Science.gov

Sample records for modulate soil resources

  1. Soil Health Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoorman, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…

  2. Soil Health Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoorman, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…

  3. Spending our soil resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A third of the world's population suffers from food insecurity. With an expected 2 billion population increase in the next few decades, that number is expected to rise significantly, leading to more people that are insecure and starving unless our soils can produce more food. Added to the problem ar...

  4. Soil resources and their assessment

    PubMed Central

    Webster, R.

    1997-01-01

    The assessment of the soil resource of any region has two parts, namely, an inventory of the kinds of soil and their distribution, and knowledge of the way each kind can be used and its performance under a range of circumstances. Soil varies substantially and intricately over short distances in most parts of the world. Inventory by field survey and air-photo interpretation must be done at a local scale. Inventories may be combined so that an individual nation state or region of similar size can know what kinds of soil it has, how much and where they are, how much each can produce, how to manage each in perpetuity, and the risks of degradation in use. Local classifications, with classes defined simply and identifiably on aerial photographs, will serve for mapping, and in combination with classical statistics can provide sound estimates from stratified sampling and agronomic experimentation.
    Sound assessment should also be at this local scale initially. This should combine fundamental understanding of the soil's behaviour, strategic agronomic research on regional stations, and on-farm trials. The last are crucial for estimating productivity of the soil in practice.
    Data from all sources can be stored, sorted and displayed by geographic information systems that now have abundant capacity. They should be indexed by soil class and other attributes, with clear distinction being made between assessments of productive potential and basic data. They should be publicly accessible, to ensure that data are readily available and never lost.
    Estimates of the soil resource and its productivity for large regions, nation states, and the world can be compiled from local surveys by sampling through a 'bottom-up' procedure.

  5. Engaging Undergraduates in Soil Sustainability Decision-Making through an InTeGrate Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Sarah K.; Scherer, Hannah H.; Murphy, Martha A.

    2016-01-01

    Continued agricultural productivity hinges on understanding how to manage soil resources. A 2-week undergraduate introductory-level module: "A Growing Concern: Sustaining Soil Resources Through Local Decision Making" was collaboratively developed through the InTeGrate Project. InTeGrate modules and courses engage students in grand…

  6. Engaging Undergraduates in Soil Sustainability Decision-Making through an InTeGrate Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Sarah K.; Scherer, Hannah H.; Murphy, Martha A.

    2016-01-01

    Continued agricultural productivity hinges on understanding how to manage soil resources. A 2-week undergraduate introductory-level module: "A Growing Concern: Sustaining Soil Resources Through Local Decision Making" was collaboratively developed through the InTeGrate Project. InTeGrate modules and courses engage students in grand…

  7. 30 CFR 783.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESOURCES § 783.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soil resources information. 783.21 Section 783... of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil identification; (3) Soil...

  8. 30 CFR 783.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESOURCES § 783.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soil resources information. 783.21 Section 783... of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil identification; (3) Soil...

  9. 30 CFR 783.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESOURCES § 783.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil resources information. 783.21 Section 783... of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil identification; (3) Soil...

  10. 30 CFR 783.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESOURCES § 783.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soil resources information. 783.21 Section 783... of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil identification; (3) Soil...

  11. 30 CFR 783.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESOURCES § 783.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soil resources information. 783.21 Section 783... of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil identification; (3) Soil...

  12. Protecting global soil resources for future generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The latest Status of World's Soil Resources report has highlighted that soils are increasingly under pressure by numerous human induced degradation processes in most parts of the world. The limits of our planetary boundaries concerning vital soil resources have been reached and without reversing this negative trend there will be a serious lack of necessary soil resources for future generations. It has been therefore of the highest importance to include soils within some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) recently approved by the United Nations. Sustainable development can not be achieved without protecting the limited, non-renewable, soil resources of our planet. There is the need to limit on-going soil degradation processes and to implement extensive soil restoration activities in order to strive towards a land degradation neutral (LDN) world, as called upon by SDG 15. Sustainable soil management needs to be placed at the core of any LDN strategy and therefore it is of highest importance that the recently approved Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable Soil Management (VGSSM) of FAO get fully implemented at National and local scale.Sustainable soil management is not only relevant for the protection of fertile soils for food production, but also to mitigate and adopt to climate change at to preserve the large soil biodiversity pool. Therefore the VGSSM are not only relevant to FAO, but also the the climate change convention (UNFCCC) and the biodiversity convention (CBD). An integrated assessment of the current land degradation processes and the available land restoration practices is needed in order to fully evaluate the potential for effectively achieving LDN by 2030. The on-going Land Degradation and Restoration Assessment (LDRA) of the Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) will provide the necessary scientific basis for the full implementation of the necessary measures for achieving the planned SGS's relevant to land

  13. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 31 curriculum modules in this packet for agricultural resources instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objective, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A list of resource…

  14. Integrating Oracle Human Resources with Other Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Karl; Shope, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of implementing an enterprise-wide business system is achieving integration of the different modules to the satisfaction of diverse customers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) implementation of the Oracle application suite demonstrates the need to coordinate Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS) decision across the Oracle modules.

  15. 30 CFR 779.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 779.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey information of the permit area consisting of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soil resources information. 779.21 Section 779...

  16. 30 CFR 779.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 779.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey information of the permit area consisting of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil resources information. 779.21 Section 779...

  17. 30 CFR 779.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 779.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey information of the permit area consisting of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soil resources information. 779.21 Section 779...

  18. 30 CFR 779.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 779.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey information of the permit area consisting of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soil resources information. 779.21 Section 779...

  19. 30 CFR 779.21 - Soil resources information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 779.21 Soil resources information. (a) The applicant shall provide adequate soil survey information of the permit area consisting of the following: (1) A map delineating different soils; (2) Soil... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soil resources information. 779.21 Section 779...

  20. Anthropogenic soil erosion over the Holocene: Application of a new dynamic soils module for global vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, J. O.; Vanwalleghem, T.

    2012-04-01

    Over the course of the Holocene, anthropogenic activities have transformed the surface of the Earth. In no way has human impact been more important or longer lasting than the transformation of soils, where erosion and sediment transport over the past 10,000 years have led to irreversible changes in landscapes. Soil erosion also affected global carbon and nutrient cycles, and could have amplified or attenuated ongoing changes in the Earth's climate. To quantify the role of anthropogenically induced soil development and erosion in the Earth system, we developed a new module of global soil dynamics: soil formation, erosion, and sediment transport, that is suitable for global application at 0.5° resolution. We incorporated this soil module into the LPJ-DGVM and performed a series of simulations to quantify the spatial and temporal pattern of global soil change over the Holocene. The soil formation module models bedrock-to-soil conversion rates as exponentially decreasing with soil depth. Parameters for soil formation in different geological units were extracted from a review of existing literature. Our global soil erosion formulation is based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), but importantly accounts for sediment deposition and the net export of sediment out of a relatively large and geomorphologically heterogeneous gridcell. Our new module was developed by running the detailed soil erosion-deposition model WaTEM/SEDEM at 3 arc-second resolution to derive generalized topographical scaling relations that accurately represent hillslope length, slope gradient and sediment delivery ratio. We show that, at large spatial scale, sediment delivery ratio and the area affected by sediment deposition can be easily estimated from topographical parameters such as mean LS factor and wetness index. We include the feedback between soil formation and soil erosion by adjusting the soil erosion rates for soil depth and stoniness. The results of our Holocene

  1. Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources

    Treesearch

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Titus S. Seilheimer; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Peter V. Caldwell; Ge. Sun

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystem productivity and functioning depend on soil and water resources. But the reverse is also true—forest and land-use management activities can significantly alter forest soils, water quality, and associated aquatic habitats (Ice and Stednick 2004, Reid 1993, Wigmosta and Burges 2001). Soil and water resources are protected through the allocation of land...

  2. Criterion 4: Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Soils are the fundamental resource enabling land to provide a wide array of benefits. Both humans and wildlife rely on soils for the production of life-sustaining nourishment and shelter. Soil is important to society because it supports plants that supply food, fibers, drugs, and other essentials and because it filters water and recycles wastes.The factors that affect...

  3. Plant phenology: a critical controller of soil resource acquisition.

    PubMed

    Nord, Eric A; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    Plant phenology, the timing of plant growth and development, is changing in response to global climate change. Changing temperature, soil moisture, nitrogen availability, light, and elevated CO(2) are all likely to affect plant phenology. Alteration of plant phenology by global climate change may alter the ability of plants to acquire soil resources (water and nutrients) by altering the timing and duration of the deployment of roots and leaves, which drive resource acquisition. The potential importance of phenologically-driven changes in soil resource acquisition for plant fitness and productivity have received little attention. General hypotheses are proposed for how plant acquisition of soil resources may be affected by the alteration of phenology. It is expected that the acquisition of mobile resources will be approximately proportional to total transpiration. Alteration of phenology that increases total transpiration should increase, while changes in phenology that reduce transpiration should decrease the acquisition of mobile resources. The acquisition of immobile resources will be approximately proportional to root length duration, thus changes in phenology that increase growth duration should increase the acquisition of immobile resources and vice versa. For both groups of resources, longer growing seasons would tend to increase resource acquisition, and shorter growing seasons would tend to decrease resource acquisition. In the case of resources that exhibit seasonal variability in availability, the synchrony of resource availability and acquisition capacity is important, and subject to disturbance by the alteration of phenology.

  4. Integration of root phenes for soil resource acquisition

    PubMed Central

    York, Larry M.; Nord, Eric A.; Lynch, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal availability of water and nutrients is a primary limitation to plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems. The acquisition of soil resources by plant roots is therefore an important component of plant fitness and agricultural productivity. Plant root systems comprise a set of phenes, or traits, that interact. Phenes are the units of the plant phenotype, and phene states represent the variation in form and function a particular phene may take. Root phenes can be classified as affecting resource acquisition or utilization, influencing acquisition through exploration or exploitation, and in being metabolically influential or neutral. These classifications determine how one phene will interact with another phene, whether through foraging mechanisms or metabolic economics. Phenes that influence one another through foraging mechanisms are likely to operate within a phene module, a group of interacting phenes, that may be co-selected. Examples of root phene interactions discussed are: (1) root hair length × root hair density, (2) lateral branching × root cortical aerenchyma (RCA), (3) adventitious root number × adventitious root respiration and basal root growth angle (BRGA), (4) nodal root number × RCA, and (5) BRGA × root hair length and density. Progress in the study of phenes and phene interactions will be facilitated by employing simulation modeling and near-isophenic lines that allow the study of specific phenes and phene combinations within a common phenotypic background. Developing a robust understanding of the phenome at the organismal level will require new lines of inquiry into how phenotypic integration influences plant function in diverse environments. A better understanding of how root phenes interact to affect soil resource acquisition will be an important tool in the breeding of crops with superior stress tolerance and reduced dependence on intensive use of inputs. PMID:24062755

  5. The NEON Soil Archive - A community resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, E.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a 30-year National Science Foundation-funded facility for understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, and ecohydrology. NEON will measure a wide range of properties at 60 terrestrial and 36 aquatic sites throughout the US using in situ sensors, sample collection/lab analysis, and remote sensing, and all data will be made freely available. The Observatory is currently under construction and will be fully operational by 2017, however, limited data collection and release will begin in 2013. In addition, NEON is archiving large numbers of samples, including surface soils (top ~30 cm) collected from locations across each site, and soils collected by horizon to 2 m deep from a single soil pit at each site. Here I present information about the latter, focusing on sampling and processing, metadata, and currently available samples. At each terrestrial site the soil pit is dug in the locally dominant soil type and soil is collected by horizon, mixed, and ~4-8 liters soil is sent for processing. Soil samples are air-dried and sieved (mineral soil) or air-dried (organic soil) and 1.2 kg is split between 4 glass jars for archiving (protocol available upon request). To date 15 soil pits have been sampled, representing 7 soil orders, and soils from 110 horizons have been archived or are being processed. Metadata associated with each archive sample include a soil profile description, photos, and soil properties (total C, N, S, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Sr, Ti, Zr, bulk density, pH, and texture). The procedure for requesting samples from the archive is under development and I encourage scientists to use the archive in their future research. Collecting and processing samples for the NEON Soil Archive

  6. Soil conservation service landscape resource management

    Treesearch

    Sally Schauman; Carolyn Adams

    1979-01-01

    SCS Landscape Resource Management (LRM) is the application of landscape architecture to SCS conservation activities. LRM includes but is not limited to visual resource management. LRM can be summarized in three principles: (1) SCS landscape architecture considers the landscape as a composite of ecological, social and visual resources; (2) SCS landscapes exist in the...

  7. Satellite Earth resources data, module U-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Satellite data image products potentially useful in solving Earth resource and environmental problems are described. Sources for satellite data and user information are given. Recommendations for suitability of use of data from each satellite are presented. Satellite sources of Earth resources data are summarized for satellites launched since 1965 and those projected for launch through the late 1980s. The sensors of interest on each satellite, the wavelength or frequency of operation, and the resolution are given. Color ranges are illustrated and compared. The form and utility of aircraft and LANDSAT images are compared. Data from the Gemini-Apollo photography, Skylab, meteorological satellites, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, Seasat, LANDSAT, and projected future satellites are briefly described.

  8. Photovoltaic Modules: Effect of Tilt Angle on Soiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Jose

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will collect grime and dust. There are also limited field data studies about soiling losses on PV modules. The study showed how important it is to investigate the effect of tilt angle on soiling. The study includes two sets of mini-modules. Each set has 9 PV modules tilted at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 23, 30, 33 and 40°. The first set called "Cleaned" was cleaned every other day. The second set called "Soiled" was never cleaned after the first day. The short circuit current, a measure of irradiance, and module temperature was monitored and recorded every two minutes over three months (January-March 2011). The data were analyzed to investigate the effect of tilt angle on daily and monthly soiling, and hence transmitted solar insolation and energy production by PV modules. The study shows that during the period of January through March 2011 there was an average loss due to soiling of approximately 2.02% for 0° tilt angle. Modules at tilt angles 23° and 33° also have some insolation losses but do not come close to the module at 0° tilt angle. Tilt angle 23° has approximately 1.05% monthly insolation loss, and 33° tilt angle has an insolation loss of approximately 0.96%. The soiling effect is present at any tilt angle, but the magnitude is evident: the flatter the solar module is placed the more energy it will lose.

  9. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-02-01

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.

  10. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production. PMID:26841839

  11. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-02-04

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.

  12. Soil - A necessary resource for our future

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fertile or degraded soils have been the basis of the rise or fall of civilizations throughout history. They have been the engine that powered the rise of many countries including our own and the fall of those who were not good stewards of their environment or suffered insurmountable setbacks, such a...

  13. Finding Resources on the Internet: A Trainer's Module for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    This document presents a training module for finding environmental education resources on the Internet. The module includes information on online searching and searching strategies. Also provided are training resources, overheads, databases, online information providers, and other valuable resources. (YDS)

  14. Soil resources area affects herbivore health.

    PubMed

    Garner, James A; Ahmad, H Anwar; Dacus, Chad M

    2011-06-01

    Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer) in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991-1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass), kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL) and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI), which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P≤0.001). Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P≤0.002). Mass and conception date (CD) were affected (P≤0.001) by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P≤0.001) and CD (P<0.04). Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer.

  15. Angle of incidence effects on soiled PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, J.; Rajasekar, V.; Boppana, S.; Tatapudi, S.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2014-10-01

    The transmission level of the incident light on the photovoltaic (PV) modules depends on the angle of incidence (AOI) and air/superstrate interface. The AOI dependence for the air/glass interface has already been well established. When the glass superstrate is covered by a soil/dust layer, the air/glass interface is altered and thereby changes the AOI dependence to air/soil/glass interface. In this work, PV modules retrieved from the field that had different dust densities have been measured for the dependence of the AOI curves on the dust gravimetric densities. It was determined that the AOI curve is inversely related to the soil density. The critical AOI for the air/glass interface is about 57° and it shifts dramatically as the soil gravimetric density (g/m2) increases. The measured AOI curves were then fitted and validated with the analytical/empirical models reported in the literature.

  16. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  17. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  18. Mars Soil-Based Resource Processing and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Mueller, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to extract and process resources at the site of exploration into products and services, commonly referred to as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can have significant benefits for robotic and human exploration missions. In particular, the ability to use in situ resources to make propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables has been shown in studies to significantly reduce mission mass, cost, and risk, while enhancing or enabling missions not possible without the incorporation of ISRU. In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study. For the first time in a large scale Mars architecture study, water from Mars soil was considered as a potential resource. At the time of the study, knowledge of water resources (their form, concentration, and distribution) was extremely limited. Also, due to lack of understanding of how to apply planetary protection rules and requirements to ISRU soil-based excavation and processing, an extremely conservative approach was incorporated where only the top several centimeters of ultraviolet (UV) radiated soil could be processed (assumed to be 3% water by mass). While results of the Mars DRA 5.0 study showed that combining atmosphere processing to make oxygen and methane with soil processing to extract water provided the lowest mission mass, atmosphere processing to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen was baselined for the mission since it was the lowest power and risk option. With increased knowledge and further clarification of Mars planetary protection rules, and the recent release of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) report on "Special Regions and the Human Exploration of Mars", it is time to reexamine potential water resources on Mars, options for soil processing to extract water, and the implications with respect to planetary protection and Special Regions on Mars.

  19. Competition for patchy soil resources reduces community evenness.

    PubMed

    Rajaniemi, Tara K

    2011-01-01

    The presence of small-scale patches of soil resources has been predicted to increase competition, because multiple species will proliferate roots in the same small area, and therefore decrease plant diversity. I tested whether such patches reduced species evenness in a community of four old-field species, both with and without interspecific interactions. In species mixtures, patches reduced evenness, while in "communities" constructed via combined monocultures, in which species did not compete, patches increased evenness. Therefore, the reduction in evenness in response to patches was due to changes in competition. Community-level changes may be attributable to plant foraging traits-in species with low foraging precision, competition reduced abundance much more in patchy soils than in even soils, while in species with high root foraging precision, the effect of competition was similar in patchy and even soils.

  20. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  1. Lunar resources: Oxygen from rocks and soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Kanamori, H.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The first set of hydrogen reduction experiments to use actual lunar material was recently completed. The sample, 70035, is a coarse-grained vesicular basalt containing 18.46 wt. percent FeO and 12.97 wt. percent TiO2. The mineralogy includes pyroxene, ilmenite, plagioclase, and minor olivine. The sample was crushed to a grain size of less than 500 microns. The crushed basalt was reduced with hydrogen in seven tests at temperatures of 900-1050 C and pressures of 1-10 atm for 30-60 minutes. A capacitance probe, measuring the dew point of the gas stream, was used to follow reaction progress. Experiments were also conducted using a terrestrial basalt similar to some lunar mare samples. Minnesota Lunar Simulant (MLS-1) contains 13.29 wt. percent FeO, 2.96 wt. percent Fe2O3, and 6.56 wt. percent TiO2. The major minerals include plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine, ilmenite, and magnetite. The rock was ground and seived, and experiments were run on the less than 74- and 500-1168-micron fractions. Experiments were also conducted on less than 74-micron powders of olivine, pyroxene, synthetic ilmenite, and TiO2. The terrestrial rock and mineral samples were reduced with flowing hydrogen at 1100 C in a microbalance furnace, with reaction progress monitored by weight loss. Experiments were run at atmospheric pressure for durations of 3-4 hr. Solid samples from both sets of experiments were analyzed by Mossbauer spectroscopy, petrographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Apollo 17 soil 78221 was examined for evidence of natural reduction in the lunar environment. This sample was chosen based on its high maturity level (I sub s/FeO = 93.0). The FeO content is 11.68 wt. percent and the TiO2 content is 3.84 wt. percent. A polished thin section of the 90-150 micron size fraction was analyzed by petrographic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Growth, photosynthesis, and resource investment for vegetative and reproductive modules of artemisia tridentata

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Black, R.A. )

    1993-07-01

    Growth of vegetative and reproductive structures in Artemisia tridentata is temporally separated during the growing season; vegetative growth occurs during spring and early summer when soil moisture is most abundant, while reproductive growth occurs during summer and fall when soil moisture may be limiting. Vegetative and reproductive structures may exhibit contrasting efficiencies of resource acquisition and investment resulting from temporal differences in resource availability. The effect of water stress on growth, photosynthesis, and resource investment for vegetative and reproductive modules of Artemisia tridentata was examined by applying supplemental water. No differences were observed in vegetative biomass in the two watering treatments. Growth of vegetative structures occurred in the spring when water was not limiting, and shrubs in both treatments exerted little stomatal control over water loss. Conversely, supplemental watering increased reproductive growth. Shrubs conserved water during summer by abscising leaves and lowering stomatal conductance potential and increases in evaporative demand. In florescences are capable of positive photosynthetic rates comparable to vegetative leaves. Water stress did not alter tissue construction costs or carbon and nitrogen contents for either vegetative or reproductive modules. Resource limitations were reflected in the efficiency of water use during tissue construction; floral leaves and floral heads of shrubs not receiving supplemental water were produced with higher water-use efficiency. Conservative use of water during production of vegetative modules would offer no advantage because neighboring species are also most active at this time. Reproductive growth in A. tridentata occurs during summer when neighboring species are largely dormant, and so efficient use of water may allow development of reproductive structures to continue throughout the summer even with limited supplies of water. 66 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the technical leadership, coordination, and quality assurance for all soil survey project activities within the respective...

  4. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the technical leadership, coordination, and quality assurance for all soil survey project activities within the respective...

  5. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the technical leadership, coordination, and quality assurance for all soil survey project activities within the respective...

  6. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the technical leadership, coordination, and quality assurance for all soil survey project activities within the respective...

  7. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the technical leadership, coordination, and quality assurance for all soil survey project activities within the respective...

  8. A new soil-temperature module for SWAT application in regions with seasonal snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Junyu; Li, Sheng; Li, Qiang; Xing, Zisheng; Bourque, Charles P.-A.; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2016-07-01

    Accurate estimates of soil temperature are important for quantifying hydrological and biological processes in hydrological models. Soil temperature predictions in the widely used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) have large prediction errors when applied to regions with significant snow cover during winter. In this study, a new physically-based soil-temperature module is developed as an alternative to the empirical soil-temperature module currently used in SWAT. The physically-based module ​simulates soil temperature in different soil layers as a result of energy transfer between the atmosphere and soil (or snow) interface. The modified version of SWAT with the new soil-temperature module in place, introduces only three new parameters over the original soil-temperature module. Both the original and new soil-temperature modules are tested against field data from the Black Brook Watershed, a small watershed in Atlantic Canada. The results indicate that both versions of soil-temperature module ​are able to provide acceptable predictions of temperature in different layers of the soil during non-winter seasons. However, the original module severely underestimates soil temperatures in winter (within -10 to -20 °C), while the new module produces results that are more consistent with field measurements (within -2 to 2 °C). In addition, unlike its counterpart, the new module ​is able to simulate freeze-thaw cycles in the soil profile. Ice-water content variations in winter are reasonably simulated by the new module for different snow cover scenarios. In general, modified-SWAT improves prediction accuracy on baseflow discharge compared with the original-SWAT, due to improved estimates of soil temperature during winter. The new physically-based soil-temperature module has greatly improved the ability of SWAT to predict soil temperatures under seasonal snow cover, which is essential to the application of the model in regions like Atlantic Canada.

  9. Environmental Controls of Microbial Resource Partitioning in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandeler, Ellen; Poll, Christian; Kramer, Susanne; Mueller, Karolin; Marhan, Sven

    2015-04-01

    The mineralization and flow of plant-derived carbon in soils is relevant to global carbon cycling. Current models of organismic carbon fluxes in soil assume that separate bacterial and fungal energy channels exist in soil. Recent studies disentangle the herbivore and detritivore pathways of microbial resource use, identify the key players contributing to these two different pathways, and determine to what extent microbial substrate use is affected by environmental controls. To follow the kinetics of litter and root decomposition and to quantify the contribution of key players, it is necessary to use isotopic approaches like PLFA-SIP and ergosterol-SIP. It was shown that bacteria and sugar consuming fungi initiated litter decomposition in an incubation experiment during the first two weeks, whereas higher fungi started to grow after the depletion of low molecular weight substrates. Analyses of PLFA-SIP revealed, for example, that fungi assimilated C directly from the litter, whereas bacteria took up substrates in the soil and therefore depended more on external transport processes than fungi. In addition, we will present data from a field experiment showing the incorporation of root and shoot litter C into organic and microbial C pools under field conditions over a period of two years. Similar amounts of C derived from the two resources differing in substrate quality and amount were incorporated into microbial C and ergosterol pools over time, indicating the importance of root-derived C for the soil food web. High incorporation of maize C (up to 76%) into ergosterol suggests fast and high assimilation of maize C into fungal biomass. Nevertheless, there is still a debate whether bacteria, archaea and fungi start feeding on new substrates at the same time or if their activity occurs at different successional stages. This presentation gives a summery of current knowledge on microbial resource partitioning under lab and field conditions.

  10. Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Malte; Barnes, Andrew D; Weigelt, Patrick; Ott, David; Rembold, Katja; Farajallah, Achmad; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    High biodiversity and biomass of soil communities are crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. Using a dataset of 780 macro-invertebrate consumer species across 32 sites in tropical lowland rain forest and agricultural systems on Sumatra, Indonesia, we investigated the effects of basal resource stoichiometry (C:X ratios of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S in local leaf litter), litter mass (basal resource quantity and habitat space), plant species richness (surrogate for litter habitat heterogeneity), and soil pH (acidity) on consumer species richness and biomass across different consumer groups (i.e. 3 feeding guilds and 10 selected taxonomic groups). In order to distinguish the most important predictors of consumer species richness and biomass, we applied a standardised model averaging approach investigating the effects of basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and soil pH on both consumer community characteristics. This standardised approach enabled us to identify differences and similarities in the magnitude and importance of such effects on consumer species richness and biomass. Across consumer groups, we found litter mass to be the most important predictor of both species richness and biomass. Resource stoichiometry had a more pronounced impact on consumer species richness than on their biomass. As expected, taxonomic groups differed in which resource and habitat parameters (basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and pH) were most important for modulating their community characteristics. The importance

  11. Soil survey and resource inventory guide for dynamic soil properties and soil change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data and information about how soils change are needed by producers, land managers, and decision makers in order to plan for long-term productivity, interpret indicators used in monitoring and assessments, and manage human impacts on soil. In order to meet these needs, the National Cooperative Soil ...

  12. Airborne particulate soiling of terrestrial photovoltaic modules and cover materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Maag, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the first phase of a photovoltaic-module soiling study that was carried out with NASA participation to investigate the problem of the electrical performance degradation of flat-plate photovoltaic modules exposed at outdoor sites that is due to the accumulation of airborne particulates on sensitive optical surfaces. The results were obtained in both field and laboratory soiling experiments, as well as in materials field experiments using candidate encapsulants and top covers. It is concluded that: (1) the electrical performance degradation shows a significant time and site dependence, ranging from 2% to 60% power loss; (2) the rate of particulate accumulation appears to be largely material independent when natural removal processes do not dominate; (3) the effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material dependent; (4) top-cover materials of glass and plexiglass retain fewer particles than silicone rubber; and (5) high module voltages relative to ground do not appear to affect the rate of dirt accumulation on modules.

  13. Maximizing the Use of a Web-Based Soils Module: Targeting Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with an on-line soils module project. The two goals for this part of the project were to determine if an on-line soils module could be successfully used for asynchronous instruction of two diverse populations and to determine which demographic factors are related to test performance. The module was presented to an eighth-grade…

  14. Maximizing the Use of a Web-Based Soils Module: Targeting Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with an on-line soils module project. The two goals for this part of the project were to determine if an on-line soils module could be successfully used for asynchronous instruction of two diverse populations and to determine which demographic factors are related to test performance. The module was presented to an eighth-grade…

  15. What did we do and what can we do with our global soil resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoorvogel, Jetse

    2017-04-01

    Our global soil resources increasingly meet the headlines: soil degradation leads to irreversible changes and a loss of the global production potential, soil resources play a key role to reach the sustainable development goals, and soils are seen as a potential solution to some of the climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. However, global assessments of soil degradation, soil resources, and the potential of soils to provide ecosystem services are not very consistent. This study aims to contribute to the discussion by providing a realistic opportunity space on the options for our soil resources. First, the natural and current soil conditions are estimated using the S-World methodology. S-World has been developed to provide global maps of soil properties at a 30 arc-second resolution for environmental modelling. By running the S-world methodology for current but also for natural land cover, natural and current soil conditions are estimated. This analysis tells us what we did to our global soil resources. Subsequently, the same methodology is used to analyse a range of different scenarios for the future to explore the potential for soil restoration and carbon sequestration. Although the actual management interventions required are not analysed, the analysis does provide the opportunity space and thus what we can do with our soil resources in terms of realistic ranges. The results are interpreted in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and the recent 4‰-initiative for climate change mitigation.

  16. Characterising soil surface roughness with a frequency modulated polarimetric radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel; Gronz, Oliver; Beiske, Joshua; Klein, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    Soil surface roughness is considered crucial for soil erosion as it determines the effective surface exposed to the raindrop impact. It regulates surface runoff velocity and it causes runoff concentration. But a comprehensive characterisation of the shape of the soils' surface is still difficult to achieve. Photographic systems and terrestrial laser-scanning are nowadays able to generate high resolution DEMs, but the derivation of roughness parameters is still not clear. Spaceborne radar systems are used for about 3 decades for earth survey. Spatial soil moisture distribution, ice sheet monitoring and earth-wide topographic survey are the main objectives of these radar systems, working generally with frequencies <10 GHz. Contrasting with this, technologies emitting frequencies up to 77 GHz are generally used for object tracking purposes. But it is known, that the reflection characteristics, such as intensity and polarisation, strongly depend on the properties of the target object. A new design of a frequency modulated continuous wave radar, emitting a right hand shaped circular polarization and receiving both polarization directions, right and left-hand shaped, is tested here for its ability to detect and quantify different surface roughness. The reflection characteristics of 4 different materials 1) steel, 2) sand (0,5-1 mm), 3) fine (2-4 mm) and 4) coarse (15-30 mm) rock-fragments and different roughness as well as moisture content are analysed. In addition, the signals are taken at 2 different angles to the soil's surface (90° and 70°). For quantification of the roughness, a photographic method (Structure-from-Motion) is applied to generate a detailed DEM and random roughness (RR) is calculated. To characterise the radar signal, different ratios of the reflected channels and polarisations are calculated. The signals show differences for all substrates, also clearly visible between sand and fine rock fragments, despite a wavelength of 1 cm of the

  17. Photovoltaic module soiling studies, May 1978-October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.R.; Maag, C.R.

    1980-11-01

    The retention of particulate contamination on the surface of flat-plate photovoltaic devices is adversely affecting electrical performance of outdoor-exposed modules. The results of an experimental study being performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Low-Cost Solar Array Project to characterize and understand the effects of outdoor contaminants on sensitive optical surfaces of flat-plate photovoltaic modules and cover materials are described. Comparative electrical and optical performance data from photovoltaic modules and materials subjected to outdoor exposure at field test sites throughout the United States have been collected and examined. The results show significant time- and site-dependence. During periods when natural removal processes do not dominate, the rate of particulate contamination accumulation appears to be largely material-independent. The effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material-dependent. Glass and acrylic top-cover materials retain fewer particles than silicone rubber does. Side-by-side outdoor exposure testing for long duration is presently the most effective means of evaluating soiling differences between materials. Changes in spectral transmission as a function of time and location and limited scattering data are presented.

  18. Main issues for preserving Mediterranean soil resources from water erosion under global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Annabi, Mohamed; Sabir, Mohamed; Smetanova, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Soil resources are important for the socio-economic development of the Mediterranean area, and their durability is sometimes threatened because of intense erosion processes that result in severe degradation in the field (on-site effects) and downstream degradation (off-site effects). Based on the literature and results obtained during several research projects, this paper aims to present the main lessons and challenges dealing with Mediterranean soil resources under global change. After a review of the main drivers of Mediterranean soil erosion and the main impacts of water erosion processes, the paper highlights that the nature and intensity of active erosion processes are as diverse as the mosaic of the Mediterranean landscape. It then discusses the expected evolution of Mediterranean soil resources under global change and illustrates the prevalent influences of land use (partly depending on climatic constraints) on the evolution of erosion risk and soil vulnerability. Finally it details some main challenges for the future of Mediterranean soil resources dealing with a better knowledge of factors and processes involved in soil erosion; a better evaluation of soil vulnerability through a combined quantitative and qualitative soil erosion approach; and the need for a site-specific conservation strategy for Mediterranean soil resources. KEYWORDS : Mediterranean, soil resources, global change, erosion, preservation.

  19. [Soil water resource use limit in semi-arid loess hilly area].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong-sheng

    2010-12-01

    Taking Caragana korshinskii as test object, and by using neutron probe, a long term observation was conducted on the soil water and plant growth during the process of vegetation restoration in semi-arid loess hilly area. The results showed that after seeding on waste land, the capability of plant community in conserving soil and water was promoted with time, with the depth of roots to absorb and use soil water increased and the soil water content reduced. Then, the dried soil layer appeared, and its deepness and thickness increased with increasing plant age. Therefore, the plant use of soil water had a limit, soil water resource use limit, i.e., the soil water storage when the deepness of dried soil layer was equal to the largest depth that rain could recharge. In the C. korshinskii woodland in semi-arid loess hilly area, the soil water resource use limit in 0-290 cm layer was 249.4 mm. When the soil water storage in woodland was close or equal to the soil water resource use limit, effective measures should be taken to decrease soil evapotranspiration or increase soil water supply to ensure the sustainable water use of plant roots.

  20. Photovoltaic module soiling studies, May 1978 - October 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Maag, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Comparative electrical and optical performance data from photovoltaic modules and materials subjected to outdoor exposure at field test sites throughout the United States were collected and examined. The results show significant time and site dependence. During periods when natural removal processes do not dominate, the rate of particulate contamination accumulation appears to be largely material-independent. The effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material-dependent. Glass and acrylic top cover materials retain fewer particles than silicone rubber does. Side by side outdoor exposure testing for long duration is presently the most effective means of evaluating soiling differences between materials. Changes in spectral transmission as a function of time and location and limited scattering data are presented.

  1. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, Peter; Button, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen

    2015-06-14

    The goals of the project were: Determine applicability of transmission line method (TLM) to evaluate sheet resistance of soils on module glass;
    Evaluate various soils on glass for changes in surface resistance and their ability to promote potential-induced degradation with humidity (PID);
    Evaluate PID characteristics, rate, and leakage current increases on full-size mc-Si modules associated with a conductive soil on the surface.

  2. Standard Chinese: A Modular Approach. Resource Modules: Pronunciation and Romanization, Numbers, Classroom Expressions, Time and Dates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Texts in spoken Standard Chinese were developed to improve and update Chinese materials to reflect current usage in Beijing and Taipei. The focus is on communicating in Chinese in practical situations. The overall course is organized into 10 situational modules, student workbooks for each module, and resource modules. This text contains resource…

  3. Resource amendments influence density and competitive phenotypes of Streptomyces in soil.

    PubMed

    Schlatter, Daniel; Fubuh, Alfred; Xiao, Kun; Hernandez, Dan; Hobbie, Sarah; Kinkel, Linda

    2009-04-01

    Carbon from plant rhizospheres is a source of energy for soil microbial communities in native habitats. Soil amendments have been used as a means for deliberately altering soil community composition in agricultural soils to enhance plant health. However, little information is available in agricultural or natural soils on how specific carbon compounds or quantities influence soil microbial communities. Streptomyces are important soil saprophytes noted for their ability to produce antibiotics and influence plant health. To explore how specific types and amounts of carbon compounds influence Streptomyces in soil, glucose, cellulose, and lignin were added alone and in combination with six other carbon substrates of varying complexity to mesocosms of native prairie soil for 9 months at amounts equivalent to natural inputs from plants. Estimated culturable population densities, antibiotic inhibitory phenotypes, and resource utilization profiles were examined for Streptomyces communities from each treatment. The type and quantity of carbon compounds influenced densities, proportions, antibiotic phenotypes, and substrate utilization profiles of Streptomyces. Cellulose and lignin inputs produced the largest Streptomyces densities. Also, Streptomyces communities receiving high-resource inputs were more inhibitory whereas those receiving low-resource inputs used substrates more efficiently. Knowledge of how the availability and quantity of particular carbon compounds influences Streptomyces communities and their function, specifically resource use and inhibitory phenotypes, may be helpful in understanding the roles of resource availability in Streptomyces community dynamics and the potential of Streptomyces to suppress pathogens and enhance plant fitness in native and agricultural soils.

  4. Resource Utilization by Native and Invasive Earthworms and Their Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Puerto Rican Soils

    Treesearch

    Ching-Yu Huang; Grizelle Gonzalez; Paul F. Hendrix

    2016-01-01

    Resource utilization by earthworms affects soil C and N dynamics and further colonization of invasive earthworms. By applying 13C-labeled Tabebuia heterophylla leaves and 15N-labeled Andropogon glomeratus grass, we investigated resource utilization by three earthworm species (...

  5. Soil aggregation as mechanism for understanding the roles of soil biota in the sustainable usage of natural resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global food insecurity and rapidly diminishing water, soil, and energy resources resulting from increases in population numbers and wealth are putting pressure on agroecosystems to efficiently produce the most nutrient dense food while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. To address these ne...

  6. Assessment of crop growth and soil water modules in SWAT2000 using extensive field experiment data in an irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; He, C.; Sophocleous, M.; Yin, Z.; Hongrui, R.; Ouyang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    SWAT, a physically-based, hydrological model simulates crop growth, soil water and groundwater movement, and transport of sediment and nutrients at both the process and watershed scales. While the different versions of SWAT have been widely used throughout the world for agricultural and water resources applications, little has been done to test the performance, variability, and transferability of the parameters in the crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in an integrated way with multiple sets of field experimental data at the process scale. Using an multiple years of field experimental data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin, this paper assesses the performance of the plant-soil-groundwater modules and the variability and transferability of SWAT2000. Comparison of the simulated results by SWAT to the observations showed that SWAT performed quite unsatisfactorily in LAI predictions during the senescence stage, in yield predictions, and in soil-water estimation under dry soil-profile conditions. The unsatisfactory performance in LAI prediction might be attributed to over-simplified senescence modeling; in yield prediction to the improper computation of the harvest index; and in soil water under dry conditions to the exclusion of groundwater evaporation from the soil water balance in SWAT. In this paper, improvements in crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in SWAT were implemented. The saturated soil profile was coupled to the oscillating groundwater table. A variable evaporation coefficient taking into account soil water deficit index, groundwater depth, and crop root depth was used to replace the fixed coefficient in computing groundwater evaporation. The soil water balance included the groundwater evaporation. The modifications improved simulations of crop evapotranspiration and biomass as well as soil water dynamics under dry soil-profile conditions. The evaluation shows that the

  7. Soil as a Sustainable Resource for the Bioeconomy - BonaRes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollschläger, Ute; Amelung, Wulf; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Brunotte, Joachim; Gebbers, Robin; Grosch, Rita; Heinrich, Uwe; Helming, Katharina; Kiese, Ralf; Leinweber, Peter; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Veldkamp, Edzo; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Winkelmann, Traud

    2017-04-01

    Fertile soils are a fundamental resource for the production of biomass and provision of food and energy. A growing world population and latest climate targets lead to an increasing demand for bio-based products which require preserving and - ideally - improving the long-term productivity of soils as a bio-economic resource. At the same time, other soil functions and ecosystem services need to be maintained: filter for clean water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these soil functions result from the interaction of a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes which are insufficiently understood. In addition, we lack understanding about the interplay between the socio-economic system and the soil system and how soil functions benefit human wellbeing, including SDGs. However, a solid and integrated assessment of soil quality requires the consideration of the ensemble of soil functions and its relation to soil management. To make soil management sustainable, we need to establish a scientific knowledge base of complex soil system processes that allows for developing models and tools to quantitatively predict the impact of a multitude of management measures on soil functions. This will finally allow for the provision of options for a site-specific, sustainable soil management. To face this challenge, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) recently launched the funding program "Soil as a Sustainable Resource for the Bioeconomy - BonaRes". In a joint effort, ten collaborative projects and the coordinating BonaRes Centre are engaged to close existing knowledge gaps for a profound and systemic assessment and understanding of soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management. In BonaRes, the complete process chain of sustainable soil use in the context of a sustainable bio-economy is being addressed: from understanding of soil processes using state-of the art and

  8. Seedling growth responses to soil resources in the understory of a wet tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Holste, Ellen K; Kobe, Richard K; Vriesendorp, Corine F

    2011-09-01

    Plant growth responses to resources may be an important mechanism that influences species' distributions, coexistence, and community structure. Irradiance is considered the most important resource for seedling growth in the understory of wet tropical forests, but multiple soil nutrients and species have yet to be examined simultaneously with irradiance under field conditions. To identify potentially limiting resources, we modeled tree seedling growth as a function of irradiance and soil nutrients across five sites, spanning a soil fertility gradient in old-growth, wet tropical forests at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We measured an array of soil nutrients including total nitrogen (total N), inorganic N (nitrate [NO3-] and ammonium [NH4+]), phosphate (PO4-), and sum of base cations (SBC; potassium, magnesium, and calcium). Shade in the forest understory did not preclude seedling growth correlations with soil nutrients. Irradiance was a significant predictor of growth in 52% of the species, inorganic N in 54% (NO3- in 32%; NH4+ in 34%), total N in 47%, SBC in 39%, and PO4- in 29%. Overall, growth was correlated with both irradiance and soil nutrients in 45% of species and with soil nutrients only in an additional 48%; rarely was irradiance alone correlated with growth. Contrary to expectations, the magnitudes of growth effects, assessed as the maximum growth response to significant resources for each species, were similar for irradiance and most soil nutrients. Among species whose growth correlated with soil nutrients, the rank importance of nutrient effects was SBC, followed by N (total N, NO3-, and/or NH4+) and PO4-. Species' growth responsiveness (i.e., magnitudes of effect) to irradiance and soil nutrients was negatively correlated with species' shade tolerance (survival under 1% full sun). In this broad survey of species and resources, the nearly ubiquitous effects of soil nutrients on seedling growth challenge the idea that soil nutrients are less

  9. Photonic module: An on-demand resource for photonic entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, Simon J.; Greentree, Andrew D.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Ionicioiu, Radu; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Munro, William J.

    2007-11-15

    Photonic entanglement has a wide range of applications in quantum computation and communication. Here we introduce a device: the photonic module, which allows for the rapid, deterministic preparation of a large class of entangled photon states. The module is an application independent, ''plug and play'' device, with sufficient flexibility to prepare entanglement for all major quantum computation and communication applications in a completely deterministic fashion without number-discriminated photon detection. We present two alternative constructions for the module, one using free-space components and one in a photonic band-gap structure. The natural operation of the module is to generate states within the stabilizer formalism and we present an analysis on the cavity requirements to experimentally realize this device.

  10. Black walnut suitability index: a Natural Resources Conservation Service national soil information system based interpretive model

    Treesearch

    Douglas c. Wallace; Fred J. Young

    2008-01-01

    Suitable site conditions are essential for productive growth of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.). Field officers at the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) in the Midwest are often asked, "What is a good walnut soil?" Current NRCS information available to most field offices rates soils only as "suitable" or "...

  11. Network analysis reveals that bacteria and fungi form modules that correlate independently with soil parameters.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Alexandre B; Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T; Richardson, Alan E; Toscas, Peter; Farrell, Mark; Macdonald, Lynne M; Baker, Geoff; Wark, Tim; Thrall, Peter H

    2015-08-01

    Network and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine interactions between bacterial and fungal community terminal restriction length polymorphisms as well as soil properties in paired woodland and pasture sites. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that shifts in woodland community composition correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon, while changes in pasture community composition correlated with moisture, nitrogen and phosphorus. Weighted correlation network analysis detected two distinct microbial modules per land use. Bacterial and fungal ribotypes did not group separately, rather all modules comprised of both bacterial and fungal ribotypes. Woodland modules had a similar fungal : bacterial ribotype ratio, while in the pasture, one module was fungal dominated. There was no correspondence between pasture and woodland modules in their ribotype composition. The modules had different relationships to soil variables, and these contrasts were not detected without the use of network analysis. This study demonstrated that fungi and bacteria, components of the soil microbial communities usually treated as separate functional groups as in a CCA approach, were co-correlated and formed distinct associations in these adjacent habitats. Understanding these distinct modular associations may shed more light on their niche space in the soil environment, and allow a more realistic description of soil microbial ecology and function. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Geoinformation evaluation of soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and the Republic of Adygea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, I. Yu.; Dragavtseva, I. A.; Mironenko, N. Ya.; Sergeeva, N. N.; Domozhirova, V. V.; Morenets, A. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    A geoinformation database for assessing soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and Adygea has been developed. The results of geoinformation analysis indicate that only 55-60% of soils in these regions are suitable for growing horticultural crops without limitations; about 35-40% of the total soil area is unsuitable for horticultural purposes. For plum trees, the area of unsuitable soils is somewhat lower than for other horticultural crops. Geographically, the areas of soils suitable and unsuitable for horticulture are close to one another. The thickness of the loose earthy soil material, the gravel content, the degree of salinization, the soil texture, and the degree of soil hydromorphism are the major soil properties imposing considerable limitations for the development of fruit-growing industry in the studied regions. The highest portions of soils suitable for horticulture are found in Eiskii, Kushchevskii, Krylovskii, Shcherbinovskii, and Novokubanskii districts of Krasnodar region. The development of horticulture in Tuapsinskii, Slavyanskii, and Primorsko-Akhtarskii districts is limited because of the unsuitability of soils for this purpose. About 8% of the existing orchards are found on soils recognized as unsuitable for horticulture, and only about 20% of the existing orchards are found on soils suitable for fruit growing without limitations. About 70% of the existing fruit orchards are located on degraded soils or on soils with certain limitations for horticulture. The profitability of fruit orchards on such soils is lower than that of the orchards planted on soils without limitations for horticulture. This information is necessary for the adequate economic evaluation of the degree of soil degradation.

  13. Apollo program soil mechanics experiment. [interaction of the lunar module with the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The soil mechanics investigation was conducted to obtain information relating to the landing interaction of the lunar module (LM) with the lunar surface, and lunar soil erosion caused by the spacecraft engine exhaust. Results obtained by study of LM landing performance on each Apollo mission are summarized.

  14. July: "Soils are living: Overview of soil biodiversity, global issues, and new resources"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The July poster will provide an overview of soil biology and the many ecosystem functions that soil organisms drive including their impact on global biodiversity, climate regulation, soil health/stability, and plant growth. Five main global issues related to soil biodiversity will be presented such ...

  15. Soil organic matter (de)stabilization - new experiments needed to inform soil biogeochemistry modules in earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Torn, Margaret S.; Riley, William J.

    2017-04-01

    To better predict soil carbon climate feedbacks, the next generation of soil biogeochemistry modules in Earth System Models (ESMs) demand new types of experiments, and a more appropriate use of existing observations. For example, we highlight soil incubations and how they have been misinterpreted when inferring pseudo-first order turnover times and decomposition temperature and moisture sensitivities. Further, for existing pseudo first-order modules, and the new microbial- and mineral-explicit generation of biogeochemistry modules, there is often a mismatch between temporal and spatial observations and how they are used by modelers. Observation periods should be longer, from annual to decadal, and include transitions, e.g., induced by climate or management. Key observations to better structure and parameterize processes that are important for carbon-climate feedbacks include i) mineral surface interactions, ii) microbial dynamics and activity, including effects of soil temperature and moisture, iii) erosion and export, iv) landscape scale process heterogeneity, and v) the effect of land use change, such as clear cut and changes in tillage. Recent insights and knowledge gaps from traditionally disconnected scientific fields (such as geophysical modeling, agricultural soil science, geomorphology, and soil biogeochemistry) will be discussed in the context of informing ESM-scale terrestrial biogeochemistry models.

  16. Materials and Resources Suggested for Team Teaching and Individualized Instruction. Module III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, L. Jean

    The third of seven modules on team teaching, this document deals with materials and resources, with the objectives that teachers will develop an awareness of the wide variety available, the factors to consider in selecting media, the role of the resource center, and the necessary conditions for effective use of media. The study material includes…

  17. Teaching Earth System Science Using Climate Educational Modules Based on NASA and NOAA Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P. C.; LaDochy, S.; Patzert, W. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) recently developed a set of climate related educational modules to be used by K-12 teachers. These modules incorporate recent NASA and NOAA resources in Earth Science education. In the summer of 2011, these modules were tested by in-service teachers in courses held at several college campuses. At California State University, Los Angeles, we reviewed two climate modules: The Great Ocean Conveyer Belt and Abrupt Climate Change (http://essea.strategies.org/module.php?module_id=148) and Sulfur Dioxide: Its Role in Climate Change (http://essea.strategies.org/module.php?module_id=168). For each module, 4-6 teachers formed a cohort to complete assignments and unit assessments and to evaluate the effectiveness of the module for use in their classroom. Each module presented the teachers with a task that enabled them to research and better understand the science behind the climate related topic. For The Great Ocean Conveyer Belt, teachers are tasked with evaluating the impacts of the slowing or stopping of the thermohaline circulation on climate. In the same module teachers are charged with determining the possibilities of an abrupt climate shift during this century such as happened in the past. For the Sulfur Dioxide module teachers investigated the climate implications of the occurrence of several major volcanic eruptions within a short time period, as well as the feasibility of using sulfates to geoengineer climate change. In completing module assignments, teachers must list what they already know about the topic as well as formulate questions that still need to be addressed. Teachers then model the related interactions between spheres comprising the earth system (atmosphere-lithosphere, for example) to evaluate possible environmental impacts. Finally, teachers applied their research results to create lesson plans for their students. At a time when climate change and global warming are important topics in science

  18. Modulation of SSM/I microwave soil radiances by rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Fulton, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using SSM/I satellite data for estimating the soil moisture content was investigated by correlating the rainfall and soil moisture data with values of the SSM/I microwave brightness temperature obtained for the lower Great Plains in the United States during 1987. It was found that the areas of lowest brightness temperatures coincided with regions of bare soil which had received significant rainfall. The time-history plots of the brightness temperature and the antecedent precipitation index during an extremely large rain event indicated a slow recovery period (about 15 days) back to the dry soil state. However, regions covered with vegetation showed smaller temperature drops and much weaker correlation with rain events, questioning the feasibility of using SSM/I measurements for estimations of soil moisture in regions containing vegetation-covered soil.

  19. Resources for States and Tribes about Soil Fumigant Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    State and tribal agencies may seek EPA approval to provide pesticide applicators with an alternative to registrant-sponsored training. Find guidance on seeking approval, check lists for training options, and the NASDARF soil fumigation manual.

  20. Resource heterogeneity, soil fertility, and species diversity: effects of clonal species on plant communities.

    PubMed

    Eilts, J Alexander; Mittelbach, Gary G; Reynolds, Heather L; Gross, Katherine L

    2011-05-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in soil resources is widely thought to promote plant species coexistence, and this mechanism figures prominently in resource-ratio models of competition. However, most experimental studies have found that nutrient enhancements depress diversity regardless of whether nutrients are uniformly or heterogeneously applied. This mismatch between theory and empirical pattern is potentially due to an interaction between plant size and the scale of resource heterogeneity. Clonal plants that spread vegetatively via rhizomes or stolons can grow large and may integrate across resource patches, thus reducing the positive effect of small-scale resource heterogeneity on plant species richness. Many rhizomatous clonal species respond strongly to increased soil fertility, and they have been hypothesized to drive the descending arm of the hump-shaped productivity-diversity relationship in grasslands. We tested whether clonals reduce species richness in a grassland community by manipulating nutrient heterogeneity, soil fertility, and the presence of rhizomatous clonal species in a 6-year field experiment. We found strong and consistent negative effects of clonals on species richness. These effects were greatest at high fertility and when soil resources were applied at a scale at which rhizomatous clonals could integrate across resource patches. Thus, we find support for the hypothesis that plant size and resource heterogeneity interact to determine species diversity.

  1. Controlling Costs. Managing Resources Module. Operational Management Programme. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayter, Roy

    This self-study unit focuses on managing resources--materials, equipment, personnel, money, energy, time, and information. The material is designed primarily for those in a supervisory or junior management position working within their company's policies and systems. The unit may be of value to the small business proprietor, as an introduction to…

  2. Impact of Hydrologic Variability on Ecosystem Dynamics and the Sustainable Use of Soil and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porporato, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    We discuss the key processes by which hydrologic variability affects the probabilistic structure of soil moisture dynamics in water-controlled ecosystems. These in turn impact biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem structure through plant productivity and biodiversity as well as nitrogen availability and soil conditions. Once the long-term probabilistic structure of these processes is quantified, the results become useful to understand the impact of climatic changes and human activities on ecosystem services, and can be used to find optimal strategies of water and soil resources management under unpredictable hydro-climatic fluctuations. Particular applications regard soil salinization, phytoremediation and optimal stochastic irrigation.

  3. An integrated model for the assessment of global water resources - Part 1: Input meteorological forcing and natural hydrological cycle modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.; Masuda, K.; Motoya, K.; Shen, Y.; Tanaka, K.

    2007-10-01

    An integrated global water resources model was developed consisting of six modules: land surface hydrology, river routing, crop growth, reservoir operation, environmental flow requirement estimation, and anthropogenic water withdrawal. It simulates both natural and anthropogenic water flow globally (excluding Antarctica) on a daily basis at a spatial resolution of 1°×1° (longitude and latitude). The simulation period is 10 years, from 1986 to 1995. This first part of the two-feature report describes the input meteorological forcing and natural hydrological cycle modules of the integrated model, namely the land surface hydrology module and the river routing module. The input meteorological forcing was provided by the second Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP2), an international land surface modeling project. Several reported shortcomings of the forcing component were improved. The land surface hydrology module was developed based on a bucket type model that simulates energy and water balance on land surfaces. Simulated runoff was compared and validated with observation-based global runoff data sets and observed streamflow records at 32 major river gauging stations around the world. Mean annual runoff agreed well with earlier studies at global, continental, and continental zonal mean scales, indicating the validity of the input meteorological data and land surface hydrology module. In individual basins, the mean bias was less than ±20% in 14 of the 32 river basins and less than ±50% in 24 of the basins. The performance was similar to the best available precedent studies with closure of energy and water. The timing of the peak in streamflow and the shape of monthly hydrographs were well simulated in most of the river basins when large lakes or reservoirs did not affect them. The results indicate that the input meteorological forcing component and the land surface hydrology module provide a framework with which to assess global water resources, with the potential

  4. Report of the Public's Comments on the RCA Draft Documents, January-March 1980. [Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act of 1977 (RCA) directed the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to assess the country's nonfederal soil and water resources and to develop a program to conserve these and related natural resources. During this process, the USDA prepared and circulated for public comment a draft appraisal,…

  5. Biocrusts modulate warming and rainfall exclusion effects on soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland.

    PubMed

    Escolar, Cristina; Maestre, Fernando T; Rey, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Soil surface communities composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi, bacteria and lichens (biocrusts) largely affect soil respiration in dryland ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have large effects on biocrusts and associated ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have experimentally assessed how expected changes in temperature and rainfall will affect soil respiration in biocrust-dominated ecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of biocrust development, increased air temperature and decreased precipitation on soil respiration dynamics during dry (2009) and wet (2010) years, and investigated the relative importance of soil temperature and moisture as environmental drivers of soil respiration, in a semiarid grassland from central Spain. Soil respiration rates were significantly lower in the dry than during the wet year, regardless of biocrust cover. Warming increased soil respiration rates, but this response was only significant in biocrust-dominated areas (> 50% biocrust cover). Warming also increased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 values) of soil respiration in biocrust-dominated areas, particularly during the wet year. The combination of warming and rainfall exclusion had similar effects in low biocrust cover areas. Our results highlight the importance of biocrusts as a modulator of soil respiration responses to both warming and rainfall exclusion, and indicate that they must be explicitly considered when evaluating soil respiration responses to climate change in drylands.

  6. Biocrusts modulate warming and rainfall exclusion effects on soil respiration in a semi-arid grassland

    PubMed Central

    Escolar, Cristina; Maestre, Fernando T.; Rey, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Soil surface communities composed of cyanobacteria, algae, mosses, liverworts, fungi, bacteria and lichens (biocrusts) largely affect soil respiration in dryland ecosystems. Climate change is expected to have large effects on biocrusts and associated ecosystem processes. However, few studies so far have experimentally assessed how expected changes in temperature and rainfall will affect soil respiration in biocrust-dominated ecosystems. We evaluated the impacts of biocrust development, increased air temperature and decreased precipitation on soil respiration dynamics during dry (2009) and wet (2010) years, and investigated the relative importance of soil temperature and moisture as environmental drivers of soil respiration, in a semiarid grassland from central Spain. Soil respiration rates were significantly lower in the dry than during the wet year, regardless of biocrust cover. Warming increased soil respiration rates, but this response was only significant in biocrust-dominated areas (> 50% biocrust cover). Warming also increased the temperature sensitivity (Q10 values) of soil respiration in biocrust-dominated areas, particularly during the wet year. The combination of warming and rainfall exclusion had similar effects in low biocrust cover areas. Our results highlight the importance of biocrusts as a modulator of soil respiration responses to both warming and rainfall exclusion, and indicate that they must be explicitly considered when evaluating soil respiration responses to climate change in drylands. PMID:25914428

  7. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H

    2013-08-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesised litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~ 37%). [corrected]. However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H.

    2015-01-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesized litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~27%). However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. PMID:23763716

  9. Soil Microbial Activity Elucidates Unique Soil Carbon Transport Patterns within Resource Islands on Semi-Arid Hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, J. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Harman, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Shrublands in semi-arid regions are associated with heterogeneous landscapes with infertile bare areas separated by nutrient rich vegetated areas known as resource islands. However this conceptual understanding of plant-soil feedbacks is based predominantly on research performed on stable or depositional geomorphic surfaces, and it is unclear whether these patterns and autogenic processes hold on sloping terrain. We used vegetation mapping and soil sampling to investigate the spatial distribution of soil organic matter and microtopography on two steeper hillslopes of contrasting lithology (one granite, one schist) in the Sonoran desert foothills of the Catalina Mountains. Soil samples were collected from ten transects at each site, and aimed to quantify the spatial redistribution of the soil organic matter under individual canopies. Five of the transects were oriented downslope below woody shrubs and Velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina). Samples were taken directly below the center of the canopy, at three points upslope, and three points downslope. Surface grab samples were collected and brought to the laboratory, where they were sieved to 2 mm, and 10 g (air-dry weight) samples were placed into microcosms, brought to 80% field capacity with sterile water, and net carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution was measured over 4 days in triplicate microcosms for each soil sample. Highest net microbial CO2 evolution (8.3 μg CO2 g-1 soil d-1) was observed immediately downslope from woody plants on gently sloping granite sites and gradually decreased to a minimum of 3.0 μg CO2 g-1 soil d-1 at the farthest downslope collection point. The upslope transect showed highest net microbial CO2 evolution closest to the canopy (6.3 μg CO2 g-1 soil d-1) but upslope decreased to the lowest measured CO2 production measured (averaging < 1.5 μg CO2 g-1 soil d-1 at both upslope sampling sites). The CO2 evolution patterns were less pronounced on the schist sites, where slopes were much steeper

  10. Lunar mineral feedstocks from rocks and soils: X-ray digital imaging in resource evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Higgins, Stefan J.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon provide raw materials essential to the successful establishment of a lunar base. Efficient exploitation of these resources requires accurate characterization of mineral abundances, sizes/shapes, and association of 'ore' and 'gangue' phases, as well as the technology to generate high-yield/high-grade feedstocks. Only recently have x-ray mapping and digital imaging techniques been applied to lunar resource evaluation. The topics covered include inherent differences between lunar basalts and soils and quantitative comparison of rock-derived and soil-derived ilmenite concentrates. It is concluded that x-ray digital-imaging characterization of lunar raw materials provides a quantitative comparison that is unattainable by traditional petrographic techniques. These data are necessary for accurately determining mineral distributions of soil and crushed rock material. Application of these techniques will provide an important link to choosing the best raw material for mineral beneficiation.

  11. Competition and soil resource environment alter plant–soil feedbacks for native and exotic grasses

    PubMed Central

    Larios, Loralee; Suding, Katharine N.

    2015-01-01

    Feedbacks between plants and soil biota are increasingly identified as key determinants of species abundance patterns within plant communities. However, our understanding of how plant–soil feedbacks (PSFs) may contribute to invasions is limited by our understanding of how feedbacks may shift in the light of other ecological processes. Here we assess how the strength of PSFs may shift as soil microbial communities change along a gradient of soil nitrogen (N) availability and how these dynamics may be further altered by the presence of a competitor. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where we grew native Stipa pulchra and exotic Avena fatua, alone and in competition, in soils inoculated with conspecific and heterospecific soil microbial communities conditioned in low, ambient and high N environments. Stipa pulchra decreased in heterospecific soil and in the presence of a competitor, while the performance of the exotic A. fatua shifted with soil microbial communities from altered N environments. Moreover, competition and soil microbial communities from the high N environment eliminated the positive PSFs of Stipa. Our results highlight the importance of examining how individual PSFs may interact in a broader community context and contribute to the establishment, spread and dominance of invaders. PMID:25425557

  12. Competition and soil resource environment alter plant-soil feedbacks for native and exotic grasses.

    PubMed

    Larios, Loralee; Suding, Katharine N

    2014-11-24

    Feedbacks between plants and soil biota are increasingly identified as key determinants of species abundance patterns within plant communities. However, our understanding of how plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) may contribute to invasions is limited by our understanding of how feedbacks may shift in the light of other ecological processes. Here we assess how the strength of PSFs may shift as soil microbial communities change along a gradient of soil nitrogen (N) availability and how these dynamics may be further altered by the presence of a competitor. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where we grew native Stipa pulchra and exotic Avena fatua, alone and in competition, in soils inoculated with conspecific and heterospecific soil microbial communities conditioned in low, ambient and high N environments. Stipa pulchra decreased in heterospecific soil and in the presence of a competitor, while the performance of the exotic A. fatua shifted with soil microbial communities from altered N environments. Moreover, competition and soil microbial communities from the high N environment eliminated the positive PSFs of Stipa. Our results highlight the importance of examining how individual PSFs may interact in a broader community context and contribute to the establishment, spread and dominance of invaders.

  13. Anaerobic digestate from biogas production as a resource for improving soil fertility: effects on crop yield and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Papini, Rossella; Fabiani, Arturo; Simoncini, Stefania; Mocali, Stefano; Piccolo, Raimondo

    2013-04-01

    Soil fertility is fundamental in determining crops productivity in all farming systems. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of energy crops generates residues that can represent a valuable resource to sustain and improve soil fertility and to increase soil organic matter content. Residues from anaerobic digestion contain organic fractions and available nutrients, that can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, some unknown aspects of digested residues utilization remain to explore: i) the nutrient supply and the real potential for mineral fertilization substitution, ii) the impact on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities, iii) the direct and indirect effects on soil structure, organic matter and C mineralization. The aim of the present research was to gain a better understanding of these aspects, evaluating the effects of anaerobic digestate application on soil properties and maize yield. With the main focus of comparing mineral fertilization (250 Kg N ha-1) with digested residues addition (at the dose of 25 % and 50 % of mineral fertilizer), a triplicate sets of plots were designed in a field experiment on a silty-clay loam soil in the southern Po Valley (Italy). The amount of applied residues was calculated according to its N content in order to fertilizer each plots with the same amount of total nitrogen. Residues from digestion showed a N content of 0.4 % (60 % as N-NH4) and a C/N ratio of 3. Changes in soil quality after residues application were studied with a holistic approach, involving microbiological, physical and chemical aspects of soil fertility. In particular, we determined: the abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal soil communities; the soil organic matter content, its distribution within soil aggregates and the C mineralization potential; cation exchange capacity; the main macro and micro nutrients; bulk density; aggregate stability. No significant

  14. Phylogenetically Distinct Phylotypes Modulate Nitrification in a Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Wang, Baozhan

    2015-01-01

    Paddy fields represent a unique ecosystem in which regular flooding occurs, allowing for rice cultivation. However, the taxonomic identity of the microbial functional guilds that catalyze soil nitrification remains poorly understood. In this study, we provide molecular evidence for distinctly different phylotypes of nitrifying communities in a neutral paddy soil using high-throughput pyrosequencing and DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Following urea addition, the levels of soil nitrate increased significantly, accompanied by an increase in the abundance of the bacterial and archaeal amoA gene in microcosms subjected to SIP (SIP microcosms) during a 56-day incubation period. High-throughput fingerprints of the total 16S rRNA genes in SIP microcosms indicated that nitrification activity positively correlated with the abundance of Nitrosospira-like ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), soil group 1.1b-like ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Pyrosequencing of 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that 13CO2 was assimilated by these functional groups to a much greater extent than by marine group 1.1a-associated AOA and Nitrobacter-like NOB. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that active AOB communities were closely affiliated with Nitrosospira sp. strain L115 and the Nitrosospira multiformis lineage and that the 13C-labeled AOA were related to phylogenetically distinct groups, including the moderately thermophilic “Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis,” uncultured fosmid 29i4, and acidophilic “Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra” lineages. These results suggest that a wide variety of microorganisms were involved in soil nitrification, implying physiological diversification of soil nitrifying communities that are constantly exposed to environmental fluctuations in paddy fields. PMID:25724959

  15. Status of the World's Soil Resources Report, Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    The scope of main objectives of the report are: (a) to provide a global scientific assessment of current and projected soil conditions built on regional data analysis and expertise (b) to explore the implications of these soil conditions for food security, climate change, water q...

  16. Status of the World's Soil Resources Report, Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    The scope of main objectives of the report are: (a) to provide a global scientific assessment of current and projected soil conditions built on regional data analysis and expertise (b) to explore the implications of these soil conditions for food security, climate change, water q...

  17. Role of vegetation in modulating rainfall interception and soil water flux in ecosystems under transition from grassland to woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chris; Will, Rodney; Stebler, Elaine; Qiao, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Vegetation exerts strong control on the hydrological budget by shielding the soil from rainfall through interception and modulating water transmission in the soil by altering soil properties and rooting zone water extraction. Therefore, a change in vegetation alters the water cycle by a combination of a passive, rainfall redistribution mechanism controlled by the physical dimensions of vegetation and active, water extracting processes resulting from physiological attributes of different plants. As a result, the role of vegetation on the water cycle is likely to change where vegetation is under transition such as in the southern Great Plains of USA due to woody plant encroachment. However, it remains largely unknown how this physiognomic transformation from herbaceous cover to woody canopy alters rainfall influx, soil water transmission and efflux from the soil profile and consequently alters historic patterns of runoff and groundwater recharge. This knowledge is critical for both water resource and ecosystem management. We conducted a comprehensive, 5-year study involving direct quantification of throughfall and stemflow for grassland and encroached juniper woodland (Juniperus virginiana), water efflux through transpiration using an improved Granier thermal dissipation method (trees) and ET chamber (grassland), soil moisture storage and dynamics (capacitance probe) and streamflow (small catchment). We calibrated a prevailing hydrological model (SWAT) based on observed data to simulate potential change in runoff and recharge for the Cimarron River basin (study site located within this basin) under various phases of grassland to woodland transition. Our results show that juniper encroachment reduces throughfall reaching the soil surface compared with grassland under moderate grazing. The evergreen junipers transpired water year-round including fall and winter when the warm season grasses were senescent. As a result, soil water content and soil water storage on the

  18. Using Information Resources. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 14. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses how to access and use information resources in order to function in the workplace and in daily living. Topics covered include the following: analyzing newspaper articles; preparing…

  19. Making Resources Matter: A Systematic Approach to Developing the Local Consolidated Plan. Modules One [to] Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Diana; Williams, Jean

    This guide is designed to help school districts develop a consolidated plan for programs and resources. It outlines the importance of generating a consolidated plan to reduce duplication, identify children's needs, and coordinate funds from various programs. Consisting of 10 modules, the guide addresses all components of the planning process and…

  20. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources Hearing or speech impairment - resources Heart disease - resources Hemophilia - resources Herpes - resources Incest - resources Incontinence - ...

  1. Resource availability modulates biodiversity-invasion relationships by altering competitive interactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianjie; Wei, Zhong; Friman, Ville-Petri; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong; Kowalchuk, George A; Jousset, Alexandre

    2017-02-22

    Community diversity affects the survival of newly introduced species via resource competition. Competitive interactions can be modulated by resource availability and we hypothesised that this may alter biodiversity-invasion relationships. To study this, we assessed the growth of a bacterial invader, Ralstonia solanacearum, when introduced into communities comprised of one to five closely related resident species under different resource concentrations. The invader growth was then examined as a function of resident community richness, species composition and resource availability. We found that the relative density of the invader was reduced by increasing resident community richness and resource availability. Mechanistically, this could be explained by changes in the competitive interactions between the resident species and the invader along the resource availability gradient. At low resource availability, resident species with a high catabolic similarity with the invader efficiently reduced the invader relative density, while at high resource availability, fast-growing resident species became more important for the invader suppression. These results indicate that the relative importance of different resident community species can change dynamically along to resource availability gradient. Diverse communities could be thus more robust to invasions by providing a set of keystone species that can take suppressive roles across different environments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1996-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station initiated a research program in 1994 called. "Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of soil, plant, animal, and human resources of the Rio Grande Basin". This program is funded by an Ecosystem Management grant from Forest Service Research. Its mission focuses on the development and application of new...

  3. Stem growth and respiration in loblolly pine plantations differing in soil resource availability

    Treesearch

    Chris A. Maier

    2001-01-01

    Stem respiration and growth in 10-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations were measured monthly during the third year of fertilization and irrigation treatments to determine whether soil resource availability differentially altered growth and respiration in stem tissue. Fertilized trees had significantly greater stem biomass, stem...

  4. Soil resources and topography shape local tree community structure in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Baldeck, Claire A; Harms, Kyle E; Yavitt, Joseph B; John, Robert; Turner, Benjamin L; Valencia, Renato; Navarrete, Hugo; Davies, Stuart J; Chuyong, George B; Kenfack, David; Thomas, Duncan W; Madawala, Sumedha; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Gunatilleke, Savitri; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Kiratiprayoon, Somboon; Yaacob, Adzmi; Supardi, Mohd N Nur; Dalling, James W

    2013-02-22

    Both habitat filtering and dispersal limitation influence the compositional structure of forest communities, but previous studies examining the relative contributions of these processes with variation partitioning have primarily used topography to represent the influence of the environment. Here, we bring together data on both topography and soil resource variation within eight large (24-50 ha) tropical forest plots, and use variation partitioning to decompose community compositional variation into fractions explained by spatial, soil resource and topographic variables. Both soil resources and topography account for significant and approximately equal variation in tree community composition (9-34% and 5-29%, respectively), and all environmental variables together explain 13-39% of compositional variation within a plot. A large fraction of variation (19-37%) was spatially structured, yet unexplained by the environment, suggesting an important role for dispersal processes and unmeasured environmental variables. For the majority of sites, adding soil resource variables to topography nearly doubled the inferred role of habitat filtering, accounting for variation in compositional structure that would previously have been attributable to dispersal. Our results, illustrated using a new graphical depiction of community structure within these plots, demonstrate the importance of small-scale environmental variation in shaping local community structure in diverse tropical forests around the globe.

  5. Intraspecific growth and functional leaf trait responses to natural soil resource gradients for conifer species with contrasting leaf habit.

    PubMed

    Walters, Michael B; Gerlach, John P

    2013-03-01

    Interspecific relationships among species mean leaf traits, performance and species resource/climate distributions help provide the foundation for a predictive, functionally based plant ecology. Intraspecific responses of leaf traits and performance to resource gradients and how these vary among species may be equally important but have received less attention. Here, we examine relationships between proxies of soil resource availability, leaf traits and growth (height at 25 years, SI25) for winter deciduous Larix decidua Mill. and evergreen Pinus resinosa Ait. trees distributed over soil resource gradients in the Great Lakes region of North America. We predicted that (i) leaf trait responses to soil resources within species will be similar to reported distributions of mean leaf traits over soil resource gradients among species; (ii) soil resource-related variation in leaf traits can help explain SI25; and (iii) SI25 will be greater for Larix than Pinus at higher soil resources and greater for Pinus than Larix at lower soil resources and this pattern will be associated with species differences in leaf trait responses to soil resources. Among the measured leaf traits (live N, Mg, Ca, K, P, and Mn, litter N, N resorption, carbon isotope discrimination, specific leaf area, lifespan), soil resources only impacted live and litter N for both species and K for Pinus. In turn, only the leaf traits responsive to soil resources affected SI25 in the expected manner. Larix had greater SI25 than Pinus across soil resource gradients and both species had similar growth and leaf trait sensitivities to resources. In summary: (i) several leaf traits reported to be associated with performance and edaphic distributions across species were, within species, unresponsive to nitrogen and water availability and unrelated to growth; (ii) leaf N showed high plasticity to soil resources and this plasticity was functionally relevant to growth over its entire range of response; (iii) large

  6. Modulation of Leaf Economic Traits and Rates by Soil Properties, at Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, V.; Wright, I. J.; Reich, P. B.; Batjes, N. H., Jr.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Bhaskar, R.; Santiago, L. S.; Ellsworth, D.; Niinemets, U.; Cornwell, W.

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis can be construed as an economic process that optimises the costs of acquisition, transport and utilisation of two substitutable photosynthetic resources: water and nitrogen. The influence of soil fertility on photosynthetic rates and leaf 'economic' traits related with H2O and N costs is poorly quantified in higher plants in comparison with the effects of climate. We set out to address this situation by quantifying the unique and shared contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of soil and climate properties on photosynthetic traits: light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Aarea), stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), leaf N and P (Narea and Parea) and specific leaf area (SLA). We used mixed regression models, multivariate analyses and variance partitioning. Along a first dimension of soil fertility, soil pH covaried positively with measures of base status and climatic aridity, and negatively with soil organic C content. Along this dimension from low to high soil pH, Narea, Parea and Aarea increased and SLA decreased. Along an independent dimension of soil fertility, gs declined and Parea increased with soil available P (Pavail). Overall, soil variables were stronger predictors of leaf traits than were climate variables, except for SLA. Importantly, soils and climate were not redundant information to explain leaf trait variation but were not additive either. Shared effects of soil and climate dominated over their independent effects on Narea and Parea, while unique effects of soils dominated for Aarea and gs. Three environmental variables were key for explaining variation in leaf traits: soil pH and Pavail, and climatic aridity. Although the reliability of global soils datasets lags behind that of climate datasets our results nonetheless provide compelling evidence that both can

  7. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Soil as a Treatment Medium - Module 3, Objectives, Script and Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module examines the basic properties of soil which have an influence on the success of land treatment of wastes. These relevant properties include soil texture, soil structure, permeability, infiltration, available water capacity, and cation exchange capacity. Biological, chemical and physical mechanisms work to remove and renovate wastes…

  8. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Soil as a Treatment Medium - Module 3, Objectives, Script and Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module examines the basic properties of soil which have an influence on the success of land treatment of wastes. These relevant properties include soil texture, soil structure, permeability, infiltration, available water capacity, and cation exchange capacity. Biological, chemical and physical mechanisms work to remove and renovate wastes…

  9. The influence of soil resources and plant traits on invasion and restoration in a subtropical woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yelenik, Stephanie G.; D'Antonio, Carla M; August-Schmidt, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown in some cases that nitrogen (N) addition to soil will increase abundance of plant invaders because many invaders have traits that promote rapid growth in response to high resource supply. Similarly, it has been suggested, and sometimes shown, that decreasing soil N via carbon (C) additions can facilitate native species recovery. Yet all species are unlikely to respond to resource supply in the same way. We asked how soil nutrients and competition affect native and exotic woody species in a restoration experiment where we added N or C, and crossed soil manipulation with the manipulation of dominant exotic grass abundance in a Hawaiian subtropical woodland. We related changes in survival and growth of outplanted individuals to native/exotic status and plant traits. As a group, N-fixers showed reduced survival compared to non-fixers in response to added N, with Morella faya (exotic) and Acacia koa (native) having dramatic negative responses. Among non-fixers, species with greater foliar %N had more positive survival responses to increasing soil N. Specific leaf area was not predictive of responses to nutrients or competition. In general, responses to carbon addition were weak, although reducing competition from existing exotic grasses was beneficial for all outplanted species, with N-fixers showing the most positive response. We conclude that commonly used restoration strategies to clear exotic species or lower soil resources with C addition will most greatly benefit N-fixing species, which themselves may be unwanted invaders. Thus statements about the influence of increased soil N on invasions should be carefully dissected by considering the traits (such as N-fixation status) of the regional species pool.

  10. Moessbauer Spectroscopy for Lunar Resource Assessment: Measurement of Mineralogy and Soil Maturity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Shelfer, T. D.; Pimperl, M. M.; Shen, M.-H.; Gibson, M. A.; Wills, E. L.

    1992-01-01

    First-order assessment of lunar soil as a resource includes measurement of its mineralogy and maturity. Soils in which the mineral ilmenite is present in high concentrations are desirable feedstock for the production of oxygen at a lunar base. The maturity of lunar soils is a measure of their relative residence time in the upper 1 mm of the lunar surface. Increasing maturity implies increasing load of solar wind species (e.g., N, H, and He-3), decreasing mean grain size, and increasing glass content. All these physicochemical properties that vary in a regular way with maturity are important parameters for assessing lunar soil as a resource. For example, He-3 can be extracted and potentially used for nuclear fusion. A commonly used index for lunar soil maturity is I(sub s)/FeO, which is the concentration of fine-grained metal determined by ferromagnetic resonance (I(sub s)) normalized to the total iron content (as FeO). I(sub s)/FeO has been measured for virtually every soil returned by the Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon. Because the technique is sensitive to both oxidation state and mineralogy, iron Moessbauer spectroscopy (FeMS) is a viable technique for in situ lunar resource assessment. Its utility for mineralogy is apparent from examination of published FeMS data for lunar samples. From the data published, it can be inferred that FeMS data can also be used to determine soil maturity. The use of FeMS to determine mineralogy and maturity and progress on development of a FeMS instrument for lunar surface use are discussed.

  11. Resource Islands Predict the Distribution of Heterotrophic Bacteria in Chihuahuan Desert Soils

    PubMed Central

    Herman, R. P.; Provencio, K. R.; Herrera-Matos, J.; Torrez, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The resource island hypothesis predicts that soil resources such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and water will be distributed evenly in grasslands but have a patchy distribution focused around plants in shrublands. This hypothesis predicts that microorganism numbers will follow resources and be (i) evenly distributed in grasslands, (ii) concentrated around individual plants in shrublands, and (iii) higher where resources are higher when comparing the same vegetation type. This study enumerated total heterotrophic bacteria and a subset of these, the nitrogen-efficient guild (NEG), in three shrublands (playa fringe mesquite, tar bush, and creosote) and two grasslands (playa and bajada). Both heterotrophs and NEG members followed the distribution pattern predicted by the resource island hypothesis. There were no significant differences in heterotroph or NEG numbers comparing at-plant and interplant samples for both the playa and bajada grasslands. Furthermore, populations were generally higher in nutrient-rich playa grasslands than nutrient-poor bajada grasslands. In contrast, both heterotroph and NEG numbers were higher at shrubs than between shrubs in all three shrub sites. These results suggest that resource abundance in resource islands predicts the distribution of heterotrophic bacterial numbers in desert soils. PMID:16535022

  12. Controls on the distribution of productivity and organic resources in Antarctic Dry Valley soils

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, D.W; Sparrow, A.D; Novis, P.M; Gregorich, E.G; Elberling, B; Greenfield, L.G

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys are regarded as one of the harshest terrestrial habitats on Earth because of the extremely cold and dry conditions. Despite the extreme environment and scarcity of conspicuous primary producers, the soils contain organic carbon and heterotrophic micro-organisms and invertebrates. Potential sources of organic compounds to sustain soil organisms include in situ primary production by micro-organisms and mosses, spatial subsidies from lacustrine and marine-derived detritus, and temporal subsidies (‘legacies’) from ancient lake deposits. The contributions from these sources at different sites are likely to be influenced by local environmental conditions, especially soil moisture content, position in the landscape in relation to lake level oscillations and legacies from previous geomorphic processes. Here we review the abiotic factors that influence biological activity in Dry Valley soils and present a conceptual model that summarizes mechanisms leading to organic resources therein. PMID:17015369

  13. Modulation of the Global Wind Resource by the El-Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunturu, U. B.; Yip, C. M. A.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    El-Nino is the most important climate scale oscillation in the tropical atmosphere and earlier studies have shown that it impacts weather in different parts of the world. Since the long-term stability of wind resource is a primary requirement for the reliability of wind power generation, any modulation of the wind resource by the El-Nino constitutes valuable information for efficient harvesting of wind. In this study, we construct the global wind resource as described in Gunturu & Schlosser (2012) and use the method of composites to understand the impact of the El-Nino on the global wind resource. The results show that the impact of the El-Nino is to decrease the wind resource in the central United States, southern Australia and north central Africa. Further, interestingly, the wind resource increases in the Nordic sea and the continental areas around it. The Deccan plateau region of India also has reduced WPD due to the El-Nino as shown by the composites. On the other hand, the central US and southern Australia have increased WPD due to La-Nina and the resource decreases in India. The statistically significant results will be further discussed for their implications to the long term stability of the wind resource in the different regions of the world. We also substantiate the results with other suitable metrics.

  14. Soil fungal resources in annual cropping systems and their potential for management.

    PubMed

    Ellouze, Walid; Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D; Yang, Chao; Bazghaleh, Navid; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hanson, Keith; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils.

  15. Resource seeking strategies of zoosporic true fungi in heterogeneous soil habitats at the microscale level

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Frank H.; Crawford, John W.; Neuhauser, Sigrid; Henderson, Linda E.; Lilje, Osu

    2012-01-01

    Zoosporic true fungi have frequently been identified in samples from soil and freshwater ecosystems using baiting and molecular techniques. In fact some species can be components of the dominant groups of microorganisms in particular soil habitats. Yet these microorganisms have not yet been directly observed growing in soil ecosystems. Significant physical characteristics and features of the three-dimensional structures of soils which impact microorganisms at the microscale level are discussed. A thorough knowledge of soil structures is important for studying the distribution of assemblages of these fungi and understanding their ecological roles along spatial and temporal gradients. A number of specific adaptations and resource seeking strategies possibly give these fungi advantages over other groups of microorganisms in soil ecosystems. These include chemotactic zoospores, mechanisms for adhesion to substrates, rhizoids which can penetrate substrates in small spaces, structures which are resistant to environmental extremes, rapid growth rates and simple nutritional requirements. These adaptations are discussed in the context of the characteristics of soils ecosystems. Recent advances in instrumentation have led to the development of new and more precise methods for studying microorganisms in three-dimensional space. New molecular techniques have made identification of microbes possible in environmental samples. PMID:22308003

  16. Response of soil invertebrates to disturbance across three resource regions in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Barbercheck, M E; Neher, D A; Anas, O; El-Allaf, S M; Weicht, T R

    2009-05-01

    We evaluated the potential of soil microarthropods and enchytraeid worms to be useful as bioindicators of soil condition in forest, wetland, and agricultural ecosystems over a range of ecoregions. Selected mesofauna and soil characteristics in soil and litter in relatively undisturbed and disturbed examples of each of three ecosystems within each of three land resource regions were monitored over two years. Optimal times of year to sample these organisms as indicators of disturbance were April, May, July and September. No single measure reflected disturbance across all three ecosystems. Among forest sites, Simpson's diversity index, evenness, abundance of ants, and proportion of enchytraeids in the mesofauna differed between soils of different disturbance levels. Among agricultural sites, richness, evenness, abundance of mites, and proportions of collembolans and of enchytraeids in the mesofauna differed between disturbance levels. Among wetland sites, Shannon's and Simpson's diversity indices, richness based on the total mesofauna, and abundances of mites, diplurans, ants, and isotomid and onychiurid collembolans differed between disturbance levels. Covariates most frequently associated with abundance and diversity of the measured mesofauna were soil electrical conductivity, available N, organic matter, and pH. Canonical correspondence analysis provided information somewhat different to bivariate analysis. Using both approaches to examine soil and litter taxa that have distinctive responses to disturbance may help to identify candidate groups applicable for use in large-scale environmental monitoring programs.

  17. Soil resource supply influences faunal size-specific distributions in natural food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Christian; den Hollander, Henri A.; Vonk, J. Arie; Rossberg, Axel G.; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, Gerard A. J. M.; Yeates, Gregor W.

    2009-07-01

    The large range of body-mass values of soil organisms provides a tool to assess the ecological organization of soil communities. The goal of this paper is to identify graphical and quantitative indicators of soil community composition and ecosystem functioning, and to illustrate their application to real soil food webs. The relationships between log-transformed mass and abundance of soil organisms in 20 Dutch meadows and heathlands were investigated. Using principles of allometry, maximal use can be made of ecological theory to build and explain food webs. The aggregate contribution of small invertebrates such as nematodes to the entire community is high under low soil phosphorus content and causes shifts in the mass-abundance relationships and in the trophic structures. We show for the first time that the average of the trophic link lengths is a reliable predictor for assessing soil fertility responses. Ordered trophic link pairs suggest a self-organizing structure of food webs according to resource availability and can predict environmental shifts in ecologically meaningful ways.

  18. Soil Fungal Resources in Annual Cropping Systems and Their Potential for Management

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D.; Yang, Chao; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  19. Physical and chemical properties of the Martian soil: Review of resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Gooding, James L.; Banin, A.; Clark, Benton C.; Roush, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of Martian surface materials are reviewed from the perspective of using these resources to support human settlement. The resource potential of Martian sediments and soils can only be inferred from limited analyses performed by the Viking Landers (VL), from information derived from remote sensing, and from analysis of the SNC meteorites thought to be from Mars. Bulk elemental compositions by the VL inorganic chemical (x ray fluorescence) analysis experiments have been interpreted as evidence for clay minerals (possibly smectites) or mineraloids (palagonite) admixed with sulfate and chloride salts. The materials contained minerals bearing Fe, Ti, Al, Mg and Si. Martian surface materials may be used in many ways. Martian soil, with appropriate preconditioning, can probably be used as a plant growth medium, supplying mechanical support, nutrient elements, and water at optimal conditions to the plants. Loose Martian soils could be used to cover structures and provide radiation shielding for surface habitats. Martian soil could be wetted and formed into abode bricks used for construction. Duricrete bricks, with strength comparable to concrete, can probably be formed using compressed muds made from martian soil.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of the Martian soil: Review of resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Gooding, James L.; Banin, A.; Clark, Benton C.; Roush, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of Martian surface materials are reviewed from the perspective of using these resources to support human settlement. The resource potential of Martian sediments and soils can only be inferred from limited analyses performed by the Viking Landers (VL), from information derived from remote sensing, and from analysis of the SNC meteorites thought to be from Mars. Bulk elemental compositions by the VL inorganic chemical (x ray fluorescence) analysis experiments have been interpreted as evidence for clay minerals (possibly smectites) or mineraloids (palagonite) admixed with sulfate and chloride salts. The materials contained minerals bearing Fe, Ti, Al, Mg and Si. Martian surface materials may be used in many ways. Martian soil, with appropriate preconditioning, can probably be used as a plant growth medium, supplying mechanical support, nutrient elements, and water at optimal conditions to the plants. Loose Martian soils could be used to cover structures and provide radiation shielding for surface habitats. Martian soil could be wetted and formed into abode bricks used for construction. Duricrete bricks, with strength comparable to concrete, can probably be formed using compressed muds made from martian soil.

  1. Resilience of the spatial patterning of soil resources in creosote-encroached grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, J. B.; Ravi, S.; Collins, S. L.; Webb, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    Rangelands in arid and semi arid regions across the world are undergoing rapid vegetation shifts in response to complex interactions between climate and anthropogenic factors. These regions are also experiencing more frequent and intense disturbances such as fires and droughts. A comprehensive understanding of the changes in spatial patterning of soil resources accompanying these rapid vegetation changes and disturbances are needed to design sustainable management and conservation strategies. We investigated soil changes and vegetation structure along a shrub-grass transition zone at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA). We examined the extent to which fire promotes the redistribution of soil resources that might counter desertification induced by shrub encroachment. We specifically used high resolution digital elevation models of soil microtopography derived from terrestrial LiDAR to examine effects for treatments established 4 years previously in the creosote-encroached, blue and black grama grassland. Treatments were: 1) burned with prescribed fire, 2) unburned - vegetation removed, and 3) unburned - control. We additionally examined plots in adjacent grasslands that were not encroached by shrubs. Results suggest that surface roughness at cm-m length scales was lowest on the burned treatments, intermediate on the vegetation removal treatments, and greatest on the control treatments. Moreover, soil surface roughness had substantially differing spatial patterns in the homogeneous grasslands relative to the shrub-encroached grasslands. This work provides insight into the resilience (i.e., over 4 years of vegetation recovery) of the spatial patterning of soil resources in response to prescribed fire in the shrub-encroached grassland.

  2. Integration of soil moisture and geophysical datasets for improved water resource management in irrigated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkenbiner, Catherine; Franz, Trenton E.; Avery, William Alexander; Heeren, Derek M.

    2016-04-01

    Global trends in consumptive water use indicate a growing and unsustainable reliance on water resources. Approximately 40% of total food production originates from irrigated agriculture. With increasing crop yield demands, water use efficiency must increase to maintain a stable food and water trade. This work aims to increase our understanding of soil hydrologic fluxes at intermediate spatial scales. Fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes were combined in order to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at three study sites across an East-West precipitation gradient in the state of Nebraska, USA. A coarse scale map was generated for the entire domain (122 km2) at each study site. We used a simplistic data merging technique to produce a statistical daily soil moisture product at a range of key spatial scales in support of current irrigation technologies: the individual sprinkler (˜102m2) for variable rate irrigation, the individual wedge (˜103m2) for variable speed irrigation, and the quarter section (0.82 km2) for uniform rate irrigation. Additionally, we were able to generate a daily soil moisture product over the entire study area at various key modeling and remote sensing scales 12, 32, and 122 km2. Our soil moisture products and derived soil properties were then compared against spatial datasets (i.e. field capacity and wilting point) from the US Department of Agriculture Web Soil Survey. The results show that our "observed" field capacity was higher compared to the Web Soil Survey products. We hypothesize that our results, when provided to irrigators, will decrease water losses due to runoff and deep percolation as sprinkler managers can better estimate irrigation application depth and times in relation to soil moisture depletion below field capacity and above maximum allowable depletion. The incorporation of this non-contact and pragmatic geophysical method into current irrigation practices across the state and globe has the

  3. Meteorological Instrumentation and Measurements Open Resource Training Modules for Undergraduate and Graduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, A.; Clark, R. D.; Stevermer, A.

    2016-12-01

    The study of observational science crosses all other subject areas and requires a new innovative paradigm: a collaboration of experts to create high quality, content-rich learning modules that will elevate the scientific literacy and technical competency of undergraduate and graduate students. This collaborative project will design, develop, and openly distribute a series of interactive, multimedia, online modules that can be effectively integrated into meteorology courses on instrumentation, measurement science, and observing systems to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. The modules will address topics such as principles of instrumentation and measurement to the theory and practice of measuring a host of meteorological variables. The impact will have a profound effect on the atmospheric observational sciences community by fulfilling a need for contemporary, interactive, multimedia guided education and training modules integrating the latest instructional design and assessment tools in observational science. Thousands of undergraduate and graduate students will benefit, while course instructors will value a set of high quality modules to use as supplements to their courses. The modules can serve as an alternative to observational research training and fill the void between field projects or assist those schools that lack the resources to stage a field- or laboratory-based instrumentation experience. This project brings together the intellectual capital of the scientists and engineers of National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory as subject matter experts, the artistic talents and instructional design acumen of the COMET program, and the project leadership, vision, teaching expertise in instruments and observational science at Millersville University.

  4. Promoting China-U.S. Collaboration on Soil and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu-Dong; Parker, Jack

    2010-03-01

    China-U.S. Workshop on Sustainable Management of Soil and Water Resources; Shenyang, China, 5-8 January 2010; Population growth and rapid urbanization in China have intensified competition for land use, with consequences for agricultural productivity, water use allocation, and soil and water quality. Sustainable management and effective remediation technologies are needed in all regions of China. Similar problems exist in the United States, due, for example, to urban sprawl and pressures to increase biofuel production driven by government subsidy programs. As globally dominant contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, China and the United States also have a mutual interest in understanding their consequences.

  5. Habitat Fragmentation can Modulate Drought Effects on the Plant-soil-microbial System in Mediterranean Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) Forests.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Dulce; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Rincón, Ana; Brearley, Francis Q; García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Ecological transformations derived from habitat fragmentation have led to increased threats to above-ground biodiversity. However, the impacts of forest fragmentation on soils and their microbial communities are not well understood. We examined the effects of contrasting fragment sizes on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities from holm oak forest patches in two bioclimatically different regions of Spain. We used a microcosm approach to simulate the annual summer drought cycle and first autumn rainfall (rewetting), evaluating the functional response of a plant-soil-microbial system. Forest fragment size had a significant effect on physicochemical characteristics and microbial functioning of soils, although the diversity and structure of microbial communities were not affected. The response of our plant-soil-microbial systems to drought was strongly modulated by the bioclimatic conditions and the fragment size from where the soils were obtained. Decreasing fragment size modulated the effects of drought by improving local environmental conditions with higher water and nutrient availability. However, this modulation was stronger for plant-soil-microbial systems built with soils from the northern region (colder and wetter) than for those built with soils from the southern region (warmer and drier) suggesting that the responsiveness of the soil-plant-microbial system to habitat fragmentation was strongly dependent on both the physicochemical characteristics of soils and the historical adaptation of soil microbial communities to specific bioclimatic conditions. This interaction challenges our understanding of future global change scenarios in Mediterranean ecosystems involving drier conditions and increased frequency of forest fragmentation.

  6. Biotic context and soil properties modulate native plant responses to enhanced rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The environmental and biotic context within which plants grow have a great potential to modify responses to climatic changes, yet few studies have addressed both the direct effects of climate and the modulating roles played by variation in the biotic (e.g. competitors) and abiotic (e.g. soils) environment. Methods In a grassland with highly heterogeneous soils and community composition, small seedlings of two native plants, Lasthenia californica and Calycadenia pauciflora, were transplanted into factorially watered and fertilized plots. Measurements were made to test how the effect of climatic variability (mimicked by the watering treatment) on the survival, growth and seed production of these species was modulated by above-ground competition and by edaphic variables. Key Results Increased competition outweighed the direct positive impacts of enhanced rainfall on most fitness measures for both species, resulting in no net effect of enhanced rainfall. Both species benefitted from enhanced rainfall when the absence of competitors was accompanied by high soil water retention capacity. Fertilization did not amplify the watering effects; rather, plants benefitted from enhanced rainfall or competitor removal only in ambient nutrient conditions with high soil water retention capacity. Conclusions The findings show that the direct effects of climatic variability on plant fitness may be reversed or neutralized by competition and, in addition, may be strongly modulated by soil variation. Specifically, coarse soil texture was identified as a factor that may limit plant responsiveness to altered water availability. These results highlight the importance of considering the abiotic as well as biotic context when making future climate change forecasts. PMID:26159934

  7. Biotic context and soil properties modulate native plant responses to enhanced rainfall.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan

    2015-11-01

    The environmental and biotic context within which plants grow have a great potential to modify responses to climatic changes, yet few studies have addressed both the direct effects of climate and the modulating roles played by variation in the biotic (e.g. competitors) and abiotic (e.g. soils) environment. In a grassland with highly heterogeneous soils and community composition, small seedlings of two native plants, Lasthenia californica and Calycadenia pauciflora, were transplanted into factorially watered and fertilized plots. Measurements were made to test how the effect of climatic variability (mimicked by the watering treatment) on the survival, growth and seed production of these species was modulated by above-ground competition and by edaphic variables. Increased competition outweighed the direct positive impacts of enhanced rainfall on most fitness measures for both species, resulting in no net effect of enhanced rainfall. Both species benefitted from enhanced rainfall when the absence of competitors was accompanied by high soil water retention capacity. Fertilization did not amplify the watering effects; rather, plants benefitted from enhanced rainfall or competitor removal only in ambient nutrient conditions with high soil water retention capacity. The findings show that the direct effects of climatic variability on plant fitness may be reversed or neutralized by competition and, in addition, may be strongly modulated by soil variation. Specifically, coarse soil texture was identified as a factor that may limit plant responsiveness to altered water availability. These results highlight the importance of considering the abiotic as well as biotic context when making future climate change forecasts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Impact of environmental hazards on internal soiling within concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Sara

    2014-09-01

    Environmental conditions have a significant impact on internal soiling of a CPV system, which affects overall system performance and efficiency. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62108, Section 10, standard includes accelerated testing such as temperature cycling, damp heat, and humidity freeze to assess a CPV module's ability to withstand environmental hazards that can compromise the typical 25-year lifetime. This paper discusses the IEC 60529 ingress protection (IP) test protocols and how they can be used to evaluate the performance of CPV modules to block water and particulate contaminants. Studies with GORE® Protective Vents installed in a CPV module and subjected to environmental hazard testing have shown increased reliability of the module over the lifetime of the system by protecting the seals from pressure differentials and keeping out contaminants.

  9. Spectral analysis of water samples using modulated resonance features for monitoring of public water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.; Yapijakis, C.; Aiken, D.; Shabaev, A.; Ramsey, S.; Peak, J.

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral analysis of water samples taken from public water resources in the New York City metro area has demonstrated the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and evaluation prior to filtration. Hyperspectral monitoring of contaminants with respect to types and relative concentrations requires tracking statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared, which are associated with specific water resources. To achieve this, it is necessary to establish correlation between hyperspectral signatures and types of contaminants to be found within specific water resources. Correlation between absorption spectra and changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants requires sufficient sensitivity. The present study examines the sensitivity of modulated resonance features with respect to characteristics of water contaminants for hyperspectral analysis of water samples.

  10. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Marshall, John R.; White, Melisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end, methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology are investigated. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromotography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

  11. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Marshall, John R.; White, Melisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end, methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology are investigated. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromotography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

  12. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, R L; Marshall, J R; White, M R

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end we are investigating methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

  13. Interannual and decadal-scale variability of soil moisture and water resources in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Jung, M.; Wattenbach, M.; Heinke, J.; Weber, U.

    2013-12-01

    Within water scarce regions such as the African continent, water availability is a fundamental factor for both ecosystems and human population. In particular the various ecoregions are highly vulnerable to climate change as seen in the recent drought in 2011, which affected the entire East African region and forced severe food crises causing the death of thousands of people. Several climate change scenarios associated with the expected population growth revealed an additional pressure on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa in the future. In order to prevent, adapt and to mitigate climate change impacts (e.g. increasing water scarcity in the future) on soil moisture variability and water resources synthesis of its recent variations are extremely important. Unfortunately, there is currently no synthesis that highlights recent variations of soil moisture and fresh water resources in Africa. The aim of the study is to identify regions with large inter annual variability as well as decadal scale variability (trend, trend changes) of soil moisture and water resources. Hence, especially patterns of soil moisture and water resources variability will be demonstrated and implications in terms of vulnerability will be further discussed. The study comprises three different data sources: point measurements, remote sensing datasets and modelling results. Soil moisture observations from passive microwave radiometry (TRMM, AMSRE-E) and GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage were applied to locate areas which show a large inter annual variability. Supplementary, water level fluctuations from SAR altimetry (LEGOS/GOHS, ENVISAT) and in-situ runoff observations (SA FRIEND) provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre were used to confirm the encountered patterns of soil moisture and water resources variability. The spatial map of inter annual variability was subsequently overlaid by population density and land use data to assess the vulnerability of the

  14. A synthesis of recent variations of soil moisture and water resources in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Eric; Jung, Martin; Weber, Ulrich; Wattenbach, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Water availability is an essential factor for both ecosystems and human population in water scarce areas such as Africa. African ecoregions are particularly vulnerable to climate change as seen in the recent drought in 2011, which affected the entire East African region and forced severe food crises causing the death of thousands of people. Various climate change scenarios associated with the expected population growth revealed an additional pressure on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa in the future. In order to prevent, adapt and to mitigate climate change impacts (e.g. increasing water scarcity in the future) on soil moisture variability and water resources synthesis of its recent variations are of great importance. Unfortunately, there is currently no synthesis that highlights recent variations of soil moisture and fresh water resources in Africa. The aim of the study is to identify regions with large inter annual variability as well as decadal scale variability (trend, trend changes) of soil moisture and water resources. Hence, especially patterns of soil moisture and water resources variability will be demonstrated and implications in terms of vulnerability will be further discussed. The synthesis consists of a combination of three different data sources: point measurements, earth observational datasets and modelling results. Soil moisture observations from passive microwave radiometry (TRMM, AMSRE-E) and total water storage information from the GRACE satellite were applied to locate areas with a large inter annual variability. Additionally, lake level data from SAR altimetry (LEGOS/GOHS, ENVISAT) and in-situ runoff observations (SA FRIEND) provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre were used to confirm the encountered patterns of soil moisture and water resources variability. The spatial map of inter annual variability was subsequently overlaid by population density and land use data to assess the vulnerability of the African

  15. Impact of heavy soiling on the power output of PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schill, Christian; Brachmann, Stefan; Heck, Markus; Weiss, Karl-Anders; Koehl, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Fraunhofer ISE is running a PV-module outdoor testing set-up on the Gran Canaria island, one of the Canary Island located west of Morroco in the Atlantic Ocean. The performance of the modules is assessed by IV-curve monitoring every 10 minutes. The electronic set-up of the monitoring system - consisting of individual electronic loads for each module which go into an MPP-tracking mode between the IV-measurements - will be described in detail. Soiling of the exposed modules happened because of building constructions nearby. We decided not to clean the modules, but the radiation sensors and recorded the decrease of the power output and the efficiency over time. The efficiency dropped to 20 % within 5 months before a heavy rain and subsequently the service personnel on site cleaned the modules. A smaller rain-fall in between washed the dust partly away and accumulated it at the lower part of the module, what could be concluded from the shape of the IV-curves, which were similar to partial shading by hot-spot-tests and by partial snow cover.

  16. Animal waste utilization: Effective use of manure as a soil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, J.L.; Stewart, B.A.

    1998-12-31

    This unique book examines the beneficial aspects of animal waste as a soil resource--not simply as an agricultural by-product with minimal practical use. Topics include: types of livestock waste--swine, poultry, dairy; methods and management of waste utilization; storage, handling, processing and application of animal waste; economics of waste utilization; new modeling and management techniques; and nonpoint source pollution, water quality, leaching, and air quality.

  17. Do drying and rewetting cycles modulate effects of sulfadiazine spiked manure in soil?

    PubMed

    Jechalke, Sven; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2016-05-01

    Naturally occurring drying-rewetting events in soil have been shown to affect the dissipation of veterinary antibiotics entering soil by manure fertilization. However, knowledge of effects on the soil microbial community structure and resistome is scarce. Here, consequences of drying-rewetting cycles on effects of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soil planted with Dactylis glomerata L. were investigated in microcosms. Manure containing SDZ or not was applied to the pregrown grass and incubated for 56 days in a climate chamber. Water was either added daily or reduced during two drying events of 7 days, each followed by a recovery phase. Total community DNA was analyzed to reveal the effects on the bacterial community structure and on the abundance of sul1, sul2, intI1 ,intI2, qacE+qacEΔ1, traN and korB genes relative to 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE fingerprints indicated that drying-rewetting cycles modulated the effects of SDZ on the bacterial community structure in the soil. Furthermore, the SDZ treatment increased the relative abundance of sulfonamide resistance and integrase genes compared to the control. However, this increase was not different between moisture regimes, indicating that drying-rewetting had only a negligible effect on the selection of the resistome by SDZ in the manured soil.

  18. Studied the geomorphogy, soil and water resources in south Egypt using geoinformation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayed, Abdalla; Abdel Aziz, Belal

    2010-05-01

    The mean objective of this study was to study the geomorphology, soil and water resources in the studied area using remote sensing techniques and GIS. The studied located in between latitudes 24o 20' and 24o 40' N and longitudes 32o 45' and 33o 40' E in Kom Ombo , Aswan governorate. The climatic situation of the studied area is characterized by a long hot dry summer, a short mild winter with little rainfall, high evaporation and low relative humidity. Based on the interpretation of ETM remote data, GIS and 3Dview the following natural resources were detected. The geomorpholical unites in the studied were Nile valley and Kom Ombo plain. Soil types were clay soil is occurred in the old cultivated land. But it is medium to coarse grained fluvial sand with gravel in the reclaimed areas. The land use and land cover for the studied area were old cultivated land, urban area and channels. Three main groundwater aquifers were confirmed, these are the Nubian sandstones aquifer, the Eocene fissured limestone aquifer and the Quaternary alluvial aquifer. Kom Ombo is the ancient site of Ombos, which is from the ancient Egyptian word ‘nubt', or ‘City of Gold'. In ancient Egypt, the city was important to the caravan routes from Nubia and various gold mines. Keywords: Remote sensing, GIS, 3D model, Natural Resources Kom Ombo

  19. Application of Remote Sensing Data to Improve the Water and Soil Resource Management of Rwanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csorba, Ádám; Bukombe, Benjamin; Naramabuye, Francois Xavier; Szegi, Tamás; Vekerdy, Zoltán; Michéli, Erika

    2017-04-01

    The Rwandan agriculture strongly relies in the dry seasons on the water stored in artificial reservoirs of various sizes for irrigation purposes. Furthermore, the success of irrigation depends on a wide range of soil properties which directly affect the moisture regime of the growing medium. By integrating remote sensing and auxiliary data the objectives of our study are to monitor the water level fluctuation in the reservoirs, estimate the volume of water available for irrigation and to combine this information with soil property maps to support the decision making for sustainable irrigation water management in a study area in Southern Rwanda. For water level and volume estimation a series of Sentinel-1 (product type: GRD, acquisition mode: IW, polarizations HH and VH) data were obtained covering the study area and spanning over a period of two years. To map the extent of water bodies the Radar-Based Water Body Mapping module of the Water Observation and Information System (WOIS) was used. High-resolution optical data (Sentinel-2) were used for validation in cloud-free periods. To estimate the volume changes in the reservoirs, we combined the information derived from the water body mapping procedure and digital elevation models. For sustainable irrigation water management, digital soil property maps were developed by the application of wide range of environmental covariates related to soil forming factors. To develop covariates which represent the land use a time series analysis of the 2 years of Sentinel-1 data was performed. As auxiliary soil data, the ISRIC-WISE harmonized soil profile database was used. The developed digital soil mapping approach is integrated into a new WOIS workflow.

  20. Microbial modulators of soil carbon storage: integrating genomic and metabolic knowledge for global prediction.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Anderson, Ian C; Singh, Brajesh K

    2013-12-01

    Soil organic carbon performs a number of functions in ecosystems and it is clear that microbial communities play important roles in land-atmosphere carbon (C) exchange and soil C storage. In this review, we discuss microbial modulators of soil C storage, 'omics'-based approaches to characterize microbial system interactions impacting terrestrial C sequestration, and how data related to microbial composition and activities can be incorporated into mechanistic and predictive models. We argue that although making direct linkage of genomes to global phenomena is a significant challenge, many connections at intermediate scales are viable with integrated application of new systems biology approaches and powerful analytical and modelling techniques. This integration could enhance our capability to develop and evaluate microbial strategies for capturing and sequestering atmospheric CO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Shifting resource availability, plastic allocation to exoenzymes and the consequences for heterotrophic soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, Ford; Billings, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    The rate of decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) is influenced by the availability of substrates in the soil matrix, the chemical composition of organic matters substrates, and the reaction kinetics of exoenzymes secreted by microbes. Predicting carbon (C) flow from SOM into respired CO2 is predicated on knowledge of feedbacks between substrate availability and microbial resource allocation. It is critical to understand physiological responses of microbes to their environments because it is the feedbacks between the abiotic conditions and resource availability that govern exoenzyme synthesis. Without mechanistic knowledge, it is difficult to project how warming and changing edaphic characteristics will influence respiratory CO2 losses from soils. Here, we apply a general theoretical framework that describes the consequences of interactions between exoenzymes, SOM substrates, microbial resource allocation and microbial stoichiometry to explore how different edaphic conditions give rise to different microbial niches. Our approach incorporates the kinetics of exoenzyme-substrate interactions, the costs and benefits associated with producing different exoenzymes, regulation of biomass C:N, and substrate availability in the soil matrix. We explore how shifting resource availability forces microbes to alter their strategies for synthesizing exoenzymes to promote acquisition of C and N that satisfies demand. In particular, we study how changing relative C and N availability constrain the degree to biomass C:N can be maintained with plastic allocation to different exoenzymes. Using reaction rate data from purified enzyme-substrate experiments, we conclude that shifts in both the absolute and relative availability of substrates with different C:N give rise to clear niches in C and N allocation space. These niches correspond to environments that are typically associated with soil microbes exhibiting different biomass C:N. Finally, we show that the allocation changes

  2. ESA's Soil Moisture dnd Ocean Salinity Mission - Contributing to Water Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, S.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. The focus of this paper will be on SMOS's contribution to support water resource management: SMOS surface soil moisture provides the input to derive root-zone soil moisture, which in turn provides the input for the drought index, an important monitoring prediction tool for plant available water. In addition to surface soil moisture, SMOS also provides observations on vegetation optical depth. Both parameters aid agricultural applications such as crop growth, yield forecasting and drought monitoring, and provide input for carbon and land surface modelling. SMOS data products are used in data assimilation and forecasting systems. Over land, assimilating SMOS derived information has shown to have a positive impact on applications such as NWP, stream flow forecasting and the analysis of net ecosystem exchange. Over ocean, both sea surface salinity and severe wind speed have the potential to increase the predictive skill on the seasonal and short- to medium-range forecast range. Operational users in particular in Numerical Weather Prediction and operational hydrology have put forward a requirement for soil moisture data to be available in near-real time (NRT). This has been addressed by developing a fast retrieval for a NRT level 2 soil moisture product based on Neural Networks, which will be available by autumn 2015. This paper will focus on presenting the

  3. Resource effects on denitrification are mediated by community composition in tidal freshwater wetlands soils.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ember M; Franklin, Rima B

    2015-05-01

    Accurate prediction of denitrification rates remains difficult, potentially owing to complex uncharacterized interactions between resource conditions and denitrifier communities. To better understand how the availability of organic matter (OM) and nitrate (NO3 (-) ), two of the resources most fundamental to denitrifiers, affect these populations and their activity, we performed an in situ resource manipulation in tidal freshwater wetland soils. Soils were augmented with OM to double ambient concentrations, using either compost or plant litter, and fertilized with KNO3 at two levels (low: ∼ 5 mg l(-1)  NO3 (-) -N and high: ∼ 50 mg l(-1)  NO3 (-) -N) in a full factorial design. Community composition of nirS-denitrifers (assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) was interactively regulated by both NO3 (-) concentration and OM type, and the associated shifts in community composition were relatively consistent across sampling dates (6, 9 and 12 months of incubation). Denitrification potential (pDNF) rates were also strongly affected by NO3 (-) fertilization and increased by ∼ 10-100-fold. Path analysis revealed that the influence of resource availability on pDNF rates was largely mediated through changes in nirS-denitrifier community composition. These results suggest that a greater understanding of denitrifier community ecology may enable more accurate prediction of denitrification rates.

  4. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, F.-G.; Holm, O.; Berger, W.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  5. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling.

    PubMed

    Simon, F-G; Holm, O; Berger, W

    2013-04-01

    Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  6. SPECIES-SPECIFIC PARTITIONING OF SOIL WATER RESOURCES IN AN OLD-GROWTH DOUGLAS-FIR/WESTERN HEMLOCK FOREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although tree- and stand-level estimates of forest water use are increasingly common, relatively little is known about partitioning of soil water resources among co-occurring tree species. We studied seasonal courses of soil water utilization in a 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menzies...

  7. SPECIES-SPECIFIC PARTITIONING OF SOIL WATER RESOURCES IN AN OLD-GROWTH DOUGLAS-FIR/WESTERN HEMLOCK FOREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although tree- and stand-level estimates of forest water use are increasingly common, relatively little is known about partitioning of soil water resources among co-occurring tree species. We studied seasonal courses of soil water utilization in a 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menzies...

  8. Mangroves Build Land. "Mangroves are a Valuable Resource." Grades 7 and 8. A Two Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity and film-oriented unit focusing on the importance of mangroves in the South Florida ecosystem. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways…

  9. Mangroves Build Land. "Mangroves are a Valuable Resource." Grades 7 and 8. A Two Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity and film-oriented unit focusing on the importance of mangroves in the South Florida ecosystem. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways…

  10. Seeing about soil — management lessons from a simple model for renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenegger, Klaus; Schappacher, Wilhelm

    2014-02-01

    Employing an effective cellular automata model, we investigate and analyze the build-up and erosion of soil. Depending on the strategy employed for handling agricultural production, in many cases we find a critical dependence on the prescribed production target, with a sharp transition between stable production and complete breakdown of the system. Strategies which are particularly well-suited for mimicking real-world management approaches can produce almost cyclic behavior, which can also either lead to sustainable production or to breakdown. While designed to describe the dynamics of soil evolution, this model is quite general and may also be useful as a model for other renewable resources and may even be employed in other disciplines like psychology.

  11. Correlation of some soil types of Kosovo from the old Yugoslavian Soil Classification (YSC) into World Reference Bases for soil resources (WRB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresilla, Betim; Zogaj, Muhamet; Szegi, Tamas; Micheli, Erika; Bresilla, Kushtrim

    2013-04-01

    Kosovo is still using the old Yugoslavian Soil Classification system. Therefore, the aim of this research is to view the correlation between the old Yugoslavian Soil Classification (YSC) and World Reference Bases for soil resources (WRB). A total of 46 samples of genetic horizons were collected from 11 profiles, randomly from a soil map of Kosovo (1974). The samples belong to four different soil types classified according to WRB, which are spread in different location throughout the country. The physical and chemical properties such as structure and texture, pH, organic matter OM, calcium carbonate CaCO3, cation exchange capacity CEC, base saturation BS and electrical conductivity EC were analyzed by standard methods. The results showed that the structure of most of the profiles are blocky angulare and blocky subangulare while the first and fourth profile have prismatic structure below 40 cm and the eighth profile have no structure below 25 cm. The texture of most of the profiles is loamy, clay and clay loamy, whereas the nineth profile sandy loam texture. The pH in H2O mostly is weak acidic, basic and weak alkaline, therefore, is decreasing with depth while in profiles that have a certain amount of CaCO3 the pH is increasing. The profiles are rich in organic matter but the OM is decreasing linearly with depth except in third profile that organic matter is increasing below topsoil. The CaCO3 takes place in profile seven below 90cm, in profile eight throughout it and in profile eleven as well. The cation exchange capacity varies from the profiles with 4.53 cmol/kg the lowest value in profile nine until 51.3 cmol/kg the highest value in profile eighth. Base saturation is more than 95% in all the profiles. The electrical conductivity varies from 71 mS/cm up to 545 mS/cm. Based on a field experiment, we found that the existing soil map of Kosovo (1974) is not fully corresponding to the soil in the field, thus, 45.45% of the map corresponds to the field, while 54

  12. Wolves modulate soil nutrient heterogeneity and foliar nitrogen by configuring the distribution of ungulate carcasses.

    PubMed

    Bump, Joseph K; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2009-11-01

    Mechanistic links between top terrestrial predators and biogeochemical processes remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that large carnivores configure landscape heterogeneity through prey carcass distribution. A 50-year record composed of > 3600 moose carcasses from Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, USA, showed that wolves modulate heterogeneity in soil nutrients, soil microbes, and plant quality by clustering prey carcasses over space. Despite being well utilized by predators, moose carcasses resulted in elevated soil macronutrients and microbial biomass, shifts in soil microbial composition, and elevated leaf nitrogen for at least 2-3 years at kill sites. Wolf-killed moose were deposited in some regions of the study landscape at up to 12x the rate of deposition in other regions. Carcass density also varied temporally, changing as much as 19-fold in some locations during the 50-year study period. This variation arises, in part, directly from variation in wolf hunting behavior. This study identifies a top terrestrial predator as a mechanism generating landscape heterogeneity, demonstrating reciprocal links between large carnivore behavior and ecosystem function.

  13. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spartaru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-12-03

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60 degrees C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 order of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when the RH was increased over this RH range. Arizona road dust showed reduced sheet resistance at lower RH, but with less humidity sensitivity over the range tested. The soot sample did not show significant resistivity change compared to the unsoiled control. Photovoltaic modules with sea salt on their faces were step-stressed between 25% and 95% RH at 60 degrees C applying -1000 V bias to the active cell circuit. Leakage current from the cell circuit to ground ranged between two and ten times higher than that of the unsoiled controls. Degradation rate of modules with salt on the surface increased with increasing RH and time.

  14. Effects of Photovoltaic Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, Peter; Burton, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen; Terwilliger, Kent

    2015-06-14

    The sheet resistance of three soil types (Arizona road dust, soot, and sea salt) on glass were measured by the transmission line method as a function of relative humidity (RH) between 39% and 95% at 60 degrees C. Sea salt yielded a 3.5 orders of magnitude decrease in resistance on the glass surface when the RH was increased over this RH range. Arizona road dust showed reduced sheet resistance at lower RH, but with less humidity sensitivity over the range tested. The soot sample did not show significant resistivity change compared to the unsoiled control. Photovoltaic modules with sea salt on their faces were step-stressed between 25% and 95% RH at 60 degrees C applying -1000 V bias to the active cell circuit. Leakage current from the cell circuit to ground ranged between two and ten times higher than that of the unsoiled controls. Degradation rate of modules with salt on the surface increased with increasing RH and time.

  15. Meteorological Satellite Education Resources: Web-based Learning Modules, Initiatives, and the Environmental Satellite Resource Center (ESRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber-Abshire, W.; Dills, P.

    2008-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) receives funding from NOAA NESDIS and the NPOESS Integrated Program Office (IPO), with additional contributions from the GOES-R Program Office and EUMETSAT, to directly support education and training efforts in the area of satellite meteorology. This partnership enables COMET to create educational materials of global interest on geostationary and polar- orbiting remote sensing platforms and their instruments, data, products, and operational applications. Over the last several years, COMET's satellite education programs have focused on the capabilities and applications of the upcoming next generation operational polar-orbiting NPP/NPOESS system and its relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. COMET's activities have recently expanded to include education on the future Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and various user communities, COMET stimulates greater utilization of both current and future satellite observations and products. In addition, COMET has broadened the scope of its online training to include materials on the EUMETSAT Polar-orbiting System (EPS) and Meteosat geostationary satellites. EPS represents an important contribution to the Initial Joint Polar System (IJPS) between NOAA and EUMETSAT, while Meteosat imaging capabilities provide an early look for the next generation GOES-R satellites. Also in collaboration with EUMETSAT, COMET is developing future modules on the joint NASA-CNES Jason altimetry mission and on satellite capabilities for monitoring the global climate. COMET also provides Spanish translations of relevant GOES materials in order to support the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) Americas effort, which is associated with the move of GOES-10 to provide routine satellite coverage over South America. This poster presentation provides an overview of COMET

  16. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [15N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes. PMID:26904051

  17. Soil resources influence vegetation and response to fire and fire-surrogate treatments in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Benjamin M.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul; Caldwell, Todd G.

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody fuels and increase resistance to exotic annuals, but may alter resource availability and inadvertently favor invasive species. We used four study sites within the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) to evaluate 1) how vegetation and soil resources were affected by treatment, and 2) how soil resources influenced native herbaceous perennial and exotic annual grass cover before and following treatment. Treatments increased resin exchangeable NH4+, NO3−, H2PO4−, and K+, with the largest increases caused by prescribed fire and prolonged by application of imazapic. Burning with imazapic application also increased the number of wet growing degree days. Tebuthiuron and imazapic reduced exotic annual grass cover, but imazapic also reduced herbaceous perennial cover when used with prescribed fire. Native perennial herbaceous species cover was higher where mean annual precipitation and soil water resources were relatively high. Exotic annual grass cover was higher where resin exchangeable H2PO4− was high and gaps between perennial plants were large. Prescribed fire, mowing, and tebuthiuron were successful at increasing perennial herbaceous cover, but the results were often ephemeral and inconsistent among sites. Locations with sandy soil, low mean annual precipitation, or low soil water holding capacity were more likely to experience increased exotic annual grass cover after treatment, and treatments that result in slow release of resources are needed on these sites. This is one of few studies that correlate abiotic variables to native and exotic species cover across a broad geographic setting, and that

  18. Soil resources influence vegetation and response to fire and fire-surrogate treatments in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Benjamin M.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul; Caldwell, Todd G.

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody fuels and increase resistance to exotic annuals, but may alter resource availability and inadvertently favor invasive species. We used four study sites within the Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) to evaluate 1) how vegetation and soil resources were affected by treatment, and 2) how soil resources influenced native herbaceous perennial and exotic annual grass cover before and following treatment. Treatments increased resin exchangeable NH4+, NO3−, H2PO4−, and K+, with the largest increases caused by prescribed fire and prolonged by application of imazapic. Burning with imazapic application also increased the number of wet growing degree days. Tebuthiuron and imazapic reduced exotic annual grass cover, but imazapic also reduced herbaceous perennial cover when used with prescribed fire. Native perennial herbaceous species cover was higher where mean annual precipitation and soil water resources were relatively high. Exotic annual grass cover was higher where resin exchangeable H2PO4− was high and gaps between perennial plants were large. Prescribed fire, mowing, and tebuthiuron were successful at increasing perennial herbaceous cover, but the results were often ephemeral and inconsistent among sites. Locations with sandy soil, low mean annual precipitation, or low soil water holding capacity were more likely to experience increased exotic annual grass cover after treatment, and treatments that result in slow release of resources are needed on these sites. This is one of few studies that correlate abiotic variables to native and exotic species cover across a broad geographic setting, and that

  19. Simple additive simulation overestimates real influence: altered nitrogen and rainfall modulate the effect of warming on soil carbon fluxes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiangyin; Yang, Wanqin; Qi, Zemin; Liao, Shu; Xu, Zhenfeng; Tan, Bo; Wang, Bin; Wu, Qinggui; Fu, Changkun; You, Chengming; Wu, Fuzhong

    2017-08-01

    Experiments and models have led to a consensus that there is positive feedback between carbon (C) fluxes and climate warming. However, the effect of warming may be altered by regional and global changes in nitrogen (N) and rainfall levels, but the current understanding is limited. Through synthesizing global data on soil C pool, input and loss from experiments simulating N deposition, drought and increased precipitation, we quantified the responses of soil C fluxes and equilibrium to the three single factors and their interactions with warming. We found that warming slightly increased the soil C input and loss by 5% and 9%, respectively, but had no significant effect on the soil C pool. Nitrogen deposition alone increased the soil C input (+20%), but the interaction of warming and N deposition greatly increased the soil C input by 49%. Drought alone decreased the soil C input by 17%, while the interaction of warming and drought decreased the soil C input to a greater extent (-22%). Increased precipitation stimulated the soil C input by 15%, but the interaction of warming and increased precipitation had no significant effect on the soil C input. However, the soil C loss was not significantly affected by any of the interactions, although it was constrained by drought (-18%). These results implied that the positive C fluxes-climate warming feedback was modulated by the changing N and rainfall regimes. Further, we found that the additive effects of [warming × N deposition] and [warming × drought] on the soil C input and of [warming × increased precipitation] on the soil C loss were greater than their interactions, suggesting that simple additive simulation using single-factor manipulations may overestimate the effects on soil C fluxes in the real world. Therefore, we propose that more multifactorial experiments should be considered in studying Earth systems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Understanding plant-to-plant interactions for soil resources in multilayered Iberian dehesas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, G.; Rolo, V.; Cubera, E.; López-Díaz, L.

    2009-04-01

    environment much more than understorey usually can, but tree characteristics often confer them a clear competitive advantage and they can strongly out-compete understorey. The net balance of positive-negative interactions varies with the age of trees: while the balance can favor grasses face to seedlings, the contrary can be expected when tree grows. Similarly, while shrubs could favor seedling recruitment, shrubs could affect negatively tree growth and productivity. These changes should be taken into account for defining dehesa structure and determining management practices in order to optimize the use of physical and chemical resources that are spatially and temporally patchy. From our results, it is described how generally holm-oak trees favor understorey forage production through a direct positive effect of shade and improved soil fertility (facilitation). The rooting system together the slow-growing attitude of many oak species could determine a low competitive potential of oaks with herbaceous layer. Its low competitiveness together with its capacity to thrive in poor soils make oaks genre very suitable for long-term agroforestry systems in Iberian Peninsula. However, although a certain complementary uses of soil resources seems occur for trees and native grasses (very distinct root system profile), the potential benefit of trees has a small actual facilitative effect because the competitive use of soil water by trees overrides its positive effects, especially under semi-arid conditions. As consequence, the net balance of trees on pasture yield is very variably with situations where pasture yield is widely increased in the vicinity of the trees and others where the contrary is found. Tree clearance practiced in dehesas affects positively the development of the understory pasture, but also the single tree functions which take advantage of the low tree density characteristic of dehesas. Tree roots access water through a large volume of soil resources (especially water

  1. [Methods of extending the resource of fiber ionite artificial soils in space greenhouses].

    PubMed

    Krivobok, A S; Berkovich, Iu A; Il'in, V K; Chuvil'skaia, N A; Shcherbakova, V A

    2012-01-01

    The vegetable cultivation technology developed in view of long-term autonomous missions is based on root nutrition provided by fiber artificial soils (AS) containing ion-exchange resins. Useful life of ASs is limited by two factors which are nutrients depletion in ion-exchanger and clogging of the AS threshold space by roots remnants. Purpose of the investigation is to try out hydrolysis and ensuing microbial decomposition of roots remnants as a way to extend the resource of used fiber ionite AS. This principle of doing away with the roots remnants recovers almost completely the maximal water-absorbing capacity of AS BIONA-V3 so that it can be used again for crops cultivation.

  2. Longleaf pine photosynthetic response to soil resource availability and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Runion, G.B.; Mitchell, R.J.; Green, T.H.; Prior, S.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Gjerstad, D.H.

    1999-05-01

    Gas exchange responses during a drought cycle were studied in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings after prolonged exposure to varying levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} soil N and water. Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration increased photosynthesis, tended to decrease stomatal conductance, and increased water-use efficiency (WUE). Although soil resource availability influences gas exchange measurements, it generally did not affect the magnitude or direction of the response to CO{sub 2} concentration. However, significant interactions among treatment variables were observed for plant xylem pressure potential. In seedlings grown with high N, a positive growth response to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} increased whole-plant water use resulting in more severe plant water stress, despite increased leaf-level WUE; however, under low N conditions the lack of a growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} reduced whole-plant water use, decreased water stress severity, and increased WUE. Photosynthetic response to CO{sub 2} was greatest in the high N treatment at the beginning of the drought cycle, but diminished as water stress increased; however, plants grown with low N showed greater photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} later in the drought cycle. Therefore, plant gas exchange rates interact with growth response in determining the severity of water stress under drought and, thus, the ability of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} to ameliorate the effects of drought and allow plants to maintain increased rates of photosynthesis may be influenced by the availability of other resources, such as N and water.

  3. Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil Project, Resource Recovery Project, and Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November, 1989. OTD has begun to search out, develop, test and demonstrate technologies that can now or in the future be applied to the enormous remediation problem now facing the DOE and the United States public in general. Technology demonstration projects have been designed to attack a separate problem as defined by DOE. The Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil Project was conceived to test and demonstrate off-the-shelf technologies (dominantly from the mining industry) that can be brought to bear on the problem of radionuclide and heavy metal contamination in soils and sediments. The Resource Recovery Project is tasked with identifying, developing, testing, and evaluating new and innovative technologies for the remediation of metal contaminated surface and groundwater. An innovative twist on this project is the stated goal of recovering the metals, formerly disposed of as a waste, for reuse and resale, thereby transforming them into a usable resource. Finally, the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project was developed to demonstrate and remediate underground spills of hydrocarbons from formations that are (1) too deep for excavation, and/or (2) require in-situ remediation efforts of long duration. This project has already been shown effective in reducing the time for remediation by conventional methods from an estimated 200 years at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to less than one year. The savings in time and dollars from this technology alone can be immeasurable.

  4. Land-use and soil depth affect resource and microbial stoichiometry in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Alexander; Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change, significantly affect elemental balances as well as the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the importance of shifts in soil nutrient stoichiometry for the regulation of belowground biota and soil food webs have not been intensively studied for tropical ecosystems. In the present account, we examine the effects of land-use change and soil depth on soil and microbial stoichiometry along a land-use sequence (natural forest, pastures of different ages, secondary succession) in the tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Furthermore, we analyzed (PLFA-method) whether shifts in the microbial community structure were related to alterations in soil and microbial stoichiometry. Soil and microbial stoichiometry were affected by both land-use change and soil depth. After forest disturbance, significant decreases of soil C:N:P ratios at the pastures were followed by increases during secondary succession. Microbial C:N ratios varied slightly in response to land-use change, whereas no fixed microbial C:P and N:P ratios were observed. Shifts in microbial community composition were associated with soil and microbial stoichiometry. Strong positive relationships between PLFA-markers 18:2n6,9c (saprotrophic fungi) and 20:4 (animals) and negative associations between 20:4 and microbial N:P point to land-use change affecting the structure of soil food webs. Significant deviations from global soil and microbial C:N:P ratios indicated a major force of land-use change to alter stoichiometric relationships and to structure biological systems. Our results support the idea that soil biotic communities are stoichiometrically flexible in order to adapt to alterations in resource stoichiometry.

  5. Consequences of acclimating/adaptive tree C-N resource balance on soil and forest carbon stocks under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2015-04-01

    Elevating CO2 and temperatures imply profound changes to the growth environment of trees. Changing supplies of CO2 from atmosphere and N from soils also suggest changes to the structure of trees. According to functional balance hypothesis, the phenotypic structure of a tree is an outcome of optimal use of balancing growth resources. We investigated the potential changes and consequences of acclimating/adaptive resource allocation of trees to stocks of carbon in soils and forests under changing climate. We applied OptiPipe model that optimally co-allocates growth resources (photosynthesised C and N acquired from soils) to tree structures so as to yield a maximal NPP for a tree. To do this, we first estimated potential C supply for the optimal allocation model with a simple stand CO2 and water flux model PRELES. Under the assumption of maximal biomass production, the OptiPipe found an optimal stand carbon stock and biomass growths and turnover to litter. Litter was decomposed with Yasso07 model to obtain steady state soil C stocks. We further assessed the sensitivity of steady state soil and forest carbon stocks to assumptions of N availability and release from soils, based on model estimates of temperature sensitivity of decomposition and expert assumptions. The results will show the consequences of acclimating/adaptive resource allocation to soil and stand carbon stocks under difference climate scenarios overlaid on a map of Finland, under different assumptions of N availability and release. The results emphasise the role of acclimation/adaptation of structural-functional features of trees as components of forest C balances under changing climate.

  6. The application of LANDSAT remote sensing technology to natural resources management. Section 1: Introduction to VICAR - Image classification module. Section 2: Forest resource assessment of Humboldt County.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L., III (Principal Investigator); Mayer, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    A teaching module on image classification procedures using the VICAR computer software package was developed to optimize the training benefits for users of the VICAR programs. The field test of the module is discussed. An intensive forest land inventory strategy was developed for Humboldt County. The results indicate that LANDSAT data can be computer classified to yield site specific forest resource information with high accuracy (82%). The "Douglas-fir 80%" category was found to cover approximately 21% of the county and "Mixed Conifer 80%" covering about 13%. The "Redwood 80%" resource category, which represented dense old growth trees as well as large second growth, comprised 4.0% of the total vegetation mosaic. Furthermore, the "Brush" and "Brush-Regeneration" categories were found to be a significant part of the vegetative community, with area estimates of 9.4 and 10.0%.

  7. Short and long term effects of bioturbation on soil erosion, water resources and soil development in an arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, A.

    1995-09-01

    The importance of vegetal cover on soil erosion processes has been recognized for a long time. However, the short and long term effects of faunal activity on soil erosion and soil development had been largely overlooked by geomorphologists. The study of runoff and erosion processes in the Negev desert indicated pronounced systematic differences in sediment concentration and soil erosion rates between rocky and colluvial surfaces. Erosion rates were always higher on the former than on the latter. Field observations drew attention to an intense burrowing and digging activity conducted mainly by Isopods and Porcupines. The monitoring of this activity, based on a grid system, which consists of rows 5 m wide, lasted ten consecutive years. Data obtained suggest the existence of a strong link between the spatial pattern of bioturbation and that of soil erosion. The study also examines, through feedback processes, the regulatory role of bioturbation on the spatial distribution of water availability; soil moisture and soil forming processes. Due to bioturbation two distinct environments were recognised. The rocky environment which is characterized by a positive feedback with a high water availability and low soil salinity; and the soil covered areas where a negative feedback results in low water availability and a high soil salinity.

  8. Can resource-use traits predict native vs. exotic plant success in carbon amended soils?

    PubMed

    Steers, Robert J; Funk, Jennifer L; Allen, Edith B

    2011-06-01

    Productivity in desert ecosystems is primarily limited by water followed by nitrogen availability. In the deserts of southern California, nitrogen additions have increased invasive annual plant abundance. Similar findings from other ecosystems have led to a general acceptance that invasive plants, especially annual grasses, are nitrophilous. Consequently, reductions of soil nitrogen via carbon amendments have been conducted by many researchers in a variety of ecosystems in order to disproportionately lower invasive species abundance, but with mixed success. Recent studies suggest that resource-use traits may predict the efficacy of such resource manipulations; however, this theory remains largely untested. We report findings from a carbon amendment experiment that utilized two levels of sucrose additions that were aimed at achieving soil carbon to nitrogen ratios of 50:1 and 100:1 in labile sources. Carbon amendments were applied once each year, for three years, corresponding with the first large precipitation event of each wet season. Plant functional traits measured on the three invasive and 11 native herbaceous species that were most common at the study site showed that exotic and native species did not differ in traits associated with nitrogen use. In fact, plant abundance measures such as density, cover, and biomass showed that carbon amendments were capable of decreasing both native and invasive species. We found that early-germinating species were the most impacted by decreased soil nitrogen resulting from amendments. Because invasive annuals typically germinate earlier and exhibit a rapid phenology compared to most natives, these species are expected to be more competitive than native annuals yet more susceptible to early-season carbon amendments. However, desert annual communities can exhibit high interannual variability in species composition and abundance. Therefore, the relative abundance of native and invasive species at the time of application is

  9. Improving soil microbiology under rice-wheat crop rotation in Indo-Gangetic Plains by optimized resource management.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Singh, G; Sarkar, Sushil K; Singh, Rana P

    2015-03-01

    The resource-intensive agriculture involving use of chemical fertilizers, irrigation, and tillage practices is a major cause of soil, water, and air pollution. This study was conducted to determine whether integrated use of nutrient, water, and tillage (reduced) can be manipulated to improve the population of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Azotobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas) to enhance soil fertility and yield. The study was conducted in the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) region of India, where resource-intensive agriculture is practiced. Various combinations of chemical (urea) and organic fertilizers (farmyard manure (FYM), biofertilizer, and green manure) were used on replicated field plots for all the experiments. The effect of integrated resource management (IRM) on activities of Azotobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas and its relation to the yields of rice and wheat crops in subtropical soils of IGP region were also observed. The increased population of all the three microbes, namely, Azotobacter (5.01-7.74 %), Bacillus (3.37-6.79 %), and Pseudomonas (5.21-7.09 %), was observed due to improved structure and increased organic matter in the soil. Similarly, kernel number and 1000 kernel weight were found increased with sole organic N source, three irrigations, and conservation tillage. Thus, it was found that the IRM practices affect the environment positively by increasing the population of beneficial soil microbes and crop yield as compared to high-input agriculture (conventional practices).

  10. Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

    1993-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

  11. Evaluation of lunar rocks and soils for resource utilization: Detailed image analysis of raw materials and beneficiated products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Jerde, Eric A.; Mckay, David S.; Graf, John; Oder, Robin R.

    1993-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon will be the raw materials for fuels and construction needs at a lunar base. This includes sources of materials for the generation of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, and other potential construction materials. For most of the bulk material needs, the regolith, and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil, will suffice. But for specific mineral resources, it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from rocks or soils, and it is not always obvious which is the more appropriate feedstock. Besides an appreciation of site geology, the mineralogy and petrography of local rocks and soils is important for consideration of the resources which can provide feedstocks of ilmenite, glass, agglutinates, anorthite, etc. In such studies, it is very time-consuming and practically impossible to correlate particle counts (the traditional method of characterizing lunar soil petrography) with accurate modal analyses and with mineral associations in multi-mineralic grains. But x ray digital imaging, using x rays characteristic of each element, makes all this possible and much more (e.g., size and shape analysis). An application of beneficiation image analysis, in use in our lab (Oxford Instr. EDS and Cameca SX-50 EMP), was demonstrated to study mineral liberation from lunar rocks and soils. Results of x ray image analysis are presented.

  12. Resource Availability Modulates the Cooperative and Competitive Nature of a Microbial Cross-Feeding Mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Tim A; Axelrod, Kevin; Biancalani, Tommaso; Yurtsev, Eugene A; Liu, Jinghui; Gore, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Mutualisms between species play an important role in ecosystem function and stability. However, in some environments, the competitive aspects of an interaction may dominate the mutualistic aspects. Although these transitions could have far-reaching implications, it has been difficult to study the causes and consequences of this mutualistic-competitive transition in experimentally tractable systems. Here, we study a microbial cross-feeding mutualism in which each yeast strain supplies an essential amino acid for its partner strain. We find that, depending upon the amount of freely available amino acid in the environment, this pair of strains can exhibit an obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism, competition, parasitism, competitive exclusion, or failed mutualism leading to extinction of the population. A simple model capturing the essential features of this interaction explains how resource availability modulates the interaction and predicts that changes in the dynamics of the mutualism in deteriorating environments can provide advance warning that collapse of the mutualism is imminent. We confirm this prediction experimentally by showing that, in the high nutrient competitive regime, the strains rapidly reach a common carrying capacity before slowly reaching the equilibrium ratio between the strains. However, in the low nutrient regime, before collapse of the obligate mutualism, we find that the ratio rapidly reaches its equilibrium and it is the total abundance that is slow to reach equilibrium. Our results provide a general framework for how mutualisms may transition between qualitatively different regimes of interaction in response to changes in nutrient availability in the environment.

  13. Resource Availability Modulates the Cooperative and Competitive Nature of a Microbial Cross-Feeding Mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Tim A.; Axelrod, Kevin; Biancalani, Tommaso; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Gore, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms between species play an important role in ecosystem function and stability. However, in some environments, the competitive aspects of an interaction may dominate the mutualistic aspects. Although these transitions could have far-reaching implications, it has been difficult to study the causes and consequences of this mutualistic–competitive transition in experimentally tractable systems. Here, we study a microbial cross-feeding mutualism in which each yeast strain supplies an essential amino acid for its partner strain. We find that, depending upon the amount of freely available amino acid in the environment, this pair of strains can exhibit an obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism, competition, parasitism, competitive exclusion, or failed mutualism leading to extinction of the population. A simple model capturing the essential features of this interaction explains how resource availability modulates the interaction and predicts that changes in the dynamics of the mutualism in deteriorating environments can provide advance warning that collapse of the mutualism is imminent. We confirm this prediction experimentally by showing that, in the high nutrient competitive regime, the strains rapidly reach a common carrying capacity before slowly reaching the equilibrium ratio between the strains. However, in the low nutrient regime, before collapse of the obligate mutualism, we find that the ratio rapidly reaches its equilibrium and it is the total abundance that is slow to reach equilibrium. Our results provide a general framework for how mutualisms may transition between qualitatively different regimes of interaction in response to changes in nutrient availability in the environment. PMID:27557335

  14. Taxonomic classification of world map units in crop producing areas of Argentina and Brazil with representative US soil series and major land resource areas in which they occur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huckle, H. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The most probable current U.S. taxonomic classification of the soils estimated to dominate world soil map units (WSM)) in selected crop producing states of Argentina and Brazil are presented. Representative U.S. soil series the units are given. The map units occurring in each state are listed with areal extent and major U.S. land resource areas in which similar soils most probably occur. Soil series sampled in LARS Technical Report 111579 and major land resource areas in which they occur with corresponding similar WSM units at the taxonomic subgroup levels are given.

  15. Don’t bust the biological soil crust: Preserving and restoring an important desert resource

    Treesearch

    Sue Miller; Steve Warren; Larry St. Clair

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are a complex of microscopic organisms growing on the soil surface in many arid and semi-arid ecosystems. These crusts perform the important role of stabilizing soil and reducing or eliminating water and wind erosion. One of the largest threats to biological soil crusts in the arid and semi-arid areas of the western United States is mechanical...

  16. New HYDRUS Modules for Simulating Preferential Flow, Colloid-Facilitated Contaminant Transport, and Various Biogeochemical Processes in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunek, J.; Sejna, M.; Jacques, D.; Langergraber, G.; Bradford, S. A.; van Genuchten, M. Th.

    2012-04-01

    We have dramatically expanded the capabilities of the HYDRUS (2D/3D) software package by developing new modules to account for processes not available in the standard HYDRUS version. These new modules include the DualPerm, C-Hitch, HP2/3, Wetland, and Unsatchem modules. The dual-permeability modeling approach of Gerke and van Genuchten [1993] simulating preferential flow and transport is implemented into the DualPerm module. Colloid transport and colloid-facilitated solute transport, the latter often observed for many contaminants, such as heavy metals, radionuclides, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives [Šimůnek et al., 2006] are implemented into the C-Hitch module. HP2 and HP3 are the two and three-dimensional alternatives of the HP1 module, currently available with HYDRUS-1D [Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005], that couple HYDRUS flow and transport routines with the generic geochemical model PHREEQC of Parkhurst and Appelo [1999]. The Wetland module includes two alternative approaches (CW2D of Langergraber and Šimůnek [2005] and CWM1 of Langergraber et al. [2009]) for modeling aerobic, anaerobic, and anoxic biogeochemical processes in natural and constructed wetlands. Finally, the Unsatchem module simulates the transport and reactions of major ions in a soil profile. Brief descriptions and an application of each module will be presented. Except for HP3, all modules simulate flow and transport processes in two-dimensional transport domains. All modules are fully supported by the HYDRUS graphical user interface. Further development of these modules, as well as of several other new modules (such as Overland), is still envisioned. Continued feedback from the research community is encouraged.

  17. Teasing apart plant community responses to N enrichment: the roles of resource limitation, competition and soil microbes.

    PubMed

    Farrer, Emily C; Suding, Katharine N

    2016-10-01

    Although ecologists have documented the effects of nitrogen enrichment on productivity, diversity and species composition, we know little about the relative importance of the mechanisms driving these effects. We propose that distinct aspects of environmental change associated with N enrichment (resource limitation, asymmetric competition, and interactions with soil microbes) drive different aspects of plant response. We test this in greenhouse mesocosms, experimentally manipulating each factor across three ecosystems: tallgrass prairie, alpine tundra and desert grassland. We found that resource limitation controlled productivity responses to N enrichment in all systems. Asymmetric competition was responsible for diversity declines in two systems. Plant community composition was impacted by both asymmetric competition and altered soil microbes, with some contributions from resource limitation. Results suggest there may be generality in the mechanisms of plant community change with N enrichment. Understanding these links can help us better predict N response across a wide range of ecosystems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, J. V. (Principal Investigator); Seevers, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Interpretations of imagery from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) indicate that soil associations and attendant range sites can be identified on the basis of vegetation and topography using multitemporal imagery. Optical density measurements of imagery from the visible red band of the multispectral scanner(MSS band 5) obtained during the growing season were related to field measurements of vegetative biomass, a factor that closely parallels range condition class on specific range sites. ERTS-1 imagery also permitted inventory and assessment of center-pivot irrigation systems in the Sand Hills region in relation to soil and topographic conditions and energy requirements. Four resource maps of the Upper Loup Natural Resource District located entirely within the Sand Hills region were prepared from ERTS-1 imagery.

  19. Evaluation of a miniaturised single-stage thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of petroleum contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Matthew R; Edwards, Matthew; Górecki, Tadeusz; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Shellie, Robert A

    2016-09-09

    A novel miniaturised single-stage resistively heated thermal modulator was investigated as an alternative to cryogenic modulation for use in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). The single-stage thermal modulator described herein yielded average retention time relative standard deviations (RSD) of ≤0.2% RSD (first-dimension) and ≤3.4% RSD (second-dimension). The average peak widths generated by the modulator were 72±3ms, and the peak area precision was better than 5.3% RSD for a range of polar and non-polar test analytes. GC×GC analysis can be performed using this modulator without the requirement for cryogenic cooling or additional pressure control modules for flow modulation. The modulator and associated electronics are compact and amenable towards field analysis. The modulator was used for qualitative and quantitative characterisation of petroleum-contaminated soils derived from a sub-Antarctic research station at Macquarie Island. The limit of detection compared to standard 1D GC analysis was improved from 64 to 11mgkg(-1). An automated method of analysing and categorising samples using principal component analysis is presented.

  20. Species-specific partitioning of soil water resources in an old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock forest.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Frederick C; Warren, Jeffrey M; Brooks, J Renée

    2007-06-01

    Although tree- and stand-level estimates of forest water use are increasingly common, relatively little is known about partitioning of soil water resources among co-occurring tree species. We studied seasonal courses of soil water utilization in a 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco-Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. forest in southwestern Washington State. Soil volumetric water content (theta) was continuously monitored with frequency domain capacitance sensors installed at eight depths from 0.2 to 2 m at four locations in the vicinity of each species. Vertical profiles of root distribution and seasonal and daily courses of hydraulic redistribution (HR), sap flow and tree water status were also measured. Mean root area in the upper 60 cm of soil was significantly greater in the vicinity of T. heterophylla trees. However, seasonal water extraction on a root area basis was significantly greater near P. menziesii trees at all depths between 15 and 65 cm, leading to significantly lower water storage in the upper 65 cm of soil near P. menziesii trees at the end of the summer dry season. Greater apparent efficiency of P. menziesii roots at extracting soil water was attributable to a greater driving force for water uptake rather than to differences in root hydraulic properties between the species. The dependence of HR on theta was similar in soil near individuals of both species, but seasonal maximum rates of HR were greater in soil near P. menziesii because minimum values of theta were lower, implying a steeper water potential gradient between the upper and lower soil that acted as a driving force for water efflux from shallow roots. The results provide information on functional traits relevant for understanding the ecological distributions of these species and have implications for spatial variability of processes such as soil respiration and nutrient cycling.

  1. The effect of resource history on the functioning of soil microbial communities is maintained across time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, A. D.; Strickland, M. S.; Fierer, N.; Bradford, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    Historical resource conditions appear to influence microbial community function. With time, historical influences might diminish as populations respond to the contemporary environment. Alternatively, they may persist given factors such as contrasting genetic potentials for adaptation to a new environment. Using experimental microcosms, we test competing hypotheses that function of distinct soil microbial communities in common environments (H1a) converge or (H1b) remain dissimilar over time. Using a 6 × 2 (soil community inoculum × litter environment) full-factorial design, we compare decomposition rates in experimental microcosms containing grass or hardwood litter environments. After 100 days, communities that develop are inoculated into fresh litters and decomposition followed for another 100 days. We repeat this for a third, 100-day period. In each successive, 100-day period, we find higher decomposition rates (i.e. functioning) suggesting communities function better when they have an experimental history of the contemporary environment. Despite these functional gains, differences in decomposition rates among initially distinct communities persist, supporting the hypothesis that dissimilarity is maintained across time. In contrast to function, community composition is more similar following a common, experimental history. We also find that "specialization" on one experimental environment incurs a cost, with loss of function in the alternate environment. For example, experimental history of a grass-litter environment reduced decomposition when communities were inoculated into a hardwood-litter environment. Our work demonstrates experimentally that despite expectations of fast growth rates, physiological flexibility and rapid evolution, initial functional differences between microbial communities are maintained across time. These findings question whether microbial dynamics can be omitted from models of ecosystem processes if we are to predict reliably global

  2. The effect of resource history on the functioning of soil microbial communities is maintained across time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, A. D.; Strickland, M. S.; Fierer, N.; Bradford, M. A.

    2011-06-01

    Historical resource conditions appear to influence microbial community function. With time, historical influences might diminish as populations respond to the contemporary environment. Alternatively, they may persist given factors such as contrasting genetic potentials for adaptation to a new environment. Using experimental microcosms, we test competing hypotheses that function of distinct soil microbial communities in common environments (H1a) converge or (H1b) remain dissimilar over time. Using a 6 × 2 (soil community inoculum × litter environment) full-factorial design, we compare decomposition rates in experimental microcosms containing grass or hardwood litter environments. After 100 days, communities that develop are inoculated into fresh litters and decomposition followed for another 100 days. We repeat this for a third, 100-day period. In each successive, 100-day period, we find higher decomposition rates (i.e. functioning) suggesting communities function better when they have an experimental history of the contemporary environment. Despite these functional gains, differences in decomposition rates among initially distinct communities persist, supporting the hypothesis that dissimilarity is maintained across time. In contrast to function, community composition is more similar following a common, experimental history. We also find that "specialization" on one experimental environment incurs a cost, with loss of function in the alternate environment. For example, experimental history of a grass-litter environment reduced decomposition when communities were inoculated into a hardwood-litter environment. Our work demonstrates experimentally that despite expectations of fast growth rates, physiological flexibility and rapid evolution, initial functional differences between microbial communities are maintained across time. These findings question whether microbial dynamics can be omitted from models of ecosystem processes if we are to predict reliably global

  3. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Core. Module I-A-2: Community Consumer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Margaret

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on community consumer resources is the second in a set of four core curriculum modules on consumer approach to homemaking education. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see…

  4. How interactions between microbial resource demands, soil organic matter stoichiometry, and substrate reactivity determine the direction and magnitude of soil respiratory responses to warming.

    PubMed

    Billings, Sharon A; Ballantyne, Ford

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical and theoretical advances inform us about multiple drivers of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and microbial responses to warming. Absent from our conceptual framework of how soil respiration will respond to warming are adequate links between microbial resource demands, kinetic theory, and substrate stoichiometry. Here, we describe two important concepts either insufficiently explored in current investigations of SOM responses to temperature, or not yet addressed. First, we describe the complete range of responses for how warming may change microbial resource demands, physiology, community structure, and total biomass. Second, we describe how any relationship between SOM activation energy of decay and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry can alter the relative availability of C and N as temperature changes. Changing availabilities of C and N liberated from their organic precursors can feedback to microbial resource demands, which in turn influence the aggregated respiratory response to temperature we observe. An unsuspecting biogeochemist focused primarily on temperature sensitivity of substrate decay thus cannot make accurate projections of heterotrophic CO2 losses from diverse organic matter reservoirs in a warming world. We establish the linkages between enzyme kinetics, SOM characteristics, and potential for microbial adaptation critical for making such projections. By examining how changing microbial needs interact with inherent SOM structure and composition, and thus reactivity, we demonstrate the means by which increasing temperature could result in increasing, unchanging, or even decreasing respiration rates observed in soils. We use this exercise to highlight ideas for future research that will develop our abilities to predict SOM feedbacks to climate.

  5. Abundance and Diversity of CO2-Assimilating Bacteria and Algae Within Red Agricultural Soils Are Modulated by Changing Management Practice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongzhao; Ge, Tida; Chen, Xiangbi; Liu, Shoulong; Zhu, Zhenke; Wu, Xiaohong; Wei, Wenxue; Whiteley, Andrew Steven; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-11-01

    of algal cbbL community composition. Our results provide new insights into the diversity, abundance, and modulation of organisms responsible for microbial autotrophic CO(2) fixation in red acidic soils subjected to changing management regimes.

  6. Comprehensive assessment of regional selenium resources in soils based on the analytic hierarchy process: Assessment system construction and case demonstration.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ruoyu; Song, Shuai; Shi, Yajing; Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Xu, Xiangbo; Wang, Yurong; Han, Xuesong

    2017-12-15

    The redundancy or deficiency of selenium in soils can cause adverse effects on crops and even threaten human health. It was necessary to assess selenium resources with a rigorous scientific appraisal. Previous studies of selenium resource assessment were usually carried out using a single index evaluation. A multi-index evaluation method (analytic hierarchy process) was used in this study to establish a comprehensive assessment system based on consideration of selenium content, soil nutrients and soil environmental quality. The criteria for the comprehensive assessment system were classified by summing critical values in the standards with weights and a Geographical Information System was used to reflect the regional distribution of the assessment results. Boshan, a representative region for developing selenium-rich agriculture, was taken as a case area and classified into Zone I-V, which suggested priority areas for developing selenium-rich agriculture. Most parts of the North and Midlands of Boshan were relatively suitable for development of selenium-rich agriculture. Soils in south fractions were contaminated by Cd, PAHs, HCHs and DDTs, in which it was forbidden to farm. This study was expected to provide the basis for developing selenium-rich agriculture and an example for comprehensive evaluation of relevant resources in a region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Drought on Groundwater and Soil Moisture - A Geospatial Tool for Water Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Reyes, R.

    2016-12-01

    For many decades, recurring droughts in different regions in the US have been negatively impacting ecosystems and economic sectors. Oklahoma and Texas have been suffering from exceptional and extreme droughts in 2011-2014, with almost 95% of the state areas being affected (Drought Monitor, 2015). Accordingly, in 2011 alone, around 1.6 billion were lost in the agricultural sector alone as a result of drought in Oklahoma (Stotts 2011), and 7.6 billion in Texas agriculture (Fannin 2012). While surface water is among the instant indicators of drought conditions, it does not translate directly to groundwater resources that are the main source of irrigation water. Both surface water and groundwater are susceptible to drought, while groundwater depletion is a long-term process and might not show immediately. However, understanding groundwater availability is crucial for designing water management strategies and sustainable water use in the agricultural sector and other economic sectors. This paper presents an interactive geospatially weighted evaluation model and a tool at the same time to analyze groundwater resources that can be used for decision support in water management. The tool combines both groundwater and soil moisture changes in Oklahoma and Texas in 2003-2014, thus representing the most important indicators of agricultural and hydrological drought. The model allows for analyzing temporal and geospatial long-term drought at the county level. It can be expanded to other regions in the US and the world. The model has been validated with the Palmer Drought Index Severity Index to account for other indicators of meteorological drought. It can serve as a basis for an upcoming socio-economic and environmental analysis of drought events in the short and long-term in different geographic regions.

  8. Production physiology of three fast-growing hardwood species along a soil resource gradient.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Dawn E; Jose, Shibu

    2005-12-01

    We determined how specific leaf area (SLA), specific leaf nitrogen (SLN), leaf area index (LAI), light-saturated photosynthesis (Amax) and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of three commercially important hardwood species, eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var.pagodafolia Ell.), vary across a soil resource gradient. Five treatments were applied in a randomized block design (control, irrigation only (IRR), and irrigation plus fertilization with 56, 112 or 224 kg N ha-1 year-1 (N56, N112 and N224)) with four replications per species. When trees were 6 years old, Amax, SLA, SLN, LAI and ANPP were quantified during peak leaf production within a single growing season. In all species, Amax for sun leaves was significantly higher than for shade leaves (34, 32 and 29 micromol m2 s-1 versus 27, 23 and 23 micromol m2 s-1 for cottonwood, cherrybark oak and sycamore sun and shade leaves, respectively) and tended to plateau in the N112 treatment. The SLA was significantly lower in sun than in shade leaves and reached a plateau in IRR-treated cottonwood and sycamore, and in N56-treated oak. Values of SLN peaked in the N122 treatment for cottonwood sun leaves (1.73 g N m2) and in the N56 treatment for sycamore and oak (1.54 and 1.90 g N m2, respectively). In sun and shade leaves of all species, Amax increased with increasing SLN. Cherrybark oak LAI reached a plateau across the resource gradient in the N56 treatment, whereas cottonwood and sycamore LAI reached a plateau in the IRR treatment. All species exhibited significant curvilinear relationships between canopy Amax and ANPP. These findings indicate that nutrients and water regulate leaf-level traits such as SLA and SLN, which in turn influence LAI and canopy photosynthesis, thereby affecting ANPP at the tree and stand levels.

  9. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM_E1) derived from sugarcane soil metagenome.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruna Medeia; Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Liberato, Marcelo Vizona; Polikarpov, Igor; Gilbert, Harry J; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, owing to the growing global demand for energy, dependence on fossil fuels, limited natural resources and environmental pollution, biofuels have attracted great interest as a source of renewable energy. However, the production of biofuels from plant biomass is still considered to be an expensive technology. In this context, the study of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which are involved in guiding the catalytic domains of glycoside hydrolases for polysaccharide degradation, is attracting growing attention. Aiming at the identification of new CBMs, a sugarcane soil metagenomic library was analyzed and an uncharacterized CBM (CBM_E1) was identified. In this study, CBM_E1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. The crystals, which were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method, belonged to space group I23, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 88.07 Å.

  10. Biochar-induced negative carbon mineralization priming effects in a coastal wetland soil: Roles of soil aggregation and microbial modulation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Wang, Zhenyu; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-08-19

    Biochar can sequestrate carbon (C) in soils and affect native soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization via priming effects. However, the roles of soil aggregation and microbial regulation in priming effects of biochars on SOC in coastal wetland soils are poorly understood. Thus, a coastal wetland soil (δ(13)C -22‰) was separated into macro-micro aggregates (53-2000μm, MA) and silt-clay fractions (<53μm, SF) to investigate the priming effect using two (13)C enriched biochars produced from corn straw (δ(13)C -11.58‰) at 350 and 550°C. The two biochars induced negative priming effect on the native SOC mineralization in the both soil aggregate size fractions, attributed to the enhanced stability of the soil aggregates resulting from the intimate physico-chemical associations between the soil minerals and biochar particles. Additionally, biochar amendments increased soil microbial biomass C and resulted in a lower metabolic quotient, suggesting that microbes in biochar amended aggregates could likely incorporate biomass C rather than mineralize it. Moreover, the biochar amendments induced obvious shifts of the bacterial community towards low C turnover bacteria taxa (e.g., Actinobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria) and the bacteria taxa responsible for stabilizing soil aggregates (e.g., Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria), which also accounted for the negative priming effect. Overall, these results suggested that biochar had considerable merit for stabilizing SOC in the coastal soil and thus has potential to restore and/or enhance "blue C" sink in the degraded coastal wetland ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of Natural Blends of Phytochemicals Derived from the Root Exudates of Arabidopsis to the Soil Reveal That Phenolic-related Compounds Predominantly Modulate the Soil Microbiome*

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Dayakar V.; Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    The roots of plants have the ability to influence its surrounding microbiology, the so-called rhizosphere microbiome, through the creation of specific chemical niches in the soil mediated by the release of phytochemicals. Here we report how these phytochemicals could modulate the microbial composition of a soil in the absence of the plant. For this purpose, root exudates of Arabidopsis were collected and fractionated to obtain natural blends of phytochemicals at various relative concentrations that were characterized by GC-MS and applied repeatedly to a soil. Soil bacterial changes were monitored by amplifying and pyrosequencing the 16 S ribosomal small subunit region. Our analyses reveal that one phytochemical can culture different operational taxonomic units (OTUs), mixtures of phytochemicals synergistically culture groups of OTUs, and the same phytochemical can act as a stimulator or deterrent to different groups of OTUs. Furthermore, phenolic-related compounds showed positive correlation with a higher number of unique OTUs compared with other groups of compounds (i.e. sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids). For instance, salicylic acid showed positive correlations with species of Corynebacterineae, Pseudonocardineae and Streptomycineae, and GABA correlated with species of Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, Frankineae, Variovorax, Micromonosporineae, and Skermanella. These results imply that phenolic compounds act as specific substrates or signaling molecules for a large group of microbial species in the soil. PMID:23293028

  12. Application of natural blends of phytochemicals derived from the root exudates of Arabidopsis to the soil reveal that phenolic-related compounds predominantly modulate the soil microbiome.

    PubMed

    Badri, Dayakar V; Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2013-02-15

    The roots of plants have the ability to influence its surrounding microbiology, the so-called rhizosphere microbiome, through the creation of specific chemical niches in the soil mediated by the release of phytochemicals. Here we report how these phytochemicals could modulate the microbial composition of a soil in the absence of the plant. For this purpose, root exudates of Arabidopsis were collected and fractionated to obtain natural blends of phytochemicals at various relative concentrations that were characterized by GC-MS and applied repeatedly to a soil. Soil bacterial changes were monitored by amplifying and pyrosequencing the 16 S ribosomal small subunit region. Our analyses reveal that one phytochemical can culture different operational taxonomic units (OTUs), mixtures of phytochemicals synergistically culture groups of OTUs, and the same phytochemical can act as a stimulator or deterrent to different groups of OTUs. Furthermore, phenolic-related compounds showed positive correlation with a higher number of unique OTUs compared with other groups of compounds (i.e. sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids). For instance, salicylic acid showed positive correlations with species of Corynebacterineae, Pseudonocardineae and Streptomycineae, and GABA correlated with species of Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, Frankineae, Variovorax, Micromonosporineae, and Skermanella. These results imply that phenolic compounds act as specific substrates or signaling molecules for a large group of microbial species in the soil.

  13. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin. [soil mapping, crop identification, water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In soil association mapping, computerized analysis of ERTS-1 MSS data has yielded images which will prove useful in the ongoing Cooperative Soil Survey program, involving the Soil Conservation Service of USDA and other state and local agencies. In the present mode of operation, a soil survey for a county may take up to 5 years to be completed. Results indicate that a great deal of soils information can be extracted from ERTS-1 data by computer analysis. This information is expected to be very valuable in the premapping conference phase of a soil survey, resulting in more efficient field operations during the actual mapping. In the earth surface features mapping effort it was found that temporal data improved the classification accuracy of forest classification in Tippecanoe County, Indiana. In water resources study a severe scanner look angle effect was observed in the aircraft scanner data of a test lake which was not present in ERTS-1 data of the same site. This effect was greatly accentuated by surface roughness caused by strong winds. Quantitative evaluation of urban features classification in ERTS-1 data was obtained. An 87.1% test accuracy was obtained for eight categories in Marion County, Indiana.

  14. Soil nutrient heterogeneity modulates ecosystem responses to changes in the identity and richness of plant functional groups.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Gallardo, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Recent research has shown that biodiversity may has its greatest impact on ecosystem functioning in heterogeneous environments. However, the role of soil heterogeneity as a modulator of ecosystem responses to changes in biodiversity remains poorly understood, as few biodiversity studies have explicitly considered this important ecosystem feature.We conducted a microcosm experiment over two growing seasons to evaluate the joint effects of changes in plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, non-legume forbs and a combination of them), spatial distribution of soil nutrients (homogeneous and heterogeneous) and nutrient availability (50 and 100 mg of nitrogen [N] added as organic material) on plant productivity and surrogates of carbon, phosphorous and N cycling (β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase enzymes and in situ N availability, respectively).Soil nutrient heterogeneity interacted with nutrient availability and plant functional diversity to determine productivity and nutrient cycling responses. All the functional groups exhibited precise root foraging patterns. Above- and belowground productivity increased under heterogeneous nutrient supply. Surrogates of nutrient cycling were not directly affected by soil nutrient heterogeneity. Regardless of their above- and belowground biomass, legumes increased the availability of soil inorganic N and the activity of the acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase enzymes.Our study emphasizes the role of soil nutrient heterogeneity as a modulator of ecosystem responses to changes in functional diversity beyond the species level. Functional group identity, rather than richness, can play a key role in determining the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning.Synthesis. Our results highlight the importance of explicitly considering soil heterogeneity in diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments, where the identity of the plant functional group is of major importance. Such consideration will improve our ability to fully

  15. Soil nutrient heterogeneity modulates ecosystem responses to changes in the identity and richness of plant functional groups

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Gallardo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent research has shown that biodiversity may has its greatest impact on ecosystem functioning in heterogeneous environments. However, the role of soil heterogeneity as a modulator of ecosystem responses to changes in biodiversity remains poorly understood, as few biodiversity studies have explicitly considered this important ecosystem feature. We conducted a microcosm experiment over two growing seasons to evaluate the joint effects of changes in plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, non-legume forbs and a combination of them), spatial distribution of soil nutrients (homogeneous and heterogeneous) and nutrient availability (50 and 100 mg of nitrogen [N] added as organic material) on plant productivity and surrogates of carbon, phosphorous and N cycling (β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase enzymes and in situ N availability, respectively). Soil nutrient heterogeneity interacted with nutrient availability and plant functional diversity to determine productivity and nutrient cycling responses. All the functional groups exhibited precise root foraging patterns. Above- and belowground productivity increased under heterogeneous nutrient supply. Surrogates of nutrient cycling were not directly affected by soil nutrient heterogeneity. Regardless of their above- and belowground biomass, legumes increased the availability of soil inorganic N and the activity of the acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase enzymes. Our study emphasizes the role of soil nutrient heterogeneity as a modulator of ecosystem responses to changes in functional diversity beyond the species level. Functional group identity, rather than richness, can play a key role in determining the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. Synthesis. Our results highlight the importance of explicitly considering soil heterogeneity in diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments, where the identity of the plant functional group is of major importance. Such consideration will improve our ability to

  16. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  17. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  18. A "do-it-yourself" interactive bone structure module: development and evaluation of an online teaching resource.

    PubMed

    Rich, Peter; Guy, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A stand-alone online teaching module was developed to cover an area of musculoskeletal anatomy (structure of bone) found to be difficult by students. The material presented in the module was not formally presented in any other way, thus providing additional time for other curriculum components, but it was assessed in the final examination. The module was developed using "in-house" software designed for academics with minimal computer experience. The efficacy and effectiveness of the module was gauged via student surveys, testing student knowledge before and after module introduction, and analysis of final examination results. At least 74% of the class used the module and student responses were positive regarding module usability (navigation, interaction) and utility (learning support). Learning effectiveness was demonstrated by large significant improvements in the post-presentation test scores for "users" compared with "non-users" and by the percentage of correct responses to relevant multiple choice questions in the final examination. Performance on relevant short answer questions in the final examination was, on average, comparable to that for other components. Though limited by study structure, it was concluded that the module produced learning outcomes equivalent to those generated by more traditional teaching methods. This "Do-It-Yourself" e-learning approach may be particularly useful for meeting specific course needs not catered for by commercial applications or where there are cost limitations for generation of online learning material. The specific approaches used in the study can assist in development of effective online resources in anatomy. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Improving soil moisture simulation to support Agricultural Water Resource Management using Satellite-based water cycle observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2016-04-01

    Efficient and sustainable irrigation systems require optimization of operational parameters such as irrigation amount which are dependent on the soil hydraulic parameters that affect the model's accuracy in simulating soil water content. However, it is a scientific challenge to provide reliable estimates of soil hydraulic parameters and irrigation estimates, given the absence of continuously operating soil moisture and rain gauge network. For agricultural water resource management, the in-situ measurements of soil moisture are currently limited to discrete measurements at specific locations, and such point-based measurements do not represent the spatial distribution at a larger scale accurately, as soil moisture is highly variable both spatially and temporally (Wang and Qu 2009). In the current study, flood irrigation scheme within the land surface model is triggered when the root-zone soil moisture deficit reaches below a threshold of 25%, 50% and 75% with respect to the maximum available water capacity (difference between field capacity and wilting point) and applied until the top layer is saturated. An additional important criterion needed to activate the irrigation scheme is to ensure that it is irrigation season by assuming that the greenness vegetation fraction (GVF) of the pixel exceed 0.40 of the climatological annual range of GVF (Ozdogan et al. 2010). The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface remote sensing soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately inverted, it would provide field capacity and wilting point soil moisture, which may be representative of that basin. Thus, genetic algorithm inverse method is employed to derive the effective parameters and derive the soil moisture deficit for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically based hydrological model. Model performance is evaluated using MODIS

  20. Soils

    Treesearch

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  1. Modulation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by radish grown in metal-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Villatoro-Pulido, Myriam; Font, Rafael; De Haro-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Romero-Jiménez, Magdalena; Anter, Jaouad; De Haro Bailón, Antonio; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Members of the Brassicaceae family are known for their anticarcinogenic and genetic material protective effects. However, many of the species of this family accumulate high amounts of metals, which is an undesirable feature. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has shown to accumulate metals in roots to a higher extent than others members of Brassicaceae. The main objectives of this work are (i) to study the distribution of the accumulated As, Pb and Cd in radish plants and (ii) to establish the genotoxic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities of the root and shoot of this vegetable. Results indicate that (i) the shoots of radish accumulate higher concentrations of metal(oid)s than roots; (ii) the shoots were genotoxic at the different concentrations studied, with the root showing such genotoxic effect only at the highest concentration assayed; (iii) the antigenotoxic potential of radish is reduced in plants with high metal content and (iv) the tumouricide activities of the radish plants were negatively correlated to their metal(oid) contents. An interaction between metal(oid)s and the isotyocianates (hydrolysis products of the glucosinolates) contained in the radish is suggested as the main modulator agents of the genotoxic activity of the plants grown in contaminated soils with metal(oid)s.

  2. Soil as natural heat resource for very shallow geothermal application: laboratory and test site updates from ITER Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sipio, Eloisa; Bertermann, David

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays renewable energy resources for heating/cooling residential and tertiary buildings and agricultural greenhouses are becoming increasingly important. In this framework, a possible, natural and valid alternative for thermal energy supply is represented by soils. In fact, since 1980 soils have been studied and used also as heat reservoir in geothermal applications, acting as a heat source (in winter) or sink (in summer) coupled mainly with heat pumps. Therefore, the knowledge of soil thermal properties and of heat and mass transfer in the soils plays an important role in modeling the performance, reliability and environmental impact in the short and long term of engineering applications. However, the soil thermal behavior varies with soil physical characteristics such as soil texture and water content. The available data are often scattered and incomplete for geothermal applications, especially very shallow geothermal systems (up to 10 m depths), so it is worthy of interest a better comprehension of how the different soil typologies (i.e. sand, loamy sand...) affect and are affected by the heat transfer exchange with very shallow geothermal installations (i.e. horizontal collector systems and special forms). Taking into consideration these premises, the ITER Project (Improving Thermal Efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers, http://iter-geo.eu/), funded by European Union, is here presented. An overview of physical-thermal properties variations under different moisture and load conditions for different mixtures of natural material is shown, based on laboratory and field test data. The test site, located in Eltersdorf, near Erlangen (Germany), consists of 5 trenches, filled in each with a different material, where 5 helix have been installed in an horizontal way instead of the traditional vertical option.

  3. Soil resources and climate jointly drive variations in microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in China's forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. H.; Wang, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    Microbial metabolism plays a key role in regulating the biogeochemical cycle of forest ecosystems, but the mechanisms driving microbial growth are not well understood. Here, we synthesized 689 measurements on soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) and related parameters from 207 independent studies published during the past 15 years across China's forest ecosystems. Our objectives were to (1) examine patterns in Cmic, Nmic, and microbial quotient (i.e., Cmic / Csoil and Nmic / Nsoil rates) by climate zones and management regimes for these forests; and (2) identify the factors driving the variability in the Cmic, Nmic, and microbial quotient. There was a large variability in Cmic (390.2 mg kg-1), Nmic (60.1 mg kg-1), Cmic : Nmic ratio (8.25), Cmic / Csoil rate (1.92 %), and Nmic/ Nsoil rate (3.43 %) across China's forests, with coefficients of variation varying from 61.2 to 95.6 %. The natural forests had significantly greater Cmic and Nmic than the planted forests, but had less Cmic : Nmic ratio and Cmic / Csoil rate. Soil resources and climate together explained 24.4-40.7 % of these variations. The Cmic : Nmic ratio declined slightly with the Csoil : Nsoil ratio, and changed with latitude, mean annual temperature and precipitation, suggesting a plastic homeostasis of microbial carbon-nitrogen stoichiometry. The Cmic/ Csoil and Nmic / Nsoil rates were responsive to soil resources and climate differently, suggesting that soil microbial assimilation of carbon and nitrogen be regulated by different mechanisms. We conclude that soil resources and climate jointly drive microbial growth and metabolism, and also emphasize the necessity of appropriate procedures for data compilation and standardization in cross-study syntheses.

  4. Reviews and syntheses: Soil resources and climate jointly drive variations in microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in China's forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. H.; Wang, C. K.

    2015-11-01

    Microbial metabolism plays a key role in regulating the biogeochemical cycle of forest ecosystems, but the mechanisms driving microbial growth are not well understood. Here, we synthesized 689 measurements on soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) and related parameters from 207 independent studies published up to November 2014 across China's forest ecosystems. Our objectives were to (1) examine patterns in Cmic, Nmic, and microbial quotient (i.e., Cmic / Csoil and Nmic / Nsoil rates) by climate zones and management regimes for these forests; and (2) identify the factors driving the variability in the Cmic, Nmic, and microbial quotient. There was a large variability in Cmic (390.2 mg kg-1), Nmic (60.1 mg kg-1, Cmic : Nmic ratio (8.25), Cmic / Csoil rate (1.92 %), and Nmic / Nsoil rate (3.43 %) across China's forests. The natural forests had significantly greater Cmic (514.1 mg kg-1 vs. 281.8 mg kg-1) and Nmic (82.6 mg kg-1 vs. 39.0 mg kg-1) than the planted forests, but had less Cmic : Nmic ratio (7.3 vs. 9.2) and Cmic / Csoil rate (1.7 % vs. 2.1 %). Soil resources and climate together explained 24.4-40.7 % of these variations. The Cmic : Nmic ratio declined slightly with Csoil : Nsoil ratio, and changed with latitude, mean annual temperature and precipitation, suggesting a plasticity of microbial carbon-nitrogen stoichiometry. The Cmic / Csoil rate decreased with Csoil : Nsoil ratio, whereas the Nmic / Nsoil rate increased with Csoil : Nsoil ratio; the former was influenced more by soil resources than by climate, whereas the latter was influenced more by climate. These results suggest that soil microbial assimilation of carbon and nitrogen are jointly driven by soil resources and climate, but may be regulated by different mechanisms.

  5. Effects of drought on leaf carbon source and growth of European beech are modulated by soil type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Arend, Matthias; Yang, Wen-Juan; Schaub, Marcus; Ni, Yan-Yan; Gessler, Arthur; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Rigling, Andreas; Li, Mai-He

    2017-02-01

    Drought potentially affects carbon balance and growth of trees, but little is known to what extent soil plays a role in the trade-off between carbon gain and growth investment. In the present study, we analyzed leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as an indicator of the balance of photosynthetic carbon gain and carbon use, as well as growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings, which were grown on two different soil types (calcareous and acidic) in model ecosystems and subjected to a severe summer drought. Our results showed that drought led in general to increased total NSC concentrations and to decreased growth rate, and drought reduced shoot and stem growth of plants in acidic soil rather than in calcareous soil. This result indicated that soil type modulated the carbon trade-off between net leaf carbon gain and carbon investment to growth. In drought-stressed trees, leaf starch concentration and growth correlated negatively whereas soluble sugar:starch ratio and growth correlated positively, which may contribute to a better understanding of growth regulation under drought conditions. Our results emphasize the role of soil in determining the trade-off between the balance of carbon gain and carbon use on the leaf level and growth under stress (e.g. drought).

  6. Effects of drought on leaf carbon source and growth of European beech are modulated by soil type

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Arend, Matthias; Yang, Wen-Juan; Schaub, Marcus; Ni, Yan-Yan; Gessler, Arthur; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Rigling, Andreas; Li, Mai-He

    2017-01-01

    Drought potentially affects carbon balance and growth of trees, but little is known to what extent soil plays a role in the trade-off between carbon gain and growth investment. In the present study, we analyzed leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as an indicator of the balance of photosynthetic carbon gain and carbon use, as well as growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings, which were grown on two different soil types (calcareous and acidic) in model ecosystems and subjected to a severe summer drought. Our results showed that drought led in general to increased total NSC concentrations and to decreased growth rate, and drought reduced shoot and stem growth of plants in acidic soil rather than in calcareous soil. This result indicated that soil type modulated the carbon trade-off between net leaf carbon gain and carbon investment to growth. In drought-stressed trees, leaf starch concentration and growth correlated negatively whereas soluble sugar:starch ratio and growth correlated positively, which may contribute to a better understanding of growth regulation under drought conditions. Our results emphasize the role of soil in determining the trade-off between the balance of carbon gain and carbon use on the leaf level and growth under stress (e.g. drought). PMID:28195166

  7. Spatial Patterns and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils in a Resource-Exhausted City, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongwei; An, Jing; Wei, Shuhe; Gu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Northeast China is an intensive area of resource-exhausted city, which is facing the challenges of industry conversion and sustainable development. In order to evaluate the soil environmental quality influenced by mining activities over decades, the concentration and spatial distribution of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) in surface soils (0-20cm) of a typical resource-exhausted city were investigated by analyzing 306 soil samples. The results showed that the average concentrations in the samples were 6.17 mg/kg for As, 0.19 mg/kg for Cd, 51.08 mg/kg for Cr, 23.27 mg/kg for Cu, 31.15 mg/kg for Ni, 22.17 mg/kg for Pb, and 54.21 mg/kg for Zn. Metals distribution maps produced by using the inverse distance weighted interpolation method and results revealed that all investigated metals showed distinct geographical patterns, and the concentrations were higher in urban and industrial areas than in farmland. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations (p<0.05) between all of the metals, and As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were closely associated with the first principal component (PC1), which explained 39.81% of the total variance. Cu and As were mainly associated with the second component (PC2). Based on the calculated Nemerow pollution index, percentage for slightly polluted (1

    soils were reached 57.33%, while 42.65% topsoil samples are moderate polluted (2soil environmental function areas were classified and proper soil environmental management policy was proposed to decrease the environmental risks in the process of industrial city transformation. PMID:26413806

  8. Spatial Patterns and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils in a Resource-Exhausted City, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; An, Jing; Wei, Shuhe; Gu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Northeast China is an intensive area of resource-exhausted city, which is facing the challenges of industry conversion and sustainable development. In order to evaluate the soil environmental quality influenced by mining activities over decades, the concentration and spatial distribution of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) in surface soils (0-20cm) of a typical resource-exhausted city were investigated by analyzing 306 soil samples. The results showed that the average concentrations in the samples were 6.17 mg/kg for As, 0.19 mg/kg for Cd, 51.08 mg/kg for Cr, 23.27 mg/kg for Cu, 31.15 mg/kg for Ni, 22.17 mg/kg for Pb, and 54.21 mg/kg for Zn. Metals distribution maps produced by using the inverse distance weighted interpolation method and results revealed that all investigated metals showed distinct geographical patterns, and the concentrations were higher in urban and industrial areas than in farmland. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations (p<0.05) between all of the metals, and As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were closely associated with the first principal component (PC1), which explained 39.81% of the total variance. Cu and As were mainly associated with the second component (PC2). Based on the calculated Nemerow pollution index, percentage for slightly polluted (1

    soils were reached 57.33%, while 42.65% topsoil samples are moderate polluted (2soil environmental function areas were classified and proper soil environmental management policy was proposed to decrease the environmental risks in the process of industrial city transformation.

  9. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, sediment and soil in drinking water resource of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Yuyun; Zhou, Rongbing

    2008-01-31

    The spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in Qiantang River, the most important drinking water resource in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 270 water samples, 64 sediment samples and 21 soil samples near riverbank were collected during January 2005-July 2006. The total concentrations of PAHs in water, sediments and soils ranged from 70.3 to 1844.4 ng/L, from 91.3 to 1835.2 ng/g and from 85.2 to 676.2 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in rural areas were lower than those in city zones. The concentrations of PAHs in July were the lowest while those in January were the highest during four seasons. The concentrations of PAHs in 2006 were compared with those in 2003 and 2005. The result showed PAHs pollution in this drinking water resource was increasing with time. The relationship between log K(oc) and log K(ow) of PAHs for field data on sediments and predicted values indicated that Qiantang River was mainly contaminated by petrogenic PAHs. The same result was obtained by the ratios of AN/(AN + Phen) and Flur/(Flur + Pye). Ratios of K(oc) for PAHs on sediments to that on corresponding soils indicated that PAHs in Qiantang River were mainly obtained from soil runoff.

  10. Exogenous nutrients and carbon resource change the responses of soil organic matter decomposition and nitrogen immobilization to nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Wan, Song-Ze; Fang, Xiang-Min; Wang, Fang-Chao; Chen, Fu-Sheng

    2016-03-29

    It is unclear whether exogenous nutrients and carbon (C) additions alter substrate immobilization to deposited nitrogen (N) during decomposition. In this study, we used laboratory microcosm experiments and (15)N isotope tracer techniques with five different treatments including N addition, N+non-N nutrients addition, N+C addition, N+non-N nutrients+C addition and control, to investigate the coupling effects of non-N nutrients, C addition and N deposition on forest floor decomposition in subtropical China. The results indicated that N deposition inhibited soil organic matter and litter decomposition by 66% and 38%, respectively. Soil immobilized (15)N following N addition was lowest among treatments. Litter (15)N immobilized following N addition was significantly higher and lower than that of combined treatments during the early and late decomposition stage, respectively. Both soil and litter extractable mineral N were lower in combined treatments than in N addition treatment. Since soil N immobilization and litter N release were respectively enhanced and inhibited with elevated non-N nutrient and C resources, it can be speculated that the N leaching due to N deposition decreases with increasing nutrient and C resources. This study should advance our understanding of how forests responds the elevated N deposition.

  11. Exogenous nutrients and carbon resource change the responses of soil organic matter decomposition and nitrogen immobilization to nitrogen deposition

    PubMed Central

    He, Ping; Wan, Song-Ze; Fang, Xiang-Min; Wang, Fang-Chao; Chen, Fu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether exogenous nutrients and carbon (C) additions alter substrate immobilization to deposited nitrogen (N) during decomposition. In this study, we used laboratory microcosm experiments and 15N isotope tracer techniques with five different treatments including N addition, N+non-N nutrients addition, N+C addition, N+non-N nutrients+C addition and control, to investigate the coupling effects of non-N nutrients, C addition and N deposition on forest floor decomposition in subtropical China. The results indicated that N deposition inhibited soil organic matter and litter decomposition by 66% and 38%, respectively. Soil immobilized 15N following N addition was lowest among treatments. Litter 15N immobilized following N addition was significantly higher and lower than that of combined treatments during the early and late decomposition stage, respectively. Both soil and litter extractable mineral N were lower in combined treatments than in N addition treatment. Since soil N immobilization and litter N release were respectively enhanced and inhibited with elevated non-N nutrient and C resources, it can be speculated that the N leaching due to N deposition decreases with increasing nutrient and C resources. This study should advance our understanding of how forests responds the elevated N deposition. PMID:27020048

  12. A microbial functional group-based module for simulating methane production and consumption: Application to an incubated permafrost soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Elias, Dwayne A.; Graham, David E.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Carroll, Sue L.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-07-01

    Accurately estimating methane (CH4) flux in terrestrial ecosystems is critically important for investigating and predicting biogeochemistry-climate feedbacks. Improved simulations of CH4 flux require explicit representations of the microbial processes that account for CH4 dynamics. A microbial functional group-based module was developed, building on the decomposition subroutine of the Community Land Model 4.5. This module considers four key mechanisms for CH4 production and consumption: methanogenesis from acetate or from single-carbon compounds and CH4 oxidation using molecular oxygen or other inorganic electron acceptors. Four microbial functional groups perform these processes: acetoclastic methanogens, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, aerobic methanotrophs, and anaerobic methanotrophs. This module was used to simulate dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 concentrations from an incubation experiment with permafrost soils. The results show that the model captures the dynamics of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in microcosms with top soils, mineral layer soils, and permafrost soils under natural and saturated moisture conditions and three temperature conditions of -2°C, 3°C, and 5°C (R2 > 0.67 P < 0.001). The biases for modeled results are less than 30% across the soil samples and moisture and temperature conditions. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the importance of acetic acid's direct contribution as substrate and indirect effects through pH feedback on CO2 and CH4 production and consumption. This study suggests that representing the microbial mechanisms is critical for modeling CH4 production and consumption; it is urgent to incorporate microbial mechanisms into Earth system models for better predicting trace gas dynamics and the behavior of the climate system.

  13. Eawag-Soil in enviPath: a new resource for exploring regulatory pesticide soil biodegradation pathways and half-life data.

    PubMed

    Latino, Diogo A R S; Wicker, Jörg; Gütlein, Martin; Schmid, Emanuel; Kramer, Stefan; Fenner, Kathrin

    2017-03-22

    Developing models for the prediction of microbial biotransformation pathways and half-lives of trace organic contaminants in different environments requires as training data easily accessible and sufficiently large collections of respective biotransformation data that are annotated with metadata on study conditions. Here, we present the Eawag-Soil package, a public database that has been developed to contain all freely accessible regulatory data on pesticide degradation in laboratory soil simulation studies for pesticides registered in the EU (282 degradation pathways, 1535 reactions, 1619 compounds and 4716 biotransformation half-life values with corresponding metadata on study conditions). We provide a thorough description of this novel data resource, and discuss important features of the pesticide soil degradation data that are relevant for model development. Most notably, the variability of half-life values for individual compounds is large and only about one order of magnitude lower than the entire range of median half-life values spanned by all compounds, demonstrating the need to consider study conditions in the development of more accurate models for biotransformation prediction. We further show how the data can be used to find missing rules relevant for predicting soil biotransformation pathways. From this analysis, eight examples of reaction types were presented that should trigger the formulation of new biotransformation rules, e.g., Ar-OH methylation, or the extension of existing rules, e.g., hydroxylation in aliphatic rings. The data were also used to exemplarily explore the dependence of half-lives of different amide pesticides on chemical class and experimental parameters. This analysis highlighted the value of considering initial transformation reactions for the development of meaningful quantitative-structure biotransformation relationships (QSBR), which is a novel opportunity offered by the simultaneous encoding of transformation reactions and

  14. Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  15. Medical resource preparation and allocation for humanitarian assistance based on module organization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Ruxue; Zhong, Shaobo; Qian, Yangming; Huang, Quanyi

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to associate the allocation of medical resources with the function of the modular organization and the possible needs for humanitarian assistance missions. The overseas humanitarian medical assistance mission, which was sent after a disaster on the hospital ship Peace Ark, part of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy, was considered as study model. The cases used for clustering and matching sample formation were randomly selected from the existing information related to Peace Ark's mission. Categories of the reusable resources clustered by this research met the requirement of the actual consumption almost completely (more than 95%) and the categories of non-reusable resources met the requirement by more than 80%. In the mission's original resource preparing plan, more than 30% of the non-reusable resource categories remained unused during the mission. In the original resource preparing plan, some key non-reusable resources inventories were completely exhausted at the end of the mission, while 5% to 30% of non-reusable resources remained in the resource allocation plan generated by this research at the end of the mission. The medical resource allocation plan generated here can enhance the supporting level for the humanitarian assistance mission. This research could lay the foundation for an assistant decision-making system for humanitarian assistance mission.

  16. Nitrogen response efficiency increased monotonically with decreasing soil resource availability: a case study from a semiarid grassland in northern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhi-You; Li, Ling-Hao; Han, Xing-Guo; Chen, Shi-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Chen, Quan-Sheng; Bai, Wen-Ming

    2006-07-01

    The concept of nutrient use efficiency is central to understanding ecosystem functioning because it is the step in which plants can influence the return of nutrients to the soil pool and the quality of the litter. Theory suggests that nutrient efficiency increases unimodally with declining soil resources, but this has not been tested empirically for N and water in grassland ecosystems, where plant growth in these ecosystems is generally thought to be limited by soil N and moisture. In this paper, we tested the N uptake and the N use efficiency (NUE) of two Stipa species (S. grandis and S. krylovii) from 20 sites in the Inner Mongolia grassland by measuring the N content of net primary productivity (NPP). NUE is defined as the total net primary production per unit N absorbed. We further distinguished NUE from N response efficiency (NRE; production per unit N available). We found that NPP increased with soil N and water availability. Efficiency of whole-plant N use, uptake, and response increased monotonically with decreasing soil N and water, being higher on infertile (dry) habitats than on fertile (wet) habitats. We further considered NUE as the product of the N productivity (NP the rate of biomass increase per unit N in the plant) and the mean residence time (MRT; the ratio between the average N pool and the annual N uptake or loss). The NP and NUE of S. grandis growing usually in dry and N-poor habitats exceeded those of S. krylovii abundant in wet and N-rich habitats. NUE differed among sites, and was often affected by the evolutionary trade-off between NP and MRT, where plants and communities had adapted in a way to maximize either NP or MRT, but not both concurrently. Soil N availability and moisture influenced the community-level N uptake efficiency and ultimately the NRE, though the response to N was dependent on the plant community examined. These results show that soil N and water had exerted a great impact on the N efficiency in Stipa species. The

  17. Soil and Land Resources Information System (SLISYS-Tarim) for Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othmanli, Hussein; Zhao, Chengyi; Stahr, Karl

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim River Basin is the largest continental basin in China. The region has extremely continental desert climate characterized by little rainfall <50 mm/a and high potential evaporation >3000 mm/a. The climate change is affecting severely the basin causing soil salinization, water shortage, and regression in crop production. Therefore, a Soil and Land Resources Information System (SLISYS-Tarim) for the regional simulation of crop yield production in the basin was developed. The SLISYS-Tarim consists of a database and an agro-ecological simulation model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate). The database comprises relational tables including information about soils, terrain conditions, land use, and climate. The soil data implicate information of 50 soil profiles which were dug, analyzed, described and classified in order to characterize the soils in the region. DEM data were integrated with geological maps to build a digital terrain structure. Remote sensing data of Landsat images were applied for soil mapping, and for land use and land cover classification. An additional database for climate data, land management and crop information were linked to the system, too. Construction of the SLISYS-Tarim database was accomplished by integrating and overlaying the recommended thematic maps within environment of the geographic information system (GIS) to meet the data standard of the global and national SOTER digital database. This database forms appropriate input- and output data for the crop modelling with the EPIC model at various scales in the Tarim Basin. The EPIC model was run for simulating cotton production under a constructed scenario characterizing the current management practices, soil properties and climate conditions. For the EPIC model calibration, some parameters were adjusted so that the modeled cotton yield fits to the measured yield on the filed scale. The validation of the modeling results was achieved in a later step based on remote sensing

  18. Ethnopedology in the Study of Toponyms Connected to the Indigenous Knowledge on Soil Resource

    PubMed Central

    Capra, Gian Franco; Ganga, Antonio; Buondonno, Andrea; Grilli, Eleonora; Gaviano, Carla; Vacca, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In taking an integrated ethnopedological approach, this study aims to investigate the meaning of the distribution of the toponyms used in traditional and recent cartography of Sardinia (southern Italy). It is particularly, but not only, focused on those related to soil resources. Sardinia is particularly interesting in this respect, as its unique history, geography, and linguistic position makes it one of the Italian and Mediterranean regions with the greatest number of toponyms. This research investigated the toponyms belonging to an important sub-region of Sardinia, called Ogliastra (central-eastern Sardinia). The research was conducted through the following integrated approach: i) toponymy research and collection from different sources; ii) database creation and translation of toponyms from the Sardinian language (SL); iii) categorization of toponyms; and iv) graphical, statistical, and cartographic data processing. Distribution and diversity of toponyms were assessed using the compiled database, coupled with a geographical information system (GIS). Of around 7700 toponyms collected, 79% had already been reported in SL, while just 21% were in Italian. Of the toponyms in SL, 77% are of known meaning and 54% of these toponyms were characterized by a meaning directly and/or indirectly connected to specific environmental features. On the whole, morphology would appear to be the primary environmental factor able to explain the complex, articulated presence, distribution, and typology of the investigated toponyms. A least squares regression analysis of pedodiversity vs. topodiversity shows a very closed distribution, with an impressive high correlation index (R2 = 0.824). The principal factor analysis (PFA) shows that such a connection may be morphologically based, thereby confirming that pedodiversity and topodiversity are strongly linked each other. Overall, the research shows that an integrated ethnopedological approach, combining indigenous and scientific

  19. Ethnopedology in the study of toponyms connected to the indigenous knowledge on soil resource.

    PubMed

    Capra, Gian Franco; Ganga, Antonio; Buondonno, Andrea; Grilli, Eleonora; Gaviano, Carla; Vacca, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In taking an integrated ethnopedological approach, this study aims to investigate the meaning of the distribution of the toponyms used in traditional and recent cartography of Sardinia (southern Italy). It is particularly, but not only, focused on those related to soil resources. Sardinia is particularly interesting in this respect, as its unique history, geography, and linguistic position makes it one of the Italian and Mediterranean regions with the greatest number of toponyms. This research investigated the toponyms belonging to an important sub-region of Sardinia, called Ogliastra (central-eastern Sardinia). The research was conducted through the following integrated approach: i) toponymy research and collection from different sources; ii) database creation and translation of toponyms from the Sardinian language (SL); iii) categorization of toponyms; and iv) graphical, statistical, and cartographic data processing. Distribution and diversity of toponyms were assessed using the compiled database, coupled with a geographical information system (GIS). Of around 7700 toponyms collected, 79% had already been reported in SL, while just 21% were in Italian. Of the toponyms in SL, 77% are of known meaning and 54% of these toponyms were characterized by a meaning directly and/or indirectly connected to specific environmental features. On the whole, morphology would appear to be the primary environmental factor able to explain the complex, articulated presence, distribution, and typology of the investigated toponyms. A least squares regression analysis of pedodiversity vs. topodiversity shows a very closed distribution, with an impressive high correlation index (R2 = 0.824). The principal factor analysis (PFA) shows that such a connection may be morphologically based, thereby confirming that pedodiversity and topodiversity are strongly linked each other. Overall, the research shows that an integrated ethnopedological approach, combining indigenous and scientific

  20. Sensor-based soil water monitoring to more effectively manage agricultural water resources in coastal plain soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellamy, Christopher A.

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is widely grown in the United States with 5.7 million ha grown nationally and 1.2 million ha grown in the humid southeastern states in 2005. From 1969 to 2003, agricultural irrigated farmland acreage and total water applied increased by over 40% and 11% respectively to include a total of 55.3 million acres in 2002. Combined with recent and more frequent drought periods and legal water conflicts between states, there has been an increased interest in more effective southeastern water management, thus making the need to develop improved irrigation scheduling methods and enhanced water use efficiency of cotton cultivars. Several irrigation scheduling methods (soil moisture monitoring, pan evaporation, and climate based) tested at Clemson and elsewhere have shown that sensor-based irrigation significantly increased cotton yields and provided a monetary savings compared to other methods. There is however limited information on capacitance based soil moisture analysis techniques in the southeastern coastal plain soils and also limited locally developed crop coefficients used in scheduling the ET based treatments. The first objective of this study was to determine and improve the feasibility of utilizing sensor-based soil water monitoring techniques in Southeastern Coastal Plain soils to more effectively manage irrigation and increase water use efficiency of several cotton cultivars. The second objective was to develop two weighing lysimeters equipped with wireless data acquisition system to determine a crop coefficient for cotton under southeastern humid conditions. Two multi-sensor capacitance probes, AquaSpy(TM) and Sentek EnviroSCAN RTM, were calibrated in this study. It was found that positive linear calibrations can be used to describe the relationship between the soil volumetric moisture content (VMC) and sensor readings found for both probes and that multi-sensor capacitance probes can be used to accurately measure volumetric soil

  1. Application of spatial pedotransfer functions to understand soil modulation of vegetation response to climate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fundamental knowledge gap in understanding land-atmosphere interactions is accurate, high resolution spatial representation of soil physical and hydraulic properties. We present a novel approach to predict hydraulic soil parameters by combining digital soil mapping techniques with pedotransfer fun...

  2. Trends in free WWW-based E-learning Modules seen from the Learning Resource Server Medicine (LRSMed).

    PubMed

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Geueke, Martin; Bludßat, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Despite the lost enthusiasm concerning E-learning a lot of material is available on the World Wide Web (WWW) free of charge. This material is collected and systematically described by services like the Learning Resource Server Medicine (LRSMed) at http://mmedia.medizin.uni-essen.de/portal/. With the LRSMed E-learning modules are made available for medical students by means of a metadata description that can be used for a catalogue search. The number of resources included has risen enormously from 100 in 1999 up to 805 today. Especially in 2004 there was an exponential increase in the LRSMed's content. Anatomy is still the field with the highest amount of available material, but general medicine has improved its position over the years and is now the second one. Technically and didactically simple material as scripts, textbooks, and link lists (called info services) is still dominating. Similar to 1999, there is not one module which could be truly referred to as tutorial dialogue. Simple material can not replace face-to-face-teaching. But it could be combined with conventional courses to establish some kind of blending learning. The scene of free E-learning modules on the WWW is ready to meet current challenges for efficient training of students and continuing education in medicine.

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Training Module about Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training module describes:general requirements applicable to treatment, storage, and disposal facilitiesrequirements for waste analysis and personnel training purpose of a contingency plan and list the emergency notification procedures.

  4. Lunar Resources Using Moderate Spectral Resolution Visible and Near-infrared Spectroscopy: Al/si and Soil Maturity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Erich M.; Pieters, Carle M.; Head, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Modern visible and near-infrared detectors are critically important for the accurate identification and relative abundance measurement of lunar minerals; however, even a very small number of well-placed visible and near-infrared bandpass channels provide a significant amount of general information about crucial lunar resources. The Galileo Solid State Imaging system (SSI) multispectral data are an important example of this. Al/Si and soil maturity will be discussed as examples of significant general lunar resource information that can be gleaned from moderate spectral resolution visible and near-infrared data with relative ease. Because quantitative-albedo data are necessary for these kinds of analyses, data such as those obtained by Galileo SSI are critical. SSI obtained synoptic digital multispectral image data for both the nearside and farside of the Moon during the first Galileo Earth-Moon encounter in December 1990. The data consist of images through seven filters with bandpasses ranging from 0.40 microns in the ultraviolet to 0.99 microns in the near-infrared. Although these data are of moderate spectral resolution, they still provide information for the following lunar resources: (1) titanium content of mature mare soils based upon the 0.40/0.56-micron (UV/VIS) ratio; (2) mafic mineral abundance based upon the 0.76/0.99-micron ratio; and (3) the maturity or exposure age of the soils based upon the 0.56-0.76-micron continuum and the 0.76/0.99-micron ratio. Within constraints, these moderate spectral resolution visible and near-infrared reflectance data can also provide elemental information such as Al/Si for mature highland soils.

  5. Identifying synergies between water resource protection and farm business objectives: the role of soil management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoate, Chris

    2017-04-01

    We use a 3,000 ha BACI experiment on clay soils in central England as a focus for exploring synergies between Water Framework Directive targets for water quality (sediment, nutrients and pesticides) and crop production objectives of farm businesses. Based on base of catchment annual sediment loads, we estimate annual soil loss from farmland to be in the order of 0.3 - 0.6 tonnes per hectare. This has impacts on aquatic ecology, reservoir storage capacity and downstream flood risk through sedimentation of drainage channels. Soil loss is relatively low in a European context but reflects poorly functioning soils with high runoff risk, and poor crop performance due to compaction, low organic matter, waterlogging, and competition from the grass weed, blackgrass (Alopecuris alopoides). We use a range of mechanisms to increase farmers' awareness, understanding and motivation for improving soil management to meet multiple public and private benefits of soil function and present results for soil organic matter testing, earthworm surveying, and horizontal and vertical soil compaction mapping.

  6. A microbial functional group-based module for simulating methane production and consumption: Application to an incubated permafrost soil

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Elias, Dwayne A.; Graham, David E.; ...

    2015-07-23

    In this study, accurately estimating methane (CH4) flux is critically important for investigating and predicting the biogeochemistry-climate feedback. Better simulating CH4 flux requires explicit representations of microbial processes on CH4 dynamics because all processes for CH4 production and consumption are actually carried out by microbes. A microbial functional group based module was developed and tested against an incubation experiment. The module considers four key mechanisms for CH4 production and consumption: methanogenesis from acetate or single-carbon compounds and CH4 oxidation using molecular oxygen or other inorganic electron acceptors. These four processes were carried out by four microbial functional groups: acetoclastic methanogens,more » hydrogenotrophic methanogens, aerobic methanotrophs, and anaerobic methanotrophs. This module was then linked with the decomposition subroutine of the Community Land Model, and was further used to simulate dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 concentrations from an incubation experiment with permafrost soils. The results show that the model could capture the dynamics of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in microcosms with top soils, mineral layer soils and permafrost soils under natural and saturated moisture conditions and a temperature gradient of -2°C, 3°C, and 5°C. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the importance of acetic acid's direct contribution as substrate and indirect effects through pH feedback on CO2 and CH4 production and consumption. This study suggests that representing the microbial mechanisms is critical for modeling CH4 production and consumption; it is urgent to incorporate microbial mechanisms into Earth system models for better predicting the behavior of the climate system.« less

  7. A microbial functional group-based module for simulating methane production and consumption: Application to an incubated permafrost soil

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Elias, Dwayne A.; Graham, David E.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Carroll, Sue L.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-07-23

    In this study, accurately estimating methane (CH4) flux is critically important for investigating and predicting the biogeochemistry-climate feedback. Better simulating CH4 flux requires explicit representations of microbial processes on CH4 dynamics because all processes for CH4 production and consumption are actually carried out by microbes. A microbial functional group based module was developed and tested against an incubation experiment. The module considers four key mechanisms for CH4 production and consumption: methanogenesis from acetate or single-carbon compounds and CH4 oxidation using molecular oxygen or other inorganic electron acceptors. These four processes were carried out by four microbial functional groups: acetoclastic methanogens, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, aerobic methanotrophs, and anaerobic methanotrophs. This module was then linked with the decomposition subroutine of the Community Land Model, and was further used to simulate dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 concentrations from an incubation experiment with permafrost soils. The results show that the model could capture the dynamics of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in microcosms with top soils, mineral layer soils and permafrost soils under natural and saturated moisture conditions and a temperature gradient of -2°C, 3°C, and 5°C. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the importance of acetic acid's direct contribution as substrate and indirect effects through pH feedback on CO2 and CH4 production and consumption. This study suggests that representing the microbial mechanisms is critical for modeling CH4 production and consumption; it is urgent to incorporate microbial mechanisms into Earth system models for better predicting the behavior of the climate system.

  8. Resources for a lunar base: Rocks, minerals, and soil of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    The rocks and minerals of the Moon will be included among the raw materials used to construct a lunar base. The lunar regolith, the fragmental material present on the surface of the Moon, is composed mostly of disaggregated rocks and minerals, but also includes glassy fragments fused together by meteorite impacts. The finer fraction of the regolith (i.e., less than 1 cm) is informally referred to as soil. The soil is probably the most important portion of the regolith for use at a lunar base. For example, soil can be used as insulation against cosmic rays, for lunar ceramics and abodes, or for growing plants. The soil contains abundant solar-wind-implanted elements as well as various minerals, particularly oxide phases, that are of potential economic importance. For example, these components of the soil are sources of oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel, helium for nuclear energy, and metals such as Fe, Al, Si, and Ti.

  9. Resources for a lunar base: Rocks, minerals, and soil of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-09-01

    The rocks and minerals of the Moon will be included among the raw materials used to construct a lunar base. The lunar regolith, the fragmental material present on the surface of the Moon, is composed mostly of disaggregated rocks and minerals, but also includes glassy fragments fused together by meteorite impacts. The finer fraction of the regolith (i.e., less than 1 cm) is informally referred to as soil. The soil is probably the most important portion of the regolith for use at a lunar base. For example, soil can be used as insulation against cosmic rays, for lunar ceramics and abodes, or for growing plants. The soil contains abundant solar-wind-implanted elements as well as various minerals, particularly oxide phases, that are of potential economic importance. For example, these components of the soil are sources of oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel, helium for nuclear energy, and metals such as Fe, Al, Si, and Ti.

  10. Integration of hydrogeology and soil science for sustainable water resources-focus on water quantity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased biofuel production has heightened awareness of the strong linkages between crop water use and depletion of water resources. Irrigated agriculture consumed 90% of global fresh water resources during the past century. Addressing crop water use and depletion of groundwater resources requires ...

  11. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  12. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  13. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  14. Stem growth and respiration in loblolly pine plantations differing in soil resource availability.

    PubMed

    Maier, C A

    2001-10-01

    Stem respiration and growth in 10-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations were measured monthly during the third year of fertilization and irrigation treatments to determine whether soil resource availability differentially altered growth and respiration in stem tissue. Fertilized trees had significantly greater stem biomass, stem nitrogen concentration ([N]) and growth rate than unfertilized trees. Stem respiration (Rt) was significantly greater in fertilized trees when expressed on a per unit surface area (Rt,a, micromol CO2 m-2 s-1), sapwood volume (Rt,v, micromol CO2 m-3 s-1), or mass (Rt,w, nmol CO2 g-1 s-1) basis; however, there was no difference between treatments when expressed as a function of stem N content (Rt,n, micromol CO2 (mol N)-1 s-1). Irrigation had no significant effect on Rt or annual stem growth. Daily total respiration (Rd, mol CO2 m-2 day-1) and stem diameter growth both had a seasonal bimodal pattern with peaks in early spring and midsummer. Stem [N] declined significantly during the growing season. Stem growth rate and [N] explained 75% of the seasonal variation in temperature-normalized Rt,a. The mature tissue method was used to partition total stem respiration (Rt) into maintenance (Rm) and growth (Rg) components. There was a linear correlation between winter Rt,v, a measure of basal Rm, and sapwood N content; however, Rt,v per unit N was greater in January before diameter growth started than in the following December after growth ceased, indicating that Rt,v declined as stem diameter increased. Consequently, estimates of annual maintenance respiration (RM) based on January data were 44% higher than estimates based on December data. Growth respiration was correlated with stem growth rate (r2 = 0.55). The growth respiration coefficient (rg)-the slope of the relationship between Rg and stem growth rate-was 0.24. Respiration accounted for 37% of annual stem carbon budget. Stem carbon-use efficiency (CUE)-the ratio of stem growth

  15. Temporal and Spatial Separation of Water Use Averts Competition for Soil Water Resources in a Sahelian Agroforestry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Dick, R.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    water balance, transfer of hydraulic lift water between crops and shrubs, and the alteration of soil physical properties by shrubs. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  16. Nitrogen supply modulates the effect of changes in drying-rewetting frequency on soil C and N cycling and greenhouse gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Lourdes; Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Roales, Javier; Gallardo, Antonio; Lovett, Gary M; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are two of the most important global change drivers. However, the interactions of these drivers have not been well studied. We aimed to assess how the combined effect of soil N additions and more frequent soil drying-rewetting events affects carbon (C) and N cycling, soil:atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange, and functional microbial diversity. We manipulated the frequency of soil drying-rewetting events in soils from ambient and N-treated plots in a temperate forest and calculated the Orwin & Wardle Resistance index to compare the response of the different treatments. Increases in drying-rewetting cycles led to reductions in soil NO3- levels, potential net nitrification rate, and soil : atmosphere GHG exchange, and increases in NH4+ and total soil inorganic N levels. N-treated soils were more resistant to changes in the frequency of drying-rewetting cycles, and this resistance was stronger for C- than for N-related variables. Both the long-term N addition and the drying-rewetting treatment altered the functionality of the soil microbial population and its functional diversity. Our results suggest that increasing the frequency of drying-rewetting cycles can affect the ability of soil to cycle C and N and soil : atmosphere GHG exchange and that the response to this increase is modulated by soil N enrichment.

  17. Seasonal and geothermal production variations in concentrations of He and CO2 in soil gases, Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Utah, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    To increase understanding of natural variations in soil gas concentrations, CO2, He, O2 and N2 were measured in soil gases collected regularly for several months from four sites at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Utah. Soil temperature, air temperature, per cent relative humidity, barometric pressure and amounts of rain and snowfall were also monitored to determine the effect of meteorological parameters on concentrations of the measured gases. Considerable seasonal variation existed in concentrations of CO2 and He. The parameters that most affected the soil-gas concentrations were soil and air temperatures. Moisture from rain and snow probably affected the soil-gas concentrations also. However, annual variations in meteorological parameters did not appear to affect measurements of anomalous concentrations in samples collected within a time period of a few days. Production from some of the geothermal wells probably affected the soil-gas concentrations. ?? 1990.

  18. Plant root-driven hydraulic redistribution, root nutrient uptake and carbon exudation interact with soil properties to generate rhizosphere resource hotspots that vary in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espeleta, J. F.; Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Mayer, K. U.; Rastetter, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by plants occurs in seasonally dry ecosystems worldwide. During drought, water flows from deep moist soil, through plant roots, into dry (often litter-rich) upper soil layers. Using modeling, we explored how physical transport processes driven by transpiration and hydraulic redistribution interact with root physiology (nutrient uptake and carbon exudation) and soil properties (soil texture and cation exchange) to influence nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the rhizosphere. At the single root scale, we modeled a 10-cm radial soil domain, and simulated solute transport, soil cation exchange, and root exudation and nutrient uptake under two water flow patterns: daytime transpiration without nighttime HR, and daytime transpiration with nighttime HR. During HR, water efflux flushed solutes away from the root, diluting the concentrations of key nutrients like nitrate. The transport of cations by transpiration in the day and their accumulation near the root led to competitive desorption of ammonium from soil further from the root and generation of hotspots of ammonium availability at night. HR influenced the spatial and temporal patterns of these hotspots and their intensity. They were also influenced by soil properties of texture and cation exchange capacity. This dynamic resource landscape caused by diel cycling between transpiration and hydraulic redistribution presents a stage for greater complexity of microbial interactions. We are currently embedding a microbial community and small food web into this rhizosphere model in order to explore how organisms responsible for nutrient and soil carbon cycling respond to these fluctuating resource regimes.

  19. Pinon-juniper reduction increases soil water availability of the resource growth pool

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. Roundy; Kert Young; Nathan Cline; April Hulet; Richard F. Miller; Robin J. Tausch; Jeanne C. Chambers; Ben Rau

    2014-01-01

    Managers reduce piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees that are encroaching on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities to lower fuel loads and increase cover of desirable understory species. All plant species in these communities depend on soil water held at > −1.5 MPa matric potential in the upper 0.3 m of soil for nutrient...

  20. Teaching about Climate Change in the Business Curriculum: An Introductory Module and Resource List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, C. Helen

    2013-01-01

    Business managers are increasingly engaged with climate change issues, but pedagogy on climate change in the business curriculum is in its infancy. The author addresses the need for greater integration of climate change knowledge in the business curriculum by describing a teaching module for an undergraduate introductory business course and…

  1. Teaching about Climate Change in the Business Curriculum: An Introductory Module and Resource List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, C. Helen

    2013-01-01

    Business managers are increasingly engaged with climate change issues, but pedagogy on climate change in the business curriculum is in its infancy. The author addresses the need for greater integration of climate change knowledge in the business curriculum by describing a teaching module for an undergraduate introductory business course and…

  2. Soil Microbial Responses to Increased Moisture and Organic Resources along a Salinity Gradient in a Polar Desert

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, David J.; Okie, Jordan G.; Buelow, Heather N.; Gooseff, Michael N.; Barrett, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities in extreme environments often have low diversity and specialized physiologies suggesting a limited resistance to change. The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) are a microbially dominated, extreme ecosystem currently undergoing climate change-induced disturbances, including the melting of massive buried ice, cutting through of permafrost by streams, and warming events. These processes are increasing moisture across the landscape, altering conditions for soil communities by mobilizing nutrients and salts and stimulating autotrophic carbon inputs to soils. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of resource addition (water/organic matter) on the composition and function of microbial communities in the MDV along a natural salinity gradient representing an additional gradient of stress in an already extreme environment. Soil respiration and the activity of carbon-acquiring extracellular enzymes increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the addition of resources at the low- and moderate-salinity sites but not the high-salinity site. The bacterial community composition was altered, with an increase in Proteobacteria and Firmicutes with water and organic matter additions at the low- and moderate-salinity sites and a near dominance of Firmicutes at the high-salinity site. Principal coordinate analyses of all samples using a phylogenetically informed distance matrix (UniFrac) demonstrated discrete clustering among sites (analysis of similarity [ANOSIM], P < 0.05 and R > 0.40) and among most treatments within sites. The results from this experimental work suggest that microbial communities in this environment will undergo rapid change in response to the altered resources resulting from climate change impacts occurring in this region. PMID:24610850

  3. Soil microbial responses to increased moisture and organic resources along a salinity gradient in a polar desert.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, David J; Okie, Jordan G; Buelow, Heather N; Gooseff, Michael N; Barrett, John E; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2014-05-01

    Microbial communities in extreme environments often have low diversity and specialized physiologies suggesting a limited resistance to change. The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) are a microbially dominated, extreme ecosystem currently undergoing climate change-induced disturbances, including the melting of massive buried ice, cutting through of permafrost by streams, and warming events. These processes are increasing moisture across the landscape, altering conditions for soil communities by mobilizing nutrients and salts and stimulating autotrophic carbon inputs to soils. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of resource addition (water/organic matter) on the composition and function of microbial communities in the MDV along a natural salinity gradient representing an additional gradient of stress in an already extreme environment. Soil respiration and the activity of carbon-acquiring extracellular enzymes increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the addition of resources at the low- and moderate-salinity sites but not the high-salinity site. The bacterial community composition was altered, with an increase in Proteobacteria and Firmicutes with water and organic matter additions at the low- and moderate-salinity sites and a near dominance of Firmicutes at the high-salinity site. Principal coordinate analyses of all samples using a phylogenetically informed distance matrix (UniFrac) demonstrated discrete clustering among sites (analysis of similarity [ANOSIM], P < 0.05 and R > 0.40) and among most treatments within sites. The results from this experimental work suggest that microbial communities in this environment will undergo rapid change in response to the altered resources resulting from climate change impacts occurring in this region.

  4. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    SciTech Connect

    St. Clair, S.B.; Sudderth, E.; Fischer, M.L.; Torn, M.S.; Stuart, S.; Salve, R.; Eggett, D.; Ackerly, D.

    2009-03-15

    Variability in the magnitude and timing of precipitation is predicted to change under future climate scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to understand how variation in precipitation patterns consisting of soil moisture pulses mixed with intermittent dry down events influence ecosystem gas fluxes. We characterized the effects of precipitation amount and timing, N availability, and plant community composition on whole ecosystem and leaf gas exchange in a California annual grassland mesocosm study system that allowed precise control of soil moisture conditions. Ecosystem CO2 and fluxes increased significantly with greater precipitation and were positively correlated with soil moisture. A repeated 10 day dry down period following 11 days of variable precipitation inputs strongly depressed net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) across a range of season precipitation totals, and plant community types. Ecosystem respiration (Re), evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf level photosynthesis (Amax) showed greatest sensitivity to dry down periods in low precipitation plots. Nitrogen additions significantly increased NEE, Re and Amax, particularly as water availability was increased. These results demonstrate that N availability and intermittent periods of soil moisture deficit (across a wide range of cumulative season precipitation totals) strongly modulate ecosystem gas exchange.

  5. Identification and Mapping of Soils, Vegetation, and Water Resources of Lynn County, Texas, by Computer Analysis of ERTS MSS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, M. F.; Kristof, S. J.; Henderson, J. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of the analysis and interpretation of ERTS multispectral data obtained over Lynn County, Texas, are presented. The test site was chosen because it embodies a variety of problems associated with the development and management of agricultural resources in the Southern Great Plains. Lynn County is one of ten counties in a larger test site centering around Lubbock, Texas. The purpose of this study is to examine the utility of ERTS data in identifying, characterizing, and mapping soils, vegetation, and water resources in this semiarid region. Successful application of multispectral remote sensing and machine-processing techniques to arid and seminarid land-management problems will provide valuable new tools for the more than one-third of the world's lands lying in arid-semiarid regions.

  6. Disturbance Promotes Non-Indigenous Bacterial Invasion in Soil Microcosms: Analysis of the Roles of Resource Availability and Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Manqiang; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Rønn, Regin; Christensen, Søren; Ekelund, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Background Invasion-biology is largely based on non-experimental observation of larger organisms. Here, we apply an experimental approach to the subject. By using microbial-based microcosm-experiments, invasion-biology can be placed on firmer experimental, and hence, less anecdotal ground. A better understanding of the mechanisms that govern invasion-success of bacteria in soil communities will provide knowledge on the factors that hinder successful establishment of bacteria artificially inoculated into soil, e.g. for remediation purposes. Further, it will yield valuable information on general principles of invasion biology in other domains of life. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we studied invasion and establishment success of GFP-tagged Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090 in laboratory microcosms during a 42-day period. We used soil heating to create a disturbance gradient, and hypothesized that increased disturbance would facilitate invasion; our experiments confirmed this hypothesis. We suggest that the key factors associated with the heating disturbance that explain the enhanced invasion success are increased carbon substrate availability and reduced diversity, and thus, competition- and predation-release. In a second experiment we therefore separated the effects of increased carbon availability and decreased diversity. Here, we demonstrated that the effect of the indigenous soil community on bacterial invasion was stronger than that of resource availability. In particular, introduced bacteria established better in a long term perspective at lower diversity and predation pressure. Conclusion We propose increased use of microbial systems, for experimental study of invasion scenarios. They offer a simple and cost-efficient way to study and understand biological invasion. Consequently such systems can help us to better predict the mechanisms controlling changes in stability of communities and ecosystems. This is becoming increasingly relevant since

  7. Programming mRNA decay to modulate synthetic circuit resource allocation

    DOE PAGES

    Venturelli, Ophelia S.; Tei, Mika; Bauer, Stefan; ...

    2017-04-26

    Synthetic circuits embedded in host cells compete with cellular processes for limited intracellular resources. Here we show how funnelling of cellular resources, after global transcriptome degradation by the sequence-dependent endoribonuclease MazF, to a synthetic circuit can increase production. Target genes are protected from MazF activity by recoding the gene sequence to eliminate recognition sites, while preserving the amino acid sequence. The expression of a protected fluorescent reporter and flux of a high-value metabolite are significantly enhanced using this genome-scale control strategy. Proteomics measurements discover a host factor in need of protection to improve resource redistribution activity. A computational model demonstratesmore » that the MazF mRNA-decay feedback loop enables proportional control of MazF in an optimal operating regime. Transcriptional profiling of MazF-induced cells elucidates the dynamic shifts in transcript abundance and discovers regulatory design elements. Altogether, our results suggest that manipulation of cellular resource allocation is a key control parameter for synthetic circuit design.« less

  8. Programming mRNA decay to modulate synthetic circuit resource allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturelli, Ophelia S.; Tei, Mika; Bauer, Stefan; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic circuits embedded in host cells compete with cellular processes for limited intracellular resources. Here we show how funnelling of cellular resources, after global transcriptome degradation by the sequence-dependent endoribonuclease MazF, to a synthetic circuit can increase production. Target genes are protected from MazF activity by recoding the gene sequence to eliminate recognition sites, while preserving the amino acid sequence. The expression of a protected fluorescent reporter and flux of a high-value metabolite are significantly enhanced using this genome-scale control strategy. Proteomics measurements discover a host factor in need of protection to improve resource redistribution activity. A computational model demonstrates that the MazF mRNA-decay feedback loop enables proportional control of MazF in an optimal operating regime. Transcriptional profiling of MazF-induced cells elucidates the dynamic shifts in transcript abundance and discovers regulatory design elements. Altogether, our results suggest that manipulation of cellular resource allocation is a key control parameter for synthetic circuit design.

  9. Insight into the Modulation of Dissolved Organic Matter on Microbial Remediation of PAH-Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-Mei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Microorganisms play a key role in degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environments. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can enhance microbial degradation of PAHs in soils. However, it is not clear how will the soil microbial community respond to addition of DOM during bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this study, DOMs derived from various agricultural wastes were applied to remediate the aging PAH-contaminated soils in a 90-day microcosm experiment. Results showed that the addition of DOMs offered a more efficient and persistent elimination of soil PAHs compared to the control which had no DOM addition. PAH removal effects were different among treatments with various DOMs; the addition of DOMs with high proportion of hydrophobic fraction could remove PAHs more efficiently from the soil. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs were more easily eliminated than that with high-molecular-weight (HMW). Addition of DOMs significantly increased abundance of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), pdo1, nah, and C12O genes and obviously changed community compositions of nah and C12O genes in different ways in the PAH-contaminated soil. Phylogenetic analyses of clone libraries exhibited that all of nah sequences and most of C12O sequences were affiliated into Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. These results suggested that external stimuli produced by DOMs could enhance the microbial degradation of PAHs in soils through not only solubilizing PAHs but also altering abundance and composition of indigenous microbial degraders. Our results reinforce the understanding of role of DOMs in mediating degradation of PAHs by microorganims in soils.

  10. Geothermal environmental assessment baseline study: vegetation and soils of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.W.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1981-07-01

    Identification and elemental concentrations of indigenous soil and plant systems found on the Roosevelt Hot Spring KGRA are described. Twenty-three different soils and five separate plant communities are geographically mapped and identified. One hundred forty-seven plant species were identified. Forbs, shrubs, and grasses are represented by 58, 53, and 36 species respectively. Three sites, each measuring 25 hectares, were selected for long-term vegetative assessment. At these locations a permanent enclosure measuring 24.4 meters x 24.4 meters was constructed to assess long-term effects of livestock grazing. Biomass, plant species, percentage composition, ground cover and livestock carrying capacities were determined at each site. Surface soils and Artemisia tridentata leaf tissue were collected for elemental analysis.

  11. Tropical organic soils ecosystems in relation to regional water resources in southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Armentano, T. V.

    1982-01-01

    Tropical organic soils have functioned as natural sinks for carbon, nitrogen, slfur and other nutrients for the past 4000 years or more. Topographic evolution in peat swamp forests towards greater oligotrophy has concentrated storage of the limited nutrient stock in surface soils and biota. Tropical peat systems thus share common ecosystem characteristics with northern peat bogs and certain tropical oligotrophic forests. Organic matter accumulation and high cation-exchange-capacity limit nutrient exports from undisturbed organic soils, although nutrient retention declines with increasing eutrophy and wetland productivity. Peat swamps are subject to irreversible degradation if severely altered because disturbance of vegetation, surface peats and detritus can disrupt nuttrient cycles and reduce forest recovery capacity. Drainage also greatly increases exports of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and leads to downstream eutrophication and water quality degradation. Regional planning for clean water supplies must recognize the benefits provided by natural peatlands in balancing water supplies and regulating water chemistry.

  12. Soil microbial communities are shaped by plant-driven changes in resource availability during secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Cline, Lauren C; Zak, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Although we understand the ecological processes eliciting changes in plant community composition during secondary succession, we do not understand whether co-occurring changes in plant detritus shape saprotrophic microbial communities in soil. In this study, we investigated soil microbial composition and function across an old-field chronosequence ranging from 16 to 86 years following agricultural abandonment, as well as three forests representing potential late-successional ecosystems. Fungal and bacterial community composition was quantified from ribosomal DNA, and insight into the functional potential of the microbial community to decay plant litter was gained from shotgun metagenomics and extracellular enzyme assays. Accumulation of soil organic matter across the chronosequence exerted a positive and significant effect on fungal phylogenetic β-diversity and the activity of extracellular enzymes with lignocellulolytic activity. In addition, the increasing abundance of lignin-rich C4 grasses was positively related to the composition of fungal genes with lignocellulolytic function, thereby linking plant community composition, litter biochemistry, and microbial community function. However, edaphic properties were the primary agent shaping bacterial communities, as bacterial β-diversity and variation in functional gene composition displayed a significant and positive relationship to soil pH across the chronosequence. The late-successional forests were compositionally distinct from the oldest old fields, indicating that substantial changes occur in soil microbial communities as old fields give way to forests. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that plants govern the turnover of soil fungal communities and functional characteristics during secondary succession, due to the continual input of detritus and differences in litter biochemistry among plant species.

  13. Intraspecific genetic diversity modulates plant-soil feedback and nutrient cycling.

    PubMed

    Semchenko, Marina; Saar, Sirgi; Lepik, Anu

    2017-10-01

    Plant genetic diversity can affect ecosystem functioning by enhancing productivity, litter decomposition and resistance to natural enemies. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that genetic diversity may influence ecosystem processes by eliciting functional plasticity among individuals encountering kin or genetically diverse neighbourhoods. We used soil conditioned by groups of closely related (siblings) and diverse genotypes of Deschampsia cespitosa - a species known to exhibit kin recognition via root exudation - to investigate the consequences of kin interactions for root litter decomposition and negative feedback between plants and soil biota. Genetically diverse groups produced root litter that had higher nitrogen (N) content, decomposed faster and resulted in greater N uptake by the next generation of seedlings compared with litter produced by sibling groups. However, a similar degree of negative soil feedback on plant productivity was observed in soil conditioned by siblings and genetically diverse groups. This suggests that characteristics of roots produced by sibling groups slow down N cycling but moderate the expected negative impact of soil pathogens in low-diversity stands. These findings highlight interactions between neighbouring genotypes as an overlooked mechanism by which genetic diversity can affect biotic soil feedback and nutrient cycling. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. IN SITU TREATMENT OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH CHROMIUM - TECHNICAL RESOURCE GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New information and treatment approaches have been developed for chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater treatment. The prupose of this report is to bring together the most current information pertaining to the science of chromium contamination and the insitu treatment and co...

  15. Scheduling field operations as a function of temperature, soil moisture, and available resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scheduling field operations in SWAT can be done by specifying fixed dates or by using the heat unit index, which considers temperature constraints. However, soil moisture and labor requirements can also limit the ability of farm operators to perform field operations at the optimal time. The SWAT2012...

  16. IN SITU TREATMENT OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH CHROMIUM - TECHNICAL RESOURCE GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New information and treatment approaches have been developed for chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater treatment. The prupose of this report is to bring together the most current information pertaining to the science of chromium contamination and the insitu treatment and co...

  17. Nutrient use preferences among soil Streptomyces suggest greater resource competition in monoculture than polyculture plant communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient use overlap among sympatric Streptomyces populations is correlated with pathogen inhibitory capacity, yet there is little information on either the factors that influence nutrient use overlap among coexisting populations or the diversity of nutrient use among soil Streptomyces. We examined ...

  18. Use of ERTS data for a multidisciplinary analysis of Michigan resources. [forests, agriculture, soils, and landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, A. L.; Myers, W. L.; Safir, G.; Whiteside, E. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The results of this investigation of ratioing simulated ERTS spectral bands and several non-ERTS bands (all collected by an airborne multispectral scanner) indicate that significant terrain information is available from band-ratio images. Ratio images, which are based on the relative spectral changes which occur from one band to another, are useful for enhancing differences and aiding the image interpreter in identifying and mapping the distribution of such terrain elements as seedling crops, all bare soil, organic soil, mineral soil, forest and woodlots, and marsh areas. In addition, the ratio technique may be useful for computer processing to obtain recognition images of large areas at lower costs than with statistical decision rules. The results of this study of ratio processing of aircraft MSS data will be useful for future processing and evaluation of ERTS-1 data for soil and landform studies. Additionally, the results of ratioing spectral bands other than those currently collected by ERTS-1 suggests that some other bands (particularly a thermal band) would be useful in future satellites.

  19. Identifying military impacts to archaeological resources based on differences in vertical stratification of soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  20. Do biotic interactions modulate ecosystem functioning along stress gradients? Insights from semi-arid plant and biological soil crust communities

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Escolar, Cristina; Puche, María D.; Soliveres, Santiago; Maltez-Mouro, Sara; García-Palacios, Pablo; Castillo-Monroy, Andrea P.; Martínez, Isabel; Escudero, Adrián

    2010-01-01

    Climate change will exacerbate the degree of abiotic stress experienced by semi-arid ecosystems. While abiotic stress profoundly affects biotic interactions, their potential role as modulators of ecosystem responses to climate change is largely unknown. Using plants and biological soil crusts, we tested the relative importance of facilitative–competitive interactions and other community attributes (cover, species richness and species evenness) as drivers of ecosystem functioning along stress gradients in semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems. Biotic interactions shifted from facilitation to competition along stress gradients driven by water availability and temperature. These changes were, however, dependent on the spatial scale and the community considered. We found little evidence to suggest that biotic interactions are a major direct influence upon indicators of ecosystem functioning (soil respiration, organic carbon, water-holding capacity, compaction and the activity of enzymes related to the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles) along stress gradients. However, attributes such as cover and species richness showed a direct effect on ecosystem functioning. Our results do not agree with predictions emphasizing that the importance of plant–plant interactions will be increased under climate change in dry environments, and indicate that reductions in the cover of plant and biological soil crust communities will negatively impact ecosystems under future climatic conditions. PMID:20513714

  1. Development of an Anthropogenic Soil Moisture Contribution Module in the NOAH-UCM for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the current research we address critical deficiencies in the coupled Noah-SLUCM (single layer urban canopy model), including representation of anthropogenic moisture sources in irrigated urban areas. The improved model is being used to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of water and energy cycling in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Work includes development of a high spatial (30 m) and temporal (1 hr) resolution Noah-SLUCM coupled model over a range of urban development. An irrigation scheme based on soil moisture deficit is developed to account for anthropogenic soil moisture contribution in highly watered landscapes, testing a range of temporal applications. Remotely sensed products (MODIS and Landsat), residential water consumption data from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), and in situ observations through the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) are utilized to improve model parameters and validate outputs. Surface meteorological fields, such as land surface temperature and evapotranspiration, are significantly improved when the developed irrigation module is used. Increased soil moisture results in a maximum decrease of 7 degrees in land surface temperature and a 10-20% increase in evapotranspiration rates in irrigated landscapes across the study domain. Ultimately, project results will contribute to the exploration of interactions among the components of the Earth system and improve our understanding and prediction of climate variability and change in regional urban systems.

  2. Mid-latitude shrub steppe plant communities: Climate change consequences for soil water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmquist, Kyle A.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, Willliam K.

    2016-01-01

    In the coming century, climate change is projected to impact precipitation and temperature regimes worldwide, with especially large effects in drylands. We use big sagebrush ecosystems as a model dryland ecosystem to explore the impacts of altered climate on ecohydrology and the implications of those changes for big sagebrush plant communities using output from 10 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). We ask: 1) What is the magnitude of variability in future temperature and precipitation regimes among GCMs and RCPs for big sagebrush ecosystems and 2) How will altered climate and uncertainty in climate forecasts influence key aspects of big sagebrush water balance? We explored these questions across 1980-2010, 2030-2060, and 2070-2100 to determine how changes in water balance might develop through the 21st century. We assessed ecohydrological variables at 898 sagebrush sites across the western US using a process-based soil water model, SOILWAT to model all components of daily water balance using site-specific vegetation parameters and site-specific soil properties for multiple soil layers. Our modeling approach allowed for changes in vegetation based on climate. Temperature increased across all GCMs and RCPs, while changes in precipitation were more variable across GCMs. Winter and spring precipitation was predicted to increase in the future (7% by 2030-2060, 12% by 2070-2100), resulting in slight increases in soil water potential (SWP) in winter. Despite wetter winter soil conditions, SWP decreased in late spring and summer due to increased evapotranspiration (6% by 2030-2060, 10% by 2070-2100) and groundwater recharge (26% and 30% increase by 2030-2060 and 2070-2100). Thus, despite increased precipitation in the cold season, soils may dry out earlier in the year, resulting in potentially longer drier summer conditions. If winter precipitation cannot offset drier summer conditions in the future, we expect big

  3. Mid-latitude shrub steppe plant communities: climate change consequences for soil water resources.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Kyle A; Schlaepfer, Daniel R; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

    2016-09-01

    In the coming century, climate change is projected to impact precipitation and temperature regimes worldwide, with especially large effects in drylands. We use big sagebrush ecosystems as a model dryland ecosystem to explore the impacts of altered climate on ecohydrology and the implications of those changes for big sagebrush plant communities using output from 10 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). We ask: (1) What is the magnitude of variability in future temperature and precipitation regimes among GCMs and RCPs for big sagebrush ecosystems, and (2) How will altered climate and uncertainty in climate forecasts influence key aspects of big sagebrush water balance? We explored these questions across 1980-2010, 2030-2060, and 2070-2100 to determine how changes in water balance might develop through the 21st century. We assessed ecohydrological variables at 898 sagebrush sites across the western US using a process-based soil water model, SOILWAT, to model all components of daily water balance using site-specific vegetation parameters and site-specific soil properties for multiple soil layers. Our modeling approach allowed for changes in vegetation based on climate. Temperature increased across all GCMs and RCPs, whereas changes in precipitation were more variable across GCMs. Winter and spring precipitation was predicted to increase in the future (7% by 2030-2060, 12% by 2070-2100), resulting in slight increases in soil water potential (SWP) in winter. Despite wetter winter soil conditions, SWP decreased in late spring and summer due to increased evapotranspiration (6% by 2030-2060, 10% by 2070-2100) and groundwater recharge (26% and 30% increase by 2030-2060 and 2070-2100). Thus, despite increased precipitation in the cold season, soils may dry out earlier in the year, resulting in potentially longer, drier summer conditions. If winter precipitation cannot offset drier summer conditions in the future, we expect big

  4. Shifting species interaction in soil microbial community and its influence on ecosystem functions modulating.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Colica, Giovanni; Wu, Pei-pei; Li, Dunhai; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto; Liu, Yongding

    2013-04-01

    The supportive and negative evidence for the stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) led to an ongoing debate among ecologists and called for new empirical and theoretical work. In this study, we took various biological soil crust (BSCs) samples along a spatial gradient with four environmental stress levels to examine the fitness of SGH in microbial interactions and evaluate its influence on biodiversity-function relationships in BSCs. A new assessment method of species interactions within hard-cultured invisible soil community was employed, directly based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprint images. The results showed that biotic interactions in soil phototroph community dramatically shifted from facilitation to dominant competition with the improvement of microhabitats. It offered new evidence, which presented a different perspective on the hypothesis that the relative importance of facilitation and competition varies inversely along the gradient of abiotic stress. The path analysis indicated that influence of biotic interactions (r = 0.19, p < 0.05) on ecosystem functions is lower than other community properties (r = 0.62, p < 0.001), including soil moisture, crust coverage, and biodiversity. Furthermore, the correlation between species interactions and community properties was non-significant with low negative influence (r = -0.27, p > 0.05). We demonstrate that the inversion of biotic interaction as a response to the gradient of abiotic stresses existed not only in the visible plant community but also in the soil microbial community.

  5. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for mapping forest, agricultural and soil resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S.; Benson, A.; Dummer, K.; Fakhoury, E.

    1985-01-01

    Color composite TM film products which include TM5, TM4, and a visible band (TM1, TM2, or TM3) are superior to composites which exclude TM4 for discriminating most forest and agricultural cover types and estimating area proportions for inventory and sampling purposes. Clustering a subset of TM data results in a spectral class map which groups diverse forest cover types into spectrally and ecologically similar areas suitable for use as a stratification base in traditional forest inventory practices. Analysis of simulated Thematic Mapper data indicate that the location and number of TM spectral bands are suitable for detecting differences in major soil properties and characterizing soil spectral curve form and magnitude.

  6. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for mapping forest, agricultural and soil resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S.; Benson, A.; Dummer, K.; Fakhoury, E.

    1985-01-01

    Color composite TM film products which include TM5, TM4, and a visible band (TM1, TM2, or TM3) are superior to composites which exclude TM4 for discriminating most forest and agricultural cover types and estimating area proportions for inventory and sampling purposes. Clustering a subset of TM data results in a spectral class map which groups diverse forest cover types into spectrally and ecologically similar areas suitable for use as a stratification base in traditional forest inventory practices. Analysis of simulated Thematic Mapper data indicate that the location and number of TM spectral bands are suitable for detecting differences in major soil properties and characterizing soil spectral curve form and magnitude.

  7. The potential impact of climate change on Australia's soil organic carbon resources

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Peter; Post, Wilfred M; Hennessy, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) represents a significant pool of carbon within the biosphere. Climatic shifts in temperature and precipitation have a major influence on the decomposition and amount of SOC stored within an ecosystem and that released into the atmosphere. We have linked net primary production (NPP) algorithms, which include the impact of enhanced atmospheric CO2 on plant growth, to the SOCRATES terrestrial carbon model to estimate changes in SOC for the Australia continent between the years 1990 and 2100 in response to climate changes generated by the CSIRO Mark 2 Global Circulation Model (GCM). We estimate organic carbon storage in the topsoil (0-10 cm) of the Australian continent in 1990 to be 8.1 Gt. This equates to 19 and 34 Gt in the top 30 and 100 cm of soil, respectively. By the year 2100, under a low emissions scenario, topsoil organic carbon stores of the continent will have increased by 0.6% (49 Mt C). Under a high emissions scenario, the Australian continent becomes a source of CO2 with a net reduction of 6.4% (518 Mt) in topsoil carbon, when compared to no climate change. This is partially offset by the predicted increase in NPP of 20.3% Climate change impacts must be studied holistically, requiring integration of climate, plant, ecosystem and soil sciences. The SOCRATES terrestrial carbon cycling model provides realistic estimates of changes in SOC storage in response to climate change over the next century, and confirms the need for greater consideration of soils in assessing the full impact of climate change and the development of quantifiable mitigation strategies.

  8. Resource Partitioning between Bacteria, Fungi, and Protists in the Detritusphere of an Agricultural Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Susanne; Dibbern, Dörte; Moll, Julia; Huenninghaus, Maike; Koller, Robert; Krueger, Dirk; Marhan, Sven; Urich, Tim; Wubet, Tesfaye; Bonkowski, Michael; Buscot, François; Lueders, Tillmann; Kandeler, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil. Carbon flow was traced by rRNA stable isotope probing and amplicon sequencing across three microbial kingdoms. Distinct lineages within the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota as well as Peronosporomycetes were identified as important primary substrate consumers. A dynamic succession of primary consumers was observed especially in the cellulose treatments, but also in plant amendments over time. While intra-kingdom niche partitioning was clearly observed, distinct bacterial and fungal energy channels were not apparent. Furthermore, while the diversity of primary substrate consumers did not notably increase with substrate complexity, consumer succession and secondary trophic links to bacterivorous and fungivorous microbes resulted in increased food web complexity in the more recalcitrant substrates. This suggests that rather than substrate-defined energy channels, consumer succession as well as intra- and inter-kingdom cross-feeding should be considered as mechanisms supporting food web complexity in the detritusphere. PMID:27725815

  9. Resource Partitioning between Bacteria, Fungi, and Protists in the Detritusphere of an Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Susanne; Dibbern, Dörte; Moll, Julia; Huenninghaus, Maike; Koller, Robert; Krueger, Dirk; Marhan, Sven; Urich, Tim; Wubet, Tesfaye; Bonkowski, Michael; Buscot, François; Lueders, Tillmann; Kandeler, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The flow of plant-derived carbon in soil is a key component of global carbon cycling. Conceptual models of trophic carbon fluxes in soil have assumed separate bacterial and fungal energy channels in the detritusphere, controlled by both substrate complexity and recalcitrance. However, detailed understanding of the key populations involved and niche-partitioning between them is limited. Here, a microcosm experiment was performed to trace the flow of detritusphere C from substrate analogs (glucose, cellulose) and plant biomass amendments (maize leaves, roots) in an agricultural soil. Carbon flow was traced by rRNA stable isotope probing and amplicon sequencing across three microbial kingdoms. Distinct lineages within the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota as well as Peronosporomycetes were identified as important primary substrate consumers. A dynamic succession of primary consumers was observed especially in the cellulose treatments, but also in plant amendments over time. While intra-kingdom niche partitioning was clearly observed, distinct bacterial and fungal energy channels were not apparent. Furthermore, while the diversity of primary substrate consumers did not notably increase with substrate complexity, consumer succession and secondary trophic links to bacterivorous and fungivorous microbes resulted in increased food web complexity in the more recalcitrant substrates. This suggests that rather than substrate-defined energy channels, consumer succession as well as intra- and inter-kingdom cross-feeding should be considered as mechanisms supporting food web complexity in the detritusphere.

  10. Soils

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    Edaphic and climatic characteristics of a site quite well define the quality of that site for plant growth. The importance of soil characteristics to the growth and well-being of aspen in the West is apparent from observations by many authors, from inferences resulting from work with other trees and agricultural crops, and from detailed study of aspen soils and site...

  11. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM_E1) derived from sugarcane soil metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Bruna Medeia; Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Liberato, Marcelo Vizona; Polikarpov, Igor; Gilbert, Harry J.; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, owing to the growing global demand for energy, dependence on fossil fuels, limited natural resources and environmental pollution, biofuels have attracted great interest as a source of renewable energy. However, the production of biofuels from plant biomass is still considered to be an expensive technology. In this context, the study of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), which are involved in guiding the catalytic domains of glycoside hydrolases for polysaccharide degradation, is attracting growing attention. Aiming at the identification of new CBMs, a sugarcane soil metagenomic library was analyzed and an uncharacterized CBM (CBM_E1) was identified. In this study, CBM_E1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. The crystals, which were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method, belonged to space group I23, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 88.07 Å. PMID:25195898

  12. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects.

    PubMed

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid- and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social ties predicted resource allocation. With increasing age group, investment decisions increasingly reflected the degree to which peers reciprocated feelings of friendship. This result may reflect social-cognitive development, which could facilitate the ability to navigate an increasingly complex social world in adolescence and promote positive and enduring relationships into adulthood.

  13. Soil fertility shapes belowground food webs across a regional climate gradient.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, Etienne; Kardol, Paul; Didham, Raphael K; Teste, François P; Turner, Benjamin L; Wardle, David A

    2017-10-01

    Changes in soil fertility during pedogenesis affect the quantity and quality of resources entering the belowground subsystem. Climate governs pedogenesis, yet how climate modulates responses of soil food webs to soil ageing remains unexplored because of the paucity of appropriate model systems. We characterised soil food webs along each of four retrogressive soil chronosequences situated across a strong regional climate gradient to show that belowground communities are predominantly shaped by changes in fertility rather than climate. Basal consumers showed hump-shaped responses to soil ageing, which were propagated to higher-order consumers. There was a shift in dominance from bacterial to fungal energy channels with increasing soil age, while the root energy channel was most important in intermediate-aged soils. Our study highlights the overarching importance of soil fertility in regulating soil food webs, and indicates that belowground food webs will respond more strongly to shifts in soil resources than climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. The effect of resource history on the functioning of soil microbial communities is maintained across time

    Treesearch

    A. Keiser; M. Strickland; N. Fierer; M. Bradford

    2011-01-01

    Historical resource conditions appear to influence microbial community function. With time, historical influences might diminish as populations respond to the contemporary environment. Alternatively, they may persist given factors such as contrasting genetic potentials for adaptation to a new environment. Using experimental microcosms, we test competing hypotheses that...

  15. Soil and Oil, Trees and Seas: Building Nations through Natural Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the tribal colleges and universities in building programs aimed at helping students and energy companies acquire the skills needed for employment in the natural resource industries around the Native nations. Students are learning many skills--welding, construction technology, and safety. Students are also…

  16. Soil and Oil, Trees and Seas: Building Nations through Natural Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the activities of the tribal colleges and universities in building programs aimed at helping students and energy companies acquire the skills needed for employment in the natural resource industries around the Native nations. Students are learning many skills--welding, construction technology, and safety. Students are also…

  17. Comparative Microbial Modules Resource: Generation and Visualization of Multi-species Biclusters

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Ashley; Eichenberger, Patrick; Bonneau, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The increasing abundance of large-scale, high-throughput datasets for many closely related organisms provides opportunities for comparative analysis via the simultaneous biclustering of datasets from multiple species. These analyses require a reformulation of how to organize multi-species datasets and visualize comparative genomics data analyses results. Recently, we developed a method, multi-species cMonkey, which integrates heterogeneous high-throughput datatypes from multiple species to identify conserved regulatory modules. Here we present an integrated data visualization system, built upon the Gaggle, enabling exploration of our method's results (available at http://meatwad.bio.nyu.edu/cmmr.html). The system can also be used to explore other comparative genomics datasets and outputs from other data analysis procedures – results from other multiple-species clustering programs or from independent clustering of different single-species datasets. We provide an example use of our system for two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium. We illustrate the use of our system by exploring conserved biclusters involved in nitrogen metabolism, uncovering a putative function for yjjI, a currently uncharacterized gene that we predict to be involved in nitrogen assimilation. PMID:22144874

  18. Research resource: modulators of glucocorticoid receptor activity identified by a new high-throughput screening assay.

    PubMed

    Blackford, John A; Brimacombe, Kyle R; Dougherty, Edward J; Pradhan, Madhumita; Shen, Min; Li, Zhuyin; Auld, Douglas S; Chow, Carson C; Austin, Christopher P; Simons, S Stoney

    2014-07-01

    Glucocorticoid steroids affect almost every type of tissue and thus are widely used to treat a variety of human pathological conditions. However, the severity of numerous side effects limits the frequency and duration of glucocorticoid treatments. Of the numerous approaches to control off-target responses to glucocorticoids, small molecules and pharmaceuticals offer several advantages. Here we describe a new, extended high-throughput screen in intact cells to identify small molecule modulators of dexamethasone-induced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) transcriptional activity. The novelty of this assay is that it monitors changes in both GR maximal activity (A(max)) and EC(50) (the position of the dexamethasone dose-response curve). Upon screening 1280 chemicals, 10 with the greatest changes in the absolute value of A(max) or EC(50) were selected for further examination. Qualitatively identical behaviors for 60% to 90% of the chemicals were observed in a completely different system, suggesting that other systems will be similarly affected by these chemicals. Additional analysis of the 10 chemicals in a recently described competition assay determined their kinetically defined mechanism and site of action. Some chemicals had similar mechanisms of action despite divergent effects on the level of the GR-induced product. These combined assays offer a straightforward method of identifying numerous new pharmaceuticals that can alter GR transactivation in ways that could be clinically useful.

  19. Woody plants modulate the temporal dynamics of soil moisture in a semi-arid mesquite savanna

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In arid and semi-arid ecosystems (drylands), soil moisture abundance limits biological activity and mediates the effects of anthropogenic global change factors such as atmospheric CO2 increases and climate warming. Moreover, climate variability and human activities are interacting to increase the ab...

  20. Soil erosion and sediment control laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands enacted erosion and sediment control legislation during the past decade to provide for the implementation or the strengthening of statewide erosion and sediment control plans for rural and/or urban lands. That legislation and the state programs developed to implement these laws are quoted and reviewed. The natural resource data requirements of each program are also extracted. The legislation includes amendments to conservation district laws, water quality laws, and erosion and sediment control laws. Laws which provides for legislative review of administrative regulations and LANDSAT applications and/or information systems that were involved in implementing or gathering data for a specific soil erosion and sediment control program are summarized as well as principal concerns affecting erosion and sediment control laws.

  1. Application and evaluation of ERTS color composites for natural resources inventory. [hydrology, geomorphology, volcanology, geology, soils, and vegetation of Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockmann, C. E. (Principal Investigator); Fernandez, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Bolivia is participating the Earth Resources Technology Satellite Program. Within this program many interesting sets of images were received which were evaluated in the Bolivian ERTS Program. One of the images was obtained in color of the central part of the Bolivian Altiplano. The color composite and black and white images were compared in order to evaluate which class of ERTS-1 product furnishes more information about specific topics. It was found that the color composites give far more information, about 50% more data, in hydrology, geomorphology, vulcanism, geology, soils, and vegetation than can be obtained from black and white images of the same scene. For this reason, the project is processing with preference color composites of the whole country.

  2. USING SOIL AND OTHER PLANT GROWING MEDIA EFFECTIVELY. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE APPRECIATIONS, UNDERSTANDINGS, AND ABILITIES NEEDED TO USE PLANT GROWING MEDIA IN GROWING HORTICULTURAL PLANTS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES.…

  3. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Huang, R.; Wang, B. Z.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Jia, Z. J.

    2014-03-01

    Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and pmoA genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity by 6-fold during a 19 day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly inhibited in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like type Ia MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be suppressed by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. Strikingly, type Ib MOB did not respond to methane nor to urea. Increase in 13C-assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, in addition of nitrite

  4. Interactions between Thaumarchaea, Nitrospira and methanotrophs modulate autotrophic nitrification in volcanic grassland soil

    PubMed Central

    Daebeler, Anne; Bodelier, Paul LE; Yan, Zheng; Hefting, Mariet M; Jia, Zhongjun; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium/ammonia is the sole energy substrate of ammonia oxidizers, and is also an essential nitrogen source for other microorganisms. Ammonia oxidizers therefore must compete with other soil microorganisms such as methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in terrestrial ecosystems when ammonium concentrations are limiting. Here we report on the interactions between nitrifying communities dominated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and communities of MOB in controlled microcosm experiments with two levels of ammonium and methane availability. We observed strong stimulatory effects of elevated ammonium concentration on the processes of nitrification and methane oxidation as well as on the abundances of autotrophically growing nitrifiers. However, the key players in nitrification and methane oxidation, identified by stable-isotope labeling using 13CO2 and 13CH4, were the same under both ammonium levels, namely type 1.1a AOA, sublineage I and II Nitrospira-like NOB and Methylomicrobium-/Methylosarcina-like MOB, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were nearly absent, and ammonia oxidation could almost exclusively be attributed to AOA. Interestingly, although AOA functional gene abundance increased 10-fold during incubation, there was very limited evidence of autotrophic growth, suggesting a partly mixotrophic lifestyle. Furthermore, autotrophic growth of AOA and NOB was inhibited by active MOB at both ammonium levels. Our results suggest the existence of a previously overlooked competition for nitrogen between nitrifiers and methane oxidizers in soil, thus linking two of the most important biogeochemical cycles in nature. PMID:24858784

  5. Interactions between Thaumarchaea, Nitrospira and methanotrophs modulate autotrophic nitrification in volcanic grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Daebeler, Anne; Bodelier, Paul L E; Yan, Zheng; Hefting, Mariet M; Jia, Zhongjun; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium/ammonia is the sole energy substrate of ammonia oxidizers, and is also an essential nitrogen source for other microorganisms. Ammonia oxidizers therefore must compete with other soil microorganisms such as methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in terrestrial ecosystems when ammonium concentrations are limiting. Here we report on the interactions between nitrifying communities dominated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and communities of MOB in controlled microcosm experiments with two levels of ammonium and methane availability. We observed strong stimulatory effects of elevated ammonium concentration on the processes of nitrification and methane oxidation as well as on the abundances of autotrophically growing nitrifiers. However, the key players in nitrification and methane oxidation, identified by stable-isotope labeling using (13)CO2 and (13)CH4, were the same under both ammonium levels, namely type 1.1a AOA, sublineage I and II Nitrospira-like NOB and Methylomicrobium-/Methylosarcina-like MOB, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were nearly absent, and ammonia oxidation could almost exclusively be attributed to AOA. Interestingly, although AOA functional gene abundance increased 10-fold during incubation, there was very limited evidence of autotrophic growth, suggesting a partly mixotrophic lifestyle. Furthermore, autotrophic growth of AOA and NOB was inhibited by active MOB at both ammonium levels. Our results suggest the existence of a previously overlooked competition for nitrogen between nitrifiers and methane oxidizers in soil, thus linking two of the most important biogeochemical cycles in nature.

  6. The Soil Bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus Bath Interacts with Human Dendritic Cells to Modulate Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Indrelid, Stine; Kleiveland, Charlotte; Holst, René; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased in Western countries during the course of the twentieth century, and is evolving to be a global disease. Recently we showed that a bacterial meal of a non-commensal, non-pathogenic methanotrophic soil bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath prevents experimentally induced colitis in a murine model of IBD. The mechanism behind the effect has this far not been identified. Here, for the first time we show that M. capsulatus, a soil bacterium adheres specifically to human dendritic cells, influencing DC maturation, cytokine production, and subsequent T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation. We characterize the immune modulatory properties of M. capsulatus and compare its immunological properties to those of another Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium, the commensal Escherichia coli K12, and the immune modulatory Gram-positive probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in vitro. M. capsulatus induces intermediate phenotypic and functional DC maturation. In a mixed lymphocyte reaction M. capsulatus-primed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) enhance T cell expression of CD25, the γ-chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor, supports cell proliferation, and induce a T cell cytokine profile different from both E. coli K12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. M. capsulatus Bath thus interacts specifically with MoDC, affecting MoDC maturation, cytokine profile, and subsequent MoDC directed T cell polarization. PMID:28293233

  7. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin. [crop identification, water resources, urban land use, soil mapping, and atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant results were obtained in the water resources research, urban land use mapping, and soil association mapping projects. ERTS-1 data was used to classify water bodies to determine acreages and high agreement was obtained with USGS figures. Quantitative evaluation was achieved of urban land use classifications from ERTS-1 data and an overall test accuracy of 90.3% was observed. ERTS-1 data classifications of soil test sites were compared with soil association maps scaled to match the computer produced map and good agreement was observed. In some cases the ERTS-1 results proved to be more accurate than the soil association map.

  8. At-column heating and a resistively heated, liquid-cooled thermal modulator for a low-resource bench-top GC x GC.

    PubMed

    Libardoni, Mark; Hasselbrink, Ernest; Waite, J Hunter; Sacks, Richard

    2006-05-01

    A transportable GC x GC instrument is under development for on-site applications that would benefit from the enhanced resolution and powers of detection, which can be achieved by this method. In the present study, a low-resource GC x GC instrument using an electrically heated and liquid-cooled single-stage thermal modulator that requires no cryogenic materials is evaluated. The instrument also uses at-column heating, thus eliminating the need for a convection oven to house the two columns. The stainless-steel modulator tube is coated with PDMS, which can be heated to 350 degrees C for sample injection into the second-dimension column. The modulator is cooled to -30 degrees C by a 100 mL/min flow of PEG by means of a commercial liquid chiller and a small recirculating pump. Resistive heating of the modulator tube is provided by a programmable power supply, which uses a voltage program that results in increasing modulator temperature during an analysis. This, together with more rapid cooling by the use of a liquid cooling medium, results in reduced solute breakthrough following each heating cycle as the modulator cools to a temperature where quantitative trapping resumes. As a result, modulated peak widths at half-height of less than 40 ms are observed. Design and performance details are presented along with chromatograms of gasoline and an essential oil sample.

  9. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Huang, R.; Wang, B. Z.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Jia, Z. J.

    2014-06-01

    Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity 6-fold during a 19-day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly suppressed in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be partially inhibited by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to an equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related type Ia MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. An increase in 13C assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition partially inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, as well as growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. These

  10. Analysis of in situ resources of for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiments in 2015 and 2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the launch of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) in 2015, a new era of soil moisture monitoring was begun. Soil moisture is available on a near daily basis at a 36 km resolution for the globe. But this dataset is only as valuable if its products are accurate and reliableas its acc...

  11. Soil resources and potential for agricultural development in Bahr El Jebel in southern Sudan, Jonglei Canal project area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.; Moore, D. G.; Abdel-Hady, M. A.; Abdel-Samie, A. G.; Elshazly, E. M. (Principal Investigator); Youvis, H.; Worcester, B. K.; Klingebiel, A. A.; Elshazly, M. M.; Hamad, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Fourteen LANDSAT scenes were used to produce mosaics of the 167, 474 sq km study area. These were black and white MSS 7 images and false color composite images. Five major soil-landscape units were delineated on the mosaics, and these were subdivided into a total of 40 soil mapping units. Aerial reconnaissance was useful in defining boundaries between mapping units and in estimating the proportion of the various soils which composed each mapping unit. Ground surveying permitted first-hand observation of major soils and sampling for quantitative laboratory analysis. Soil interpretations were made, including properties, potentials, and limitations.

  12. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  13. Mapping Soil Organic Carbon Resources Across Agricultural Land Uses in Highland Lesotho Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.; Adam, E.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) using high resolution satellite imagery is especially important in inaccessible or upland areas that have limited field measurements, where land use and land cover (LULC) are changing rapidly, or where the land surface is sensitive to overgrazing and high rates of soil erosion and thus sediment, nutrient and carbon export. Here we outline the methods and results of mapping soil organic carbon in highland areas (~2400 m) of eastern Lesotho, southern Africa, across different land uses. Bedrock summit areas with very thin soils are dominated by xeric alpine grassland; terrace agriculture with strip fields and thicker soils is found within river valleys. Multispectral Worldview 2 imagery was used to map LULC across the region. An overall accuracy of 88% and kappa value of 0.83 were achieved using a support vector machine model. Soils were examined in the field from different LULC areas for properties such as soil depth, maturity and structure. In situ soils in the field were also evaluated using a portable analytical spectral device (ASD) in order to ground truth spectral signatures from Worldview. Soil samples were examined in the lab for chemical properties including organic carbon. Regression modeling was used in order to establish a relationship between soil characteristics and soil spectral reflectance. We were thus able to map SOC across this diverse landscape. Results show that there are notable differences in SOC between upland and agricultural areas which reflect both soil thickness and maturity, and land use practices such as manuring of fields by cattle. Soil erosion and thus carbon (nutrient) export is significant issue in this region, which this project will now be examining.

  14. [Native plant resources to optimize the performances of forest rehabilitation in Mediterranean and tropical environment: some examples of nursing plant species that improve the soil mycorrhizal potential].

    PubMed

    Duponnois, Robin; Ramanankierana, Heriniaina; Hafidi, Mohamed; Baohanta, Rondro; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Thioulouse, Jean; Sanguin, Hervé; Bâ, Amadou; Galiana, Antoine; Bally, René; Lebrun, Michel; Prin, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The overexploitation of natural resources, resulting in an increased need for arable lands by local populations, causes a serious dysfunction in the soil's biological functioning (mineral deficiency, salt stress, etc.). This dysfunction, worsened by the climatic conditions (drought), requires the implementation of ecological engineering strategies allowing the rehabilitation of degraded areas through the restoration of essential ecological services. The first symptoms of weathering processes of soil quality in tropical and Mediterranean environments result in an alteration of the plant cover structure with, in particular, the pauperization of plant species diversity and abundance. This degradation is accompanied by a weakening of soils and an increase of the impact of erosion on the surface layer resulting in reduced fertility of soils in terms of their physicochemical characteristics as well as their biological ones (e.g., soil microbes). Among the microbial components particularly sensitive to erosion, symbiotic microorganisms (rhizobia, Frankia, mycorrhizal fungi) are known to be key components in the main terrestrial biogeochemical cycles (C, N and P). Many studies have shown the importance of the management of these symbiotic microorganisms in rehabilitation and revegetation strategies of degraded environments, but also in improving the productivity of agrosystems. In particular, the selection of symbionts and their inoculation into the soil were strongly encouraged in recent decades. These inoculants were selected not only for their impact on the plant, but also for their ability to persist in the soil at the expense of the residual native microflora. The performance of this technique was thus evaluated on the plant cover, but its impact on soil microbial characteristics was totally ignored. The role of microbial diversity on productivity and stability (resistance, resilience, etc.) of eco- and agrosystems has been identified relatively recently and has led

  15. A "Do-It-Yourself" Interactive Bone Structure Module: Development and Evaluation of an Online Teaching Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Peter; Guy, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A stand-alone online teaching module was developed to cover an area of musculoskeletal anatomy (structure of bone) found to be difficult by students. The material presented in the module was not formally presented in any other way, thus providing additional time for other curriculum components, but it was assessed in the final examination. The…

  16. A "Do-It-Yourself" Interactive Bone Structure Module: Development and Evaluation of an Online Teaching Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Peter; Guy, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A stand-alone online teaching module was developed to cover an area of musculoskeletal anatomy (structure of bone) found to be difficult by students. The material presented in the module was not formally presented in any other way, thus providing additional time for other curriculum components, but it was assessed in the final examination. The…

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of soil CO2 efflux in drylands are modulated by the type of cover: The role of biocrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Cantón, Yolanda; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Domingo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Although the quantification of carbon (C) flux dynamics in arid and semiarid ecosystems has acquired relevant interest, it is recognized that C fluxes of drylands have been poorly measured and modeled, despite these regions represent 40% of the Earth land's surface and are known to play a crucial role in the global C cycle. Scarce vegetation and heterogeneity of non vegetated areas contributes to significant uncertainty in evaluating the roles of these ecosystems in C fluxes. In addition, interplant soils in most arid and semiarid areas are covered by biocrusts (communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses in association with soil particles) which strongly affect C uptake and release and also contribute to increasing uncertainty in the assessment of C balance in these ecosystems. A better understanding of CO2 efflux in different soil covers and how they are regulated by environmental factors is necessary for identifying the relationships between C sinks and sources of arid and semiarid ecosystems. Our goal was to analyse temporal dynamics of soil CO2 on representative cover types of semiarid ecosystems (soil under plant, biocrusts and bare soil) and the influence of environmental factors (soil moisture and temperature) on soil CO2 patterns. The study area chosen was a badlands site (El Cautivo, Almería, SE Spain) where biocrusts occupy up to 50% of soil surface. Soil CO2 molar fraction (χc) was continuously monitored using small solid-state CO2 sensors (GM222, Vaisala, Helsinki, Finland) buried at 5 cm under the different covers, during one year. Soil temperature and soil moisture were also measured under these covers. From the CO2 time-series measured, we calculated soil CO2 efflux (Fs) from the 0-5 cm soil profile using Fick's law of diffusion. Our results demonstrate that soil moisture was the main factor driving soil χc. During summer, when soil was dry, all cover types showed similar soil χc. Following a rain, there was a rapid increase in soil

  18. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  19. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  20. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  1. Species-specific partitioning of soil water resources in an old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest.

    Treesearch

    F.C. Meinzer; J.M. Warren; J.R. Brooks

    2007-01-01

    We studied seasonal courses of soil water utilization in a 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii/Tsuga heterophylla forest. Mean root area in the upper 60 cm of soil was significantly greater in the vicinity of T. heterophylla trees. However, seasonal water extraction on a root area basis was significantly...

  2. Environmental Studies, Section IV: Natural Resources. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.12: Soils. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individualized learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on soils and soil conservation…

  3. Metal-accumulating plants: The biological resource and its commercial exploitation is soil clean-up technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a broad overview of metal hyperaccumulator plants and biological accumulation technology. Plants that have been identified as having the greatest potentials for development as phytoremediator crops for metal-contaminated soils are very briefly discussed. Phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, and phytostabilization are briefly defined. Issues pertinent to large scale phytoremediation of soils are discussed, including biological and technological constraints.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Simulated by EPIC in Cotton Rotations from Three Major Land Resource Areas in the Southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the southeastern USA is perceived as occurring at a relatively low rate, because of the inherent low SOC content of most agricultural soils. However, recent field estimates of SOC sequestration in conservation management systems suggest that the sequest...

  8. Chitin amendment increases soil suppressiveness toward plant pathogens and modulates the actinobacterial and oxalobacteraceal communities in an experimental agricultural field.

    PubMed

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W; Visser, Johnny H M; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-09-01

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the suppressiveness of soil toward Verticillium dahliae, as well as plant-pathogenic nematodes, was assessed, in addition to analyses of the abundances and community structures of members of the soil microbiota. The data revealed that chitin amendment had raised the suppressiveness of soil, in particular toward Verticillium dahliae, 9 months after the (second) treatment, extending to 2 years following treatment. Moreover, major effects of the added chitin on the soil microbial communities were detected. First, shifts in both the abundances and structures of the chitin-treated soil microbial communities, both of total soil bacteria and fungi, were found. In addition, the abundances and structures of soil actinobacteria and the Oxalobacteraceae were affected by chitin. At the functional gene level, the abundance of specific (family-18 glycoside hydrolase) chitinase genes carried by the soil bacteria also revealed upshifts as a result of the added chitin. The effects of chitin noted for the Oxalobacteraceae were specifically related to significant upshifts in the abundances of the species Duganella violaceinigra and Massilia plicata. These effects of chitin persisted over the time of the experiment.

  9. Chitin Amendment Increases Soil Suppressiveness toward Plant Pathogens and Modulates the Actinobacterial and Oxalobacteraceal Communities in an Experimental Agricultural Field

    PubMed Central

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W.; Visser, Johnny H. M.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the suppressiveness of soil toward Verticillium dahliae, as well as plant-pathogenic nematodes, was assessed, in addition to analyses of the abundances and community structures of members of the soil microbiota. The data revealed that chitin amendment had raised the suppressiveness of soil, in particular toward Verticillium dahliae, 9 months after the (second) treatment, extending to 2 years following treatment. Moreover, major effects of the added chitin on the soil microbial communities were detected. First, shifts in both the abundances and structures of the chitin-treated soil microbial communities, both of total soil bacteria and fungi, were found. In addition, the abundances and structures of soil actinobacteria and the Oxalobacteraceae were affected by chitin. At the functional gene level, the abundance of specific (family-18 glycoside hydrolase) chitinase genes carried by the soil bacteria also revealed upshifts as a result of the added chitin. The effects of chitin noted for the Oxalobacteraceae were specifically related to significant upshifts in the abundances of the species Duganella violaceinigra and Massilia plicata. These effects of chitin persisted over the time of the experiment. PMID:23811512

  10. Analysis of in situ resources for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiments in 2015 and 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.; Bindlish, R.; McKee, L.; Goodrich, D. C.; Prueger, J. H.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Coopersmith, E. J.; Holifield Collins, C.; Smith, J.

    2016-12-01

    With the launch of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) in 2015, a new era of soil moisture monitoring was begun. Soil moisture is available on a near daily basis at a 36 km resolution for the globe. But this dataset is only as valuable if its products are accurate and reliable. Therefore, in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the soil moisture product, NASA enacted an extensive calibration and validation program with many in situ soil moisture networks contributing data across a variety of landscape regimes. However, not all questions can be answered by these networks. As a result, two intensive field experiments were executed to provide more detailed reference points for calibration and validation. Multi-week field campaigns were conducted in Arizona and Iowa at the USDA Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch and South Fork Experimental Watersheds, respectively. Aircraft observations were made to provide a high resolution data product. Soil moisture, soil roughness and vegetation data were collected at high resolution to provide a downscaled dataset to compare against aircraft and satellite estimates.

  11. Enhanced growth of halophyte plants in biochar-amended coastal soil: roles of nutrient availability and rhizosphere microbial modulation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Lei; Wang, Zhenyu; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Yipeng; Wang, Hefang; Luo, Xianxiang; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-03-27

    Soil health is essential and irreplaceable for plant growth and global food production, which has been threatened by climate change and soil degradation. Degraded coastal soils are urgently required to reclaim using new sustainable technologies. Interest in applying biochar to improve soil health and promote crop yield has rapidly increased because of its multiple benefits. However, effects of biochar addition on the saline-sodic coastal soil health and halophyte growth were poorly understood. Response of two halophytes, Sesbania (Sesbania cannabina) and Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya virginica), to the individual or co-application of biochar and inorganic fertilizer into a coastal soil was investigated using a 52-day pot experiment. The biochar alone or co-application stimulated the plant growth (germination, root development, biomass), primarily attributed to the enhanced nutrients availability from the biochar-improved soil health. Additionally, the promoted microbial activities and bacterial community shift towards the beneficial taxa (e.g., Pseudomonas and Bacillus) in the rhizosphere also contributed to the enhanced plant growth and biomass. Our findings showed the promising significance because biochar added at an optimal level (≤5%) could be a feasible option to reclaim the degraded coastal soil, enhance plant growth and production, and increase soil health and food security.

  12. Creating Open Education Resources for Teaching and Community Development through Action Research: The Milk Production and Hygiene Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ssajjakambwe, Paul; Setumba, Christopher; Kisaka, Stevens; Bahizi, Gloria; Vudriko, Patrick; Kabasa, John D.; Kaneene, John B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the AgShare program is the application of an information loop of action research in the training of graduate students to generate new and practical educational materials and interventions for creating open education research (OER) modules for teaching at universities, and for designing interventions and training…

  13. Making Earth Science Relevant in the K-8 Classroom. The Development of an Instructional Soils Module for Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Using the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The development and adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) raises a challenge in teacher preparation: few current teacher preparation programs prepare students to teach science the way it is presented in the NGSS, which emphasize systems thinking, interdisciplinary science, and deep engagement in the scientific process. In addition, the NGSS include more geoscience concepts and methods than previous standards, yet this is a topic area in which most college students are traditionally underprepared. Although nationwide, programmatic reform is needed, there are a few targets where relatively small, course-level changes can have a large effect. One of these targets is the 'science methods' course for pre-service elementary teachers, a requirement in virtually all teacher preparation programs. Since many elementary schools, both locally and across the country, have adopted a kit based science curriculum, examining kits is often a part of a science methods course. Unfortunately, solely relying on a kit based curriculum may leave gaps in science content curriculum as one prepares teachers to meet the NGSS. Moreover, kits developed at the national level often fall short in connecting geoscientific content to the locally relevant societal issues that engage students. This highlights the need to train pre-service elementary teachers to supplement kit curriculum with inquiry based geoscience investigations that consider relevant societal issues, promote systems thinking and incorporate connections between earth, life, and physical systems. We are developing a module that teaches geoscience concepts in the context of locally relevant societal issues while modeling effective pedagogy for pre-service elementary teachers. Specifically, we focus on soils, an interdisciplinary topic relevant to multiple geoscience-related societal grand challenges (e.g., water, food) that is difficult to engage students in. Module development is funded through InTeGrate, NSF

  14. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System For Core Complete Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Core Complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the United States (U.S.) and International Partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the addition of future U.S. ECLS system hardware to get to Core Complete is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics.

  15. Summary of Resources for the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System For Core Complete Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Core Complete Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System for the International Space Station (ISS) will consist of components and subsystems in both the United States (U.S.) and International Partner elements which together will perform the functions of Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), and Vacuum System (VS) for the station. Due to limited resources available on ISS, detailed attention is given to minimizing and tracking all resources associated with all systems, beginning with estimates during the hardware development phase through measured actuals when flight hardware is built and delivered. A summary of resources consumed by the addition of future U.S. ECLS system hardware to get to Core Complete is presented, including launch weight, average continuous and peak power loads, on-orbit volume and resupply logistics.

  16. Agriculture: Soils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  17. Educational Module on Conservation and Management of Natural Resources. Environmental Education Series 3. Unesco-UNEP International Environmental Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Environmental Education.

    Environmental education should lead children, as future citizens, to acquire a more objective view of the way human societies function. It should also encourage an individual to take an active part in the community and to arouse the desire to take a responsible attitude regarding natural resource management. This experimental teaching module…

  18. Educational Module on Conservation and Management of Natural Resources. Environmental Education Series 3. Unesco-UNEP International Environmental Education Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Environmental Education.

    Environmental education should lead children, as future citizens, to acquire a more objective view of the way human societies function. It should also encourage an individual to take an active part in the community and to arouse the desire to take a responsible attitude regarding natural resource management. This experimental teaching module…

  19. Monitoring multi-decadal satellite earth observation of soil moisture using era-land global land water resources dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albergel, Clement; Dorigo, Wouter; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; de Rosnay, Patricia; Muñoz-Sabater, Joaquin; Isaksen, Lars; Brocca, Luca; de Jeu, Richard; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    It has been widely recognized that soil moisture is one of the main drivers of the water, energy and carbon cycles. It is a crucial variable for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate projections because it plays a key role in hydro-meteorological processes. A good representation of soil moisture conditions can help improving the forecasting of precipitation, temperature, droughts and floods. For many applications global or continental scale soil moisture maps are needed. As a consequence, a signi?cant amount of studies have been conducted to obtain such information. For that purpose, land surface modeling, remote sensing techniques or a combination of both through Land Data Assimilation Systems are used. Assessing the quality of these products is required and for instance, the release of a new -long term- harmonized soil moisture product (SM-MW hereafter) from remote sensing within the framework of the European Space Agency's Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) and Climate Change Initiative (CCI) projects in 2012 (more information at http://www.esa-soilmoisture-cci.org/) triggered several evaluation activities. The typical validation approach for model and satellite based data products is to compare them to in situ observations. However the evaluation of soil moisture products using ground measurements is not trivial. Even if in the recent years huge efforts were made to make such observations available in contrasting biomes and climate conditions, long term and large scale ground measurements networks are still sparse. Additionally, different networks will present different characteristics (e.g. measurement methods, installation depths and modes, calibration techniques, measurement interval, and temporal and spatial coverage). Finally using in situ measurements, the quality of retrieved soil moisture can be accurately assessed for the locations of the stations. That is why it is of interest to conceive new validation methods

  20. Root Parameters Show How Management Alters Resource Distribution and Soil Quality in Conventional and Low-Input Cropping Systems in Central Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Matt; Wander, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    manures established meaningful differences in SQIs and extended the rhizosphere of the LEI systems. Resulting efficiencies observed in the LEI grain crops indicate that resource distribution as well as abundance is an important component of soil function that helps explain how LEI systems can maintain similar or greater yields with fewer inputs than achieved by their conventional counterparts. PMID:27792744

  1. Root Parameters Show How Management Alters Resource Distribution and Soil Quality in Conventional and Low-Input Cropping Systems in Central Iowa.

    PubMed

    Lazicki, Patricia A; Liebman, Matt; Wander, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    established meaningful differences in SQIs and extended the rhizosphere of the LEI systems. Resulting efficiencies observed in the LEI grain crops indicate that resource distribution as well as abundance is an important component of soil function that helps explain how LEI systems can maintain similar or greater yields with fewer inputs than achieved by their conventional counterparts.

  2. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  3. Soil prokaryotic communities in Chernobyl waste disposal trench T22 are modulated by organic matter and radionuclide contamination.

    PubMed

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Février, Laureline; Barakat, Mohamed; Ortet, Philippe; Christen, Richard; Piette, Laurie; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Sergeant, Claire; Berthomieu, Catherine; Chapon, Virginie

    2017-08-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, contaminated soils, vegetation from the Red Forest and other radioactive debris were buried within trenches. In this area, trench T22 has long been a pilot site for the study of radionuclide migration in soil. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to obtain a comprehensive view of the bacterial and archaeal diversity in soils collected inside and in the vicinity of the trench T22 and to investigate the impact of radioactive waste disposal on prokaryotic communities. A remarkably high abundance of Chloroflexi and AD3 was detected in all soil samples from this area. Our statistical analysis revealed profound changes in community composition at the phylum and OTUs levels and higher diversity in the trench soils as compared to the outside. Our results demonstrate that the total absorbed dose rate by cell and, to a lesser extent the organic matter content of the trench, are the principal variables influencing prokaryotic assemblages. We identified specific phylotypes affiliated to the phyla Crenarchaeota, Acidobacteria, AD3, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and WPS-2, which were unique for the trench soils. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sexual-size dimorphism modulates the trade-off between exploiting food and wind resources in a large avian scavenger.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Pablo A E; Morales, Juan M; Donázar, José A; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Hiraldo, Fernando; Lambertucci, Sergio A

    2017-09-13

    Animals are expected to synchronize activity routines with the temporal patterns at which resources appear in nature. Accordingly, species that depend on resources showing temporally mismatched patterns should be expected to schedule routines that balance the chances of exploiting each of them. Large avian scavengers depend on carcasses which are more likely available early in the morning, but they also depend on wind resources (i.e. uplifts) to subside flight which are stronger in afternoon hours. To understand how these birds deal with this potential trade-off, we studied the daily routines of GPS-tagged individuals of the world's largest terrestrial soaring scavenger, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus). Andean condors vary largely in weight and show a huge sexual dimorphism that allowed us to evaluate the effect of sex and body size on their daily routines. We found that condors use an intermediate solution strategy between the best times to exploit carcasses and uplifts, with this strategy changing over the year. Bigger males scheduled earlier routines that aligned more closely with uplift availability compared to smaller females, resulting in a partial temporal segregation between sexes. Condors' routines reflect a sexual-size dependent trade-off that may underpin ecological and sociobiological traits of the studied population.

  5. Impacts of industrial waste resources on maize (Zea mays L.) growth, yield, nutrients uptake and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satnam; Young, Li-Sen; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-10-01

    Discharging untreated highly acidic (pH<4.0), organic and nutrients rich monosodium glutamate wastewater (MW), and highly alkaline (pH>10.0) paper-mill wastewater (PW) causes environmental pollution. When acidity of MW neutralized (pH 6.5±0.1) with PW and lime (treatments represented as MW+PW and MW+Lime), then MW may be utilized as a potential source of nutrients and organic carbon for sustainable food production. Objectives of this study were to compare the effects of PW and lime neutralized MW and chemical fertilizers on maize (Zea mays L. cv. Snow Jean) plant growth, yield, nutrients uptake, soil organic matter and humic substances. The field experiment was carried out on maize using MW at 6000 L ha(-1). Impacts of the MW application on maize crop and soil properties were evaluated at different stages. At harvest, plant height, and plant N and K uptake were higher in MW treatment. Leaf area index at 60 days after sowing, plant dry matter accumulation at harvest, and kernels ear(-1) and 100-kernel weight were higher in MW+Lime treatment. Kernel N, P, K, Mn, Fe and Zn, and plant Zn uptake were highest in MW+Lime. Plant Fe uptake, and soil organic matter and humic substances were highest in MW+PW. The MW+PW and MW+Lime treatments exhibited comparable results with chemically fertilized treatment. The MW acidity neutralized with lime showed positive impacts on growth, yield and nutrients uptake; nevertheless, when MW pH neutralized with PW has an additional benefit on increase in soil organic matter and humic substances. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Woody plants modulate the temporal dynamics of soil moisture in a semi-arid mesquite savanna 2023

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In arid and semi-arid ecosystems (drylands), soil moisture abundance limits biological activity and mediates the effects of anthropogenic global change factors such as atmospheric CO2 increases and climate warming. Moreover, climate variability and human activities are interacting to increase the ab...

  7. Soil resources influence vegetation and response to fire and fire-surrogate treatments in Sagebrush-Steppe Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Benjamin M. Rau; Jeanne C. Chambers; David A. Pyke; Bruce A. Roundy; Eugene W. Schupp; Paul Doescher; Todd G. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigm suggests that spatial and temporal competition for resources limit an exotic invader, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), which once established, alters fire regimes and can result in annual grass dominance in sagebrush steppe. Prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (mowing, tebuthiuron, and imazapic) are used to reduce woody...

  8. Increased winter precipitation makes arctic tundra a methane source but gas diffusion modulates abiotic sensitivity of soil C efflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc-Betes, E.; Thurnhoffer, B. M.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Welker, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid climate warming in the Arctic is contributing to structural and functional changes in tundra ecosystems, possibly through increases in winter precipitation. Greater snow cover and higher surface temperatures in the Arctic are likely to expose C stored over millennia, leading to forcing feedbacks on the climate system through alterations in decomposition rates. However, greater winter snow cover is also likely to contribute to the expansion of shrubs into tundra ecosystems, affecting ecosystem productivity. Although potential increases in NPP may offset enhanced soil respiration rates, reduced redox conditions accompanying waterlogging may prompt methanogenic activity. Ecosystem CO2 and CH4 efflux and their soil profile concentrations were measured across a snow addition gradient experiment established in 1994 at Toolik Lake, AK. Our findings reveal important alterations of the CH4 production/consumption mechanisms in response to changes in snow cover. Stable isotope evidence suggests a shift in the dominant pathways contributing to the ecosystem CH4 emissions. Impaired methanotrophic activity was also observed linked to changes in the redox conditions throughout the soil column. Whereas CH4 emission rates were drastically increased under deeper snow cover, CO2 efflux response to the treatment resulted buffered despite the observed increases in soil temperature. Reduced diffusion coefficients (measured with 222Rn) may result in the apparent lack of temperature sensitivity in soil fluxes. Taken together, our results suggest that predicted changes in winter precipitation patterns and subsequent alterations in environmental variables have differing impact on CO2 and CH4 dynamics, and their contribution to ecosystem C efflux. Therefore, it is relevant to include these mechanisms in models predicting C feedbacks from permafrost-affected areas to the global climate system.

  9. Lunar Soil Particle Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) beneficiates soil prior to in situ resource utilization (ISRU). It can improve ISRU oxygen yield by boosting the concentration of ilmenite, or other iron-oxide-bearing materials found in lunar soils, which can substantially reduce hydrogen reduction reactor size, as well as drastically decreasing the power input required for soil heating

  10. A Prospective Cohort Study Using e-Learning Modules as a Supplemental Teaching Resource for Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clerkship Students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jason; Coolen, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    Objectif : L’accroissement du nombre des inscriptions aux facultés de médecine canadiennes a rendu nécessaire la mise sur pied de sites satellites d’apprentissage clinique pour offrir une expérience clinique adéquate. La faculté de médecine de l’Université Dalhousie compte des sites de stage clinique qui sont distribués d’un bout à l’autre de la Nouvelle-Écosse, du Nouveau-Brunswick et de l’Île-du-Prince-Édouard, lesquels offrent une diversité d’expositions pédagogiques. Cette étude avait pour but d’examiner l’influence des modules d’apprentissage en ligne (élaborés en vue de standardiser l’apprentissage d’un site de stage clinique à l’autre) sur l’acquisition des connaissances par les étudiants de médecine au cours de leur rotation en obstétrique-gynécologie. Méthodes : Les étudiants de troisième année de médecine ont été répartis en deux cohortes naturelles aux fins de cette étude. La rotation en obstétrique-gynécologie des étudiants du groupe 1 s’est déroulée entre septembre 2012 et mars 2013 (n = 54) et celle des étudiants du groupe 2 s’est déroulée entre avril et septembre 2013 (n = 60). Tous les étudiants se sont vu offrir l’occasion de passer un examen formatif en ligne avant leur examen sommatif à choix multiples; seuls les étudiants du groupe 2 ont eu accès à six modules d’apprentissage en ligne en obstétrique-gynécologie (sur lesquels l’examen formatif a été fondé). Résultats : Quarante-sept étudiants du groupe 1 (87 %) et 45 étudiants du groupe 2 (75 %) ont passé l’examen formatif (taux global de participation : 81 %). Aucune différence n’a été constatée en matière de scores médians entre le groupe 1 (score 9, écart interquartile de 8 à 10) et le groupe 2 (score 9, écart interquartile de 8 à 11, P = 0,08). Conclusion : L’accès à six modules d’apprentissage en ligne n’a pas donné lieu à une amélioration des scores des

  11. Tracing organic and inorganic pollution sources of soils and water resources in Güzelhisar Basin of Aegean Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Kurucu, Yusuf; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander

    2017-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the residue level of major concern organic and inorganic pollutants in Güzelhisar Basin of Aegean Region in Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel mills, but also areas of agriculture. Soil samples were collected from GPS determined points at 0-30 and 30-60 cm depth of a grid system of 2.5 km to the east and 2.5 km to the west of the Güzelhisar stream. The area was grouped into three main areas as West, Middle, and East region. Water and sediment samples were collected from the Güzelhisar stream and from Güzelhisar dam every 30 kilometers which is already contaminated due to industrial facilities in Aliaga, is used to irrigate the agricultural land. Soil pH of the research area was determined within the range from 5.87 to 6.61. Topsoil contamination was examined for all investigated elements with the exception of Cd. An increase in pseudo total metal contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn was observed with increasing distance from the coast with a simultaneous decrease in pH. Due to the analysis of the organic pollutants, a continuous load with the herbicide trifluralin was determined with a few clearly raised points to a possible load of the stream water. Although HCH-Isomers were not found, DDT (DDT and transformation products) residues were ascertained in the soil samples. With regard to the analysis of the water samples of the Güzelhisar stream and dam, a background load with trifluralin was found which is to be explained with transport processes with regard to utilization of trifluralin in the agricultural areas.

  12. The use of LANDSAT-1 imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seevers, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Drew, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for the Sand Hills region of Nebraska has shown that the data can be used to effectively measure several parameters of inventory needs. (1) Vegetative biomass can be estimated with a high degree of confidence using computer compatable tape data. (2) Soils can be mapped to the subgroup level with high altitude aircraft color infrared photography and to the association level with multitemporal ERTS-1 imagery. (3) Water quality in Sand Hills lakes can be estimated utilizing computer compatable tape data. (4) Center pivot irrigation can be inventoried from satellite data and can be monitored regarding site selection and relative success of establishment from high altitude aircraft color infrared photography. (5) ERTS-1 data is of exceptional value in wide-area inventory of natural resource data in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska.

  13. Mycorrhiza and PGPB modulate maize biomass, nutrient uptake and metabolic pathways in maize grown in mining-impacted soil.

    PubMed

    Dhawi, Faten; Datta, Rupali; Ramakrishna, Wusirika

    2015-12-01

    Abiotic stress factors including poor nutrient content and heavy metal contamination in soil, can limit plant growth and productivity. The main goal of our study was to evaluate element uptake, biomass and metabolic responses in maize roots growing in mining-impacted soil with the combination of arbuscular mycorrhiza (My) and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB/B). Maize plants subjected to PGPB, My and combined treatments showed a significant increase in biomass and uptake of some elements in shoot and root. Metabolite analysis identified 110 compounds that were affected ≥2-fold compared to control, with 69 metabolites upregulated in the My group, 53 metabolites in the My+B group and 47 metabolites in B group. Pathway analysis showed that impact on glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism was common between My and My+B groups, whereas PGPB group showed a unique effect on fatty acid biosynthesis with significant increase in palmitic acid and stearic acid. Differential regulation of some metabolites by mycorrhizal treatment correlated with root biomass while PGPB regulated metabolites correlated with biomass increase in shoot. Overall, the combination of rhizospheric microorganisms used in our study significantly increased maize nutrient uptake and growth relative to control. The changes in metabolic pathways identified during the symbiotic interaction will improve our understanding of mechanisms involved in rhizospheric interactions that are responsible for increased growth and nutrient uptake in crop plants.

  14. Space Resources Roundtable VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in the conference paper abstracts contained in this document include: extracting resources from the Moon and Mars, equipment for in situ resource utilization, mission planning for resource extraction, drilling on Mars, and simulants for lunar soil and minerals.

  15. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) uses linear ... and after this procedure? What is Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and how is it used? Intensity-modulated ...

  16. An integrated GIS/remote sensing data base in North Cache soil conservation district, Utah: A pilot project for the Utah Department of Agriculture's RIMS (Resource Inventory and Monitoring System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A basic geographic information system (GIS) for the North Cache Soil Conservation District (SCD) was sought for selected resource problems. Since the resource management issues in the North Cache SCD are very complex, it is not feasible in the initial phase to generate all the physical, socioeconomic, and political baseline data needed for resolving all management issues. A selection of critical varables becomes essential. Thus, there are foud specific objectives: (1) assess resource management needs and determine which resource factors ae most fundamental for building a beginning data base; (2) evaluate the variety of data gathering and analysis techniques for the resource factors selected; (3) incorporate the resulting data into a useful and efficient digital data base; and (4) demonstrate the application of the data base to selected real world resoource management issues.

  17. A Novel Carbohydrate-binding Module from Sugar Cane Soil Metagenome Featuring Unique Structural and Carbohydrate Affinity Properties.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruna Medeia; Liberato, Marcelo Vizona; Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Zanphorlin, Letícia Maria; Ematsu, Gabriela Cristina; Barud, Hernane; Polikarpov, Igor; Ruller, Roberto; Gilbert, Harry J; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2016-11-04

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are appended to glycoside hydrolases and can contribute to the degradation of complex recalcitrant substrates such as the plant cell wall. For application in bioethanol production, novel enzymes with high catalytic activity against recalcitrant lignocellulosic material are being explored and developed. In this work, we report the functional and structural study of CBM_E1, which was discovered through a metagenomics approach and is the founding member of a novel CBM family, CBM81. CBM_E1, which is linked to an endoglucanase, displayed affinity for mixed linked β1,3-β1,4-glucans, xyloglucan, Avicel, and cellooligosaccharides. The crystal structure of CBM_E1 in complex with cellopentaose displayed a canonical β-sandwich fold comprising two β-sheets. The planar ligand binding site, observed in a parallel orientation with the β-strands, is a typical feature of type A CBMs, although the expected affinity for bacterial crystalline cellulose was not detected. Conversely, the binding to soluble glucans was enthalpically driven, which is typical of type B modules. These unique properties of CBM_E1 are at the interface between type A and type B CBMs.

  18. Modulation of the summer hydrological cycle evolution over western Europe by anthropogenic aerosols and soil-atmosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boé, J.

    2016-07-01

    Large decadal variations in solar radiation at surface have been observed over Europe for 60 years. These variations might have impacted the hydrological cycle, through a modulation of the energy available for evapotranspiration. Here a large ensemble of climate models is analyzed to characterize the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the hydrological cycle over western Europe in summer and the associated uncertainties. Some models simulate strong aerosols-driven changes in evapotranspiration and also precipitation on the historical period, while other models show virtually no impact. These opposed responses are largely determined by two seemingly independent properties of the models: the magnitude of the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on solar radiation and whether evapotranspiration is predominantly water or energy limited. Both properties, characterized on the past climate, are highly uncertain in current climate models and continue to impact the evolution of the hydrological cycle through the 21st century.

  19. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  20. Soil microscopy and micromorphology

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    This book is a valuable resource to help geologists integrate knowledge of soil science into the endeavor of identifying paleosols. Attention is focused on the following: soil micromorphology, including sample preparation techniques; and physical and chemical properties. Various applications are presented of micromorphological soil study. Included is coverage on the disciplines of agriculture, archeology, engineering, geomorphology, paleoclimatology, paleopedology, and microbiology.

  1. Technology and research needs to support soil change studies in reserach and soil survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil survey products must evolve to address the effects of management practices on the soil resource. There is a rising demand by soil survey customers interested in sustainable use of natural resources for information about land-use impacts on soil quality, ecological processes, and soil function. ...

  2. Adapting Landscape Mosaics of medIteranean Rainfed Agrosystems for a sustainable management of crop production, water and soil resources: the ALMIRA project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Frédéric; Mekki, Insaf; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    In the context of mitigating the pressures induced by global change combined with demography and market pressures, there is increasing societal demand and scientific need to understand the functioning of Mediterranean Rainfed Agrosystems (MRAs) for their potential to provide various environmental and economic services of importance such as food production, preservation of employment and local knowhow, downstream water delivery or mitigation of rural exodus. Efficient MRAs management strategies that allow for compromises between economic development and natural resources preservation are needed. Such strategies require innovative system based research, integration across approaches and scales. One of the major challenges is to make all contributions from different disciplines converging towards a reproducible transdisciplinary approach. The objective of this communication is to present the ALMIRA project, a Tunisian - Moroccan - French project which lasts four years (2014 - 2017). The communication details the societal context, the scientific positioning and the related work hypothesis, the study areas, the project structure, the expected outcomes and the partnership which capitalizes on long term collaborations. ALMIRA aims to explore the modulation of landscape mosaics within MRAs to optimize landscape services. To explore this new lever, ALMIRA proposes to design, implement and test a new Integrated Assessment Modelling approach that explicitly i) includes innovations and action means into prospective scenarii for landscape evolutions, and ii) addresses landscape mosaics and processes of interest from the agricultural field to the resource governance catchment. This requires tackling methodological challenges in relation to i) the design of spatially explicit landscape evolution scenarii, ii) the coupling of biophysical processes related to agricultural catchment hydrology, iii) the digital mapping of landscape properties and iv) the economic assessment of the

  3. Regional Climate Simulations with COSMO-CLM for West Africa using three different soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breil, Marcus; Panitz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Climate predictions on decadal timescales constitute a new field of research, closing the gap between short-term and seasonal weather predictions and long-term climate projections. Therefore, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF) has recently funded the research program MiKlip (Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen), which aims to create a model system that can provide reliable decadal climate forecasts. Recent studies have suggested that one region with high potential decadal predictability is West Africa. Therefore, the project DEPARTURE (DEcadal Prediction of African Rainfall and ATlantic HURricanE Activity) was established within the MiKlip program to assess the feasibility and the potential added value of regional decadal climate predictions for West Africa. To quantify the potential decadal climate predictability, a multi-model approach with the three different regional climate models REMO, WRF and COSMO-CLM (CCLM) will be realized. The presented research will contribute to DEPARTURE by performing hindcast ensemble simulations with CCLM, driven by global decadal MPI-ESM-LR simulations. Thereby, one focus is on the dynamic soil-vegetation-climate interaction on decadal timescales. Recent studies indicate that there are significant feedbacks between the land-surface and the atmosphere, which might influence the decadal climate variability substantially. To investigate this connection, two different SVATs (Community Land Model (CLM), and VEG3D) will be coupled with the CCLM, replacing TERRA_ML, the standard SVAT implemented in CCLM. Thus, sensitive model parameters shall be identified, whereby the understanding of important processes might be improved. As a first step, TERRA_ML is substituted by VEG3D, a SVAT developed at the IMK-TRO, Karlsruhe, Germany. Compared to TERRA_ML, VEG3D includes an explicit vegetation layer by using a big leaf approach, inducing higher correlations with observations as it has been shown in previous studies. The

  4. Développement durable à l'échelle de la planète et gestion des ressources en eau et en solsSustainable development on a global scale and management of water and soil resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Michel

    2003-06-01

    Despite some controversies, an international consensus on what is sustainable development has emerged, the nature of which is first specified. Then the author explains why the implementation of the measures consistent with this consensus comes up against obstacles, particularly political ones, which makes clear why the topic is still under animated debate. Examples will be taken in the domain of the management of water and soils resources. To cite this article: M. Petit, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  5. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  6. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  7. Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

  8. Bio-energy and Soil Quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soils are an important natural resource allowing the production of food, feed, fiber and fuel. The growing demand for these services or products requires that we protect the soil resource. Many characteristics of high quality soils can be related to the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (o...

  9. Resource management in rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adequate assessments of vast expanses of rangeland—a primary prerequisite to effective conservation planning—requires landscape-scale evaluations that accurately represent the resources (e.g., soil, vegetation, wildlife, water ), the structure and function of the resource-providing systems, and the ...

  10. Agriculture, Forestry, Range Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crea, W. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 observations of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are summarized. Four major parts are covered: (1) crop classification and mensuration; (2) timber and range resources survey and classification; (3) soil survey and mapping; and (4) subdiscipline areas.

  11. Field Identification of Andic Soil Properties for Soils of North-central Idaho

    Treesearch

    Brian Gardner

    2007-01-01

    Currently, laboratory measurements are definitive for identifying andic soil properties in both the USDA Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff 1999) and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (FAO/ISRIC/ISSS 1998). Andic soil properties, as described in Soil Taxonomy, result mainly from the presence of significant amounts of allophone, imogolite, ferrihydrite or...

  12. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  13. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  14. Soil Transport Implement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, William; Fan, William; Lloyd, Joey; Pham, Nam-Anh; Stevens, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The design of the Soil Transport Implement (STI) for SKITTER is presented. The purpose of STI is to provide a protective layer of lunar soil for the lunar modules. The objective is to cover the lunar module with a layer of soil approximately two meters thick within a two week period. The amount of soil required to cover the module is roughly 77 dump truck loads or three million earth pounds. A spinning disk is employed to accomplish its task. STI is an autonomous, teleoperated system. The design incorporates the latest advances in composite materials and high strength, light weight alloys to achieve a high strength to weight ratio. The preliminary design should only be used to assess the feasibility of employing a spinning wheel as a soil transport implement. A mathematical model of the spinning wheel was used to evaluate the performance of this design.

  15. High Performance Composites. "Designed" Materials for the New Millennium. 2nd Module in a Series on Advanced Materials. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    1994-01-01

    This learning module on composites such as polymer matrix, metal matrix, ceramic matrix, particulate, and laminar includes a design brief giving context, objectives, evaluation, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)

  16. High Performance Composites. "Designed" Materials for the New Millennium. 2nd Module in a Series on Advanced Materials. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    1994-01-01

    This learning module on composites such as polymer matrix, metal matrix, ceramic matrix, particulate, and laminar includes a design brief giving context, objectives, evaluation, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)

  17. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and

  18. Use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate as applied to closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The technology of ‘wet incineration' of human exometabolites and inedible plants biomass by means of H2 O2 in alternating electromagnetic field to increase a closure of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) was developed at the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). Human exometabolites mineralized can be used in a nutrient solution for plants cultivation in the BLSS phototrophic link. The objective of the given work appears to be the study of use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels processed by the abovementioned method for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The mineralized human wastes were tested for the purpose of their sterility. Then the effect of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels both on wheat productivity and on the SLS microflora composition was examined. The SLS extract with a definite amount of human mineralized wastes was used as an irrigation solution. The conducted experiments demonstrated that the H2 O2 decreasing to 1 ml on 1 g of feces and to 0.25 ml on 1 ml of urine had not affected the sterility of mineralized human wastes. Wheat cultivation on the SLS with the addition in an irrigation solution of mineralized human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of a daily human diet showed the absence of basic dependence of plants productivity on oxidation level of human exometabolites. Yet the analysis of the microflora composition of the irrigation solutions demonstrated its dependence on the oxidation level of the exometabolites introduced. The amount of yeast-like fungi increased in 20 times in the solutions containing less oxidized exometabolites in comparison with the variant in which the human wastes were subjected to a full-scale oxidation. Besides, the solutions with less oxidized exometabolites displayed a bigger content of plant pathogenic bacteria and denitrifies. Consequently the

  19. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral...

  20. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral...

  1. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral...

  2. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral...

  3. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Soil replacement. (a) Soil reconstruction specifications established by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service shall be based upon the standards of the National Cooperative Soil Survey and shall include, as a... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral...

  4. Resources in Technology 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This volume of Resources in Technology contains the following eight instructional modules: (1) "Processing Technology"; (2) "Water--A Magic Resource"; (3) "Hazardous Waste Disposal--The NIMBY (Not in My Backyard) Syndrome"; (4) "Processing Fibers and Fabrics"; (5) "Robotics--An Emerging…

  5. Resources in Technology 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This volume of Resources in Technology contains the following eight instructional modules: (1) "Processing Technology"; (2) "Water--A Magic Resource"; (3) "Hazardous Waste Disposal--The NIMBY (Not in My Backyard) Syndrome"; (4) "Processing Fibers and Fabrics"; (5) "Robotics--An Emerging…

  6. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  7. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  8. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  9. Soil! Get the Scoop - The Soil Science Society of America's International Year of Soils Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan; van Es, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Soils are a finite natural resource and are nonrenewable on a human time scale. Soils are the foundation for food, animal feed, fuel and natural fiber production, the supply of clean water, nutrient cycling and a range of ecosystem functions. The area of fertile soils covering the world's surface is limited and increasingly subject to degradation, poor management and loss to urbanization. Increased awareness of the life-supporting functions of soil is called for if this trend is to be reversed and so enable the levels of food production necessary to meet the demands of population levels predicted for 2050. The Soil Science Society of America is coordinating with the Global Soil Partnership and other organizations around the world to celebrate the 2015 International Year of Soils and raise awareness and promote the sustainability of our limited soil resources. We all have a valuable role in communicating vital information on soils, a life sustaining natural resource. Therefore, we will provide resources to learn about soils and help us tell the story of soils. We will promote IYS on social media by sharing our posts from Facebook and Twitter. Additionally SSSA developed 12 monthly themes that reflect the diverse value of soils to our natural environment and society. Each month has information on the theme, a lesson plan, and other outreach activities. All information is available on a dedicated website www.soil.org/IYS. The site will be updated constantly throughout the year.

  10. Premovement high‐alpha power is modulated by previous movement errors: Indirect evidence to endorse high‐alpha power as a marker of resource allocation during motor programming

    PubMed Central

    Gallicchio, Germano; Kavussanu, Maria; Willoughby, Adrian; McIntyre, David; Ring, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous electroencephalographic studies have identified premovement high‐alpha power as a predictor of movement accuracy; less frontal‐central high‐alpha power is associated with accurate movements (e.g., holed golf putts), and could reflect more cognitive resources being allocated to response programming. The present experiment tested this interpretation. Ten expert and ten novice golfers completed 120 putts while high‐alpha power was recorded and analyzed as a function of whether the previous putt was holed (i.e., a correct response) or missed (i.e., an error). Existing evidence indicates that more resources are allocated to response programming following errors. We observed less premovement high‐alpha power following errors, especially in experts. Our findings provide indirect evidence that high‐alpha power is an inverse marker of the amount of resources allocated to motor response programming. PMID:25684215

  11. Plant responses to soil heterogeneity and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Bardgett, Richard D; de Kroon, Hans

    2012-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that soil nutrient heterogeneity, a ubiquitous feature of terrestrial ecosystems, modulates plant responses to ongoing global change (GC). However, we know little about the overall trends of such responses, the GC drivers involved, and the plant attributes affected.We synthesized literature to answer the question: Does soil heterogeneity significantly affect plant responses to main GC drivers, such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), nitrogen (N) enrichment and changes in rainfall regime?Overall, most studies have addressed short-term effects of N enrichment on the performance of model plant communities using experiments conducted under controlled conditions. The role of soil heterogeneity as a modulator of plant responses to elevated CO2 may depend on the plasticity in nutrient uptake patterns. Soil heterogeneity does interact with N enrichment to determine plant growth and nutrient status, but the outcome of this interaction has been found to be both synergistic and inhibitory. The very few studies published on interactive effects of soil heterogeneity and changes in rainfall regime prevented us from identifying any general pattern.We identify the long-term consequences of soil heterogeneity on plant community dynamics in the field, and the ecosystem level responses of the soil heterogeneity × GC driver interaction, as the main knowledge gaps in this area of research.In order to fill these gaps and take soil heterogeneity and GC research a step forward, we propose the following research guidelines: 1) combining morphological and physiological plant responses to soil heterogeneity with field observations of community composition and predictions from simulation models; and 2) incorporating soil heterogeneity into a trait-based response-effect framework, where plant resource-use traits are used as both response variables to this heterogeneity and GC, and predictors of ecosystem functioning.Synthesis. There is enough

  12. Plant responses to soil heterogeneity and global environmental change

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; de Kroon, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence suggests that soil nutrient heterogeneity, a ubiquitous feature of terrestrial ecosystems, modulates plant responses to ongoing global change (GC). However, we know little about the overall trends of such responses, the GC drivers involved, and the plant attributes affected. We synthesized literature to answer the question: Does soil heterogeneity significantly affect plant responses to main GC drivers, such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), nitrogen (N) enrichment and changes in rainfall regime? Overall, most studies have addressed short-term effects of N enrichment on the performance of model plant communities using experiments conducted under controlled conditions. The role of soil heterogeneity as a modulator of plant responses to elevated CO2 may depend on the plasticity in nutrient uptake patterns. Soil heterogeneity does interact with N enrichment to determine plant growth and nutrient status, but the outcome of this interaction has been found to be both synergistic and inhibitory. The very few studies published on interactive effects of soil heterogeneity and changes in rainfall regime prevented us from identifying any general pattern. We identify the long-term consequences of soil heterogeneity on plant community dynamics in the field, and the ecosystem level responses of the soil heterogeneity × GC driver interaction, as the main knowledge gaps in this area of research. In order to fill these gaps and take soil heterogeneity and GC research a step forward, we propose the following research guidelines: 1) combining morphological and physiological plant responses to soil heterogeneity with field observations of community composition and predictions from simulation models; and 2) incorporating soil heterogeneity into a trait-based response-effect framework, where plant resource-use traits are used as both response variables to this heterogeneity and GC, and predictors of ecosystem functioning. Synthesis

  13. Feed your soil through diversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our soil resource is fundamental to plant and animal life, therefore, proper management is essential. One of the key tools to maintain our soil resource is diversity both below and above ground. Diversity is an important concept in all areas of our lives, from the food we eat, to the weather we ex...

  14. Exploring Work-Based Foundation Skills in the ABLE Classroom. Instructional Activities and Resources for the Adult Learner [and] Supplemental Handouts for Modules. Version 1.2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Priscilla; Van Horn, Barbara; Hamilton, KayLynn; Williams, Mary Kay

    This guide contains activities and resources to help adult learners develop the work-based foundation skills and knowledge areas included on the Foundation Skills Framework wheel (Institute for the Study of Adult Literacy 2000). Its four sections (basic employability skills, basic workplace knowledge, basic workplace skills, and lifelong learning…

  15. Soils [Chapter 4.2

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary; Johannes W. A. Langeveld

    2015-01-01

    Soils are crucial for profitable and sustainable biomass feedstock production. They provide nutrients and water, give support for plants, and provide habitat for enormous numbers of biota. There are several systems for soil classification. FAO has provided a generic classification system that was used for a global soil map (Bot et al., 2000). The USDA Natural Resources...

  16. Cultural Patterns of Soil Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzel, Nikola; Feller, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Living soil supports all terrestrial ecosystems. The only global threat to earth's soils comes from human societies' land use and resource consuming activities. Soil perception and understanding by soil scientists are mainly drawn from biophysical parameters and found within Cartesian rationality, and not, or much less consciously from its rather intangible cultural dimension. But nevertheless, human soil perception, soil awareness, and soil relation are a cultural phenomenon, too. Aiming at soil awareness and education, it is of first order importance for the soil science community and the IUSS to study, discuss and communicate also about the cultural perceptions and representations of soil. For any society, cultural patterns in their relation to soil encompass: (i) General culturally underlying structures like (religious or 'secular') myths and belief systems. (ii) The personal, individual relation to/with and behaviour towards soil. This includes implicit concepts of soil being part integral concepts of landscape because the large majority of humans don't see soil as a distinct object. This communication would be to make evident: (i) the importance of cultural patterns and psychic/psychological background concerning soil, by case studies and overviews on different cultural areas, (ii) the necessity to develop reflections on this topic as well to communicate about soil with large public, as to raise awareness soil scientists to the cultural dimension of soils. A working group was recently founded at IUSS (Division 4) on this topic.

  17. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-D: Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Conference papers on water resources and management are summarized. Summaries cover land use, flood control and prediction, watersheds and the effects of snow melt, soil moisture content, and the usefulness of satellite remote sensors in detecting ground and surface water.

  18. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Soil Conservation District Aide. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddy, Paul H.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the soil conservation district aide is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

  19. Soil salinity: Irrigation practices and effects on crops and ground water. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effect of saline irrigation waters on crops and groundwater. The salt tolerance of crops, including beans, grains, and citrus fruits, is examined. The salinity of soils, groundwater, and surface water is discussed, and the sources of brackish waters are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Remote sensing in Iowa agriculture: Identification and classification of Iowa's crops, soils and forestry resources using ERTS-1 and complimentary underflight imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahlstede, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Carlson, R. E.; Fenton, T. E.; Thomson, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Springtime ERTS-1 imagery covering pre-selected test sites in Iowa showed considerable detail with respect to broad soil and land use patterns. Additional imagery has been incorporated into a state mosaic. The mosaic was used as a base for soil association lines transferred from an existing map. The regions of greatest contrast are between the Clarion-Nicollet-Webster soil association area and adjacent areas. Landscape characteristics in this area result in land use patterns with a high percentage of pasture, hay, and timber. The soil association areas of the state that have patterns interpreted to be associated with intensive row crop production are: Moody, Galva-Primghar-Sac, Clarion-Nicollet-Webter, Tama-Muscatine, Dinsdale-Tama, Cresco-Lourdes, Clyde, Kenyon-Floyd-Clyde, and the Luton-Onawa-Salix area on the Missouri River floodplain. Forestland estimates have been attained for an area in central Iowa using wintertime ERTS-1 imagery. Visual analysis of multispectral, temporal imagery indicates that temporal analysis for cropland identification and acreage analyses procedures may be a very useful tool. Combinations of wintertime, springtime, and summertime ERTS-1 imagery separate most vegetation types. Timing can be critical depending upon crop development and harvesting times because of the dynamic nature of agricultural production.

  1. Soil biological indicators of soil health for a national soil health assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is one of our nation's most valuable resources that provides life-sustaining functions. Billions of organisms live belowground and perform critical soil processes to support plant, animal, and human health aboveground. By shifting our view of soils from an inert growing material to a biological...

  2. Enhancing soil begins with soil biology and a stable soil microclimate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protection of the soil resource from erosion requires reducing the surface impact from raindrop energy and maintaining soil structure and stability to allow more efficient infiltration of water into the soil column. These two processes are linked with practices associated with enhancing and maintain...

  3. Don't soil your chances with solar energy: Experiments of natural dust accumulation on solar modules and the effect on light transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Liza

    Dust accumulation, or soiling, on solar energy harvesting systems can cause significant losses that reduce the power output of the system, increase pay-back time of the system, and reduce confidence in solar energy overall. Developing a method of estimating soiling losses could greatly improve estimates of solar energy system outputs, greatly improve operation and maintenance of solar systems, and improve siting of solar energy systems. This dissertation aims to develop a soiling model by collecting ambient soiling data as well as other environmental data and fitting a model to these data. In general a process-level approach is taken to estimating soiling. First a comparison is made between mass of deposited particulates and transmission loss. Transmission loss is the reduction in light that a solar system would see due to soiling, and mass accumulation represents the level of soiling in the system. This experiment is first conducted at two sites in the Front Range of Colorado and then expanded to three additional sites. Second mass accumulation is examined as a function of airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations, airborne size distributions, and meteorological data. In depth analysis of this process step is done at the first two sites in Colorado, and a more general analysis is done at the three additional sites. This step is identified as less understood step, but with results still allowing for a general soiling model to be developed. Third these two process steps are combined, and spatial variability of these steps are examined. The three additional sites (an additional site in the Front Range of Colorado, a site in Albuquerque New Mexico, and a site in Cocoa Florida) represent a much more spatially and climatically diverse set of locations than the original two sites and provide a much broader sample space in which to develop the combined soiling model. Finally a few additional parameters, precipitation, micro-meteorology, and some sampling artifacts

  4. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Soil Surveys, including: (A) Providing leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey which includes conducting and publishing soil surveys; (B) Conducting soil surveys for resource... leadership in the conservation, development and productive use of the Nation's soil, water, and related...

  5. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Soil Surveys, including: (A) Providing leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey which includes conducting and publishing soil surveys; (B) Conducting soil surveys for resource... leadership in the conservation, development and productive use of the Nation's soil, water, and related...

  6. 7 CFR 2.61 - Chief, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Soil Surveys, including: (A) Providing leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey which includes conducting and publishing soil surveys; (B) Conducting soil surveys for resource... leadership in the conservation, development and productive use of the Nation's soil, water, and related...

  7. Damien: Teacher Resource Guide [with Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    This resource includes: a videotape of the film "Damien," which was locally produced in Hawaii in the late 1940s; instructional modules and resources for the classroom; additional information to support the instructional modules and videotape viewing; and an annotated bibliography. Major goals of the teacher resource materials are to…

  8. Spatial characterization and prioritization of heavy metal contaminated soil-water resources in peri-urban areas of National Capital Territory (NCT), Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Rani, Rupa

    2006-12-01

    Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization during last two decades, contamination of soils by heavy metals is on an increase globally. Lands under peri-urban agriculture are the worst affected. In NCT, Delhi about 14.4% of land area is chemically degraded. In order to take care of this problem, recently the Supreme Court of India ordered to shift various non-confirming (about 39,000 units) industries to regions outside NCT, Delhi. However in spite of this, there have been several reports and parliamentary debates on the phyto-toxicity and extensive accumulation of heavy metals in the region. Literature review revealed that the basis of these debates is a few studies on some point locations in/around Delhi. It was further observed that information on the distribution and extent of heavy metal pollution problem in the region was completely missing. The present study was thus basically aimed at assessing the spatial distribution/extent and type of heavy metal pollution in the study area, for enabling future designing of appropriate site-specific management measures by the decision makers. For this, detailed spatial information on bio-available heavy metal concentrations in the soils and surface/sub-surface waters of NCT (Delhi) was generated through actual soil/water surveys, standard laboratory methods and GIS techniques. The study showed that concentration of all micronutrients (viz. Zn: 0.05-0.18 ppm; Cu: in traces; Fe: 0-0.5 ppm; and Mn: 0-1.2 ppm) and most heavy metals (viz. Ni: 0-0.7 ppm; Pb: 0-0.15 ppm and Cd: in traces) in the surface/sub-surface irrigation waters were well within permissible limits. However Cr concentrations in irrigation waters of Alipur and Shahdara blocks were far above their maximum permissible limit of 1 ppm. It was further observed that Ni and Cr concentrations in the drinking waters of almost entire test area were far above maximum permissible levels of 0.02 and 0.01 ppm, respectively. Bio-available concentrations of several heavy

  9. World's soils are under threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca; Pennock, Daniel Jon; McKenzie, Neil; Badraoui, Mohamed; Chude, Victor; Baptista, Isaurinda; Mamo, Tekalign; Yemefack, Martin; Singh Aulakh, Mikha; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hong, Suk Young; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Arrouays, Dominique; Black, Helaina; Krasilnikov, Pavel; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Alegre, Julio; Henriquez, Carlos Roberto; de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Maria; Taboada, Miguel; Espinosa-Victoria, David; AlShankiti, Abdullah; Kazem AlaviPanah, Sayed; El Mustafa Elsheikh, Elsiddig Ahmed; Hempel, Jon; Camps Arbestain, Marta; Nachtergaele, Freddy; Vargas, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecurity among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the State of the World's Soil Resources Report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  10. Lower leaf gas-exchange and higher photorespiration of treated wastewater irrigated Citrus trees is modulated by soil type and climate.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Indira; Shaviv, Avi; Bernstein, Nirit; Heuer, Bruria; Shapira, Or; Lukyanov, Victor; Bar-Tal, Asher; Rotbart, Nativ; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-04-01

    Water quality, soil and climate can interact to limit photosynthesis and to increase photooxidative damage in sensitive plants. This research compared diffusive and non-diffusive limitations to photosynthesis as well as photorespiration of leaves of grapefruit trees in heavy clay and sandy soils having a previous history of treated wastewater (TWW) irrigation for >10 years, with different water qualities [fresh water (FW) vs TWW and sodium amended treated wastewater (TWW + Na)] in two arid climates (summer vs winter) and in orchard and lysimeter experiments. TWW irrigation increased salts (Na(+) and Cl(-) ), membrane leakage, proline and soluble sugar content, and decreased osmotic potentials in leaves of all experiments. Reduced leaf growth and higher stomatal and non-stomatal (i.e. mesophyll) limitations were found in summer and on clay soil for TWW and TWW + Na treatments in comparison to winter, sandy soil and FW irrigation, respectively. Stomatal closure, lower chlorophyll content and altered Rubisco activity are probable causes of higher limitations. On the other hand, non-photochemical quenching, an alternative energy dissipation pathway, was only influenced by water quality, independent of soil type and season. Furthermore, light and CO2 response curves were investigated for other possible causes of higher non-stomatal limitation. A higher proportion of non-cyclic electrons were directed to the O2 dependent pathway, and a higher proportion of electrons were diverted to photorespiration in summer than in winter. In conclusion, both diffusive and non-diffusive limitations contribute to the lower photosynthetic performance of leaves following TWW irrigation, and the response depends on soil type and environmental factors. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Natural Resources Education Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eldon C.

    This notebook was developed cooperatively by the United States Soil Conservation Service and Iowa State University to be used by teachers in providing instruction regarding certain aspects of natural resources. It includes four sections which provide: (1) an instructional plan about the conservation provisions of the 1985 Food Security Act; (2) an…

  12. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  13. Water resources, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing products to the development and understanding of water resources problems is considered. Geology and hydrogeology, analysis of watersheds, snow and ice, prediction of runoff from snowmelt, hydrologic land use classifications, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, flood hazards, and water quality surveys are among the topics discussed. Suggestions for further use of remotely sensed data are given along with increased user requirements.

  14. Enhancing the USDA-ARS Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with the in-stream bacteria fate and transport module including sediment bacteria resuspension and settling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streambed sediments have been shown to serve as environmental reservoirs for bacteria, including pathogenic strains. Although the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a watershed-scale, physically-based and continuous-time model, has been augmented with bacteria transport subroutine in 2005, the b...

  15. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport. PMID:27052807

  16. NMR spectroscopic search module for Spektraris, an online resource for plant natural product identification--Taxane diterpenoids from Taxus × media cell suspension cultures as a case study.

    PubMed

    Fischedick, Justin T; Johnson, Sean R; Ketchum, Raymond E B; Croteau, Rodney B; Lange, B Markus

    2015-05-01

    Development and testing of Spektraris-NMR, an online spectral resource, is reported for the NMR-based structural identification of plant natural products (PNPs). Spektraris-NMR allows users to search with multiple spectra at once and returns a table with a list of hits arranged according to the goodness of fit between query data and database entries. For each hit, a link to a tabulated alignment of (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopic peaks (query versus database entry) is provided. Furthermore, full spectroscopic records and experimental meta information about each database entry can be accessed online. To test the utility of Spektraris-NMR for PNP identification, the database was populated with NMR data (total of 466 spectra) for ∼ 250 taxanes, which are structurally complex diterpenoids (including the anticancer drug taxol) commonly found in the genus Taxus. NMR data generated with metabolites purified from Taxus cell suspension cultures were then used to search Spektraris-NMR, and enabled the identification of eight taxanes with high confidence. A ninth isolated metabolite could be assigned, based on spectral searches, to a taxane skeletal class, but no high confidence hit was produced. Using various spectroscopic methods, this metabolite was characterized as 2-deacetylbaccatin IV, a novel taxane. These results indicate that Spektraris-NMR is a valuable resource for rapid and reliable identification of known metabolites and has the potential to contribute to de-replication efforts in novel PNP discovery.

  17. NMR spectroscopicsearch module for Spektraris, an online resource for plant natural product identification – taxane diterpenoids from Taxus × media cell suspension cultures as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Fischedick, Justin T.; Johnson, Sean R.; Ketchum, Raymond E.B.; Croteau, Rodney B.; Lange, B. Markus

    2014-01-01

    Development and testing of Spektraris-NMR an online spectral resource, is reported for the NMR-based structural identification of plant natural products (PNPs). Spektraris-NMRallows users to search with multiple spectra at once and returns a table with alist of hits arranged according to the goodness of fit between query data and database entries. For each hit, a link to a tabulated alignment of 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopic peaks (query versus database entry) is provided. Furthermore, full spectroscopic records and experimental meta information about each database entry can be accessed online. To test the utility of Spektraris-NMR for PNP identification, the database was populated with NMR data (total of 466 spectra) for ∼250 taxanes, which are structurally complex diterpenoids (including the anticancer drug taxol) commonly found in the genus Taxus. NMR data generated used was then generated with metabolites purified from Taxus cell suspension cultures to search Spektraris-NMR, and were able to identify eight taxanes with high confidence. A ninth isolated metabolite could be assigned, based on spectral searches, to a taxane skeletal class, but no high confidence hit was produced. Using various spectroscopic methods, this metabolite was characterized as the taxane 2-deacetylbaccatin IV, a novel taxane. These results indicate that Spektraris-NMR is a valuable resource for rapid and reliable identification of known metabolites and has the potential to contribute to de-replication efforts in the search for novel PNPs. PMID:25534952

  18. Effects of soil water holding capacity on evapotranspiration and irrigation scheduling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), through the National Cooperative Soil Survey, developed three soil geographic databases that are appropriate for acquiring soil information at the national, regional, and local scales. These relational databases include the National Soil Geogra...

  19. Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

  20. Biological Features of the Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the third of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to biological features of soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will: (1) realize the vast amount of life present in the soil, (2) be able to list representative animal and plant life in the soil by size,…

  1. For multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems. [including crop yield, watershed soils, and vegetation mapping in Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Research on the application of remote sensing to problems of water resources was concentrated on sediments and associated nonpoint source pollutants in lakes. Further transfer of the technology of remote sensing and the refinement of equipment and programs for thermal scanning and the digital analysis of images were also addressed.

  2. Biogeochemistry: The soil carbon erosion paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw

    2017-04-01

    Erosion is typically thought to degrade soil resources. However, the redistribution of soil carbon across the landscape, caused by erosion, can actually lead to a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2.

  3. Soil Degradation: A North American perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil can be degraded through erosion and formation of undesirable physical, chemical, or biological properties due to industrialization or use of inappropriate farming practices that supersede natural regeneration. Soil degradation reflects unsustainable resource management that is global in scope a...

  4. Soil management: The key to soil quality and sustainable agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Barão, Lúcia; Soares, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Today, after the International Year of Soils in 2015 and the proclamation by the International Union of Soil Sciences of the International Decade of Soils 2015-2020, much attention is paid to soil quality. Often used interchangeably, both terms, soil quality and soil health, refer to dynamic soil properties such as soil organic matter or pH, while soil quality also includes inherent soil properties such as texture or mineral composition. However, it is the dynamic or manageable properties that adequate soil management can influence and thus contribute to a well-functioning soil environment capable to deliver the soil-mediated provisioning, regulating and supporting ecosystem services and soil functions. This contribution intends to highlight the key principles of sustainable soil management and provide evidence that they are compliant with a productive, resource efficient and ecologically friendly agriculture. Paradoxically, and despite benefitting from good soil quality, agriculture itself when based on conventional, especially intensive tillage-based soil management practices contributes decisively to soil degradation and to several of the soil threats as identified by the Soil Thematic Strategy, being soil erosion and soil organic matter decline the most notorious ones. To mitigate soil degradation, the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy has introduced conservation measures, mainly through cross-compliance measures supposed to guarantee minimum soil cover, to limit soil erosion and to maintain the levels of soil organic matter. However, it remains unclear to what extent EU member states apply these 'Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition' (GAEC) measures to their utilized agricultural areas. Effective and cost-efficient soil management systems able to conserve or to restore favourable soil conditions, to minimize soil erosion and to invert soil organic matter and soil biodiversity decline and improve soil structure are those capable to mimic as

  5. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  6. Proposal to evaluate the use of ERTS-A imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills Region of Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, J. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual examination of RB-57F color infrared imagery of range sites within Test Site 313 indicates that early season imagery will show significant differences in appearance of sub-irrigated sites as compared to dry valley sites. Differences appear to be significant also when comparing the previous two sites to sands sites. Comparison of existing soil map soils delineations with vegetative growth patterns shows reasonably good agreement between the two patterns over rather broad areas. Visual examination of ERTS-1 imagery has also shown that rangeland burned by prairie fire within the last six months can be distinguished. Three confirmed fire areas have been shown on the imagery. Since only broad estimates of burned acres are available, more accurate acreage measurements will be attempted. Known acreage of burned areas will be of value to those agencies responsible for deferred grazing payments to land owners. The relative speed with which this acreage information would become available to these agencies through ERTS-1 imagery would be of much benefit.

  7. Helping People Understand Soils - Perspectives from the US National Cooperative Soil Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Paul; Cheever, Tammy; Greene, Linda; Southard, Susan; Levin, Maxine; Lindbo, David L.; Monger, Curtis

    2017-04-01

    Throughout the history of the US National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS), soil science education has been a part of the mission to better understand one of our most precious natural resources: the Soil. The poster will highlight the many products and programs related to soils that USDA NRCS (soils.usda.gov) has developed over the years for K-12 and college/professional education. NRCS scientific publications covering topics on soil properties, soil classification, soil health and soil quality have become an important part of the university soil science curriculum. Classroom lesson plans and grade appropriate materials help K-12 teachers introduce soil concepts to students and include detailed instructions and materials for classroom demonstrations of soil properties. A Handbook for Collegiate Soils Contests support universities that conduct Collegiate Soil Judging contests.

  8. Soil Security Assessment of Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Damien; Kidd, Darren; McBratney, Alex

    2017-04-01

    The concept of soil security aligns well with the aspirational and marketing policies of the Tasmanian Government, where increased agricultural expansion through new irrigation schemes and multiple-use State managed production forests co-exists beside pristine World Heritage conservation land, a major drawcard of the economically important tourism industry . Regarding the Sustainable Development Gaols (SDG's) this could be seen as a exemplar of the emerging tool for quantification of spatial soil security to effectively protect our soil resource in terms of food (SDG 2.4, 3.9) and water security (SDG 6.4, 6.6), biodiversity maintenance and safeguarding fragile ecosystems (SDG 15.3, 15.9). The recent development and application of Digital Soil Mapping and Assessment capacities in Tasmania to stimulate agricultural production and better target appropriate soil resources has formed the foundational systems that can enable the first efforts in quantifying and mapping Tasmanian Soil Security, in particular the five Soil Security dimensions (Capability, Condition, Capital, Codification and Connectivity). However, to provide a measure of overall soil security, it was necessary to separately assess the State's three major soil uses; Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry. These products will provide an indication of where different activities are sustainable or at risk, where more soil data is needed, and provide a tool to better plan for a State requiring optimal food and fibre production, without depleting its natural soil resources and impacting on the fragile ecosystems supporting environmental benefits and the tourism industry.

  9. The engineering of multi-layer patchiness by plants: A framework for comparative studies of the effects of woody vegetation as landscape modulators across drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoli, Moran; Gabay, Ofri; Boeken, Bertrand; Ungar, Eugene; Perevolotsky, Avi; Shachak, Moshe

    2010-05-01

    The concept of ecosystem engineer was proposed in order to understand abiotic environmental modulation by organisms and its effects on the distribution and abundance of biota. This concept was incorporated with patch theory in order to better understand the drivers of biodiversity dynamics. An organism that functions as an ecosystem engineer in the context of patch formation was termed a landscape modulator (LM). A crucial element of the modulation process is the creation of different resource patches having different spatial patterns, resulting in multiple-layer landscape diversity. In this view, the term biodiversity encompasses two components: landscape diversity and species diversity, and the LM concept serves to understand the functional link between these two diversities. Using a multiple-layer landscape diversity model, we synthesized published literature and unpublished empirical data on the effects of woody vegetation on different resource layers (water, soil nutrients, herbaceous seeds and light) along an aridity gradient in Israel. Using large scale field manipulations, we measured the response of herbaceous vegetation to these modulated resources. We found that resources are modulated differently in each location and that the ratio among the modulated resources changes along the rainfall gradient of the drylands. These relationships are the controlling factors for herbaceous vegetation and ecosystem functioning. We offer a conceptual model that uses multiple-layer landscape diversity concept to predict environmental effects of woody vegetation in different parts of drylands. In addition, we explore how anthropogenic and natural disturbances can change woody vegetation's induced environmental effects.

  10. Contaminant Removal From Natural Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Geiger, Cheri L. (Inventor); Reinhart, Debra (Inventor); Fillpek, Laura B. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Devor, Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles is used to remediate contaminated natural resources, such as groundwater and soil. In a preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion removes heavy metals, such as lead (pb), from contaminated natural resources. In another preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion is a bimetallic emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles doped with a catalytic metal to remediate halogenated aromatic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), from natural resources.

  11. Fiber resources

    Treesearch

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  12. Soil 4 Youth: Charting New Territory in Canadian High School Soil Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…

  13. Soil 4 Youth: Charting New Territory in Canadian High School Soil Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…

  14. Minimum property dataset and sampling requirement tool for soil change studies in soil survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dynamic soil properties (DSP) are those properties that change over human time scales. The new sampling guide “Soil and Resource Inventory Guide for Dynamic Soil Properties and Soil Change” includes a minimum DSP dataset and an interactive tool to determine sampling requirements. The minimum dataset...

  15. Forest soils

    Treesearch

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  16. A modified soil water based Richards equation for layered soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinka, F.; Ahrens, B.

    2010-09-01

    Most Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) models like TERRA-ML (implemented e.g. in the CCLM model (www.clm-community.eu)) use the soil moisture based Richards equation to simulate vertical water fluxes in soils, assuming a homogeneous soil type. Recently, high-resolution soil type datasets (e.g. BüK 1000, only for Germany (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, BGR, www.bgr.bund.de) or Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD, version 1.1, FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, March 2009)) have been developed. Deficiencies in the numerical solution of the soil moisture based Richards equation may occur if inhomogeneous soil type data is implemented, because there are possibly discontinuities in soil moisture due to various soil type characteristics. One way to fix this problem is to use the potential based Richards equation, but this may lead to problems in conservation of mass. This presentation will suggest a possible numerical solution of the soil moisture based Richards equation for inhomogeneous soils. The basic idea is to subtract the equilibrium state of it from soil moisture fluxes. This should reduce discontinuities because each soil layer aspires the equilibrium state and therefore differences might be of the same order. First sensitivity studies have been done for the Main river basin, Germany.

  17. Shaping an Optimal Soil by Root-Soil Interaction.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kemo; White, Philip J; Whalley, William R; Shen, Jianbo; Shi, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Crop production depends on the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and increased yields might be facilitated by a greater focus on roots-soil interactions. Soil properties affecting plant growth include drought, compaction, nutrient deficiency, mineral toxicity, salinity, and submergence. Plant roots respond to the soil environment both spatially and temporally by avoiding stressful soil environments and proliferating in more favorable environments. We observe that crops can be bred for specific root architectural and biochemical traits that facilitate soil exploration and resource acquisition, enabling greater crop yields. These root traits affect soil physical and chemical properties and might be utilized to improve the soil for subsequent crops. We argue that optimizing root-soil interactions is a prerequisite for future food security. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- ...

  19. A multimedia and interactive approach to teach soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badía-Villas, D.; Martí-Dalmau, C.; Iñiguez-Remón, E.

    2012-04-01

    Soil Science is a discipline concerned with a material that has unique features and behaviours (Churchman, 2010). Thus, teachers of Soil Science need to be experienced with Soil Science practices and must appreciate the complexities and relationships inherent within the discipline (Field et al, 2011). But when soil science had to be taught not by specialists, for instance in the introductory courses of earth and environmental sciences Degrees or in Secondary School, adequate material cannot be found. For this reason, multimedia and interactive programmes have been developed and showed here. EDAFOS is an e-learning resource that provides a comprehensive review of the fundamental concepts on soil science and reveals it as the living skin of planet Earth (European Commission, 2006). This programme is available via website (www.cienciadelsuelo.es) both in Spanish and, more recently, also in English. Edafos is a programme with different modules, which after outlining the study of soil components goes on to examine the main factors and processes of soil genesis explaining the mechanisms of soil processes. By the use of animations, the vital functions of soil are explained. The program ends with a section of multiple-choice exercises with self-assessment. To complement this program, virtual visits to the field are showed in the program iARASOL (www.suelosdearagon.es), in a time when field trips are gradually diminishing due to insufficiency in time and budget, as well as safety concerns (Çaliskan, 2011). In this case, the objective of iARASOL is to set out that soil vary from place to place not randomly, but in a systematic way, according to landscape units; therefore, graduates can classify the soils using the WRB system (IUSS, 2007). It presents diverse types of data and images instantly, from a variety of viewpoints, at many different scales and display non-visual information in the field. Both programs provide an additional source of information to supplement

  20. Soil biodiversity and human health.

    PubMed

    Wall, Diana H; Nielsen, Uffe N; Six, Johan

    2015-12-03

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  1. Soil biodiversity and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Soil biodiversity is increasingly recognized as providing benefits to human health because it can suppress disease-causing soil organisms and provide clean air, water and food. Poor land-management practices and environmental change are, however, affecting belowground communities globally, and the resulting declines in soil biodiversity reduce and impair these benefits. Importantly, current research indicates that soil biodiversity can be maintained and partially restored if managed sustainably. Promoting the ecological complexity and robustness of soil biodiversity through improved management practices represents an underutilized resource with the ability to improve human health.

  2. Cooling Trends from Agricultural Management Practices that Conserve Soil Carbon Resources in the North American Northern Great Plains: Important First Steps in the Transition toward a BECCS Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoy, P. C.; Gerken, T.; Bromley, G. T.; Tang Che Ing, A.; Morgan, M.; Wood, D.; Ahmed, S.; Brad, B.; Brookshire, J.; Haggerty, J.; Jarchow, M.; McVay, K.; Miller, P.; Peyton, B.; Rashford, B.; Spangler, L.; Swanson, D.; Taylor, S.; Torrion, J.; Poulter, B.

    2016-12-01

    The transition toward the Bio-energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) economy may have unintended climate drawbacks, but also benefits. Parts of the North American northern Great Plains have experienced a remarkable 6 W m-2 decrease in summertime radiative forcing since the 1970s. Extreme temperature events now occur less frequently, maximum temperatures have decreased by some 2 °C, and precipitation has increased by 10 mm per decade in some areas. This regional trend toward a cooler and wetter summer climate has coincided with changes in agricultural management. Namely, the practice of keeping fields fallow during summer (hereafter `summerfallow') has declined from 15 Mha in the 1970s to 2 Mha at the present in the Canadian Prairie Provinces, and from 16 Mha to 6 Mha in the US, with the largest declines in the Northern Plains. In addition to potential climate impacts, replacing summerfallow with no-till cropping systems results in lesser soil carbon losses - or even gains - and usually confers economic benefits. In other words, replacing summerfallow with no-till cropping may have resulted in a `win-win-win' scenario for climate, soil carbon, and farm-scale economics. The interaction between carbon, climate, and the economy in this region - and the precise domain that has experienced cooling - are still unknown, which limits our ability to forecast the dynamics of the coupled human-climate system during the transition toward a BECCS economy. Here, we use eddy covariance measurements to demonstrate that summerfallow results in carbon losses during the growing season of the same magnitude (ca. 100 g C m-2 per growing season) as carbon uptake by dryland crops. We use surface-atmosphere energy flux measurements to model atmospheric boundary layer and lifted condensation level heights to demonstrate that observed regional changes in near-surface humidity (of up to 7%) are necessary to simulate observed increases in convective precipitation. We analyze climate

  3. Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess land use impact on water resources in an East African watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Tracy J.; Miller, Scott N.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryLand cover and land use changes in Kenya's Rift Valley have altered the hydrologic response of the River Njoro watershed by changing the partitioning of excess rainfall into surface discharge and groundwater recharge. The watershed contributes a significant amount of water to Lake Nakuru National Park, an internationally recognized Ramsar site, as well as groundwater supplies for local communities and the city of Nakuru. Three land use maps representing a 17-year period when the region underwent significant transitions served as inputs for hydrologic modeling using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool, a GIS-based hydrologic modeling system. AGWA was used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a hydrologic model suitable for assessing the relative impact of land cover change on hydrologic response. The SWAT model was calibrated using observation data taken during the 1990s with high annual concordance. Simulation results showed that land use changes have resulted in corresponding increases in surface runoff and decreases in groundwater recharge. Hydrologic changes were highly variable both spatially and temporally, and the uppermost reaches of the forested highlands were most significantly affected. These changes have negative implications for the ecological health of the river system as well as Lake Nakuru and local communities.

  4. An overview of forestry in the Farm Bill and Natural Resources Conservation Service forestry resources

    Treesearch

    Andy Henriksen

    2010-01-01

    Since 1935, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (originally the Soil Conservation Service) has provided leadership in a partnership effort to help America's private landowners and managers conserve their soil, water, and other natural resources. NRCS employees provide technical assistance based on sound science and suited to a customer's...

  5. Irwin Scoops up Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, uses a scoop in making a trench in the lunar soil during Apollo 15 extravehicular activity (EVA). Mount Hadley rises approximately 14,765 feet (about 4,500 meters) above the plain in the background.

  6. A method for testing land resource area concepts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land Resource Units (LRUs) are defined by the National Soil Survey Handbook as aggregations of soil map units and subunits of Major Land Resource Areas (MLRAs). In the USDA NRCS Land Resource Hierarchy, LRUs are defined as the level between MLRAs and STATSGO and are mapped at 1:1 million scale. They...

  7. Cadmium spiked soil modulates root organic acids exudation and ionic contents of two differentially Cd tolerant maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Javed, M Tariq; Akram, M Sohail; Tanwir, Kashif; Javed Chaudhary, Hassan; Ali, Qasim; Stoltz, Eva; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Our earlier work described that the roots of two maize cultivars, grown hydroponically, differentially responded to cadmium (Cd) stress by initiating changes in medium pH depending on their Cd tolerance. The current study investigated the root exudation, elemental contents and antioxidant behavior of the same maize cultivars [cv. 3062 (Cd-tolerant) and cv. 31P41 (Cd-sensitive)] under Cd stress. Plants were maintained in a rhizobox-like system carrying soil spiked with Cd concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 μmol/kg soil. The root and shoot Cd contents increased, while Mg, Ca and Fe contents mainly decreased at higher Cd levels, and preferentially in the sensitive cultivar. Interestingly, the K contents increased in roots of cv. 3062 at low Cd treatments. The Cd stress caused acidosis of the maize root exudates predominantly in cv. 3062. The concentration of various organic acids was significantly increased in the root exudates of cv. 3062 with applied Cd levels. This effect was diminished in cv. 31P41 at higher Cd levels. Cd exposure increased the relative membrane permeability, anthocyanin (only in cv. 3062), proline contents and the activities of peroxidases (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The only exception was the catalase activity, which was diminished in both cultivars. Root Cd contents were positively correlated with the secretion of acetic acid, oxalic acid, glutamic acid, citric acid, and succinic acid. The antioxidants like POD and SOD exhibited a positive correlation with the organic acids under Cd stress. It is likly that a high exudation of dicarboxylic organic acids improves nutrient uptake and activities of antioxidants, which enables the tolerant cultivar to acclimatize in Cd polluted environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rescue Manual. Module 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The 10th of 10 modules contains a 16-page glossary of rescue terms and 3 appendices: (1) 4 computer programs and 32 other technical assistance materials available for hazardous materials; (2) hazardous materials resources--60 phone numbers,…

  9. Sewage: waste or resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, C.

    1980-10-01

    This article contains a historical review of sewage, its collection and disposal, its treatment and its application. It was not until the second half of the 19th Century that it was realized, that sewage should be returned to the soil where its immense fertilizer value would prove a source of prosperity. The production of biogas and/or alcohol has been largely overlooked and the utilization of sewage as a renewable resource is urged.

  10. Soils and water [Chapter 18

    Treesearch

    Goran Berndes; Heather Youngs; Maria Victoria Ramos Ballester; Heitor Cantarella; Annette L. Cowie; Graham Jewitt; Luiz Antonio Martinelli; Dan Neary

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy production can have positive or negative impacts on soil and water. To best understand these impacts, the effects of bioenergy systems on water and soil resources should be assessed as part of an integrated analysis considering environmental, social and economic dimensions. Bioenergy production systems that are strategically integrated in the landscape to...

  11. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  12. Analytical results and sample locality map for rock, stream-sediment, and soil samples, Northern and Eastern Coloado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Harley D.; Chaffee, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1996-1998 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geochemical study of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area (usually referred to as the NECD in this report), Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, southeastern California (figure 1). This study was done in support of the BLM's Coordinated Management Plan for the area. This report presents analytical data from this study. To provide comprehensive coverage of the NECD, we compiled and examined all available geochemical data, in digital form, from previous studies in the area, and made sample-site plots to aid in determining where sample-site coverage and analyses were sufficient, which samples should be re-analyzed, and where additional sampling was needed. Previous investigations conducted in parts of the current study area included the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program studies of the Needles and Salton Sea 1? x 2? quadrangles; USGS studies of 12 BLM Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) (Big Maria Mountains, Chemehuevi Mountains, Chuckwalla Mountains, Coxcomb Mountains, Mecca Hills, Orocopia Mountains, Palen-McCoy, Picacho Peak, Riverside Mountains, Sheephole Valley (also known as Sheep Hole/Cadiz), Turtle Mountains, and Whipple Mountains); and USGS studies in the Needles and El Centro 1? x 2? quadrangles done during the early 1990s as part of a project to identify the regional geochemistry of southern California. Areas where we did new sampling of rocks and stream sediments are mainly in the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range and in Joshua Tree National Park, which extends into the west-central part of the NECD, as shown in figure 1 and figure 2. This report contains analytical data for 132 rock samples and 1,245 stream-sediment samples collected by the USGS, and 362 stream-sediment samples and 189 soil samples collected during the NURE program. All samples are from the Northern and Eastern Colorado

  13. Comparison of temporal trends from multiple soil moisture data sets and precipitation: The implication of irrigation on regional soil moisture trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianxiu; Gao, Quanzhou; Wang, Sheng; Su, Zhenrong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, soil moisture trend during 1996-2010 in China was analyzed based on three soil moisture data sets, namely microwave-based multi-satellite surface soil moisture product released from European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI), ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis, and in-situ measurements collected from the nationwide agro-meteorological network. Taking the in-situ soil moisture as reference, it is found that ESA CCI generally captured soil moisture trend more accurately than ERA-Interim/Land did. From the spatial distribution of trend analysis results, it is seen that significant decreasing trend for summer soil moisture in northwestern China and northern Inner Mongolia, as well as the significant increasing trend for autumn soil moisture in northern China were identified by both ESA CCI and ERA-Interim/Land. This is in alignment with results from gauge-based precipitation provided by Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR) and satellite-based precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, disagreements in derived trends between ESA CCI, ERA-Interim/Land and IGSNRR were observed in the southwest and north of China, especially in major irrigation regions, such as the oases in northern Xinjiang and large areas in Sichuan province. Prominent difference between soil moisture and precipitation exhibited in the extensively irrigated Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. The spatial coincidence between significantly wetting areas (identified by ESA CCI) and heavily irrigated areas, as well as the grid-based Student's t-test sampling from various irrigation levels revealed that the observed discrepancy was caused by massive anthropogenic interference in this region. Results indicate that, for regions with great magnitude of human interference, modules considering actual irrigation practice are crucial for successful modeling of soil moisture and capturing the long-term trend. Furthermore, results could

  14. Soil physics: a Moroccan perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlou, Sabah; Mrabet, Rachid; Ouadia, Mohamed

    2004-06-01

    Research on environmental pollution and degradation of soil and water resources is now of highest priority worldwide. To address these problems, soil physics should be conceived as a central core to this research. This paper objectives are to: (1) address the role and importance of soil physics, (2) demonstrate progress in this discipline, and (3) present various uses of soil physics in research, environment and industry. The study of dynamic processes at and within the soil vadose zone (flow, dispersion, transport, sedimentation, etc.), and ephemeral phenomena (deformation, compaction, etc.), form an area of particular interest in soil physics. Soil physics has changed considerably over time. These changes are due to needed precision in data collection for accurate interpretation of space and time variation of soil properties. Soil physics interacts with other disciplines and sciences such as hydro(geo)logy, agronomy, environment, micro-meteorology, pedology, mathematics, physics, water sciences, etc. These interactions prompted the emergence of advanced theories and comprehensive mechanisms of most natural processes, development of new mathematical tools (modeling and computer simulation, fractals, geostatistics, transformations), creation of high precision instrumentation (computer assisted, less time constraint, increased number of measured parameters) and the scale sharpening of physical measurements which ranges from micro to watershed. The environment industry has contributed to an enlargement of many facets of soil physics. In other words, research demand in soil physics has increased considerably to satisfy specific and environmental problems (contamination of water resources, global warming, etc.). Soil physics research is still at an embryonic stage in Morocco. Consequently, soil physicists can take advantage of developments occurring overseas, and need to build up a database of soil static and dynamic properties and to revise developed models to meet

  15. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  16. Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Soong, Jenniffer L.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Dauwe, Steven; Fransen, Erik; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures can accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and release large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially inducing climate change feedbacks. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity and metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms in response to soil warming can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. Here, we present results of an incubation experiment using soils from a geothermal gradient in Iceland that have been subjected to different intensities of soil warming (+0, +1, +3, +5, +10 and +20 °C above ambient) over seven years. We hypothesized that 7 years of soil warming would led to a depletion of labile organic substrates, with a subsequent decrease of the "apparent" temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Associated to this C limitation and more sub-optimal conditions for microbial growth, we also hypothesized increased microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), which is associated with increases in the relative amount of C invested into catabolic pathways along the warming gradient. Soil respiration and basal respiration rates decreased with soil warming intensity, in parallel with a decline in soil C availability. Contrasting to our first hypothesis, we did not detect changes in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration with soil warming or on the availability of nutrients and of labile C substrates at the time of incubation. However, in agreement to our second hypothesis, microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass) increased at warmer temperatures, while the C retained in biomass decreased as substrate became limiting. Long-term (7 years) temperature increases thus triggered a change in the metabolic functioning of the soil microbial communities towards increasing energy costs for maintenance or resource acquisition, thereby lowering the capacity of C retention and stabilization of warmed soils. These results highlight the need

  17. The Global Soil Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  18. Caring for soil improves human health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soils have been our precious natural resources that are critical to our public health because of their impact on human and animal food, nutrition, water and air. Naturally, we strongly tied with our soils that are part of us and play major roles in our routine daily life. We rely on soils every day,...

  19. Soil quality under mixed grassland - Cropland environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native grassland environments (i.e. prairies) are typically characterized by soils with high quality. Historical cultivation of prairies has led to soil resources that are now in a compromised state of health. The loss of soil organic matter that led to large biopores and a favorable rooting envir...

  20. Caring for soil improves human health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soils have been our precious natural resources that are critical to our public health because of their impact on human and animal food, nutrition, water and air. Naturally, we strongly tied with our soils that are part of us and play major roles in our routine daily life. We rely on soils every day,...

  1. World's soils are under threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, L.; Pennock, D. J.; McKenzie, N. J.; Badraoui, M.; Chude, V.; Baptista, I.; Mamo, T.; Yemefack, M.; Singh Aulakh, M.; Yagi, K.; Hong, S. Young; Vijarnsorn, P.; Zhang, G.-L.; Arrouays, D.; Black, H.; Krasilnikov, P.; Sobocká, J.; Alegre, J.; Henriquez, C. R.; Mendonça-Santos, M. L.; Taboada, M.; Espinosa-Victoria, D.; AlShankiti, A.; AlaviPanah, S. K.; Elsheikh, E. A. E.; Hempel, J.; Camps Arbestain, M.; Nachtergaele, F.; Vargas, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecure among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the SWSR report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  2. Soil and ecological sites of the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Treesearch

    Donald J. Breckenfeld; Daniel Robinett

    2003-01-01

    A soil survey and rangeland resource inventory of the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) was conducted by staff from the Tucson office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) during April and May of 1997. Thirty-two soils series and taxadjuncts were mapped on the SRER and delineated in 24 different mapping units. These soils all occur in an Aridic and...

  3. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  4. Alzheimer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Alzheimer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Alzheimer disease : Alzheimer's Association -- www.alz.org Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center -- www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers ...

  5. Ostomy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons -- www.fascrs.org/patients/disease-condition/ostomy-expanded-version United ...

  6. Psoriasis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organizations are good resources for information about psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology -- www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of ...

  7. SIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) : American SIDS Institute -- sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc. ...

  8. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org Cancer.Net -- www.cancer.net/coping- ...

  9. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  10. Scleroderma - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology -- www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National Institute ...

  11. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  12. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  13. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  14. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  15. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.epilepsy.com National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  16. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  17. Lupus - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America -- www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  18. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  19. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  20. Burns - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - burns ... The following organizations are good resources for information on burns : Burns Recovered -- brsg.org Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center - Burn Model Systems -- www.msktc.org/burn

  1. Soil property effects on wind erosion of organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobeck, Ted M.; Baddock, Matthew; Scott Van Pelt, R.; Tatarko, John; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica

    2013-09-01

    Histosols (also known as organic soils, mucks, or peats) are soils that are dominated by organic matter (OM > 20%) in half or more of the upper 80 cm. Forty two states have a total of 21 million ha of Histosols in the United States. These soils, when intensively cropped, are subject to wind erosion resulting in loss of crop productivity and degradation of soil, air, and water quality. Estimating wind erosion on Histosols has been determined by USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a critical need for the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) model. WEPS has been developed to simulate wind erosion on agricultural land in the US, including soils with organic soil material surfaces. However, additional field measurements are needed to understand how soil properties vary among organic soils and to calibrate and validate estimates of wind erosion of organic soils using WEPS. Soil properties and sediment flux were measured in six soils with high organic contents located in Michigan and Florida, USA. Soil properties observed included organic matter content, particle density, dry mechanical stability, dry clod stability, wind erodible material, and geometric mean diameter of the surface aggregate distribution. A field portable wind tunnel was used to generate suspended sediment and dust from agricultural surfaces for soils ranging from 17% to 67% organic matter. The soils were tilled and rolled to provide a consolidated, friable surface. Dust emissions and saltation were measured using an isokinetic vertical slot sampler aspirated by a regulated suction source. Suspended dust was sampled using a Grimm optical particle size analyzer. Particle density of the saltation-sized material (>106 μm) was inversely related to OM content and varied from 2.41 g cm-3 for the soil with the lowest OM content to 1.61 g cm-3 for the soil with highest OM content. Wind erodible material and the geometric mean diameter of the surface soil were inversely related to dry clod

  2. Techniques for assessing water resource potentials in the developing countries: with emphasis on streamflow, erosion and sediment transport, water movement in unsaturated soils, ground water, and remote sensing in hydrologic applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.

    1971-01-01

    . Nuclear methodology in hydrologic applications is generally more complex than the conventional and hence requires a high level of technical expertise for effective use. Application of nuclear techniques to hydrologic problems in the developing countries is likely to be marginal for some years to come, owing to the higher costs involved and expertise required. Nuclear techniques, however, would seem to have particular promise in studies of water movement in unsaturated soils and of erosion and sedimentation where conventional techniques are inadequate, inefficient and in some cases costly. Remote sensing offers great promise for synoptic evaluations of water resources and hydrologic processes, including the transient phenomena of the hydrologic cycle. Remote sensing is not, however, a panacea for deficiencies in hydrologic data programs in the developing countries. Rather it is a means for extending and augmenting on-the-ground observations ans surveys (ground truth) to evaluated water resources and hydrologic processes on a regionall or even continental scale. With respect to economic growth goals in developing countries, there are few identifiable gaps in existing hydrologic instrumentation and methodology insofar as appraisal, development and management of available water resources are concerned. What is needed is acceleration of institutional development and professional motivation toward more effective use of existing and proven methodology. Moreover, much sophisticated methodology can be applied effectively in the developing countries only when adequate levels of indigenous scientific skills have been reached and supportive institutional frameworks are evolved to viability.

  3. Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Margaret M.

    1997-01-01

    Access to relevant materials on the Internet has been improved by subject-organized online indexes of resources. The following resources for educational information are listed: federal or federally funded Web sites; companies and organizations; classified lists of resources (hotlists); and hotlist directories of K-12 schools, colleges, and…

  4. Bioprospecting potential of the soil metagenome: novel enzymes and bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2013-09-01

    The microbial diversity in soil ecosystems is higher than in any other microbial ecosystem. The majority of soil microorganisms has not been characterized, because the dominant members have not been readily culturable on standard cultivation media; therefore, the soil ecosystem is a great reservoir for the discovery of novel microbial enzymes and bioactivities. The soil metagenome, the collective microbial genome, could be cloned and sequenced directly from soils to search for novel microbial resources. This review summarizes the microbial diversity in soils and the efforts to search for microbial resources from the soil metagenome, with more emphasis on the potential of bioprospecting metagenomics and recent discoveries.

  5. The Natural Resources Conservation Service land resource hierarchy and ecological sites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resource areas of the NRCS have long been important to soil geography. At both regional and landscape scales, resource areas are used to stratify programs and practices based on geographical areas where resource concerns, problems, or treatment needs are similar. However, the inability to quantifiab...

  6. Health Effects of Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; Tatu, Calin; Pavlovic, Nikola; Bunnell, Joseph; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas) are among the cornerstones of modern industrial society. The exploitation of these resources, however, is not without costs. Energy materials may contain harmful chemical substances that, if mobilized into air, water, or soil, can adversely impact human health and environmental quality. In order to address the issue of human exposure to toxic substances derived from energy resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program developed a project entitled 'Impacts of Energy Resources on Human Health and Environmental Quality.' The project is intended to provide policymakers and the public with the scientific information needed to weigh the human health and environmental consequences of meeting our energy needs. This fact sheet discusses several areas where the USGS Energy Resources Program is making scientific advances in this endeavor.

  7. Conserving Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved…

  8. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12 Section... ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal and stockpiling. (a) Prime farmland soils shall be removed from the areas to be disturbed before drilling, blasting, or mining. (b) The minimum depth of soil...

  9. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12 Section... ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal and stockpiling. (a) Prime farmland soils shall be removed from the areas to be disturbed before drilling, blasting, or mining. (b) The minimum depth of soil...

  10. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12 Section... ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal and stockpiling. (a) Prime farmland soils shall be removed from the areas to be disturbed before drilling, blasting, or mining. (b) The minimum depth of soil...

  11. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Economy in CisLunar Space. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy. Cost-Effective Approaches to Lunar Passenger Transportation. Lunar Mineral Resources: Extraction and Application. Space Resources Development - The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-term Commercialization of Space. Toward a More Comprehensive Evaluation of Space Information. Development of Metal Casting Molds by Sol-Gel Technology Using Planetary Resources. A New Concept in Planetary Exploration: ISRU with Power Bursts. Bold Space Ventures Require Fervent Public Support. Hot-pressed Iron from Lunar Soil. The Lunar Dust Problem: A Possible Remedy. Considerations on Use of Lunar Regolith in Lunar Constructions. Experimental Study on Water Production by Hydrogen Reduction of Lunar Soil Simulant in a Fixed Bed Reactor.

  12. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing technology to analysis of watersheds, snow cover, snowmelt, water runoff, soil moisture, land use, playa lakes, flooding, and water quality are summarized. Recommendations are given for further utilization of this technology.

  13. Forest, Land, and Water: Understanding Our Natural Resources. Natural Resources Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Dennis; And Others

    This curriculum consists of a Teacher's Guide and a series of 12 instructional modules, that are centered around concepts important in the study of national resource science. The modules are designed to supplement textbooks with activities for students in primary and middle grades (K-8). The titles of the modules are: (1) Natural History of a…

  14. PowderSim: Lagrangian Discrete and Mesh-Free Continuum Simulation Code for Cohesive Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Scott; Walton, Otis; Settgast, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    PowderSim is a calculation tool that combines a discrete-element method (DEM) module, including calibrated interparticle-interaction relationships, with a mesh-free, continuum, SPH (smoothed-particle hydrodynamics) based module that utilizes enhanced, calibrated, constitutive models capable of mimicking both large deformations and the flow behavior of regolith simulants and lunar regolith under conditions anticipated during in situ resource utilization (ISRU) operations. The major innovation introduced in PowderSim is to use a mesh-free method (SPH-based) with a calibrated and slightly modified critical-state soil mechanics constitutive model to extend the ability of the simulation tool to also address full-scale engineering systems in the continuum sense. The PowderSim software maintains the ability to address particle-scale problems, like size segregation, in selected regions with a traditional DEM module, which has improved contact physics and electrostatic interaction models.

  15. 78 FR 42970 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Bering Sea-Western Interior...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ..., paleontology, traditional cultural properties, visual resources, wildland fire management, lands with... quality, paleontology, hydrology, soils, socioeconomics and visual resource management. Authority: 40...

  16. Soil carbonates and soil water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of soil carbonates occurring as solidified masses or dispersed particles can alter soil water dynamics from what would be expected based on non-carbonate soil properties. Carbonate minerals in the soil can be derived from high carbonate parent material, additions in the form of carbonat...

  17. Planning and programing in the soil conservation service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The historical base is presented for the framework plan for soil conservation. Conservation effects, resource management systems, and accomplishments, activities, and costs of the Soil Conservation Service are discussed.

  18. Do current European policies support soil multifunctionality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helming, Katharina; Glaesner, Nadia; de Vries, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Soils are multifunctional. Maximising one function, e.g. production of biomass, is often at the costs of the other functions, e.g. water purification, carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, habitat provision. Sustainable soil management actually means the minimization of trade-offs between multiple soil functions. While Europe does not have a policy that explicitly focuses on soil functions, a number of policies exist in the agricultural, environmental and climate domains that may affect soil functions, in particular food production, water purification, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to identify gaps and overlaps in existing EU legislation that is related to soil functions. We conducted a cross-policy analysis of 19 legislative policies at European level. Results revealed two key findings: (i) soil functions are addressed in existing legislation but with the approach to their conservation rather than their improvement. (ii) Different legislations addressed isolated soil functions but there is no policy in place that actually addressed the soil multifunctionality, which is the integrated balancing of the multitude of functions. Because soil degradation is ongoing in Europe, it raises the question whether existing legislation is sufficient for maintaining soil resources and achieving sustainable soil management. Addressing soil functions individually in various directives fails to account for the multifunctionality of soil. Here, research has a role to play to better reveal the interacting processes between soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management decisions and to translate such understanding into policy recommendation. We conclude the presentation with some insights into a research approach that integrates the soil systems into the socio-economic systems to improve the understanding of soil management pressures, soil functional reactions and their impacts on societal value systems, including

  19. A Natural Resources Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, George B.

    1977-01-01

    Three years of instruction in natural resources management (NRM) are offered at Louisa County High School, Mineral, Virginia, with 30 acres of land for use as outdoor classrooms. Instructional areas are grouped under forestry; crops and soils; and surveying, air, water, recreation, and general. Two years of basic agriculture science and mechanics…

  20. Resource impacts caused by recreation

    Treesearch

    David N. Cole

    1986-01-01

    The pursuit of recreational activities inevitably has an effect on the resource--vegetation, soil, wildlife, and water. Whether these impacts are considered to be positive or negative depends on the management objectives of the area affected. The severity of the positive or negative response, which dictates the acuteness of the need for mitigation measures, is also...

  1. A Natural Resources Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, George B.

    1977-01-01

    Three years of instruction in natural resources management (NRM) are offered at Louisa County High School, Mineral, Virginia, with 30 acres of land for use as outdoor classrooms. Instructional areas are grouped under forestry; crops and soils; and surveying, air, water, recreation, and general. Two years of basic agriculture science and mechanics…

  2. Soil in the City: Sustainably Improving Urban Soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S

    2016-01-01

    Large tracts of abandoned urban land, resulting from the deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, are generating a renewed interest among city planners and community organizations envisioning the productive use of this land not only to produce fresh food but to effectively manage stormwater and mitigate the impact of urban heat islands. Healthy and productive soils are paramount to meet these objectives. However, these urban lands are often severely degraded due to anthropogenic activities and are generally contaminated with priority pollutants, especially heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Characterizing these degraded and contaminated soils and making them productive again to restore the required ecosystem services was the theme of the "Soil in the City- 2014" conference organized by W-2170 Committee (USDA's Sponsored Multi-State Research Project: Soil-Based Use of Residuals, Wastewater, & Reclaimed Water). This special section of comprises 12 targeted papers authored by conference participants to make available much needed information about the characteristics of urban soils. Innovative ways to mitigate the risks from pollutants and to improve the soil quality using local resources are discussed. Such practices include the use of composts and biosolids to grow healthy foods, reclaim brownfields, manage stormwater, and improve the overall ecosystem functioning of urban soils. These papers provide a needed resource for educating policymakers, practitioners, and the general public about using locally available resources to restore fertility, productivity, and ecosystem functioning of degraded urban land to revitalize metropolitan areas for improving the overall quality of life for a large segment of a rapidly growing urban population.

  3. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  4. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extensive use of sustainable and intensive agricultural systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable crop and soil management systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil managem...

  5. Unpredicted impacts of insect endosymbionts on interactions between soil organisms, plants and aphids.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Sean C; Karley, Alison J; Bennett, Alison E

    2013-10-07

    Ecologically significant symbiotic associations are frequently studied in isolation, but such studies of two-way interactions cannot always predict the responses of organisms in a community setting. To explore this issue, we adopt a community approach to examine the role of plant-microbial and insect-microbial symbioses in modulating a plant-herbivore interaction. Potato plants were grown under glass in controlled conditions and subjected to feeding from the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae. By comparing plant growth in sterile, uncultivated and cultivated soils and the performance of M. euphorbiae clones with and without the facultative endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, we provide evidence for complex indirect interactions between insect- and plant-microbial systems. Plant biomass responded positively to the live soil treatments, on average increasing by 15% relative to sterile soil, while aphid feeding produced shifts (increases in stem biomass and reductions in stolon biomass) in plant resource allocation irrespective of soil treatment. Aphid fecundity also responded to soil treatment with aphids on sterile soil exhibiting higher fecundities than those in the uncultivated treatment. The relative allocation of biomass to roots was reduced in the presence of aphids harbouring H. defensa compared with plants inoculated with H. defensa-free aphids and aphid-free control plants. This study provides evidence for the potential of plant and insect symbionts to shift the dynamics of plant-herbivore interactions.

  6. Unpredicted impacts of insect endosymbionts on interactions between soil organisms, plants and aphids

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Sean C.; Karley, Alison J.; Bennett, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologically significant symbiotic associations are frequently studied in isolation, but such studies of two-way interactions cannot always predict the responses of organisms in a community setting. To explore this issue, we adopt a community approach to examine the role of plant–microbial and insect–microbial symbioses in modulating a plant–herbivore interaction. Potato plants were grown under glass in controlled conditions and subjected to feeding from the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae. By comparing plant growth in sterile, uncultivated and cultivated soils and the performance of M. euphorbiae clones with and without the facultative endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, we provide evidence for complex indirect interactions between insect– and plant–microbial systems. Plant biomass responded positively to the live soil treatments, on average increasing by 15% relative to sterile soil, while aphid feeding produced shifts (increases in stem biomass and reductions in stolon biomass) in plant resource allocation irrespective of soil treatment. Aphid fecundity also responded to soil treatment with aphids on sterile soil exhibiting higher fecundities than those in the uncultivated treatment. The relative allocation of biomass to roots was reduced in the presence of aphids harbouring H. defensa compared with plants inoculated with H. defensa-free aphids and aphid-free control plants. This study provides evidence for the potential of plant and insect symbionts to shift the dynamics of plant–herbivore interactions. PMID:23926148

  7. ANTIGENIC MODULATION

    PubMed Central

    Old, Lloyd J.; Stockert, Elisabeth; Boyse, Edward A.; Kim, Jae Ho

    1968-01-01

    Antigenic modulation (the loss of TL antigens from TL+ cells exposed to TL antibody in the absence of lytic complement) has been demonstrated in vitro. An ascites leukemia, phenotype TL.1,2,3, which modulates rapidly and completely when incubated with TL antiserum in vitro, was selected for further study of the phenomenon. Over a wide range of TL antibody concentrations modulation at 37°C was detectable within 10 min and was complete within approximately 1 hr. The cells were initially sensitized to C' by their contact with antibody, thereafter losing this sensitivity to C' lysis together with their sensitivity to TL antibody and C' in the cytotoxic test. The capacity of the cells to undergo modulation was abolished by actinomycin D and by iodoacetamide, and by reducing the temperature of incubation to 0°C. Thus modulation apparently is an active cellular process. Antigens TL. 1,2, and 3 are all modulated by anti-TL.1,3 serum and by anti-TL.3 serum. This modulation affects all three TL components together, even when antibody to one or two of them is lacking. aAnti-TL.2 serum does not induce modulation and in fact impairs modulation by the other TL antibodies. The influence of the TL phenotype of cells upon the demonstrable content of H-2 (D region) isoantigen, first shown in cells modulated in vivo, has been observed with cells modulated in vitro. Cells undergoing modulation show a progressive increase in H-2 (D region) antigen over a period of 4 hr, with no change in H-2 antigens of the K region. Restoration of the TL+ phenotype of modulated cells after removal of antibody is less rapid than TL+ → TL- modulation and may require several cell divisions. PMID:5636556

  8. Soil experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Linton; Butler, Todd; Smith, Mike; Cline, Charles; Scruggs, Steve; Zakhia, Nadim

    1987-01-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to investigate the effects of the lunar environment on the physical properties of simulated lunar soil. The test equipment and materials used consisted of a vacuum chamber, direct shear tester, static penetrometer, and fine grained basalt as the simulant. The vacuum chamber provides a medium for applying the environmental conditions to the soil experiment with the exception of gravity. The shear strength parameters are determined by the direct shear test. Strength parameters and the resistance of soil penetration by static loading will be investigated by the use of a static cone penetrometer. In order to conduct a soil experiment without going to the moon, a suitable lunar simulant must be selected. This simulant must resemble lunar soil in both composition and particle size. The soil that most resembles actual lunar soil is basalt. The soil parameters, as determined by the testing apparatus, will be used as design criteria for lunar soil engagement equipment.

  9. Soil properties, soil functions and soil security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Soil plays a crucial role in the ecosystem functioning such as food production, capture and storage of water, carbon and nutrients and in the realisation of a number of UN Sustainable Developments Goals. In this work we present an approach to spatially and jointly assess the multiple contributions of soil to the delivery of ecosystem services within multiple land-use system. We focussed on the modelling of the impact of soil on sediment retention, carbon storage, storing and filtering of nutrients, habitat for soil organisms and water regulation, taking into account examples of land use and climate scenarios. Simplified models were used for the single components. Spatialised Bayesian Belief networks were used for the jointly assessment and mapping of soil contribution to multiple land use and ecosystem services. We integrated continuous 3D soil information derived from digital soil mapping approaches covering the whole of mainland Scotland, excluding the Northern Islands. Uncertainty was accounted for and propagated across the whole process. The Scottish test case highlights the differences in roles between mineral and organic soils and provides an example of integrated study assessing the contributions of soil. The results show the importance of the multi-functional analysis of the contribution of soils to the ecosystem service delivery and UN SDGs.

  10. Soil phosphorus landscape models for precision soil conservation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinseok; Grunwald, Sabine; Vasques, Gustavo M

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) enrichment in soils has been documented in the Santa Fe River watershed (SFRW, 3585 km) in north-central Florida. Yet the environmental factors that control P distribution in soils across the landscape, with potential contribution to water quality impairment, are not well understood. The main goal of this study was to develop soil-landscape P models to support a "precision soil conservation" approach combining fine-scale (i.e., site-specific) and coarse-scale (i.e., watershed-extent) assessment of soil P. The specific objectives were to: (i) identify those environmental properties that impart the most control on the spatial distribution of soil Mehlich-1 extracted P (MP) in the SFRW; (ii) model the spatial patterns of soil MP using geostatistical methods; and (iii) assess model quality using independent validation samples. Soil MP data at 137 sites were fused with spatially explicit environmental covariates to develop soil MP prediction models using univariate (lognormal kriging, LNK) and multivariate methods (regression kriging, RK, and cokriging, CK). Incorporation of exhaustive environmental data into multivariate models (RK and CK) improved the prediction of soil MP in the SFRW compared with the univariate model (LNK), which relies solely on soil measurements. Among all tested environmental covariates, land use and vegetation related properties (topsoil) and geologic data (subsoil) showed the largest predictive power to build inferential models for soil MP. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of spatially explicit interactions between soil P and other environmental variables, facilitating improved land resource management while minimizing adverse risks to the environment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Modelling soil carbon flows and stocks following a carbon balance approach at regional scale for the EU-27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesschen, Jan Peter; Sikirica, Natasa; Bonten, Luc; Dibari, Camilla; Sanchez, Berta; Kuikman, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is a key parameter to many soil functions and services. SOC is essential to support water retention and nutrient buffering and mineralization in the soil as well as to enhance soil biodiversity. Consequently, loss of SOC or low SOC levels might threaten soil productivity or even lead to a collapse of a farming system. Identification of areas in Europe with critically low SOC levels or with a negative carbon balance is a challenge in order to apply the appropriate strategies to restore these areas or prevent further SOC losses. The objective of this study is to assess current soil carbon flows and stocks at a regional scale; we follow a carbon balance approach which we developed within the MITERRA-Europe model. MITERRA-Europe is an environmental impact assessment model and calculates nitrogen and greenhouse emission on a deterministic and annual basis using emission and leaching factors at regional level (NUTS2, comparable to province level) in the EU27. The model already contained a soil carbon module based on the IPCC stock change approach. Within the EU FP7 SmartSoil project we developed a SOC balance approach, for which we quantified the input of carbon (manure, crop residues, other organic inputs) and the losses of carbon (decomposition, leaching and erosion). The calculations rules from the Roth-C model were used to estimate SOC decomposition. For the actual soil carbon stocks we used the data from the LUCAS soil sample survey. LUCAS collected soil samples in 2009 at about 22000 locations across the EU, which were analysed for a range of soil properties. Land management practices are accounted for, based on data from the EU wide Survey on Agricultural Production Methods in the 2010 Farm Structure Survey. The survey comprises data on the application of soil tillage, soil cover, crop rotation and irrigation. Based on the simulated soil carbon balance and the actual carbon stocks from LUCAS we now can identify regions within the EU that

  12. Soil Science and Global Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable management of soil is integral to any rational approach to addressing global issues of the 21st century. A high quality soil is essential to: i) advancing food and nutritional security, ii) mitigating and adapting to climate change, iii) improving quality and renewability of water, iv) enriching biodiversity, v) producing biofuel feedstocks for reducing dependence on fossil fuel, and vi) providing cultural, aesthetical and recreational opportunities. Being the essence of all terrestrial life, soil functions and ecosystem services are essential to wellbeing of all species of plants and animals. Yet, soil resources are finite, unequally distributed geographically, and vulnerable to degradation by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Nonetheless, soil has inherent resilience, and its ecosystem functions and services can be restored over time. However, soil resilience depends on several key soil properties including soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and pool, plant-available water capacity (PWAC), nutrient reserves, effective rooting depth, texture and clay mineralogy, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) etc. There is a close inter-dependence among these properties. For example, SOC concentration strongly affects, PWAC, nutrient reserve, activity and species diversity of soil flora and fauna, CEC etc. Thus, judicious management of SOC concentration to maintain it above the threshold level (~1.5-2%) in the root zone is critical to sustaining essential functions and ecosystem services. Yet, soils of some agroecosystems (e.g., those managed by resources-poor farmers and small landholders in the tropics and sub-tropics) are severely depleted of their SOC reserves. Consequently. Agronomic productivity and wellbeing of people dependent on degraded soils is jeopardized. The ecosystem C pool of the terrestrial biosphere has been mined by extractive practices, the nature demands recarbonization of its biosphere for maintenance of its functions and

  13. The role of biological soil crusts on soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, S.; Cantón, Y.; Lázaro, R.; Rodriguez-Caballero, E.; Domingo, F.

    2012-04-01

    In water-limited ecosystems, water becomes the most important driver for plant productivity. In these systems, spatial distribution of water resources is not random but organized into a mosaic of water-depletion areas linked to water-accumulation areas. In other words, water is transferred from interplant patches that act as source areas to vegetation patches that act as sinks of this resource. Thus, structure and functioning of interplant patches have a decisive role in water redistribution and distribution patterns of vegetation. Soil surface in the interplant spaces of most arid and semiarid ecosystems is covered by biological soil crusts (BSCs). These organisms regulate water fluxes into and through soils and play major roles in local hydrological processes. In the last years, the role of these organisms in infiltration and runoff has gained increased importance and a better knowledge about their effects on these processes has been acquired. However, the role of BSCs in other important components of the water balance such as evaporation or soil moisture has been scarcely studied, so that their effects on these processes remain unknown. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of BSCs on soil moisture regimes in the top profile of the soil in two semiarid ecosystems of SE Spain with contrasting soil texture and where BSCs are well-represented. Soil moisture content at 0.03 and 0.10 m was monitored under two representative types of BSCs, a dark cyanobacteria-dominated BSC and a light-coloured lichen-dominated BSC, and in soils where these BSCs were removed by scraping, at both study sites. Our results show that, under high water conditions, removal of BSCs leads to a decrease in soil moisture compared to soils covered by BSCs. Decrease in soil moisture due to BSC removal namely affects moisture in the upper layer of the soil (0.03 m), but has little impact in deeper soil (0.10 m). Evaporation is also generally faster in soils with no BSCs than in

  14. Population Density and Mobility in the United States: Teaching Module No. 5 [And] U.S. Land Use: Managing a Finite Resource. Interchange, Population Education Newsletter, Vol. 7, No. 3, September 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document includes the September 1978 Population Education Newsletter and a module containing background information, data sheets, and tips to help teachers develop a one or two hour lesson on population density and mobility in the United States. The module, which comprises the bulk of the document, is intended to encourage high school and…

  15. Resource Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.

    The series of "Resource Inventories" is designed to encourage wider use of available information and services in the field of special education technology. A resource inventory is provided for each of 46 states of the United States. Each inventory includes directory information on public and private agencies and organizations that offer…

  16. Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiestand, M. Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of learning about diabetes and provides a list of ways to obtain this information. Different resources include videos, internet sites, books, cookbooks, and magazines. Provides a detailed list of each of the previous resources and recommends that people with or without diabetes make a concerted effort to educate…

  17. Rethinking Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

  18. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  19. Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  20. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Implementation of the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Kirtland Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    would not reduce prime farmland soils or agricultural production. By implementing an effective soil erosion and sedimentation program, impacts on...natural resources and minimize impacts from military activities. By implementing an effective soil erosion and sedimentation program, impacts on...geologic resources and soils associated with erosion and sedimentation on Kirtland AFB would be minimized. In the long term, implementation of the INRMP