Science.gov

Sample records for modifier rotigaptide zp123

  1. Effects of rotigaptide (ZP123) on connexin43 remodeling in canine ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Su, Guo-Ying; Wang, Jing; Xu, Zhen-Xing; Qiao, Xiao-Jun; Zhong, Jing-Quan; Zhang, Yun

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the effects of rotigaptide (ZP123) on the expression, distribution and phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43) in myocardial cell membranes in cardioversion of ventricular fibrillation (VF). A model of prolonged VF (8, 12 and 30 min) was established in mongrel dogs (n=8/group), following treatment with ZP123 or normal saline (NS control). A sham control was included. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was begun at the start of VF followed by defibrillation. Animals received a maximum of three defibrillations of increasing energy (70, 100 and 150 J biphasic shock) as required. The average defibrillation energy, defibrillation success rate, return of spontaneous circulation and survival rate were recorded. Cx43 and phosphorylated (p-)Cx43 expression in cardiomyocyte membranes was detected by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Compared with the NS-treated control groups, the success defibrillation rate in the 8-min and 12-min ZP123 groups was significantly higher (P<0.05), while the average defibrillation energy was significantly lower (P<0.05). Cx43 expression in the VF groups was significantly lower than that in the sham control group (P<0.05). Cx43 expression was higher in the 12-min and 30-min ZP123 groups than that in the NS control group (P<0.05), while p-Cx43 expression decreased, although the levels were significantly higher than those in the control groups (P<0.05). Cx43 expression was positively correlated with the defibrillation success rate (r=0.91; P<0.01) and negatively with the mean defibrillation energy (r=-0.854; P<0.01), while p-Cx43 expression was positively correlated with the success rate of the previous three defibrillations (r=0.926; P<0.01).In conclusion, ZP123 reduced Cx43 remodeling through regulating the expression, distribution and phosphorylation of Cx43, thereby reducing the defibrillation energy required for successful cardioversion.

  2. Effects of rotigaptide (ZP123) on connexin43 remodeling in canine ventricular fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    SU, GUO-YING; WANG, JING; XU, ZHEN-XING; QIAO, XIAO-JUN; ZHONG, JING-QUAN; ZHANG, YUN

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of rotigaptide (ZP123) on the expression, distribution and phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43) in myocardial cell membranes in cardioversion of ventricular fibrillation (VF). A model of prolonged VF (8, 12 and 30 min) was established in mongrel dogs (n=8/group), following treatment with ZP123 or normal saline (NS control). A sham control was included. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was begun at the start of VF followed by defibrillation. Animals received a maximum of three defibrillations of increasing energy (70, 100 and 150 J biphasic shock) as required. The average defibrillation energy, defibrillation success rate, return of spontaneous circulation and survival rate were recorded. Cx43 and phosphorylated (p-) Cx43 expression in cardiomyocyte membranes was detected by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Compared with the NS-treated control groups, the success defibrillation rate in the 8-min and 12-min ZP123 groups was significantly higher (P<0.05), while the average defibrillation energy was significantly lower (P<0.05). Cx43 expression in the VF groups was significantly lower than that in the sham control group (P<0.05). Cx43 expression was higher in the 12-min and 30-min ZP123 groups than that in the NS control group (P<0.05), while p-Cx43 expression decreased, although the levels were significantly higher than those in the control groups (P<0.05). Cx43 expression was positively correlated with the defibrillation success rate (r=0.91; P<0.01) and negatively with the mean defibrillation energy (r=−0.854; P<0.01), while p-Cx43 expression was positively correlated with the success rate of the previous three defibrillations (r=0.926; P<0.01). In conclusion, ZP123 reduced Cx43 remodeling through regulating the expression, distribution and phosphorylation of Cx43, thereby reducing the defibrillation energy required for successful cardioversion. PMID:26252617

  3. Gap junction modifier rotigaptide decreases the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia by enhancing conduction velocity and suppressing discordant alternans during therapeutic hypothermia in isolated rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Jiunn-Cherng; Hung, Chen-Ying; Li, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Shien-Fong; Yeh, Hung-I; Huang, Jin-Long; Lo, Chu-Pin; Haugan, Ketil; Larsen, Bjarne D; Wu, Tsu-Juey

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) may increase the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias by decreasing ventricular conduction velocity (CV) and facilitating arrhythmogenic spatially discordant alternans (SDA). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that rotigaptide, a gap junction enhancer, can increase ventricular CV, delay the onset of SDA, and decrease the susceptibility to pacing-induced ventricular fibrillation (PIVF) during TH. Langendorff-perfused isolated rabbit hearts were subjected to 30-minute moderate hypothermia (33°C) followed by 20-minute treatment with rotigaptide (300 nM, n = 8) or vehicle (n = 5). The same protocol was also performed at severe hypothermia (30°C; n = 8 for rotigaptide, n = 5 for vehicle). Using an optical mapping system, epicardial CV and SDA threshold were evaluated by S1 pacing. Ventricular fibrillation inducibility was evaluated by burst pacing for 30 seconds at the shortest pacing cycle length (PCL) that achieved 1:1 ventricular capture. Rotigaptide increased ventricular CV during 33°C (PCL 300 ms, from 76 ± 6 cm/s to 84 ± 7 cm/s, P = .039) and 30°C (PCL 300 ms, from 62 ± 6 cm/s to 68 ± 4 cm/s, P = .008). Rotigaptide decreased action potential duration dispersion at 33°C (P = .01) and 30°C (P = .035). During 30°C, SDA thresholds (P = .042) and incidence of premature ventricular complexes (P = .025) were decreased by rotigaptide. PIVF inducibility was decreased by rotigaptide at 33°C (P = .039) and 30°C (P = .042). Rotigaptide did not change connexin43 expressions and distributions during hypothermia. Rotigaptide protects the hearts against ventricular arrhythmias by increasing ventricular CV, delaying the onset of SDA, and reducing repolarization heterogeneity during TH. Enhancing cell-to-cell coupling by rotigaptide might be a novel approach to prevent ventricular arrhythmias during TH. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rotigaptide protects the myocardium and arterial vasculature from ischaemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Vase, Henrik; Hyldebrandt, Janus A.; Contractor, Hussain; Schmidt, Michael R.; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Cruden, Nicholas L.; Newby, David E.; Kharbanda, Rajesh K.; Lang, Ninian N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Ischaemia‐reperfusion injury (IRI) causes impaired endothelial function and is a major component of the adverse effects of reperfusion following myocardial infarction. Rotigaptide increases gap junction conductance via connexin‐43. We tested the hypothesis that rotigaptide reduces experimental myocardial infarction size and ameliorates endothelial IRI in humans. Methods Myocardial infarction study: porcine myocardial infarction was achieved by catheter‐induced occlusion of the left anterior descending artery. In a randomized double‐blind study, rotigaptide (n = 9) or placebo (n = 10) was administered intravenously as a 10 min bolus prior to reperfusion and continuously during 2 h of reperfusion. Myocardial infarction size (IS) was assessed as proportion of the area at risk (AAR). Human translational study: forearm IRI was induced in the presence or absence of intra‐arterial rotigaptide. In a randomized double‐blind study, forearm arterial blood flow was measured at rest and during intra‐arterial infusion of acetylcholine (5–20 μg min–1; n = 11) or sodium nitroprusside (2–8 mg min–1; n = 10) before and after intra‐arterial infusion of placebo or rotigaptide, and again following IRI. Results Myocardial infarction study: Rotigaptide treatment was associated with a reduction of infarct size (IS/AAR[%]: 18.7 ± 4.1 [rotigaptide] vs. 43.6 ± 4.2 [placebo], P = 0.006). Human translational study: Endothelium‐dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine was attenuated after ischaemia‐reperfusion in the presence of placebo (P = 0.007), but not in the presence of rotigaptide (P = NS). Endothelium‐independent vasodilatation evoked by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by IRI or rotigaptide (P = NS). Conclusions Rotigaptide reduces myocardial infarction size in a porcine model and protects from IRI‐related endothelial dysfunction in man. Rotigaptide may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of myocardial

  5. Rotigaptide protects the myocardium and arterial vasculature from ischaemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christian M; Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Vase, Henrik; Hyldebrandt, Janus A; Contractor, Hussain; Schmidt, Michael R; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Cruden, Nicholas L; Newby, David E; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Lang, Ninian N

    2016-06-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) causes impaired endothelial function and is a major component of the adverse effects of reperfusion following myocardial infarction. Rotigaptide increases gap junction conductance via connexin-43. We tested the hypothesis that rotigaptide reduces experimental myocardial infarction size and ameliorates endothelial IRI in humans. Myocardial infarction study: porcine myocardial infarction was achieved by catheter-induced occlusion of the left anterior descending artery. In a randomized double-blind study, rotigaptide (n = 9) or placebo (n = 10) was administered intravenously as a 10 min bolus prior to reperfusion and continuously during 2 h of reperfusion. Myocardial infarction size (IS) was assessed as proportion of the area at risk (AAR). Human translational study: forearm IRI was induced in the presence or absence of intra-arterial rotigaptide. In a randomized double-blind study, forearm arterial blood flow was measured at rest and during intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (5-20 μg min(-1) ; n = 11) or sodium nitroprusside (2-8 mg min(-1) ; n = 10) before and after intra-arterial infusion of placebo or rotigaptide, and again following IRI. Myocardial infarction study: Rotigaptide treatment was associated with a reduction of infarct size (IS/AAR[%]: 18.7 ± 4.1 [rotigaptide] vs. 43.6 ± 4.2 [placebo], P = 0.006). Human translational study: Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine was attenuated after ischaemia-reperfusion in the presence of placebo (P = 0.007), but not in the presence of rotigaptide (P = NS). Endothelium-independent vasodilatation evoked by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by IRI or rotigaptide (P = NS). Rotigaptide reduces myocardial infarction size in a porcine model and protects from IRI-related endothelial dysfunction in man. Rotigaptide may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of myocardial infarction. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. The role of gap junctions in stretch-induced atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Mitsuru; Honjo, Haruo; Kodama, Itsuo; Kamiya, Kaichiro

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gap junctions in atrial fibrillation (AF) by analysing the effects of a gap junction enhancer and blocker on AF vulnerability and electrophysiological properties of isolated hearts. The acute atrial stretch model of AF in the isolated rabbit heart was used. Sustained AF (SAF) was induced by a burst of high-frequency stimulation of the Bachmann's bundle. The effective refractory period (ERP) was measured, and the total conduction time (TCT) and the pattern of conduction of the anterior surface of the left atrium were monitored by using an optical mapping system. The effect of enhancing gap junction function by 100-1000 nM rotigaptide (ZP123) and block by 30 μM carbenoxolone on these parameters was measured. SAF inducibility was increased with an elevation of intra-atrial pressure. Enhanced gap junction conductance induced by treatment with 100-1000 nM rotigaptide reduced SAF inducibility, and the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone increased SAF inducibility. In the absence of gap junction enhancer or blocker, normal conduction was observed at 0 cmH2O. When intra-atrial pressure was raised to 12 cmH2O, the conduction pattern was changed to a heterogeneous zig-zag pattern and TCT was prolonged. Conduction pattern was not affected by either agent. Rotigaptide shortened TCT, whereas carbenoxolone prolonged TCT. ERP was significantly shortened with an increase in intra-atrial pressure, but ERP was unaffected by either agent. Gap junction modulators changed AF inducibility through their effects on atrial conduction, not by altering ERP. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  7. Modified cyanobacteria

    DOEpatents

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  8. Modified SEAGULL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuehn, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    Original version of program incorporated into program SRGULL (LEW-15093) for use on National Aero-Space Plane project, its duty being to model forebody, inlet, and nozzle portions of vehicle. However, real-gas chemistry effects in hypersonic flow fields limited accuracy of that version, because it assumed perfect-gas properties. As a result, SEAGULL modified according to real-gas equilibrium-chemistry methodology. This program analyzes two-dimensional, hypersonic flows of real gases. Modified version of SEAGULL maintains as much of original program as possible, and retains ability to execute original perfect-gas version.

  9. Modifiability Tactics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    about purchasing paper copies of SEI reports, please visit the publications portion of our Web site (http://www.sei.cmu.edu/ publications /pubweb.html...architects need to understand how architectural tactics and patterns relate and how to use them effectively. In this report, we explore the relation ...architecture transformations that support the achievement of modifiability [Bass 2003]. In this report, we relate coupling and cohesion to tactics

  10. Modifying Curriculum. Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petch, Beverly

    This module on modifying curriculum is 1 in a series of 10 modules written for vocational education teacher education programs. It is designed to prepare the learner to identify the varying learning styles of learners and to modify curriculum by providing alternative techniques for curriculum modification. Introductory materials include the…

  11. Modifying toxicokinetics with antidotes.

    PubMed

    Baud, F J; Borron, S W; Bismuth, C

    1995-12-01

    Five approaches may be described through which antidotes can modify toxicokinetics: (1) Decreased bioavailability of the toxins; (2) Cellular redistribution of the toxin in the organism; (3) Promotion of elimination in an unchanged form; (4) Slowing of metabolic activation pathways; (5) Acceleration of metabolic deactivation pathways. However, the ability to modify toxicokinetics with a new treatment, while demonstrating an understanding of the mechanism of action, must never be construed to be, in and of itself, the goal of therapy. The ultimate evaluation of an antidote modifying toxicokinetics is strictly clinical.

  12. Cystic fibrosis modifier genes.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jane; Alton, Eric; Griesenbach, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Since the recognition that CFTR genotype was not a good predictor of pulmonary disease severity in CF, several candidate modifier genes have been identified. It is unlikely that a single modifier gene will be found, but more probable that several haplotypes in combination may contribute, which in itself presents a major methodological challenge. The aims of such studies are to increase our understanding of disease pathogenesis, to aid prognosis and ultimately to lead to the development of novel treatments. PMID:16025767

  13. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  14. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  15. Modified blank ammunition injuries.

    PubMed

    Ogunc, Gokhan I; Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Kagan; Uzar, Ali Ihsan

    2009-12-15

    Blank firing weapons are designed only for discharging blank ammunition cartridges. Because they are cost-effective, are easily accessible and can be modified to live firearms plus their unclear legal situation in Turkish Law makes them very popular in Turkey. 2004 through 2008, a total of 1115 modified blank weapons were seized in Turkey. Blank firing weapons are easily modified by owners, making them suitable for discharging live firearm ammunition or modified blank ammunitions. Two common methods are used for modification of blank weapons. After the modification, these weapons can discharge the live ammunition. However, due to compositional durability problems with these types of weapons; the main trend is to use the modified blank ammunitions rather than live firearm ammunition fired from modified blank firing weapons. In this study, two types of modified blank weapons and two types of modified blank cartridges were tested on three different target models. Each of the models' shooting side was coated with 1.3+/-2 mm thickness chrome tanned cowhide as a skin simulant. The first model was only coated with skin simulant. The second model was coated with skin simulant and 100% cotton police shirt. The third model was coated with skin simulant and jean denim. After the literature evaluation four high risky anatomic locations (the neck area; the eyes; the thorax area and inguinal area) were pointed out for the steel and lead projectiles are discharged from the modified blank weapons especially in close range (0-50 cm). The target models were designed for these anatomic locations. For the target models six Transparent Ballistic Candle blocks (TCB) were prepared and divided into two test groups. The first group tests were performed with lead projectiles and second group with steel projectile. The shortest penetration depth (lead projectile: 4.358 cm; steel projectile 8.032 cm) was recorded in the skin simulant and jean denim coated block for both groups. In both groups

  16. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  17. Modifying Cookbook Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert, L.; Clough, Michael P.; Berg, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Modifies an extended lab activity from a cookbook approach for determining the percent mass of water in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals to one which incorporates students' prior knowledge, engenders active mental struggling with prior knowledge and new experiences, and encourages metacognition. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  18. Modifying Cookbook Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Robert, L.; Clough, Michael P.; Berg, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Modifies an extended lab activity from a cookbook approach for determining the percent mass of water in copper sulfate pentahydrate crystals to one which incorporates students' prior knowledge, engenders active mental struggling with prior knowledge and new experiences, and encourages metacognition. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  19. Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R. E.

    2012-08-01

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine to be used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluated the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to a cubic spline-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) with a additional Stillinger-Weber (SW) contribution.

  20. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-09-10

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees from 0{degree} to 360{degree} and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figs.

  1. Modified Faraday cup

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.

  2. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry.

  3. Modified entropic force

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun

    2010-04-15

    The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

  4. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  5. Histone Modifiers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Idan; Poręba, Elżbieta; Kamieniarz, Kinga; Schneider, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Covalent modifications of histones can regulate all DNA-dependent processes. In the last few years, it has become more and more evident that histone modifications are key players in the regulation of chromatin states and dynamics as well as in gene expression. Therefore, histone modifications and the enzymatic machineries that set them are crucial regulators that can control cellular proliferation, differentiation, plasticity, and malignancy processes. This review discusses the biology and biochemistry of covalent histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and evaluates the dual role of their modifiers in cancer: as oncogenes that can initiate and amplify tumorigenesis or as tumor suppressors. PMID:21941619

  6. Modified harmony search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  7. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications.

  8. Pragmatic Aspects of Scalar Modifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pragmatic aspects of scalar modifiers from the standpoint of the interface between semantics and pragmatics, focusing on (i) the (non) parallelism between the truth-conditional scalar modifiers and the non-truth-conditional scalar modifiers, (ii) the compositionality and dimensionality of non-truth-conditional…

  9. Modifying Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghee; McBride, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation leaves a fairly characteristic footprint in biological materials, but this is rapidly all but obliterated by the canonical biological responses to the radiation damage. The innate immune recognition systems that sense “danger” through direct radiation damage and through associated collateral damage set in motion a chain of events that, in a tissue compromised by radiation, often unwittingly result in oscillating waves of molecular and cellular responses as tissues attempt to heal. Understanding “nature’s whispers” that inform on these processes will lead to novel forms of intervention targeted more precisely towards modifying them in an appropriate and timely fashion so as to improve the healing process and prevent or mitigate the development of acute and late effects of normal tissue radiation damage, whether it be accidental, as a result of a terrorist incident, or of therapeutic treatment of cancer. Here we attempt to discuss some of the non-free radical scavenging mechanisms that modify radiation responses and comment on where we see them within a conceptual framework of an evolving radiation-induced lesion. PMID:20583981

  10. Polysaccharide biological response modifiers.

    PubMed

    Leung, M Y K; Liu, C; Koon, J C M; Fung, K P

    2006-06-15

    Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances which augment immune response. BRMs can be cytokines which are produced endogenously in our body by immune cells or derivatives of bacteria, fungi, brown algae, Aloe vera and photosynthetic plants. Such exogeneous derivatives (exogeneous BRMs) can be nucleic acid (CpG), lipid (lipotechoic acid), protein or polysaccharide in nature. The receptors for these exogeneous BRMs are pattern recognition receptors. The binding of exogeneous BRMs to pattern recognition receptors triggers immune response. Exogenous BRMs have been reported to have anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, and anti-tumor activities. Among different exogeneous BRMs, polysaccharide BRMs have the widest occurrence in nature. Some polysaccharide BRMs have been tested for their therapeutic properties in human clinical trials. An overview of current understandings of polysaccharide BRMs is summarized in this review.

  11. Modified clay sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  12. Modified Composite Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

  13. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term.

  14. Distinguishing modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.

  15. [Biotechnology using modified microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Deshayes, A F

    1992-11-01

    Few microorganisms, as compare to their high diversity, are used for human needs. They can produce molecules of interest, process fermentation, protect crops, treat wastes or clean environment. Molecular technics and genetic engineering are new tools offer to geneticists which breed microorganisms for years. Using them, it is now possible, theoretically, to introduce any gene in any organism. Some examples are given concerning genetic modifications in yeasts and lactic acid bacteria to optimize agrofood processes and to improve nutritive and flavour characteristics of fermented products like bread, beer, wine, cheese, meat, vegetable juices... In spite of scientific and industrial interest of the new technologies, limiting factors can explain that genetically modified microorganisms are not routinely used in agrofood yet. First, risks assessment on human health and environment are still in debate, but their is a consensus, within the scientific community, to consider that new characteristics of improved microorganisms are more important than the technics used for their construction. Second, regulations turn out to impose constraints susceptible to discourage technological innovations. At least, the public perception about the new technologies appears, actually, as the major factor to limit their development.

  16. On a modified electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Reiss, H R

    2012-09-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The 'gauge-invariant electrodynamics' of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics.

  17. On a modified electrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The ‘gauge-invariant electrodynamics’ of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics. PMID:23105173

  18. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  19. Nominal Modifiers in Mandarin Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, John Y.

    In the surface structure of Chinese nominal modifiers (quantifiers, determiners, adjectives, measure phrase, relative clause, etc.) may occur either before or after a modified noun. In most of the transformational studies of Chinese syntax (e.g. Cheng 1966; Hashimoto 1966; Mei 1972; Tai 1973; Teng 1974), it has been assumed that such NP's have the…

  20. Modified Gravity and Coupled Quintessence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, Christof

    The distinction between modified gravity and quintessence or dynamical dark energy is difficult. Many models of modified gravity are equivalent to models of coupled quintessence by virtue of variable transformations. This makes an observational differentiation between modified gravity and dark energy very hard. For example, the additional scalar degree of freedom in f(R)-gravity or non-local gravity can be interpreted as the cosmon of quintessence. Nevertheless, modified gravity can shed light on questions of interpretation, naturalness and simplicity. We present a simple model where gravity is modified by a field dependent Planck mass. It leads to a universe with a cold and slow beginning. This cosmology can be continued to the infinite past such that no big bang singularity occurs. All observables can be described equivalently in a hot big bang picture with inflation and early dark energy.

  1. Modified Nanodiamonds for Detoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Natalie Marie

    essential for interacting with charged molecules, like OTA. Furthermore, the increased ZPs lead to improved colloidal stabilities over a wide range of pH, which is important for their interaction in the GI tract. While the dyes and OTA illustrated primarily electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, neutrally charged AfB1's adsorption was predominantly based upon the aggregate size of the ND substrate. In addition to mycotoxins, fluorescent dyes, including propidium iodide, pyranine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), were initially utilized during methodological development. Fluorescent dye investigations helped assesses the adsorption mechanisms of NDs and demonstrated the significance of electrostatic interactions. Beyond electrostatic adsorption mechanisms, surface functional groups were also responsible for the amount of dye adsorbed, as was also true in OTA adsorption. Therefore, surface characterization was carried out for several ND samples by FTIR, TOF-SIMS and TDMS analysis. Final results of our studies show that our modified NDs perform better than yeast cells walls and other NDs but comparable to activated charcoal in the adsorption of AfB1, and outperform clay minerals in OTA studies. Moreover, it was demonstrated that adsorption can be maintained in a wide range of pH, thereby, increasing the possibility of NDs use in mycotoxins enterosorbent applications.

  2. Modified polymers for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Christensen, W.; Mayer, L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric materials are modified to serve as stationary phase in chromatographic columns used for separation of atmospheric gases. Materials simplify and improve separation of atmospheric gases in terms of time, quantity of material needed, and sharpness of separation.

  3. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  4. Bioactive aldehyde-modified phosphatidylethanolamines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lilu; Davies, Sean S

    2013-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation generates a variety of lipid aldehydes, which have been recognized to modify protein and DNA, causing inflammation and cancer. However, recent studies demonstrate that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a major target for these aldehydes, forming aldehyde-modified PEs (al-PEs) as a novel family of mediators for inflammation. This review summarizes our current understanding of these al-PEs, including formation, detection, structural characterization, physiological relevance and mechanism of action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  6. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindgvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a methods for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  7. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

  8. Arthroscopically Assisted Modified Jones Procedure.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    The modified Jones procedure is the classic operative treatment of symptomatic clawed hallux. It is composed of transfer of the extensor hallucis longus tendon to the first metatarsal neck and fusion of the hallux interphalangeal joint. The purpose of this technical note is to report the technique of an arthroscopically assisted modified Jones procedure. This can be combined with other minimally invasive bone and soft-tissue procedures to correct all aspects of the complex cavus foot deformity.

  9. Model selection for modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N

    2011-12-28

    In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity.

  10. Stellar oscillations in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-12-01

    Starting from the equations of modified gravity hydrodynamics, we derive the equations of motion governing linear, adiabatic, radial perturbations of stars in scalar-tensor theories. There are two new features: first, the eigenvalue equation for the period of stellar oscillations is modified such that the eigenfrequencies are always larger than predicted by general relativity. Second, the general relativity condition for stellar instability is altered so that the adiabatic index can fall below 4/3 before unstable modes appear. Stars are more stable in modified gravity theories. Specializing to the case of chameleonlike theories, we investigate these effects numerically using both polytropic Lane-Emden stars and models coming from modified gravity stellar structure simulations. We find that the change in the oscillation period of Cepheid star models can be as large as 30% for order-one matter couplings and the change in the inferred distance using the period-luminosity relation can be up to three times larger than if one had only considered the modified equilibrium structure. We discuss the implications of these results for recent and upcoming astrophysical tests and estimate that previous methods can produce new constraints such that the modifications are screened in regions of Newtonian potential of O(10-8).

  11. Modeling covalent-modifier drugs.

    PubMed

    Awoonor-Williams, Ernest; Walsh, Andrew G; Rowley, Christopher N

    2017-05-18

    In this review, we present a summary of how computer modeling has been used in the development of covalent-modifier drugs. Covalent-modifier drugs bind by forming a chemical bond with their target. This covalent binding can improve the selectivity of the drug for a target with complementary reactivity and result in increased binding affinities due to the strength of the covalent bond formed. In some cases, this results in irreversible inhibition of the target, but some targeted covalent inhibitor (TCI) drugs bind covalently but reversibly. Computer modeling is widely used in drug discovery, but different computational methods must be used to model covalent modifiers because of the chemical bonds formed. Structural and bioinformatic analysis has identified sites of modification that could yield selectivity for a chosen target. Docking methods, which are used to rank binding poses of large sets of inhibitors, have been augmented to support the formation of protein-ligand bonds and are now capable of predicting the binding pose of covalent modifiers accurately. The pKa's of amino acids can be calculated in order to assess their reactivity towards electrophiles. QM/MM methods have been used to model the reaction mechanisms of covalent modification. The continued development of these tools will allow computation to aid in the development of new covalent-modifier drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Autoimmunity and oxidatively modified autoantigens

    PubMed Central

    Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative damage mediated by reactive oxygen species results in the generation of deleterious by-products. The oxidation process itself and the proteins modified by these molecules are important mediators of cell toxicity and disease pathogenesis. Aldehydic products, mainly the 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, form adducts with proteins and make them highly immunogenic. Proteins modified in this manner have been shown to induce pathogenic antibodies in a variety of diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), alcoholic liver disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 8-oxodeoxyguanine (oxidatively modified DNA) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) occur in SLE, a disease in which premature atherosclerosis is a serious problem. In addition, immunization with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) modified 60 kD Ro autoantigen induces an accelerated epitope spreading in an animal model of SLE. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and AGE modified IgG have been shown to correlate with RA disease activity. Oxidatively modified glutamic acid decarboxylase is important in type 1 DM, while autoantibodies against oxidized LDL are prevalent in Behcet’s disease. The fragmentation of scleroderma specific autoantigens occurs as a result of oxidative modification and is thought to be responsible for the production of autoantibodies through the release of cryptic epitopes. The administration of antioxidants is a viable untried alternative for preventing or ameliorating autoimmune disease, particularly on account of the overwhelming evidence for the involvement of oxidative damage in autoimmunity. However, this should be viewed in the light of disappointing results obtained with the use of antioxidants in cardiovascular disease. PMID:18625446

  13. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  14. Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindgvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1998-01-06

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 1 fig.

  15. Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Lindqvist, Y.; Schneider, G.

    1999-03-30

    Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity. 2 figs.

  16. The Plasma Assisted Modified Betatron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-27

    instability. This is a particular concern because it is now established that two other similar devices, HIPAC 16 and SPAC 1117 were disrupted by the ion... HIPAC or SPAC II. In the modified betatron, even if parameters are right for it, there is still a good chance that it will be stabilized by the

  17. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA.

  18. Cosmological hints of modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The recent measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies made by the Planck satellite have provided impressive confirmation of the Λ CDM cosmological model. However interesting hints of slight deviations from Λ CDM have been found, including a 95% C.L. preference for a "modified gravity" (MG) structure formation scenario. In this paper we confirm the preference for a modified gravity scenario from Planck 2015 data, find that modified gravity solves the so-called Alens anomaly in the CMB angular spectrum, and constrains the amplitude of matter density fluctuations to σ8=0.81 5-0.048+0.032 , in better agreement with weak lensing constraints. Moreover, we find a lower value for the reionization optical depth of τ =0.059 ±0.020 (to be compared with the value of τ =0.079 ±0.017 obtained in the standard scenario), more consistent with recent optical and UV data. We check the stability of this result by considering possible degeneracies with other parameters, including the neutrino effective number, the running of the spectral index and the amount of primordial helium. The indication for modified gravity is still present at about 95% C.L., and could become more significant if lower values of τ were to be further confirmed by future cosmological and astrophysical data. When the CMB lensing likelihood is included in the analysis the statistical significance for MG simply vanishes, indicating also the possibility of a systematic effect for this MG signal.

  19. Modifying Students' Tastes in Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, John Edward

    To test whether student tastes in poetry could be modified by a particular method of teaching it, the poetic preferences of 751 eighth grade students were pretested and compared with the poetic choices made by a panel of English educators, 35 student teachers in English, and the students' own English teachers. Consistently, poems selected by any…

  20. Modified Activated Carbon Perchlorate Sorbents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-25

    and Accomplishments .................................................................................................. 13 Synthesis of Modified...The most promising technology for perchlorate remediation is bioremediation by perchlorate reducing bacteria to destroy perchlorate under...perchlorate reducing bacteria . This is a “SEED-like” proposal aimed specifically at synthesizing GMACs and determining their suitability as perchlorate

  1. Enamel wear of modified porcelains.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Suzuki, S; Fukushima, S

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the wear of three different modified ceramics along with a conventional porcelain and the wear of opposing enamel at initial wear cycle on a two-body and a three-body wear simulation. Modified ceramics used in this study included a low fusing/low crystal porcelain (Finesse), a high fusing/low crystal porcelain (Softspar), and a heat-pressable ceramic (IPS Empress). A conventional porcelain (Ceramco II) was used as the control material. Hemispherical shaped ceramic styli (1/8 inch in diameter) made of respective materials were fabricated according to the manufacturers' directions. Proximal surfaces of non-carious human molars were ground flat within the enamel with a silicon carbide paper to 600 grit with copious irrigation. They were perpendicularly opposed to each other with or without intermediate material as a food bolus and subjected to in vitro wear test by a UAB wear simulator. A 75.6 N load was applied vertically onto the surface at 1.2 Hz. The surface was duplicated after respective wear cycles. Seven specimens were tested for each group of both simulations. The enamel wear loss when opposing the modified ceramics was less than the Ceramco II control which exhibited the greatest values. The IPS Empress material showed the least amount of wear among them. Statistically significant differences were seen between the IPS Empress and the Ceramco II for every cycle interval evaluated (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Although the enamel wear loss when opposing the IPS Empress was significantly less (ANOVA, P < 0.05) than the others until 20,000 wear cycles, no significant differences were found among the modified ceramics at the end of 50,000 wear cycles. The concentric wear patterns were already prominent at 5,000 wear cycles on two-body wear, however, the wear facet of the three-body wear was smaller (the wear depth of 0-5 microm) than the two-body wear test, as it was quite similar to the one of the two-body wear test at 100 wear cycles. On the other hand

  2. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2017-04-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  3. Modified gravity inside astrophysical bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Ryo; Langlois, David; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Gleyzes, Jérôme E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr

    2015-06-01

    Many theories of modified gravity, including the well studied Horndeski models, are characterized by a screening mechanism that ensures that standard gravity is recovered near astrophysical bodies. In a recently introduced class of gravitational theories that goes beyond Horndeski, it has been found that new derivative interactions lead to a partial breaking of the Vainshtein screening mechanism inside any gravitational source, although not outside. We study the impact of this new type of deviation from standard gravity on the density profile of a spherically symmetric matter distribution, in the nonrelativistic limit. For simplicity, we consider a polytropic equation of state and derive the modifications to the standard Lane-Emden equations. We also show the existence of a universal upper bound on the amplitude of this type of modified gravity, independently of the details of the equation of state.

  4. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2016-12-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  5. The Toolbox for Modified Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Sergey A; Chudinov, Alexander V; Timofeev, Edward N

    2016-02-01

    Aptamers are nucleic acid-based scaffolds that can bind with high affinity to a variety of biological targets. Aptamers are identified from large DNA or RNA libraries through a process of directed molecular evolution (SELEX). Chemical modification of nucleic acids considerably increases the functional and structural diversity of aptamer libraries and substantially increases the affinity of the aptamers. Additionally, modified aptamers exhibit much greater resistance to biodegradation. The evolutionary selection of modified aptamers is conditioned by the possibility of the enzymatic synthesis and replication of non-natural nucleic acids. Wild-type or mutant polymerases and their non-natural nucleotide substrates that can support SELEX are highlighted in the present review. A focus is made on the efforts to find the most suitable type of nucleotide modifications and the engineering of new polymerases. Post-SELEX modification as a complementary method will be briefly considered as well.

  6. Generalized gravity from modified DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakatani, Yuho; Uehara, Shozo; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2017-04-01

    Recently, generalized equations of type IIB supergravity have been derived from the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of type IIB superstring theory in the Green-Schwarz formulation. These equations are covariant under generalized T -duality transformations and hence one may expect a formulation similar to double field theory (DFT). In this paper, we consider a modification of the DFT equations of motion by relaxing a condition for the generalized covariant derivative with an extra generalized vector. In this modified double field theory (mDFT), we show that the flatness condition of the modified generalized Ricci tensor leads to the NS-NS part of the generalized equations of type IIB supergravity. In particular, the extra vector fields appearing in the generalized equations correspond to the extra generalized vector in mDFT. We also discuss duality symmetries and a modification of the string charge in mDFT.

  7. Evaluation of Asphalt Binder Modifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    or SBS rubber described as an oil-extended polymer produced in pellet form. This type of rubber is available in other solid forms such as crumb or...is done to improve the performance characteristics of future pavements. Many research programs have been conducted on asphalt modifiers. Most of...tests were conducted during the second year of the study and resultant data were used to choose five materials to meet the test objectives of this

  8. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The third-difference approach to modified Allan variance (MVAR) leads to a tractable formula for a measure of MVAR estimator confidence, the equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), in the presence of power-law phase noise. The effect of estimation stride on edf is tabulated. A simple approximation for edf is given, and its errors are tabulated. A theorem allowing conservative estimates of edf in the presence of compound noise processes is given.

  9. Analysis of genetically modified oils.

    PubMed

    Hazebroek, J P

    2000-11-01

    Genetically modified oils with altered functional or nutritional characteristics are being introduced into the marketplace. A wide array of analytical techniques has been utilized to facilitate developing these oils. This article attempts to review the utilization of these analytical procedures for characterizing both the chemistry and some functionality of these oils. Although techniques to assess oxidative stability in frying and food applications are covered, measurement of nutritional characteristics are not.

  10. Comment on Modified Stokes Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D.M.; Utku, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is common practice in passive microwave remote sensing (microwave radiometry) to express observables as temperatures and in the case of polarimetric radiometry to use what are called "Modified Stokes Parameters in Brightness Temperature" to describe the scene. However, definitions with slightly different normalization (with and without division by bandwidth) have appeared in the literature. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an analysis to clarify the meaning of terms in the definition and resolve the question of the proper normalization.

  11. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers was initiated in an effort to identify common genetic variants that modify... GWAS of 1250 BRCA1 mutation carriers diagnosed with breast cancer and 1250 unaffected BRCA1 carriers using Human660W-Quad arrays. The 1250 unaffected...cancer on H uman660W-Quad arrays. In addition we acquired GWAS genotype data for 120 additional BRCA1 mutation carriers affected with ovarian

  12. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    cancer suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer in this population. A genome wide association study ( GWAS ) for ovarian cancer...cancer and 1,000 age-matched unaffected BRCA1 carriers. As outlined in detail in our previous annual report, we recently conducted a GWAS of BRCA1...between ovarian cancer risk and SNPs implicated in Aim 1 by genotyping 1,500 BRCA1 ovarian cancer cases and 1,500 unaffected BRCA1 carriers. GWAS

  13. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-04-18

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  14. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  15. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  16. Crystallization modifiers in lipid systems.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Miyasaki, Eriksen Koji; Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; Stroppa, Valter Luís Zuliani; de Oliveira, Glazieli Marangoni; Kieckbusch, Theo Guenter

    2015-07-01

    Crystallization of fats is a determinant physical event affecting the structure and properties of fat-based products. The stability of these processed foods is regulated by changes in the physical state of fats and alterations in their crystallization behavior. Problems like polymorphic transitions, oil migration, fat bloom development, slow crystallization and formation of crystalline aggregates stand out. The change of the crystallization behavior of lipid systems has been a strategic issue for the processing of foods, aiming at taylor made products, reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing the applicability and stability of different industrial fats. In this connection, advances in understanding the complex mechanisms that govern fat crystallization led to the development of strategies in order to modulate the conventional processes of fat structuration, based on the use of crystallization modifiers. Different components have been evaluated, such as specific triacyglycerols, partial glycerides (monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols), free fatty acids, phospholipids and emulsifiers. The knowledge and expertise on the influence of these specific additives or minor lipids on the crystallization behavior of fat systems represents a focus of current interest for the industrial processing of oils and fats. This article presents a comprehensive review on the use of crystallization modifiers in lipid systems, especially for palm oil, cocoa butter and general purpose fats, highlighting: i) the removal, addition or fractionation of minor lipids in fat bases; ii) the use of nucleating agents to modify the crystallization process; iii) control of crystallization in lipid bases by using emulsifiers. The addition of these components into lipid systems is discussed in relation to the phenomena of nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, thermal behavior and polymorphism, with the intention of providing the reader with a complete panorama of the associated mechanisms

  17. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  18. Cosmological tests of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  19. Dark matter in modified gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuragawa, Taishi; Matsuzaki, Shinya

    2017-02-01

    We explore a new horizon of modified gravity from the viewpoint of particle physics. As a concrete example, we take the F (R ) gravity to raise a question: can a scalar particle ("scalaron") derived from the F (R ) gravity be a dark matter candidate? We place the limit on the parameter in a class of F (R ) gravity model from the constraint on the scalaron as a dark matter. The role of the screening mechanism and compatibility with the dark energy problem are addressed.

  20. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  1. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  2. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  3. Estimating the Modified Allan Variance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles

    1995-01-01

    A paper at the 1992 FCS showed how to express the modified Allan variance (mvar) in terms of the third difference of the cumulative sum of time residuals. Although this reformulated definition was presented merely as a computational trick for simplifying the calculation of mvar estimates, it has since turned out to be a powerful theoretical tool for deriving the statistical quality of those estimates in terms of their equivalent degrees of freedom (edf), defined for an estimator V by edf V = 2(EV)2/(var V). Confidence intervals for mvar can then be constructed from levels of the appropriate 2 distribution.

  4. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  5. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Modified Norway Post Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement... existing bilateral agreement for inbound competitive services with Posten Norge AS (Modified Norway...

  6. The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Passanisi, Alessia; Jonsson, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However…

  7. Modified Synthesis of Erlotinib Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Barghi, Leila; Aghanejad, Ayuob; Valizadeh, Hadi; Barar, Jaleh; Asgari, Davoud

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: An improved and economical method has been described for the synthesis of erlotinib hydrochloride, as a useful drug in treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Method: Erlotinib hydrochloride was synthesized in seven steps starting from 3, 4-dihydroxy benzoic acid. In this study, we were able to modify one of the key steps which involved the reduction of the 6-nitrobenzoic acid derivative to 6-aminobenzoic acid derivative. An inexpensive reagent such as ammonium formate was used as an in situ hydrogen donor in the presence of palladium/charcoal (Pd/C) instead of hydrogen gas at high pressure. Result: This proposed method proceeded with 92% yield at room temperature. Synthesis of erlotinib was completed in 7 steps with overall yield of 44%. Conclusion: From the results obtained it can be concluded that the modified method eliminated the potential danger associated with the use of hydrogen gas in the presence of flammable catalysts. It should be mentioned that the catalyst was recovered after the reaction and could be used again. PMID:24312780

  8. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  9. A modified fluid percussion device.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, T; Murakami, N; Iwamoto, Y; Yoshino, E; Nakagawa, Y; Ueda, S; Horikawa, J; Tsujii, T

    1994-10-01

    This report examines a modified fluid percussion device with specific improvements made to address deficiencies found in previously reported devices. These improvements include the use of a cylindrical saline reservoir made of stainless steel, placement of the reservoir in a 15-degree head-up position for the easy release of air bubbles, placement of the fluid flushing outlet and the pressure transducer close to the piston on the same plane, with both perpendicular to the direction of the piston, and adjustable reservoir volume to vary the waveform of the pressure pulse, and a metallic central injury screw secured to the animal's skull over the exposed dura. Using this device, midline fluid percussion (MFP) and lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injuries were performed in 70 rats. Histopathologic findings included diffuse axonal injury in the MFP model and cortical contusion in the LFP model. Survival rate was 41.4% in MFP animals and 100% in LFM animals when the device settings were 178 mm3 of the cylindrical reservoir and 50 degrees-60 degrees in height of the pendulum. Our results suggest that this modified fluid percussion device may offer significant improvements over previously reported fluid percussion models for use in experimental head injury.

  10. Investigation of modified asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimich, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Currently the problem of improving the asphalt quality is very urgent. It is used primarily as topcoats exposed to the greatest relative to the other layers of the road, dynamic load - impact and shear. The number of cars on the road, the speed of their movement, as well as the traffic intensity increase day by day. We have to upgrade motor roads, which entails a huge cost. World experience shows that the issue is urgent not only in Russia, but also in many countries in Europe, USA and Asia. Thus, the subject of research is the resistance of asphalt concrete to water and its influence on the strength of the material at different temperatures, and resistance of pavement to deformation. It is appropriate to search for new modifiers for asphaltic binder and mineral additives for asphalt mix to form in complex the skeleton of the future asphalt concrete, resistant to atmospheric condensation, soil characteristics of the road construction area, as well as the growing road transport load. The important task of the work is searching special modifying additives for bitumen binder and asphalt mixture as a whole, which will improve the quality of highways, increasing the period between repairs. The methods described in the normative-technical documentation were used for the research. The conducted research allowed reducing the frequency of road maintenance for 7 years, increasing it from 17 to 25 years.

  11. Multiplexed DNA-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Slinker, Jason D; Muren, Natalie B; Gorodetsky, Alon A; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2010-03-03

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with 4-fold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with high reproducibility, as confirmed by statistical comparison to commercially available rod electrodes. The working electrode areas on the chips were reduced to 10 microm in diameter, revealing microelectrode behavior that is beneficial for high sensitivity and rapid kinetic analysis. These results illustrate how DME chips facilitate sensitive and selective detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets in a robust and internally standardized multiplexed format.

  12. Multiplexed DNA-Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Slinker, Jason D.; Muren, Natalie B.; Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of silicon chips with 16 DNA-modified electrodes (DME chips) utilizing DNA-mediated charge transport for multiplexed detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets. Four DNA sequences were simultaneously distinguished on a single DME chip with fourfold redundancy, including one incorporating a single base mismatch. These chips also enabled investigation of the sequence-specific activity of the restriction enzyme Alu1. DME chips supported dense DNA monolayer formation with high reproducibility, as confirmed by statistical comparison to commercially available rod electrodes. The working electrode areas on the chips were reduced to 10 µm in diameter, revealing microelectrode behavior that is beneficial for high sensitivity and rapid kinetic analysis. These results illustrate how DME chips facilitate sensitive and selective detection of DNA and DNA-binding protein targets in a robust and internally standardized multiplexed format. PMID:20131780

  13. Dark energy versus modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Martin; Sapone, Domenico

    2007-03-23

    There is now strong observational evidence that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. The standard explanation invokes an unknown "dark energy" component. But such scenarios are faced with serious theoretical problems, which has led to increased interest in models where instead general relativity is modified in a way that leads to the observed accelerated expansion. The question then arises whether the two scenarios can be distinguished. Here we show that this may not be so easy, demonstrating explicitly that a generalized dark energy model can match the growth rate of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model and reproduce the 3+1 dimensional metric perturbations. Cosmological observations are then unable to distinguish the two cases.

  14. Method of modifying a surface

    DOEpatents

    Renk, Timothy J.; Sorensen, Neil R.; Senft, Donna Cowell; Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G.; Thompson, Michael O.; Grabowski, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

  15. Time reversal for modified oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero-Soto, R.; Suslov, S. K.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a new completely integrable case of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in ®n with variable coefficients for a modified oscillator that is dual (with respect to time reversal) to a model of the quantum oscillator. We find a second pair of dual Hamiltonians in the momentum representation. The examples considered show that in mathematical physics and quantum mechanics, a change in the time direction may require a total change of the system dynamics to return the system to its original quantum state. We obtain particular solutions of the corresponding nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We also consider a Hamiltonian structure of the classical integrable problem and its quantization.

  16. Chern-Simons Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiou, P.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation will be based on my, undergraduate, thesis at Aristotle University of Thessoliniki with the same subject, supervised by Professor Demetrios Papadopoulos. I will first present the general mathematical formulation of the Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, which is split in a dynamical and a non-dynamical context, and the different physical theories which suggest this modification. Then proceed by examing the possibility that the CS theory shares solutions with General Relativity in both contexts. In the non-dynamical context I will present a new, undocumented solution as well as all the other possible solutions found to date. I will conclude by arguing that General Relativity and CS Theory share any solutions in the dynamical context.

  17. Modifying gravity at low redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Shaw, Douglas E-mail: c.vandebruck@sheffield.ac.uk E-mail: d.shaw@qmul.ac.uk

    2010-04-01

    We consider the growth of cosmological perturbations in modified gravity models where a scalar field mediates a non-universal Yukawa force between different matter species. The growth of the density contrast is altered for scales below the Compton wave-length of the scalar field. As the universe expands, the Compton wave-length varies in time in such a way that scales which were outside the range of the scalar field force may feel it at a lower redshift. In this case, both the exponent γ measuring the growth of Cold Dark Matter perturbations and the slip function representing the ratio of the two Newtonian potentials ψ and φ may differ from their values in General Relativity at low redshift.

  18. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    SciTech Connect

    Baskes, M.I.

    1994-08-01

    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideally suited for examining the interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how the parameters of the MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examines the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show non-uniform deformation of the fiber.

  19. SUMMARY OF 2009 RHEOLOGY MODIFIER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.

    2009-12-08

    The overall objective of the EM-31 Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents program is to utilize commercially available rheology modifiers to increase the solids fraction of radioactive sludge based waste streams, resulting in an increase in throughput and decreasing the overall processing time. The program first investigates the impact of rheology modifiers on slurry simulants and then utilizes the most effective rheology modifiers on radioactive slurries. The work presented in this document covers the initial investigation of rheology modifier testing with simulants. This task is supported by both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The SRNL EM-31 task, for this year, was to investigate the use of rheology modifiers on simulant Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feeds. The task is to determine, based on the impact of the rheology modifier, if there are rheology modifiers that could reduce the water content of the slurry going to the DWPF melter, hence increasing the melt rate by decreasing the water loading. The rheology modifier in essence would allow a higher solids content slurry to have the same type of rheology or pumpability of a lower solids slurry. The modifiers selected in this report were determined based on previous modifiers used in high level waste melter feed simulants, on-going testing performed by counterparts at PNNL, and experiences gain through use of modifiers in other Department of Energy (DOE) processes such as grout processing. There were 12 rheology modifiers selected for testing, covering both organic and inorganic types and they were tested at four different concentrations for a given melter feed. Five different DWPF melter feeds were available and there was adequate material in one of the melter feeds to increase the solids concentration, resulting in a total of six simulants for testing. The mass of melter feed available in each simulant was not adequate for

  20. Modified-PCNL without modified instruments: a description of technique.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Michael J; Shapiro, Edan Y; Cha, Doh Yoon; Gupta, Mantu

    2013-06-01

    Mini-PCNL was developed to reduce the morbidity of PCNL by using smaller tract sizes. Most mini-techniques, however, require specialized instruments and use ureteroscopes as surrogates for nephroscopes, resulting in decreased visualization, poor irrigation, and difficult fragment extraction. We describe our modified technique (mPCNL) that allows for the use of standard PCNL equipment through a tract that is smaller than standard PCNL (sPCNL) but larger than previously reported for mini-PCNL. After ureteral access with a coaxial anti-retropulsion device, the patient is placed in the prone position. After percutaneous access under fluoroscopic guidance, a 24F balloon dilating catheter is used to place a 24F Amplatz sheath. A standard 26F rigid nephroscope is used to complete the entire procedure, with the modification of selectively removing the outer sheath to allow the scope to fit in the smaller tract. Standard lithotripters and graspers are used, as necessary. ROLE IN PRACTICE: We have performed this technique on 52 patients with a mean stone burden of 19.4 mm. Overall stone-free rate was 100%, even for stones >2 cm. This technique allows for improved visualization and irrigation compared with other mini-PCNL procedures and obviates the need to purchase specialized equipment.

  1. Percutaneous permeation modifiers: enhancement versus retardation.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Diksha; Batheja, Priya; Kilfoyle, Brian; Rai, Vishwas; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2008-05-01

    The use of permeation enhancers to compromise the barrier properties of skin has been ongoing for decades. However, toxicity associated with certain xenobiotics has led to the development of permeation retardants. Since both enhancers and retardants modify the surface layer of the skin, they can be collectively referred to as penetration modifiers. This review attempts to outline a comparison of two types of penetration modifiers: enhancers and retardants. In addition to reports of enhancement and retardation by modifiers, we also provide evidence as to why we should group these compounds together, since we have found that retardants can become enhancers in different formulation environments. Since modifiers influence drug delivery, further exploration of these compounds is required to understand their modifying action on the properties of skin.

  2. Bouncing universe with modified dispersion relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, employing the modified dispersion relation, we have derived the general modified Friedmann equations and the corresponding modified entropy relations for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe. In this setup, we find that when the big bounce happens, its energy scale and its corresponding modified entropy behavior are sensitive to the value of k. In contrast to the previous work with k=0, our work mainly demonstrates that the bouncing behavior for the closed Universe with k=1 appears at the normal energy limit of the modified dispersion relation introduced, and when bouncing phenomenon is in presence, its modified entropy is just equal to zero. Surprisingly, when k=-1, the bouncing behavior is in absence.

  3. Contact Stress of Modified Curvilinear Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Gu, Ming-Lune

    2010-10-01

    The contact characteristics of a modified curvilinear gear set were investigated based on finite element analysis in this study. Firstly, the mathematical model of the modified curvilinear gears was developed based on the theory of gearing. Then a solid model of a modified curvilinear gear set was built by utilizing computer-aided design software. Finite element analysis enabled us to investigate the contact stress of a contact teeth pair. The variation and distribution of the contact stresses and bending stresses are also studied under different gear design parameters. Finally, illustrative examples were presented to demonstrate the contact characteristics of the modified curvilinear gears.

  4. [Therapeutic approaches using genetically modified cells].

    PubMed

    Anliker, Brigitte; Renner, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal products containing genetically modified cells are, in most cases, classified as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products. Although no medicinal product containing genetically modified cells has been licensed in Europe yet, a variety of therapeutic strategies using genetically modified cells are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. In this chapter, several examples of promising approaches are presented, with an emphasis on gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiencies and on tumour immunotherapy with genetically modified T-cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor or a recombinant T-cell receptor.

  5. Rheological Modifiers and Wetting Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Hansen, Erich; Berg, John C.

    2009-10-01

    DOE tank waste treatment plants, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at Hanford and Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River, are designed to vitrify radioactive waste slurries for long-term storage. Plant throughput is currently limited by the waste solids loading. To increase waste throughput rates in the plant, an increase in the slurry solids concentration (or conversely, a reduction in the mass fraction of water in the waste) is being considered. However, the present mechanical designs used to mix and transport theses slurries are limited by the rheological properties. This reduction of water results in an increase in rheological properties that challenge plant design and performance. To support this increase in throughput, there is a need to reduce the rheological properties of these waste slurries. The objective of this project is to determine a small set of well-performing and commercially available rheological modifiers that allow control rheological properties of various simulated and actual waste slurries and to understand the physical mechanisms that govern modification of waste rheology. It is estimated that processing at a higher solids concentration will reduce the operating life of these plants by one year for both facilities, representing roughly $1B in lifecycle cost savings. In addition, this research is potentially important to sustainable operations of both WTP and DWPF

  6. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  7. Nonderivative modified gravity: a classification

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L. E-mail: fabrizio.nesti@irb.hr

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the theories of gravity modified by a generic nonderivative potential built from the metric, under the minimal requirement of unbroken spatial rotations. Using the canonical analysis, we classify the potentials V according to the number of degrees of freedom (DoF) that propagate at the nonperturbative level. We then compare the nonperturbative results with the perturbative DoF propagating around Minkowski and FRW backgrounds. A generic V implies 6 propagating DoF at the non-perturbative level, with a ghost on Minkowski background. There exist potentials which propagate 5 DoF, as already studied in previous works. Here, no V with unbroken rotational invariance admitting 4 DoF is found. Theories with 3 DoF turn out to be strongly coupled on Minkowski background. Finally, potentials with only the 2 DoF of a massive graviton exist. Their effect on cosmology is simply equivalent to a cosmological constant. Potentials with 2 or 5 DoF and explicit time dependence appear to be a further viable possibility.

  8. Modified endoscopic left inguinal lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Maestro, M; Rios Gonzalez, E; Martinez-Piñeiro, L; Sanchez Gomez, F J

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic Inguinal Lymphadenectomy is an evolution of laparoscopic surgery thanks to background in these techniques. This is a new technique and the indications in the field of penile tumors today are expanding. The technique aims at reducing the morbidity of the procedure without compromising the cancer control or reducing the template of the dissection. We present the modified endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy in a 70 years-old male patient with penile melanoma and positive sentinel lymph node in left inguinal limb. Intraoperative data, pathology, post operatory evolution and oncological follow-up is described Operative time was 120 min. Nine lymph nodes were retrieved and none of then showed positivity at pathology. There were no complications. The drain was kept for five days. After 12 months of follow up, no signs of disease progression were noted. The endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy is feasible in clinical practice. New studies with a greater number of patients and long-term follow-up may confirm the oncological efficacy and possible lower morbidity of these new approach. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological Response Modifiers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reang, Purabi; Gupta, Madhur; Kohli, Kamlesh

    2006-01-01

    We have seen a surge in the use of immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Biological response modifiers can act passively by enhancing the immunologic response to tumor cells or actively by altering the differentiation/growth of tumor cells. Active immunotherapy with cytokines such as interferons (IFNs) and interleukins (IL-2) is a form of nonspecific active immune stimulation. The use of IL-2 has recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and metastatic colorectal cancer. Considerable success has been achieved with the use of immunotherapy, especially in the area of passive immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies – in particular, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. In addition to the various monoclonal antibodies that have been used in clinical trials, other strategies such as the use of antiangiogenic agents and matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMPIs) have also met with some success. Recently, the FDA approved bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. This review also sheds light on the various angiogenesis inhibitors in clinical trials, the increasing use of thalidomide in cancer, and the upcoming potential cancer vaccines designed to activate cell-mediated immune responses against tumor antigens. PMID:17415315

  10. Radiation modified high impact polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelčić, Želimir; Ranogajec, Franjo

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of applying high energy (ionising) radiation with absorbed doses up to 1 MGy was to achieve controllable changes in mechanical properties of high impact polystyrene (PS-HI) and, at the same time, to investigate the possibility of using reprocessed irradiated polymeric material. Dielectric relaxation of a radiation modified high impact polystyrene (PS-HI) has been investigated by the time dependence of charging and discharging current. The transient currents for the irradiated PS-HI were well approximated by the power function of the logarithm of time and related to the fractal dimension. It was also shown that yield strength and tensile strength increase while elongation at break decreases with increasing absorbed dose. The specimen prepared by a post-irradiation moulding gave higher melt flow rate than those of specimen formed before irradiation. These results indicate that after radiation the system of PS-HI is reprocessable. It is concluded that an oxygen environment at the beginning of irradiation leads to enhanced chain scission at the expense of crosslinks via peroxide formation and causes oxidative degradation of the main polymer chain of irradiated PS-HI at a low absorbed dose. However, at higher absorbed doses the quasi-inert environment has been established and crosslinking, due to recombination of macroradicals, is dominant.

  11. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment.

  12. Wave propagation in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, Jan Ø.; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the propagation of scalar waves induced by matter sources in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity which include screening mechanisms for the scalar degree of freedom. The usual approach when studying these theories in the nonlinear regime of cosmological perturbations is based on the assumption that scalar waves travel at the speed of light. Within general relativity this approximation is valid and leads to no loss of accuracy in the estimation of observables. We find, however, that mass terms and nonlinearities in the equations of motion lead to propagation and dispersion velocities significantly different from the speed of light. As the group velocity is the one associated with the propagation of signals, a reduction of its value has direct impact on the behavior and dynamics of nonlinear structures within modified gravity theories with screening. For instance, the internal dynamics of galaxies and satellites submerged in large dark matter halos could be affected by the fact that the group velocity is smaller than the speed of light. It is therefore important, within such a framework, to take into account the fact that different parts of a galaxy will see changes in the environment at different times. A full nonstatic analysis may be necessary under those conditions.

  13. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  14. Organically modified silicate aerogels, ``Aeromosils``

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.J.; Mackenzie, J.D.; Rubio-Alonso, F.

    1996-12-31

    Aerogels derived from sol-gel oxides such as silica have become quite scientifically popular because of their extremely low densities, high surface areas, and their interesting optical, dielectric, thermal and acoustic properties. However, their commercial applicability has thus far been rather limited, due in great part to their brittleness and hydrophilicity. In prior work by the research group, modifying silicate gel structures with flexible, organic containing polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane imparted significant compliance (even rubbery behavior) and hydrophobicity. These materials have been referred to as Ormosils. This study expounds on the current effort to extend these desirable properties to aerogels, and in-so-doing, creating novel ``Aeromosils``. Reactive incorporation of hydroxy-terminal polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into silica sol-gels was made using both acid and two-step acid/base catalyzed processes. Aerogels were derived by employing the supercritical CO{sub 2} technique. Analyses of microstructure were made using nitrogen adsorption (BET surface area and pore size distribution), and some mechanical strengths were derived from tensile strength testing. Interesting Aeromosil properties obtained include optical transparency, surface areas of up to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g, rubberiness, and better strength than corresponding silica aerogels with elongations at break exceeding 5% in some cases.

  15. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear

  16. X-0557 modified Steven tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Idar, D. J.; Mang, J. T.; Straight, J. W.; Schafstall, P.; Pacheco, A. H.; Osborn, M. A.; Coulter, W. L.; DeLuca, R. A.; Chavez, Peter J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact leading to unintentional reaction is of concern in accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of high explosives (HE). Various experimental techniques, from small- to large-scale, have been used to investigate the potential conditions leading to a high explosive violent reaction (HEVR) for pristine as well as aged materials. PBX 9501, one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) HE formulations, is routinely evaluated for potential aging mechanisms that may influence performance and or safety criteria. Ultimately, the data derived from the aging analyses will be used to further advance 3-D finite element analysis predictive capability with improved bulk constitutive HE models for the assessment of HE response to mechanical insult. The Modified Steven test geometry was used to investigate the mechanical loading behavior and response of baseline and virtually-aged PBX 9501 lots. The PBX 9501 binder system is composed of nitroplasticized Estane 5703{trademark}, a polyester polyurethane copolymer. The nitroplasticizer (NP) can migrate out of the PBX 9501 as a function of time, resulting in increased brittle behavior and response. To mimic extreme NP depletion four lots of X-0557 were formulated with reduced NP concentrations for comparison to the baseline PBX 9501. Changes to the mechanical behavior response of the PBXs as a function of plasticizer loss may eventually affect the response of the HE to low amplitude impact. The threshold velocity to reaction, and energy release for the different lots are reported, compared and evaluated for trends as a function of NP weight percent.

  17. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for 70+ Adults. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. I...

  18. 49 CFR 595.6 - Modifier identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Accommodate People With Disabilities § 595.6 Modifier identification. (a) Any motor vehicle repair business that modifies a motor vehicle to enable a person with a disability to operate, or ride as a passenger in, the motor vehicle and intends to avail itself of the exemption provided in 49 CFR 595.7 shall...

  19. 49 CFR 595.6 - Modifier identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Accommodate People With Disabilities § 595.6 Modifier identification. (a) Any motor vehicle repair business that modifies a motor vehicle to enable a person with a disability to operate, or ride as a passenger in, the motor vehicle and intends to avail itself of the exemption provided in 49 CFR 595.7 shall...

  20. 49 CFR 595.6 - Modifier identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Accommodate People With Disabilities § 595.6 Modifier identification. (a) Any motor vehicle repair business that modifies a motor vehicle to enable a person with a disability to operate, or ride as a passenger in, the motor vehicle and intends to avail itself of the exemption provided in 49 CFR 595.7 shall...

  1. 49 CFR 595.6 - Modifier identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Accommodate People With Disabilities § 595.6 Modifier identification. (a) Any motor vehicle repair business that modifies a motor vehicle to enable a person with a disability to operate, or ride as a passenger in, the motor vehicle and intends to avail itself of the exemption provided in 49 CFR 595.7 shall...

  2. Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure

    Treesearch

    Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank

    2009-01-01

    This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...

  3. Modified LaRC(TM)-IA Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.; Hou, Tan H.; Working, Dennis C.

    1994-01-01

    Modified versions of thermoplastic polyimide LaRC(TM)-IA incorporate various amounts of additional, rigid moieties into backbones of LaRC(TM)-IA molecules. Modified versions more resistant to solvents and exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures, yet retain melt-flow processability of unmodified LaRC(TM)-IA.

  4. Viscosity function in polymer-modified asphalts.

    PubMed

    Stastna, J; Zanzotto, L; Vacin, O J

    2003-03-01

    Asphalt is a multidisperse micellar system with rheological behavior resembling that of a low-molecular-weight polymer. Nowadays, asphalt is frequently modified by blending it with various polymers. Such modified asphalt has rheological properties that differ from the properties of the base asphalt. It is quite common to study asphalt in dynamic experiments. Such studies, however useful, cannot reveal all characteristic features of polymer-modified asphalts. Asphalt modification by polymers is strongly manifested in the region of transitions from a viscoelastic fluid to the Newtonian fluid. The viscosity study in this region can reveal behavior characteristic of the used polymer modifier, thus complementing the dynamic studies of these materials. The viscosity of base asphalt modified by styrene-butadiene-styrene and by ethylene-vinyl acetate polymers (in several concentrations) is studied and discussed in this note.

  5. Genistein Modified Polymer Blends for Hemodialysis Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Teng; Kyu, Thein; Define, Linda; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    A soybean-derived phytochemical called genistein was used as a modifying agent to polyether sulfone/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PES/PVP) blends to produce multi-functional hemodialysis membranes. With the aid of phase diagrams of PES/PVP/genistein blends, asymmetric porous membranes were fabricated by coagulating in non-solvent. Both unmodified and genistein modified PES/PVP membranes were shown to be non-cytotoxic to the blood cells. Unmodified PES/PVP membranes were found to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, whereas the genistein modified membranes exhibited suppression for ˜60% of the ROS levels. Also, the genistein modified membranes revealed significant suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Moreover, addition of PVP to PES showed the reduced trend of platelet adhesion and then leveled off. However, the modified membranes exhibited suppression of platelet adhesion at low genistein loading, but beyond 15 wt%, the platelet adhesion level rised up.

  6. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  7. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  8. Modified Fittings Enhance Industrial Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is not only home to one of the largest buildings in the world - the massive Vehicle Assembly Building - it also hosts a number of one-of-a-kind facilities. The more than 30-mile-long campus has witnessed every launch from the Space Shuttle Launch Pad, as well as many homecomings at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Just as important, the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) has seen each element of the International Space Station (ISS) that passes through Kennedy before it goes into orbit. The SSPF is where ISS components are checked, tested, and adjusted before being packed into the Space Shuttle for transport. In an environment like the SSPF - spanning 457,000 square feet of processing areas, operational control rooms, laboratories, logistics areas, and office space - large workstands and equipment used to support the processing of ISS components need to be moved around the facility. One of the devices employed for this task is an air pallet. An air pallet moves on cushions of air instead of wheels. Compressed air inflates the cushions underneath the pallet and is then expelled through exhaust holes. This forms a thin film of air between the cushions and the floor, lifting the platform off the floor and making it easy to move the heavy workstands, equipment, and ISS components. Concerned with the safety of the connections on the pressurized air hoses used for the air pallets, engineers at Kennedy modified an existing commercial cam and groove fitting to control the air supply hose in the event of an accidental release of a pressurized hose. This modification prevented the hose from detaching and, propelled by compressed air, striking workers or equipment. "At the time, these were not available on commercial coupling halves, so NASA made a modification and then put them into use. If a worker were to accidentally try to remove a pressurized hose from the pallet, it no longer rapidly separated, and it safely relieved the pressure," says Paul

  9. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  10. A modified siphon sampler for shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    A modified siphon sampler (or 'single-stage sampler') was developed to sample shallow water at closely spaced vertical intervals. The modified design uses horizontal rather than vertical sample bottles. Previous siphon samplers are limited to water about 20 centimeters (cm) or more in depth; the modified design can sample water 10 cm deep. Several mounting options were used to deploy the modified siphon sampler in shallow bedrock streams of Middle Tennessee, while minimizing alteration of the stream bed. Sampling characteristics and limitations of the modified design are similar to those of the original design. Testing showed that the modified sampler collects unbiased samples of suspended silt and clay. Similarity of the intake to the original siphon sampler suggests that the modified sampler would probably take downward-biased samples of suspended sand. Like other siphon samplers, it does not sample isokinetically, and the efficiency of sand sampling can be expected to change with flow velocity. The sampler needs to be located in the main flow of the stream, and is subject to damage from rapid flow and floating debris. Water traps were added to the air vents to detect the flow of water through the sampler, which can cause a strong upward bias in sampled suspended-sediment concentration. Water did flow through the sampler, in some cases even when the top of the air vent remained above water. Air vents need to be extended well above maximum water level to prevent flow through the sampler.

  11. Organically modified silicas on metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dean, Stacey L; Stapleton, Joshua J; Keating, Christine D

    2010-09-21

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling.

  12. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  13. Organically Modified Silicas on Metal Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling. PMID:20715881

  14. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-30

    As part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)'s strategic development scope for the Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste feed acceptance and product qualification scope, the SRNL has been requested to recommend candidate rheology modifiers to be evaluated to adjust slurry properties in the Hanford Tank Farm. SRNL has performed extensive testing of rheology modifiers for use with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulated melter feed - a high undissolved solids (UDS) mixture of simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm sludge, nitric and formic acids, and glass frit. A much smaller set of evaluations with Hanford simulated waste have also been completed. This report summarizes past work and recommends modifiers for further evaluation with Hanford simulated wastes followed by verification with actual waste samples. Based on the review of available data, a few compounds/systems appear to hold the most promise. For all types of evaluated simulated wastes (caustic Handford tank waste and DWPF processing samples with pH ranging from slightly acidic to slightly caustic), polyacrylic acid had positive impacts on rheology. Citric acid also showed improvement in yield stress on a wide variety of samples. It is recommended that both polyacrylic acid and citric acid be further evaluated as rheology modifiers for Hanford waste. These materials are weak organic acids with the following potential issues: The acidic nature of the modifiers may impact waste pH, if added in very large doses. If pH is significantly reduced by the modifier addition, dissolution of UDS and increased corrosion of tanks, piping, pumps, and other process equipment could occur. Smaller shifts in pH could reduce aluminum solubility, which would be expected to increase the yield stress of the sludge. Therefore, it is expected that use of an acidic modifier would be limited to concentrations that do not

  15. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, Ronald Alfred; Lewis, Irwin Charles

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

  16. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  17. Genetically modified pig models for human diseases.

    PubMed

    Fan, Nana; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-02-20

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies. Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases, some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology. Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy, physiology, and genome. Thus, pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases. This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological, cardiovascular, and diabetic disorders. We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  18. Allosteric regulation of epigenetic modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, Beth E; Cole, Philip A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic enzymes including histone modifying enzymes are key regulators of gene expression in normal and disease processes. Many drug development strategies to target histone modifying enzymes have focused on ligands that bind to enzyme active sites, but allosteric pockets offer potentially attractive opportunities for therapeutic development. Recent biochemical studies have revealed roles for small molecule and peptide ligands binding outside of the active sites in modulating the catalytic activities of histone modifying enzymes. Here we highlight several examples of allosteric regulation of epigenetic enzymes and discuss the biological significance of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Leon

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that some lifestyle factors are linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many of these are potentially modifiable and include smoking, physical activity, education, social engagement, cognitive stimulation, and diet. Modification of most of these factors has other health advantages, increasing the potential benefits of modifying the individual's lifestyle. Unfortunately, most of the current evidence is based on observational data, and where human trials have been performed they have used surrogate outcomes rather than the development of Alzheimer's disease. For many of these modifiable lifestyle factors, such trials may never be performed, and an individual's choice may need to be based on the available evidence.

  20. Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, K; Beidler, L M

    1968-09-20

    The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet.

  1. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    SciTech Connect

    Lundie, P. |; McLeod, N.

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  2. Compatibilizer for crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Labib, M.E.; Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    The United States of America discards more than 300 million tires each year, and out of that a large fraction of the tires is dumped into stock piles. This large quantity of tires creates an environmental problem. The use of scrap tires is limited. There is a usage potential in such fields as fuel for combustion and Crumb Rubber-Modified Asphalt binder (CRMA). The use of crumb rubber in modifying asphalt is not a new technique; it is been used since early 1960 by pavement engineers. Crumb rubber is a composite of different blends of natural and synthetic rubber (natural rubber, processing oils, polybutadiene, polystyrene butadiene, and filler). Prior research had concluded that the performance of crumb rubber modified asphalt is asphalt dependent. In some cases it improves the Theological properties and in some cases it degrades the properties of modified asphalt.

  3. Small molecule modifiers of circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2013-08-01

    Circadian clocks orchestrate 24-h oscillations of essential physiological and behavioral processes in response to daily environmental changes. These clocks are remarkably precise under constant conditions yet highly responsive to resetting signals. With the molecular composition of the core oscillator largely established, recent research has increasingly focused on clock-modifying mechanisms/molecules. In particular, small molecule modifiers, intrinsic or extrinsic, are emerging as powerful tools for understanding basic clock biology as well as developing putative therapeutic agents for clock-associated diseases. In this review, we will focus on synthetic compounds capable of modifying the period, phase, or amplitude of circadian clocks, with particular emphasis on the mammalian clock. We will discuss the potential of exploiting these small molecule modifiers in both basic and translational research.

  4. A flame-resistant modified polystyrene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karle, D. W.; Kratze, R. H.; Pacioren, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    Several modified polystyrenes have been developed that are self-extinguishing in air. Information is included in report that also describes molding and fabrication properties, toxicology, and thermal behavior of the polymers.

  5. 27 CFR 24.21 - Modified forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.21 Modified.... Except to adapt tax returns for use with data processing equipment, no proposal for modification of a...

  6. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research 2013 August 2013 (historical) Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Altering a key protein involved in the development of vitiligo may protect against—or even reverse—the pigmentation ...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared from refined beef fat; butterfat or...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared...

  12. Synthesis of post-translationally modified proteins.

    PubMed

    van Kasteren, Sander

    2012-10-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins can have dramatic effect on the function of proteins. Significant research effort has gone into understanding the effect of particular modifications on protein parameters. In the present paper, I review some of the recently developed tools for the synthesis of proteins modified with single post-translational modifications at specific sites in the protein, such as amber codon suppression technologies, tag and modify, and native chemical ligation.

  13. Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    September 1995 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Polyelectrolyte-Modified Zinc Phosphate Coatings 6. AUTHOR(S) T. Sugama, N. Carciello and C.I...ADVANCED POLYELECTROLYTE-MODIFIED ZINC PHOSPHATE COATINGS ft PAL - ?y- 3 $> Phase I. Annual Report (October 1994 - September 1995) ^ by T. Sugama, N...and Cr-nitrates, 3 ) the substitution of environmentally safe polyelectrolyte for the conventional chrome-based compounds in the rinsing process, 4

  14. Oviposition-Modifying Substances for Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Coquillett at various con- centrations in olfactometer units. The most effective repellents for Cx. P. quinquefasciatus were acetic and isobutyric acids...oviposition-modifying substances in laboratory olfactometers . 6. To investigate the sensory physiology of the oviposition-modifying substances and to identify...exhibited I ovipositional’ repellency against Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis at I * 5 the concentration of 6x10- 2% in laboratory olfactometer

  15. Modified locking thread form for fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roopnarine, (Inventor); Vranish, John D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A threaded fastener has a standard part with a standard thread form characterized by thread walls with a standard included angle, and a modified part complementary to the standard part having a modified thread form characterized by thread walls which are symmetrically inclined with a modified included angle that is different from the standard included angle of the standard part's thread walls, such that the threads of one part make pre-loaded edge contact with the thread walls of the other part. The thread form of the modified part can have an included angle that is greater, less, or compound as compared to the included angle of the standard part. The standard part may be a bolt and the modified part a nut, or vice versa. The modified thread form holds securely even under large vibrational forces, it permits bi-directional use of standard mating threads, is impervious to the build up of tolerances and can be manufactured with a wider range of tolerances without loss of functionality, and distributes loading stresses (per thread) in a manner that decreases the possibility of single thread failure.

  16. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  17. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  18. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  19. Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Foods

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Steve L.

    2001-01-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption. PMID:19265878

  20. Gout: a review of non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Lindsey A.; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2014-01-01

    Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid within the joints. Gout affects millions worldwide and has an increasing prevalence. Recent research has been carried out to better qualify and quantify the risk factors predisposing individuals to gout. These can largely be broken into non-modifiable risk factors such as sex, age, race, and genetics, and modifiable risk factors such as diet and lifestyle. Increasing knowledge of factors predisposing certain individuals to gout could potentially lead to improved preventive practices. This review summarizes the non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors associated with development of gout. PMID:25437279

  1. Cocaine modifies brain lipidome in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiyun; Gu, Hui; Jiang, Linhong; Xu, Wei; Liu, Chunqi; Li, Yan; Qian, Xinying; Li, Dandan; Li, Zhuoling; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Huaqin; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2017-08-19

    Lipids are predominant components of the brain and key regulators for neural structure and function. The neuropsychopharmacological effect of cocaine has been intensively investigated; however, the impact of cocaine on brain lipid profiles is largely unknown. In this study, we used a LC-MS-based lipidomic approach to investigate the impact of cocaine on brain lipidome in two mouse models, cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) and hyperlocomotor models and the lipidome was profoundly modified in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum respectively. We comprehensively analyzed the lipids among 21 subclasses across 7 lipid classes and found that cocaine profoundly modified brain lipidome. Notably, the lipid metabolites significantly modified were sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids in the NAc, showing a decrease in ceramide and an increase in its up/downstream metabolites levels, and decrease lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphoethanolamine (LPE) and increase phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) levels, respectively. Moreover, long and polyunsaturated fatty acid phospholipids were also markedly increased in the NAc. Our results show that cocaine can markedly modify brain lipidomic profiling. These findings reveal a link between the modified lipidome and psychopharmacological effect of cocaine, providing a new insight into the mechanism of cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling void abundance in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Lima, Marcos; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2017-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f (R ) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surveys, the combination of void and halo statistics including their abundances, profiles and correlations should be effective in distinguishing modified gravity models that display different screening mechanisms.

  3. Black hole thermodynamics in MOdified Gravity (MOG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureika, Jonas R.; Moffat, John W.; Faizal, Mir

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the thermodynamical properties of black holes in a modified theory of gravity, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without dark matter. The thermodynamics of non-rotating and rotating black hole solutions resembles similar solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with the electric charge being replaced by a new mass dependent gravitational charge Q =√{ αGN } M. This new mass dependent charge modifies the effective Newtonian constant from GN to G =GN (1 + α), and this in turn critically affects the thermodynamics of the black holes. We also investigate the thermodynamics of regular solutions, and explore the limiting case when no horizons forms. So, it is possible that the modified gravity can lead to the absence of black hole horizons in our universe. Finally, we analyze corrections to the thermodynamics of a non-rotating black hole and obtain the usual logarithmic correction term.

  4. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  5. [Modified albumin in harp seal blood serum].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    1999-01-01

    The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.

  6. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health.

  7. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  8. [Researches on PEG-modified copolymer nanoparticle].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Xiangliang

    2003-03-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles acting as drug carrier have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery and controllable drug delivery. However, these carriers cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To overcome this limitation, more and more researchers introduce hydrophilic polyethylene glyeol(PEG) to modify polymeric nanoparticles for avoiding their uptake by reticulo-endothelial system. Introducing PEG not only changes polymer nanoparticles' biodegradation in vivo, but also influences drug's properties such as drug release, in vivo biodistribution, et. al. In this paper are reviewed the researches of PEG-modified copolymer nanoparticles, including their preparation and size distribution, stability, drug incorporation, drug release, in vivo biodistribution, in vitro cytotoxicty. A prospect for the researches and developments of the PEG-modified copolymer nanoparticles was also made.

  9. A fast route to modified gravitational growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Tessa; Ferreira, Pedro; Skordis, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    The growth rate of the large-scale structure of the Universe has been advocated as the observable par excellence for testing gravity on cosmological scales. By considering linear-order deviations from general relativity, we show that corrections to the growth rate, f, can be expressed as an integral over a "source" term, weighted by a theory-independent "response kernel." This leads to an efficient and accurate "plug-and-play" expression for generating growth rates in alternative gravity theories, bypassing lengthy theory-specific computations. We use this approach to explicitly show that f is sensitive to a degenerate combination of modified expansion and modified clustering effects. Hence the growth rate, when used in isolation, is not a straightforward diagnostic of modified gravity.

  10. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    1997-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  11. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Chang, Caren; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    1998-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  12. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1998-10-20

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 67 figs.

  13. Plants having modified response to ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, E.M.; Chang, C.; Bleecker, A.B.

    1997-11-18

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype. 31 figs.

  14. Coprecal: materials accounting in the modified process

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Shipley, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an advanced materials accounting system for a uranium-plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility based on the General Electric Coprecal process as modified by Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and DuPont Engineering. The modifications include adding small aliquot tanks to feed the process and reconfiguring the calciner filter systems. Diversion detection sensitivities for the modified Coprecal process are somewhat better than the original Coprecal design, but they are still significantly worse than a same-sized conversion facility based on the oxalate (III) precipitation process.

  15. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    DOEpatents

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  16. Polysaccharide-Modified Synthetic Polymeric Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Aaron D.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. PMID:20091875

  17. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu

    2012-01-01

    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  18. Newton modified barrier method in constrained optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the Newton method for solving constrained (non-smooth) optimization problems. This approach is based on the modified barrier functions (MBF) theory and on the global converging step-size version of the Newton method for smooth unconstrained optimization. Due to the excellent properties of the MBF near primal-dual solution, the Newton modified barrier method (NMBM) has a better rate of convergence, better complexity bound, and is much more stable in the final stage of the computational process than the methods which are based on the classical barrier functions (CBF).

  19. Magnetically modified microalgae and their applications.

    PubMed

    Safarik, Ivo; Prochazkova, Gita; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Branyik, Tomas

    2016-10-01

    The majority of algal cells can interact with a wide range of nano- and microparticles. Upon interaction the modified cells usually maintain their viability and the presence of foreign material on their surfaces or in protoplasm can provide additional functionalities. Magnetic modification and labeling of microalgal biomass ensures a wide spectrum of biotechnological, bioanalytical and environmental applications. Different aspects of microalgal cell magnetic modification are covered in the review, followed by successful applications of magnetic algae. Modified cells can be employed during their harvesting and removal, applied in toxicity microscreening devices and also as efficient adsorbents of different types of xenobiotics.

  20. [Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms].

    PubMed

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Dias, Aline Peçanha Muzy; Scheidegger, Erica Miranda Damasio; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-01-01

    Since the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM). Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene.

  1. Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398

  2. Modified octupoles for damping coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M. . Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Corbett, W.J. ); Halbach, K. )

    1991-05-01

    The introduction tune spread in circular e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} accelerators with modified octupoles to reduce the loss of dynamic aperture is discussed. The new magnet design features an octupole of field component on-axis and a tapered field structure off-axis to minimize loss of dynamic aperture. Tracking studies show that the modified octupoles can produce the desired tune spread in SPEAR without compromising confinement of the beam. The technique for designing such magnets is presented, together with an example of magnets that give the required field distribution. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Modified 43XX Steels for High Toughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    AL AMMRC TR 80-20 MODIFIED 43XX STEELS FOR HIGH TOUGHNESS T CS.,•, °x ,•, o o,,o,,,sD T I W4 AftELECTE APRIL 1980 J N.J. Kar, V.F. Zackay and E.R...carried out. Isohra tasomions in these steels resulted inn bbaainni 11-v DI FOR Z 47 RITIOW OF I NOV695 IS OBSOLETE UCASFE SECURITY UCLASSIFIEDINOFTI PAGE...this investigation for Si-modified AISI 4330 steel appear to be superior to those for unmodified AISI 4340 and 300-M steels , whilst the strength-tough

  4. Structural optimization using Newton Modified Barrier Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, N. S.; Polyak, R.; Schneur, R.

    1992-09-01

    The Newton Modified Barrier Method (NMBM) was applied to a structural optimization problem with large numbers of design variables and constraints. This mathematical optimization algorithm was based on Modified Barrier Function (MBF) theory and the global converging step version of the Newton Method for smooth unconstrained optimization. For illustrating the convergence characteristics of this method to structural optimization, a truss structure with 721 design variables with constraints on displacements and minimum size requirements was solved. The convergence to the optimum was found to be monotonic. The rate of convergence was compared with solving the same problem with ASTROS and optimality criteria approach.

  5. Modified Coaxial Probe Feeds for Layered Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a modified configuration of a coaxial probe feed for a layered printed-circuit antenna (e.g., a microstrip antenna), the outer conductor of the coaxial cable extends through the thickness of at least one dielectric layer and is connected to both the ground-plane conductor and a radiator-plane conductor. This modified configuration simplifies the incorporation of such radio-frequency integrated circuits as power dividers, filters, and low-noise amplifiers. It also simplifies the design and fabrication of stacked antennas with aperture feeds.

  6. Polysaccharide-modified synthetic polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Aaron D; Kiick, Kristi L

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of polysaccharide-conjugated synthetic polymers and their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds and drug-delivery applications. This topic will be divided into four categories: (1) polymeric materials modified with non-mammalian polysaccharides such as alginate, chitin, and dextran; (2) polymers modified with mammalian polysaccharides such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin; (3) multi-polysaccharide-derivatized polymer conjugate systems; and (4) polymers containing polysaccharide-mimetic molecules. Each section will discuss relevant conjugation techniques, analysis, and the impact of these materials as micelles, particles, or hydrogels used in in-vitro and in-vivo biomaterial applications. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Modified PRISM theory for confined polymers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengjin; Zhang, Chen; Du, Zhongjie; Mi, Jianguo

    2012-11-14

    We propose a modified polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) to describe the interfacial density profiles of polymers in contact with planar and curved solid surfaces. In the theoretical approach, a bridge function derived from density functional method is included. In description of hard-sphere polymer at planar and curved surfaces with an arbitrary external field, the effect of modification has been validated by the available simulation data, except for low density system. When extended to confined real systems, the modified theoretical model also shows an encouraging prospect in description of the interfacial structure and properties.

  8. Modified Arthroscopic Brostrom Procedure With Bone Tunnels.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-08-01

    The open anatomic repair of the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments (modified Brostrom procedure) is widely accepted as the standard surgical stabilization procedure for lateral ankle instability that does not respond to conservative measures. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedures with a suture anchor have been reported to achieve both anatomic repair of the lateral ankle ligaments and management of the associated intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates are higher than open Brostom procedures. Many of these complications are associated with the use of a suture anchor. We report a modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure in which the anterolateral ankle capsule is anchored to the lateral malleolus through small bone tunnels instead of suture anchors.

  9. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch-modified may be safely used as a component of..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1063 - Enzyme-modified lecithin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enzyme-modified lecithin. 184.1063 Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1063 Enzyme-modified lecithin. (a) Enzyme-modified lecithin is prepared by treating... percent of total phosphatides as determined by “Determination of Lysolecithin Content of Enzyme-Modified...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1063 - Enzyme-modified lecithin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enzyme-modified lecithin. 184.1063 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1063 Enzyme-modified lecithin. (a) Enzyme-modified... Lysolecithin Content of Enzyme-Modified Lecithin: Method I,” dated 1985, which is incorporated by reference in...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1063 - Enzyme-modified lecithin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enzyme-modified lecithin. 184.1063 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1063 Enzyme-modified lecithin. (a) Enzyme-modified... Lysolecithin Content of Enzyme-Modified Lecithin: Method I,” dated 1985, which is incorporated by reference in...

  13. Torsion Modified Plasma Screening in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaram, C.; Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    The torsion modified Maxwell-Proca equations when applied to describe a plasma is shown to lead to a correction to the Debye screening length. For hot new born neutron stars the torsion correction is shown to be significant. This effect may provide an indirect evidence for torsion.

  14. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  15. Zirconium modified nickel-copper alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved material for use in a catalytic reactor which reduces nitrogen oxide from internal combustion engines is in the form of a zirconium-modified, precipitation-strengthened nickel-copper alloy. This material has a nominal composition of Ni-30 Cu-0.2 Zr and is characterized by improved high temperature mechanical properties.

  16. 49 CFR 595.6 - Modifier identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Accommodate People With Disabilities § 595.6 Modifier identification. (a) Any motor vehicle repair business..., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. (1)...

  17. Helical Gears Modified To Decrease Transmission Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Tooth surfaces of helical gears modified, according to proposed design concept, to make gears more tolerant of misalignments and to improve distribution of contact stresses. Results in smaller transmission errors, with concomitant decreases in vibrations and noise and, possibly, increases in service lives.

  18. Modified Mean-Pyramid Coding Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Romer, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Modified mean-pyramid coding scheme requires transmission of slightly fewer data. Data-expansion factor reduced from 1/3 to 1/12. Schemes for progressive transmission of image data transmitted in sequence of frames in such way coarse version of image reconstructed after receipt of first frame and increasingly refined version of image reconstructed after receipt of each subsequent frame.

  19. Modified triglyceride oil through reactions with phenyltriazolinedione

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The synthesis of a modified triglyceride oil was achieved through the reactions with 4-phenyl-1,2-4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). 1H NMR was used for structure determination and to monitor the reactions. Several reaction products were produced, and their relative yields depended on the stoichiometry ...

  20. Modified host cells with efflux pumps

    DOEpatents

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous expression of an efflux pump capable of transporting an organic molecule out of the host cell wherein the organic molecule at a sufficiently high concentration reduces the growth rate of or is lethal to the host cell.

  1. A Modified Optacon: Towards an Educational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach-Y-Rita, Paul; Hughes, Barry

    The paper reviews the effects of absence of vision on perceptual functioning and considers ways in which a modified Optacon (which translates images into tactile presentations) can help visually impaired persons acquire critical cognitive and perceptual knowledge. Background research with the Tactile Vision Substitution System, a system for…

  2. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    PubMed

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us.

  3. Intraorbital meningioma: resection through modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2012-01-01

    Intraorbital meningiomas are challenging lesions to excise because of their location and the restricted surgical corridor available due to the presence of important neighboring structures. Lesions located in the posterior one-third of the orbit require skull base approaches for their exposure and safe resection. Frontoorbital and modified orbitozygomatic (OZ) craniotomies may facilitate the exposure and resection of masses in the posterior intraorbital space. Specifically, the one-piece modified OZ craniotomy provides many advantages of the "full" OZ craniotomy (which includes a more extensive zygomatic osteotomy). The modified OZ approach minimizes the extent of frontal lobe retraction and provides ample amount of space for the surgeon to exploit all the working angles to resect the tumor. The following video presentation discusses the nuances of technique for resection of an intraorbital meningioma through modified OZ approach and optic nerve decompression. The nuances of technique will be discussed. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/fP5X2QNr5qk.

  4. Percutaneous penetration modifiers and formulation effects.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Diksha; Costache, Aurora; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2010-02-15

    The enhancement/retardation of percutaneous permeation of diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in the presence of five percutaneous penetration modifiers (laurocapram, 3-dodecanoyloxazolidin-2-one (N-0915), S,S-dimethyl-N-(4-bromobenzoyl) iminosulfurane (DMBIS), S,S-dimethyl-N-(2-methoxycarbonylbenzenesulfonyl) iminosulfurane (DMMCBI) and tert-butyl 1-dodecyl-2-oxoazepan-3-yl-carbamate (TBDOC)) was investigated. These permeation modifiers were formulated in either water, propylene glycol (PG), ethanol or polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400). The permeation studies indicated that laurocapram enhanced DEET permeation in PG, but retarded in PEG 400. Likewise, N-0915 acted as a retardant with ethanol and PEG 400, but not with water. DMBIS decreased the permeation with ethanol as compared to permeation with water, PEG 400 or PG. Similarly, DMMCB acted as a retardant with ethanol and PEG 400, but not with water or PG. TBDOC formulations revealed its activity as a retardant with ethanol, but behaved as enhancer with water, PG and PEG 400. In addition, penetration modifier interactions with stratum corneum ceramide were investigated using chemical modeling. This investigation is significant since it confirms the role of pharmaceutical formulations and shows for the first time that an enhancer can become a retardant or vice versa depending upon the vehicle in which it is applied to the skin. Hence, we should be using the term "penetration modifiers" for all such compounds. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  6. Developing/Modifying Student Affective Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, John E.

    At the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, the Instructional Staff Development Program, Component VI, Developing/Modifying Student Affective Behaviors focuses upon some affective behaviors that promote and are considered vital to the inquiry process. Through teachers trained in the development of affective behaviors, this program has achieved changes…

  7. A modified reconfigurable data path processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesh, G.; Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.

    1991-01-01

    High throughput is an overriding factor dictating system performance. A configurable data processor is presented which can be modified to optimize performance for a wide class of problems. The new processor is specifically designed for arbitrary data path operations and can be dynamically reconfigured.

  8. Generalization of a Modified Food Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1981-01-01

    Assesses preschool children's preferences for eight snack foods and tests procedures to modify preferences for certain foods by having children sort foods according to self-determined categories. Enhanced preferences for target foods generalized to other foods in the same category only for children using semantic sorting categories. (Author/DB)

  9. Evolving targets for lipid-modifying therapy

    PubMed Central

    Do, Rose Q; Nicholls, Stephen J; Schwartz, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis are integrally connected to the concentration and function of lipoproteins in various classes. This review examines existing and emerging approaches to modify low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein (a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and high-density lipoproteins, emphasizing approaches that have progressed to clinical evaluation. Targeting of nuclear receptors and phospholipases is also discussed. PMID:25172365

  10. Solving Differential Equations Using Modified Picard Iteration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many classes of differential equations are shown to be open to solution through a method involving a combination of a direct integration approach with suitably modified Picard iterative procedures. The classes of differential equations considered include typical initial value, boundary value and eigenvalue problems arising in physics and…

  11. Modified borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Au, Ming

    2005-08-29

    In attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as the reversible hydrogen storage materials with the high capacity, the feasibility to reduce dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderate rehydrogenation condition has been explored. The commercial available lithium borohydride has been modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as the additives. The modified lithium borohydrides release 9 wt% hydrogen starting from 473K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorb 7-9 wt% hydrogen at 873K and 7 MPa. The additive modification reduces dehydriding temperature from 673K to 473K and moderates rehydrogenation conditions to 923K and 15 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis discovered the formation of the intermediate compound TiB{sub 2} that may plays the key role in change the reaction path resulting the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide modified lithium borohydrides decreases gradually during hydriding-dehydriding cycling due to the lost of the boron during dehydrogenation. But, it can be prevented by selecting the suitable additive, forming intermediate boron compounds and changing the reaction path. The additives reduce dehydriding temperature and improve the reversibility, it also reduces the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by optimization of the additive loading and introducing new process other than ball milling.

  12. Modified Antifreeze Liquids for Use on Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Report presents results of evaluation of two antifreeze liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol and five viscosity modifiers: gelatin, gum tragacanth, starch, agarose powder and citrus pectin. Purpose of evaluation to find best way of dealing with frost formation on Space Shuttle.

  13. Acoustic scattering by a modified Werner method

    PubMed

    Ravel; Trad

    2000-02-01

    A modified integral Werner method is used to calculate pressure scattered by an axisymmetric body immersed in a perfect and compressible fluid subject to a harmonic acoustic field. This integral representation is built as the sum of a potential of a simple layer and a potential of volume. It is equivalent to the exterior Helmholtz problem with Neumann boundary condition for all real wave numbers of the incident acoustic field. For elastic structure scattering problems, the modified Werner method is coupled with an elastodynamic integral formulation in order to account for the elastic contribution of the displacement field at the fluid/structure interface. The resulting system of integral equations is solved by the collocation method with a quadratic interpolation. The introduction of a weighting factor in the modified Werner method decreases the number of volume elements necessary for a good convergence of results. This approach becomes very competitive when it is compared with other integral methods that are valid for all wave numbers. A numerical comparison with an experiment on a tungsten carbide end-capped cylinder allows a glimpse of the interesting possibilities for using the coupling of the modified Werner method and the integral elastodynamic equation used in this research.

  14. Modified fire-resistant foams forseat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Modified polyimide-polymer resins are precursors for new family of resilient fire-resistant foams. Terpolyimide foams containing long-chain aliphatic diamines withstand 50,000 cycles of compression over a 200 pound load - an equivalent of 3 years of continuous use as seat cushion filler.

  15. Modified penoplasty for concealed penis in children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianyou; Zhang, Liyu; Su, Cheng; Li, Zhongmin; Wen, Yingquan

    2013-09-01

    To report a modified penoplasty technique for concealed penis in children. Between January 2006 and June 2012, 201 cases of concealed penis were surgically repaired with modified penoplasty. The modified penoplasty technique consisted of 3 major steps: (1) degloved the penile skin and excised the inner prepuce, (2) advanced penoscrotal skin to cover penile shaft, and (3) fixed the penis base and reconstructed the penoscrotal angle. Two hundred one cases of concealed penis were enrolled in this study over a period of 6 years. Mean age at the time of surgery was 5.3 years (range 1-13 years) and mean operative time was 40 minutes (range 30-65minutes). All patients were routinely followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Most patients developed postoperative edema and were resolved within 1 month, whereas 20 cases developed prolonged postoperative edema, especially at the site of frenulum, which took 3 months to be resolved. Ten cases had retraction after surgery. No erection difficulties were recorded. Patients/parents reported better hygiene and improved visualization and accessibility of penis after surgery and were satisfied with the cosmetic outcome. The result of this study shows that the modified penoplasty technique is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for concealed penis with satisfied cosmetic outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetically modified plants: public and scientific perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rastogi Verma, Smita

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed.

  17. Multiple Testing with Modified Bonferroni Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianmin; And Others

    This paper discusses the issue of multiple testing and overall Type I error rates in contexts other than multiple comparisons of means. It demonstrates, using a 5 x 5 correlation matrix, the application of 5 recently developed modified Bonferroni procedures developed by the following authors: (1) Y. Hochberg (1988); (2) B. S. Holland and M. D.…

  18. Statistical Power of Modified Bonferroni Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supattathum, Suchada; And Others

    Multiple-hypothesis testing in the context of a correlation matrix is used to compare the statistical power of the original Bonferroni with six modified Bonferroni procedures that control the overall Type I error rate. Three definitions of statistical power are considered: (1) the ability to detect at least one true relationship; (2) the ability…

  19. Modified fire-resistant foams forseat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Lee, R.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Modified polyimide-polymer resins are precursors for new family of resilient fire-resistant foams. Terpolyimide foams containing long-chain aliphatic diamines withstand 50,000 cycles of compression over a 200 pound load - an equivalent of 3 years of continuous use as seat cushion filler.

  20. MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT COVER CONTAINMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to make improvements to conventional paving asphalt to make it more suitable for containment applications, Wilder Construction Co. of Everett, WA offers MatCon, a polymer modified asphalt system comprised of proprietary binder, when coupled with a selected aggregate type...

  1. Modified lithium borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Au, Ming; Jurgensen, Arthur

    2006-04-06

    In an attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as reversible hydrogen storage materials with high hydrogen storage capacities, the feasibility of reducing the dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderating rehydrogenation conditions was explored. The lithium borohydride was modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as additives. The modified lithium borohydrides released 9 wt % hydrogen starting from 473 K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorbed 7-9 wt % hydrogen at 873 K and 7 MPa. The modification with additives reduced the dehydriding starting temperature from 673 to 473 K and moderated the rehydrogenation conditions from 923 K/15 MPa to 873 K/7 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis revealed the formation of an intermediate compound that might play a key role in changing the reaction path, resulting in the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide-modified lithium borohydrides decreased gradually during hydriding/dehydriding cycling. One of the possible reasons for this effect might be the loss of boron during dehydrogenation, but this can be prevented by changing the dehydriding path using appropriate additives. The additives reduced the dehydriding temperature and improved the reversibility, but they also reduced the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by selecting appropriate additives, optimizing the additive loading, and using new synthesis processes other than ball milling.

  2. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Modified Antifreeze Liquids for Use on Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Report presents results of evaluation of two antifreeze liquids, dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol and five viscosity modifiers: gelatin, gum tragacanth, starch, agarose powder and citrus pectin. Purpose of evaluation to find best way of dealing with frost formation on Space Shuttle.

  4. How Landscape Plants Modify the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Sylvia; Wise, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Presents three experiments that provide examples of how plants modify their surroundings and create microenvironments. Examples demonstrate (1) how types of ground cover influence water quality; (2) how plants can create a thermal microenvironment; and (3) how plants can serve as barriers to wind. (MDH)

  5. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  6. Cavitation in block copolymer modified epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declet-Perez, Carmelo; Francis, Lorraine; Bates, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Today, brittleness in epoxy networks limits most commercial applications. Significant toughness can be imparted by adding small amounts of micelle forming block copolymers (BCP) without compromising critical properties such as high use temperature and modulus. Curing the network locks in the self-assembled BCP micellar structures formed in the monomer resin providing control of the resulting morphology. Despite significant research over the last decade, a complete description of the parameters influencing toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies is still lacking. In this presentation we compare the ultimate mechanical behavior of epoxies modified with spherical micelle forming BCP's containing rubbery and glassy cores using real-time in-situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) performed during tensile deformation. Striking differences in the 2D SAXS patterns were documented for epoxies modified with rubbery (PEP) versus glassy (PS) micelle cores. Rubbery cores dilate by 100% in volume upon specimen yielding, while the glassy micelle cores deform at approximately constant volume. These results provide direct evidence of a cavitation mediated mechanism for toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies. We further interpret characteristic butterfly features in the 2D SAXS patterns in terms of epoxy network deformation. Support was provided by the NSF sponsored MRSEC at the University of Minnesota

  7. A Modified Impress Method for Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Russell W., Jr.

    A modified impress approach to teaching reading has been successfully used in a program involving first grade students. The program was multisensory and included aural, oral, visual, and kinesthetic learning experiences gained through listening, group discussions, dramatic play, art activities, audience reading, and recorded oral reading. These…

  8. Computational Aspects of a Modified Bernoulli Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, A.

    We introduce a modified Bernoulli map, which presents f(-1) spectrum. This map is equivalent to a certain symbolic operation of continued fraction representation. From this fact, we can derive various properties of the map, e.g., concerning residence times, from the theory of continued fractions. Furthermore, we can generate true chaotic orbits with intermittent behavior long enough to investigate their statistical properties.

  9. Solving Differential Equations Using Modified Picard Iteration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Many classes of differential equations are shown to be open to solution through a method involving a combination of a direct integration approach with suitably modified Picard iterative procedures. The classes of differential equations considered include typical initial value, boundary value and eigenvalue problems arising in physics and…

  10. Cell microarrays on photochemically modified polytetrafluoroethylene.

    PubMed

    Mikulikova, Regina; Moritz, Sieglinde; Gumpenberger, Thomas; Olbrich, Michael; Romanin, Christoph; Bacakova, Lucie; Svorcik, Vaclav; Heitz, Johannes

    2005-09-01

    We studied the adhesion, proliferation, and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) on modified spots at polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces. The viability of the cells was assessed using an aqueous non-radioactive cell proliferation assay. Round spots with a diameter of 100 microm were modified by exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) light of a Xe(2)(*)-excimer lamp at a wavelength of 172 nm in an ammonia atmosphere employing a contact mask. The spots were arranged in a quadratic pattern with 300 microm center-to-center spot distances. With optimized degree of modification, the cells adhered to the modified spots with a high degree of selectivity (70-90%). The adhered cells on the spots proliferated. This resulted in a significant increase in the number of adhering HUVECS or HEK cells after seeding and in the formation of confluent cell clusters after 3-4 days. With higher start seeding density, these clusters were not only confined to the modified spots but extended several micrometer to the neighborhood. The high potential of the cell microarrays for gene analysis in living cells was demonstrated with HEK cells transfected by yellow fluorescent protein (YFP).

  11. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  12. Helical Gears Modified To Decrease Transmission Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Tooth surfaces of helical gears modified, according to proposed design concept, to make gears more tolerant of misalignments and to improve distribution of contact stresses. Results in smaller transmission errors, with concomitant decreases in vibrations and noise and, possibly, increases in service lives.

  13. Modified cubic convolution resampling for Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, A.; Mckee, B.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of Landsat Thematic Mapper resampling technique, including a modification of the well-known cubic convolution interpolator (nearest neighbor interpolation) used to provide geometric correction for TM data. Post launch study has shown that the modified cubic convolution interpolator can selectively enhance or suppress frequency bands in the output image. This selectivity is demonstrated on TM Band 3 imagery.

  14. A linear combination of modified Bessel functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A linear combination of modified Bessel functions is defined, discussed briefly, and tabulated. This combination was found to recur in the analysis of various heat transfer problems and in the analysis of the thermal behavior of living tissue when modeled by cylindrical shells.

  15. MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT COVER CONTAINMENT SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to make improvements to conventional paving asphalt to make it more suitable for containment applications, Wilder Construction Co. of Everett, WA offers MatCon, a polymer modified asphalt system comprised of proprietary binder, when coupled with a selected aggregate type...

  16. Astronaut Walter Schirra gets modified calonic test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-01-01

    S62-06157 (1962) --- Astronaut Walter Schirra Jr. gets modified calonic test. His balance mechanism (semicircular canals) are tested by running cool water into ear and measuring effect on eye motions (nystagmus) after his six-orbit flight in the Sigma 7 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA

  17. [Genetically modified organisms--problems and legislation].

    PubMed

    Drobník, J

    2002-03-01

    Genetically modified organisms are defined by law as entities capable of replication and/or transmission of hereditary material that had been altered by the insertion or removal of a DNA fragment. By the EU legal regulation as well as by the Czech law, such organisms are considered risky whereas other products of breeding, though obtained by, e.g., induced mutagenesis, are claimed as safe. Organisms transferred from other ecosystems are also considered safe. The Czech law on the use of genetically modified organisms is based on registers of users and organisms for specific use. Application for the registration that is valid as an approval should be submitted to the Ministry of Environment. The applicant is obliged to present the risk assessment of the particular use of genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms are connected with certain risk to ecology, however health risks are brought about almost exclusively by microorganisms. Modified organisms used for food production are thoroughly tested for substantial equivalency with standard crops and with respect to health parameters of the protein(s) newly introduced due to genetic modification. Detail tests as well as their cost are close to the testing of new drugs. European as well as Czech rules for food labelling are motivated by the psychology of consumers rather than by health impact. They result to absurdities but do not meet the task of public psychology. This is why the EU authorities are looking for measures to change the present situation that other wise would bring Europe well behind the developed countries.

  18. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Christopher W.; Pillay, Jeseelan; Metters, Jonathan P.; Banks, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes l-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards l-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate. PMID:25414969

  19. Modifier genes: Moving from pathogenesis to therapy.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Edward R B

    2017-09-01

    This commentary will focus on how we can use our knowledge about the complexity of human disease and its pathogenesis to identify novel approaches to therapy. We know that even for single gene Mendelian disorders, patients with identical mutations often have different presentations and outcomes. This lack of genotype-phenotype correlation led us and others to examine the roles of modifier genes in the context of biological networks. These investigations have utilized vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Since one of the goals of research on modifier genes and networks is to identify novel therapeutic targets, the challenges to patient access and compliance because of the high costs of medications for rare genetic diseases must be recognized. A recent article explored protective modifiers, including plastin 3 (PLS3) and coronin 1C (CORO1C), in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMA is an autosomal recessive deficit of survival motor neuron protein (SMN) caused by mutations in SMN1. However, the severity of SMA is determined primarily by the number of SMN2 copies, and this results in significant phenotypic variability. PLS3 was upregulated in siblings who were asymptomatic compared with those who had SMA2 or SMA3, but identical homozygous SMN1 deletions and equal numbers of SMN2 copies. CORO1C was identified by interrogation of the PLS3 interactome. Overexpression of these proteins rescued endocytosis in SMA models. In addition, antisense RNA for upregulation of SMN2 protein expression is being developed as another way of modifying the SMA phenotype. These investigations suggest the practical application of protective modifiers to rescue SMA phenotypes. Other examples of the potential therapeutic value of novel protective modifiers will be discussed, including in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and glycerol kinase deficiency. This work shows that while we live in an exciting era of genomic sequencing, a functional understanding of biology, the impact of its

  20. Further capacitive imaging experiments using modified probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaokang; Li, Zhen; Yan, An; Li, Wei; Chen, Guoming; Hutchins, David A.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, capacitive imaging (CI) is growing in popularity within the NDE communities, as it has the potential to test materials and structures for defects that are not easily tested by other techniques. In previous work, The CI technique has been successfully used on a various types of materials, including concrete, glass/carbon fibre composite, steel, etc. In such CI experiments, the probes are normally with symmetric or concentric electrodes etched onto PCBs. In addition to these conventional coplanar PCB probes, modified geometries can be made and they can lead to different applications. A brief overview of these modified probes, including high resolution surface imaging probe, combined CI/eddy current probe, and CI probe using an oscilloscope probe as the sensing electrode, is presented in this work. The potential applications brought by these probes are also discussed.

  1. Quality of chemically modified hemp fibers.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Mirjana; Pejic, Biljana; Skundric, Petar

    2008-01-01

    Hemp fibers are very interesting natural material for textile and technical applications now. Applying hemp fibers to the apparel sector requires improved quality fibers. In this paper, hemp fibers were modified with sodium hydroxide solutions (5% and 18% w/v), at room and boiling temperature, for different periods of time, and both under tension and slack, in order to partially extract noncellulosic substances, and separate the fiber bundles. The quality of hemp fibers was characterised by determining their chemical composition, fineness, mechanical and sorption properties. The modified hemp fibers were finer, with lower content of lignin, increased flexibility, and in some cases tensile properties were improved. An original method for evaluation of tensile properties of hemp fibers was developed.

  2. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies.

  3. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food.

  4. Are genetically modified plants useful and safe?

    PubMed

    Weil, Jacques-Henry

    2005-01-01

    So far, plants have been genetically modified essentially to achieve resistance to herbicides, or to pathogens (mainly insects, or viruses), but resistance to abiotic stresses (such as cold, heat, drought, or salt) is also being studied. Genetically modified (GM) plants with improved nutritional qualities have more recently been developed, such as plants containing higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) in their oil (to prevent cardio-vascular diseases), or containing beta-carotene as in the golden rice (to prevent vitamin A deficiency). Possible risks for human health (such as the production of allergenic proteins), or for the environment (such as the appearance of superweeds as a result from gene flow), should be carefully studied, and a science-based assessment of benefits vs. risks should be made on a case by case basis, both for GM plants and for plants obtained by conventional breeding methods.

  5. Modifiable environmental factors in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Yara Dadalti

    2014-11-01

    Potential environmental modifiable factors involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) include low adherence to treatment, smoking, obesity, low levels of liposoluble vitamins A and D, high consumption of salt, and a sedentary lifestyle. Chronic tobacco use, obesity, sedentarism and insufficient levels of these vitamins all contribute to maintenance of a proinflammatory state. It is unlikely that there will be noticeable improvement in the inflammatory condition of MS if stopping smoking, reducing weight, exercising, increasing vitamin levels are done in an isolated and erratic manner. Modification of each and every one of these environmental risk factors is likely to be an important approach in the management of MS. The present review presents the arguments for an association between these hazardous modifiable factors and the chronic inflammatory state observed in MS.

  6. Cephalocentesis with the modified Smellie's perforator.

    PubMed

    Chanrachakul, B; Chittachareon, A; Herabutya, Y

    2002-02-01

    A 37-year-old pregnant woman, gravida 2, para 0, was referred to Ramathibodi Hospital at 31 weeks of gestation with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus and polyhydramnios. Repeated ultrasound scans revealed hydrocephalus with macrocephaly (BPD=10.3 cm), polyhydramnios (AFI=31.5), and a suspected esophageal atresia. After counseling, both parents decided not to pursue the pregnancy and requested vaginal delivery. They decided against transabdominal, ultrasonic-guided cephalocentesis because of its invasiveness, patient's awareness, and pain. Skull decompression with the modified Smellie's perforator was performed after five 400-microg doses of misoprostol were applied to dilate the cervix. The post-partum condition was uneventful. Fetal skull decompression with the modified Smellie's perforator and misoprostol for cervix dilation is a useful, simple, and safe procedure that can be performed with no previous experience.

  7. Genetically modified pigs to model human diseases.

    PubMed

    Flisikowska, Tatiana; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika

    2014-02-01

    Genetically modified mice are powerful tools to investigate the molecular basis of many human diseases. Mice are, however, of limited value for preclinical studies, because they differ significantly from humans in size, general physiology, anatomy and lifespan. Considerable efforts are, thus, being made to develop alternative animal models for a range of human diseases. These promise powerful new resources that will aid the development of new diagnostics, medicines and medical procedures. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of genetically modified porcine models described in the scientific literature: various cancers, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, autosomal polycystic kidney disease, Huntington’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy, haemophilia A, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, Alzheimer’s disease, various forms of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Bae, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    1999-04-01

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch.

  9. WELLFOCUS PPT: Modifying positive psychotherapy for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy.

  10. Chemical and semisynthesis of modified histones.

    PubMed

    Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play critical roles in the epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by directly altering the biophysical properties of chromatin or by recruiting effector proteins. The large number of PTMs and the inherent complexity in their population and signaling processes make it highly challenging to understand epigenetics-related processes. To address these challenges, accesses to homogeneously modified histones are obligatory. Over the last decade, synthetic protein chemists have been devising novel synthetic tools and applying state-of-the-art chemoselective ligation strategies to prepare precious materials useful in answering fundamental questions in this area. In this short review, we cover some of the recent breakthroughs in these directions in particular the synthesis and semi-synthesis of modified histones and their use to unravel the mysteries of epigenetics. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Computational mesomechanics of surface-modified titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balokhonov, R. R.; Martynov, S. A.; Romanova, V. A.; Panin, A. V.; Kazachenok, M. S.; Batukhtina, E. E.; Shakhijanov, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    A numerical simulation is performed to investigate the mesoscale stress-strain localization in a surface-modified commercial titanium alloy (VT1-0 according to Russian classification). The calculated crystalline microstructure corresponds to that observed experimentally and is explicitly accounted for as initial conditions of a dynamic boundary-value problem. The latter is formulated in terms of plane strain developing in a microstructure subjected to tension and is solved numerically by the finite-difference method. Elastic-plastic constitutive models are built to describe the experimental mechanical responses both of the substrate and of the modified layer. The plastic strain localization is found to depend on the grain yield stress.

  12. Optimization of modified volume Fresnel zone plates.

    PubMed

    Srisungsitthisunti, Pornsak; Ersoy, Okan K; Xu, Xianfan

    2009-10-01

    Modified volume Fresnel zone plates (MVFZPs) fabricated with laser direct writing were optimized for higher diffraction efficiencies. The Fresnel radii in each layer of a volume zone plate were iteratively adjusted by a simulation-based direct search optimization. The results show that optimization is effective but depends strongly on the starting diffraction efficiencies determined by the MVFZP parameters. The simulations indicate that the optimized MVFZP can achieve 93% diffraction efficiency.

  13. MODIFY: A Machine-Independent Maintenance Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    PROGRAM THESIS AFIT/GCS/MA/81D-5 Nancy J. Murphy Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited AppMVCed --IF I’U C - ’TDiglributkcn Unlimited AFIT/GCS...MA/81D-5 MODIFY: A MACHINE-INDEPENDENT MAINTENANCE PROGRAM THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of...Machine-Dependent Requirements . . . . . . . . 34 Processing Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Program Description . . . . . . . . 40 IV. Conclusions

  14. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  15. Modified Diet Recipes for Army Medical Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-20

    Beef, ground, thawed Onions, dry, finely- chopped Garlic, dehydrated Nutmeg Egg, whole, slightly beaten Water Cereal, rolled oats Salt SAUCE...tfater, boiling Soup and Gravy base, beef flavored Starch, edible, modified Water, cold Sheese, cottage, low fat Paprika, ground Nutmeg , ground...2 cup 1 1/4 cup 1/2 tsp 1/4 tsp METHOD 1« Combine ground beef, onions, garlic, nutmeg , egg, water, rolled oats and salt« Mix lightly

  16. Disease Modifying Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, U. E.; Oparah, S. K.; Philip-Ephraim, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammatory demyelination and axonal degeneration. It is the commonest cause of permanent disability in young adults. Environmental and genetic factors have been suggested in its etiology. Currently available disease modifying drugs are only effective in controlling inflammation but not prevention of neurodegeneration or accumulation of disability. Search for an effective neuroprotective therapy is at the forefront of multiple sclerosis research. PMID:27355035

  17. Modified Spot Welder Solders Flat Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Soldering device, essentially modified spot welder, melts high-melting-temperature solders without damaging plastic insulation on flat electrical cables. Solder preform rests on exposed conductor of cable, under connector pin. Electrodes press pin/preform/conductor sandwich together and supply pulse of current to melt preform, bonding pin to conductor. Anvil acts as support and heat sink. Device used to solder flexible ribbon cables to subminiature pin connectors.

  18. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  19. Degeneracies in parametrized modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Hojjati, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    We study degeneracies between parameters in some of the widely used parametrized modified gravity models. We investigate how different observables from a future photometric weak lensing survey such as LSST, correlate the effects of these parameters and to what extent the degeneracies are broken. We also study the impact of other degenerate effects, namely massive neutrinos and some of the weak lensing systematics, on the correlations.

  20. Modified Chaplygin gas cosmology with bulk viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaoum, H. B.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the viscous modified Chaplygin gas cosmological model. Solutions for different values of the viscosity parameter are obtained using both analytical and numerical methods. We have calculated the deceleration and defined newly statefinder {r, s} pair in D dimensions. It is shown that when D = 4, the usual statefinder parameters are recovered. Furthermore, we apply the statefinder diagnostic to the MCG model with and without viscosity in D dimensions and explore these parameters graphically.

  1. Engineering sulfotransferases to modify heparan sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ding; Moon, Andrea F.; Song, Danyin; Pedersen, Lars C.; Liu, Jian

    2008-03-19

    The biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves an array of specialized sulfotransferases. Here, we present a study aimed at engineering the substrate specificity of different HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms. Based on the crystal structures, we identified a pair of amino acid residues responsible for selecting the substrates. Mutations of these residues altered the substrate specificities. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of tailoring the specificity of sulfotransferases to modify HS with desired functions.

  2. Theoretical priors on modified growth parametrisations

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yong-Seon; Hollenstein, Lukas; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: Lukas.Hollenstein@unige.ch E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2010-04-01

    Next generation surveys will observe the large-scale structure of the Universe with unprecedented accuracy. This will enable us to test the relationships between matter over-densities, the curvature perturbation and the Newtonian potential. Any large-distance modification of gravity or exotic nature of dark energy modifies these relationships as compared to those predicted in the standard smooth dark energy model based on General Relativity. In linear theory of structure growth such modifications are often parameterised by virtue of two functions of space and time that enter the relation of the curvature perturbation to, first, the matter over- density, and second, the Newtonian potential. We investigate the predictions for these functions in Brans-Dicke theory, clustering dark energy models and interacting dark energy models. We find that each theory has a distinct path in the parameter space of modified growth. Understanding these theoretical priors on the parameterisations of modified growth is essential to reveal the nature of cosmic acceleration with the help of upcoming observations of structure formation.

  3. Special Relativity via Modified Bessel Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    2000-10-01

    The recursive formulas of modified Bessel functions give the relativistic expressions for energy and momentum. Modified Bessel functions are solutions to a continuous time, one-dimensional discrete jump process. The jump process is analyzed from two inertial frames with a relative constant velocity; the average distance of a particle along the chain corresponds to the distance between two observers in the two inertial frames. The recursion relations of modified Bessel functions are compared to the 'k calculus' which uses the radial Doppler effect to derive relativistic kinematics. The Doppler effect predicts that the frequency is a decreasing function of the velocity, and the Planck frequency, which increases with velocity, does not transform like the frequency of a clock. The Lorentz transformation can be interpreted as energy and momentum conservation relations through the addition formula for hyperbolic cosine and sine, respectively. The addition formula for the hyperbolic tangent gives the well-known relativistic formula for the addition of velocities. In the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits the distributions of the particle's position are Gaussian and Poisson, respectively.

  4. Organic intercalation of structure modified vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nian; Wu, Limei; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng

    2015-11-01

    The experiment used cationic surfactants of different chain lengths to intercalate structure modified vermiculites. The influences of structure modification, chain length and dosage of surfactants on the intercalation behavior of vermiculites were studied, and intercalation mechanism and features of interlayer chemical reactions were discussed. Results indicate that structure modified vermiculites with different layer charge have different intercalation behavior. The basal spacing of the organic intercalated modified vermiculite is the largest when acid concentration used in structure modification is 0.003 mol/L, and increases with increasing the chain length and dosage of the organics. Molecular dynamics simulation verifies that interlayer organics align almost parallel to structure layer of vermiculite, with alkyl chain stretching to the middle of interlayer space. -N(+) groups of the three surfactants locate above the leached [SiO4], which has stronger interaction with interlayer organic cations. Electrostatic force is the main interaction force between interlayer organics and structure layer of vermiculite, and then is Van der Waals force, no chemical bond formed.

  5. Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no

    2013-04-01

    In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}, since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.

  6. Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, W.

    1996-12-31

    Biodegradation potential of a modified natural product for treating petroleum contaminated soils was investigated along with some commercially available microbial cultures in three different scales from a laboratory to pilot to case studies. The modified natural product is lignocellulosic in nature and proprietary product of a company in Iowa. The production process of this product involves mechanical size reduction, blending/coating, and aerobic digestion of hay, corn cob residue, straw or crop residue in presence of poultry manure. The degradation kinetics of the petroleum products in the contaminated soils were measured both directly and indirectly. Residual petroleum products in different soils (treated and untreated) at various time periods were quantified by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis on extracted samples. The indirect assessment of the kinetics of biological activity involved the measurement of CO{sub 2} evolved from flasks (250 ml capacity) containing contaminated soil (about 50 ml) with various treatments. The results indicated that the biodegradation kinetics of petroleum products in the contaminated soils were significantly improved by treatment with this modified natural product. In most cases tested, this product performed significantly better than the available commercial bacterial cultures for biological removal of petroleum products from contaminated soils. This study also demonstrated the significance of temperature and moisture content in biodegradation kinetics.

  7. Phenolic removal using phenylamine modified montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiyantoko, Bayu; Lail, Jamalul; Kurniawati, Puji; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Nurrohmah, Ashri; Kurniandari, Safitri

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis, characterization, and application of phenylamine modified montmorillonite have been studied. Preparation of phenylamine modified montmorillonite was conducted by intercalation process using simple amine compound. The changes in physical and chemical properties were observed through the crystal structure, functional groups and acidity as well as the application as an adsorbent for phenolic compound. The diffractogram showed characteristic basal spacing of montmorillonite at 2θ = 7.0710° and 19.8856°, also peaks with sharp intense around 20-30° were 2θ = 28.6181° and 35.0112°. The reflection pattern of phenylamine modified montmorillonite exhibited the shifting of d001 basal spacing at 2θ = 7.0710° into 7.1624° that implied the phenylamine was attached to the surface of montmorillonite. The spectra of FTIR gave the difference of wave number for -OH stretching, -OH bending also Mg-O-Al vibration that distinguished between natural montmorillonite and prepared material. The prepared material has lower acidity value and different surface characters which confirmed by gravimetric and infrared spectrum. The phenolic adsorption using prepared material gave maximum pH at 5 and optimum contact time around 2 hours with adsorption capacity was 24.48%.

  8. Synthesis of laughter by modifying excitation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thati, Sathya Adithya; Kumar K, Sudheer; Yegnanarayana, B

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a method to synthesize laughter by modifying the excitation source information is presented. The excitation source information is derived by extracting epoch locations and instantaneous fundamental frequency using zero frequency filtering approach. The zero frequency filtering approach is modified to capture the rapidly varying instantaneous fundamental frequency in natural laugh signals. The nature of variation of excitation features in natural laughter is examined to determine the features to be incorporated in the synthesis of a laugh signal. Features such as pitch period and strength of excitation are modified in the utterance of vowel /a/ or /i/ to generate the laughter signal. Frication is also incorporated wherever appropriate. Laugh signal is generated by varying parameters at both call level and bout level. Experiments are conducted to determine the significance of different features in the perception of laughter. Subjective evaluation is performed to determine the level of acceptance and quality of synthesis of the synthesized laughter signal for different choices of parameter values and for different input types.

  9. Rheological Modifier Testing with DWPF Process Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2004-02-01

    Rheological modification agents were tested on simulated SRAT and SME products to determine if a suitable agent could be found for the DWPF process slurries. The agents tested were dispersants that lower the rheological properties of slurries by preventing agglomerization. Dolapix CE64, an ethylene glycol, and Disperse-Ayd W28, a polyacrylate, were the most effective dispersants tested. Further evaluation and testing should be performed on Dolapix CE64 and Disperse-Ayd W28 to determine if implementation is possible in DWPF. The initial phase of future work will include optimization of the rheology modifier by the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and development of a maximum concentration limit for the rheology modifiers. IIT has been commissioned to evaluate the properties of these chemicals to determine if the chemical makeup can be optimized to enhance the properties of these modifiers. An initial concentration limit based upon the DWPF flammability limit and other constraints should be calculated to determine the potential downstream impacts.

  10. 3-nitrotyrosine modified proteins in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature death worldwide, and atherosclerosis is the main contributor. Lipid-laden macrophages, known as foam cells, accumulate in the subendothelial space of the lesion area and contribute to consolidate a chronic inflammatory environment where oxygen and nitrogen derived oxidants are released. Oxidatively modified lipids and proteins are present both in plasma as well as atherosclerotic lesions. A relevant oxidative posttranslational protein modification is the addition of a nitro group to the hydroxyphenyl ring of tyrosine residues, mediated by nitric oxide derived oxidants. Nitrotyrosine modified proteins were found in the lesion and also in plasma from atherosclerotic patients. Despite the fact of the low yield of nitration, immunogenic, proatherogenic, and prothrombotic properties acquired by 3-nitrotyrosine modified proteins are in agreement with epidemiological studies showing a significant correlation between the level of nitration found in plasma proteins and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, supporting the usefulness of this biomarker to predict the outcome and to take appropriate therapeutic decisions in atherosclerotic disease.

  11. Microstructure of Hydrophobically Modified Alkyl Acrylamide Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun; Seery, Thomas A. P.; Ho, Derek L.; Weiss, R. A.

    2004-03-01

    Hydrophobically modified water-soluble acrylamide polymers have a variety of applications, including viscosity thickeners, microencapsulation, biosensors and controlled drug delivery systems. The microstructure of copolymer hydrogels of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) or N-isopropylacrylamide(NIPA) modified with 2-(N-ethylfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl acrylate, FOSA, was studied by small angle x-ray (SAXS) and neutron scattering (SANS). Swelling and DSC measurements showed that FOSA/NIPA gels exhibited a volume phase transition (VPT), but that FOSA/DMA gels did not. A modified interacting core-shell model was used to explain the SAXS and SANS data for both gels. The crosslink junctions of the gel consisted of nanophase-separated FOSA domains as the core surrounded by a water-poor layer of the alkyl acrylamide. These nanodomains were dispersed in a matrix of water-swollen alkyl acrylamide that had large scale heterogeneities. The average spherical core radius ranged from 1 to 3 nm and the average shell thickness ranged from 1 to 1.5 nm; the aggregation number ranged from 10 to 200.

  12. Factors that modify radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann R

    2009-11-01

    It is known that numerous factors can influence radiation carcinogenesis in animals; these factors include the specific characteristics of the radiation (radiation type and dose, dose-rate, dose-fractionation, dose distribution, etc.) as well as many other contributing elements that are not specific to the radiation exposure, such as animal genetic characteristics and age, the environment of the animal, dietary factors and whether specific modifying agents for radiation carcinogenesis have been utilized in the studies. This overview focuses on the modifying factors for radiation carcinogenesis, in both in vivo and in vitro systems, and includes a discussion of agents that enhance (e.g., promoting agents) or suppress (e.g., cancer preventive agents) radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The agents that enhance or suppress radiation carcinogenesis in experimental model systems have been shown to lead to effects equally as large as other known modifying factors for radiation-induced carcinogenesis (e.g., dose-rate, dose-fractionation, linear energy transfer). It is known that dietary factors play an important role in determining the yields of radiation-induced cancers in animal model systems, and it is likely that they also influence radiation-induced cancer risks in human populations.

  13. Modifying networks to obtain low cost trees

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Drangmeister, K.U.; Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, S.S.

    1996-07-01

    We consider the problem of reducing the edge lengths of a given network so that the modified network has a spanning tree of small total length. It is assumed that each edge e of the given network has an associated function C{sub e} that specifies the cost of shortening the edge by a given amount and that there is a budget B on the total reduction cost. The goal is to develop a reduction strategy satisfying the budget constraint so that the total length of a minimum spanning tree in the modified network is the smallest possible over all reduction strategies that obey the budget constraint. We show that in general the problem of computing optimal reduction strategy for modifying the network as above in NP-hard and present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem, where the cost functions C{sub e} are allowed to be taken from a broad class of functions. We also present improved approximation algorithms for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs when the cost functions are linear. Our results can be extended to obtain approximation algorithms for more general network design problems such as those considered in [GW, GG+94].

  14. A modified approach to controller partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Veillette, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The idea of computing a decentralized control law for the integrated flight/propulsion control of an aircraft by partitioning a given centralized controller is investigated. An existing controller partitioning methodology is described, and a modified approach is proposed with the objective of simplifying the associated controller approximation problem. Under the existing approach, the decentralized control structure is a variable in the partitioning process; by contrast, the modified approach assumes that the structure is fixed a priori. Hence, the centralized controller design may take the decentralized control structure into account. Specifically, the centralized controller may be designed to include all the same inputs and outputs as the decentralized controller; then, the two controllers may be compared directly, simplifying the partitioning process considerably. Following the modified approach, a centralized controller is designed for an example aircraft mode. The design includes all the inputs and outputs to be used in a specified decentralized control structure. However, it is shown that the resulting centralized controller is not well suited for approximation by a decentralized controller of the given structure. The results indicate that it is not practical in general to cast the controller partitioning problem as a direct controller approximation problem.

  15. Anisotropic singularities in chiral modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfray, Yannick; Krasnov, Kirill; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-12-01

    In four spacetime dimensions, there exists a special infinite-parameter family of chiral modified gravity theories. All these theories describe just two propagating polarisations of the graviton. General relativity (GR) with an arbitrary cosmological constant is the only parity-invariant member of this family. We review how these modified gravity theories arise within the framework of pure-connection formulation. We introduce a new convenient parametrisation of this family of theories by using a certain set of auxiliary fields. Modifications of GR can be arranged so as to become important in regions with large Weyl curvature, while the behaviour is indistinguishable from GR where Weyl curvature is small. We show how the Kasner singularity of GR is resolved in a particular class of modified gravity theories of this type, leading to solutions in which the fundamental connection field is regular all through the spacetime. There arises a new asymptotically De Sitter region ‘behind’ the would-be singularity, the complete solution thus being of a bounce type.

  16. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  17. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, Leonard C.; Ishida, Takanobu

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between -0.24 and +1.25 VSCE while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-ρ-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  18. Modified Lorentz transformations in deformed special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salesi, G.; Greselin, M.; Deleidi, L.; Peruzza, R. A.

    2017-05-01

    We have extended a recent approach to Deformed Special Relativity based on deformed dispersion laws, entailing modified Lorentz transformations and, at the same time, noncommutative geometry and intrinsically discrete space-time. In so doing we have obtained the explicit form of the modified Lorentz transformations for a special class of modified momentum-energy relations often found in literature and arising from quantum gravity and elementary particle physics. Actually, our theory looks as a very simple and natural extension of special relativity to include a momentum cutoff at the Planck scale. In particular, the new Lorentz transformations do imply that for high boost speed (V ˜ c) the deformed Lorentz factor does not diverge as in ordinary relativity, but results to be upper bounded by a large finite value of the order of the ratio between the Planck mass and the particle mass. We have also predicted that a generic boost leaves unchanged Planck energy and momentum, which result invariant with respect to any reference frame. Finally, through matrix deformation functions, we have extended our theory to more general cases with dispersion laws containing momentum-energy mixed terms.

  19. Plasma-Modified Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrabee, Thomas; Prokes, Sharka

    2015-09-01

    PEALD is known to grow thin films with differing properties from those grown purely via chemical reactions, or thermal ALD processes. However, material properties are still limited when compared to films grown by other deposition techniques. We have used non-growth plasma steps in each ALD cycle to modify properties, in a technique we refer to as plasma-modified ALD. To study how non-growth plasma steps modify properties, we have grown metal oxides with various plasma processing steps from CCPs of Ar, O2, N2, and H2 gases at relatively high pressures of 1-2 mbar. A grid is used to screen ion bombardment of the samples within a commercial Beneq TFS-200 reactor, making this plasma configuration indirect, but not remote. Several properties show significant differences between the films grown with and without these additional steps. These altered properties include crystalline orientation as indicated by XRD, plasmon resonances, photoluminescence, electron paramagnetic resonance, optical dispersion, mobilities, carrier concentrations, and resistivities. Selected plasma-initiated modifications to ALD-grown oxides of zinc, vanadium, and hafnium, and their anticipated applications in novel materials systems will be presented. NRC Postdoc at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  20. Comparing dark matter models, modified Newtonian dynamics and modified gravity in accounting for galaxy rotation curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Tang, Li; Lin, Hai-Nan

    2017-05-01

    We compare six models (including the baryonic model, two dark matter models, two modified Newtonian dynamics models and one modified gravity model) in accounting for galaxy rotation curves. For the dark matter models, we assume NFW profile and core-modified profile for the dark halo, respectively. For the modified Newtonian dynamics models, we discuss Milgrom’s MOND theory with two different interpolation functions, the standard and the simple interpolation functions. For the modified gravity, we focus on Moffat’s MSTG theory. We fit these models to the observed rotation curves of 9 high-surface brightness and 9 low-surface brightness galaxies. We apply the Bayesian Information Criterion and the Akaike Information Criterion to test the goodness-of-fit of each model. It is found that none of the six models can fit all the galaxy rotation curves well. Two galaxies can be best fitted by the baryonic model without involving nonluminous dark matter. MOND can fit the largest number of galaxies, and only one galaxy can be best fitted by the MSTG model. Core-modified model fits about half the LSB galaxies well, but no HSB galaxies, while the NFW model fits only a small fraction of HSB galaxies but no LSB galaxies. This may imply that the oversimplified NFW and core-modified profiles cannot model the postulated dark matter haloes well. Supported by Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (106112016CDJCR301206), National Natural Science Fund of China (11305181, 11547305 and 11603005), and Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Y5KF181CJ1)

  1. Weathering performance of surface of thermally modified wood finished with nanoparticles-modified waterborne polyacrylate coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklečić, Josip; Turkulin, Hrvoje; Jirouš-Rajković, Vlatka

    2017-06-01

    In this research the samples of thermally modified (TMT) beech wood samples, finished with waterborne polyacrylate clear coatings modified with nano-sized ZnO and TiO2-rutil were naturally and artificially exposed to weathering conditions. To extend the lifetime of wood and maintain its natural look, the research and development of clear coatings with minimal use of harmful chemicals has become very important. Therefore nano-sized inorganic UV absorbers are increasingly used to enhance the durability of the coating and wood substrate, still retaining the transparency of the coating. During exposure the visual inspection was performed, further the changes of colour, gloss and adhesion were recorded. Interaction of the film with the thermally modified substrate surface were studied. Results showed that the addition of TiO2-rutil and ZnO nanoparticles to the waterborne polyacrylate coating improved the colour stability of thermally modified beech-wood. However, nano-sized ZnO increased the cracking and peeling, and caused the loss in adhesion strength of the film on thermally modified beech wood.

  2. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) The modified polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not... polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified...

  3. Effects of SBS Content on the Performance of Modified Asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Chuanyi; Li, Ning; Zhao, Wei; Cai, Chuanfeng

    2017-06-01

    The effects of different dosage SBS (Styrene-butadiene-styrene) modifiers on the properties of asphalt were compared and analyzed from the temperature sensitivity, high temperature performance and low temperature performance of modified asphalt. The results show that with the increase of the content of SBS modifier, the softening point and kinematic viscosity of SBS modified asphalt are increased and the high temperature performance is improved. The low temperature ductility is improved; the penetration of modified asphalt is reduced, the temperature sensitivity of the asphalt is reduced. However, when the content of modifier is more than 4%, the penetration index of SBS modified asphalt decreases linearly with the increase of the content of modifier, and the temperature sensitivity increases. The engineering application should be determined according to the specific technical requirements.

  4. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  5. Testing modified gravity with cosmic shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnois-Déraps, J.; Munshi, D.; Valageas, P.; van Waerbeke, L.; Brax, P.; Coles, P.; Rizzo, L.

    2015-12-01

    We use the cosmic shear data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey to place constraints on f(R) and Generalized Dilaton models of modified gravity. This is highly complementary to other probes since the constraints mainly come from the non-linear scales: maximal deviations with respects to the General Relativity (GR) + Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario occurs at k ˜ 1 h Mpc-1. At these scales, it becomes necessary to account for known degeneracies with baryon feedback and massive neutrinos, hence we place constraints jointly on these three physical effects. To achieve this, we formulate these modified gravity theories within a common tomographic parametrization, we compute their impact on the clustering properties relative to a GR universe, and propagate the observed modifications into the weak lensing ξ± quantity. Confronted against the cosmic shear data, we reject the f(R) \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 1\\rbrace model with more than 99.9 per cent confidence interval (CI) when assuming a ΛCDM dark matter only model. In the presence of baryonic feedback processes and massive neutrinos with total mass up to 0.2 eV, the model is disfavoured with at least 94 per cent CI in all different combinations studied. Constraints on the \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 2\\rbrace model are weaker, but nevertheless disfavoured with at least 89 per cent CI. We identify several specific combinations of neutrino mass, baryon feedback and f(R) or Dilaton gravity models that are excluded by the current cosmic shear data. Notably, universes with three massless neutrinos and no baryon feedback are strongly disfavoured in all modified gravity scenarios studied. These results indicate that competitive constraints may be achieved with future cosmic shear data.

  6. A dynamic kernel modifier for linux

    SciTech Connect

    Minnich, R. G.

    2002-09-03

    Dynamic Kernel Modifier, or DKM, is a kernel module for Linux that allows user-mode programs to modify the execution of functions in the kernel without recompiling or modifying the kernel source in any way. Functions may be traced, either function entry only or function entry and exit; nullified; or replaced with some other function. For the tracing case, function execution results in the activation of a watchpoint. When the watchpoint is activated, the address of the function is logged in a FIFO buffer that is readable by external applications. The watchpoints are time-stamped with the resolution of the processor high resolution timers, which on most modem processors are accurate to a single processor tick. DKM is very similar to earlier systems such as the SunOS trace device or Linux TT. Unlike these two systems, and other similar systems, DKM requires no kernel modifications. DKM allows users to do initial probing of the kernel to look for performance problems, or even to resolve potential problems by turning functions off or replacing them. DKM watchpoints are not without cost: it takes about 200 nanoseconds to make a log entry on an 800 Mhz Pentium-Ill. The overhead numbers are actually competitive with other hardware-based trace systems, although it has less 'Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by the University of California for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the United States Department of Energy under contract W-7405-ENG-36. accuracy than an In-Circuit Emulator such as the American Arium. Once the user has zeroed in on a problem, other mechanisms with a higher degree of accuracy can be used.

  7. Genetically Modified Foods and Social Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm. PMID:23408723

  8. Some Aspects of Generalized Modified Gravity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrzakulov, R.; Sebastiani, L.; Zerbini, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we review some general aspects of modified gravity theories, investigating mathematical and physical properties and, more specifically, the feature of viable and realistic models able to reproduce the dark energy (DE) epoch and the early-time inflation. We will discuss the black hole (BH) solutions in generalized theories of gravity: it is of fundamental interest to understand how properties and laws of BHs in General Relativity (GR) can be addressed in the framework of modified theories. In particular, we will discuss the energy issue and the possibility to derive the First Law of thermodynamics from the field equations. Then, in the analysis of cosmological solutions, we will pay particular attention to the occurrence of finite-time future singularities and to the possibility to avoid them in F(R,G)-gravity. Furthermore, realistic models of F(R)-gravity will be analyzed in detail. A general feature occurring in matter era will be shown, namely, the high derivatives of Hubble parameter may be influenced by the high frequency oscillation of the DE and some correction term may be required in order to stabilize the theory at high redshift. The inflationary scenario is also carefully analyzed and a unified description of the universe is evolved. In the final part of the work, we will look at the last developments in modified gravity, namely, we will investigate cosmological and BH solutions in a covariant field theory of gravity and we will introduce the extended "teleparallel" F(T)-gravity theories. A nice application to the dark matter (DM) problem will be presented.

  9. Midterm outcome of modified Kidner procedure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Ki Chun; Park, Young Uk; Park, Seung Min; Lee, Young Koo; Deland, Jonathan T

    2012-02-01

    The results of modified Kidner procedures have generally been satisfactory at short-term followup. The objective of this study was to evaluate the midterm followup results including medial longitudinal arch height. Forty-one patients (50 feet) with a symptomatic accessory navicular who underwent the modified Kidner procedure between July 1999 and February 2004 were evaluated. A midfoot AOFAS score, VAS score, and satisfaction rate were recorded. The talo-first metatarsal (T-MT1), talo-calcaneal (TC), and calcaneal pitch (CP) angles were measured on plain radiographs. Average clinical and radiological followup periods were 88.4 ±17.0 months and 85.7 ±15.0 months, respectively. The mean preoperative and followup AOFAS scores were 40.8 ±7.1 (range, 32 to 57), and 88.4 ±7.9 (range, 72 to 100), respectively (p < 0.01). The mean preoperative and followup VAS scores were 7.1 ±1.0 (range, 4 to 9) and 1.8 ±1.0 (range, 0 to 5), respectively (p < 0.01). At last followup , the satisfaction rate was 82.0%. There were no significant differences between preoperative and followup T-MT1 (p = 1.00), TC (p = 0.84), and CP (p = 0.08) angles. Increased medial longitudinal arch was found in four of 16 feet in patients 15 years of age or younger with followup radiographs. We found the modified Kidner procedure could result in symptomatic relief and high satisfaction rate without a loss of arch height in any patient.

  10. Solid waste forecasting using modified ANFIS modeling.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; K N A, Maulud

    2015-10-01

    Solid waste prediction is crucial for sustainable solid waste management. Usually, accurate waste generation record is challenge in developing countries which complicates the modelling process. Solid waste generation is related to demographic, economic, and social factors. However, these factors are highly varied due to population and economy growths. The objective of this research is to determine the most influencing demographic and economic factors that affect solid waste generation using systematic approach, and then develop a model to forecast solid waste generation using a modified Adaptive Neural Inference System (MANFIS). The model evaluation was performed using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and the coefficient of determination (R²). The results show that the best input variables are people age groups 0-14, 15-64, and people above 65 years, and the best model structure is 3 triangular fuzzy membership functions and 27 fuzzy rules. The model has been validated using testing data and the resulted training RMSE, MAE and R² were 0.2678, 0.045 and 0.99, respectively, while for testing phase RMSE =3.986, MAE = 0.673 and R² = 0.98. To date, a few attempts have been made to predict the annual solid waste generation in developing countries. This paper presents modeling of annual solid waste generation using Modified ANFIS, it is a systematic approach to search for the most influencing factors and then modify the ANFIS structure to simplify the model. The proposed method can be used to forecast the waste generation in such developing countries where accurate reliable data is not always available. Moreover, annual solid waste prediction is essential for sustainable planning.

  11. Modified PIOPED criteria used in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Freitas, J E; Sarosi, M G; Nagle, C C; Yeomans, M E; Freitas, A E; Juni, J E

    1995-09-01

    To assess the use of modified PIOPED scintigraphic criteria for lung scan (V/Q) interpretation to detect pulmonary embolism (PE), we prospectively applied these criteria in suspected PE patients referred for V/Q from 9/1/92 to 2/7/94. PIOPED criteria were modified by placing a moderate segmental perfusion mismatch in the intermediate instead of low probability of PE category and using the "stripe sign." Patients were studied by six-view V/Q imaging using 74 MBq (2 mCi) 99mTc-MAA followed by 148-370 MBq (4-10 mCi) 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, contrast pulmonary selective angiography and Doppler sonography with leg compression as needed. Patients underwent follow-up (mean 13.9 mo) to detect subsequent thromboembolic events. In this study group, 1000 patients were studied by V/Q followed by angiography in 133 patients. The distribution of V/Q-assigned PE probabilities was: high probability 5.7%, intermediate 17.4%, low 41.4% and normal 35.5%. Group A patients (133) underwent angiography, which resulted in the determination of a 27.1% PE prevalence. Group B patients (867) did not have angiograms; the clinical prevalence of PE was 7.5%. In the total study population, the positive predictive value of a high probability V/Q study for PE (10.1% prevalence) was 98.2%, intermediate probability V/Q study for PE was 24.1% and a low probability study for PE was only 0.5%. Modified PIOPED V/Q interpretation criteria afford better angioproven PE discrimination between intermediate (31.8% PE prevalence) and low (5.5% PE prevalence) probability V/Q results than reported for PIOPED intermediate (32.6% PE prevalence) and low (16.3% PE prevalence) probability V/Q interpretation criteria.

  12. Alternate/Modified Binders for Airfield Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    TerraceI S OL’TiAYIPTON 509 210W England DESCRIPTION Polybilt, which is also referred to in the literature as Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) is a...thermoplastic copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate . It is supplied as small solid pellets which are sometimes described as ’tear Irops’. USES (AS...some additives modify the - behaviour of the mix so that it is no longer a thermo- rheologically simple material. The creep data obtained at 77F and 104*F

  13. [Modified Galveston technology for lumbosacral tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kang, Jianping; Feng, Daxiong; Ye, Fei; Li, Jun

    2009-12-01

    To study the clinical effects of modified Galveston technology in the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis. From January 2001 to May 2008, 19 patients with lumbosacral tuberculosis were treated, including 13 males and 6 females aged 21-58 years old (average 38 years old). The course of disease was 8-22 months. The tuberculosis was at the L4-S1 level in 3 cases, the L5, S1 level in 10 cases, the L5-S2 level in 5 cases, and the S1, 2 level in 1 case. Seven cases were complicated with neural symptom of the lower limbs, 3 cases of them were grade C and 4 cases were grade D according to the Frankel scale of nerve function. The preoperative JOA score of lower back pain was 5-22 (average 19). Six cases were complicated with iliac abscess, 3 cases with psoas abscess, 3 cases with sacroiliac joint tuberculosis, and 2 cases with pulmonary tuberculosis. For 12 patients, the operation of modified Galveston internal fixation via the posterior approach, focus debridement via vertebral canal, and interbody fusion with autogenous iliac bone fragment grafting was performed; for 7 cases, the operation of modified Galveston internal fixation via the posterior approach, vertebral lamina fusion with autogenous iliac bone fragment grafting, and anterior focus debridement was performed. The incision of 18 cases was healed by first intention, and 1 case had sinus 3 weeks after operation and healed 3 months after operation. Nineteen patients were followed up for 12-82 months (average 21 months). There was no recurrence of the local tuberculosis, and the common toxic symptom of tuberculosis disappeared 6-12 months after operation. All the patients achieved bony fusion 4-6 months postoperatively, and 3 patients with sacroiliac joint tuberculosis achieved sacroiliac joint fusion. For those 7 patients with combinations of the neural symptom of the lower limbs, the symptoms disappeared and their Frankel scales were improved to grade E. The JOA score of low back pain at the final follow-up was

  14. Crystallization of modified hydroxyapatite on titanium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Izmailov, R. R.; Ghyngazov, S. A.; Zaits, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Carbonated-hydroxyapatite (CHA) and Si-hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) precipitation have been synthesized from the model bioliquid solutions (synovial fluid and SBF). It is found that all the samples synthesized from the model solutions are single-phase and represent hydroxyapatite. The crystallization of the modified hydroxyapatite on alloys of different composition, roughness and subjected to different treatment techniques was investigated. Irradiation of the titanium substrates with the deposited biomimetic coating can facilitate further growth of the crystal and regeneration of the surface.

  15. Modified iron oxide nanomaterials: Functionalization and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Samira; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd

    2016-10-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have aroused the interest of researchers of materials' chemistry due to its exceptional properties such as decent magnetic, electric, catalytic, biocompatibility, and low toxicity. However, these magnetic nanoparticles are predisposed towards aggregation and forming larger particles, due to its strong anisotropic dipolar interactions, particularly in the aqueous phase, consequently depriving them of dispersibility and particular properties, ultimately degrading their performance. Hence, this review focuses on modified magnetic nanoparticles that are stable, easily synthesized, possess a high surface area and could be facile-separated via magnetic forces, and are of low toxicity and costs for applications such as catalyst/catalyst support, food security, biomedical, and pollutant remediation.

  16. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Beardmore, J A; Porter, Joanne S

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the range of aquatic species in which GMOs have been produced, the methods and target genes employed, the benefits to aquaculture, the problems attached to use of GMOs in aquatic species and the regulatory and other social frameworks surrounding them. A set of recommendations aimed at best practice is appended. This states the potential value of GMOs in aquaculture but also calls for improved knowledge particularly of sites of integration, risk analysis, progress in achieving sterility in fish for production and better dissemination of relevant information.

  17. Attitude Estimation Using Modified Rodrigues Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a Kalman filter formulation for attitude estimation is derived using the Modified Rodrigues Parameters. The extended Kalman filter uses a gyro-based model for attitude propagation. Two solutions are developed for the sensitivity matrix in the Kalman filter. One is based upon an additive error approach, and the other is based upon a multiplicative error approach. It is shown that the two solutions are in fact equivalent. The Kalman filter is then used to estimate the attitude of a simulated spacecraft. Results indicate that then new algorithm produces accurate attitude estimates by determining actual gyro biases.

  18. Modified Raman confinement model for Si nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraci, Giuseppe; Gibilisco, Santo; Russo, Paola; Pennisi, Agata R.; La Rosa, Salvo

    2006-01-01

    A modified one-phonon confinement model is developed for the calculation of micro-Raman spectra in Si nanocrystals, permitting the simultaneous determination of the Raman frequency, intensity, and linewidth. Using a specific spatial correlation function and the Si phonon dispersion relations, the Raman spectra are calculated under the limitations imposed on the wave vector by the spatial confinement. Results are obtained as a function of the Si nanocrystal size in the range 1.2 100 nm . The frequency shift and line broadening of the Raman spectra are compared with experimental results reported in the literature.

  19. Immobilization of Peroxidase onto Magnetite Modified Polyaniline

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Eduardo Fernandes; Molina, Fernando Javier; Lopes, Flavio Marques; García-Ruíz, Pedro Antonio; Caramori, Samantha Salomão; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on magnetite-modified polyaniline (PANImG) activated with glutaraldehyde. After the optimization of the methodology, the immobilization of HRP on PANImG produced the same yield (25%) obtained for PANIG with an efficiency of 100% (active protein). The optimum pH for immobilization was displaced by the effect of the partition of protons produced in the microenvironment by the magnetite. The tests of repeated use have shown that PANImG-HRP can be used for 13 cycles with maintenance of 50% of the initial activity. PMID:22489198

  20. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  1. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    SciTech Connect

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  2. Transverse Beam Dynamics in the Modified Betatron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    charge, m is the electron rest mass, and c is the speed of light . Self field effects will modify Eq. (1) however. A nonneutral current ring produces both a...magnetic flux or stream func- tion *P(p.) rA, where A, is the usual vector potential. The equations for 4 and 1 are 17 CHERNJN AND SPRANGLE p-[ l 2 - ( o...8217- 4). (A-21) m m 2 Using Eq. (A-21) in Eq. (A-20) the resulting integrals are elementary. The result, for the vector potential inside the beam is Ask

  3. Energy conditions in modified f( G) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Ilyas, M.; Bhatti, M. Z.; Yousaf, Z.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have considered flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric in the framework of perfect fluid models and modified f( G) gravity (where G is the Gauss Bonnet invariant). Particularly, we have considered particular realistic f( G) configurations that could be used to cure finite-time future singularities arising in the late-time cosmic accelerating epochs. We have then developed the viability bounds of these models induced by weak and null energy conditions, by using the recent estimated numerical figures of the deceleration, Hubble, snap and jerk parameters.

  4. Higgs vacuum stability and modified chaotic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhijit Kumar; Sil, Arunansu

    2017-02-01

    The issue of electroweak vacuum stability is studied in presence of a scalar field which participates in modifying the minimal chaotic inflation model. It is shown that the threshold effect on the Higgs quartic coupling originating from the Higgs-inflaton sector interaction can essentially make the electroweak vacuum stable up to the Planck scale. On the other hand we observe that the new physics parameters in this combined framework are enough to provide deviation from the minimal chaotic inflation predictions so as to keep it consistent with recent observation by Planck 2015.

  5. Chemical Synthesis of Modified Hyaluronic Acid Disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mende, Marco; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan

    2017-09-07

    Herein we report a chemical synthesis towards new modified hyaluronic acid oligomers by using only commercially available d-glucose and d-glucosamine hydrochloride. The various protected hyaluronic acid disaccharides were synthesized bearing new functional groups at C-6 of the β-d-glucuronic acid moiety with a view to structure-related biological activity tests. The orthogonal protecting group pattern allows ready access to the corresponding higher oligomers. Also, (1) H NMR studies of the new derivatives demonstrated the effect of the various functional groups on the intramolecular electronic environment. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  7. Modified MTS MRB500 CATALYST PERFORMANCE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst; Robert J. Pawelko

    2008-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if the oxygen supply in a CuO catalyst considered for use in the TMIST-2 irradiation test would be sufficient to convert all the hydrogen isotopes coming from the irradiation test to water. A mixture of 2% H2 in Ar was supplied to a modified MRB 500 stack m onitor from Mound Techology Solutions, Miamisburg, OH. It was found that the catalyst could convert 3.75E-03 moles of H2 before losing its effectiveness. Conversion was found to begin at a catalyst temperature of about 220 deg C and to be fully effective at about 300 deg C.

  8. Modified RS2101 rocket engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the program is to perform design studies and analyses to determine the effects of incorporating a 60:1 expansion area ratio nozzle extension, extended firing time, and modified operating conditions and environments on the MM'71 rocket engine assembly. An injector-to-thrust chamber seal study was conducted to define potential solutions for leakage past this joint. The results and recommendations evolving from the engine thermal analyses, the injector-to-thrust chamber seal studies, and the nozzle extension joint stress analyses are presented.

  9. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed.

  10. C5-Modified nucleosides exhibiting anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Park, Sun Min; Kim, Hwan Mook; Park, Song-Kyu; Lee, Kiho; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Byeang Hyean

    2009-08-15

    We describe (i) a simple method for the synthesis of C5-modified nucleosides from 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and (ii) their activity against six types of human cancer cell lines (HCT15, MM231, NCI-H23, NUGC-3, PC-3, ACHN). We generated nitrile oxides in situ from oximes using a commercial bleaching agent; their cycloadditions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine yielded isoxazole derivatives possessing activity against the cancer cell lines. We synthesized several azides from benzylic bromides and their click reactions with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine provided triazole derivatives.

  11. NFO diagnostics: a modified Sassouni Cephalometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Jay W; Magill, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This extensively modified version of the Sassouni Cephalometric Analysis is very beneficial to the dentist treating functional orthodontic and TMD patients. Some practitioners even derive benefits from its application when determining vertical in the edentulous patient. The NFO analysis has been shown to be of great benefit to determine vertical proportion and growth potential of the young patient. The analysis has the ability to show incisor placement relative to opening and closing trajectory and where to place the mandible for functional advancement. Practitioners need a diagnostic cephalogram that is visual and descriptive of the skeletal and dental malocclusion. This analysis provides many tools that will assist the clinician in making those decisions.

  12. Modified Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation of Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm and a computer program that implements the algorithm that performs recursive hierarchical segmentation (RHSEG) of data have been developed. While the current implementation is for two-dimensional data having spatial characteristics (e.g., image, spectral, or spectral-image data), the generalized algorithm also applies to three-dimensional or higher dimensional data and also to data with no spatial characteristics. The algorithm and software are modified versions of a prior RHSEG algorithm and software, the outputs of which often contain processing-window artifacts including, for example, spurious segmentation-image regions along the boundaries of processing-window edges.

  13. Modified Iterative Extended Hueckel. 1: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronowitz, S.

    1980-01-01

    Iterative Extended Huekel is modified by inclusion of explicit effective internuclear and electronic interactions. The one electron energies are shown to obey a variational principle because of the form of the effective electronic interactions. The modifications permit mimicking of aspects of valence bond theory with the additional feature that the energies associated with valence bond type structures are explicitly calculated. In turn, a hybrid molecular, orbital valence, bond scheme is introduced which incorporates variant total molecular electronic density distributions similar to the way that Iterative Extended Hueckel incorporates atoms.

  14. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of Chemically Modified Surfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    silica gel (Baker column chromotography grade, 60-200 mesh) was dried overnight at 1100C in an evacuated oven. The surface area 105 of the silica gel was...modified silica gel in the proportion of 5 mL of solution per gram of silica gel . The silica gel was recovered by filtration , washed with methanol and air...25.0 mL aliquots of the copper (II) solutions. After separation of the silica gel by filtration , the silica gel was air dried. The copper loading was

  15. Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-09-18

    A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods.

  16. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food starch...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food starch...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food starch...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. Modified Cognitive Strategy Instruction: An Expository Writing Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzel-Ozmen, Ruya

    2009-01-01

    In this article, modified cognitive strategy instruction in writing (CSIW), a cognitive strategy instructional model is described. Modified CSIW was designed based on two effective instructional models: cognitive strategy instruction in writing (CSIW) and self-regulated strategy development (SRSD). Modified CSIW provides tailored instruction to…

  15. A modified Lowry protein test for dilute protein solutions

    Treesearch

    Garold F. Gregory; Keith F. Jensen

    1971-01-01

    A modified Lowry protein test for dilute protein solutions modified Lowry protein test was compared with the standard Lowry protein test. The modified test was found to give estimates of protein concentration that were as good as the standard test and has the advange that proteins can be measured in very dilute solutions.

  16. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649) is...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface of articles intended for use in contact...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3710 - Polyether modified fatty acids (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyether modified fatty acids... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3710 Polyether modified fatty acids (generic). (a) Chemical substance... Polyether modified fatty acids (PMN P-99-0435) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  1. Photothermal effects of immunologically modified carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Ryan T.; Henderson, Brock; Goddard, Jessica; Tan, Yongqiang; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes have a great potential in the biomedical applications. To use carbon nanotubes in the treatment of cancer, we synthesized an immunologically modified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) using a novel immunomodifier, glycated chitosan (GC), as an effective surfactant for SWNT. This new composition SWNT-GC was stable due to the strong non-covalent binding between SWNT and GC. The structure of SWNT-GC is presented in this report. The photothermal effect of SWNT-GC was investigated under irradiation of a near-infrared laser. SWNT-GC retained the optical properties of SWNT and the immunological properties of GC. Specifically, the SWNT-GC could selectively absorb a 980-nm light and induce desirable thermal effects in tissue culture and in animals. It could also induce tumor cell destruction, controlled by the laser settings and the doses of SWNT and GC. Laser+SWNT-GC treatment could also induce strong expression of heat shock proteins on the surface of tumor cells. This immunologically modified carbon nanotube could be used for selective photothermal interactions in noninvasive tumor treatment.

  2. Modified nonlinear complex diffusion filter (MNCDF).

    PubMed

    Saini, Kalpana; Dewal, M L; Rohit, Manojkumar

    2012-06-01

    Speckle noise removal is the most important step in the processing of echocardiographic images. A speckle-free image produces useful information to diagnose heart-related diseases. Images which contain low noise and sharp edges are more easily analyzed by the clinicians. This noise removal stage is also a preprocessing stage in segmentation techniques. A new formulation has been proposed for a well-known nonlinear complex diffusion filter (NCDF). Its diffusion coefficient and the time step size are modified to give fast processing and better results. An investigation has been performed among nine patients suffering from mitral regurgitation. Images have been taken with 2D echo in apical and parasternal views. The peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), universal quality index (Qi), mean absolute error (MAE), mean square error (MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE) have been calculated, and the results show that the proposed method is much better than the previous filters for echocardiographic images. The proposed method, modified nonlinear complex diffusion filter (MNCDF), smooths the homogeneous area and enhances the fine details.

  3. Xanthene-modified and hangman iron corroles.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Matthias; Dogutan, Dilek K; Stoian, Sebastian A; Teets, Thomas S; Nocera, Daniel G

    2011-02-21

    Iron corroles modified with a xanthene scaffold are delivered from easily available starting materials in abbreviated reaction times. These new iron corroles have been spectroscopically examined with particular emphasis on defining the oxidation state of the metal center. Investigation of their electronic structure using (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals the non-innocence of the corrole ligand. Although these iron corroles contain a formal Fe(IV) center, the deprotonated corrole macrocycle ligand is one electron oxidized. The electronic ground state of these complexes is best described as an intermediate spin S = 3/2 Fe(III) site strongly antiferromagnetically coupled to the S = 1/2 of the monoradical dianion corrole [Fe(III)Cl-corrole(+•)]. We show here that iron corroles as well as xanthene-modified and hangman xanthene iron corroles are redox active and catalyze the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide via the catalase reaction, and that this activity scales with the oxidation potential. The meso position of corrole macrocycle is susceptible toward nucleophilic attack during catalase turnover. The reactivity of peroxide within the hangman cleft reported here adds to the emerging theme that corroles are good at catalyzing two-electron activation of the oxygen-oxygen bond in a variety of substrates.

  4. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs.

  5. Magnetically modified biochar for organic xenobiotics removal.

    PubMed

    Šafařík, Ivo; Maděrová, Zdenka; Pospíšková, Kristýna; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Baldíková, Eva; Filip, Jan; Křížek, Michal; Malina, Ondřej; Šafaříková, Mirka

    2016-10-01

    Large amounts of biochar are produced worldwide for potential agricultural applications. However, this material can also be used as an efficient biosorbent for xenobiotics removal. In this work, biochar was magnetically modified using microwave-synthesized magnetic iron oxide particles. This new type of a magnetically responsive biocomposite material can be easily separated by means of strong permanent magnets. Magnetic biochar has been used as an inexpensive magnetic adsorbent for the removal of water-soluble dyes. Five dyes (malachite green, methyl green, Bismarck brown Y, acridine orange and Nile blue A) were used to study the adsorption process. The dyes adsorption could be usually described with the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacities reached the value 137 mg of dye per g of dried magnetically modified biochar for Bismarck brown Y. The adsorption processes followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the thermodynamic studies indicated spontaneous and endothermic adsorption. Extremely simple magnetic modification of biochar resulted in the formation of a new, promising adsorbent suggested for selected xenobiotics removal.

  6. Processes Modifying Cratered Terrains on Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The July encounter with Pluto by the New Horizons spacecraft permitted imaging of its cratered terrains with scales as high as approximately 100 m/pixel, and in stereo. In the initial download of images, acquired at 2.2 km/pixel, widely distributed impact craters up to 260 km diameter are seen in the near-encounter hemisphere. Many of the craters appear to be significantly degraded or infilled. Some craters appear partially destroyed, perhaps by erosion such as associated with the retreat of scarps. Bright ice-rich deposits highlight some crater rims and/or floors. While the cratered terrains identified in the initial downloaded images are generally seen on high-to-intermediate albedo surfaces, the dark equatorial terrain informally known as Cthulhu Regio is also densely cratered. We will explore the range of possible processes that might have operated (or still be operating) to modify the landscape from that of an ancient pristinely cratered state to the present terrains revealed in New Horizons images. The sequence, intensity, and type of processes that have modified ancient landscapes are, among other things, the record of climate and volatile evolution throughout much of the Pluto's existence. The deciphering of this record will be discussed. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  7. Characteristics of Ceramic Fiber Modified Asphalt Mortar.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiuming; Wu, Shaopeng; Xiao, Yue; Liu, Quantao; Schlangen, Erik

    2016-09-21

    Ceramic fiber, with a major composition of Al₂O₃ and SiO₂, has advantages of stability at relatively high temperature, big specific surface area and resistance to external mechanical vibration. It has the potential contribution of improving the rutting resistance and temperature sensitivity of modified asphalt binder by proper modification design. In this research, ceramic fiber was introduced into both pen 60/80 and pen 80/100 asphalt binder by different weight ratios. An asphalt penetration test, softening point test, ductility test and dynamic viscoelastic behavior were conducted to characterize and predict the ceramic fiber modified asphalt mortar (CFAM). Research results indicated that the ceramic fiber has a great effect on reinforcement of asphalt, which makes the asphalt stiffer so that the asphalt can only undertake less strain under the same stress. The heat insulation effect of the ceramic fiber will improve the temperature stability. Complex modulus and phase angle results indicate that the ceramic fiber can significantly enhance the high temperature resistance of soft binder.

  8. Hypothyroidism modifies lipid composition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Coria, Mariela J; Carmona Viglianco, Yamila V; Marra, Carlos A; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Ramirez, Dario C; Anzulovich, Ana C; Gimenez, Maria S

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of lipid metabolism. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential components of innate immune response. Our goal was to determine whether hypothyroidism affects lipid metabolism in PMN cells. Wistar rats were made hypothyroid by administrating 0.1 g/L 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water during 30 days. Triacylglycerides (TG), cholesterol and phospholipids were determined in PMN and serum by conventional methods. The mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT-2) were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Cellular neutral lipids were identified by Nile red staining. We found hypothyroidism decreases serum TG whereas it increases them in PMN. This result agrees with those observed in Nile red preparations, however DAGT-2 expression was not modified. Cholesterol synthesizing enzyme HMGCoAR mRNA and protein was reduced in PMN of hypothyroid rats. As expected, cholesterol content decreased in the cells although it increased in serum. Hypothyroidism also reduced relative contents of palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, whereas increased the myristic, linoleic acids, and the unsaturation index in PMN. Thus, hypothyroidism modifies PMN lipid composition. These findings would emphasize the importance of new research to elucidate lipid-induced alterations in specific function(s) of PMN.

  9. Genetic and environmental modifiers of Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Medici, Valentina; Weiss, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by remarkable variety in its phenotypic presentation. Patients with WD can present with hepatic, neurologic, and psychiatric symptoms combined in different and unpredictable ways. Importantly, no convincing phenotype-genotype correlation has ever been identified, opening the possibility that other genes, aside from ATPase copper-transporting beta (ATP7B), are involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. In addition, modifier genes, or genes that can affect the expression of other genes, may be involved. Clinical and basic science data indicate that environmental and dietary factors can potentially modify gene expression in WD and, consequently, its clinical presentation and course. In particular, previously studied genes include copper metabolism domain-containing 1 (COMMD1), antioxidant 1 copper chaperone (ATOX1), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), apolipoprotein E (APOE), hemochromatosis (HFE), and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Dietary factors include iron and methyl group donors which could affect methionine metabolism and epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation. Most of the work conducted in this field is in its initial stages but it has the potential to change the diagnosis and treatment of WD. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Frewer, L; Lassen, J; Kettlitz, B; Scholderer, J; Beekman, V; Berdal, K G

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and attitudes, public trust in regulatory institutions, scientists, and industry, and the need to develop communication strategies that explicitly include public concerns rather than exclude them. Increased public participation has been promoted as a way of increasing trust in institutional practices associated with the biosciences, although questions still arise as to how to best utilise the outputs of such exercises in policy development. This issue will become more of a priority as decision-making systems become more transparent and open to public scrutiny. The results are discussed in the context of risk assessment and risk management, and recommendations for future research are made. In particular, it is recommended that new methods are developed in order to integrate public values more efficaciously into risk analysis processes, specifically with respect to the biosciences and to technology implementation in general.

  11. Characteristics of Ceramic Fiber Modified Asphalt Mortar

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jiuming; Wu, Shaopeng; Xiao, Yue; Liu, Quantao; Schlangen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic fiber, with a major composition of Al2O3 and SiO2, has advantages of stability at relatively high temperature, big specific surface area and resistance to external mechanical vibration. It has the potential contribution of improving the rutting resistance and temperature sensitivity of modified asphalt binder by proper modification design. In this research, ceramic fiber was introduced into both pen 60/80 and pen 80/100 asphalt binder by different weight ratios. An asphalt penetration test, softening point test, ductility test and dynamic viscoelastic behavior were conducted to characterize and predict the ceramic fiber modified asphalt mortar (CFAM). Research results indicated that the ceramic fiber has a great effect on reinforcement of asphalt, which makes the asphalt stiffer so that the asphalt can only undertake less strain under the same stress. The heat insulation effect of the ceramic fiber will improve the temperature stability. Complex modulus and phase angle results indicate that the ceramic fiber can significantly enhance the high temperature resistance of soft binder. PMID:28773908

  12. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Mitchell K.; Akinc, Mufit

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi.sub.2 heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 for structural integrity.

  13. Porous structure of natural and modified clinoptilolites.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Sprynskyy, Myroslav; Terzyk, Artur P; Lebedynets, Mariya; Namieśnik, Jacek; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2006-05-01

    The evaluation of the pore-size distribution (PSD) of natural and modified mesoporous zeolites, i.e., clinoptilolites is presented. We demonstrate the SEM results showing that the pores of fracture-type from 25-50 nm to 100 nm in size between clinoptilolite grains, as well as pores between crystal aggregates up to 500 nm in size are present in the studied material. The detailed distribution of pore sizes and tortuosity factor of the above-mentioned materials are determined from the adsorption-desorption isotherms of nitrogen measured volumetrically at 77 K. To obtain the reliable pore size distribution (PSD) of the above-mentioned materials both adsorption and desorption branches of the experimental hysteresis loop are described simultaneously by recently developed corrugated pore structure model (CPSM) of Androutsopoulos and Salmas. Evaluated pore size distributions are characterized by well-defined smooth peaks placed in the region of the mesoporosity. Moreover, the mean pore diameter calculated from the classical static measurement of nitrogen adsorption at 77 K correspond very well to the pore diameters from SEM, showing the applicability of the CPSM for characterization of the porosity of natural zeolites. We conclude that classical static adsorption measurements combined with the proper modeling of the capillary condensation/evaporation phenomena are a powerful method which can be applied for pore structure characterization of natural and modified clinoptilolites.

  14. [Submandibular sialoadenectomy by a modified retroauricular approach].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohua; Huang, Guilin; Jiang, Lian; Song, Qinggao; Yao, Li; Qiao, Xinjin

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and the surgical procedures of submandibular sialoadenectomy by a modified retroauricular approach. Between October 2008 and April 2009, 8 patients with benign submandibular gland disorders underwent removal of benign submandibular gland lesions using a retroauricular approach. There were 4 males and 4 females with an average age of 38.5 years (range, 32-54 years), including 3 pleomorphic adenoma and 5 chronic sialadenitis with sialolithiasis. The disease duration was from 2 months to 5 years. The anterior facial vein and the facial artery were reserved only by the ligation of branching vessels in the submandibular gland. Submandibular sialoadenectomy were successfully performed in 8 cases. The operative time was 45-75 minutes (mean, 60 minutes). All incisions obtained healing by first intention. No nerve paralysis occurred, including marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve, the lingual nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. One patient had poor blood circulation of flap due to excessive traction during operation, but it returned normal after 24 hours without special treatment. Other flaps had good blood circulation. All patients were followed up 1-6 months (mean, 3 months). The incision scars were hidden with satisfactory appearance. The modified retroauricular approach has some advantages such as simple operation, better cosmetic outcome, and no complication.

  15. [Research of modified rat laryngeal transplantation model].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Peng, Han-wei; Zeng, Zong-yuan; Guo, Zhu-ming

    2006-07-01

    To study modified rat laryngeal transplantation model. Eighty isogeneic histocompatible F344 rats were randomized into control and experimental groups. Strome model of laryngeal transplantation was established in the the control group, and in the experimental group, the ascending pharyngeal artery was preserved and the base of the tongue, larynx and pharyngolarynx were harvested as a complex allograft followed by end-to-end anastomosis of the both allograft common carotid arteries with the recipient common carotid artery and the anterior jugular vein, respectively. The arterial and nenous patency rate and allograft viability rate were compared between the two groups. The artery and vein patency rates and graft survival rate were 30%, 15%, and 30% in the control group, and 75%, 65%, and 80% in the experimental group, respectively, showing significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). In modified rat laryngeal transplantation model, the allograft viability rate and vessel patency rate are improved, which provides a good model for immunological study of larynx transplantation.

  16. Mechanism of action of a palladium modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'vov, Boris V.

    2000-11-01

    The mechanism of low-temperature migration of analytes onto a palladium modifier and the mechanism of analyte retention on palladium in the pyrolysis stage have been interpreted on the basis of the method of absolute reaction rates and the mechanism of dissociative evaporation of solids. As has been shown previously by the author, the decomposition of solids, in particular, metal nitrates, occurs through the congruent gasification of all reaction products, irrespective of their saturated pressure (with the simultaneous condensation of low-volatility species). In the interval between gasification and condensation, these species could diffuse for some distance from the primary site. An application of the method of absolute reaction rates (the Hertz-Langmuir vaporization models) to the kinetics of analyte release in the presence of a palladium modifier permits the interpretation of the retention mechanism as dissociative chemisorption. The experimental data from the literature (the appearance temperatures and activation energies for Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Se and Tl) were used in these calculations.

  17. Luneburg modified lens for surface water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichard, Helene; Maurel, Agnes; Petitjeans, Phillipe; Martin, Paul; Pagneux, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that when the waves pass across an elevated bathymetry, refraction often results in amplification of waves behind it. In this sense, focusing of liquid surface waves can be used to enhance the harvest efficiency of ocean power. An ocean wave focusing lens concentrates waves on a certain focal point by transforming straight crest lens of incident waves into circular ones just like an optical lens. These devices have attracted ocean engineers and are promising because they enable the effective utilization of wave energy, the remaining challenge being to increase the harvest efficiency of the lens. In this work, in order to improve well known focusing of surface liquid waves by lens, the propagation of liquid surface waves through a Luneburg modified lens is investigated. The traditional Luneburg lens is a rotationally symmetric lens with a spatially varying refractive-index profile that focuses an incident plane wave on the rim of the lens. The modified Luneburg lens allows to choose the position of the focal point, which can lie inside or outside the lens. This new degree of freedom leads to enhanced focusing and tunable focusing. The focusing of linear surface waves through this lens is investigated and is shown to be more efficient than classical profile lenses.

  18. Observable physical modes of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojjati, Alireza; Pogosian, Levon; Silvestri, Alessandra; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2014-04-01

    At linear order in cosmological perturbations, departures from the growth in the cosmological standard model can be quantified in terms of two functions of redshift z and Fourier number k. Previous studies have performed principal component forecasts for several choices of these two functions based on expected capabilities of upcoming large structure surveys. It is typically found that there will be many well-constrained degrees of freedom. However, not all and probably most of these degrees of freedom were physical if the parametrization had allowed for an arbitrary k dependence. In this paper, we restrict the k dependence to that allowed in local theories of gravity under the quasistatic approximation, i.e. ratios of polynomials in k, and identify the best constrained features in the (z ,k) dependence of the commonly considered functions μ and γ as measured by a Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)-like weak lensing survey. We estimate the uncertainty in the measurements of the eigenmodes of modified growth. We find that imposing the theoretical prior on k dependence reduces the number of degrees of freedom and the covariance between parameters. On the other hand, imaging surveys like LSST are not as sensitive to the z dependence as they are to the k dependence of the modified growth functions. This trade-off provides us with, more or less, the same number of well-constrained eigenmodes (with respect to our prior) as found before, but now these modes are physical.

  19. Modeling RASopathies with Genetically Modified Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Guerra, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The RAS/MAPK signaling pathway plays key roles in development, cell survival and proliferation, as well as in cancer pathogenesis. Molecular genetic studies have identified a group of developmental syndromes, the RASopathies, caused by germ line mutations in this pathway. The syndromes included within this classification are neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly known as LEOPARD syndrome), Costello syndrome (CS), cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Legius syndrome (LS, NF1-like syndrome), capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM), and hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) type 1. Although these syndromes present specific molecular alterations, they are characterized by a large spectrum of functional and morphological abnormalities, which include heart defects, short stature, neurocognitive impairment, craniofacial malformations, and, in some cases, cancer predisposition. The development of genetically modified animals, such as mice (Mus musculus), flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and zebrafish (Danio rerio), has been instrumental in elucidating the molecular and cellular bases of these syndromes. Moreover, these models can also be used to determine tumor predisposition, the impact of different genetic backgrounds on the variable phenotypes found among the patients and to evaluate preventative and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review a wide range of genetically modified mouse models used in the study of RASopathies and the potential application of novel technologies, which hopefully will help us resolve open questions in the field.

  20. Biocompatible, hyaluronic acid modified silicone elastomers.

    PubMed

    Alauzun, Johan G; Young, Stuart; D'Souza, Renita; Liu, Lina; Brook, Michael A; Sheardown, Heather D

    2010-05-01

    Although silicones possess many useful properties as biomaterials, their hydrophobicity can be problematic. To a degree, this issue can be addressed by surface modification with hydrophilic polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol), but the resulting structures are usually not conducive to cell growth. In the present work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of covalently linked hyaluronic acid (HA) (35 kDa) to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer surfaces. HA is of interest because of its known biological properties; its presence on a surface was expected to improve the biocompatibility of silicone materials for a wide range of bioapplications. HA was introduced with a coupling agent in two steps from high-density, tosyl-modified, poly(ethylene glycol) tethered silicone surfaces. All materials synthesized were characterized by water contact angle, ATR-FTIR, XPS and (13)C solid state NMR spectroscopy. Biological interactions with these modified silicone surfaces were assessed by examining interactions with fibrinogen as a model protein as well as determining the in vitro response of fibroblast (3T3) and human corneal epithelial cells relative to unmodified poly(dimethylsiloxane) controls. The results suggest that HA modification significantly enhances cell interactions while decreasing protein adsorption and may therefore be effective for improving biocompatibility of PDMS and other materials.

  1. Notes on the Modified Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzo, N. E.; Melville, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we present the derivation of a modified Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (MNLSE) based on variational calculus. Using weakly nonlinear theory we derive an averaged Lagrangian, which in turn yields a slightly modified version of the MNLSE that conserves wave action. We also explore ramifications of the MNLSE with respect to the coupling between mean currents and non-uniform radiation stresses. We present this in the context of breaking waves and the free long waves they generate (Kristian Dysthe, personal communication). It has been noted in laboratory experiments (Meza et al, 1999) that breaking waves transfer some energy to modes far below the peak frequency of the spectrum. The transfer mechanism is widely believed to be the result of nonlinear four wave resonant interactions; however, the coupling between breaking-induced non-uniform radiation stresses and long wave radiation suggests a potential alternative explanation. Through direct numerical simulations, along with the theory, we test the feasibility of this mechanism by comparing it to data from wave tank experiments (Drazen et al., 2008).

  2. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, M.K.; Akinc, M.

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is disclosed having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi{sub 2} heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} for structural integrity. 7 figs.

  3. MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  4. XPS studies of chemically modified banana fibers.

    PubMed

    Pothan, L A; Simon, F; Spange, S; Thomas, S

    2006-03-01

    Banana fibers obtained from the sheath of the banana plant (Musa Sapientum) whose major constituent is cellulose were modified using various chemical agents in order to improve their compatibility with the polymer matrix. The change in the surface composition of the raw and chemically modified fiber was investigated using various techniques such as solvatochromism, electrokinetic measurements, and XPS. Surface characterization by XPS showed the presence of numerous elements on the surface of the fiber. Investigation of the surface after alkali treatment on the other hand showed the removal of most of the elements. Silane treatment was found to introduce a considerable amount of silicon on the surface of the fiber. The [O]/[C] ratio was found to decrease in all cases except for the fluorinated and vinyl silane treated fibers. Detailed investigation of the deconvoluted C 1s spectra revealed the change in the percentage atomic concentration of the various elements on the fiber surface. The dissolution of the various surface components by alkali treatment, which was earlier revealed by SEM, was further confirmed by XPS. The XPS results were found to perfectly agree with the solvatochromic and electrokinetic measurements.

  5. Histone modifying enzymes: novel disease biomarkers and assay development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2016-01-01

    Histones are the chief components of chromatin. When being catalyzed by a series of histone modifying enzymes, histones may undergo various post-translational modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and SUMOylation. The dysregulation of histone modifying enzymes will alter the histone post-modification patterns and cause diverse diseases including cancers. Consequently, the histone modifying enzymes have emerged as the promising biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we summarize the recent researches about the histone modifying enzymes as the disease biomarkers, and highlight the development of methods for histone modifying enzyme assays.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene Modified with Thermoplastic Potato Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knitter, M.; Dobrzyńska-Mizera, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper selected mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) modified with potato starch have been presented. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) used as a modifier in the study was produced from potato starch modified with glycerol. Isotactic polypropylene/thermoplastic potato starch composites (iPP/TPS) that contained 10, 30, 50 wt.% of modified starch were examined using dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis, static tensile, Brinell hardness, and Charpy impact test. The studies indicated a distinct influence of a filler content on the mechanical properties of composites in comparison with non-modified polypropylene.

  7. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  8. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  9. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  10. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  11. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with degree of substitution of 0.018 (OS-S-L) and 0.092 (OS-S-H) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in an aqueous slurry system. The substitution distribution of OS groups was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatogr...

  12. In Vitro Selection Using Modified or Unnatural Nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Bedenbaugh, Robert S.; Singh, Shruti; Meyer, Adam J.; Hatala, Paul J.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Hall, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Incorporation of modified nucleotides into in vitro RNA or DNA selections offer many potential advantages, such as the increased stability of selected nucleic acids against nuclease degradation, improved affinities, expanded chemical functionality, and increased library diversity. This unit provides useful information and protocols for in vitro selection using modified nucleotides. It includes a discussion of when to use modified nucleotides; protocols for evaluating and optimizing transcription reactions, as well as confirming the incorporation of the modified nucleotides; protocols for evaluating modified nucleotide transcripts as template in reverse transcription reactions; protocols for the evaluation of the fidelity of modified nucleotides in the replication and the regeneration of the pool; and a protocol to compare modified nucleotide pools and selection conditions. PMID:25606981

  13. Modified Interior Distance Functions (Theory and Methods)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyak, Roman A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduced and developed the theory of Modified Interior Distance Functions (MIDF's). The MIDF is a Classical Lagrangian (CL) for a constrained optimization problem which is equivalent to the initial one and can be obtained from the latter by monotone transformation both the objective function and constraints. In contrast to the Interior Distance Functions (IDF's), which played a fundamental role in Interior Point Methods (IPM's), the MIDF's are defined on an extended feasible set and along with center, have two extra tools, which control the computational process: the barrier parameter and the vector of Lagrange multipliers. The extra tools allow to attach to the MEDF's very important properties of Augmented Lagrangeans. One can consider the MIDFs as Interior Augmented Lagrangeans. It makes MIDF's similar in spirit to Modified Barrier Functions (MBF's), although there is a fundamental difference between them both in theory and methods. Based on MIDF's theory, Modified Center Methods (MCM's) have been developed and analyzed. The MCM's find an unconstrained minimizer in primal space and update the Lagrange multipliers, while both the center and the barrier parameter can be fixed or updated at each step. The MCM's convergence was investigated, and their rate of convergence was estimated. The extension of the feasible set and the special role of the Lagrange multipliers allow to develop MCM's, which produce, in case of nondegenerate constrained optimization, a primal and dual sequences that converge to the primal-dual solutions with linear rate, even when both the center and the barrier parameter are fixed. Moreover, every Lagrange multipliers update shrinks the distance to the primal dual solution by a factor 0 less than gamma less than 1 which can be made as small as one wants by choosing a fixed interior point as a 'center' and a fixed but large enough barrier parameter. The numericai realization of MCM leads to the Newton MCM (NMCM). The

  14. Modified glass fibre reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yumei

    A high ratio of strength to density and relatively low-cost are some of the significant features of glass fibre reinforced polymer composites (GFRPCs) that made them one of the most rapidly developed materials in recent years. They are widely used as the material of construction in the areas of aerospace, marine and everyday life, such as airplane, helicopter, boat, canoe, fishing rod, racket, etc. Traditionally, researchers tried to raise the mechanical properties and keep a high strength/weight ratio using all or some of the following methods: increasing the volume fraction of the fibre; using different polymeric matrix material; or changing the curing conditions. In recent years, some new techniques and processing methods were developed to further improve the mechanical properties of glass fibre (GF) reinforced polymer composite. For example, by modifying the surface condition of the GF, both the interface strength between the GF and the polymer matrix and the shear strength of the final composite can be significantly increased. Also, by prestressing the fibre during the curing process of the composite, the tensile, flexural and the impact properties of the composite can be greatly improved. In this research project, a new method of preparing GFRPCs, which combined several traditional and modern techniques together, was developed. This new method includes modification of the surface of the GF with silica particles, application of different levels of prestressing on the GF during the curing process, and the change of the fibre volume fraction and curing conditions in different sets of experiments. The results of the new processing were tested by the three-point bend test, the short beam shear test and the impact test to determine the new set of properties so formed in the composite material. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to study the fracture surface of the new materials after the mechanical tests were performed. By taking advantages of the

  15. Modifying of gas adsorption on phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmankurt, Bahadır; Gürel, Hikmet Hakan

    2017-02-01

    After the discovery of Graphene, new two dimensional (2D) materials has been found out. Among them, Phosphorene, has a significant advantage over the semimetallic graphene and other typical 2D semiconductors. 2D materials are also usually good candidates for gas sensors thanks to their large surface-to-volume ratio and the associated charge transfer between gas molecules and the substrates. Theoretical efforts have been devoted to study the interactions of this 2D material with different molecules(CO, H2O, CH4 and NH3). But interactions of such molecules with blue phosphorene are lack. Thus, theoretical study based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the molecules adsorption on phosphorene with Vander walls effect. It is also shown that how modify structural of the molecules on phosphorene by applied charging.

  16. Anisotropic singularities in modified gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiró, Michele Ferraz; Saa, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    We show that the common singularities present in generic modified gravity models governed by actions of the type S=∫d4x-gf(R,ϕ,X), with X=-(1)/(2)gab∂aϕ∂bϕ, are essentially the same anisotropic instabilities associated to the hypersurface F(ϕ)=0 in the case of a nonminimal coupling of the type F(ϕ)R, enlightening the physical origin of such singularities that typically arise in rather complex and cumbersome inhomogeneous perturbation analyses. We show, moreover, that such anisotropic instabilities typically give rise to dynamically unavoidable singularities, precluding completely the possibility of having physically viable models for which the hypersurface (∂f)/(∂R)=0 is attained. Some examples are explicitly discussed.

  17. Modifiable Environmental Factors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kristin E; Boumitri, Christine; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N

    2017-05-01

    Environmental factors may influence predisposition to develop inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis) or alter its natural history by modification of both the host immune response and intestinal microbial composition. The purpose of this review is to translate such evidence into clinical practice by a focus on interventional studies that have modified such environmental influences to improve disease outcomes. Several environmental influences have been identified in the recent literature including tobacco use, diet, antibiotics, vitamin D deficiency, stress, appendectomy, and oral contraceptive use. Some risk factors have similar influences on both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis while others are disease-specific or have divergent effects. Emerging epidemiologic evidence has confirmed the association of many of these factors with incident disease using prospective data. In addition, laboratory data has supported their mechanistic plausibility and relevance to intestinal inflammation.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Phenylethynyl Imides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Chang, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    As an ongoing effort to develop structural adhesives for high-performance aerospace applications, recent work has focused on phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) oligomers. The work reported herein involves the synthesis and characterization of a series of phenylethynyl containing oligomers designated LARC(TM) MPEI (modified phenylethynyl imide). These oligomers presumably contain mixtures of linear, branched and star-shaped molecules. The fully imidized polymers exhibited minimum melt viscosities as low as 600 poise at 335 C, significantly lower than equivalent molecular weight linear materials. Ti/Ti lap shear specimens processed at 288 C under 15 psi showed tensile shear strengths as high as approx. 6000 psi and 5200 psi at ambient temperature and 177 C respectively. The chemistry and properties of these new MPEIs are presented and compared with an optimized linear PETI, LARC(TM)PETI-5.

  19. nanoparticles fabricated by modified hydrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Munsif, Sajida; Rashid, Umer; Imad-ud-Din

    2014-06-01

    We have tested modified hydrolysis method for the preparation of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The particles after synthesis were applied for a series of physicochemical techniques. Iron chloride was used as a precursor material. The particle size distribution was determined using zeta sizer and scanning electron microscopy. The surface area and the morphology of the particles vary by changing the concentration of the precursor material. The size of nanoparticles varies from 10 to 90 nm. The particles having size of 23 ± 1 nm were separated out from the solution and their size remains almost the same even after one month. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) of Fe2O3 nanoparticles confirms the purity of the desired material. The weight loss of the particles with respect to the temperature was studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been employed to study the crystallinity of the particles.

  20. Modified methods of stellar magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The standard methods of the magnetic field measurement, based on an analysis of the relation between the Stokes V-parameter and the first derivative of the total line profile intensity, were modified by applying a linear integral operator \\hat{L} to both sides of this relation. As the operator \\hat{L}, the operator of the wavelet transform with DOG-wavelets is used. The key advantage of the proposed method is an effective suppression of the noise contribution to the line profile and the Stokes parameter V. The efficiency of the method has been studied using model line profiles with various noise contributions. To test the proposed method, the spectropolarimetric observations of the A0 star α2 CVn, the Of?p star HD 148937, and the A0 supergiant HD 92207 were used. The longitudinal magnetic field strengths calculated by our method appeared to be in good agreement with those determined by other methods.

  1. Scrotal reconstruction with modified pudendal thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Nabil; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Iwuagwu, Fortune C

    2016-02-01

    Scrotal skin loss can occur following trauma, Fournier's gangrene, post tumour excision, burns, etc. There are many techniques described in the literature including residual scrotal skin mobilization, skin grafts, pedicled and free flaps. The management is complex and challenging shown by the multiplicity of flaps and techniques described in the literature. We used a modified pudendal thigh flap to reconstruct scrotal defects in five patients. This study describes the vascularity of the flap, technique of elevation and the inset of the flap. The elevation and particularly the insetting make it different from other flaps raised on this vascular network for scrotal reconstruction. This pedicled flap is robust, reliable, resilient and produces a neo-scrotum that looks natural in appearance, offers good-quality skin cover and cushion to the testes as well as protective sensation.

  2. Regulatory divergence modifies limb length between mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cretekos, Chris J.; Wang, Ying; Green, Eric D.; Martin, James F.; Rasweiler, John J.; Behringer, Richard R.

    2008-01-01

    Natural selection acts on variation within populations, resulting in modified organ morphology, physiology, and ultimately the formation of new species. Although variation in orthologous proteins can contribute to these modifications, differences in DNA sequences regulating gene expression may be a primary source of variation. We replaced a limb-specific transcriptional enhancer of the mouse Prx1 locus with the orthologous sequence from a bat. Prx1 expression directed by the bat enhancer results in elevated transcript levels in developing forelimb bones and forelimbs that are significantly longer than controls because of endochondral bone formation alterations. Surprisingly, deletion of the mouse Prx1 limb enhancer results in normal forelimb length and Prx1 expression, revealing regulatory redundancy. These findings suggest that mutations accumulating in pre-existing noncoding regulatory sequences within a population are a source of variation for the evolution of morphological differences between species and that cis-regulatory redundancy may facilitate accumulation of such mutations. PMID:18198333

  3. Lopsidedness of cluster galaxies in modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xufen; Zhao, HongSheng; Famaey, Benoit E-mail: hz4@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2010-06-01

    We point out an interesting theoretical prediction for elliptical galaxies residing inside galaxy clusters in the framework of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), that could be used to test this paradigm. Apart from the central brightest cluster galaxy, other galaxies close enough to the centre experience a strong gravitational influence from the other galaxies of the cluster. This influence manifests itself only as tides in standard Newtonian gravity, meaning that the systematic acceleration of the centre of mass of the galaxy has no consequence. However, in the context of MOND, a consequence of the breaking of the strong equivalence principle is that the systematic acceleration changes the own self-gravity of the galaxy. We show here that, in this framework, initially axisymmetric elliptical galaxies become lopsided along the external field's direction, and that the centroid of the galaxy, defined by the outer density contours, is shifted by a few hundreds parsecs with respect to the densest point.

  4. Genetically modified pigs for medicine and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Prather, Randall S; Shen, Miaoda; Dai, Yifan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into humans, and the development of models of human diseases. The benefits to agriculture include resistance to disease, altering the carcass composition such that it is healthier to consume, improving the pig's resistance to heat stress, and protecting the environment. Additional types of genetic modifications will likely provide animals with characteristics that will benefit humans in currently unimagined ways.

  5. Chemically modified diamondoids as biosensors for DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, Ganesh; Fyta, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of biological molecules with materials is essential in view of the novel potential applications arising when these two are combined. To this end, we investigate the interaction of DNA with diamondoids, a broad family of tiny hydrogen-terminated diamond clusters with high technological potential. We model this interaction through quantum-mechanical computer simulations and focus on the hydrogen bonding possibilities of the different DNA nucleobases to the lower amine-modified diamondoids with respect to their relative distance and orientation. Our aim is to promote the binding between these two units, and probe this through the association energy, the electronic structure of the nucleobase-diamondoid system, and the specific role of their frontier orbitals. We discuss the relevance of our results in view of biosensing applications and specifically nanopore sequencing of DNA.

  6. Modified impulsive synchronization of hyperchaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeri, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mahsa

    2010-03-01

    In an original impulsive synchronization only instantaneous errors are used to determine the impulsive inputs. To improve the synchronization performance, addition of an integral term of the errors is proposed here. In comparison with the original form, the proposed modification increases the impulse distances which leads to reduction in the control cost as the most important characteristic of the impulsive synchronization technique. It can also decrease the error magnitude in the presence of noise. Sufficient conditions are presented through four theorems for different situations (nominal, uncertain, noisy, and noisy uncertain cases) under which stability of the error dynamics is guaranteed. Results from computer based simulations are provided to illustrate feasibility and effectiveness of the modified impulsive synchronization method applied on Rossler hyperchaotic systems.

  7. Biological Response Modifier in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ronghua; Luo, Feifei; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Luman; Yang, Jiao; Deng, Yuting; Huang, Enyu; Qian, Jiawen; Lu, Zhou; Jiang, Xuechao; Zhang, Dan; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Biological response modifiers (BRMs) emerge as a lay of new compounds or approaches used in improving cancer immunotherapy. Evidences highlight that cytokines, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, and noncoding RNAs are of crucial roles in modulating antitumor immune response and cancer-related chronic inflammation, and BRMs based on them have been explored. In particular, besides some cytokines like IFN-α and IL-2, several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists like BCG, MPL, and imiquimod are also licensed to be used in patients with several malignancies nowadays, and the first artificial small noncoding RNA (microRNA) mimic, MXR34, has entered phase I clinical study against liver cancer, implying their potential application in cancer therapy. According to amounts of original data, this chapter will review the regulatory roles of TLR signaling, some noncoding RNAs, and several key cytokines in cancer and cancer-related immune response, as well as the clinical cases in cancer therapy based on them.

  8. mbb_emcee: Modified Blackbody MCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Mbb_emcee fits modified blackbodies to photometry data using an affine invariant MCMC. It has large number of options which, for example, allow computation of the IR luminosity or dustmass as part of the fit. Carrying out a fit produces a HDF5 output file containing the results, which can either be read directly, or read back into a mbb_results object for analysis. Upper and lower limits can be imposed as well as Gaussian priors on the model parameters. These additions are useful for analyzing poorly constrained data. In addition to standard Python packages scipy, numpy, and cython, mbb_emcee requires emcee (ascl:1303.002), Astropy (ascl:1304.002), h5py, and for unit tests, nose.

  9. Nonsingular Attitude Filtering Using Modified Rodrigues Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2009-10-01

    A method to estimate the general rigid body attitude using a minimal modified Rodrigues parameters (MRP) coordinate set is presented. The singularity avoidance technique is based on the stereographic projection properties of the MRP set, and makes use of a simple mapping relationship between MRP representations. Previous work has used the MRP duality to avoid singular attitude descriptions but has ignored the associated covariance transformation. This article presents a mapping to transform the state covariance matrix between these two representations as the attitude description is mapped between the two possible MRP sets. Second-order covariance transformations suitable for divided difference filtering are also provided. The MRP filter formulation based on extended Kalman filtering and divided difference filtering is compared with a standard multiplicative quaternion Kalman filter in an example problem.

  10. Hf propagation through actively modified ionospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Wolcott, J.H.; Simons, D.J. ); Warshaw, S.; Carlson, R. )

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a computer modeling capability to predict the effect of localized electron density perturbations created by chemical releases or high-power radio frequency heating upon oblique, one-hop hf propagation paths. We have included 3-d deterministic descriptions of the depleted or enhanced ionization, including formation, evolution, and drift. We have developed a homing ray trace code to calculate the path of energy propagation through the modified ionosphere in order to predict multipath effects. We also consider the effect of random index of refraction variations using a formalism to calculate the mutual coherence functions for spatial and frequency separations based upon a path integral solution of the parabolic wave equation for a single refracted path through an ionosphere which contains random electron density fluctuations. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Promise and issues of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2013-05-01

    The growing area of genetically modified (GM) crops has substantially expanded since they were first commercialized in 1996. Correspondingly, the adoption of GM crops has brought huge economic and environmental benefits. All these achievements have been primarily supported by two simple traits of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance in the past 17 years. However, this situation will change soon. Recently, the advance of new products, technologies and safety assessment approaches has provided new opportunities for development of GM crops. In this review, we focus on the developmental trend in various aspects of GM crops including new products, technical innovation and risk assessment approaches, as well as potential challenges that GM crops are currently encountering.

  12. Modified Nonlinear Model of Arcsin-Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2016-07-01

    A new modified model of nonlinear arcsin-electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed and analyzed. We obtain the corrections to the Coulomb law. The effect of vacuum birefringence takes place when the external constant magnetic field is present. We calculate indices of refraction for two perpendicular polarizations of electromagnetic waves and estimate bounds on the parameter γ from the BMV and PVLAS experiments. It is shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is finite at the origin. We calculate the finite static electric energy of point-like particles and demonstrate that the electron mass can have the pure electromagnetic nature. The symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and dilatation current are found. We show that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the model suggested. We have investigated the gauge covariant quantization of the nonlinear electrodynamics fields as well as the gauge fixing approach based on Dirac's brackets.

  13. Chromatin modifiers: regulators of cellular differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Taiping; Dent, Sharon Y. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular differentiation, by definition, is epigenetic. Genome-wide profiling of pluripotent cells and differentiated cells suggests global chromatin remodeling during differentiation, resulting in progressive transition from a relatively open chromatin configuration to a more compact state. Genetic studies in mouse models demonstrate major roles for a variety of histone modifiers and chromatin remodelers in key developmental transitions, such as the segregation of embryonic and extraembryonic lineages in blastocyst stage embryos, the formation of the three germ layers during gastrulation, and differentiation of adult stem cells. Furthermore, rather than merely stabilizing the gene expression changes driven by developmental transcription factors, evidence is emerging that chromatin regulators have multifaceted roles in cell fate decisions. PMID:24366184

  14. Modifying bitterness in functional food systems.

    PubMed

    Gaudette, Nicole J; Pickering, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The functional foods sector represents a significant and growing portion of the food industry, yet formulation of these products often involves the use of ingredients that elicit less than desirable oral sensations, including bitterness. Promising new functional ingredients, including polyphenolics, may be more widely and readily employed in the creation of novel functional foods if their aversive bitter taste can be significantly reduced. A number of approaches are used by the industry to improve the taste properties and thus the acceptance of conventional foods that elicit excessive bitterness. This article reviews the most commonly employed techniques, including the use of bitter-modifying additives, which may prove useful for successfully introducing new functional ingredients into this rapidly growing sector.

  15. Modified Faddeev treatment of electron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, S. |

    1996-09-01

    The Faddeev multiple-scattering formalism in second order is modified to treat lower projectile energies. The electronic part of the amplitude is evaluated using a Hartree-Fock approximation to the helium wave function and a consistent screened target potential for the active electron. Off-energy-shell scattering states appearing in the electronic part of the full amplitude are corrected for loss of normalization. The high velocity Faddeev nuclear-scattering contribution is normalized to the eikonally transformed electronic amplitude at large angles. An application to proton-helium collisions at 293 keV shows good agreement with the experimental data. The effects of the various approximations are studied. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Zółtowski, R; Pawlak, R; Matys, T; Pietraszek, M; Buczko, W

    2002-06-01

    Though the mechanisms for the vascular actions of vasodilatory beta-blockers are mostly determined, some of their interactions with monoaminergic systems are not elucidated. Because there are evidences supporting a possible involvement of serotonin (5-HT) in the actions of beta-blockers, we studied the effect of propranolol on peripheral serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and Goldblatt two-kidney - one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. In both groups of animals propranolol decreased systolic blood pressure, significantly increased whole blood serotonin concentration and at the same time it decreased platelet serotonin level. The uptake of the amine by platelets from hypertensive animals was lower than that of normotensive animals and it was decreased by propranolol only in the latter. In both groups propranolol inhibited potentiation of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by serotonin. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that propranolol modifies platelet serotonergic mechanisms in normotensive and renal hypertensive rats.

  17. Modified soxhlet extractor for pedologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sobek, A.A.; Bambenek, M.A.; Meyer, D.

    1982-11-01

    The soxhlet apparatus has been used in the laboratory to stimulate geochemical weathering; however, the high extraction temperatures required in the soxhlet do not represent a realistic simulation of the weathering environment. A modified design of the original soxhlet did not eliminate the problems of extraction temperature or inaccurate volumes of solvent passing through the sample. These problems were solved by moving the extraction chamber away from the upward path of the refluxing solvent. Extraction temperature differences (approximately 52/sup 0/C) were responsible for higher concentrations of leachate metal in the original soxhlet leachate when a minesoil sample was weathered. This modification permits exact volumes of solvent to be passed through the sample, as well as a reduction in extraction temperature that would allow study of the role of bacteria in the weathering process.

  18. Black holes in modified gravity (MOG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, J. W.

    2015-04-01

    The field equations for scalar-tensor-vector gravity (STVG) or modified gravity (MOG) have a static, spherically symmetric black hole solution determined by the mass with two horizons. The strength of the gravitational constant is where is a parameter. A regular singularity-free MOG solution is derived using a nonlinear field dynamics for the repulsive gravitational field component and a reasonable physical energy-momentum tensor. The Kruskal-Szekeres completion of the MOG black hole solution is obtained. The Kerr-MOG black hole solution is determined by the mass , the parameter and the spin angular momentum . The equations of motion and the stability condition of a test particle orbiting the MOG black hole are derived, and the radius of the black hole photosphere and the shadows cast by the Schwarzschild-MOG and Kerr-MOG black holes are calculated. A traversable wormhole solution is constructed with a throat stabilized by the repulsive component of the gravitational field.

  19. Tulip, a Modified Munsell Color Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Uri

    1990-03-01

    The "Tulip" is a modified Munsell Color Space in which equal hue spacing is converted to variable hue spacing, reflecting the differential sensitivity to hue as a function of value, for a fixed chroma. Number of discernible hues, when plotted on a hue-value plane, results in the proposed tulip shape, with curved lines delineating the boundaries between hues. By means of a signal detection experiment, the tulip for yellow-green and for blue is determined. It is shown that more distinct hues of yellow-green are discernible at a high value than at low value. Conversely, for blue, more distinct hues are discernible at low value than at high value.

  20. Olefins from methanol by modified zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, T.; Takegami, Y.

    1982-11-01

    Compares the effects of modified catalysts (ZSM-34 and ZSM-5 class zeolites) on methanol conversion to olefins (MTO) with regard to olefin selectivity and cost. Presents tables with prices of olefins in the US and Japan; comparison of methanol-cracking with naphtha cracking; methanol conversion data for Type-1, Type-II and reference catalysts; hydrocarbon distribution from MTO processes; and speculative economics for MTO processes of Concept-1 and 2. Diagrams the proposed MTO process scheme. Scanning electron micrographs of the zeolite catalysts are shown. Graphs indicate the change of ethylene prices in the US since 1978 and forecast ethylene prices in several countries. Concludes that the prices of ethylene for both MTO processes examined compare favorably with products of conventional processes.

  1. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  3. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  4. Consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Maria K; Koivisto Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa

    2002-08-01

    The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2,000 addressees, aged 18-65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents and those with lower level of education. A majority of the consumers had moral and ethical doubts about eating GM foods and did not perceive attributes like better taste or lower price beneficial enough to persuade them to purchase GM foods. However, tangible benefits, like being better for the environment or healthier, seemed to increase willingness to purchase GM foods.

  5. Plant Flavonoid Content Modified by Domestication.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Seguel, Ivette; Urzúa, Alejandro; Quiroz, Andrés

    2017-07-21

    Plant domestication can modify and weaken defensive chemical traits, reducing chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against pests. We characterized and quantified the major defensive flavonols and isoflavonoids present in both wild and cultivated murtilla plants (Ugni molinae Turcz), established in a common garden. We examined their effects on the larvae of Chilesia rudis (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Insect community and diversity indices were also evaluated. We hypothesized that domestication reduces flavonoid contents and modifies C. rudis preference, the insect community, and diversity. Methanolic extracts were obtained from leaves of U. molinae plants and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed higher insect numbers (86.48%) and damage index (1.72 ± 0.16) in cultivated plants. Four new first records of insects were found associated with U. molinae. Diversity indices, such as Simpson, Shannon, and Margalef, were higher in cultivated plants than in wild plants. Furthermore, eight isoflavonoids were identified in U. molinae leaves for the first time. The five flavonols showed higher concentrations in wild U. molinae leaves (89.8 µg/g) than in cultivated plants (75.2 µg/g); however, no differences were found in isoflavonoids between wild and cultivated plants. The larvae of C. rudis consumed more leaf material of cultivated plants than wild plants in choice (3.8 vs. 0.8 mm2) and no-choice (7.5 vs. 3.0 mm2) assays. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduces the amount of flavonoids in leaves, increasing the preference of C. rudis and the insect community. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Fear of falling modifies anticipatory postural control.

    PubMed

    Adkin, Allan L; Frank, James S; Carpenter, Mark G; Peysar, Gerhard W

    2002-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of fear of falling or postural threat on the control of posture and movement during a voluntary rise to toes task for 12 healthy young adults. Postural threat was modified through alterations to the surface height at which individuals stood (low or high platform) and changes in step restriction (away from or at the edge of the platform) creating four levels of postural threat: LOW AWAY, LOW EDGE, HIGH AWAY and HIGH EDGE. To rise to the toes, an initial postural adjustment must destabilise the body so that it can be moved forward and elevated to a new position of support over the toes. Centre of pressure and centre of mass profiles, as well as tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SO) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscle activity patterns were used to describe this behaviour. The results showed that the performance of the rise to toes task was significantly modified when positioned at the edge of the high platform. In this situation, the central nervous system reduced the magnitude and rate of the postural adjustments and subsequent voluntary movement. Although the duration of the movement was lengthened for this most threatening condition, the sequencing and relative timing of TA, SO and GA muscle activity was preserved. These changes in rise to toes behaviour were accompanied by evidence of increased physiological arousal and participant reports of decreased confidence, increased anxiety and decreased stability. Evidence of fear of falling effects on anticipatory postural control is clinically relevant as it may explain deficits in this control observed in individuals with balance disorders. For example, individuals with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar dysfunction demonstrate impaired performance on the rise to toes task as reflected in alterations of both the timing and magnitude of their anticipatory postural adjustments. Our findings suggest alterations in the magnitude of postural adjustments may be magnified by fear of falling while

  7. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  8. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen

    2012-06-08

    Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  9. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to older adults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to older adults.

  10. Modified Pechini synthesis of tricalcium aluminate powder

    SciTech Connect

    Voicu, Georgeta Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-11-15

    Tricalcium aluminate (Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}-C{sub 3}A) was obtained by a modified Pechini synthesis in order to eliminate successive thermal treatments and intermediate grinding usually performed between the two sintering steps and in order to reduce the sintering temperature. Our results indicated that pure C{sub 3}A was obtained, by a single step thermal treatment at 1300 Degree-Sign C for 4 h and 1350 Degree-Sign C for 1 h. The synthesis was confirmed by XRD, FT-IR and free lime analyses. The morphology of synthesised C{sub 3}A was assessed by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, HRTEM) and it was observed a high tendency of the particles to form aggregates and the individual particles seem to be single crystals. The bioactivity was assessed by specimen soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days; the hydrate (i.e. 3CaO Bullet-Operator Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Bullet-Operator 6H{sub 2}O formed at the C{sub 3}A surface), can act as nucleation centers for the resulted phosphate phases. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified Pechini synthesis was used for obtained of tricalcium aluminate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 3}A was obtained at 1300 Degree-Sign C/4 h and 1350 Degree-Sign C/1 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Were eliminated successive thermal treatments and intermediate grinding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of synthesised C{sub 3}A was assessed by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Was observed a high tendency of the particles to form aggregates.

  11. ENDOILLUMINATION-ASSISTED MODIFIED SCLERAL BUCKLING.

    PubMed

    Assi, Alexandre; Abdelmassih, Youssef; El-Khoury, Sylvain

    2017-02-17

    To assess the anatomical and functional outcomes in addition to complications for endoillumination-assisted modified scleral buckling surgery using a noncontact Oculus BIOM wide-angle viewing system in patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. This is an interventional prospective noncomparative case series. Consecutive patients listed for scleral buckle surgery for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were enrolled over an 18-month period and followed up for 1 year. The study cohort consisted of 25 patients (25 eyes) of which 23 patients (23 eyes) completed the 1-year follow-up. Scleral buckling surgery was done with a 23-gauge endoillumination probe, which was inserted through a pars plana sclerotomy. The primary outcome measure was anatomical success rate with one surgery assessed at the 6-month and the 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcome measures included final visual acuity, number of surgeries required, and complication rates such as entry site break, posterior vitreous detachment, endophthalmitis, and cataract. At 1 year, anatomical success with one surgery was achieved in 20 patients (87%). One patient required two additional vitreoretinal surgeries and 2 patients required three additional surgeries. All patients had a flat retina at 1 year with silicone oil present in one eye. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved by six ETDRS lines, from 1.03 ± 0.83 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/200) preoperatively to 0.40 ± 0.47 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/50) at 1 year. No entry site breaks were detected, and posterior vitreous detachment developed in six patients (26%). No cases of endophthalmitis or cataract progression were reported. Endoillumination-assisted modified scleral buckling surgery combined with a noncontact wide-angle viewing system can provide good anatomical and functional outcomes with many advantages and a low complication rate.

  12. Cosmology with modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, R. H.

    1998-06-01

    It is well known that the application of Newtonian dynamics to an expanding spherical region leads to the correct relativistic expression (the Friedmann equation) for the evolution of the cosmic scalefactor. Here, the cosmological implications of Milgrom's modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) are considered by means of a similar procedure. Earlier work by Felten demonstrated that in a region dominated by modified dynamics the expansion cannot be uniform (separations cannot be expressed in terms of a scalefactor) and that any such region will eventually recollapse regardless of the initial expansion velocity and mean density. Here I show that, because of the acceleration threshold for the MOND phenomenology, a region dominated by MOND will have a finite size which, in the earlier Universe (z>3), is smaller than the horizon scale. Therefore, uniform expansion and homogeneity on the horizon scale are consistent with MOND-dominated non-uniform expansion and the development of inhomogeneities on smaller scales. In the radiation-dominated era, the amplitude of MOND-induced inhomogeneities is much smaller than that implied by observations of the cosmic background radiation, and the thermal and dynamical history of the Universe is identical to that of the standard big bang model. In particular, the standard results for primordial nucleosynthesis are retained. When matter first dominates the energy density of the Universe, the cosmology diverges from that of the standard model. Objects of galaxy mass are the first virialized objects to form (by z=10), and larger structure develops rapidly. At present, the Universe would be inhomogeneous out to a substantial fraction of the Hubble radius.

  13. Modified Dovetail-Plasty in Scar Revision

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Suk Joon; Yang, Jihoon; Kim, Seon Gyu; Jung, Sung Won; Koh, Sung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scar revision is one of the fundamental techniques in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Local flaps, such as a Z-plasty, W-plasty, or geometric broken-line closure, have been used for scar revision. Camouflaging a scar during scar revision for marginal scars from skin grafts and flaps, trapdoor scars, and linear scars is difficult. We describe our experience with the use of modified dovetail-plasty for scar revision in these difficult areas. Our study group consisted of 28 cases among 22 patients (9 males and 13 females) with a mean age of 33.6 years (range, 6–61 years). The conspicuous scars were located on the face (50%) and extremities (50%). The authors designed Y-shaped incision lines to relax the skin tension lines on one side of the excision line and trapezoid incision lines on the other side. There were 16 follow-up operations performed over 6 months after the initial operation among a total of 22 patients. There were scar depressions (2 patients) and a hypertrophic scar (1 patient) at the interval area between the dovetail flaps. A diffuse hypertrophic scar occurred in 1 patient with a dorsal foot scar. The overall success rates of the procedure as assessed by the surgeons were as follows: excellent (75%), good (12.4%), fair (6.3%), and poor (6.3%). This new local flap can achieve an inconspicuous scar using a blurred scar line and reducing tension. The authors recommend a modified dovetail-plasty for the revision of trapdoor scars and scars under excessive tension. PMID:24577307

  14. Modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery for thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    YU, HUI; GE, XIN; PAN, WEIKANG; WANG, HUAIJIE; HUANG, QIANG; DONG, YU; GAO, YA; YU, JIANJUN

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), originally described by Miccoli, is considered to be the most widely practiced and easily reproducible procedure for selected patients with benign and/or malignant thyroid nodules. Modified techniques based on MIVAT, namely modified Miccoli's thyroid surgery (MMTS), were developed based on MIVAT. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary results of MMTS compared with those of MIVAT. The enrolling criteria included a benign nodule <3.5 cm in diameter, a malignant tumor <2 cm, no previous neck surgery and no evidence of any suspected lymph node metastasis or local invasion. Unilateral lobectomy was considered for benign lesions and the additional dissection of central compartment (level VI) lymph nodes was applied for malignant disease. The modified techniques included carefully selecting the operative incision, expanding the operative space, embedding a drainage tube in situ and delicately suturing every layer inwards and crosswise, as well as measuring cervical motion. In addition to the comparison of surgical outcomes between MMTS and MIVAT, other surgical parameters, including operative time, blood loss, postoperative drainage, cosmetic satisfaction, peak angle of cervical rotation, length of hospitalization and complications, were retrospectively analyzed. A consecutive series of 70 patients, including 54 cases of benign and 16 cases of malignant disease, initially underwent MIVAT between April, 2008 and May, 2012, while 127 patients, including 98 benign and 29 malignant cases, subsequently underwent MMTS between September, 2011 and October, 2014. Patients who received MMTS exhibited significantly less blood loss (20.3±11.3 vs. 32.3±12.6 ml, P<0.01), lower volume of postoperative drainage (42.77±15.2 vs. 50.48±23.2 ml, P<0.01) and higher cosmetic satisfaction (94.6±3.5 vs. 88.9±2.7%, P<0.01), but a longer operative time (102±36 vs. 50.48±23.2 min, P<0.01) when compared with MIVAT. In addition, a

  15. Mechanical properties of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, X. Y.; Gu, X. Y.; Wang, X. W.

    2017-01-01

    Gutta-percha is the isomer of caoutchouc and can be used to enhance the performance of asphalt. In this paper, the produce proceedings of gutta-percha sulfide and gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt are introduced. The performance indices of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt samples with different proportions are examined based on laboratory tests and the optimum ratio of gutta-percha and sulfur is decided.The micromechanism, temperature sensitivity, high and low temperature properties and viscoelasticity of the polymer modified asphalt are analyzed to discuss the modified mechanism and to decide the optimal polymer content. Low temperature bending tests are carried out to verify the low temperature performance of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt mixture. Research results showed that gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt has good low temperature performance and a promising application prospect in the cold regions.

  16. Propagation of modified Bessel-Gaussian beams in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil Tanyer; Hardalaç, Fırat

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the propagation characteristics of modified Bessel-Gaussian beams traveling in a turbulent atmosphere. The source beam formulation comprises a Gaussian exponential and the summation of modified Bessel functions. Based on an extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the receiver plane intensity is formulated and solved down to a double integral stage. Source beam illustrations show that modified Bessel-Gaussian beams, except the lowest order case, will have well-like shapes. Modified Bessel-Gaussian beams with summations will experience lobe slicing and will display more or less the same profile regardless of order content. After propagating in turbulent atmosphere, it is observed that a modified Bessel-Gaussian beam will transform into a Bessel-Gaussian beam. Furthermore it is seen that modified Bessel-Gaussian beams with different Bessel function combinations, but possessing nearly the same profile, will differentiate during propagation. Increasing turbulence strength is found to accelerate the beam transformation toward the eventual Gaussian shape.

  17. Nature of the chemical reaction for furfural modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H.

    1994-12-31

    Three of the most serious problems of asphalt pavements today are rutting, cracking, and susceptibility to moisture damage (stripping). Asphalt manufacturers have been mixing asphalts with polymers to produce polymer-modified asphalts with improved rheological properties. However, the costs for these improved polymer-modified asphalts are almost double that of regular asphalts. FHWA researchers have found that asphalt modified by the chemical, furfural (which is prepared by simple elimination reaction of aldopentoses obtained from oat hulls), exhibited better stripping properties and was less temperature susceptible than the virgin asphalt while costing less than polymer-modified asphalts. This paper discusses the possible structure of the furfural-modified asphalt, data for the virgin and furfural-modified asphalts and their Corbett fractions, data from a model reaction between phenol and furfural, and a possible explanation of this structure based on these data.

  18. Spiropyran-modified silicon quantum dots with reversibly switchable photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Lv, Han; Deng, Xiaoting; He, Benqiao; Liu, Qingquan

    2017-08-01

    Spiropyran-modified silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) were successfully fabricated through covalently linking the aminated Si QDs and spiropyrans. In comparison with Si QDs, the fluorescence emission peaks of the Si QDs in the spiropyran-modified Si QDs always locate at 525 nm irrespective of the excitation wavelengths. The spiropyran-modified Si QDs showed reversible photoluminescence. Blue-green fluorescence of the spiropyran-modified Si QDs could be gradually switched off, and red fluorescence could be gradually switched on with UV irradiation. The process could be reversible with visible light irradiation. The reversibly switchable photoluminescence of the spiropyran-modified Si QDs using UV and visible light irradiation could also be multiply repeated with good stability. Therefore, the spiropyran-modified Si QDs could be a promising candidate in many potential application areas such as photo-switch, data storage, and biolabeling and bioimaging.

  19. MAUP: Modifiable Areal Unit Problem in raster GIS datasets. Raster pixels as modifiable areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyn, Usery E.

    2001-01-01

    The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP) is a well-studied aspect of geographic phenomena. It is usually associated with socio-economic data collected by census enumeration units. This problem also applies directly to geographic data in raster formats, including both GIS categorical data layers and remotely sensed images. The author briefly provides a foundation for examining the component parts of the MAUP in remotely sensed raster data.

  20. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces

  1. Theoretical electronic structure of structurally modified graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Marc David

    Graphene has emerged as a promising replacement for silicon in next-generation electronics and optoelectronic devices. If graphene is to be used in semiconductor devices, however, it must acquire an electronic band gap. Numerous approaches have been proposed to control the band gap of graphene, including the periodic patterning of defects. However, the mechanism for band gap opening and the associated physics in graphene patterned with defects remain unclear. Using both analytic theory and first-principles calculations, we show that periodic patterning of defects on graphene can open a large and tunable band gap, induce strong absorption peaks at optical wavelengths, and host a giant band gap quantum spin Hall phase. First, a geometric rule is analytically derived for the arrangements of defects that open a band gap in graphene, with one ninth of all possible patterns opening a band gap. Next, we perform ab-initio density functional calculations to compare the effects of structural vacancies, hexagonal BN dopants, and passivants on the electronic structure of graphene. Qualitatively, these three types of structural defects behave the same, with only slight differences in their resulting band structures. By adjusting the shape of structural defects, we show how to move the Dirac cones in reciprocal space in accordance with the tight-binding model for the anisotropic honeycomb lattice, while the fundamental mechanism for band gap opening remains the same. To quantitatively predict the band gap and optical properties of these materials, we employ many-body perturbation theory with Green's functions (GW/Bethe-Salpeter equation) to directly include electron-electron and electron-hole interactions. Structurally modified graphene shows a strong renormalization of the fundamental band gap over single particle descriptions, and a strong electron-hole interaction as indicated by strong exciton binding energies (> 0.5 eV). Finally, we show that structurally modified graphene

  2. The mechanism of the modified Ullmann reaction.

    PubMed

    Sperotto, Elena; van Klink, Gerard P M; van Koten, Gerard; de Vries, Johannes G

    2010-11-21

    The copper-mediated aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions developed by Fritz Ullmann and Irma Goldberg required stoichiometric amounts of copper and very high reaction temperatures. Recently, it was found that addition of relatively cheap ligands (diamines, aminoalcohols, diketones, diols) made these reactions truly catalytic, with catalyst amounts as low as 1 mol% or even lower. Since these catalysts are homogeneous, it has opened up the possibility to investigate the mechanism of these modified Ullmann reactions. Most authors agree that Cu(I) is the true catalyst even though Cu(0) and Cu(II) catalysts have also shown to be active. It should be noted however that Cu(I) is capable of reversible disproportionation into Cu(0) and Cu(II). In the first step, the nucleophile displaces the halide in the LnCu(I)X complex forming LnCu(I)ZR (Z = O, NR′, S). Quite a number of mechanisms have been proposed for the actual reaction of this complex with the aryl halide: 1. Oxidative addition of ArX forming a Cu(III) intermediate followed by reductive elimination; 2. Sigma bond metathesis; in this mechanism copper remains in the Cu(II) oxidation state; 3. Single electron transfer (SET) in which a radical anion of the aryl halide is formed (Cu(I)/Cu(II)); 4. Iodine atom transfer (IAT) to give the aryl radical (Cu(I)/Cu(II)); 5. π-complexation of the aryl halide with the Cu(I) complex, which is thought to enable the nucleophilic substitution reaction. Initially, the radical type mechanisms 3 and 4 where discounted based on the fact that radical clock-type experiments with ortho-allyl aryl halides failed to give the cyclised products. However, a recent DFT study by Houk, Buchwald and co-workers shows that the modified Ullmann reaction between aryl iodide and amines or primary alcohols proceeds either via an SET or an IAT mechanism. Van Koten has shown that stalled aminations can be rejuvenated by the addition of Cu(0), which serves to reduce the formed Cu(II) to Cu

  3. Modifiable Neighborhood Features Associated With Adolescent Homicide.

    PubMed

    Culyba, Alison J; Jacoby, Sara F; Richmond, Therese S; Fein, Joel A; Hohl, Bernadette C; Branas, Charles C

    2016-05-01

    Homicide is a leading cause of adolescent mortality. To our knowledge, relatively little has been studied in terms of the association between environmental neighborhood features, such as streets, buildings, and natural surroundings, and severe violent injury among youth. To assess associations between environmental neighborhood features and adolescent homicide in order to identify targets for future place-based interventions. Population-based case-control study conducted in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from April 15, 2008, to March 31, 2014. We identified adolescents who died by homicide at 13 to 20 years of age from 2010 to 2012 while residing in Philadelphia. We used incidence-density sampling and random-digit dialing to recruit control participants ages 13 to 20 years matched on sex and indoor-outdoor location at the time of each index case participant's homicide. To obtain environmental data about modifiable features that were present in the immediate surroundings of our case and control participants, blinded field researchers used standardized techniques to photograph case and control participant outdoor locations. Photographic data were stitched together to create 360° panoramic images that were coded for 60 elements of the visible environment. Adolescent homicide. We enrolled 143 homicide case participants (mean [SD] age, 18.4 [1.5] years) and 155 matched control participants (mean [SD] age, 17.2 [2.1] years) who were both outdoors at the time of the homicide. In adjusted analyses, multiple features of Philadelphia streets, buildings, and natural surroundings were associated with adolescent homicide. The presence of street lighting (odds ratio [OR], 0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.70), illuminated walk/don't walk signs (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.92), painted marked crosswalks (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04-0.63), public transportation (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.49), parks (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.88), and maintained vacant lots (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.81) were significantly

  4. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Khattak, Mohammad Jamal; Gallo, August A

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification.

  5. Bone Glue Modified Asphalt: A Step towards Energy Conservation and Environment Friendly Modified Asphalts

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Hashim Raza; Gallo, August A.

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt has been modified for the past several decades using various additives, including synthetic polymers. Polymer modification improves structural and engineering characteristics of the binder, which is a result of improvement in rheological characteristics of binder as well as its adhesion capability with the aggregate. Such enhancement inevitably enhances the performance characteristics of hot mix asphalts (HMA) such as fatigue life, resistance to rutting, and thermal cracking. Even though polymer-modified HMA is popular in North America and European countries, its use is still limited in developing countries of Southeast Asia due to high costs associated with its manufacturing, processing, and energy consumption. In this study, a new kind of asphalt modifier derived from animal wastes, such as bones, hides, and flesh commonly known as Bone Glue, is studied. This biomaterial which is a by-product of food and cattle industries is cheap, conveniently available, and produced locally in developing countries. The results of the research study showed that the bone glue can easily be mixed with asphalt without significantly altering the asphalt binder's viscosity and mixing and compaction temperatures of HMA. Additionally, improvements in complex shear modulus for a range of temperatures were also determined and it was found that complex shear modulus was improved by bone glue modification. PMID:27437456

  6. System Configured For Applying Multiple Modifying Agents To A Substrate.

    DOEpatents

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2005-11-08

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  7. Methyl modified MOF-5: a water stable hydrogen storage material.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Grzech, Anna; Mulder, Fokko M; Dingemans, Theo J

    2011-05-14

    Water stable methyl modified MOF-5s have been synthesized via a solvothermal route. Methyl- and 2,5-dimethyl-modified MOF-5s show the same topology and hydrogen uptake capability as that of MOF-5. The H(2) uptake capacity of MOF-5, however, drops rapidly when exposed to the ambient air, whereas the H(2) uptake capacities of the methyl modified MOF-5s remain stable for 4 days. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  9. Construction of Experimental Modified Bitumen Roofing at Fort Polk, LA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    with polyester reinforcement and factory- applied granule surfacing (area A), - Membrane B -- a hot-mopped SBS modified bitumen with polyester...roofing that should be removed. Membrane B Reroofing of area B with the hot-mopped SBS modified bitumen membrane began on September 8. Installation of...Research Laboratory AD-A235 492/ Iuilli itI 1 I II HUE Construction of Experimental Modified Bitumen Roofing at Fort Polk, LA by David M. Bailey 40 This

  10. System configured for applying multiple modifying agents to a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2003-11-25

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  11. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet extraction

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Michael J.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2007-02-20

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet extraction. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of determining a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, generating nodes for merging, and merging the nodes to delete the sheet of hexahedral mesh elements and modify the volume mesh.

  12. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet insertion

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Michael J.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2006-08-29

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet insertion. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify (refine) the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of locating a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, determining a plurality of hexahedral elements within the sheet to refine, shrinking the plurality of elements, and inserting a new sheet of hexahedral elements adjacently to modify the volume mesh. Additionally, another predetermined algorithm using mesh cutting may be followed to modify a volume mesh.

  13. Modified gravity black holes and their observable shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, J. W.

    2015-03-01

    The shadows cast by non-rotating and rotating modified gravity black holes are determined by the two parameters mass and angular momentum . The sizes of the shadows cast by the spherically symmetric static modified gravity-Schwarzschild and modified gravity-Kerr rotating black holes increase significantly as the free parameter is increased from zero. The Event Horizon Telescope shadow image measurements can determine whether Einstein's general relativity is correct or whether it should be modified in the presence of strong gravitational fields.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Behavior of Modified HKUST-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lan; Tang, Huamin; Zhou, Chaohua; Zhang, Hongpeng; Yan, Chunxiao; Hu, Xiaochun; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weiwei; Li, Yuming; He, Dehua

    2014-12-01

    A kind of typical metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) material, HKUST-1 was prepared by hydrothermal method and characterized by XRD and SEM. The results of characterizations manifested that HKUST-1 showed a regular octahedral crystal structure. The as-prepared HKUST-1 was modified by several kinds of organic base materials and the CO2 adsorption behaviors of modified HKUST-1 materials were evaluated. The CO2 adsorption capacities of different base modified HKUST-1 varied with the base intensity of modified organic base materials.

  15. Constraints on modified gravity models from white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Srimanta; Shankar, Swapnil; Singh, Tejinder P.

    2017-10-01

    Modified gravity theories can introduce modifications to the Poisson equation in the Newtonian limit. As a result, we expect to see interesting features of these modifications inside stellar objects. White dwarf stars are one of the most well studied stars in stellar astrophysics. We explore the effect of modified gravity theories inside white dwarfs. We derive the modified stellar structure equations and solve them to study the mass-radius relationships for various modified gravity theories. We also constrain the parameter space of these theories from observations.

  16. [Removal of red tide organisms by organo-modified bentonite].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuesong; Xu, Zirong; Xia, Meisheng; Ye, Ying; Hu, Caihong

    2004-01-01

    A series of organo-bentonites were synthesized by exchanging cation surfactants such as cyltrimethylammonium bromide and cetyltrimethylammonium to remove red tide organisms Skeletonema costatum. The results showed that the removal rate of Skeletonema costatum by the bentonites was in the order of cyltrimethylammonium surfactant modified iron pillared bentonite > cetyltrimethylammoium surfactant modified iron pillared bentonite > iron pillared bentonite > cyltrimethylammonium surfactant modified sodium bentonite > cetyltrimethylammoium surfactant modified > sodium bentonite. The removal rate of Skeletonema costatum was related to the length of alkyl chains and the amount of cation surfactants exchanged on bentonites.

  17. Oligosaccharide sensing with chromophore-modified curdlan in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Gaku; Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2010-12-28

    A newly synthesized chromophore-modified curdlan functions as a saccharide chemosensor in aqueous solution, enabling us to discriminate tetrasaccharide acarbose from 24 mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharides.

  18. Modifier coordination and phosphate glass networks

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.; Click, C.A.; Alam, T.M.

    1999-11-30

    The addition of up to approximately 16 mole% Cs{sub 2}O to vitreous P{sub 2}O{sub 5} reduces the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) by 150 K, whereas further additions up to 50 mole% produce little additional change in T{sub g}. {sup 31}P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicate that the phosphate network is progressively dipolymerized over the entire range of compositions. The property trend is explained by a transition in the Cs{sup +} coordination environment, from isolated Cs-polyhedra below {approximately}16 mole% Cs{sub 2}O to a corner-sharing Cs-polyhedral sub-structure in the glasses with greater Cs{sub 2}O contents. This modifier transition does not occur in Al-phosphate glasses. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that the average Al coordination number decreases with increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content to avoid the formation of Al-O-Al bonds in these binary phosphate glasses.

  19. Modified melamine resins for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Joachim; Rafler, Gerald

    1999-06-01

    A new four-step synthetic-route for combining chromophores with melamine resins was developed and their use for optical applications was demonstrated. Despite other melamine resins, the basic molecule of this system is the 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine, the cyanuric chloride. In the first step, the azochromophore was bonded to the s-triazine-ring. Then the residual chlorines of this triazine-chromophore were substituted by ammonia or primary amines. In the third step formaldehyde was added, leading to melamine-chromophore precondensates. For increasing the stability and the solubility of these precondensates, the reactive methylolgroups were etherificated with methyl or butyl alcohol. One example of such a crosslinkable melamine-chromophore was illustrated and characterized by NMR- and mass-spectroscopy. The mass-spectrum gives evidence that the modified melamine precondensates are monomers and not a mixture of different oligomers like else in melamine-aldehyde prepolymers. The result of these systems is a crosslinkable melamine-chromophore monomer which is converted in a resin by thermal treating or by acids. It is remarkable that these polymers show an excellent thermal stability with a de-composition temperature beyond 300°C, a great advantage for using them as optical materials. Their usability as second-order nonlinear optical material was investigated by corona poling.

  20. The Hydra small ubiquitin-like modifier.

    PubMed

    Khan, Umair; Mehere, Prajwalini; Deivasigamani, Senthilkumar; Ratnaparkhi, Girish S

    2013-09-01

    SUMO is a protein posttranslational modifier. SUMO cycle components are believed to be conserved in all eukaryotes. Proteomic analyses have lead to the identification a wealth of SUMO targets that are involved in almost every cellular function in eukaryotes. In this article, we describe the characterization of SUMO Cycle components in Hydra, a Cnidarian with an ability to regenerate body parts. In cells, the translated SUMO polypeptide cannot conjugate to a substrate protein unless the C-terminal tail is cleaved, exposing the di-Glycine motif. This critical task is done by SUMO proteases that in addition to SUMO maturation are also involved in deconjugating SUMO from its substrate. We describe the identification, bioinformatics analysis, cloning, and biochemical characterization of Hydra SUMO cycle components, with a focus on SUMO and SUMO proteases. We demonstrate that the ability of SUMO proteases to process immature SUMO is conserved from Hydra to flies. A transgenic Hydra, expressing a SUMO-GFP fusion protein under a constitutive actin promoter, is generated in an attempt to monitor the SUMO Cycle in vivo as also to purify and identify SUMO targets in Hydra. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    PubMed Central

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155

  2. Modified betatron for ion beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rostoker, N.; Fisher, A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense neutralized ion beam can be injected and trapped in magnetic mirror or tokamak geometry. The details of the process involve beam polarization so that the beam crosses the fringing fields without deflection and draining the polarization when the beam reaches the plasma. Equilibrium requires that a large betatron field be added in tokamak geometry. In mirror geometry a toroidal field must be added by means of a current along the mirror axis. In either case, the geometry becomes that of the modified betatron which has been studied experimentally and theoretically in recent years. We consider beams of d and t ions with a mean energy of 500 kev and a temperature of about 50 kev. The plasma may be a proton plasma with cold ions. It is only necessary for beam trapping or to carry currents. The ion energy for slowing down is initially 500 kev and thermonuclear reactions depend only on the beam temperature of 50 kev which changes very slowly. This new configuration for magnetic confinement fusion leads to an energy gain of 10--20 for d-t reactions whereas previous studies of beam target interaction predicted a maximum energy gain of 3--4. The high beam energy available with pulsed ion diode technology is also essential for advanced fuels. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kader, A A; Zagory, D; Kerbel, E L

    1989-01-01

    Modified atmospheres (MA), i.e., elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and reduced levels of oxygen and ethylene, can be useful supplements to provide optimum temperature and relative humidity in maintaining the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables after harvest. MA benefits include reduced respiration, ethylene production, and sensitivity to ethylene; retarded softening and compositional changes; alleviation of certain physiological disorders; and reduced decay. Subjecting fresh produce to too low an oxygen concentration and/or to too high a carbon dioxide level can result in MA stress, which is manifested by accelerated deterioration. Packaging fresh produce in polymeric films can result in a commodity-generated MA. Atmosphere modification within such packages depends on film permeability, commodity respiration rate and gas diffusion characteristics, and initial free volume and atmospheric composition within the package. Temperature, relative humidity, and air movement around the package can influence the permeability of the film. Temperature also affects the metabolic activity of the commodity and consequently the rate of attaining the desired MA. All these factors must be considered in developing a mathematical model for selecting the most suitable film for each commodity.

  4. NOTE: The modified Beer Lambert law revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, L.; Herman, P.; Eke, A.

    2006-03-01

    The modified Beer Lambert law (MBLL) is the basis of continuous-wave near-infrared tissue spectroscopy (cwNIRS). The differential form of MBLL (dMBLL) states that the change in light attenuation is proportional to the changes in the concentrations of tissue chromophores, mainly oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin. If attenuation changes are measured at two or more wavelengths, concentration changes can be calculated. The dMBLL is based on two assumptions: (1) the absorption of the tissue changes homogeneously, and (2) the scattering loss is constant. It is known that absorption changes are usually inhomogeneous, and therefore dMBLL underestimates the changes in concentrations (partial volume effect) and every calculated value is influenced by the change in the concentration of other chromophores (cross-talk between chromophores). However, the error introduced by the second assumption (cross-talk of scattering changes) has not been assessed previously. An analytically treatable special case (semi-infinite, homogeneous medium, with optical properties of the cerebral cortex) is utilized here to estimate its order of magnitude. We show that the per cent change of the transport scattering coefficient and that of the absorption coefficient have an approximately equal effect on the changes of attenuation, and a 1% increase in scattering increases the estimated concentration changes by about 0.5 µM.

  5. MODIFIED EQUIPARTITION CALCULATION FOR SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.; Andjelic, M. M.; Pavlovic, M. Z.; Vukotic, B.

    2012-02-10

    Determination of the magnetic field strength in the interstellar medium is one of the more complex tasks of contemporary astrophysics. We can only estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field strength by using a few very limited methods. Besides the Zeeman effect and Faraday rotation, the equipartition or minimum-energy calculation is a widespread method for estimating magnetic field strength and energy contained in the magnetic field and cosmic-ray particles by using only the radio synchrotron emission. Despite its approximate character, it remains a useful tool, especially when there are no other data about the magnetic field in a source. In this paper, we give a modified calculation that we think is more appropriate for estimating magnetic field strengths and energetics in supernova remnants (SNRs). We present calculated estimates of the magnetic field strengths for all Galactic SNRs for which the necessary observational data are available. The Web application for calculation of the magnetic field strengths of SNRs is available at http://poincare.matf.bg.ac.rs/{approx}arbo/eqp/.

  6. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Modified kinetics of enzymes interacting with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Sebastián. A.; Breger, Joyce C.; Malanoski, Anthony; Claussen, Jonathan C.; Walper, Scott A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Brown, Carl W.; Stewart, Michael H.; Oh, Eunkeu; Susumu, Kimihiro; Medintz, Igor L.

    2015-08-01

    Enzymes are important players in multiple applications, be it bioremediation, biosynthesis, or as reporters. The business of catalysis and inhibition of enzymes is a multibillion dollar industry and understanding the kinetics of commercial enzymes can have a large impact on how these systems are optimized. Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened up the field of nanoparticle (NP) and enzyme conjugates and two principal architectures for NP conjugate systems have been developed. In the first example the enzyme is bound to the NP in a persistent manner, here we find that key factors such as directed enzyme conjugation allow for enhanced kinetics. Through controlled comparative experiments we begin to tease out specific mechanisms that may account for the enhancement. The second system is based on dynamic interactions of the enzymes with the NP. The enzyme substrate is bound to the NP and the enzyme is free in solution. Here again we find that there are many variables , such as substrate positioning and NP selection, that modify the kinetics.

  8. Health risks of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Dona, Artemis; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2009-02-01

    As genetically modified (GM) foods are starting to intrude in our diet concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. These concerns as well as the limitations of the procedures followed in the evaluation of their safety are presented. Animal toxicity studies with certain GM foods have shown that they may toxically affect several organs and systems. The review of these studies should not be conducted separately for each GM food, but according to the effects exerted on certain organs it may help us create a better picture of the possible health effects on human beings. The results of most studies with GM foods indicate that they may cause some common toxic effects such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal, or reproductive effects and may alter the hematological, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. However, many years of research with animals and clinical trials are required for this assessment. The use of recombinant GH or its expression in animals should be re-examined since it has been shown that it increases IGF-1 which may promote cancer.

  9. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    PubMed

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  10. STELLAR STRUCTURE AND TESTS OF MODIFIED GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Philip; Hui, Lam E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu

    2011-05-01

    Theories that attempt to explain cosmic acceleration by modifying gravity typically introduces a long-range scalar force that needs to be screened on small scales. One common screening mechanism is the chameleon, where the scalar force is screened in environments with a sufficiently deep gravitational potential, but acts unimpeded in regions with a shallow gravitational potential. This leads to a variation in the overall gravitational G with environment. We show that such a variation can occur within a star itself, significantly affecting its evolution and structure, provided that the host galaxy is unscreened. The effect is most pronounced for red giants, which would be smaller by a factor of tens of percent and thus hotter by hundreds of Kelvin, depending on the parameters of the underlying scalar-tensor theory. Careful measurements of these stars in suitable environments (nearby dwarf galaxies not associated with groups or clusters) would provide constraints on the chameleon mechanism that are four orders of magnitude better than current large-scale structure limits and two orders of magnitude better than present solar system tests.

  11. Modified Laminar Flow Biological Safety Cabinet

    PubMed Central

    Mcgarrity, Gerard J.; Coriell, Lewis L.

    1974-01-01

    Tests are reported on a modified laminar flow biological safety cabinet in which the return air plenum that conducts air from the work area to the high efficiency particulate air filters is under negative pressure. Freon gas released inside the cabinet could not be detected outside by a freon gas detection method capable of detecting 10-6 cc/s. When T3 bacteriophage was aerosolized 5 cm outside the front opening in 11 tests, no phage could be detected inside the cabinet with the motor-filter unit in operation. An average of 2.8 × 105 plaque-forming units (PFU)/ft3 (ca. 0.028 m3) were detected with the motor-filter unit not in operation, a penetration of 0.0%. Aerosolization 5 cm inside the cabinet yielded an average of 10 PFU/ft3 outside the cabinet with the motor-filter unit in operation and an average of 4.1 × 105 PFU/ft3 with the motor-filter unit not in operation, a penetration of 0.002%. These values are the same order of effectiveness as the positive-pressure laminar flow biological safety cabinets previously tested. The advantages of the negative-pressure return plenum design include: (i) assurance that if cracks or leaks develop in the plenum it will not lead to discharge of contaminated air into the laboratory; and (ii) the price is lower due to reduced manufacturing costs. Images PMID:4420479

  12. Sudden cardiac death after modified electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Jiyu

    2015-10-01

    Sudden deaths associated with the use of electroconvulsive therapy are rare. In this case report a 58-year-old male with a 20-year history of bipolar disorder and no history or signs of cardiac illness died from cardiac arrest within one hour of receiving an initial session of modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) to treat a recurrent episode of non-psychotic mania. The patient regained consciousness and was medically stable immediately after the MECT session (which did not produce a convulsion) but deteriorated rapidly after transfer to the recovery room. It was not possible to conduct an autopsy, but the authors surmise that the most probable cause was that the use of haloperidol 17 hours prior to MECT exacerbated the cardiac effects of nonconvulsive MECT. The case highlights the need for a thorough cardiac work-up on patients being considered for MECT (possibly including assessment of cardiac enzymes in older individuals) and careful consideration of the concurrent use of antipsychotic medications and MECT.

  13. Testing modified gravity with dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghi, Hosein; Amiri, Vahid

    2016-12-01

    The observed velocity dispersion of the classical dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies of the Milky Way (MW) requires the Newtonian stellar mass-to-light (M*/L) ratios in the range of about 10 to more than 100 solar units that are well outside the acceptable limit predicted by stellar population synthesis models. Using Jeans analysis, we calculate the line-of-sight velocity dispersion (σlos) of stars in eight MW dSphs in the context of the modified gravity (MOG) theory of Moffat, assuming a constant M*/L ratio without invoking the exotic cold dark matter. First, we use the weak field approximation of MOG and assume the two parameters α and μ of the theory to be constant as has already been inferred from fitting to the observed rotational data of The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey catalogue of galaxies. We find that the derived M*/L ratios for almost all dSphs are too large to be explained by the stellar population values. In order to fit the line-of-sight velocity dispersions of the dSph with reasonable M*/L values, we must vary α and μ on a case by case basis. A common pair of values cannot be found for all dSphs. Comparing with the values found from rotation curve fitting, it appears that μ correlates strongly with galaxy luminosity, shedding doubt on it as a universal constant.

  14. Polyphosphate: A Conserved Modifier of Amyloidogenic Processes.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Claudia M; Knoefler, Daniela; Gates, Stephanie; Martin, Nicholas; Dahl, Jan-Ulrik; Lempart, Justine; Xie, Lihan; Chapman, Matthew R; Galvan, Veronica; Southworth, Daniel R; Jakob, Ursula

    2016-09-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP), a several billion-year-old biopolymer, is produced in every cell, tissue, and organism studied. Structurally extremely simple, polyP consists of long chains of covalently linked inorganic phosphate groups. We report here the surprising discovery that polyP shows a remarkable efficacy in accelerating amyloid fibril formation. We found that polyP serves as an effective nucleation source for various different amyloid proteins, ranging from bacterial CsgA to human α-synuclein, Aβ1-40/42, and Tau. polyP-associated α-synuclein fibrils show distinct differences in seeding behavior, morphology, and fibril stability compared with fibrils formed in the absence of polyP. In vivo, the amyloid-stimulating and fibril-stabilizing effects of polyP have wide-reaching consequences, increasing the rate of biofilm formation in pathogenic bacteria and mitigating amyloid toxicity in differentiated neuroblastoma cells and C. elegans strains that serve as models for human folding diseases. These results suggest that we have discovered a conserved cytoprotective modifier of amyloidogenic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modified carbon nanotubes: from nanomedicine to nanotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottini, Massimo; Bottini, Nunzio

    2012-09-01

    Nanomedicine is the science of fabricating smart devices able to diagnose and treat diseases more efficiently than conventional medicine while minimizing costs, complexity and adverse effects. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are receiving considerable attention for biomedical applications due to their extraordinary properties. In particular, their chemical nature and high aspect ratio (ratio between the length and the diameter) make them ideal carriers to achieve delivery of high doses of therapeutic and imaging cargo to a specific site of interest. A major obstacle to the use of pristine (unmodified) CNTs in biological systems is their complete aqueous insolubility and low biocompatibility and toxicity profiles. To endow CNTs with solubility in a biological milieu, several non-covalent and covalent modification methods have been explored. Suitably modified CNTs have shown increased solubility under physiological conditions, improved biocompatibility profiles and lack of toxicity after injection in living animals. Additionally, after being loaded with cargo (small molecules, proteins, peptides or nucleic acids) they have been successfully evaluated as pharmaceutical, therapeutic and diagnostic tools.

  16. Human-modified ecosystems and future evolution

    PubMed Central

    Western, David

    2001-01-01

    Our global impact is finally receiving the scientific attention it deserves. The outcome will largely determine the future course of evolution. Human-modified ecosystems are shaped by our activities and their side effects. They share a common set of traits including simplified food webs, landscape homogenization, and high nutrient and energy inputs. Ecosystem simplification is the ecological hallmark of humanity and the reason for our evolutionary success. However, the side effects of our profligacy and poor resource practices are now so pervasive as to threaten our future no less than that of biological diversity itself. This article looks at human impact on ecosystems and the consequences for evolution. It concludes that future evolution will be shaped by our awareness of the global threats, our willingness to take action, and our ability to do so. Our ability is presently hampered by several factors, including the poor state of ecosystem and planetary knowledge, ignorance of human impact, lack of guidelines for sustainability, and a paucity of good policies, practices, and incentives for adopting those guidelines in daily life. Conservation philosophy, science, and practice must be framed against the reality of human-dominated ecosystems, rather than the separation of humanity and nature underlying the modern conservation movement. The steps scientists can take to imbed science in conservation and conservation in the societal process affecting the future of ecosystems and human well-being are discussed. PMID:11344294

  17. Dynamical Evolution of Modified Chaplygin Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ming-Hui; Wu, Ya-Bo; He, Jing

    2008-02-01

    Based our previous work [Mod. Phys. Lett. A 22 (2007) 783, Gen. Relat. Grav. 39 (2007) 653], some properties of modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) as a dark energy model continue to be studied mainly in two aspects: one is the change rates of the energy density and energy transfer, and the other is the evolution of the growth index. It is pointed that the density of dark energy undergoes the change from decrease to increase no matter whether the interaction between dark energy and dark matter exists or not, but the corresponding transformation points are different from each other. Furthermore, it is stressed that the MCG model even supports the existence of interaction between dark energy and dark matter, and the energy of transfer flows from dark energy to dark matter. The evolution of the interaction term with an ansatz 3Hc2 ρ is discussed with the MCG model. Moreover, the evolution of the growth index f in the MCG model without interaction is illustrated, from which we find that the evolutionary trajectory of f overlaps with that of the ΣCDM model when a > 0.7 and its theoretical value f ≈ 0.566 given by us at z = 0.15 is consistent with the observations.

  18. Rheology of latex-modified grouts

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-12-01

    The pumpability and ability of cementitious grouts to penetrate voids and cracks is strongly dependent on the rheological behavior of the grout. This is important in diverse grouting applications including ground treatment, repair of concrete, reduction of rock or soil permeability, environmental remediation, prestressing concrete, rock anchors, sealing radioactive waste repositories, and well completion. The rheology of grouts containing latex was investigated. The two latex additives used were carboxylated styrene-butadiene and acrylic. The influences of superplasticizer, fly ash, and blast furnace slag on the rheology of latex-modified grouts were addressed. Shear stress-shear rate curves were determined for a variety of mix proportions. The time-dependent behavior of selected grouts was also studied. It was determined that the yield stress and apparent viscosity are influenced by latex content and that the grouts are shear thinning at low water/cement ratios. Latex imparts stability and thixotropy in grouts. Partial replacement of cement with either fly ash or slag diminishes the effect of latex on rheology.

  19. Conformal cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkog˜lu, Murat Metehan; Dog˜ru, Melis Ulu

    2015-11-01

    We investigate cylindrically symmetric spacetimes in the context of f(R) gravity. We firstly attain conformal symmetry of the cylindrically symmetric spacetime. We obtain solutions to use features of the conformal symmetry, field equations and their solutions for cylindrically symmetric spacetime filled with various cosmic matters such as vacuum state, perfect fluid, anisotropic fluid, massive scalar field and their combinations. With the vacuum state solutions, we show that source of the spacetime curvature is considered as Casimir effect. Casimir force for given spacetime is found using Wald’s axiomatic analysis. We expose that the Casimir force for Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacuum states could have attractive, repulsive and ineffective features. In the perfect fluid state, we show that matter form of the perfect fluid in given spacetime must only be dark energy. Also, we offer that potential of massive and massless scalar field are developed as an exact solution from the modified field equations. All solutions of field equations for vacuum case, perfect fluid and scalar field give a special f(R) function convenient to Λ-CDM model. In addition to these solutions, we introduce conformal cylindrical symmetric solutions in the cases of different f(R) models. Finally, geometrical and physical results of the solutions are discussed.

  20. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  1. Modified Homogeneous Data Set of Coronal Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorotovič, I.; Minarovjech, M.; Lorenc, M.; Rybanský, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences has published the intensities, recalibrated with respect to a common intensity scale, of the 530.3 nm (Fe xiv) green coronal line observed at ground-based stations up to the year 2008. The name of this publication is Homogeneous Data Set (HDS). We have developed a method that allows one to successfully substitute the ground-based observations by satellite observations and, thus, continue with the publication of the HDS. For this purpose, the observations of the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite, were exploited. Among other data the EIT instrument provides almost daily 28.4 nm (Fe xv) emission-line snapshots of the corona. The Fe xiv and Fe xv data (4051 observation days) taken in the period 1996 - 2008 have been compared and good agreement was found. The method to obtain the individual data for the HDS follows from the correlation analysis described in this article. The resulting data, now under the name of Modified Homogeneous Data Set (MHDS), are identical up to 1996 to those in the HDS. The MHDS can be used further for studies of the coronal solar activity and its cycle. These data are available at http://www.suh.sk.

  2. Modified kraft lignin for bioremediation applications.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Diva A Simões; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Evtuguin, Dmitry V

    2012-01-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) from industrial pulping of E. globulus wood was subjected to the oxidative modification with the aim to produce sorbent mimicking humic matter for the bioremediation purposes. Lignin was oxidized by polyoxometalate Na(5)[PMo(10)V(2)O(40)] (POM), solely or in the presence of laccase, under pre-selected aerobic conditions (50-60°C, 1-2h, oxygen pressure 5 bar). The most pronounced lignin oxidation without its depolymerisation was observed in the reaction system POM/O(2). Modified lignins possessed increased amounts of COOH (up to 15 %) and CO (up to 500 %) groups, when compared to unmodified KL, and significantly higher molecular weights. Sorption capacity of KL before and after modification towards transition metals (cadmium (II) and mercury (II)) and triazine pesticide (atrazine) was assessed in batch experiments under equilibrium conditions. KL oxidation improved sorption capacity towards transition metals (up to 15 %) but not necessarily the uptake of atrazine that was higher for unmodified KL.

  3. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Sujit K.; Chaki, T. K.; Tikku, V. K.; Pradhan, N. K.; Bhowmick, A. K.

    1997-10-01

    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%.

  4. Properties Characterization of Chemically Modified Hemp Hurds

    PubMed Central

    Stevulova, Nadezda; Cigasova, Julia; Estokova, Adriana; Terpakova, Eva; Geffert, Anton; Kacik, Frantisek; Singovszka, Eva; Holub, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The effect of chemical treatment of hemp hurds slices in three solutions (EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), NaOH and Ca(OH)2) on the properties of natural material was discussed in this paper. Changes in the morphology, chemical composition and structure as well as thermal stability of hemp hurds before and after their modification were investigated by using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray powder diffraction analysis) and TG (thermogravimetry)/DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) measurements were used for determination of degree of cellulose polymerization of hemp hurd samples. Chemical modification is related to the partial removal of non-cellulosic components of lignin, hemicellulose and pectin as well as waxes from the surface of hemp hurd slices. Another effect of the chemical treatment applied is connected with increasing the crystallinity index of cellulose determined by FTIR and XRD methods. Decrease in degree of cellulose polymerization and polydispersity index in chemically modified hemp hurds compared to the original sample was observed. Increase in thermal stability of treated hemp hurd was found. The most significant changes were observed in alkaline treated hemp hurds by NaOH. PMID:28788294

  5. Modified Beamformers for Coherent Source Region Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Sekihara, Kensuke; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2011-01-01

    Many tomographic source localization algorithms used in biomagnetic imaging assume, explicitly or sometimes implicitly, that the source activity at different brain locations are either independent or that the correlation structure between sources is known. Among these algorithms is a class of adaptive spatial filters known as beamformers, which have superior spatiotemporal resolution abilities. The performance of beamformers is robust to weakly coherent sources. However, these algorithms are extremely sensitive to the presence of strongly coherent sources. A frequent mode of failure in beamformers occurs with reconstruction of auditory evoked fields (AEFs), in which bilateral auditory cortices are highly coherent in their activation. Here, we present a novel beamformer that suppresses activation from regions with interfering coherent sources. First, a volume containing the interfering sources is defined. The lead field matrix for this volume is computed and reduced into a few significant columns using singular value decomposition (SVD). A vector beamformer is then constructed by rejecting the contribution of sources in the suppression region while allowing for source reconstruction at other specified regions. Performance of this algorithm was first validated with simulated data. Subsequent tests of this modified beamformer were performed on bilateral AEF data. An unmodified vector beamformer using whole head coverage misplaces the source medially. After defining a suppression region containing the temporal cortex on one side, the described method consistently results in clear focal activations at expected regions of the contralateral superior temporal plane. PMID:16830939

  6. Modified Fresnel Laws for Optical Microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, D.; Painchaud-April, G.; Poirier, J.; Dubé, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    The scattering of waves at a planar interface between two dielectric media is governed by Fresnel laws. The associated Fresnel coefficients exhibit a discontinuity at the critical angle of incidence, χc, resulting in total internal reflection for χ>=χc. However modern microresonators are often so small that corrections to the planar approximation become necessary. For instance, a plane wave incident on a curved interface can escape the optically denser medium even for angles larger than χc. In the spirit of Snyder and Love [1], we have derived smooth reflection and transmission coefficients. Interface curvature is accounted for by only modifying the wavefunction describing propagation in the less optically dense medium. The theory is applied to dielectric cavities and our results compared to those of an independent calculation obtained from a sequential-reflection model [2]. The advantages and limitations of our alternative approach will be discussed at the conference.[4pt] [1] A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 23, 134--141, 1975.[0pt] [2] M. Hentschel and H. Schomerus, Phys. Rev. E., 65, 045603(R), 2002.

  7. Shock-modified transition metal ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Venturini, E.L.; Morosin, B.; Graham, R.A.; Williamson, D.L.; Williams, F.L.

    1987-06-01

    The physical properties of four spinel-structure ferrite powders (copper, cobalt, nickel and iron ferrite), subjected to high pressure shock loading and preserved for post-shock analysis, have been studied by x-ray diffraction, static magnetization and Moessbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction shows residual strains typically greater than 0.1%, indicative of large shock-induced plastic deformation. Static magnetization reveals major strain-induced changes in magnetostrictive energies of magnitudes comparable to magnetocrystalline energies. At high applied magnetic fields it is found that saturation magnetization, magnetic hardness and magnetic susceptibility are strongly altered by the shock-modification process. Moessbauer measurements show apparent changes in magnetic-ion site distributions attributed to a reduction in crystallite size. There is evidence that about 15% of the magnetite is converted to hematite by the shock process. In summary, the shock-modified ferrite powders show major changes in their magnetic characteristics. Shock modification is shown to be an effective process to achieve unique states in these materials.

  8. Energy projection and modified Laughlin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremling, M.; Fulsebakke, J.; Moran, N.; Slingerland, J. K.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a method to efficiently calculate trial wave functions for quantum Hall systems which involve projection onto the lowest Landau level. The method essentially replaces the lowest Landau level projection by projection onto the M lowest eigenstates of a suitably chosen Hamiltonian acting within the lowest Landau level. The resulting "energy projection" is a controlled approximation to the exact lowest Landau level projection which improves with increasing M . It allows us to study the projected trial wave functions for system sizes close to the maximal sizes that can be reached by exact diagonalization and can be straightforwardly applied in any geometry. As a first application and test case, we study a class of trial wave functions first proposed by Girvin and Jach [Girvin and Jach, Phys. Rev. B 29, 5617 (1984), 10.1103/PhysRevB.29.5617], which are modifications of the Laughlin states involving a single real parameter. While these modified Laughlin states probably represent the same universality class exemplified by the Laughlin wave functions, we show by extensive numerical work for systems on the sphere and torus that they provide a significant improvement of the variational energy, overlap with the exact wave function and properties of the entanglement spectrum.

  9. Harry Mergler with His Modified Differential Analyzer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1951-06-21

    Harry Mergler stands at the control board of a differential analyzer in the new Instrument Research Laboratory at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The differential analyzer was a multi-variable analog computation machine devised in 1931 by Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher and future NACA Committee member Vannevar Bush. The mechanical device could solve computations up to the sixth order, but had to be rewired before each new computation. Mergler modified Bush’s differential analyzer in the late 1940s to calculate droplet trajectories for Lewis’ icing research program. In four days Mergler’s machine could calculate what previously required weeks. NACA Lewis built the Instrument Research Laboratory in 1950 and 1951 to house the large analog computer equipment. The two-story structure also provided offices for the Mechanical Computational Analysis, and Flow Physics sections of the Physics Division. The division had previously operated from the lab’s hangar because of its icing research and flight operations activities. Mergler joined the Instrument Research Section of the Physics Division in 1948 after earning an undergraduate degree in Physics from the Case Institute of Technology. Mergler’s focus was on the synthesis of analog computers with the machine tools used to create compressor and turbine blades for jet engines.

  10. Modified sparse regularization for electrical impedance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Wenru Xue, Qian; Wang, Huaxiang; Cui, Ziqiang; Sun, Benyuan; Wang, Qi

    2016-03-15

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) aims to estimate the electrical properties at the interior of an object from current-voltage measurements on its boundary. It has been widely investigated due to its advantages of low cost, non-radiation, non-invasiveness, and high speed. Image reconstruction of EIT is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. Therefore, regularization techniques like Tikhonov regularization are used to solve the inverse problem. A sparse regularization based on L{sub 1} norm exhibits superiority in preserving boundary information at sharp changes or discontinuous areas in the image. However, the limitation of sparse regularization lies in the time consumption for solving the problem. In order to further improve the calculation speed of sparse regularization, a modified method based on separable approximation algorithm is proposed by using adaptive step-size and preconditioning technique. Both simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the image quality and real-time performance in the presence of different noise intensities and conductivity contrasts.

  11. Collision Integrals for a Modified Stockmayer Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itean, Engene C.; Glueck, Alan R.; Svehla, Roger A.

    1961-01-01

    Collision integrals were calculated for the modified Stockmayer potential E(r) = 4 epsilon [(sigma/r)(exp 12) - (sigma/r)(exp 6) - delta(sigma/r)(exp 3)], which may be applied to polar molecules. It was assumed that the colliding molecules maintain their same relative orientation during the encounter. Calculations of the integrals were made for a large reduced temperature range and for a range of delta from 0 to 10. The results agree with other work on non-polar interactions (delta = 0). However for polar interactions the only previously published calculations have been found to be in error and do not agree with this work. Assuming that the molecules interact as alined dipoles of maximum attraction, values for sigma, epsilon, and delta were determined for various polar molecules by a least squares fit of experimental viscosity data. Satisfactory results were obtained for slightly polar molecules, but not for more highly polar molecules such as NH3 or H2O. Therefore, it appears that the assumed model of molecules interacting at all times as alined dipoles of maximum attraction is not satisfactory for estimating trans- port properties of polar molecules.

  12. Testing Modified Newtonian Dynamics with LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenkel, Christian; Kemble, Steve; Bevis, Neil; Magueijo, Joao

    2012-12-01

    We suggest that LISA Pathfinder, a technology demonstrator for the future gravitational wave observatory LISA, could be used to carry out a direct experimental test of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft is currently being built and the launch date is just a few years away. No modifications of the spacecraft are required, nor any interference with its nominal mission. The basic concept is to fly LISA Pathfinder through the region around the Sun-Earth saddle point, in an extended mission phase, once the original mission goals are achieved. We examine various strategies to reach the saddle point, and find that the preferred strategy, yielding relatively short transfer times of just over 1 year, probably involves a lunar fly-by. LISA Pathfinder will be able to probe the intermediate MOND regime, i.e. the transition between deep MOND and Newtonian gravity. We present robust estimates of the anomalous gravity gradients that LISA Pathfinder should be exposed to, based on MONDian effects as derived from the Tensor-Vector-Scalar (TeVeS) theory. The spacecraft speed and spatial scale of the MOND signal combine in a way that the spectral signature of the signal falls precisely into LISA Pathfinder's measurement bandwidth. We find that if the gravity gradiometer on-board the spacecraft achieves its currently predicted sensitivity, these anomalous gradients could not just be detected, but measured in some detail.

  13. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    PubMed

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  14. Will genetically modified foods be allergenic?

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Hefle, S L

    2001-05-01

    Foods produced through agricultural biotechnology, including such staples as corn, soybeans, canola, and potatoes, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Agricultural biotechnology offers the promise to produce crops with improved agronomic characteristics (eg, insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, disease resistance, and climatic tolerance) and enhanced consumer benefits (eg, better taste and texture, longer shelf life, and more nutritious). Certainly, the products of agricultural biotechnology should be subjected to a careful and complete safety assessment before commercialization. Because the genetic modification ultimately results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant, the safety, including the potential allergenicity, of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. Although most allergens are proteins, only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic under the typical circumstances of exposure. The potential allergenicity of the introduced proteins can be evaluated by focusing on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the expression level of the novel protein in the modified crop, the functional classification of the novel protein, the reactivity of the novel protein with IgE from the serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and various physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein, such as heat stability and digestive stability. Few products of agricultural biotechnology (and none of the current products) will involve the transfer of genes from known allergenic sources. Applying such criteria provides reasonable assurance that the newly introduced protein has limited capability to become an allergen.

  15. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

  16. Microstructure of Hydrophobically Modified Alkyl Acrylamide Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun; Seery, T. A. P.; Weiss, R. A.

    2002-03-01

    Hydrophobically modified water soluble polymers of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-2-(N-ethylfluorooctanesulfonamido)ethyl acrylate) (polyDMA/FOSA) with different compositions were prepared by solution free radical polymerization. The molecular weights ranged from Mw/Mn=53000/23000 to 95000/40000. The intrinsic viscosity decreased with the increasing FOSA content. The glass transition temperature of the copolymer decreased with FOSA content, and exhibited positive deviation from that predicted by the Fox equation. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) curves exhibited a peak that indicated the copolymer had a microphase separated structure, presumably due to hydrophobic association of FOSA groups. The SAXS peak position shifted to higher q value with the increasing FOSA content in the dry polymers, while for the water swollen gel, it shifted to lower q value with the increasing water uptake in the gels. These results suggested that the origin of the peak was related to the spacing between hydrophobic microdomains. The failure of time-temperature superposition of the dynamic shear moduli supported the conclusion of a microphase separated structure in the copolymer.

  17. Zinc recycling through the modified Zincex process

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, G.; Martin, D.; Lombera, C.

    1995-12-31

    A basic technology coping with a wide range of secondary zinc sources has been developed. The process combines an electrowinning stage, a solvent-extraction unit and a leaching procedure. The acidity generated in zinc electrowinning, transferred by the organic solvent to the aqueous raffinate, is reused to leach the zinc secondary materials. The basic process recovering zinc is described in detail. The route recovering other valuable metals such as copper, cadmium and lead associated with zinc is also described. This nonferrous metals recovery route is advisable for either ecological and/or economical reasons. Main results of an experimental program aiming at the demonstration of the suitability of the process for several feed materials are summarized. Waelz oxides, galvanizing ashes and EAFD coming from different sources were tested in laboratory and continuous pilot plant campaigns. High zinc recovery, low reagents and utilities consumption, and effluents meeting environmental regulation were confirmed. The paper also includes the main results of a feasibility study of an industrial ``base case``. A mixed raw material and Spanish EAFD and 20,000 ta of zinc ingots production were chosen. The SGH zinc recovery from secondary raw material by means of the clean, safe and profitable Modified Zincex Process has been demonstrated. This reliable technology is ready for industrial application.

  18. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  19. The integrated bispectrum in modified gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Dipak

    2017-01-01

    Gravity-induced non-Gaussianity can provide important clues to Modified Gravity (MG) Theories. Several recent studies have suggested using the Integrated Bispectrum (IB) as a probe for squeezed configuration of bispectrum. Extending previous studies on the IB, we include redshift-space distortions to study a class of (parametrised) MG theories that include the string-inspired Dvali, Gabadadze & Porrati (DGP) model. Various contributions from redshift-space distortions are derived in a transparent manner, and squeezed contributions from these terms are derived separately. Results are obtained using the Zel'dovich Approximation (ZA). Results are also presented for projected surveys (2D). We use the Press-Schechter (PS) and Sheth-Tormen (ST) mass functions to compute the IB for collapsed objects that can readily be extended to peak-theory based approaches. The cumulant correlators (CCs) generalise the ordinary cumulants and are known to probe collapsed configurations of higher order correlation functions. We generalise the concept of CCs to halos of different masses. We also introduce a generating function based approach to analyse more general non-local biasing models. The Fourier representations of the CCs, the skew-spectrum, or the kurt-spctra are discussed in this context. The results are relevant for the study of the Minkowski Functionals (MF) of collapsed tracers in redshift-space.

  20. Syngeneic Transplants with Modified Chimeric Hematopoietic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hemann, Michael

    2015-08-03

    This protocol describes strategies to rapidly transduce tumor cells ex vivo and then transplant modified cells into immunocompetent-recipient mice. Inherent in the definition of a bona fide murine hematopoietic malignancy, unlike a myelo- or lympho-proliferative disease, is the ability to transplant tumors and give rise to a malignancy in recipient animals. This characteristic of hematopoietic disease makes these tumors a tractable model for examining the role of specific genes in tumor growth, dissemination, or therapeutic response. Additionally, because of the systemic nature of hematopoietic malignancies, transplanted tumors are frequently pathologically indistinguishable from donor malignancies-allowing one to perform decisive therapy studies on large cohorts of transplant recipients. Finally, following ex vivo manipulation, transplanted tumors can be made chimeric for the presence of defined retrovirally induced alterations. Thus, these malignancies can be made to resemble genetically heterogeneous human tumors that are in the process of acquiring new capabilities. In these experiments, fluorescent markers serve as a surrogate marker for the expression of a defined alteration, and the change in the percentage of fluorescent cells in a tumor population over time or in response to therapy can be used to gauge the impact of specific alterations on tumor behavior.