

  15. Modified polymers for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Christensen, W.; Mayer, L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric materials are modified to serve as stationary phase in chromatographic columns used for separation of atmospheric gases. Materials simplify and improve separation of atmospheric gases in terms of time, quantity of material needed, and sharpness of separation.

  16. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  17. Bioactive aldehyde-modified phosphatidylethanolamines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lilu; Davies, Sean S

    2013-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation generates a variety of lipid aldehydes, which have been recognized to modify protein and DNA, causing inflammation and cancer. However, recent studies demonstrate that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a major target for these aldehydes, forming aldehyde-modified PEs (al-PEs) as a novel family of mediators for inflammation. This review summarizes our current understanding of these al-PEs, including formation, detection, structural characterization, physiological relevance and mechanism of action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  19. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindgvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a methods for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  20. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  1. Arthroscopically Assisted Modified Jones Procedure.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    The modified Jones procedure is the classic operative treatment of symptomatic clawed hallux. It is composed of transfer of the extensor hallucis longus tendon to the first metatarsal neck and fusion of the hallux interphalangeal joint. The purpose of this technical note is to report the technique of an arthroscopically assisted modified Jones procedure. This can be combined with other minimally invasive bone and soft-tissue procedures to correct all aspects of the complex cavus foot deformity.

  2. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  3. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  4. The Same but Different: Making Meaning from Modified Texts with Cross-Cultural Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia B.; Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton

    2017-01-01

    Reader response theory provides the framework for the present study that explored literary elements and cultural responses of fifth-grade students to two modified versions of a cross-cultural text, "Homesick: My Own Story" by Jean Fritz. One group of students read the first chapter of the book and another group read a modified basal…

  5. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  6. Organic intercalation of structure modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nian; Wu, Limei; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng

    2015-11-01

    The experiment used cationic surfactants of different chain lengths to intercalate structure modified vermiculites. The influences of structure modification, chain length and dosage of surfactants on the intercalation behavior of vermiculites were studied, and intercalation mechanism and features of interlayer chemical reactions were discussed. Results indicate that structure modified vermiculites with different layer charge have different intercalation behavior. The basal spacing of the organic intercalated modified vermiculite is the largest when acid concentration used in structure modification is 0.003 mol/L, and increases with increasing the chain length and dosage of the organics. Molecular dynamics simulation verifies that interlayer organics align almost parallel to structure layer of vermiculite, with alkyl chain stretching to the middle of interlayer space. -N(+) groups of the three surfactants locate above the leached [SiO4], which has stronger interaction with interlayer organic cations. Electrostatic force is the main interaction force between interlayer organics and structure layer of vermiculite, and then is Van der Waals force, no chemical bond formed.

  7. Phenolic removal using phenylamine modified montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiyantoko, Bayu; Lail, Jamalul; Kurniawati, Puji; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Nurrohmah, Ashri; Kurniandari, Safitri

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis, characterization, and application of phenylamine modified montmorillonite have been studied. Preparation of phenylamine modified montmorillonite was conducted by intercalation process using simple amine compound. The changes in physical and chemical properties were observed through the crystal structure, functional groups and acidity as well as the application as an adsorbent for phenolic compound. The diffractogram showed characteristic basal spacing of montmorillonite at 2θ = 7.0710° and 19.8856°, also peaks with sharp intense around 20-30° were 2θ = 28.6181° and 35.0112°. The reflection pattern of phenylamine modified montmorillonite exhibited the shifting of d001 basal spacing at 2θ = 7.0710° into 7.1624° that implied the phenylamine was attached to the surface of montmorillonite. The spectra of FTIR gave the difference of wave number for -OH stretching, -OH bending also Mg-O-Al vibration that distinguished between natural montmorillonite and prepared material. The prepared material has lower acidity value and different surface characters which confirmed by gravimetric and infrared spectrum. The phenolic adsorption using prepared material gave maximum pH at 5 and optimum contact time around 2 hours with adsorption capacity was 24.48%.

  8. 3-nitrotyrosine modified proteins in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature death worldwide, and atherosclerosis is the main contributor. Lipid-laden macrophages, known as foam cells, accumulate in the subendothelial space of the lesion area and contribute to consolidate a chronic inflammatory environment where oxygen and nitrogen derived oxidants are released. Oxidatively modified lipids and proteins are present both in plasma as well as atherosclerotic lesions. A relevant oxidative posttranslational protein modification is the addition of a nitro group to the hydroxyphenyl ring of tyrosine residues, mediated by nitric oxide derived oxidants. Nitrotyrosine modified proteins were found in the lesion and also in plasma from atherosclerotic patients. Despite the fact of the low yield of nitration, immunogenic, proatherogenic, and prothrombotic properties acquired by 3-nitrotyrosine modified proteins are in agreement with epidemiological studies showing a significant correlation between the level of nitration found in plasma proteins and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, supporting the usefulness of this biomarker to predict the outcome and to take appropriate therapeutic decisions in atherosclerotic disease.

  9. Polyoxometalate-Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Yuichi; Yuasa, Makoto; Kawai, Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Polyoxometalates were immobilized on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) surface modified by a photochemical modification method. The BDD surface was first modified with allyltriethylammonium bromide (ATAB) to form surface quaternary ammonium groups. The ATAB-BDD was then immersed in a phosphomolybdic acid (H3PMo12O40, denoted as PMo12) solution to fabricate PMo12-adsorbed ATAB-BDD (PMo12-ATAB-BDD). The electrostatic interaction between PMo12 and the quaternary ammonium group on ATAB-BDD is considered to be critical to the stable immobilization. Polyoxometalate-modified BDD was also fabricated from phosphonic-acid-terminated BDD. BDD was first modified with vinylphosphonic acid (VPA), followed by the reaction of the surface phosphonic acid groups with ammonium molybdate to generate a lacunary phosphomolybdic acid (PMox) group. Although the coverage of the PMox group on PMox-BDD was less than that of PMo12-ATAB-BDD, PMox-BDD was found to be more stable to potential cycling than PMo12-ATAB-BDD, indicating that covalent modification methods are effective for creating stable functional groups on diamond.

  10. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  11. Focus group research.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Michael

    2015-05-13

    A focus group is usually understood as a group of people brought together by a researcher to interact as a group. Focus group research explicitly uses interaction as part of its methodology. This article summarises the practice of running focus groups, explores the nature of focus group data and provides an example of focus group analysis.

  12. Propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Zółtowski, R; Pawlak, R; Matys, T; Pietraszek, M; Buczko, W

    2002-06-01

    Though the mechanisms for the vascular actions of vasodilatory beta-blockers are mostly determined, some of their interactions with monoaminergic systems are not elucidated. Because there are evidences supporting a possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in the actions of beta-blockers, we studied the effect of propranolol on peripheral serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and Goldblatt two-kidney - one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. In both groups of animals propranolol decreased systolic blood pressure, significantly increased whole blood serotonin concentration and at the same time it decreased platelet serotonin level. The uptake of the amine by platelets from hypertensive animals was lower than that of normotensive animals and it was decreased by propranolol only in the latter. In both groups propranolol inhibited potentiation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by serotonin. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and renal hypertensive rats.

  13. Selection of DNA aptamers with two modified bases

    PubMed Central

    Gawande, Bharat N.; Rohloff, John C.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; von Carlowitz, Ira; Zhang, Chi; Schneider, Daniel J.; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2017-01-01

    The nucleobases comprising DNA and RNA aptamers provide considerably less chemical diversity than protein-based ligands, limiting their versatility. The introduction of novel functional groups at just one of the four bases in modified aptamers has recently led to dramatic improvement in the success rate of identifying nucleic acid ligands to protein targets. Here we explore the benefits of additional enhancement in physicochemical diversity by selecting modified DNA aptamers that contain amino-acid–like modifications on both pyrimidine bases. Using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 as a representative protein target, we identify specific pairwise combinations of modifications that result in higher affinity, metabolic stability, and inhibitory potency compared with aptamers with single modifications. Such doubly modified aptamers are also more likely to be encoded in shorter sequences and occupy nonoverlapping epitopes more frequently than aptamers with single modifications. These highly modified DNA aptamers have broad utility in research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. PMID:28265062

  14. Selection of DNA aptamers with two modified bases.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Bharat N; Rohloff, John C; Carter, Jeffrey D; von Carlowitz, Ira; Zhang, Chi; Schneider, Daniel J; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2017-03-14

    The nucleobases comprising DNA and RNA aptamers provide considerably less chemical diversity than protein-based ligands, limiting their versatility. The introduction of novel functional groups at just one of the four bases in modified aptamers has recently led to dramatic improvement in the success rate of identifying nucleic acid ligands to protein targets. Here we explore the benefits of additional enhancement in physicochemical diversity by selecting modified DNA aptamers that contain amino-acid-like modifications on both pyrimidine bases. Using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 as a representative protein target, we identify specific pairwise combinations of modifications that result in higher affinity, metabolic stability, and inhibitory potency compared with aptamers with single modifications. Such doubly modified aptamers are also more likely to be encoded in shorter sequences and occupy nonoverlapping epitopes more frequently than aptamers with single modifications. These highly modified DNA aptamers have broad utility in research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications.

  15. Model selection for modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N

    2011-12-28

    In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity.

  16. Stellar oscillations in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-12-01

    Starting from the equations of modified gravity hydrodynamics, we derive the equations of motion governing linear, adiabatic, radial perturbations of stars in scalar-tensor theories. There are two new features: first, the eigenvalue equation for the period of stellar oscillations is modified such that the eigenfrequencies are always larger than predicted by general relativity. Second, the general relativity condition for stellar instability is altered so that the adiabatic index can fall below 4/3 before unstable modes appear. Stars are more stable in modified gravity theories. Specializing to the case of chameleonlike theories, we investigate these effects numerically using both polytropic Lane-Emden stars and models coming from modified gravity stellar structure simulations. We find that the change in the oscillation period of Cepheid star models can be as large as 30% for order-one matter couplings and the change in the inferred distance using the period-luminosity relation can be up to three times larger than if one had only considered the modified equilibrium structure. We discuss the implications of these results for recent and upcoming astrophysical tests and estimate that previous methods can produce new constraints such that the modifications are screened in regions of Newtonian potential of O(10-8).

  17. Modeling covalent-modifier drugs.

    PubMed

    Awoonor-Williams, Ernest; Walsh, Andrew G; Rowley, Christopher N

    2017-05-18

    In this review, we present a summary of how computer modeling has been used in the development of covalent-modifier drugs. Covalent-modifier drugs bind by forming a chemical bond with their target. This covalent binding can improve the selectivity of the drug for a target with complementary reactivity and result in increased binding affinities due to the strength of the covalent bond formed. In some cases, this results in irreversible inhibition of the target, but some targeted covalent inhibitor (TCI) drugs bind covalently but reversibly. Computer modeling is widely used in drug discovery, but different computational methods must be used to model covalent modifiers because of the chemical bonds formed. Structural and bioinformatic analysis has identified sites of modification that could yield selectivity for a chosen target. Docking methods, which are used to rank binding poses of large sets of inhibitors, have been augmented to support the formation of protein-ligand bonds and are now capable of predicting the binding pose of covalent modifiers accurately. The pKa's of amino acids can be calculated in order to assess their reactivity towards electrophiles. QM/MM methods have been used to model the reaction mechanisms of covalent modification. The continued development of these tools will allow computation to aid in the development of new covalent-modifier drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Constructing Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents guidelines for constructing group learning activities, describes group learning methods (discussion, gaming, role play, simulation, projects), and provides tips for facilitating group activities. (SK)

  19. Rule groupings in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala; Johnson, Sally C.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, expert system shells do not address software engineering issues for developing or maintaining expert systems. As a result, large expert systems tend to be incomprehensible, difficult to debug or modify, and almost impossible to verify or validate Partitioning rule-based systems into rule groups which reflect the underlying subdomains of the problem should enhance the comprehensibility, maintainability, and reliability of expert-system software. In this paper, we investigate methods to semi-automatically structure a CLIPS rule base e into groups of rules that carry related information. We discuss three different distance metrics for measuring the relatedness of rules and describe two clustering algorithms based on these distance metrics. The results of our experiment with three sample rule bases are also presented.

  20. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  1. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  2. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  3. Autoimmunity and oxidatively modified autoantigens

    PubMed Central

    Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative damage mediated by reactive oxygen species results in the generation of deleterious by-products. The oxidation process itself and the proteins modified by these molecules are important mediators of cell toxicity and disease pathogenesis. Aldehydic products, mainly the 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, form adducts with proteins and make them highly immunogenic. Proteins modified in this manner have been shown to induce pathogenic antibodies in a variety of diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), alcoholic liver disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 8-oxodeoxyguanine (oxidatively modified DNA) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) occur in SLE, a disease in which premature atherosclerosis is a serious problem. In addition, immunization with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) modified 60 kD Ro autoantigen induces an accelerated epitope spreading in an animal model of SLE. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and AGE modified IgG have been shown to correlate with RA disease activity. Oxidatively modified glutamic acid decarboxylase is important in type 1 DM, while autoantibodies against oxidized LDL are prevalent in Behcet’s disease. The fragmentation of scleroderma specific autoantigens occurs as a result of oxidative modification and is thought to be responsible for the production of autoantibodies through the release of cryptic epitopes. The administration of antioxidants is a viable untried alternative for preventing or ameliorating autoimmune disease, particularly on account of the overwhelming evidence for the involvement of oxidative damage in autoimmunity. However, this should be viewed in the light of disappointing results obtained with the use of antioxidants in cardiovascular disease. PMID:18625446

  4. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  5. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindqvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 2 figs.

  6. The precursor strategy: terminus methoxyoxalamido modifiers for single and multiple functionalization of oligodeoxyribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Polushin, Nikolai N.

    2000-01-01

    Synthesis of new terminus modifiers, bearing, along with a phosphoramidite moiety, one, two or four methoxyoxalamido (MOX) precursor groups, is described. These modifiers are introduced onto the 5′-end of a synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide as the last step of an automated synthesis to form the MOX precursor oligonucleotide. The MOX groups are then post-synthetically derivatized with an appropriate primary amine to construct a 5′-modified oligonucleotide. The efficiency and simplicity of the novel modifying strategy were demonstrated in the synthesis of a number of 5′-functionalized oligonucleotides. PMID:10931928

  7. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) modified proteins in tears of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenjun; Liu, Jingfang; Shi, Bingyin; He, Shuixiang; Yao, Xiaoli; Willcox, Mark D P

    2010-08-11

    High glucose level in diabetic patients may lead to advanced glycation end product (AGE) modified proteins. This study investigated AGE modified proteins in tears and compared their levels in diabetic patients (DM) with non-diabetic controls (CTL). Basal tears were collected from DM with (DR) or without (DNR) retinopathy and CTL. Total AGE modified proteins were detected quantitatively by a dot immunobinding assay. The AGE modified proteins were separated in 1D- and 2D-SDS gels and detected by western-blotting. The individual AGE modified proteins were also compared between groups using densitometry. Compared with the CTL group, tear concentrations of AGE modified proteins were significantly elevated in DR and DNR groups. The concentration of AGE modified proteins in diabetic tears were positively correlated with AGE modified hemoglobin (HbA1c) and postprandial blood glucose level (PBG). Western blotting of AGE modified proteins from 1D-SDS gels showed several bands, the major one at around 60 kDa. The intensities of AGE modified protein bands were higher in DM tears than in CTL tears. Western blotting from 2D-SDS gels showed a strongly stained horizontal strip, which corresponded to the major band in 1D-SDS gels. Most of the other AGE modified protein species were within molecular weight of 30-60 kDa, PI 5.2-7.0. Densitometry analysis demonstrated several AGE modified proteins were elevated in DR or DNR tears. Total and some individual AGE modified proteins were elevated in DM tears. AGE modified proteins in tears may be used as biomarkers to diagnose diabetes and/or diabetic retinopathy.

  8. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) modified proteins in tears of diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingfang; Shi, Bingyin; He, Shuixiang; Yao, Xiaoli; Willcox, Mark D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose High glucose level in diabetic patients may lead to advanced glycation end product (AGE) modified proteins. This study investigated AGE modified proteins in tears and compared their levels in diabetic patients (DM) with non-diabetic controls (CTL). Methods Basal tears were collected from DM with (DR) or without (DNR) retinopathy and CTL. Total AGE modified proteins were detected quantitatively by a dot immunobinding assay. The AGE modified proteins were separated in 1D- and 2D-SDS gels and detected by western-blotting. The individual AGE modified proteins were also compared between groups using densitometry. Results Compared with the CTL group, tear concentrations of AGE modified proteins were significantly elevated in DR and DNR groups. The concentration of AGE modified proteins in diabetic tears were positively correlated with AGE modified hemoglobin (HbA1c) and postprandial blood glucose level (PBG). Western blotting of AGE modified proteins from 1D-SDS gels showed several bands, the major one at around 60 kDa. The intensities of AGE modified protein bands were higher in DM tears than in CTL tears. Western blotting from 2D-SDS gels showed a strongly stained horizontal strip, which corresponded to the major band in 1D-SDS gels. Most of the other AGE modified protein species were within molecular weight of 30–60 kDa, PI 5.2–7.0. Densitometry analysis demonstrated several AGE modified proteins were elevated in DR or DNR tears. Conclusions Total and some individual AGE modified proteins were elevated in DM tears. AGE modified proteins in tears may be used as biomarkers to diagnose diabetes and/or diabetic retinopathy. PMID:20806041

  9. The Plasma Assisted Modified Betatron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-27

    instability. This is a particular concern because it is now established that two other similar devices, HIPAC 16 and SPAC 1117 were disrupted by the ion... HIPAC or SPAC II. In the modified betatron, even if parameters are right for it, there is still a good chance that it will be stabilized by the

  10. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  11. Modifying Students' Tastes in Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, John Edward

    To test whether student tastes in poetry could be modified by a particular method of teaching it, the poetic preferences of 751 eighth grade students were pretested and compared with the poetic choices made by a panel of English educators, 35 student teachers in English, and the students' own English teachers. Consistently, poems selected by any…

  12. Modified Activated Carbon Perchlorate Sorbents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-25

    and Accomplishments .................................................................................................. 13 Synthesis of Modified...The most promising technology for perchlorate remediation is bioremediation by perchlorate reducing bacteria to destroy perchlorate under...perchlorate reducing bacteria . This is a “SEED-like” proposal aimed specifically at synthesizing GMACs and determining their suitability as perchlorate

  13. Highly Branched Polyethylenes as Lubricant Viscosity and Friction Modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, John T.; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylenes (BPE) were prepared and used in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The lubricating performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants’ performance, which provide scientific insights for polymer design in future lubricant development.

  14. Some Suggestions for Modifying the Incremental Influence of Organizational Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, S. Morton; Gavin, James F.

    1979-01-01

    Examines ways of modifying incremental influence. Results suggest that referent power can be altered by affecting the interpersonal attraction of group members. Implications for organizational intervention and practice are discussed, and some possible modifications to the theoretical framework of power are advanced. (Author)

  15. Computer-Based Screening for the New Modified Alternate Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    The final regulations of the "No Child Left Behind" Act (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a, 2007b) indicate that a small group of students with disabilities can be counted as proficient through an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards. This new policy gives individualized education program teams the…

  16. Modifying the Type A Coronary-Prone Behavior Pattern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenkron, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared three treatments for modifying Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern (TABP). Comprehensive behavior therapy (CBT), emphasizing self-control procedures, and group support (GS), encouraging change in TABP targets but without behavioral techniques, were contrasted to brief information (BI). Results with healthy male executives (N=38) showed…

  17. Ion binding capacity of enzyme modified citrus peel and pectin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A wide ranging group of enzyme modified pectin and polygalacturonic acid (PGA) samples were tested for their biosorption potential, specifically their ability to bind Pb. Two sample sets were the pH 4.5 and 7.5 demethylated series obtained from demethylation of a model homogalacturonan produced usi...

  18. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  19. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  20. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  1. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  2. Solid waste forecasting using modified ANFIS modeling.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; K N A, Maulud

    2015-10-01

    Solid waste prediction is crucial for sustainable solid waste management. Usually, accurate waste generation record is challenge in developing countries which complicates the modelling process. Solid waste generation is related to demographic, economic, and social factors. However, these factors are highly varied due to population and economy growths. The objective of this research is to determine the most influencing demographic and economic factors that affect solid waste generation using systematic approach, and then develop a model to forecast solid waste generation using a modified Adaptive Neural Inference System (MANFIS). The model evaluation was performed using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and the coefficient of determination (R²). The results show that the best input variables are people age groups 0-14, 15-64, and people above 65 years, and the best model structure is 3 triangular fuzzy membership functions and 27 fuzzy rules. The model has been validated using testing data and the resulted training RMSE, MAE and R² were 0.2678, 0.045 and 0.99, respectively, while for testing phase RMSE =3.986, MAE = 0.673 and R² = 0.98. To date, a few attempts have been made to predict the annual solid waste generation in developing countries. This paper presents modeling of annual solid waste generation using Modified ANFIS, it is a systematic approach to search for the most influencing factors and then modify the ANFIS structure to simplify the model. The proposed method can be used to forecast the waste generation in such developing countries where accurate reliable data is not always available. Moreover, annual solid waste prediction is essential for sustainable planning.

  3. Group Time: Building Language at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    This article features energizing and surprising activities for children at group time. In the drawing activity, children are asked to give instructions on how to draw a picture using vocabulary and descriptive language. In the mailbox activity, children will be surprised to discover that they have mail at group time. Mailboxes can be used for…

  4. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  5. Diffeomorphism groups, gauge groups, and quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, G.A.; Menikoff, R.; Sharp, D.H.

    1983-12-19

    Unitary representations of the infinite parameter group Diff(R/sup 3/) are presented which describe particles with spin as well as tightly bound composite particles. These results support the idea that Diff(R/sup 3/) can serve as a ''universal group'' for quantum theory.

  6. Development of effective modified cellulase for cellulose hydrolysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.W.; Kajiuchi, Toshio . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-02-20

    Cellulase was modified with amphilic copolymers made of [alpha]-allyl-[omega]-methoxy polyoxyalkylene (POA) and maleic acid anhydride (MAA) to improve the cellulose hydrolytic reactivity and cellulase separation. Amino groups of the cellulase molecule are covalently coupled with the MAA functional groups of the copolymer. At the maximum degree of modification (DM) of 55%, the modified cellulase activity retained more than 80% of the unmodified native cellulase activity. The modified cellulase shows greater stability against temperature, pH, and organic solvents, and demonstrated greater conversion of substrate than native cellulase does. Cellulase modification is also useful for controlling strong adsorption of cellulase onto substrate. Moreover, cellulase modified with the amphiphilic copolymer displays different separation characteristics which are new. One is a reactive two-phase partition and another is solubility in organic solvents. It appears that these characteristics of modified cellulase work very effectively in the hydrolysis of cellulose as a total system, which constitutes the purification of cellulase from culture broth, hydrolysis of cellulose, and recovery of cellulase from the reaction mixture.

  7. Can Groups Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Lotan, Rachel A.; Abram, Percy L.; Scarloss, Beth A.; Schultz, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the work of sixth grade students' creative problem-solving groups, proposing that providing students with specific guidelines about what makes an exemplary group product would improve the character of the discussion and quality of the group product. Student groups did learn as a result of their discussions and creation of group products.…

  8. Small Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  9. Small Groups in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suessmuth, Patrick

    1974-01-01

    Small groups can sometimes be difficult to set up and work with properly. A number of tips for small group instruction are divided into seven areas: (1) presenting tasks; (2) group seating; (3) task time; (4) answering questions; (5) teacher's role in observing groups; (6) group noise level patterns; and (7) serial take-ups. (BP)

  10. A modified bronchial anastomosis technique for lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Carsten; Scholl, Frank; Daon, Emmanuel; Goodwin, Andrea; Frist, William H; Roberts, John R; Christian, Karla G; Ninan, Mathew; Milstone, Aaron P; Loyd, James E; Merrill, Walter H; Pierson, Richard N

    2003-06-01

    Low rates of major complications have been reported for the intussuscepting bronchial anastomotic technique but stenosis, malacia, and granulation tissue at the anastomosis may cause clinically important morbidity. We hypothesized that a modification of the telescoping technique that improves bronchial wall apposition might be associated with improved bronchial healing and clinical outcomes. The telescoping horizontal mattress "U-stitch" suture technique was modified to incorporate figure-of-eight sutures placed in the cartilaginous wall between each of three intussuscepting U stitches. Serial videotape records of 152 individual anastomoses (99 modified, 53 telescoped) in 118 consecutive operative survivors were retrospectively reviewed by examiners blinded with respect to technique used. Stenosis, airway instability, mucosa quality, and devascularized luminal tissue were graded at 4 to 14 days (initial), 4 to 12 weeks (early), and 6 to 12 months (late) after transplantation. The incidence of anastomotic stenosis was significantly lower using the modified technique at the initial (p = 0.025) and late (p = 0.015) observations. In the initial phase airway instability (p = 0.015) and devascularization grades (p = 0.001) were also significant lower in the modified group. There were no significant differences in mucosal condition between techniques. The modified telescoping technique was associated with significant survival advantage (mean 17.7%; p = 0.029) by multivariate analysis. The incidence of major airway complications (dehiscences and stenoses required stents) tended to be lower (3% versus 6%) in the modified group. The modified telescoping bronchial anastomosis technique is associated with improved early and late bronchial healing and higher 5-year survival without increased major airway complications.

  11. Dietary zinc modifies diabetic-induced renal pathology in rats.

    PubMed

    Elsaed, Wael M; Mohamed, Hazem Abdelhamid

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate how far dietary zinc (Zn) modifies the histomorphological alterations induced by diabetes in rat kidneys. The animals were divided into negative control group (10 rats). Diabetes was induced in thirty animals by streptozotocin. After confirming diabetes, the animals were divided into three groups (n = 10). Group II served as the positive control group (fed on standard diet), group III was fed on Zn deficient diet, and group IV was fed on Zn supplemented diet. Caspase-3 immune staining was used to estimate the caspase activity. Stereological procedures were used to measure the quantity of the immune stain and the surface area of the Bowman's space. The renal cortices of group II rats revealed apparent widening of Bowman's spaces with few apoptotic figures. The filtration barrier showed thickening of the basement membrane. The proximal convoluted tubules showed patchy loss of the apical microvilli with swollen mitochondria. The distal convoluted tubules revealed area of irregular basal enfolding. The picture was aggravated by Zn deficiency in group III besides areas of cortical interstitial fibrosis. The histopathological alterations were minimal in the cortices of group IV. A significant increase of the Bowman's space surface area in group II and IV while decrease in group III compared with group I. The expression of Caspase-3 density was significantly increased in group II and III compared with group I while in group IV was non significant. In conclusion, dietary Zn modulated renal cortical changes caused by diabetes in rats.

  12. Severe pulmonary toxicity in patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin's disease treated with a modified bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and gemcitabine (BEACOPP) regimen is probably related to the combination of gemcitabine and bleomycin: a report of the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bredenfeld, Henning; Franklin, Jeremy; Nogova, Lucia; Josting, Andreas; Fries, S; Mailänder, Volker; Oertel, Joachim; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas

    2004-06-15

    To investigate a new effective, nonleukemogenic polychemotherapy regimen, BAGCOPP (bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, gemcitabine) in a phase I/II dose-escalation study in patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin' s disease (HD). Patients in clinical stages IIB with risk factors III and IV were enrolled in this nonrandomized, multicenter trial aimed at defining the maximum-tolerated dose of gemcitabine within a modified escalated BEACOPP regimen. Gemcitabine was given at a starting dose of 800 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 4 of each cycle. Twenty-seven patients (eight female, 19 male) were enrolled with a median age of 33 years (range, 19 to 65 years). Due to a higher than expected hematotoxicity, the day-4 application of gemcitabine was omitted after 14 patients were included and 59 cycles were given. A total of eight patients developed lung toxicity, mainly pneumonitis (six of eight), which led to the termination of the study. With a median follow-up of 27 months, 25 patients are in continuing complete remission. The substitution of etoposide by gemcitabine in the escalated BEACOPP schema is not feasible and leads to severe pulmonary toxicity. This toxicity is probably related to the concomittant application of gemcitabine and bleomycin.

  13. Genetic and environmental modifiers of Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Medici, Valentina; Weiss, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by remarkable variety in its phenotypic presentation. Patients with WD can present with hepatic, neurologic, and psychiatric symptoms combined in different and unpredictable ways. Importantly, no convincing phenotype-genotype correlation has ever been identified, opening the possibility that other genes, aside from ATPase copper-transporting beta (ATP7B), are involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. In addition, modifier genes, or genes that can affect the expression of other genes, may be involved. Clinical and basic science data indicate that environmental and dietary factors can potentially modify gene expression in WD and, consequently, its clinical presentation and course. In particular, previously studied genes include copper metabolism domain-containing 1 (COMMD1), antioxidant 1 copper chaperone (ATOX1), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), apolipoprotein E (APOE), hemochromatosis (HFE), and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Dietary factors include iron and methyl group donors which could affect methionine metabolism and epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation. Most of the work conducted in this field is in its initial stages but it has the potential to change the diagnosis and treatment of WD. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling RASopathies with Genetically Modified Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Guerra, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The RAS/MAPK signaling pathway plays key roles in development, cell survival and proliferation, as well as in cancer pathogenesis. Molecular genetic studies have identified a group of developmental syndromes, the RASopathies, caused by germ line mutations in this pathway. The syndromes included within this classification are neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly known as LEOPARD syndrome), Costello syndrome (CS), cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Legius syndrome (LS, NF1-like syndrome), capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM), and hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) type 1. Although these syndromes present specific molecular alterations, they are characterized by a large spectrum of functional and morphological abnormalities, which include heart defects, short stature, neurocognitive impairment, craniofacial malformations, and, in some cases, cancer predisposition. The development of genetically modified animals, such as mice (Mus musculus), flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and zebrafish (Danio rerio), has been instrumental in elucidating the molecular and cellular bases of these syndromes. Moreover, these models can also be used to determine tumor predisposition, the impact of different genetic backgrounds on the variable phenotypes found among the patients and to evaluate preventative and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review a wide range of genetically modified mouse models used in the study of RASopathies and the potential application of novel technologies, which hopefully will help us resolve open questions in the field.

  15. Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions OverviewWhat is group B strep?Group B streptococcus, or group B strep for short, is a ... can develop an infection of the lungs (called pneumonia), bloodstream (called sepsis), or the fluid around the ...

  16. Evaluation of modified nasal to oral endotracheal tube switch-For modified alar base cinching after maxillary orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Taj Nizam Shakeel; Meka, Sridhar; Ch, Pavan Kumar; Kolli, Naga Neelima Devi; Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; L, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue changes secondary to Maxillary orthognathic surgery are many fold. The alar flare is one among them, which affects the appearance of the patient. Cinch suture has been used to prevent alar flare; but the presence of anaesthetic tube hinders cinching. So, the study was aimed to assess an efficacy of modified nasal to oral tube switch technique for modified alar cinching to prevent alar flare after orthognathic and nasal corrective surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated in each group, who underwent modified alar base cinching with and without nasal to oral tube switch. Changes in alar base width, upper lip length was measured with Digital Vernier Caliper and nasolabial angle (Cotg-Sn-Ls) on lateral cephalogram at 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months after surgery. The time taken and ease of tube switch were noted. The data obtained were tabulated and interpreted using a test of significance. Study results showed no statistical significant difference in perinasal soft changes among both groups. But tube switch appears to be beneficial to prevent alar flare. Modified alar base cinching was performed effectively in patients with a modified tube switch technique. It increased positive results in comparison with non-shift. The technique of tube switch used is effective in prevention of alar flare. Because of small sample size and limited period of follow up, our study suggests multi centre, randomized studies to know the technical difficulties of tube switch for cinching and aesthetic results with varying anaesthetist and the surgeon's experience.

  17. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2017-04-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  18. Modified gravity inside astrophysical bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Ryo; Langlois, David; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Gleyzes, Jérôme E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr

    2015-06-01

    Many theories of modified gravity, including the well studied Horndeski models, are characterized by a screening mechanism that ensures that standard gravity is recovered near astrophysical bodies. In a recently introduced class of gravitational theories that goes beyond Horndeski, it has been found that new derivative interactions lead to a partial breaking of the Vainshtein screening mechanism inside any gravitational source, although not outside. We study the impact of this new type of deviation from standard gravity on the density profile of a spherically symmetric matter distribution, in the nonrelativistic limit. For simplicity, we consider a polytropic equation of state and derive the modifications to the standard Lane-Emden equations. We also show the existence of a universal upper bound on the amplitude of this type of modified gravity, independently of the details of the equation of state.

  19. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2016-12-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  20. The Toolbox for Modified Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Sergey A; Chudinov, Alexander V; Timofeev, Edward N

    2016-02-01

    Aptamers are nucleic acid-based scaffolds that can bind with high affinity to a variety of biological targets. Aptamers are identified from large DNA or RNA libraries through a process of directed molecular evolution (SELEX). Chemical modification of nucleic acids considerably increases the functional and structural diversity of aptamer libraries and substantially increases the affinity of the aptamers. Additionally, modified aptamers exhibit much greater resistance to biodegradation. The evolutionary selection of modified aptamers is conditioned by the possibility of the enzymatic synthesis and replication of non-natural nucleic acids. Wild-type or mutant polymerases and their non-natural nucleotide substrates that can support SELEX are highlighted in the present review. A focus is made on the efforts to find the most suitable type of nucleotide modifications and the engineering of new polymerases. Post-SELEX modification as a complementary method will be briefly considered as well.

  1. Generalized gravity from modified DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakatani, Yuho; Uehara, Shozo; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2017-04-01

    Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T -duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.

  2. Evaluation of Asphalt Binder Modifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    or SBS rubber described as an oil-extended polymer produced in pellet form. This type of rubber is available in other solid forms such as crumb or...is done to improve the performance characteristics of future pavements. Many research programs have been conducted on asphalt modifiers. Most of...tests were conducted during the second year of the study and resultant data were used to choose five materials to meet the test objectives of this

  3. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The third-difference approach to modified Allan variance (MVAR) leads to a tractable formula for a measure of MVAR estimator confidence, the equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), in the presence of power-law phase noise. The effect of estimation stride on edf is tabulated. A simple approximation for edf is given, and its errors are tabulated. A theorem allowing conservative estimates of edf in the presence of compound noise processes is given.

  4. Analysis of genetically modified oils.

    PubMed

    Hazebroek, J P

    2000-11-01

    Genetically modified oils with altered functional or nutritional characteristics are being introduced into the marketplace. A wide array of analytical techniques has been utilized to facilitate developing these oils. This article attempts to review the utilization of these analytical procedures for characterizing both the chemistry and some functionality of these oils. Although techniques to assess oxidative stability in frying and food applications are covered, measurement of nutritional characteristics are not.

  5. Comment on Modified Stokes Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D.M.; Utku, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is common practice in passive microwave remote sensing (microwave radiometry) to express observables as temperatures and in the case of polarimetric radiometry to use what are called "Modified Stokes Parameters in Brightness Temperature" to describe the scene. However, definitions with slightly different normalization (with and without division by bandwidth) have appeared in the literature. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an analysis to clarify the meaning of terms in the definition and resolve the question of the proper normalization.

  6. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers was initiated in an effort to identify common genetic variants that modify... GWAS of 1250 BRCA1 mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer and 1250 unaffected BRCA1 carriers using Human660W-Quad arrays. The 1250 unaffected...cancer on H uman660W-Quad arrays. In addition we acquired GWAS genotype data for 120 additional BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with ovarian

  7. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer...cancer and 1,000 age-matched unaffected BRCA1 carriers. As outlined in detail in our previous annual report, we recently conducted a GWAS of BRCA1...between ovarian cancer risk and SNPs implicated in Aim 1 by genotyping 1,500 BRCA1 ovarian cancer cases and 1,500 unaffected BRCA1 carriers. GWAS

  8. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-04-18

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  9. Using host response modifiers in the treatment of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Novak, M John; Donley, Timothy G

    2002-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the result of a complex interaction between microbial plaque, the host's inflammatory response to the plaque, and host modifying factors (e.g., smoking, diabetes, genetics) that may have an impact on the disease process. It is known that plaque initiates periodontal disease but that the host response is responsible for the destruction of periodontal tissues. This article describes why host response modifiers may be used to help control inflammation and tissue destruction as part of the initial phase of periodontal therapy in selected patient groups.

  10. Prone versus Modified Supine Position in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: a Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Yan; Yao, Yunming; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Qihui; Lu, Zhihua; Hu, Jinghai; Wang, Xiaoqing; Lu, Ji; Hao, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Fengming; Hou, Yuchuan; Wang, Chunxi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To perform a prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the prone and modified supine positions. Methods: Between August 2010 and August 2011, 102 patients with renal calculi and 20 patients with ureteral calculi were randomized to undergo fluoroscopy and ultrasound-guided PCNL procedures in the prone or modified supine position. Baseline characteristics, puncture position, numbers of punctures, operation time, stone free rate, loss of blood, hospital stay and second phase PCNL were compared in the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences in gender, age, body mass index, stone location, stone size and the presence of hydronephrosis between the two groups. The rate of second PCNL was significantly higher and the stone clearance rate was significantly lower in the modified supine than in the prone position group. Mean operation time was significantly lower in the prone than in the modified supine position group (78 min vs 88 min, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in rates of rib and calyx puncture, numbers of punctures, mean blood loss, and mean hospital stay between the two groups. Conclusions: Both the prone and modified supine positions are effective and safe for PCNL. Operation time was longer in the modified supine group, and patients undergoing PCNL in the modified supine position more frequently required a second operation due to a lower stone clearance rate. PMID:24046526

  11. Prone versus modified supine position in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Yan; Yao, Yunming; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Qihui; Lu, Zhihua; Hu, Jinghai; Wang, Xiaoqing; Lu, Ji; Hao, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Fengming; Hou, Yuchuan; Wang, Chunxi

    2013-01-01

    To perform a prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the prone and modified supine positions. Between August 2010 and August 2011, 102 patients with renal calculi and 20 patients with ureteral calculi were randomized to undergo fluoroscopy and ultrasound-guided PCNL procedures in the prone or modified supine position. Baseline characteristics, puncture position, numbers of punctures, operation time, stone free rate, loss of blood, hospital stay and second phase PCNL were compared in the two groups. There were no significant differences in gender, age, body mass index, stone location, stone size and the presence of hydronephrosis between the two groups. The rate of second PCNL was significantly higher and the stone clearance rate was significantly lower in the modified supine than in the prone position group. Mean operation time was significantly lower in the prone than in the modified supine position group (78 min vs 88 min, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in rates of rib and calyx puncture, numbers of punctures, mean blood loss, and mean hospital stay between the two groups. Both the prone and modified supine positions are effective and safe for PCNL. Operation time was longer in the modified supine group, and patients undergoing PCNL in the modified supine position more frequently required a second operation due to a lower stone clearance rate.

  12. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  13. N-Modified Carbon-Based Materials: Nanoscience for Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Prati, Laura; Chan-Thaw, Carine E; Campisi, Sebastiano; Villa, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Carbon-based materials constitute a large family of materials characterized by some peculiarities such as resistance to both acidic and basic environments, flexibility of structure, and surface chemical groups. Moreover, they can be deeply modified by simple organic reactions (acid-base or redox) to acquire different properties. In particular, the introduction of N-containing groups, achieved by post-treatments or during preparation of the material, enhances the basic properties. Moreover, it has been revealed that the position and chemical nature of the N-containing groups is important in determining the interaction with metal nanoparticles, and thus, their reactivity. The modified activity was addressed to a different metal dispersion. Moreover, experiments on catalysts, showing the same metal dispersion, demonstrated that the best results were obtained when N was embedded into the carbon structure and not very close to the metal active site.

  14. Modified Supraorbital Keyhole Approach to Anterior Circulation Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuhee; Yoo, Chan-Jong; Park, Cheol Wan; Kim, Myeong Jin; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Yeon Jun; Park, Kawngwoo

    2016-03-01

    To select a surgical approach for aneurysm clipping by comparing 2 approaches. 204 patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated by the same neurosurgeon at a single institution from November 2011 to October 2013, 109 underwent surgical clipping. Among these, 40 patients with Hunt and Hess or Fisher grades 2 or lower were selected. Patients were assigned to Group 1 (supraorbital keyhole approach) or Group 2 (modified supraorbital approach). The prognosis according to the difference between the two surgical approaches was retrospectively compared. Supraorbital keyhole approach (Group 1) was performed in 20 aneurysms (50%) and modified supraorbital approach (Group 2) was used in 20 aneurysms. Baseline characteristics of patients did not differ significantly between two groups. Total operative time (p = 0.226), early ambulation time (p = 0.755), length of hospital stay (p = 0.784), Glasgow Coma Scale at discharge (p = 0.325), and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores (p = 0.427) did not show statistically significant differences. The amount of intraoperative hemorrhage was significantly lower in the supraorbital keyhole approach (p < 0.05). The present series demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the two minimal invasive surgical techniques for clipping the intracranial aneurysms. The modified supraorbital keyhole approach was associated with more hemorrhage than the previous supraorbital keyhole approach, but did not exhibit differences in clinical results, and provided a better surgical view and convenience for surgeons in patients with Hunt and Hess or Fisher grades 2 or lower.

  15. Modified Supraorbital Keyhole Approach to Anterior Circulation Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuhee; Park, Cheol Wan; Kim, Myeong Jin; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Yeon Jun; Park, Kawngwoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To select a surgical approach for aneurysm clipping by comparing 2 approaches. Materials and Methods 204 patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated by the same neurosurgeon at a single institution from November 2011 to October 2013, 109 underwent surgical clipping. Among these, 40 patients with Hunt and Hess or Fisher grades 2 or lower were selected. Patients were assigned to Group 1 (supraorbital keyhole approach) or Group 2 (modified supraorbital approach). The prognosis according to the difference between the two surgical approaches was retrospectively compared. Results Supraorbital keyhole approach (Group 1) was performed in 20 aneurysms (50%) and modified supraorbital approach (Group 2) was used in 20 aneurysms. Baseline characteristics of patients did not differ significantly between two groups. Total operative time (p = 0.226), early ambulation time (p = 0.755), length of hospital stay (p = 0.784), Glasgow Coma Scale at discharge (p = 0.325), and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores (p = 0.427) did not show statistically significant differences. The amount of intraoperative hemorrhage was significantly lower in the supraorbital keyhole approach (p < 0.05). Conclusion The present series demonstrates the safety and feasibility of the two minimal invasive surgical techniques for clipping the intracranial aneurysms. The modified supraorbital keyhole approach was associated with more hemorrhage than the previous supraorbital keyhole approach, but did not exhibit differences in clinical results, and provided a better surgical view and convenience for surgeons in patients with Hunt and Hess or Fisher grades 2 or lower. PMID:27114960

  16. 2003 Agribusiness Group Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    contested political issue as the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms ( GMO ) dominates discussion in this critical...available documentation regarding scientific research, production methods, and GMO achievements demonstrate that there are no scientifically valid...concerns about GMO food safety. The US readily accepts and uses GMOs while nations of the European Union remain uncomfortable. In the near term

  17. Effects of rooting via out-groups on in-group topology in phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Margareta; Brown, Daniel G; Loker, David

    2014-01-01

    Users of phylogenetic methods require rooted trees, because the direction of time depends on the placement of the root. While phylogenetic trees are typically rooted by using an out-group, this mechanism is inappropriate when the addition of an out-group changes the in-group topology. We perform a formal analysis of phylogenetic algorithms under the inclusion of distant out-groups. It turns out that linkage-based algorithms (including UPGMA) and a class of bisecting methods do not modify the topology of the in-group when an out-group is included. By contrast, the popular neighbour joining algorithm fails this property in a strong sense: every data set can have its structure destroyed by some arbitrarily distant outlier. Furthermore, including multiple outliers can lead to an arbitrary topology on the in-group. The standard rooting approach that uses out-groups may be fundamentally unsuited for neighbour joining.

  18. The Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of group dynamics and leadership activities is a component of the CORE Standards for the Master's degree curriculum in Rehabilitation Counseling. A group experience is often included as a learning activity in rehabilitation counselor education curricula as an instructional method of imparting knowledge of group dynamics. Group experience…

  19. [Application of modified traction arch of skull in skull traction].

    PubMed

    Lei, Xing; Wang, Huan; Song, Yang; Qu, Yanlong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of the modified traction arch of skull (crossbar traction arch) for skull traction in treating cervical spine injury by comparing with traditional traction arch of skull. Between June 2009 and June 2013, 90 patients with cervical vertebrae fractures or dislocation were treated with modified skull traction surgery (trial group, n=45) and traditional skull traction surgery (control group, n=45). There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury types, injury level, the interval between injury and admission, and Frankel grading of spinal injury between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The clinical efficacy was evaluated after operation by the indexes such as traction arch slippage times, operation time, the infection incidence of the pin hole, incidence of skull perforation, visual analogue scale (VAS), and reduction status of cervical dislocation. The traction arch slippage times, the infection incidence of the pin hole, operation time, blood loss, and postoperative VAS score in trial group were significantly lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of skull perforation caused by clamp crooks of traction arch between 2 groups (P=1.000). At 2 weeks after operation, the patients had no headaches, infections, or other complications in 2 groups. In patients with cervical dislocation, 4 of the trial group and 6 of the control group failed to be reset, the reduction rate was 83.33% (20/24) and 68.42% (13/19) respectively, showing no significant difference (χ2=0.618, P=0.432). The operation with modified traction arch of skull has significant advantages to reduce postoperative complication compared with tradition traction arch of skull.

  20. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  1. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  2. Super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle modified mancozeb imprinted polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2017-05-01

    An electrochemical sensor for detection of mancozeb from soil and vegetable sample using molecularly imprinted star polymer modified with iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is described in this work. We have prepared SPIONS by hydrothermal method and modified with vinyl silane to introduce double bond at their surface. The vinyl group modified SPIONs were used to form mancozeb imprinted star polymer (ISP). The ISPs have specific recognition ability high adsorption capacity towards their template molecule and could be easily extracted from complex matrices using a simple magnet. The prepared polymer was well characterized by field emissive scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Under the optimum condition, the prepared sensor shows good response for mancozeb in the range of 5.96 to 222.39 µg L-1 (detection limit=0.98 µg L-1). The proposed sensors have highly selective for detection of mancozeb in soil and vegetable samples also.

  3. Evaluation of resin composites modified with nanogold and nanosilver.

    PubMed

    ŁSokołowski, Jerzy; Szynkowska, Małgorzata Iwona; Kleczewska, Joanna; Kowalski, Zygmunt; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sokołowski, Krzysztof; Łukomska-Szymańska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Silver and gold have been used for centuries as antimicrobial agents. The aim of the study was to investigate diametral tensile strength, microhardness, ion release and light transmission of experimental resin composites. Flowable dental composite SDR (Dentsply, United Kingdom) was modified by nanogold, nanosilver and silica addition. The metal ion release, light transmission study, microhardness, Diametral Tensile Strength were evaluated. The experimental nanosilver-containing composites released significant amounts of Al, Si, Sr and Ba ions up to 30 days, and negligible silver ion amounts. Significant Ag ion release occurred in nanosilver- and nanogoldmodified composite. Resin composites modified with nanogold and nanosilver deposited on silica carrier exhibit lower light transmission and have opaque appearance. All experimental composites exhibited higher microhardness in comparison to non-modified resin composites. Diametral Tensile Strength of the experimental composites was comparable to the control group.

  4. Peptide inhibitor modified magnetic particles for pepsin separation.

    PubMed

    Filuszová, Michaela; Kucerová, Zdenka; Tichá, Marie

    2009-06-01

    Synthetic heptapeptide containing D-amino acid residues (Val-D-Leu-Pro-Phe-Phe-Val-D-Leu) was coupled to glyoxal-activated magnetic agarose particles via the free peptide amino group. The peptide-modified magnetic particles were used for the separation of pepsins. Porcine pepsin A and human pepsin A were adsorbed to the magnetic peptide-modified affinity carrier, while the rat pepsin C and human pepsin C did not interact with the immobilized ligand. Conditions of pepsin adsorption to peptide-modified magnetic particles, as well as elution buffers were optimized. Porcine pepsin A did not interact with the immobilized peptide in the presence of pepsin inhibitor pepstatin A, indicating that the enzyme binding site is involved in the studied interaction. The elaborated method represents a rapid and simple technique not only for the separation of pepsins but also, in combination with MS, for the enzyme detection and determination.

  5. Surface hardness properties of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and polyacid-modified composite resins.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2004-11-15

    In this study the top and bottom surface hardness of two polyacid-modified composite resins (PMCRs), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and one composite resin were evaluated. The affect of water storage on their hardness was also investigated. The study was conducted using four different groups, each having five specimens obtained from fiberglass die molds with a diameter of 5 mm and a height of 2 mm. Measurements were made on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and recorded after 24 hours and again at 60 days. All tested materials showed different hardness values, and the values of top surfaces of the specimens were found to be higher than the bottom surface in all test groups. There was no statistical difference in the Vickers hardness (HV) values when the test specimens were kept in water storage. In conclusion Hytac displayed microhardness values higher than Vitremer and Dyract. We found the order of HV values to be Surfil > Hytac > Dyract > Vitremer, respectively. Vitremer presented the lowest microhardness level and Surfil the highest.

  6. BLASTO: a tool for searching orthologous groups

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Landweber, Laura F.

    2007-01-01

    We present BLAST on Orthologous groups (BLASTO), a modified BLAST tool for searching orthologous group data. It treats each orthologous group as a unit and outputs a ranked list of orthologous groups instead of single sequences. By filtering out redundancy and putative paralogs, sequence comparisons to orthologous groups, instead of to single sequences in the database, can improve both functional prediction and phylogenetic inference. BLASTO computes the significance score of each orthologous group based on the individual BLAST hits in the orthologous group, using the number of taxa in the group as an optional weight. This allows users to control the species diversity of the orthologous groups. BLASTO incorporates the best-known multispecies ortholog databases, including NCBI Clusters of Orthologous Group, NCBI euKaryotic Orthologous Group database, OrthoMCL, MultiParanoid and TIGR Eukaryotic Gene Orthologues database, and offers a useful platform to integrate orthology information into functional inference and evolutionary studies of individual sequences. BLASTO is accessible online at http://oxytricha.princeton.edu/BlastO. PMID:17483516

  7. Physicochemical studies on cetylammonium bromide and its modified (mono-, di-, and trihydroxyethylated) head group analogues. Their micellization characteristics in water and thermodynamic and structural aspects of water-in-oil microemulsions formed with them along with n-hexanol and isooctane.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Debolina; Chakraborty, Indranil; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Moulik, Satya P; Roy, Sangita; Das, Debapratim; Das, Prasanta K

    2006-06-15

    The micellization behavior of cetylammonium bromide and its mono-, di-, and trihydroxyethylated head group analogues and water/oil (w/o) microemulsion formation with them have been studied with detailed thermodynamic and structural considerations. The critical micellar concentration, micellar aggregation number, and behavior of the surfactants at the air/solution interface have been studied in detail. The results have been analyzed and discussed. The formation of the w/o microemulsion stabilized by the aforesaid surfactants in conjunction with the cosurfactant n-hexanol in isooctane has been investigated by the dilution method. The energetics of the transfer of cosurfactant from oil to the interface has been estimated. The structural parameters, namely, droplet dimension, droplet number, and population of surfactant and cosurfactant on the droplet surface, have also been estimated. The efficacy of the surfactants in respect to water dispersion in oil and cosurfactant concentration level at the oil/water interface has been worked out. Such microemulsions are prospective compartmentalized systems to assist enzyme activities. In this respect, the trihydroxyethylated head group analogue in the above series has been found to be a better performer for the preparation and stabilization of microemulsions that has correlated well with its performance than the others in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl-n-hexanoate by the enzyme Chromobacterium viscosum lipase.

  8. The influence of unstable modified wall squat exercises on the posture of female university students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonmi

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of unstable modified wall squat exercises on the posture of female university students. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 female university students who were equally and randomly allocated to an unstable modified wall squat exercises group the experimental group and a stable modified wall squat exercises group the control group. [Methods] Both groups performed their respective exercises for 30 minutes three times per week over a six-week period. Using BackMapper, trunk inclination, trunk imbalance, pelvic position, pelvic torsion, pelvic rotation, and position of the scapulae were evaluated. [Results] The unstable modified wall squat exercises group obtained significant results for trunk inclination, trunk imbalance, pelvic position, pelvic torsion, position of the scapulae, while the stable modified wall squat exercises group obtained significant results for trunk imbalance and pelvic position. [Conclusion] Unstable modified wall squat exercises may be applied as a method to correct the posture of average adults.

  9. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  10. The refractive group.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C

    1997-06-01

    Spherocylindrical optical elements can be decomposed into a sphere-equivalent component and two cross-cylinder components, oriented at 45 degrees to one another. These components in turn can be represented with a simple matrix formalism. This matrix formalism allows it to be seen that the components also form members of an eight element group, designated the refractive group. The structure of this group is developed including its algebra and its representation with Cayley diagrams. The group is identified as the eight element dihedral group, D4, and is compared to another well-known eight element group, the quaternion group. An example is given using the group formal algebra to develop the transfer equations for spherocylindrical wavefronts. Certain properties of propagating spherocylindrical wavefronts, such as nonrotation of cylinder axes, are seen to come directly as consequences of the group properties.

  11. Improved MCNP Memory Locality by Neutron Grouping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, Aaron

    This research presents new code for Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) to achieve an improved time during criticality calculations. Modifications implementing the grouping and sorting of neutrons takes advantage of memory locality by processing all neutrons in a group to achieve the temporal reuse of cross section data. This prevents unnecessary data lookups. Various groupings and their results are compared. The modified code utilizing neutron energy groups provided the best result of a 16.7% +/- 0.5% speedup for a criticality determination of a two slab tank experiment. This is a savings of 2 ½ hours for a system that normally takes approximately 15 ½ hours to execute. The code implemented was chosen to require minimal modifications to the MCNP program thus avoiding the need to rewrite a new version. Verification and validation is still needed in order to show that a speedup using neutron groups can be achieved in all cases.

  12. Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Miyasaki, Eriksen Koji; Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; Stroppa, Valter Luís Zuliani; de Oliveira, Glazieli Marangoni; Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter

    2015-07-01

    Crystallization of fats is a determinant physical event affecting the structure and properties of fat-based products. The stability of these processed foods is regulated by changes in the physical state of fats and alterations in their crystallization behavior. Problems like polymorphic transitions, oil migration, fat bloom development, slow crystallization and formation of crystalline aggregates stand out. The change of the crystallization behavior of lipid systems has been a strategic issue for the processing of foods, aiming at taylor made products, reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing the applicability and stability of different industrial fats. In this connection, advances in understanding the complex mechanisms that govern fat crystallization led to the development of strategies in order to modulate the conventional processes of fat structuration, based on the use of crystallization modifiers. Different components have been evaluated, such as specific triacyglycerols, partial glycerides (monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols), free fatty acids, phospholipids and emulsifiers. The knowledge and expertise on the influence of these specific additives or minor lipids on the crystallization behavior of fat systems represents a focus of current interest for the industrial processing of oils and fats. This article presents a comprehensive review on the use of crystallization modifiers in lipid systems, especially for palm oil, cocoa butter and general purpose fats, highlighting: i) the removal, addition or fractionation of minor lipids in fat bases; ii) the use of nucleating agents to modify the crystallization process; iii) control of crystallization in lipid bases by using emulsifiers. The addition of these components into lipid systems is discussed in relation to the phenomena of nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, thermal behavior and polymorphism, with the intention of providing the reader with a complete panorama of the associated mechanisms

  13. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  14. Cosmological tests of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  15. Enhancement of chromate reduction in soils by surface modified biochar.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sanchita; Sarkar, Binoy; Bolan, Nanthi; Ok, Yong Sik; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-01-15

    Chromium (Cr) is one of the common metals present in the soils and may have an extremely deleterious environmental impact depending on its redox state. Among two common forms, trivalent Cr(III) is less toxic than hexavalent Cr(VI) in soils. Carbon (C) based materials including biochar could be used to alleviate Cr toxicity through converting Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Incubation experiments were conducted to examine Cr(VI) reduction in different soils (Soil 1: pH 7.5 and Soil 2: pH 5.5) with three manures from poultry (PM), cow (CM) and sheep (SM), three respective manure-derived biochars (PM biochar (PM-BC), CM biochar (CM-BC) and SM biochar (SM-BC)) and two modified biochars (modified PM-BC (PM-BC-M) and modified SM-BC (SM-BC-M)). Modified biochar was synthesized by incorporating chitosan and zerovalent iron (ZVI) during pyrolysis. Among biochars, highest Cr(VI) reduction was observed with PM-BC application (5%; w/w) (up to 88.12 mg kg(-1); 45% reduction) in Soil 2 (pH 5.5). The modified biochars enhanced Cr(VI) reduction by 55% (SM-BC-M) compared to manure (29%, SM) and manure-derived biochars (40% reduction, SM-BC). Among the modified biochars, SM-BC-M showed a higher Cr(VI) reduction rate (55%) than PM-BC-M (48%) in Soil 2. Various oxygen-containing surface functional groups such as phenolic, carboxyl, carbonyl, etc. on biochar surface might act as a proton donor for Cr(VI) reduction and subsequent Cr(III) adsorption. This study underpins the immense potential of modified biochar in remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dark matter in modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuragawa, Taishi; Matsuzaki, Shinya

    2017-02-01

    We explore a new horizon of modified gravity from the viewpoint of particle physics. As a concrete example, we take the F (R ) gravity to raise a question: can a scalar particle ("scalaron") derived from the F (R ) gravity be a dark matter candidate? We place the limit on the parameter in a class of F (R ) gravity model from the constraint on the scalaron as a dark matter. The role of the screening mechanism and compatibility with the dark energy problem are addressed.

  17. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  18. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  19. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    A paper at the 1992 FCS showed how to express the modified Allan variance (mvar) in terms of the third difference of the cumulative sum of time residuals. Although this reformulated definition was presented merely as a computational trick for simplifying the calculation of mvar estimates, it has since turned out to be a powerful theoretical tool for deriving the statistical quality of those estimates in terms of their equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), defined for an estimator V by edf V = 2(EV)2/(var V). Confidence intervals for mvar can then be constructed from levels of the appropriate 2 distribution.

  20. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  1. A fluorene-modified porphyrin for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hua; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Shang-Hao; Wang, Chin-Li; Kuo, Hshin-Hui; Chu, Yang-Yun; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Lin, Ching-Yao

    2012-05-07

    Porphyrins bearing a polyaromatic or a heterocyclic group are prepared to study their fundamental and photovoltaic properties. Solar cells sensitized with a fluorene-modified porphyrin outperform other dyes in the series, reaching ~90% efficiency of N719 dye.

  2. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  3. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Modified Norway Post Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement... existing bilateral agreement for inbound competitive services with Posten Norge AS (Modified Norway...

  4. The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Passanisi, Alessia; Jonsson, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However…

  5. Removal of fluoride from aqueous environment by modified Amberlite resin.

    PubMed

    Solangi, Imam Bakhsh; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, M I

    2009-11-15

    Fluoride in drinking water above permissible level is responsible for human being affected by skeletal fluorosis. In this study, Amberlite XAD-4 has been modified by introducing amino group onto the aromatic ring for its application in fluoride remediation. Characterization of the modified resin was made by, FT-IR and elemental analysis (CHNS) techniques. The pH 9 was optimum value for quantitative sorption of fluoride in both batch and column experiments. The desorption of fluoride was achieved by using 10% HCl. The batch and column sorption studies of fluoride with modified resin were carried out to evaluate sorption isotherms too. Thus equation isotherms such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) were successfully used to model the experimental data. The sorption capacity of modified Amberlite XAD-4 resin was found as 5.04 x 10(-3) mol g(-1). From the D-R isotherm parameters, it has been evaluated that the uptake of fluoride by modified resin occurs through ion exchange adsorption mechanism. The study will contribute toward the removal of fluoride from the aqueous environment as well as in the field of analytical and environmental chemistry.

  6. Role of original and modified Frey's procedures in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chun-Lu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Min; Li, Shao-Jun; Liu, Xu-Bao; Li, Ke-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    AIM To retrospectively review patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) treated with Frey’s procedures between January 2009 and January 2014. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of patients with CP treated with Frey’s procedures between January 2009 and January 2014 in the Department of Pancreatic Surgery. A cross-sectional study of postoperative pain relief, quality of life (QoL), and alcohol and nicotine abuse was performed by clinical interview, letters and telephone interview in January 2016. QoL of patients was evaluated with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) version 3.0. The patients were requested to fill in the questionnaires by themselves via correspondence or clinical interview. RESULTS A total of 80 patients were enrolled for analysis, including 44 who underwent the original Frey’s procedure and 36 who underwent a modified Frey’s procedure. The mean age was 46 years in the original group and 48 years in the modified group. Thirty-five male patients (80%) were in the original group and 33 (92%) in the modified group. There were no differences in the operating time, blood loss, and postoperative morbidity and mortality between the two groups. The mean follow-up was 50.3 mo in the original group and 48.7 mo in the modified group. There were no differences in endocrine and exocrine function preservation between the two groups. The original Frey’s procedure resulted in significantly better pain relief, as shown by 5-year follow-up (P = 0.032), better emotional status (P = 0.047) and fewer fatigue symptoms (P = 0.028). When stratifying these patients by the M-ANNHEIM severity index, no impact was found on pain relief after the two types of surgery. CONCLUSION The original Frey’s procedure is as safe as the modified procedure, but the former yields better pain relief. The severity of CP does not affect postoperative pain relief. PMID:28058022

  7. Modified World Café Discussion Model for Conference and Course Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Alice; Fox, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    A group facilitation technique called World Café usually involves dividing a large number of people into smaller groups at tables, exploring a variety of topics around a key focus, and collecting ideas from the discussions to debrief later as a large group. We used a modified version of World Café during the new Cracker Barrel session format at…

  8. Modified Synthesis of Erlotinib Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Barghi, Leila; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Valizadeh, Hadi; Barar, Jaleh; Asgari, Davoud

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An improved and economical method has been described for the synthesis of erlotinib hydrochloride, as a useful drug in treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Method: Erlotinib hydrochloride was synthesized in seven steps starting from 3, 4-dihydroxy benzoic acid. In this study, we were able to modify one of the key steps which involved the reduction of the 6-nitrobenzoic acid derivative to 6-aminobenzoic acid derivative. An inexpensive reagent such as ammonium formate was used as an in situ hydrogen donor in the presence of palladium/charcoal (Pd/C) instead of hydrogen gas at high pressure. Result: This proposed method proceeded with 92% yield at room temperature. Synthesis of erlotinib was completed in 7 steps with overall yield of 44%. Conclusion: From the results obtained it can be concluded that the modified method eliminated the potential danger associated with the use of hydrogen gas in the presence of flammable catalysts. It should be mentioned that the catalyst was recovered after the reaction and could be used again. PMID:24312780

  9. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  10. A modified fluid percussion device.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, T; Murakami, N; Iwamoto, Y; Yoshino, E; Nakagawa, Y; Ueda, S; Horikawa, J; Tsujii, T

    1994-10-01

    This report examines a modified fluid percussion device with specific improvements made to address deficiencies found in previously reported devices. These improvements include the use of a cylindrical saline reservoir made of stainless steel, placement of the reservoir in a 15-degree head-up position for the easy release of air bubbles, placement of the fluid flushing outlet and the pressure transducer close to the piston on the same plane, with both perpendicular to the direction of the piston, and adjustable reservoir volume to vary the waveform of the pressure pulse, and a metallic central injury screw secured to the animal's skull over the exposed dura. Using this device, midline fluid percussion (MFP) and lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injuries were performed in 70 rats. Histopathologic findings included diffuse axonal injury in the MFP model and cortical contusion in the LFP model. Survival rate was 41.4% in MFP animals and 100% in LFM animals when the device settings were 178 mm3 of the cylindrical reservoir and 50 degrees-60 degrees in height of the pendulum. Our results suggest that this modified fluid percussion device may offer significant improvements over previously reported fluid percussion models for use in experimental head injury.

  11. Investigation of modified asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimich, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Currently the problem of improving the asphalt quality is very urgent. It is used primarily as topcoats exposed to the greatest relative to the other layers of the road, dynamic load - impact and shear. The number of cars on the road, the speed of their movement, as well as the traffic intensity increase day by day. We have to upgrade motor roads, which entails a huge cost. World experience shows that the issue is urgent not only in Russia, but also in many countries in Europe, USA and Asia. Thus, the subject of research is the resistance of asphalt concrete to water and its influence on the strength of the material at different temperatures, and resistance of pavement to deformation. It is appropriate to search for new modifiers for asphaltic binder and mineral additives for asphalt mix to form in complex the skeleton of the future asphalt concrete, resistant to atmospheric condensation, soil characteristics of the road construction area, as well as the growing road transport load. The important task of the work is searching special modifying additives for bitumen binder and asphalt mixture as a whole, which will improve the quality of highways, increasing the period between repairs. The methods described in the normative-technical documentation were used for the research. The conducted research allowed reducing the frequency of road maintenance for 7 years, increasing it from 17 to 25 years.

  12. The group selection controversy.

    PubMed

    Leigh, E G

    2010-01-01

    Many thought Darwinian natural selection could not explain altruism. This error led Wynne-Edwards to explain sustainable exploitation in animals by selection against overexploiting groups. Williams riposted that selection among groups rarely overrides within-group selection. Hamilton showed that altruism can evolve through kin selection. How strongly does group selection influence evolution? Following Price, Hamilton showed how levels of selection interact: group selection prevails if Hamilton's rule applies. Several showed that group selection drove some major evolutionary transitions. Following Hamilton's lead, Queller extended Hamilton's rule, replacing genealogical relatedness by the regression on an actor's genotypic altruism of interacting neighbours' phenotypic altruism. Price's theorem shows the generality of Hamilton's rule. All instances of group selection can be viewed as increasing inclusive fitness of autosomal genomes. Nonetheless, to grasp fully how cooperation and altruism evolve, most biologists need more concrete concepts like kin selection, group selection and selection among individuals for their common good.

  13. Focus Group Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    Time/Date: Unit: Session #: Focus Group Location: Number of Participants: Group Rank Makeup: Demographics (# by race, sex ): Use separate...Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  14. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  15. Working with Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes nine Canadian programs for counseling groups of students. Topics include introducing computer-assisted guidance, future challenges for counselors, sociometry, sexuality, parent counseling, reluctant students, shyness, peer groups, education for living, and guidance advisory committees. (JAC)

  16. What Makes Groups Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allcorn, Seth

    1985-01-01

    By reviewing this analysis of the behavior of both groups and individuals in groups, human resources managers can learn to tell whether committees, task forces, and departments may be encouraging or inhibiting the work they set out to do. (Author)

  17. Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.

  18. Modified expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty for treatment of children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ulualp, Seckin O

    2014-09-01

    Lateral pharyngeal wall collapse has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Modified expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty (ESP) is a simple procedure and can be considered in the surgical management of children with severe OSA. To describe a modified ESP addressing lateral pharyngeal muscle wall collapse in the treatment of children with OSA. Retrospective review of the medical records of children with OSA and lateral pharyngeal muscle wall collapse who underwent modified ESP and children who had tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (TA) for OSA between 2008 and 2013 at a tertiary care children's hospital. Modified ESP. The primary outcome measure was the rate of cure, which was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) lower than 1. Other outcomes were differences in preoperative and postoperative AHI, minimum saturation of peripheral oxygen, and percentage of total sleep study time with oxygen saturation less than 90%. Twenty-five children who had modified ESP and 25 AHI-matched children who had TA for severe OSA were identified. The postoperative AHI was lower than the preoperative AHI in both groups. Preoperative AHI was similar between modified ESP and TA groups. The mean (SD) postoperative AHI of the modified ESP group (2.4 [3.9]) was lower than that of the TA group (6.2 [6.0]) (P < .001). Cure rates for the modified ESP group (AHI <1, 64%; AHI <2, 72%; and AHI <5, 80%) were greater than those for the TA group (AHI <1, 8%; AHI <2, 44%; and AHI <5, 60%). Modified ESP provided objective clinical improvement of OSA in children with severe OSA and lateral pharyngeal wall collapse and might serve as an effective alternative to TA for treatment of OSA.

  19. Internet Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses newsgroups, listservs, and Web-based discussion groups. Highlights include major categories of international USENET discussion groups; newsgroups versus mailing lists; newsreaders; news servers; newsgroup subscriptions; newsgroups versus Web discussion groups; linking newsgroups, mailing lists, and the Web; and setting up a news host. A…

  20. Customizing Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; Oxman, Elaine

    The group therapy context provides unparalleled opportunities for cost effective learning. However, within group meetings, therapists must strive to tailor psychological services to address the particular needs of individual patients. Creative means of customizing patients experiences within group are needed in order to address consumer needs…

  1. Parent Group Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parenting for High Potential, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This issue's "Parent Group Spotlight" features Deborah Simon, president of West Sound Gifted, Talented & Twice-Exceptional (WSGT2e), who started a parent group in Washington in 2013. In just one year, this small, but mighty group has held community forums, attended school board meetings, and helped influence local gifted programming.…

  2. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused…

  3. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  4. Parent Group Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parenting for High Potential, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This issue's "Parent Group Spotlight" features Deborah Simon, president of West Sound Gifted, Talented & Twice-Exceptional (WSGT2e), who started a parent group in Washington in 2013. In just one year, this small, but mighty group has held community forums, attended school board meetings, and helped influence local gifted programming.…

  5. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused…

  6. Practice and Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although learning has always been a central topic for philosophy of education, little attention has been paid to the notion of group learning. This article outlines and discusses some plausible examples of group learning. Drawing on these examples, various principles and issues that surround the notion of group learning are identified and…

  7. Practice and Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although learning has always been a central topic for philosophy of education, little attention has been paid to the notion of group learning. This article outlines and discusses some plausible examples of group learning. Drawing on these examples, various principles and issues that surround the notion of group learning are identified and…

  8. CVD aluminiding process for producing a modified platinum aluminide bond coat for improved high temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaraj, Bangalore A. (Inventor); Williams, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of depositing by chemical vapor deposition a modified platinum aluminide diffusion coating onto a superalloy substrate comprising the steps of applying a layer of a platinum group metal to the superalloy substrate; passing an externally generated aluminum halide gas through an internal gas generator which is integral with a retort, the internal gas generator generating a modified halide gas; and co-depositing aluminum and modifier onto the superalloy substrate. In one form, the modified halide gas is hafnium chloride and the modifier is hafnium with the modified platinum aluminum bond coat comprising a single phase additive layer of platinum aluminide with at least about 0.5 percent hafnium by weight percent and about 1 to about 15 weight percent of hafnium in the boundary between a diffusion layer and the additive layer. The bond coat produced by this method is also claimed.

  9. Surface-modified bacterial nanofibrillar PHB scaffolds for bladder tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Karahaliloğlu, Zeynep; Demirbilek, Murat; Şam, Mesut; Sağlam, Necdet; Mızrak, Alpay Koray; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is in vitro investigation of the feasibility of surface-modified bacterial nanofibrous poly [(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) graft for bladder reconstruction. In this study, the surface of electrospun bacterial PHB was modified with PEG- or EDA via radio frequency glow discharge method. After plasma modification, contact angle of EDA-modified PHB scaffolds decreased from 110 ± 1.50 to 23 ± 0.5 degree. Interestingly, less calcium oxalate stone deposition was observed on modified PHB scaffolds compared to that of non-modified group. Results of this study show that surface-modified scaffolds not only inhibited calcium oxalate growth but also enhanced the uroepithelial cell viability and proliferation.

  10. Changing Group and Organizational Cultures To Support Healthy Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Group and organizational cultures play an important role in helping people to adopt healthier lifestyles. Culture can be assessed by looking at social expectations for behavior, called group norms. Cultural norms can be changed to support healthy lifestyles through a systematic and participatory process. Such a change effort would modify: (1)…

  11. Modified Dovetail-Plasty in Scar Revision

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Suk Joon; Yang, Jihoon; Kim, Seon Gyu; Jung, Sung Won; Koh, Sung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scar revision is one of the fundamental techniques in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Local flaps, such as a Z-plasty, W-plasty, or geometric broken-line closure, have been used for scar revision. Camouflaging a scar during scar revision for marginal scars from skin grafts and flaps, trapdoor scars, and linear scars is difficult. We describe our experience with the use of modified dovetail-plasty for scar revision in these difficult areas. Our study group consisted of 28 cases among 22 patients (9 males and 13 females) with a mean age of 33.6 years (range, 6–61 years). The conspicuous scars were located on the face (50%) and extremities (50%). The authors designed Y-shaped incision lines to relax the skin tension lines on one side of the excision line and trapezoid incision lines on the other side. There were 16 follow-up operations performed over 6 months after the initial operation among a total of 22 patients. There were scar depressions (2 patients) and a hypertrophic scar (1 patient) at the interval area between the dovetail flaps. A diffuse hypertrophic scar occurred in 1 patient with a dorsal foot scar. The overall success rates of the procedure as assessed by the surgeons were as follows: excellent (75%), good (12.4%), fair (6.3%), and poor (6.3%). This new local flap can achieve an inconspicuous scar using a blurred scar line and reducing tension. The authors recommend a modified dovetail-plasty for the revision of trapdoor scars and scars under excessive tension. PMID:24577307

  12. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  13. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  14. Work group diversity.

    PubMed

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C

    2007-01-01

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes.

  15. Spin line groups.

    PubMed

    Lazić, Nataša; Milivojević, Marko; Damnjanović, Milan

    2013-11-01

    Spin line groups describe the symmetries of spin arrangements in quasi-one-dimensional systems. These groups are derived for the first family of line groups. Among them, magnetic groups are singled out as a special case. Spin arrangements generated by the derived groups are first discussed for single-orbit systems and then the conclusions are extended to multi-orbit cases. The results are illustrated by the examples of a CuO2 zigzag chain, a (13)C nanotube and the hexaferrite Ba2Mg2Fe12O22. Applications to neutron diffraction and classical ground-state determination are indicated.

  16. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation by percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and modified PLDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiao fei; Li, Hong zhi; Wu, Ru zhou; Sui, Yun xian

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To study the micro-invasive operative method and to compare the effect of treatment of PLDD and modified PLDD for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Method: Vaporized part of the nucleus pulposus in single or multiple point after acupuncture into lumbar disc, to reach the purpose of the decompression of the lumbar disc. Result: Among the 19 cases of the regular PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 63.2%, and among the 40 cases of the modified PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: The modified PLDD has good effect on the treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  17. Insights into the electrocatalysis of nitrobenzene using chemically-modified carbon nanotube electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Yutao; Wang, Baoyan; Wang, Qinchao; Zhao, George; Guo, Peizhi

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of nitrobenzene and its derivatives at chemically-functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified electrodes was studied. Experimental results showed that hydroxyl-containing MWNTs exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity among the used MWNTs because of its weak capacitive features and oxygen-containing functional groups. The cycle voltammetrys of nitrobenzene derivatives on the MWNTs modified electrodes can be easily tuned by changing the substituted groups of nitrobenzene. Based on the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of nitrobenzene and its derivatives on the MWNTs modified electrodes have been discussed and analyzed. PMID:25204889

  18. Polythioether Particles Armored with Modifiable Graphene Oxide Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Bradley J; Mosher, Eric P; Burton, Spencer T; Matthews, Rachael; Pentzer, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Facile and scalable fabrication methods are attractive to prepare materials for diverse applications. Herein, a method is presented to prepare cross-linked polymeric nanoparticles with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets covalently attached to the surface. Alkene-modified GO serves as a surfactant in a miniemulsion polymerization, and the alkene functionalities of GO exposed to the oil-phase are incorporated into the polymer particle through thiol-ene reactions, leaving the unreacted alkene functional groups of the other face of GO available for further functionalization. The surface of GO-armored polymer particles is then modified with a small molecule fluorophore or carboxylic acid functional groups that bind to Fe2 O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. This methodology provides a facile route to preparing complex hybrid composite materials.

  19. Posttranslationally modified small-peptide signals in plants.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2014-01-01

    Cell-to-cell signaling is essential for many processes in plant growth and development, including coordination of cellular responses to developmental and environmental cues. Cumulative studies have demonstrated that peptide signaling plays a greater-than-anticipated role in such intercellular communication. Some peptides act as signals during plant growth and development, whereas others are involved in defense responses or symbiosis. Peptides secreted as signals often undergo posttranslational modification and proteolytic processing to generate smaller peptides composed of approximately 10 amino acid residues. Such posttranslationally modified small-peptide signals constitute one of the largest groups of secreted peptide signals in plants. The location of the modification group incorporated into the peptides by specific modification enzymes and the peptide chain length defined by the processing enzymes are critical for biological function and receptor interaction. This review covers 20 years of research into posttranslationally modified small-peptide signals in plants.

  20. The case for modifying adolescents' cognitive self-statements.

    PubMed

    Lamke, L K; Lujan, B M; Showalter, J M

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a cognitive-behavior modification program designed to change adolescents' self-statements and increase their levels of self-esteem. Subjects were 27 ninth graders, 18 in the experimental group and 9 in the no-contact control group. Students in the experimental group were given 14 hours of training designed to modify their self-statements to be more positive. Results indicated a significant increase in positive self-statements for the experimental group as compared with the control group immediately after training and three months following training. There were no significant changes in self-esteem. Discussion focused on the relative merits of the program and on the implications of the findings for future research.

  1. Multiplexed DNA-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Slinker, Jason D; Muren, Natalie B; Gorodetsky, Alon A; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2010-03-03

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with 4-fold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with high reproducibility, as confirmed by statistical comparison to commercially available rod electrodes. The working electrode areas on the chips were reduced to 10 microm in diameter, revealing microelectrode behavior that is beneficial for high sensitivity and rapid kinetic analysis. These results illustrate how DME chips facilitate sensitive and selective detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets in a robust and internally standardized multiplexed format.

  2. Multiplexed DNA-Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Slinker, Jason D.; Muren, Natalie B.; Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with fourfold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with high reproducibility, as confirmed by statistical comparison to commercially available rod electrodes. The working electrode areas on the chips were reduced to 10 µm in diameter, revealing microelectrode behavior that is beneficial for high sensitivity and rapid kinetic analysis. These results illustrate how DME chips facilitate sensitive and selective detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets in a robust and internally standardized multiplexed format. PMID:20131780

  3. Dark energy versus modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Martin; Sapone, Domenico

    2007-03-23

    There is now strong observational evidence that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. The standard explanation invokes an unknown "dark energy" component. But such scenarios are faced with serious theoretical problems, which has led to increased interest in models where instead general relativity is modified in a way that leads to the observed accelerated expansion. The question then arises whether the two scenarios can be distinguished. Here we show that this may not be so easy, demonstrating explicitly that a generalized dark energy model can match the growth rate of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model and reproduce the 3+1 dimensional metric perturbations. Cosmological observations are then unable to distinguish the two cases.

  4. Method of modifying a surface

    DOEpatents

    Renk, Timothy J.; Sorensen, Neil R.; Senft, Donna Cowell; Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G.; Thompson, Michael O.; Grabowski, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

  5. Time reversal for modified oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero-Soto, R.; Suslov, S. K.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a new completely integrable case of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in ®n with variable coefficients for a modified oscillator that is dual (with respect to time reversal) to a model of the quantum oscillator. We find a second pair of dual Hamiltonians in the momentum representation. The examples considered show that in mathematical physics and quantum mechanics, a change in the time direction may require a total change of the system dynamics to return the system to its original quantum state. We obtain particular solutions of the corresponding nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We also consider a Hamiltonian structure of the classical integrable problem and its quantization.

  6. Chern-Simons Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiou, P.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation will be based on my, undergraduate, thesis at Aristotle University of Thessoliniki with the same subject, supervised by Professor Demetrios Papadopoulos. I will first present the general mathematical formulation of the Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, which is split in a dynamical and a non-dynamical context, and the different physical theories which suggest this modification. Then proceed by examing the possibility that the CS theory shares solutions with General Relativity in both contexts. In the non-dynamical context I will present a new, undocumented solution as well as all the other possible solutions found to date. I will conclude by arguing that General Relativity and CS Theory share any solutions in the dynamical context.

  7. Modifying gravity at low redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Shaw, Douglas E-mail: c.vandebruck@sheffield.ac.uk E-mail: d.shaw@qmul.ac.uk

    2010-04-01

    We consider the growth of cosmological perturbations in modified gravity models where a scalar field mediates a non-universal Yukawa force between different matter species. The growth of the density contrast is altered for scales below the Compton wave-length of the scalar field. As the universe expands, the Compton wave-length varies in time in such a way that scales which were outside the range of the scalar field force may feel it at a lower redshift. In this case, both the exponent γ measuring the growth of Cold Dark Matter perturbations and the slip function representing the ratio of the two Newtonian potentials ψ and φ may differ from their values in General Relativity at low redshift.

  8. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Baskes, M.I.

    1994-08-01

    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideally suited for examining the interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how the parameters of the MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examines the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show non-uniform deformation of the fiber.

  9. Highly branched polyethylenes as lubricant viscosity and friction modifiers

    DOE PAGES

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; ...

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylene (BPE) were prepared and evaluated in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants' performance with respect to viscosity index and friction reduction. In conclusion, this study provides scientific insights into polymer design for future lubricant development activities.

  10. Highly branched polyethylenes as lubricant viscosity and friction modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, J. Timothy; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylene (BPE) were prepared and evaluated in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants' performance with respect to viscosity index and friction reduction. In conclusion, this study provides scientific insights into polymer design for future lubricant development activities.

  11. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  12. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

  13. SUMMARY OF 2009 RHEOLOGY MODIFIER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.

    2009-12-08

    The overall objective of the EM-31 Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents program is to utilize commercially available rheology modifiers to increase the solids fraction of radioactive sludge based waste streams, resulting in an increase in throughput and decreasing the overall processing time. The program first investigates the impact of rheology modifiers on slurry simulants and then utilizes the most effective rheology modifiers on radioactive slurries. The work presented in this document covers the initial investigation of rheology modifier testing with simulants. This task is supported by both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The SRNL EM-31 task, for this year, was to investigate the use of rheology modifiers on simulant Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feeds. The task is to determine, based on the impact of the rheology modifier, if there are rheology modifiers that could reduce the water content of the slurry going to the DWPF melter, hence increasing the melt rate by decreasing the water loading. The rheology modifier in essence would allow a higher solids content slurry to have the same type of rheology or pumpability of a lower solids slurry. The modifiers selected in this report were determined based on previous modifiers used in high level waste melter feed simulants, on-going testing performed by counterparts at PNNL, and experiences gain through use of modifiers in other Department of Energy (DOE) processes such as grout processing. There were 12 rheology modifiers selected for testing, covering both organic and inorganic types and they were tested at four different concentrations for a given melter feed. Five different DWPF melter feeds were available and there was adequate material in one of the melter feeds to increase the solids concentration, resulting in a total of six simulants for testing. The mass of melter feed available in each simulant was not adequate for

  14. Immersive group-to-group telepresence.

    PubMed

    Beck, Stephan; Kunert, André; Kulik, Alexander; Froehlich, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel immersive telepresence system that allows distributed groups of users to meet in a shared virtual 3D world. Our approach is based on two coupled projection-based multi-user setups, each providing multiple users with perspectively correct stereoscopic images. At each site the users and their local interaction space are continuously captured using a cluster of registered depth and color cameras. The captured 3D information is transferred to the respective other location, where the remote participants are virtually reconstructed. We explore the use of these virtual user representations in various interaction scenarios in which local and remote users are face-to-face, side-by-side or decoupled. Initial experiments with distributed user groups indicate the mutual understanding of pointing and tracing gestures independent of whether they were performed by local or remote participants. Our users were excited about the new possibilities of jointly exploring a virtual city, where they relied on a world-in-miniature metaphor for mutual awareness of their respective locations.

  15. Modified totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Is it an effective and safe treatment option for renal and upper ureteral stones?

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Seok; Jung, Seung Il; Yu, Ho Song; Hwang, Eu Chang; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that modified totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) without indwelling ureteral stent would minimize postoperative discomfort without complications. To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and morbidity of standard, tubeless, and modified totally tubeless PNL as well as the usefulness of modified totally tubeless PNL. From November 2011 to February 2015, 211 patients who underwent PNL consecutively were enrolled in this study and divided into 3 groups (group 1: standard, group 2: tubeless, group 3: modified totally tubeless PNL). Patient and stone characteristics, operation time, hemoglobin change, length of hospitalization, stone-free rate, analgesic requirement, and perioperative complications were analyzed and compared among the 3 groups. There were no significant differences in preoperative patient characteristics among the three groups. In the postoperative analysis, the three groups had similar operation time, stone-free rate, perioperative fever and transfusion rate, but group 2 showed superior results in terms of length of hospitalization (p = 0.001). Group 2 and group 3 had a lower analgesic requirement (p = 0.010). Immediate postoperative hemoglobin change (p = 0.001) and tube site complications (p = 0.001) were more common in group 1. Modified totally tubeless PNL was not inferior in terms of postoperative outcomes and safety compared with the standard and tubeless PNL, and avoided the postoperative stent-related symptoms and cystoscopy for double-J stent removal. Modified totally tubeless PNL could be an alternative treatment of choice for management of renal or upper ureteral stones in selected patients.

  16. Practical tips for modified dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Norio; Oboshi, Kenji; Sasaki, Naoki; Yamada, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    Segmental dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia has been considered difficult to perform. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not it is difficult for beginners to learn how to do modified dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia of cattle. Thirty cattle were divided into two groups, young (n = 8) and adult (n = 22), according to their age and body weight, and 0.12% new methylene blue (NMB) was injected into the first interlumbar (L1-L2) epidural space by four fifth-year veterinary school students who had never performed this method. After a 1 hour lecture on the modified dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia procedure which included basic anatomy and skills, each student successfully performed the procedure. In the young group, the NMB solution was distributed between the periosteum and the epidural fat (BPF) in one half and between the epidural fat and the dura mater (BFD) in the other half of the cattle. In about 60% (13/22) of the adult group, the NMB solution distributed as BFD type. This study showed that the modified dorsolumbar epidural anesthesia procedure is easy for beginners to perform if they overcome their fear about the deeper insertion of the epidural needle with basic anatomical knowledge and a little experience. PMID:16434853

  17. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  18. Big Sunspot Group

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-26

    A large group of sunspots that rotated across the Sun over six days (Aug. 21-26, 2015) started out as a single cluster, but gradually separated into distinct groups. This region produced several M-class (medium-sized) flares. These were the only significant spots on the Sun during this period. The still image shows the separated group as it appeared on Aug. 26., 2015. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19876

  19. What's your group worth?

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M R

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of acquisitions and mergers of healthcare organizations, it has become necessary for medical group practices to know what they are worth. The traditional balance sheet valuation ignores what is perhaps the most important consideration of all: a group's earning potential. Discussed in this article are the many facets of the complex valuation process, including both tangible and intangible assets, and the author provides a method for adequately determining a range of values for a medical group.

  20. E-Group Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Group E at Uaxactún has long been considered an ancient Maya observatory in which an observer could see the sun rise along architectural alignments at the solstices and equinoxes. E-Groups named for the architectural complex list identified in Group E at Uaxactún, typically consist of a large radial pyramid on their west side and three temples on a raised platform on their east side.

  1. Discovering body site and severity modifiers in clinical texts.

    PubMed

    Dligach, Dmitriy; Bethard, Steven; Becker, Lee; Miller, Timothy; Savova, Guergana K

    2014-01-01

    To research computational methods for discovering body site and severity modifiers in clinical texts. We cast the task of discovering body site and severity modifiers as a relation extraction problem in the context of a supervised machine learning framework. We utilize rich linguistic features to represent the pairs of relation arguments and delegate the decision about the nature of the relationship between them to a support vector machine model. We evaluate our models using two corpora that annotate body site and severity modifiers. We also compare the model performance to a number of rule-based baselines. We conduct cross-domain portability experiments. In addition, we carry out feature ablation experiments to determine the contribution of various feature groups. Finally, we perform error analysis and report the sources of errors. The performance of our method for discovering body site modifiers achieves F1 of 0.740-0.908 and our method for discovering severity modifiers achieves F1 of 0.905-0.929. Results indicate that both methods perform well on both in-domain and out-domain data, approaching the performance of human annotators. The most salient features are token and named entity features, although syntactic dependency features also contribute to the overall performance. The dominant sources of errors are infrequent patterns in the data and inability of the system to discern deeper semantic structures. We investigated computational methods for discovering body site and severity modifiers in clinical texts. Our best system is released open source as part of the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES).

  2. EXPERIMENTS IN GROUP PREDICTION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GROUP DYNAMICS, *ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY)), (*PREDICTIONS, ACCURACY), PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION MAKING, CONFORMITY , QUESTIONNAIRES, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, FEEDBACK, RELIABILITY, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

  3. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  4. Modified-PCNL without modified instruments: a description of technique.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Michael J; Shapiro, Edan Y; Cha, Doh Yoon; Gupta, Mantu

    2013-06-01

    Mini-PCNL was developed to reduce the morbidity of PCNL by using smaller tract sizes. Most mini-techniques, however, require specialized instruments and use ureteroscopes as surrogates for nephroscopes, resulting in decreased visualization, poor irrigation, and difficult fragment extraction. We describe our modified technique (mPCNL) that allows for the use of standard PCNL equipment through a tract that is smaller than standard PCNL (sPCNL) but larger than previously reported for mini-PCNL. After ureteral access with a coaxial anti-retropulsion device, the patient is placed in the prone position. After percutaneous access under fluoroscopic guidance, a 24F balloon dilating catheter is used to place a 24F Amplatz sheath. A standard 26F rigid nephroscope is used to complete the entire procedure, with the modification of selectively removing the outer sheath to allow the scope to fit in the smaller tract. Standard lithotripters and graspers are used, as necessary. ROLE IN PRACTICE: We have performed this technique on 52 patients with a mean stone burden of 19.4 mm. Overall stone-free rate was 100%, even for stones >2 cm. This technique allows for improved visualization and irrigation compared with other mini-PCNL procedures and obviates the need to purchase specialized equipment.

  5. Modified method of surface plasmons in metal superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xuan-Zhang

    2015-05-01

    We present a modified method to solve the surface plasmons (SPs) of semi-infinite metal/dielectric superlattices and predicted new SP modes in physics. We find that four dispersion-equation sets and all possible SP modes are determined by them. Our analysis and numerical calculations indicate that besides the SP mode obtained in the original theory, the other two SP modes are predicted, which have either a positive group velocity or a negative group velocity. We also point out the possible defect in the previous theoretical method in accordance to the linear algebra principle. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11074061).

  6. The effect of modified cervical exercise on smartphone users with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong-Soo; Kim, Yu-Mi; Shim, Je-Myung

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of modified cervical exercise and determine whether such exercise improves the range of motion of the cervical movement in smartphone users with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Some 32 subjects with forward head posture participated in this study. They were randomly allocated to three groups, and the modified cervical exercises were performed either once, twice, or three times per day. The exercise program was followed for four weeks and then the joint range of motion of the participants was measured. [Results] A significantly increased range of motion was seen in all three groups that performed the modified cervical exercises. The analysis of the effects among the three groups indicated that the greatest effect was seen in Group C, members of which performed the modified exercises three times per day. In addition, a significant difference was found between Group A and Group C in terms of the inter-group results. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, although the modified cervical exercises were performed for only a relatively short duration (four weeks), the exercises brought about an improvement in the forward head posture that was induced by using a smartphone.

  7. The effect of modified cervical exercise on smartphone users with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong- Soo; Kim, Yu- Mi; Shim, Je-myung

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of modified cervical exercise and determine whether such exercise improves the range of motion of the cervical movement in smartphone users with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Some 32 subjects with forward head posture participated in this study. They were randomly allocated to three groups, and the modified cervical exercises were performed either once, twice, or three times per day. The exercise program was followed for four weeks and then the joint range of motion of the participants was measured. [Results] A significantly increased range of motion was seen in all three groups that performed the modified cervical exercises. The analysis of the effects among the three groups indicated that the greatest effect was seen in Group C, members of which performed the modified exercises three times per day. In addition, a significant difference was found between Group A and Group C in terms of the inter-group results. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, although the modified cervical exercises were performed for only a relatively short duration (four weeks), the exercises brought about an improvement in the forward head posture that was induced by using a smartphone. PMID:28265167

  8. Bouncing universe with modified dispersion relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, employing the modified dispersion relation, we have derived the general modified Friedmann equations and the corresponding modified entropy relations for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe. In this setup, we find that when the big bounce happens, its energy scale and its corresponding modified entropy behavior are sensitive to the value of k. In contrast to the previous work with k=0, our work mainly demonstrates that the bouncing behavior for the closed Universe with k=1 appears at the normal energy limit of the modified dispersion relation introduced, and when bouncing phenomenon is in presence, its modified entropy is just equal to zero. Surprisingly, when k=-1, the bouncing behavior is in absence.

  9. Learning Through Group Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottaway, A.K.C.

    This book recounts experiments with small groups of social workers and teachers who came together in order to improve their understanding of human relations and personality development. The technique employed can be called non-directive tutoring, and is a type of group-centered discussion. The role of the leader is to clarify and interpret what is…

  10. Group Work with Widows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Andre; Toth, Susan

    1980-01-01

    Describes a group therapy program for recently widowed females, whose purpose was to allow individuals to share with each other the meaning of widowhood. A sense of group identity evolved which helped the women develop insight and courage to deal effectively with their situation. (Author/HLM)

  11. Physically detached 'compact groups'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A small fraction of galaxies appear to reside in dense compact groups, whose inferred crossing times are much shorter than a Hubble time. These short crossing times have led to considerable disagreement among researchers attempting to deduce the dynamical state of these systems. In this paper, we suggest that many of the observed groups are not physically bound but are chance projections of galaxies well separated along the line of sight. Unlike earlier similar proposals, ours does not require that the galaxies in the compact group be members of a more diffuse, but physically bound entity. The probability of physically separated galaxies projecting into an apparent compact group is nonnegligible if most galaxies are distributed in thin filaments. We illustrate this general point with a specific example: a simulation of a cold dark matter universe, in which hydrodynamic effects are included to identify galaxies. The simulated galaxy distribution is filamentary and end-on views of these filaments produce apparent galaxy associations that have sizes and velocity dispersions similar to those of observed compact groups. The frequency of such projections is sufficient, in principle, to explain the observed space density of groups in the Hickson catalog. We discuss the implications of our proposal for the formation and evolution of groups and elliptical galaxies. The proposal can be tested by using redshift-independent distance estimators to measure the line-of-sight spatial extent of nearby compact groups.

  12. Democratic Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  13. User Working Group Members

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    User Working Group Members   Mail for the entire group may be directed to:  larc-asdc-uwg@lists.nasa.gov   Member Status Affiliation E-mail Contact Bob Holz (Co-Chair in 2010) Co-Chair University of ...

  14. Grouping for Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…

  15. Grouping for Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…

  16. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  17. Beam dynamics group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the activities of the beam dynamics working group of the LHC Collective Effects Workshop that was held in Montreux in 1994. It reviews the presentations that were made to the group, the discussions that ensued, and the consensuses that evolved.

  18. GROUP VERSUS INDIVIDUAL MEASURES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRISMEN, DONALD A.

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT INFORMATION LOSS IN CURRICULUM EVALUATION IS RELATED TO THE ASSUMPTION THAT GROUP MEASURES AND AVERAGES OF INDIVIDUAL MEASURES ARE INTERCHANGEABLE IN YIELDING IDENTICAL INFORMATION. TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL MEASURES ARE LISTED. THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES ONE OF THESE TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS, SPECIFICALLY,…

  19. Major Environmental Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleishman, Terry

    1978-01-01

    The development and present activities of nine environmental groups are discussed. Groups included are the National Audubon Society, Sierra Club, American Forestry Association, National Parks and Conservation Association, Wilderness Society, Izaak Walton League, National Wildlife Federation, Friends of the Earth, and Defenders of Wildlife. (MR)

  20. Topologies on Abelian Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyuk, E. G.; Protasov, I. V.

    1991-04-01

    A filter phi on an abelian group G is called a T-filter if there exists a Hausdorff group topology under which phi converges to zero. G{phi} will denote the group G with the largest topology among those making phi converge to zero. This method of defining a group topology is completely equivalent to the definition of an abstract group by defining relations. We shall obtain characterizations of T-filters and of T-sequences; among these, we shall pay particular attention to T-sequences on the integers. The method of T-sequences will be used to construct a series of counterexamples for several open problems in topological algebra. For instance there exists, on every infinite abelian group, a topology distinguishing between sequentiality and the Fréchet-Urysohn property (this solves a problem posed by V.I. Malykhin) we also find a topology on the group of integers admitting no nontrivial continuous character, thus solving a problem of Nienhuys. We show also that on every infinite abelian group there exists a free ultrafilter which is not a T-ultrafilter.

  1. Democratic Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  2. Reading Groups: Problems, Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Jim

    The practice of grouping children of similar ability for reading instruction is as much a part of the classroom as the chalkboard, yet for decades research into classroom practice has raised serious questions about ability grouping. A research project using the meta-analysis approach to analyze more than 50 research studies concluded that ability…

  3. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  4. Photolytic insertion of albumin on activated carbon modified with ozone.

    PubMed

    Peralta Muniz Moreira, Regina de Fátima; Humeres, Eduardo; Berger, Carolina; Isabel Fernández, M; Santaballa, J A; Canle, Moisés

    2017-09-01

    254nm photolyses of bovine serum albumin [BSA] in aqueous solutions, were carried out in the presence of activated carbons modified by reaction with ozone. The photolyses were monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV spectrophotometry, and the products were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, TGA, total organic carbon analyses [TOC], and XPS. The ozonation reaction was carried out at room temperature with O3 under dry and wet conditions. The carbon characterization showed that the reaction increased the amount of epoxide and carbonyl groups on the carbon matrix. The activated carbon modified with dry O3 exhibited higher concentration of oxidized groups in its surface, smaller surface area and lower thermal stability. Characterization of the photolysis of ozonized carbons pointed to a small release of carbon organic groups during the reaction with elimination of epoxide groups and increase of carbonyl groups without change of thermal stability. Photolysis of BSA in aqueous solution occurred with fluorescence quenching due to changes of the local microenvironment and/or macromolecular conformational changes. Absorbance increase of the UV spectrum indicated a hyperchromic effect due to albumin structure modifications during photolysis. TGA analysis of the photolysed activated carbons in the presence of BSA suggested that ozonized carbon samples underwent insertion of BSA upon photolysis, in particular the sample ozonized under dry conditions. The changes observed for the FTIR and elemental analysis agreed with this conclusion, which was further supported by (13)C SS-NMR, fluorescence emission and XPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceiving persons and groups.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  6. Group Psychotherapy With Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Teicher, Joseph D.

    1966-01-01

    In working in a large general hospital with groups of disturbed adolescent patients from economically and emotionally deprived walks of life, therapists worked out a plan of outpatient group therapy that in general has had good results as measured by effective living and functioning in school, at home and with peers. Groups were limited to eight patients and meetings were held once a week with two co-therapists of different sexes. Therapists usually did not try to turn discussions in one direction or another. More active than in usual group work, the therapists did not hesitate to be didactic or educational as the topic or problem indicated. At termination of the group sessions, usually at the end of a school year as a natural time of leave-taking, the members who had benefited sufficiently faced the departure with little emotional wrench; those who had not were resentful, anxious, disappointed or relieved. PMID:18730009

  7. Universe Without Singularities A Group Approach to De Sitter Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licata, Ignazio

    2006-05-01

    In the last years the traditional scenario of ``Big Bang'' has been deeply modified by the study of the quantum features of the Universe evolution, proposing again the problem of using ``local'' physical laws on cosmic scale, with particular regard to the cosmological constant role. The ``group extention'' method shows that the De Sitter group univocally generalizes the Poincaré group, formally justifies the cosmological constant use and suggests a new interpretation for Hartle-Hawking boundary conditions in Quantum Cosmology.

  8. Modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery for thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    YU, HUI; GE, XIN; PAN, WEIKANG; WANG, HUAIJIE; HUANG, QIANG; DONG, YU; GAO, YA; YU, JIANJUN

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), originally described by Miccoli, is considered to be the most widely practiced and easily reproducible procedure for selected patients with benign and/or malignant thyroid nodules. Modified techniques based on MIVAT, namely modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery (MMTS), were developed based on MIVAT. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary results of MMTS compared with those of MIVAT. The enrolling criteria included a benign nodule <3.5 cm in diameter, a malignant tumor <2 cm, no previous neck surgery and no evidence of any suspected lymph node metastasis or local invasion. Unilateral lobectomy was considered for benign lesions and the additional dissection of central compartment (level VI) lymph nodes was applied for malignant disease. The modified techniques included carefully selecting the operative incision, expanding the operative space, embedding a drainage tube in situ and delicately suturing every layer inwards and crosswise, as well as measuring cervical motion. In addition to the comparison of surgical outcomes between MMTS and MIVAT, other surgical parameters, including operative time, blood loss, postoperative drainage, cosmetic satisfaction, peak angle of cervical rotation, length of hospitalization and complications, were retrospectively analyzed. A consecutive series of 70 patients, including 54 cases of benign and 16 cases of malignant disease, initially underwent MIVAT between April, 2008 and May, 2012, while 127 patients, including 98 benign and 29 malignant cases, subsequently underwent MMTS between September, 2011 and October, 2014. Patients who received MMTS exhibited significantly less blood loss (20.3±11.3 vs. 32.3±12.6 ml, P<0.01), lower volume of postoperative drainage (42.77±15.2 vs. 50.48±23.2 ml, P<0.01) and higher cosmetic satisfaction (94.6±3.5 vs. 88.9±2.7%, P<0.01), but a longer operative time (102±36 vs. 50.48±23.2 min, P<0.01) when compared with MIVAT. In addition, a

  9. Contact Stress of Modified Curvilinear Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Gu, Ming-Lune

    2010-10-01

    The contact characteristics of a modified curvilinear gear set were investigated based on finite element analysis in this study. Firstly, the mathematical model of the modified curvilinear gears was developed based on the theory of gearing. Then a solid model of a modified curvilinear gear set was built by utilizing computer-aided design software. Finite element analysis enabled us to investigate the contact stress of a contact teeth pair. The variation and distribution of the contact stresses and bending stresses are also studied under different gear design parameters. Finally, illustrative examples were presented to demonstrate the contact characteristics of the modified curvilinear gears.

  10. [Therapeutic approaches using genetically modified cells].

    PubMed

    Anliker, Brigitte; Renner, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal products containing genetically modified cells are, in most cases, classified as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products. Although no medicinal product containing genetically modified cells has been licensed in Europe yet, a variety of therapeutic strategies using genetically modified cells are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. In this chapter, several examples of promising approaches are presented, with an emphasis on gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiencies and on tumour immunotherapy with genetically modified T-cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor or a recombinant T-cell receptor.

  11. Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Hansen, Erich; Berg, John C.

    2009-10-01

    DOE tank waste treatment plants, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at Hanford and Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River, are designed to vitrify radioactive waste slurries for long-term storage. Plant throughput is currently limited by the waste solids loading. To increase waste throughput rates in the plant, an increase in the slurry solids concentration (or conversely, a reduction in the mass fraction of water in the waste) is being considered. However, the present mechanical designs used to mix and transport theses slurries are limited by the rheological properties. This reduction of water results in an increase in rheological properties that challenge plant design and performance. To support this increase in throughput, there is a need to reduce the rheological properties of these waste slurries. The objective of this project is to determine a small set of well-performing and commercially available rheological modifiers that allow control rheological properties of various simulated and actual waste slurries and to understand the physical mechanisms that govern modification of waste rheology. It is estimated that processing at a higher solids concentration will reduce the operating life of these plants by one year for both facilities, representing roughly $1B in lifecycle cost savings. In addition, this research is potentially important to sustainable operations of both WTP and DWPF

  12. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  13. Nonderivative modified gravity: a classification

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@irb.hr

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the theories of gravity modified by a generic nonderivative potential built from the metric, under the minimal requirement of unbroken spatial rotations. Using the canonical analysis, we classify the potentials V according to the number of degrees of freedom (DoF) that propagate at the nonperturbative level. We then compare the nonperturbative results with the perturbative DoF propagating around Minkowski and FRW backgrounds. A generic V implies 6 propagating DoF at the non-perturbative level, with a ghost on Minkowski background. There exist potentials which propagate 5 DoF, as already studied in previous works. Here, no V with unbroken rotational invariance admitting 4 DoF is found. Theories with 3 DoF turn out to be strongly coupled on Minkowski background. Finally, potentials with only the 2 DoF of a massive graviton exist. Their effect on cosmology is simply equivalent to a cosmological constant. Potentials with 2 or 5 DoF and explicit time dependence appear to be a further viable possibility.

  14. Modified endoscopic left inguinal lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Maestro, M; Rios Gonzalez, E; Martinez-Piñeiro, L; Sanchez Gomez, F J

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic Inguinal Lymphadenectomy is an evolution of laparoscopic surgery thanks to background in these techniques. This is a new technique and the indications in the field of penile tumors today are expanding. The technique aims at reducing the morbidity of the procedure without compromising the cancer control or reducing the template of the dissection. We present the modified endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy in a 70 years-old male patient with penile melanoma and positive sentinel lymph node in left inguinal limb. Intraoperative data, pathology, post operatory evolution and oncological follow-up is described Operative time was 120 min. Nine lymph nodes were retrieved and none of then showed positivity at pathology. There were no complications. The drain was kept for five days. After 12 months of follow up, no signs of disease progression were noted. The endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy is feasible in clinical practice. New studies with a greater number of patients and long-term follow-up may confirm the oncological efficacy and possible lower morbidity of these new approach. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological Response Modifiers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reang, Purabi; Gupta, Madhur; Kohli, Kamlesh

    2006-01-01

    We have seen a surge in the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Biological response modifiers can act passively by enhancing the immunologic response to tumor cells or actively by altering the differentiation/growth of tumor cells. Active immunotherapy with cytokines such as interferons (IFNs) and interleukins (IL-2) is a form of nonspecific active immune stimulation. The use of IL-2 has recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and metastatic colorectal cancer. Considerable success has been achieved with the use of immunotherapy, especially in the area of passive immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies – in particular, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. In addition to the various monoclonal antibodies that have been used in clinical trials, other strategies such as the use of antiangiogenic agents and matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMPIs) have also met with some success. Recently, the FDA approved bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This review also sheds light on the various angiogenesis inhibitors in clinical trials, the increasing use of thalidomide in cancer, and the upcoming potential cancer vaccines designed to activate cell-mediated immune responses against tumor antigens. PMID:17415315

  16. Radiation modified high impact polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelčić, Želimir; Ranogajec, Franjo

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of applying high energy (ionising) radiation with absorbed doses up to 1 MGy was to achieve controllable changes in mechanical properties of high impact polystyrene (PS-HI) and, at the same time, to investigate the possibility of using reprocessed irradiated polymeric material. Dielectric relaxation of a radiation modified high impact polystyrene (PS-HI) has been investigated by the time dependence of charging and discharging current. The transient currents for the irradiated PS-HI were well approximated by the power function of the logarithm of time and related to the fractal dimension. It was also shown that yield strength and tensile strength increase while elongation at break decreases with increasing absorbed dose. The specimen prepared by a post-irradiation moulding gave higher melt flow rate than those of specimen formed before irradiation. These results indicate that after radiation the system of PS-HI is reprocessable. It is concluded that an oxygen environment at the beginning of irradiation leads to enhanced chain scission at the expense of crosslinks via peroxide formation and causes oxidative degradation of the main polymer chain of irradiated PS-HI at a low absorbed dose. However, at higher absorbed doses the quasi-inert environment has been established and crosslinking, due to recombination of macroradicals, is dominant.

  17. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment.

  18. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  19. A simple method to prepare magnetic modified beer yeast and its application for cationic dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to use a simple method to prepare magnetic modified biomass with good adsorption performances for cationic ions. The magnetic modified biomass was prepared by two steps: (1) preparation of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified biomass in N, N-dimethylacetamide solution and (2) preparation of magnetic PMDA modified biomass by a situ co-precipitation method under the assistance of ultrasound irradiation in ammonia water. The adsorption potential of the as-prepared magnetic modified biomass was analyzed by using cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta as model dyes. Optical micrograph and x-ray diffraction analyses showed that Fe(3)O(4) particles were precipitated on the modified biomass surface. The as-prepared biosorbent could be recycled easily by using an applied magnetic field. Titration analysis showed that the total concentration of the functional groups on the magnetic PMDA modified biomass was calculated to be 0.75 mmol g(-1) by using the first derivative method. The adsorption capacities (q(m)) of the magnetic PMDA modified biomass for methylene blue and basic magenta were 609.0 and 520.9 mg g(-1), respectively, according to the Langmuir equation. Kinetics experiment showed that adsorption could be completed within 150 min for both dyes. The desorption experiment showed that the magnetic sorbent could be used repeatedly after regeneration. The as-prepared magnetic modified sorbent had a potential in the dyeing industry wastewater treatment.

  20. Older people with dysphagia: transitioning to texture-modified food.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sandra; Crichton, Jonathan

    Older people with dysphagia are at high risk of malnutrition. To maintain safe oral and nutritional intake, solid food may be texture-modified. Little is known about the transition experiences of older people who move from normal to texture-modified foods. The aim of this study was to describe residents' experiences as they transitioned from normal food to texture-modified food. The study used a qualitative descriptive design and individual interviews were conducted with a study group of 28 participants (residents, family members, nursing and care staff, and speech and language therapists). The interviews were thematically analysed. The findings suggest that transition creates the risk of distress, reducing eating to a matter of necessity and hunger, and that the process is perceived as abrupt, and characterised by lack of communication and awareness of the need for change. A key finding is that the language used during transition can be adversely affected by the management of risk. This language promotes a culture of care that emphasises the limitations of residents, reduces their motivation to eat and hinders the delivery of person-centred care. The findings suggest that care facilities for older people need to revisit their dysphagia management protocols to ensure that they support a person-centred approach for recipients of texture-modified food.

  1. Immobilization of urease onto chemically modified acrylonitrile copolymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Godjevargova, T; Gabrovska, K

    2003-06-26

    Poly (acrylonitrile-methylmethacrylate-sodium vinylsulfonate) membranes were subjected to seven different chemical modifications. The amounts of new groups incorporated in the membranes with the modifications were determined. Urease was covalently immobilized on the modified membranes. Both the amount of bound protein and relative activity of immobilized urease were measured. The highest activity was found for urease bound to membranes modified with hydroxylammonium sulfate (68%) and hydrazinium sulfate (67%). Optimum pH of free urease was determined to be 5.8. For positively charged membranes, pH optimum was shifted to higher values, while for negatively charged membranes-to lower pH. The charge of the matrix affected also the rate of the enzyme reaction. The highest rate was measured with urease immobilized on membranes modified with hydroxylammonium sulfate and hydrazinium sulfate. The major part of the immobilized enzyme on different modified membranes remained stable-only ca. 20% of enzyme activity was lost for 4 h at 70 degrees C while the free enzyme was totally inactivated.

  2. Modified fractal model and rheological properties of colloidal networks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongming; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2008-02-15

    The scaling relationship between the storage modulus (G(')) and the volume fraction of solids (Phi) in fat crystal networks has been explained by the fractal model developed by our group. However, many experimental results and simulation studies suggest that the stress distribution within a colloidal network is dramatically heterogeneous, which means that a small part of the network carries most of the stress, while the other part of the network does not contribute much to the elastic properties of the system. This concept was introduced into a modified fractal model. The volume fraction of solids term (Phi) in the original fractal model was replaced by Phi(e), the effective volume fraction of solids, in the modified fractal model, which represents the volume fraction of stress-carrying solids. A proposed expression for Phi(e) is given and a modified expression for the scaling relationship between G(') and Phi is obtained. The modified fractal model fits the experiment data well and successfully explains the sometimes observed nonlinear log-log behavior between the storage modulus of colloidal networks and their volume fraction of solids.

  3. STELLAR STRUCTURE AND TESTS OF MODIFIED GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Philip; Hui, Lam E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu

    2011-05-01

    Theories that attempt to explain cosmic acceleration by modifying gravity typically introduces a long-range scalar force that needs to be screened on small scales. One common screening mechanism is the chameleon, where the scalar force is screened in environments with a sufficiently deep gravitational potential, but acts unimpeded in regions with a shallow gravitational potential. This leads to a variation in the overall gravitational G with environment. We show that such a variation can occur within a star itself, significantly affecting its evolution and structure, provided that the host galaxy is unscreened. The effect is most pronounced for red giants, which would be smaller by a factor of tens of percent and thus hotter by hundreds of Kelvin, depending on the parameters of the underlying scalar-tensor theory. Careful measurements of these stars in suitable environments (nearby dwarf galaxies not associated with groups or clusters) would provide constraints on the chameleon mechanism that are four orders of magnitude better than current large-scale structure limits and two orders of magnitude better than present solar system tests.

  4. Polyphosphate: A Conserved Modifier of Amyloidogenic Processes.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Claudia M; Knoefler, Daniela; Gates, Stephanie; Martin, Nicholas; Dahl, Jan-Ulrik; Lempart, Justine; Xie, Lihan; Chapman, Matthew R; Galvan, Veronica; Southworth, Daniel R; Jakob, Ursula

    2016-09-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP), a several billion-year-old biopolymer, is produced in every cell, tissue, and organism studied. Structurally extremely simple, polyP consists of long chains of covalently linked inorganic phosphate groups. We report here the surprising discovery that polyP shows a remarkable efficacy in accelerating amyloid fibril formation. We found that polyP serves as an effective nucleation source for various different amyloid proteins, ranging from bacterial CsgA to human α-synuclein, Aβ1-40/42, and Tau. polyP-associated α-synuclein fibrils show distinct differences in seeding behavior, morphology, and fibril stability compared with fibrils formed in the absence of polyP. In vivo, the amyloid-stimulating and fibril-stabilizing effects of polyP have wide-reaching consequences, increasing the rate of biofilm formation in pathogenic bacteria and mitigating amyloid toxicity in differentiated neuroblastoma cells and C. elegans strains that serve as models for human folding diseases. These results suggest that we have discovered a conserved cytoprotective modifier of amyloidogenic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  6. Modified kraft lignin for bioremediation applications.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Diva A Simões; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Evtuguin, Dmitry V

    2012-01-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) from industrial pulping of E. globulus wood was subjected to the oxidative modification with the aim to produce sorbent mimicking humic matter for the bioremediation purposes. Lignin was oxidized by polyoxometalate Na(5)[PMo(10)V(2)O(40)] (POM), solely or in the presence of laccase, under pre-selected aerobic conditions (50-60°C, 1-2h, oxygen pressure 5 bar). The most pronounced lignin oxidation without its depolymerisation was observed in the reaction system POM/O(2). Modified lignins possessed increased amounts of COOH (up to 15 %) and CO (up to 500 %) groups, when compared to unmodified KL, and significantly higher molecular weights. Sorption capacity of KL before and after modification towards transition metals (cadmium (II) and mercury (II)) and triazine pesticide (atrazine) was assessed in batch experiments under equilibrium conditions. KL oxidation improved sorption capacity towards transition metals (up to 15 %) but not necessarily the uptake of atrazine that was higher for unmodified KL.

  7. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    PubMed

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  8. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

  9. Microstructure of Hydrophobically Modified Alkyl Acrylamide Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun; Seery, T. A. P.; Weiss, R. A.

    2002-03-01

    Hydrophobically modified water soluble polymers of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-2-(N-ethylfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl acrylate) (polyDMA/FOSA) with different compositions were prepared by solution free radical polymerization. The molecular weights ranged from Mw/Mn=53000/23000 to 95000/40000. The intrinsic viscosity decreased with the increasing FOSA content. The glass transition temperature of the copolymer decreased with FOSA content, and exhibited positive deviation from that predicted by the Fox equation. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) curves exhibited a peak that indicated the copolymer had a microphase separated structure, presumably due to hydrophobic association of FOSA groups. The SAXS peak position shifted to higher q value with the increasing FOSA content in the dry polymers, while for the water swollen gel, it shifted to lower q value with the increasing water uptake in the gels. These results suggested that the origin of the peak was related to the spacing between hydrophobic microdomains. The failure of time-temperature superposition of the dynamic shear moduli supported the conclusion of a microphase separated structure in the copolymer.

  10. The Modified Betatron Accelerator Experiment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-06

    experiments at NRL and Columbia led to a collaborative effort on NRL’s VEBA generator in which a quasioptical cavity was used to provide feedback...Consequently, the NRL VEBA group (Parker et al., 1982) designed an improved diode in which 90% of the diode current was removed from the beam with a

  11. Difficulty modifying a sustained motor response in prodromal Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T; Peavy, Guerry M; Jacobson, Mark W; Goldstein, Jody L; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the nature of motor symptoms in the preclinical stage of Huntington's disease. Individuals with the CAG expanded repeat of Huntington's disease (prHD) and two control groups were tested on a task requiring a releasing movement (releasing a depressed button) followed by a ballistic movement (pressing a different button). Movement times were measured separately for releasing and ballistic movements. The mean reaction time of the prHD group was significantly longer when releasing a movement than that of the other groups. The groups, however, did not differ significantly on movement time for ballistic movements. Our results show that motor slowing is evident prior to the clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease and may reflect difficulty in modifying a sustained motor program.

  12. Modified π π amplitude with σ pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bydžovský, P.; Kamiński, R.; Nazari, V.

    2014-12-01

    A set of well-known once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition is used to modify unitary multichannel S (π π , K K ¯, and η η ) and P (π π , ρ 2 π , and ρ σ ) wave amplitudes mostly below 1 GeV. Before the modifications, these amplitudes significantly did not satisfy the crossing symmetry condition and did not describe the π π threshold region. Moreover, the pole of the S wave amplitude related with the f0(500 ) meson (former f0(600 ) or σ ) had much smaller imaginary part and bigger real one in comparison with those in the newest Particle Data Group Tables. Here, these amplitudes are supplemented by near threshold expansion polynomials and refitted to the experimental data in the effective two pion mass from the threshold to 1.8 GeV and to the dispersion relations up to 1.1 GeV. In result the self consistent, i.e., unitary and fulfilling the crossing symmetry condition, S and P wave amplitudes are formed and the σ pole becomes much narrower and lighter. To eliminate doubts about the uniqueness of the so obtained sigma pole position short and purely mathematical proof of the uniqueness of the results is also presented. This analysis is addressed to a wide group of physicists and aims at providing a very effective and easy method of modification of, many presently used, π π amplitudes with a heavy and broad σ meson without changing of their original mathematical structure.

  13. Modifying agricultural crops for improved nutrition.

    PubMed

    McGloughlin, Martina Newell

    2010-11-30

    The first generation of biotechnology products commercialized were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits whose value was often opaque to consumers. The coming generations of crop plants can be grouped into four broad areas each presenting what, on the surface, may appear as unique challenges and opportunities. The present and future focus is on continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and abiotic stress resistance in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and "bio-synthetics"; value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production factories for therapeutics and industrial products. From a consumer perspective, the focus on value-added traits, especially improved nutrition, is undoubtedly one of the areas of greatest interest. From a basic nutrition perspective, there is a clear dichotomy in demonstrated need between different regions and socioeconomic groups, the starkest being inappropriate consumption in the developed world and under-nourishment in Less Developed Countries (LDCs). Dramatic increases in the occurrence of obesity and related ailments in affluent regions are in sharp contrast to chronic malnutrition in many LDCs. Both problems require a modified food supply, and the tools of biotechnology have a part to play. Developing plants with improved traits involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory and indeed perception hurdles inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex traits modifications. Continuing improvements in molecular and genomic technologies are contributing to the acceleration of product development to produce plants with the appropriate quality traits for the different regions and needs. Crops with improved traits in the pipeline, the evolving technologies and the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead are covered.

  14. Stopping Disease-Modifying Therapy in Nonrelapsing Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are of benefit only in people with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS). Thus, safely stopping DMTs in people with secondary progressive MS may be possible. Methods: Two groups of patients with MS were studied. Group A consisted of 77 patients with secondary progressive MS and no evidence of acute central nervous system inflammation for 2 to 20 years. These patients were advised to stop DMTs. Group B consisted of 17 individuals with RMS who stopped DMTs on their own. Both groups were evaluated at treatment cessation and for a minimum of 1 year thereafter. Multiple variables were assessed to determine those that predicted recurrent acute disease. Results: Nine patients in group A (11.7%) and ten patients in group B (58.8%) had recurrent acute disease, almost always within 1 to 2 years of stopping treatment. The only variable of significance in group A distinguishing stable and relapsing patients was age (P = .0003), with relapsing patients being younger. Group B patients were younger and had significantly lower Expanded Disability Status Scale scores than group A, with no significant differences in age between relapsed and stable patients. Conclusions: The DMTs can be stopped safely in older patients with MS (≥7 decades) with no evidence of acute disease for 2 years or longer, with an almost 90% probability of remaining free of acute recurrence. The high proportion of untreated patients with RMS experiencing recurrent acute disease is consistent with published data. PMID:28243181

  15. Equivalence of superspace groups

    PubMed Central

    van Smaalen, Sander; Campbell, Branton J.; Stokes, Harold T.

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which determines the equivalence of two settings of a (3 + d)-dimensional superspace group (d = 1, 2, 3). The algorithm has been implemented as a web tool on , providing the transformation of any user-given superspace group to the standard setting of this superspace group in . It is shown how the standard setting of a superspace group can be directly obtained by an appropriate transformation of the external-space lattice vectors (the basic structure unit cell) and a transformation of the internal-space lattice vectors (new modulation wavevectors are linear combinations of old modulation wavevectors plus a three-dimensional reciprocal-lattice vector). The need for non-standard settings in some cases and the desirability of employing standard settings of superspace groups in other cases are illustrated by an analysis of the symmetries of a series of compounds, comparing published and standard settings and the transformations between them. A compilation is provided of standard settings of compounds with two- and three-dimensional modulations. The problem of settings of superspace groups is discussed for incommensurate composite crystals and for chiral superspace groups. PMID:23250064

  16. Equivalence of superspace groups.

    PubMed

    van Smaalen, Sander; Campbell, Branton J; Stokes, Harold T

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which determines the equivalence of two settings of a (3 + d)-dimensional superspace group (d = 1, 2, 3). The algorithm has been implemented as a web tool findssg on SSG(3+d)D, providing the transformation of any user-given superspace group to the standard setting of this superspace group in SSG(3+d)D. It is shown how the standard setting of a superspace group can be directly obtained by an appropriate transformation of the external-space lattice vectors (the basic structure unit cell) and a transformation of the internal-space lattice vectors (new modulation wavevectors are linear combinations of old modulation wavevectors plus a three-dimensional reciprocal-lattice vector). The need for non-standard settings in some cases and the desirability of employing standard settings of superspace groups in other cases are illustrated by an analysis of the symmetries of a series of compounds, comparing published and standard settings and the transformations between them. A compilation is provided of standard settings of compounds with two- and three-dimensional modulations. The problem of settings of superspace groups is discussed for incommensurate composite crystals and for chiral superspace groups.

  17. Modification of Amino Groups.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Kieran F

    2016-11-01

    Chemical modification of amino groups in proteins serves a diversity of preparative and analytical purposes. The most prominent is to attach nonpeptide groups with useful properties to proteins. Examples of these groups include biotin for affinity capture and fluorescent dyes for detectability. A widely applied chemistry, and one for which many reagents are available, is reaction of the activated ester of a carboxylic acid (often a succinimidyl ester) with amino groups at mildly basic pH. Reductive alkylation using a carbonyl compound and a hydride-donating reducing agent is another valued reaction with multiple applications. Most proteins contain more than one amino group, so the extent of reaction desired must be considered in advance and the result assessed experimentally after the fact. The distinctive environment of the α-amino group of a polypeptide sets it apart from the ϵ-amino groups of lysine side chains, and can afford useful specificity. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Group key management

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  19. Groups and Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavnani, Ravi; Miodownik, Dan; Riolo, Rick

    Violence can take place along a multitude of cleavages, e.g., (1) between political groups like the Kach Movement, pitting West Bank settlers against Israeli governments supporting the land-for-peace agenda; (2) between religious groups, such as Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian cities of Jos and Kaduna; (3) along class lines, as in India between Dalits and members of the Brahminical upper castes, upwardly mobile intermediate castes, and even other backward castes such as the Thevars; and (4) between ethnic groups such as the Hutu and Tutsi, both within and across state boundaries in Rwanda and neighboring Burundi.

  20. Conformal Carroll groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    Conformal extensions of Lévy-Leblond's Carroll group, based on geometric properties analogous to those of Newton-Cartan space-time are proposed. The extensions are labeled by an integer k. This framework includes and extends our recent study of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) and Newman-Unti (NU) groups. The relation to conformal Galilei groups is clarified. Conformal Carroll symmetry is illustrated by ‘Carrollian photons’. Motion both in the Newton-Cartan and Carroll spaces may be related to that of strings in the Bargmann space.

  1. [Group health care].

    PubMed

    Hermida, C

    1986-01-01

    The transition from individual to group health care entails a response to multidisciplinary scientific systems, the enlistment of community participation, and an effort to make the professionals aware of the need to work as a team. The author points to the need to change the information system so that the professional-to-be will acquire a mentality and method of work appropriate for group care. In the architecture of service facilities structural changes must also be provided for the care of groups rather than individuals. In short, the change entails a review of all the elements of care.

  2. Efficacy of a biological response modifier in preventing Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections after calving.

    PubMed

    Zecconi, A; Bronzo, V; Casula, A; Luzzago, C; Moroni, P; Piccinini, R; Spreafico, G

    1999-10-01

    A change in the epidemiology of mastitis in recent years has emphasized the role of the udder immune system in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, if the bovine or udder immune capability could be enhanced, susceptibility to Staph. aureus could be reduced and antibiotic efficacy could be increased. Immune system defense mechanisms could be enhanced by vaccination and by biological response modifiers. Within this latter group, a biological response modifier obtained from Parapox ovis that was attenuated over 200 tissue culture passages was recently developed and commercialized in some European countries. This study reports the results of a field trial on the efficacy of this biological response modifier in reducing Staph. aureus intramammary infection (IMI) after calving in primiparous and pluriparous cows. The trial included 106 cows sampled six times (55 cows from herd A and 51 from herd B) for a total of 2544 quarter milk samples. The analysis of IMI prevalence showed that 25.09% of samples were bacteriologically positive in the placebo group, and 23.17% of the positive samples were observed in the biological response modifier group. Staphylococcus aureus IMI had a frequency of 11.44% in the placebo group and 6.00% in the biological response modifier group. The dynamic of the hazards showed significantly lower rates in the biological response modifier group than in the placebo group (risk ratio = 0.47). Treatment with the parapox-containing biological response modifier showed significant reduction of Staph. aureus IMI around calving, and this reduction was attributed to an increase in immune defenses.

  3. SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group

    ScienceCinema

    Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.

    2016-07-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory, Atmospheric Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.

  4. SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.

    2016-05-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory, Atmospheric Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.

  5. User Working Group Charter

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... Amended 2010   The Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) User Working Group (UWG) is chartered by the Earth Observing ... of the ASDC user interface, development of the Information Management System (IMS), and ASDC user conferences requirements for and ...

  6. Group Support Systems (GSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamel, Gary P.; Wijesinghe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware is a term describing an emerging computer software technology enhancing the ability of people to work together as a group, (a software driven 'group support system'). This project originated at the beginning of 1992 and reports were issued describing the activity through May 1995. These reports stressed the need for process as well as technology. That is, while the technology represented a computer assisted method for groups to work together, the Group Support System (GSS) technology als required an understanding of the facilitation process electronic meetings demand. Even people trained in traditional facilitation techniques did not necessarily aimlessly adopt groupware techniques. The latest phase of this activity attempted to (1) improve the facilitation process by developing training support for a portable groupware computer system, and (2) to explore settings and uses for the portable groupware system using different software, such as Lotus Notes.

  7. Building Group Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, George

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the value of name recognition for theater companies. Describes steps toward identity and recognition, analyzing the group, the mission statement, symbolic logic, designing and identity, developing a communications plan, and meaningful activities. (SR)

  8. Successful Small Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Amiel W.; Kaplan, Walter J.

    1977-01-01

    The authors examine their own experiences with the small study group method used in professional continuing education in the optometric profession, offering some observations and tentative conclusions for other professionals considering the method. (WL)

  9. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  10. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  11. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research & Practice News Blog Posts Depression and Anxiety Journal Insights ... how to start a support group . ADAA does not have listings in every U.S. state or Canadian province or territory but does have listings in ...

  12. Is Group Counseling Neglected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Susanne M.

    1972-01-01

    Group counseling is valuable for the psychological and social readjustment of newly disabled persons and their families, with the counselor and physician having major roles in personal rehabilitation. (AG)

  13. UnitedHealth Group

    Cancer.gov

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  14. Building Bunk Group Buddies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Denise Cabrero

    2000-01-01

    Describes how camp counselors can foster camaraderie among campers through participative decision making, name games, listening, adventure courses, storytelling, spending time in nature, decorating cabins, avoiding favoritism, setting rules, admitting faults, setting group goals, and praising sincere efforts. (TD)

  15. Indictment of Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce

    1972-01-01

    The use of ability grouping restricts students to interact with others who have been identified as similar in ability and carries with it the stigma of failure and the operation of the self-fulfilling prophecy. (Author)

  16. Paraprofessional Groups and Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The American Library Association's "National Directory: Library Paraprofessional Associations" (1996 edition) lists 46 active library paraprofessional associations or subsidiary groups in the United States. Reviews reasons why paraprofessionals began forming associations, compares selected associations, and examines their place within…

  17. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... PS, Baker CJ. Group B streptococcal infections. In: Cherry J, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Magnetograph group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.

    1989-01-01

    The Magnetograph Group focussed on the techniques and many practical problems of interleaving ground-based measurements of magnetic fields from diverse sites and instruments to address the original scientific objectives. The predominant view of the discussion group was that present instrumentation and analysis resources do not warrant immediate, specific plans for further worldwide campaigns of cooperative magnetograph observing. The several reasons for this view, together with many caveats, qualifications, and suggestions for future work are presented.

  19. Group Capability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  20. Parton Distributions Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    de Barbaro, L.; Keller, S. A.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schellman, H.; Tung, W.-K.

    2000-07-20

    This report summarizes the activities of the Parton Distributions Working Group of the QCD and Weak Boson Physics workshop held in preparation for Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, the authors introduce a Manifesto that describes an optimal method for reporting data.